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Sample records for affecting sodium hypochlorite

  1. Factors affecting sodium hypochlorite extraction of CCA from treated wood.

    PubMed

    Gezer, E D; Cooper, P A

    2009-12-01

    Significant amounts of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood products, such as utility poles and residential construction wood, remain in service. There is increasing public concern about environmental contamination from CCA-treated wood when it is removed from service for reuse or recycling, placed in landfills or burned in commercial incinerators. In this paper, we investigated the effects of time, temperature and sodium hypochlorite concentration on chromium oxidation and extraction of chromated copper arsenate from CCA-treated wood (Type C) removed from service. Of the conditions evaluated, reaction of milled wood with sodium hypochlorite for one hour at room temperature followed by heating at 75 degrees C for two hours gave the highest extraction efficiency. An average of 95% Cr, 99% Cu and 96% As could be removed from CCA-treated, milled wood by this process. Most of the extracted chromium was oxidized to the hexavalent state and could therefore be recycled in a CCA treating solution. Sodium hypochlorite extracting solutions could be reused several times to extract CCA components from additional treated wood samples.

  2. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This article is for information only. Do NOT ... hypochlorite, which may cause severe injury. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

  3. Sodium hypochlorite dental accidents.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Mridula; Chhabra, Nidhi; Kumar, Gyanendra; Verma, Mahesh; Chhabra, Anuj

    2014-02-01

    Sodium hypochlorite is widely used in dentistry as an intra-canal irrigant, for debridement and to disinfect root canals. Although it is considered to be safe, serious mishap can result from its inappropriate use, and this has been reported infrequently in the literature. Two unusual cases of sodium hypochlorite toxicity and their successful non-surgical management are described in a 14-year-old girl and a 13-year-old boy.

  4. Factors affecting the viscosity of sodium hypochlorite and their effect on irrigant flow.

    PubMed

    Bukiet, F; Soler, T; Guivarch, M; Camps, J; Tassery, H; Cuisinier, F; Candoni, N

    2013-10-01

    To assess the influence of concentration, temperature and surfactant addition to a sodium hypochlorite solution on its dynamic viscosity and to calculate the corresponding Reynolds number to determine the corresponding flow regimen. The dynamic viscosity of the irrigant was assessed using a rotational viscometer. Sodium hypochlorite with concentrations ranging from 0.6% to 9.6% was tested at 37 and 22 °C. A wide range of concentrations of three different surfactants was mixed in 2.4% sodium hypochlorite for viscosity measurements. The Reynolds number was calculated under each condition. Data were analysed using two-way anova. There was a significant influence of sodium hypochlorite concentration (P < 0.001) and temperature (P < 0.001) on dynamic viscosity: the latter significantly increased with sodium hypochlorite concentration and decreased with temperature. A significant influence of surfactant concentration on dynamic viscosity (P < 0.001) occurred, especially for high surfactant concentrations: 6.25% for benzalkonium chloride, 15% for Tween 80 and 6.25% for Triton X-100. Reynolds number values calculated for a given flow rate (0.14 mL s(-1)), and root canal diameter (sizes 45 and 70) clearly qualified the irrigant flow regimen as laminar. Dynamic viscosity increased with sodium hypochlorite and surfactant concentration but decreased with temperature. Under clinical conditions, all viscosities measured led to laminar flow. The transition between laminar and turbulent flow may be reached by modifying different parameters at the same time: increasing flow rate and temperature whilst decreasing irrigant viscosity by adding surfactants with a high value of critical micellar concentration. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Process for degrading hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite

    DOEpatents

    Huxtable, William P.; Griffith, William L.; Compere, Alicia L.

    1990-01-01

    A process for degrading hypochlorite waste and lithium hypochlorite solutions uses a cobalt oxide/molybdenum oxide catalyst formed from about 1-10 w/w % cobalt oxide and 1-15 w/w % molybdenum oxide disposed on a suitable substrate. The major advantage of the catalyst lies in its high degree of effectiveness and its very low cost.

  6. Sodium hypochlorite-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Peck, Brandon W; Workeneh, Biruh; Kadikoy, Huseyin; Abdellatif, Abdul

    2014-03-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (bleach) is commonly used as an irrigant during dental procedures as well as a topical antiseptic agent. Although it is generally safe when applied topically, reports of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite into tissue have been reported. Local necrosis, pain and nerve damage have been described as a result of exposure, but sodium hypo-chlorite has never been implicated as a cause of an acute kidney injury (AKI). In this report, we describe the first case of accidental sodium hypochlorite injection into the infraorbital tissue during a dental procedure that precipitated the AKI. We speculate that oxidative species induced by sodium hypochlorite caused AKI secondary to the renal tubular injury, causing mild acute tubular necrosis.

  7. Sodium hypochlorite accident in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ulrich; Kleier, Donald J

    2013-01-01

    A sodium hypochlorite accident is a rare event in adults, but even more so in children. The purposes of this paper were to: report the case of a one-year, 10-month-old toddler who was treated under general anesthesia for early childhood caries, incurred a sodium hypochlorite accident following attempted pulpectomy in his primary maxillary central incisors, but made a full recovery without any sequelae after a typical four to six weeks course of disease; review the pertinent literature; and give recommendations on how to minimize the potential occurrence of such incidents.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan

    2013-01-01

    One of the major objectives in endodontic therapy is to disinfect the entire root canal system. This goal may be achieved using mechanical instrumenation and chemical irrigation in conjunrction with medication of the root canal between treatment sessions. Microorganisms and their by-products are considered to be the major cause of pulpal and periradicular patholic. In order to reduce or eliminate bacteria and popular tissue remnants, the use of various irrigation solution during treatment have been suggested. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCI), the most common irrigant, is an excellent nonspecific proteolytic and antimicrobial agent. The purpose of this paper is to review the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite.

  9. Sodium hypochlorite: history, properties, electrochemical production.

    PubMed

    Ponzano, Gian Piero

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the evolution of hypochlorite as strong disinfectant. The electrochemical production of hypochloric acid or sodium hypochlorite represents the best method to obtain a pure product. To have a good production (as quality and quantity), it is necessary to optimize the electrochemical process with the optimal of electrocatalytic electrodes (cathode and anode) the gap between electrodes, the temperature of electrochemical cell. It is very important for the product stability during a long period, avoid the presence of heavy metal ions and particulate as impurity-like carbon micro-powders in suspension. It is necessary a rigorous control of the pH of final product to have the optimal disinfection power of hypochlorite solution. The most stable sodium hypochlorite solutions are those that show the following characteristics: (1) low concentration of hypochlorite; (2) pH -> 11.5 and <13; (3) absence of graphite particulate and metallic ions; (4) storage at controlled temperature <30 degrees C. Packing in containers impermeable to light.

  10. Leaching of Chalcopyrite with Sodium Hypochlorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlapalli, Ravinder K.; Cho, Eung Ha; Yang, Ray Y. K.

    2010-04-01

    A laboratory study was conducted on the leaching of chalcopyrite with NaOCl (sodium hypochlorite). Experiments were carried out in the following two stages: (1) Chalcopyrite was converted to CuO (cupric oxide) with a sodium hypochlorite solution, and (2) cupric oxide was dissolved to cupric ions with 1 normal sulfuric acid at room temperature. In the first-stage leaching, the initial pH varied from 12.5 to 13.7, the temperature from 35 °C to 75 °C, the sodium hypochlorite concentration from 0.2 to 0.85 molar, and the chalcopyrite dosage from 1 to 10 g/500 ml. The leaching conversion showed a maximum (68.3 pct) around a pH of 13.2 at 0.5 molar OCl- (hypochlorite) concentration and at 65 °C in 1 hour. The reagent consumption ratio—defined as the number of moles of hypochlorite consumed to leach 1 mole of chalcopyrite—was much higher than its stoichiometric ratio of 8.5. It reached 57.6 when the solid dosage was 1 g/500 ml and decreased to 12.9 when the solid dosage was increased to 10 g/500 ml. The leaching rate of chalcopyrite in the first stage was controlled by a chemical reaction with the activation energy of 50.2 kJ/mol (12.0 kcal/mol). A leaching scheme was identified in which 98 pct of the chalcopyrite was leached by adding hypochlorite stock solution stepwise in less than 3 hours.

  11. Sodium hypochlorite in endodontics: an update review.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahed

    2008-12-01

    The major objective in root canal treatment is to disinfect the entire root canal system. This requires that the pulpal contents be eliminated as sources of infection. This goal may be accomplished using mechanical instrumentation and chemical irrigation, in conjunction with medication of the root canal between treatment sessions. Microorganisms and their by-products are considered to be the major cause of pulpal and periradicular pathosis. In order to reduce or eliminate bacteria and pulpal tissue remnants, various irrigation solutions have been suggested to be used during treatment. Sodium hypochlorite, an excellent non-specific proteolytic and antimicrobial agent, is the most common irrigation solution used during root canal therapy. The purpose of this paper was to review different aspects of sodium hypochlorite use in endodontics.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite-based irrigating solutions.

    PubMed

    Poggio, Claudio; Arciola, Carla Renata; Dagna, Alberto; Chiesa, Marco; Sforza, Dario; Visai, Livia

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present study was the in vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of three different NaOCl-based endodontic irrigating solutions: a 5.25% conventional sodium hypochlorite solution; and two new irrigating solutions, a 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution with the addition of a proteolytic enzyme and a surfactant; and a 5.25% sodium hypochlorite gel with inorganic silicate. Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans strains were selected to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the endodontic irrigating solutions by the agar disc diffusion test. Paper disks were saturated with each one of the tested solutions (at room temperature and pre-warmed at 45°C) and placed onto culture agar-plates pre-adsorbed with bacterial cells and further incubated for 24 h at 37°C. The growth inhibition zones around each irrigating solution were recorded and compared for each bacterial strain. The results were significantly different among the tested irrigating solutions: 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution produced the highest inhibition areas; 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution with a proteolytic enzyme and a surfactant, and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite gel with inorganic silicate showed the lowest zones of inhibition. Even if all tested irrigating solution possessed antibacterial activity versus all tested bacterial strains, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution with a proteolytic enzyme and a surfactant, and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite gel with inorganic silicate showed lower in vitro efficacy than 5.25% conventional sodium hypochlorite solution.

  13. Leaching of chalcopyrite with sodium hypochlorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlapalli, Ravinder Kumar

    Chalcopyrite is the most important copper mineral source and also a refractory mineral for leaching. Several processing routes have been proposed to overcome the environmental problems related to copper extraction from chalcopyrite. In this study, the leaching of chalcopyrite has been investigated with a new reagent sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Experiments were carried out in two stages: conversion of chalcopyrite to cupric oxide with NaOCl solution in the first stage, followed by dissolution of the cupric oxide to cupric ion with 1 normal sulfuric acid at room temperature in the second stage. In the first stage leaching, the initial pH varied from 12.5 to 13.7; the temperature, from 35 to 75°C; NaOCl concentration, from 0.2 to 0.85 molar; and the chalcopyrite dosage, from 1 to 10 grams/500 ml. The leaching conversion showed a maximum (68.3%) around pH 13.2 at 0.5 molar of hypochlorite concentration and 65°C in 1 hour. The reagent consumption ratio, defined as the number of moles of hypochlorite consumed to leach one mole of chalcopyrite is found to be much higher than its stoichiometric ratio of 8.5. It reached 57.6 when the solid dosage was 1 gram/500 ml and decreased to 12.9 when the solid dosage was increased to 10 grams/500 ml. It was found that the leaching rate of chalcopyrite in the first stage was controlled by chemical reaction with the activation energy of 50.2 kJ/mol (12.0 kcal/mol). A leaching scheme was identified in which 98% chalcopyrite was leached by adding hypochlorite stock solution stepwise in less than three hours.

  14. Bleaching of fluorosis stains using sodium hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Penumatsa, Narendra Varma; Sharanesha, Rajashekhara Bhari

    2015-01-01

    Fluorosis staining is commonly considered an esthetic problem because of the psychological impact of unesthetic maxillary anterior teeth. Numerous treatment approaches have been proposed, ranging from bleaching to enamel reduction to restorative techniques. Bleaching of hypomineralized enamel lesions, using 5% sodium hypochlorite, has been useful clinically. The technique described, in this case, appears to have advantages over other methods for improving the appearance of fluorotic lesions. It is simple, low cost, noninvasive, so the enamel keeps its structure, relatively rapid, and safe; it requires no special materials, and it can be used with safety on young permanent teeth. PMID:26538964

  15. Sodium Hypochlorite Accident: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Guivarc'h, Maud; Ordioni, Ugo; Ahmed, Hany Mohamed Aly; Cohen, Stephen; Catherine, Jean-Hugues; Bukiet, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) extrusion beyond the apex, also known as "a hypochlorite accident," is a well-known complication that seldom occurs during root canal therapy. These "accidents" have been the subject of several case reports published over the years. Until now, no publication has addressed the global synthesis of the general and clinical data related to NaOCl extrusion. The main purpose of this article was to conduct a systematic review of previously published case reports to identify, synthesize, and present a critical analysis of the available data. A second purpose was to propose a standardized presentation of reporting data concerning NaOCl extrusions to refine and develop guidelines that should be used in further case report series. A review of clinical cases reporting NaOCl accidents was conducted in June 2016 using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist; it combined an electronic search of the PubMed database and an extensive manual search. Forty full-text articles corresponding to 52 case reports published between 1974 and 2015 were selected. Four main categories of data were highlighted: general and clinical information, clinical signs and symptoms of NaOCl extrusions, management of NaOCl extrusions, and healing and prognosis. Overall, up to now, clinical cases were reported in a very unsystematic manner, and some relevant information was missing. A better understanding of the potential causes, management, and prognosis of NaOCl accidents requires a standardization of reported data; this study proposes a template that can fulfill this objective. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing the effects of sodium hypochlorite exposure on the characteristics of PVDF based membranes.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Syed Z; Bérubé, Pierre R

    2013-09-15

    Sodium hypochlorite is commonly used as a cleaning agent to remove adsorbed foulants from PVDF based micro/ultra filtration membranes in water and wastewater treatment applications. Although effective for fouling control, extended sodium hypochlorite exposure can affect the physical/chemical characteristics and hinder the treatment performance of these membranes. To assess these effects, PVDF based membranes were exposed to sodium hypochlorite at different concentrations for varying periods of time, and the physical/chemical characteristics of the virgin and sodium hypochlorite exposed membranes were compared. The membranes were characterized based on chemical composition (FTIR and NMR), mechanical strength (yield strength), surface hydrophilicity (contact angle), pore size and porosity (scanning electron microscopy and challenge test), and membrane resistance (clean water permeation test). The results indicated that exposure dose and concentration of the sodium hypochlorite used have significant influence on the membrane characteristics. The impact of sodium hypochlorite exposure on the parameters investigated could be most accurately and consistently correlated to an exposure dose relationship of the form C(n)t (where, C = concentration and t = exposure time) rather than the Ct relationship commonly used to define the extent of exposure to cleaning agents. For all the parameters investigated, the power coefficient n was less than 1 indicating that time had a greater impact on the changes than did the concentration of the sodium hypochlorite. The results suggest that the use of sodium hypochlorite for chemical cleaning, at concentrations that are higher than those typically used for chemical cleaning would have less of an effect on the characteristics of the membrane materials. Changes in the characteristics were attributed to the oxidation of the hydrophilic additives (HA) present in blended PVDF membranes.

  17. A histopathological comparison of pulpotomy with sodium hypochlorite and formocresol.

    PubMed

    Haghgoo, Roza; Abbasi, Farid

    2012-01-01

    Formocresol is widely used in primary teeth pulpotomies; however it is known to have several side effects. The purpose of this study was to assess pulpal changes of primary teeth pulps after pulpotomy with sodium hypochlorite and formocresol. In this randomized clinical trial, 22 teeth were selected. These teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups (formocresol; n=11 and sodium hypochlorite n=11). Two months post-operatively teeth were extracted and pulpal responses were evaluated by recording the degree of inflammation and extent of pulpal involvement. Dentinal bridge formation was also evaluated. Finally the data was analyzed with McNemartest. The formocresol group demonstrated mild inflammation in 4 cases whereas sodium hypochlorite had mild inflammation in six cases. Severe inflammation was only found in 1 case in the sodium hypochlorite group, but it was present in 4 cases in the formocresol group. In sodium hypochlorite group there were no cases of necrosis, and dentinal bridge was found in 3 cases, unlike, the formocresol group which had necrosis but no dentinal bridge formation. Based on the results of this study sodium hypochlorite may be a suitable solution for conducting pulpotomy in primary teeth.

  18. Effects of chloramines and sodium hypochlorite on carious dentin.

    PubMed

    Tonami, Ken-ichi; Araki, Kouji; Mataki, Shiro; Kurosaki, Norimasa

    2003-06-01

    In chemo-mechanical caries removal procedures, chloramines are typically used for chemical softening of carious dentin. However, the specific effect of chloramines to be compared to sodium hypochlorite has not been sufficiently clarified. In present study, the effect of chloramines used in the Carisolv-system on carious dentin mechanical properties and morphology were investigated, using Vickers hardness test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sections of permanent teeth with dentin caries were treated with chloramines, prepared by mixing amino acids (glutamic acid, lysine, and leucine) with sodium hypochlorite or with sodium hypochlorite alone or with purified water. There was a tendency that the application of the sodium hypochlorite solution softened the sound dentin and/or inner layer of carious dentin more than the application of the chloramines solution did. In SEM observations, the application of chloramines resulted in opening dentinal tubules in the outer layer of carious dentin: Occluded dentinal tubules were seen after sodium hypochlorite application. There is a possibility that the amino acids in the Carisolv-system decrease the aggressive effect of sodium hypochlorite on sound dentin and/or inner layer of carious dentin and also would enhance the disrupting effect on degenerated collagen in carious dentin outer layer.

  19. Sodium hypochlorite as a developer for heavy ion tracks in polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klintberg, Lena; Lindeberg, Mikael; Thornell, Greger

    2001-12-01

    The developing and etching of heavy ion tracks in polyimide with sodium hypochlorite have been studied to gain control over the parameters that affect the etch result. The shape of the resulting pores is a function of both alkalinity and hypochlorite content of the solution. Sodium hypochlorite decomposes during etching, and the rate constant has been determined as a function of the alkalinity at 62 °C. Polished cross-sections have been examined to determine the pore shape, and this method has shown to be a straightforward way to characterise the pores. Decreasing the alkalinity gives more cylindrical pores, but increases the decomposition rate of the hypochlorite solution and decreases the etch rate.

  20. Improved pH buffering agent for sodium hypochlorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. R.; Veeder, L. N.

    1969-01-01

    Sodium citrate/citric acid was found to be an effective buffer for pH control when used with sodium hypochlorite. The mixture does not corrode aluminum. The buffer appears to form a type of conversion coating that may provide corrosion-resistant properties to aluminum in other applications.

  1. Sodium hypochlorite accident with evaluation by cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Behrents, K T; Speer, M L; Noujeim, M

    2012-05-01

    To show the radiographic manifestation of sodium hypochlorite after accidental injection past the apical foramen and into the soft tissues. A female patient was seen for an emergency visit after suffering a sodium hypochlorite accident at her general dentist's office. The patient was seen within 1 h of the accident and was in pain associated with facial swelling. Radiographs, including a Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), and photographs were taken. Endodontic emergency treatment was initiated. The patient was reassured and given pain medication and antibiotics. Follow-up visits were scheduled over 6 days when the swelling had resolved. • Importance of multiple radiographic images during preoperative endodontic evaluation when undertaking endodontic retreatment. • Knowledge of apical anatomy as related to surrounding structures. • Effect of sodium hypochlorite when injected in the soft tissues. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  2. Spectrophotometric Assay of Mebendazole in Dosage Forms Using Sodium Hypochlorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, N.; Prashanth, K. N.; Basavaiah, K.

    2014-07-01

    A simple, selective and sensitive spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of mebendazole (MBD) in bulk drug and dosage forms. The method is based on the reaction of MBD with hypochlorite in the presence of sodium bicarbonate to form the chloro derivative of MBD, followed by the destruction of the excess hypochlorite by nitrite ion. The color was formed by the oxidation of iodide with the chloro derivative of MBD to iodine in the presence of starch and forming the blue colored product, which was measured at 570 nm. The optimum conditions that affect the reaction were ascertained and, under these conditions, a linear relationship was obtained in the concentration range of 1.25-25.0·g/ml MBD. The calculated molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity values are 9.56·103 l·mol-1·cm-1 and 0.031 μg/cm2, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification are 0.11 and 0.33 μg/ml, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of MBD in bulk drug and dosage forms, and no interference was observed from excipients present in the dosage forms. The reliability of the proposed method was further checked by parallel determination by the reference method and also by recovery studies.

  3. Permanent mimic musculature and nerve damage caused by sodium hypochlorite: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pelka, Matthias; Petschelt, Anselm

    2008-09-01

    Sodium hypochlorite is often used as an irrigation solution during routine endodontic treatment. Before recementation of a post-retained crown on the upper left lateral incisor, the root canal was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite. There was no root filling in the root canal, and the apex was open after an earlier apicoectomy. Sudden pain with swelling of the left face side occurred during root canal rinsing. Three years later, a paraesthesia still remained in the affected region and a paralysis of some mimic muscles in this region was observed. There were no signs of improvement.

  4. Wetting properties and critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride mixed in sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Bukiet, Frédéric; Couderc, Guillaume; Camps, Jean; Tassery, Hervé; Cuisinier, Frederic; About, Imad; Charrier, Anne; Candoni, Nadine

    2012-11-01

    The purposes of the present study were to (1) assess the effect of the addition of benzalkonium chloride to sodium hypochlorite on its wetting properties, contact angle, and surface energy; (2) determine the critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride in sodium hypochlorite; and (3) investigate the influence of addition of benzalkonium chloride on the free chlorine level, cytotoxicity, and antiseptic properties of the mixture. Solutions of benzalkonium chloride, with concentrations ranging from 0%-1%, were mixed in 2.4% sodium hypochlorite and tested as follows. The wetting properties were investigated by measuring the contact angle of the solutions on a nondehydrated dentin surface by using the static sessile drop method. The pending drop technique was subsequently used to determine the surface energy of the solutions. The critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride mixed in sodium hypochlorite was calculated from the data. When 2.4% NaOCl was mixed with benzalkonium chloride at the critical micellar concentration, 3 parameters were tested: free chloride content, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial effects against Enterococcus faecalis. The contact angle (P < .001) as well as the surface energy (P < .001) significantly decreased with increasing benzalkonium chloride concentrations. The critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride in sodium hypochlorite was 0.008%. At this concentration, the addition of benzalkonium chloride had no effect on the free chlorine content, cytotoxicity, or antibacterial efficiency of the mixture. The addition of benzalkonium chloride to sodium hypochlorite at the critical micellar concentration reduced the contact angle by 51.2% and the surface energy by 53.4%, without affecting the free chloride content, cytotoxicity, or antibacterial properties of the mixture. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  6. The sodium hypochlorite accident: experience of diplomates of the American Board of Endodontics.

    PubMed

    Kleier, Donald J; Averbach, Robert E; Mehdipour, Omid

    2008-11-01

    To better understand the etiology associated with sodium hypochlorite accidents, we surveyed diplomates of the American Board of Endodontics. Of the 314 diplomates who responded, 132 reported experiencing a sodium hypochlorite accident. Questions were asked about the age and sex of the patient as well as the tooth being treated, preoperative signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and radiographic appearance. Data were analyzed by chi-square tests. Significantly more women experienced sodium hypochlorite accidents compared with men (p < 0.0001). More maxillary teeth than mandibular teeth (p < 0.0001) and more posterior than anterior teeth (p < 0.0001) were involved. A diagnosis of pulp necrosis with radiographic findings of periradicular radiolucency were positively associated with such accidents (p < 0.0001). Most respondents reported that patient signs and symptoms completely resolved within a month. The occurrence of an accident, by itself, did not adversely affect the endodontic prognosis of the involved tooth. Anatomic variations may contribute significantly to the occurrence of a sodium hypochlorite accident.

  7. Phenol formation in gamma radiolysis of aqueous benzene solution with sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kazuhiko; Nagano, Koki

    2013-03-07

    Phenol formation by gamma radiolysis of an aqueous benzene solution containing sodium hypochlorite is reported. The phenol formation in a benzene solution containing sodium hypochlorite irradiated with (60)Co γ-rays is about six times higher than that without sodium hypochlorite. Ten micromolar sodium hypochlorite enhanced the formation of phenol up to a total dose of 6 Gy. Above 6 Gy in solutions containing sodium hypochlorite, the rate of phenol yield sharply decreased and was essentially the same as that without sodium hypochlorite. The yield of phenol with sodium hypochlorite is 0.89 μmol J(-1) and is larger than the sum of yield for the radicals and reactive oxygen species by water radiolysis such as •OH, e(-), H, H2, and H2O2. The formation of phenol with sodium hypochlorite was reduced by NaCl. Results suggest that the radiolytic formation of phenol in a benzene solution with sodium hypochlorite relates to the reaction process involving chlorine atoms. Sodium hypochlorite can be applied as a sensitizer for a benzene chemical dosimetry system. The lower limit of dose detection calculated from the detection limit of phenol and the G value of phenol was estimated to be 1 × 10(-3) Gy.

  8. Effect of sodium hypochlorite on dentine mechanical properties. A review.

    PubMed

    Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Sacramento, Patrícia Almada; Nobre-dos-Santos, Marinês; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review on the effect of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on the mechanical properties of root dentine. The authors searched the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed and the Web of Science for papers published from 1984 to 2008. The main search terms used were: dentine, root canal dentine, sodium hypochlorite, mechanical analysis, elastic modulus, hardness, roughness, flexural strength, compressive strength. The inclusion criteria were studies that evaluated the effect of NaOCl solution, used as an irrigant in endodontics, on the mechanical properties of root dentine. Those studies that were considered to be unrelated to the question addressed, that had investigated NaOCl as a deproteinizing agent, had not evaluated the effect of NaOCl on the mechanical properties of dentine, and that indirectly verified the effect of NaOCl on endodontically treated teeth were excluded. The selected papers were assigned to a score (A-C), according to predetermined criteria. A total of 16 papers were selected, and nine papers were included in the critical appraisal. Five papers were classified as grade A, 4 as grade B, and no paper was classified as grade C. Based on this review, the authors suggest that there is strong evidence showing that sodium hypochlorite adversely alters the mechanical properties of root dentine, when used as an endodontic irrigant.

  9. Effect of sodium chloride, chlorite, and perchlorate on the hypochlorite-induced peroxidation of phospholipid liposomes.

    PubMed

    Panasenko, O M; Arnhold, J; Sergienko, V I

    1997-01-01

    The abilities of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), chlorite (NaClO2), chlorate (NaClO3), and perchlorate (NaClO4) to initiate lipid peroxidation (LP) in liposomes formed from unsaturated phosphatidylcholine were compared. It was shown that only NaClO induced an intensive accumulation of LP products (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and diene conjugates) in the liposomes as a result of their co-incubation. The other oxochlorates produced no similar effects and did not affect the hypochlorite-induced LP. This indicates that the observed hypochlorite-induced LP does not result from the presence of chlorite, chlorate, or perchlorate anion admixtures in the medium.

  10. Moderate and high doses of sodium hypochlorite, neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water, peroxyacetic acid, and gaseous chlorine dioxide did not affect the nutritional and sensory qualities of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa Var. capitata L.) after washing.

    PubMed

    Vandekinderen, Isabelle; Van Camp, John; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Veramme, Kim; Bernaert, Nathalie; Denon, Quenten; Ragaert, Peter; Devlieghere, Frank

    2009-05-27

    Besides the traditionally used sodium hypochlorite (20 and 200 mg L(-1)), alternative sanitizers such as peroxyacetic acid (80 and 250 mg L(-1)) and neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (4.5 and 30 mg L(-1) free chlorine) as well as chlorine dioxide gas (1.54 mg L(-1)) were evaluated for their efficiency in reducing the microbial load of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce. An additional rinsing step with tap water and cooling of the sanitizing solutions, which are obvious for the fresh-cut industry, were not performed within the current study. The high doses of sodium hypochlorite and peroxyacetic acid tested within this study do not conform to the normally used concentrations within the fresh-cut industry. Neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (30 mg L(-1)), peroxyacetic acid (250 mg L(-1)), and gaseous chlorine dioxide significantly reduced the total aerobic plate count of cut lettuce in comparison with water wash treatments alone. None of the treatments significantly affected the sensory quality of the lettuce, although small color changes were observed after colorimetric measurements. From a nutritional point of view water rinsing significantly decreased the vitamin C (maximum 35%) and phenol (maximum 17%) contents, but did not affect the carotenoid and α-tocopherol contents. Additional effects caused by adding a sanitizer to the wash water were not observed for vitamin C and phenols. Conversely, washing with 250 mg L(-1) peroxyacetic acid reduced the β-carotene content by about 30%, whereas using 200 mg L(-1) sodium hypochlorite reduced both the lactucaxanthin and the lutein contents by about 60%. Use of gaseous chlorine dioxide also had an impact on the lutein content (-18%). Furthermore, the α-tocopherol content was reduced by 19.7 and 15.4% when the two concentrations of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water were used, respectively. These data represent the situation on day 0. In a next phase, shelf-life studies considering microbial and sensory quality and

  11. Effect of Alcohol on the Spreading Ability of Sodium Hypochlorite Endodontic Irrigant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Research Progress Sodium Hypochlorite Endodontic Irrigant Report (Interim) 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AU THOR(s) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s...depressant significantly increased the ability of the sodium hypochlorite endodontic irrigant to penetrate in vitro. A freshly mixed solution containing 30...by The C. V. Mosby Company) Effect of alcohol on the spreading ability of sodium hypochlorite endodontic irrigant Walter T. Cunningham, D.D.S., M.S

  12. Sodium hypochlorite (dilute chlorine bleach) oral rinse in patient self-care.

    PubMed

    Rich, Sandra K; Slots, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), commonly known as "bleach," is widely accepted as being a safe and effective antiseptic against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. For over a century, bleach has been used to control or overcome infection in homes, hospitals, and even on battlefields, and in endodontics for disinfection of root canals. This paper reviews clinical studies on the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite oral rinse to combat dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Sodium hypochlorite is readily available as inexpensive household bleach, and we suggest that oral rinsing twice weekly with dilute bleach (0.25% sodium hypochlorite) constitutes a valuable adjunct to current methods of plaque removal.

  13. Mechanisms of actions of sodium hypochlorite in cleaning and disinfection processes.

    PubMed

    Fukuzaki, Satoshi

    2006-12-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most widely used disinfectant in the food industry despite the increasing availability of other disinfectants. Sodium hypochlorite fulfills many requirements as the ideal disinfectant and furthermore it has an excellent cleaning action. The effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite in the cleaning and disinfection processes depends on the concentration of available chlorine and the pH of the solution. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a weak acid and dissociates to the hypochlorite ion (-OCl) and proton (H+) depending on the solution pH. It is generally believed that HOCl is the active species in the germicidal action, whereas the concentration of -OCl is a key factor determining the cleaning efficiency. This implies that the optimal pH region of the germicidal activity of sodium hypochlorite differs from that of its cleaning activity. This paper describes the theory and practice of the cleaning and disinfecting operations based on the use of sodium hypochlorite solution.

  14. Guidelines for management of sodium hypochlorite extrusion injuries.

    PubMed

    Farook, S A; Shah, V; Lenouvel, D; Sheikh, O; Sadiq, Z; Cascarini, L; Webb, R

    2014-12-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most common irrigant used in modern endodontics. It is highly effective at dissolving organic debris and disinfecting the root canal system due to the high pH. Extravasation of NaOCl into intra-oral and extra-oral tissues can lead to devastating outcomes leading to long-term functional and aesthetic deficits. Currently no clear guidelines are available which has caused confusion among the dental and oral and maxillofacial (OMFS) surgical community how best to manage these patients. Following a literature review and considering our own experience we have formulated clear and precise guidelines to manage patients with NaOCl injury.

  15. Review: the use of sodium hypochlorite in endodontics--potential complications and their management.

    PubMed

    Spencer, H R; Ike, V; Brennan, P A

    2007-05-12

    Aqueous sodium hypochlorite (bleach) solution is widely used in dental practice during root canal treatment. Although it is generally regarded as being very safe, potentially severe complications can occur when it comes into contact with soft tissue. This paper discusses the use of sodium hypochlorite in dental treatment, reviews the current literature regarding hypochlorite complications, and considers the appropriate management for a dental practitioner when faced with a potentially adverse incident with this agent.

  16. 40 CFR 180.1235 - Sodium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium hypochlorite; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1235 Sodium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of...

  17. Inactivation of HIV-1 by chemical disinfectants: sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed Central

    Van Bueren, J.; Simpson, R. A.; Salman, H.; Farrelly, H. D.; Cookson, B. D.

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of sodium hypochlorite was assessed against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 suspended in low (8% v/v) or high (80% v/v) concentrations of serum or in a high (80%) concentration of blood. In the presence of 8% serum, 100 p.p.m. available chlorine in the disinfectant test mixture inactivated 3.75 log TCID50 HIV/ml within 30 s. When the test mixture contained 80% serum, 500 p.p.m. available chlorine inactivated more than 4 log TCID50 HIV/ml in 1-2 min. Lower concentrations of available chlorine were unable to inactivate the virus completely. In the presence of 80% blood, 1000 p.p.m. available chlorine in the disinfectant test mixture was unable to inactivate 3.75 log TCID50 HIV/ml, although 2500 p.p.m. available chlorine was able to inactivate at least 1.5 log TCID50 HIV/ml. In all test mixtures, the chlorine rapidly became combined and thus less active. Our results emphasise the importance of cleaning prior to disinfection with sodium hypochlorite since it may prove to be ineffective in the presence of high levels of organic matter. In cases where prior cleaning is impossible, care must be taken to use the higher recommended concentration (a minimum of 10,000 p.p.m. available chlorine). PMID:8557089

  18. Low concentrations of sodium hypochlorite affect population dynamics in Gyrodactylus salaris (Malmberg, 1957): practical guidelines for the treatment of the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. parasite.

    PubMed

    Hagen, A G; Hytterød, S; Olstad, K

    2014-12-01

    Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. parr (age 1+), infected by the monogenean ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris (Malmberg, 1957), were exposed to chlorine (Cl)-enriched water at three different concentrations: Cllow (0-5 μg Cl L(-1) ), Clmedium (18 μg Cl L(-1) ) and Clhigh (50 μg Cl L(-1) ). There was a negative correlation between G. salaris infections and the hypochlorite concentrations added. The parasite infection was eliminated by day 6-8 and day 2-4 in the groups Clmedium and Clhigh , respectively, while inhibition of G. salaris population growth was observed in the Cllow group. An important note to this matter, however, is that the G. salaris specimens observed at day 6 in Clmedium and at day 2 in Clhigh were all considered dead by subjective judgement. No mortality in the salmon parr was observed during the first 8 days of the experiment, demonstrating that Cl has a stronger effect on G. salaris than on the salmonid host. The differences in sensitivity between the parasite and the Atlantic salmon indicate that hypochlorite has a potential use as a parasiticide with a therapeutic margin. The low-dose sensitivity may imply that Cl pollution in urban areas may pose a greater risk towards biodiversity than previously assumed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Influence of sodium hypochlorite on mechanical properties of K3 nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    PubMed

    Ormiga Galvão Barbosa, Fabiola; Antônio da Cunha Ponciano Gomes, José; Pimenta de Araújo, Marcos Cesar

    2007-08-01

    Several studies have evaluated the influence of various factors on the fracture of nickel-titanium endodontic rotary instruments. The present study analyzed the influence of sodium hypochlorite on flexural fatigue and torsional properties of nickel-titanium endodontic rotary instruments. New files and files previously exposed to sodium hypochlorite were tested for flexural fatigue and for resistance to fracture by twisting. The t test was used to compare the groups for number of cycles, angle of rotation, and maximum torque required to fracture. No statistical difference existed between these groups. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed no evidence of localized corrosion in files exposed to sodium hypochlorite solution. These results suggest that the exposure to sodium hypochlorite has no influence on resistance to fracture of K3 rotary instruments.

  20. Interaction between EDTA and sodium hypochlorite: a nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.

    PubMed

    Grande, Nicola Maria; Plotino, Gianluca; Falanga, Alessandro; Pomponi, Massimo; Somma, Francesco

    2006-05-01

    Recent studies detected erosion of the dentinal walls following the use of EDTA as a final flush. Several authors have studied degradation of EDTA and it appears to be caused by an oxidation reaction. The objective of this paper was to verify through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis if the oxidizing property of sodium hypochlorite inactivates EDTA. Solutions of sodium hypochlorite and EDTA were analyzed. EDTA tracing and the appearance of new signals indicative of by-products of the reaction, were studied at different time intervals with a NMR analysis. The tracings of NMR analysis confirmed that the reaction between sodium hypochlorite and EDTA lead to a very slow but progressive degradation of this compound. Mindful of the limitations of an in vitro study, the results of this study nevertheless demonstrated that a final flush with sodium hypochlorite cannot limit the chelating effects of EDTA in a clinically realistic time period.

  1. A new texturing technique of monocrystalline silicon surface with sodium hypochlorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Linfeng; Tang, Jiuyao

    2009-08-01

    This work proposes a new texturing technique of monocrystalline silicon surface for solar cells with sodium hypochlorite. A mixed solution consisting of 5 wt% sodium hypochlorite and 10 vl% ethanol has been found that results in a homogeneous pyramidal structure, and an optimal size of pyramids on the silicon surface. The textured silicon surface exhibits a lower average reflectivity (about 10.8%) in the main range of solar spectrum (400-1000 nm).

  2. Tissue dissolution by sodium hypochlorite: effect of concentration, temperature, agitation, and surfactant.

    PubMed

    Stojicic, Sonja; Zivkovic, Slavoljub; Qian, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Haapasalo, Markus

    2010-09-01

    Sodium hypochlorite is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant because of its antimicrobial and tissue-dissolving activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of concentration, temperature, and agitation on the tissue-dissolving ability of sodium hypochlorite. In addition, a hypochlorite product with added surface active agent was compared with conventional hypochlorite solutions. Three sodium hypochlorite solutions from two different manufacturers in concentrations of 1%, 2%, 4%, and 5.8% were tested at room temperature, 37 degrees C, and 45 degrees C with and without agitation by ultrasonic and sonic energy and pipetting. Distilled and sterilized tap water was used as controls. Pieces of bovine muscle tissue (68 +/- 3 mg) were placed in 10 mL of each solution for five minutes. In selected samples, agitation was performed for one, two, or four 15-second periods per each minute. The tissue specimens were weighed before and after treatment, and the percentage of weight loss was calculated. The contact angle on dentin of the three solutions at concentrations of 1% and 5.8% was measured. Weight loss (dissolution) of the tissue increased almost linearly with the concentration of sodium hypochlorite. Higher temperatures and agitation considerably enhanced the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite. The effect of agitation on tissue dissolution was greater than that of temperature; continuous agitation resulted in the fastest tissue dissolution. Hypochlorite with added surface active agent had the lowest contact angle on dentin and was most effective in tissue dissolution in all experimental situations. Optimizing the concentration, temperature, flow, and surface tension can improve the tissue-dissolving effectiveness of hypochlorite even 50-fold. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sodium hypochlorite pulpotomies in primary teeth: a retrospective assessment.

    PubMed

    Vostatek, Sean F; Kanellis, Michael J; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Gregorsok, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the University of Iowa's advanced training program in pediatric dentistry replaced the traditional formocresol vital pulpotomy technique with a 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical/radiographic success over 21 months of 5% NaOCl as the medicament in primary molar pulpotomies compared to published data for formocresol and ferric sulfate pulpotomies. A retrospective chart audit was performed to evaluate results for all primary molar pulpotomies completed during a 12-month period using NaOCl. Dental records were reviewed for clinical and radiographic findings subsequent to pulp therapy. Clinical and radiographic criteria used to determine pulpotomy success were based on scientific literature. One hundred ninety-two NaOCl primary molar pulpotomies were completed in 118 patients; 131 (68%) primary molars from 77 children were available for follow-up examination (mean time since pulpotomy=10.5 months). NaOCl pulpotomies had a 95% clinical and 82% overall radiographic success rate. External root resorption was the most common pathologic finding. Pulpotomy success diminished over time. Clinical and radiographic success rates in this study on NaOCl pulpotomies are comparable to formocresol and ferric sulfate pulpotomies reported in the literature. Further study with longer observation periods is warranted.

  4. Anatomy of sodium hypochlorite accidents involving facial ecchymosis - a review.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wan-chun; Gyamfi, Jacqueline; Niu, Li-na; Schoeffel, G John; Liu, Si-ying; Santarcangelo, Filippo; Khan, Sara; Tay, Kelvin C-Y; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2013-11-01

    Root canal treatment forms an essential part of general dental practice. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used irrigant in endodontics due to its ability to dissolve organic soft tissues in the root canal system and its action as a potent antimicrobial agent. Although NaOCl accidents created by extrusion of the irrigant through root apices are relatively rare and are seldom life-threatening, they do create substantial morbidity when they occur. To date, NaOCl accidents have only been published as isolated case reports. Although previous studies have attempted to summarise the symptoms involved in these case reports, there was no endeavour to analyse the distribution of soft tissue distribution in those reports. In this review, the anatomy of a classical NaOCl accident that involves facial swelling and ecchymosis is discussed. By summarising the facial manifestations presented in previous case reports, a novel hypothesis that involves intravenous infusion of extruded NaOCl into the facial vein via non-collapsible venous sinusoids within the cancellous bone is presented. Understanding the mechanism involved in precipitating a classic NaOCl accident will enable the profession to make the best decision regarding the choice of irrigant delivery techniques in root canal débridement, and for manufacturers to design and improve their irrigation systems to achieve maximum safety and efficient cleanliness of the root canal system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occurrence of household mold and efficacy of sodium hypochlorite disinfectant.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kelly A; Boone, Stephanie; Bright, Kelly R; Gerba, Charles P

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of mold on household surfaces and the efficacy of bleach-based (sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl) disinfectants on mold viability and allergenicity was documented. Household microenvironments prone to increased moisture were specifically targeted. Using the sticky tape method, 1330 samples were collected from non-porous indoor surfaces of 160 homes across the United States, and analyzed for mold. Homes were randomly selected and recruited via phone interviews. Culture and immunoassays were used to measure the viability and reduction of allergenic properties of Aspergillus fumigatus following 2.4% NaOCl treatment. All homes and 72.9% of surfaces tested positive for mold. Windowsills were the most frequently contaminated site (87.5%) and Cladosporium the most commonly identified mold (31.0%). Five-minute exposures to 2.4% NaOCl resulted in a >3 to >6-log₁₀ reduction of culturable mold counts in controlled laboratory studies. Organisms were nonculturable after 5- and 10-min contact times on non-porous and porous ceramic carriers, respectively, and A. fumigatus spore-eluted allergen levels were reduced by an average 95.8% in 30 sec, as indicated by immunoassay. All homes are contaminated with some level of mold, and regrowth is likely in moisture-prone microenvironments. The use of low concentrations (2.4%) of NaOCl for the reduction of culturable indoor mold and related allergens is effective and recommended.

  6. Effects of sodium hypochlorite exposure mode on PES/PVP ultrafiltration membrane degradation.

    PubMed

    Causserand, Christel; Pellegrin, Bastien; Rouch, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-15

    Drinking water production plants using membrane filtration processes report membrane failure issues. According to the literature, membrane degradation is often induced by exposure to sodium hypochlorite, an oxidant widely used during in-place cleanings. The present study focused on quantifying the effect of membrane exposure mode to hypochlorite on properties modifications of a PES/PVP ultrafiltration membrane widely used for drinking water production. For this purpose effects of sodium hypochlorite concentration, contact duration and exposure mode (static or dynamic) were investigated. The pH of the hypochlorite solution was set to 8 as it was demonstrated in numerous previous works that the pH range 7-8 leads to the most severe modification in the membrane characteristics. Membrane degradation was monitored at molecular scale by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and at macroscopic scale by pure water permeability and elongation at break measurements. The results obtained in static (soaking) and dynamic (filtration and filtration/backwashing cycles) hypochlorite exposure modes indicated that PES/PVP membrane degradation progress was predominantly governed by hypochlorite oxidation rate. In the tested conditions, mechanical stress (pressure differentials) did not significantly contribute to membrane ageing. The correlation between molecular and macroscopic characterizations demonstrated that PVP degradation is responsible for the membrane integrity loss. A linear relationship between the loss of ductility of the membrane and the progress of the PVP degradation was obtained whatever the exposure mode. Thanks to experiments conducted at various hypochlorite concentrations and exposure durations, the hypochlorite dose parameter (hypochlorite concentration times contact time), widely used in the literature, was demonstrated to be inappropriate to describe the degradation rate: the hypochlorite concentration impact was shown to be dominating the

  7. [Effects of sodium hypochlorite on structure and function of pond microcosms].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Lin; Lu, Yi; Wang, Yazhou

    2007-03-01

    To study the influence of sodium hypochlorite on destruction and restoration of simulated pond ecosystems. Six pond microcosms were established to simulate aquatic ecosystems. 0, 1, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/L of sodium hypochlorite were put in these simulated pond microcosms every 24 h for 13 days and followed by observation for 10 days. The values of chlorine residual, total bacteria count, chlorophyll-a and total productivity were detected regularly. Chlorine residual increased continuously with the increase of doses and time course. Content of chlorophyll-a, total productivity negatively correlated with dose of sodium hypochlorite. 1.0 mg/L and 2.5 mg/L of sodium hypochlorite promoted the growth of bacteria, but 5.0 mg/L, 10.0 mg/L and 20.00 mg/L of sodium hypochlorite could kill bacteria effectively. Under low doses of sodium hypochlorite (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/L), there were no influence on microcosms' restoration, but the high doses (10.0 mg/L and 20.0 mg/L) could severely damage the microcosms. According to the tendency of chlorophyll-a and total productivity, structure and function of every pond microcosm could be changed by sodium hypochlorite in this test condition, the influence was reversible under the doses of 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/L, but microcosms could not be restored under the doses of 10.0 mg/L and 20.0 mg/L.

  8. Effect of sodium hypochlorite on human pulp cells: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Essner, Mark D.; Javed, Amjad; Eleazer, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on human pulp cells to provide an aid in determining its optimum concentration in maintaining the viability of remaining pulp cells in the revascularization of immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis. Study design Human pulp tissue cells taken from extracted third molars were plated, incubated, and subjected to various concentrations of NaOCl (0.33%, 0.16%, 0.08%, and 0.04%) for 5-, 10-, and 15-minute time intervals to simulate possible contact times in vivo. The Cell Titer–Glo Luminescent Cell Viability Assay was used to determine the number of viable cells present in culture following treatment. Results The results showed an increase in cell viability with the lowering of NaOCl concentration. The use of 0.04% NaOCl was similar to the control, indicating nearly complete preservation of cell viability at all time intervals tested. As sodium hypochlorite concentration increased from 0.04% to 0.33%, cell viability decreased correspondingly. Conclusions The results indicate that the lowest concentration of NaOCl tested did not affect the viability of cells. This may prove beneficial in developing a new treatment protocol to help preserve existing vital pulp cells in revascularization cases. PMID:21821446

  9. Multi-stage absorption of rendering plant odours using sodium hypochlorite and other reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, D.; Davis, B. J.; Moss, R. L.

    Conditions for using sodium hypochlorite solution as the main component of a multi-stage absorption system for the treatment of malodorous process emissions were studied, together with the additional reagents needed for effective odour control. In laboratory experiments, mixtures containing vpm levels in air of trimethylamine, hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulphide, n-butanal and sometimes ammonia were passed through three bubble-plate columns containing some of the following: water, dilute sulphuric acid, sodium hypochlorite solutions (varying in pH and available chlorine content) sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen sulphite. Odour removal was monitored by Chromatographic and sensory methods. Conclusions from laboratory experiments were supported by field-tests at four rendering plants in the U.K., treating both ventilation and process gases. Alkaline hypochlorite with considerable excess available chlorine removes many sulphur-compounds and aldehydes but effective odour control requires an acid pre-wash to prevent the generation of odorous chlorinated compounds from ammonia and amines. Acidic hypochlorite solution followed by sodium hydrogen sulphite (to remove aldehyde) and sodium hydroxide was a most effective combination in both laboratory and field tests. Odour generated in chlorination reactions involving acidic hypochlorite solution was analysed by GC-MS and GC-MPD-odour-port and the odour key compounds identified.

  10. Sodium hypochlorite oxidation of petroleum aliphatic contaminants in calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Picard, François; Chaouki, Jamal

    2016-02-01

    This research project investigated the sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) oxidation of aliphatic petroleum contaminants (C10-C50) in a calcareous soil (average 5473 ppm C10-C50, 15 wt% Ca), which had been excavated from a contaminated industrial site. The decontamination objective was to lower the C10-C50 concentration to 700 ppm. CO2 acidity was used in the project to boost the NaClO oxidation yield and seems to have played a role in desorbing the natural organic matter. The experimental conditions were a 2- to 16-h reaction time, at room temperature, with a 1 to 12.5 wt% NaClO oxidative solution and a fixed 2:1 solution-to-soil ratio. With a 3 wt% NaClO solution and with a CO2 overhead, the NaClO dosage requirement was maintained below 60 g NaClO/g of oxidized C10-C50 over the entire decontamination range. The strong chlorine smell remaining after the reaction was completed suggests that part of the NaClO requirement can be recycled. Except traces of chloroform, there were no regulation-listed organochloride contaminants detected on either the treated soil samples or leachates and the total count of chlorinated compounds in treated soil samples was below the detection limit of 250 mg/kg. The NaClO oxidation mechanism on aliphatic substrates might be triggered by transition metals, such as manganese, but no attempt has been made to investigate the oxidation mechanism. Further investigations would include a constant-fed NaClO system and other techniques to lower the required NaClO dosage.

  11. [Chemical ablation of the gallbladder with sodium hypochlorite in an animal model].

    PubMed

    Jover Clos, Rafael J; Álamo, Juan P; Matsuzaki, Mónica; Dionisio de Caballier, Maria E; Bustos, Héctor F; Gramatica, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The cholecystectomy is the current treatment of the biliary lithiasis. Nevertheless there have been attempts in order to eliminate the gallbladder epithelium and to generate the sclerosis of the organ using chemical substances, heat and laser. Sodium hypochlorite and fibrin glue is proposed to achieve the ablation of the gallbladder mucosa and sclerosis. Thirty rabbits were divided into three groups of 10. Accessing surgically to the gallbladder, sodium hypochlorite was injected, afterward the same was done with fibrin glue to occlude the cystic duct and collapse the organ lumen, avoiding the bile reflux. In the control groups ethanol plus fibrin adhesive and physiological solution was used. In day 65 the animals were sacrificed and the result of the procedure was observed macroscopic and histologically. Eight of the gallbladders treated with sodium hypochlorite disappeared leaving a small subhepatic scar. There were no intra nor postoperative complications. In the group of the ethanol the result was successful only in one case, and with saline solution there was no ablation. A significant difference exists for the group treated with sodium hypochlorite plus fibrin glue compared to the ethanol plus fibrin adhesive group (p <0,0055) and the saline solution group (p <0,0007). In this experimental model there was possible the ablation of the gallbladder using sodium hypochlorite as sclerosing agent and fibrin glue to collapse the lumen and to occlude the cystic duct.

  12. Pathological effects of sodium hypochlorite administration through drinking water in male Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Khan, A; Ullah, M; Khan, Mz

    2008-10-01

    Fifty male Japanese quails of 40 days of age were divided into five equal groups viz. A, B, C, D, and E. Drinking water supplemented with sodium hypochlorite at dose level of 0, 25, 50, 200, and 400 mg chlorine/L, respectively was offered for 6 weeks. At the end of week 6 when no clinical signs of toxicity of sodium hypochlorite appeared, the birds in groups B and C were shifted to 100 mg chlorine/L drinking water, and this level was increased fourfold (400, 1600, 6400 mg chlorine/L drinking water) every week, till i.e., 10th week (70 day). Afterwards all the birds were killed. Depression and anorexia were prominent clinical signs observed. Reduction in feed intake, body weight, and hematological parameters appeared in a dose-dependant manner. Decreased serum total proteins and weights of liver, heart, and kidneys were recorded in birds receiving high levels of sodium hypochlorite. Intoxicated birds were emaciated. Decreased weight and volume of the testes were observed in birds receiving high levels of sodium hypochlorite. However, birds receiving 400 mg chlorine (group E) had smaller but functional testes. Birds receiving higher level of chlorine (groups B and C) had decreased weight and volume of testes, atrophied seminiferous tubules, and arrested spermatogenesis. It was concluded that sodium hypochlorite at high levels, that is, 6400 mg/L in drinking water is toxic to the quails; therefore, it should be used with caution in poultry farming as drinking water disinfectant.

  13. Enhancing antibacterial effect of sodium hypochlorite by low electric current-assisted sonic agitation.

    PubMed

    Maden, Murat; Ertuğrul, İhsan Furkan; Orhan, Ekim Onur; Erik, Cevat Emre; Yetiş, Ceylan Çağıl; Tuncer, Yasin; Kahriman, Mesud

    2017-01-01

    This research focused on the effects of low electric current (μE)-assisted sonic agitation of sodium hypochlorite on Enterococcus faecalis infected human root dentin. Extracted human canine roots were instrumented, sterilized, and experimentally contaminated with E. faecalis. After incubation for 21 days, the presence of the biofilm was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (n = 3). Roots were randomly divided into seven groups according to decontamination procedures: G1: no treatment; G2: sterile saline; G3: 5.25% sodium hypochlorite; G4: passive ultrasonic irrigation; G5: EndoActivator (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) agitation (EA); G6: μE agitation; and G7: μE-assisted sonic agitation. Fixed μE amperage and intensities were applied in G6 and G7. Following microbial sampling, bacterial colonies were counted using the direct plating method. Biofilm was not eradicated in any sample. The μE-assisted sonic agitation of sodium hypochlorite revealed the lowest cfu values (p<0.05), whereas there were no significant differences among the passive ultrasonic irrigation, EndoActivator and μE agitation alone (p>0.05). Based on available evidence, the following conclusions were drawn: The μE-assisted sonic agitation increased the antibiofilm efficiency of sodium hypochlorite than passive ultrasonic irrigation and EndoActivator. The μE-assisted sonic agitation on 5.25% sodium hypochlorite is not capable to eradicate biofilms at 10mA energy level in 60s.

  14. The use of topical, un-buffered sodium hypochlorite in the management of burn wound infection.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, E; Whitelaw, A; Kahn, D; Rode, H

    2012-06-01

    Burn wound infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The bactericidal action of sodium hypochlorite has been known for centuries and it has been in clinical practice for over 70 years. Whereas a buffered sodium hypochlorite solution is not universally available, an un-buffered solution is cheap and easy to prepare. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum concentration with regard to safety and efficacy, as well as shelf life of an un-buffered sodium hypochlorite solution for the topical management of burn wound infections. Human fibroblasts were exposed to serial dilutions of un-buffered sodium hypochlorite solutions for 30 min and assessed for viability. Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes were exposed to the same dilutions of un-buffered sodium hypochlorite to establish the minimum bactericidal concentration. The pH, osmolality and electrolyte concentrations were measured. These experiments were repeated with solution stored at room temperature for 6 consecutive days. 24% of fibroblasts were viable after exposure to a 0.025% solution and 98.9% with a 0.003% solution. The MBC for the P. aeruginosa isolates was 0.003%, for S. aureus was 0.006% and for S. pyogenes was 0.0015%. This remained constant for 6 consecutive days. The un-buffered 0.0025% solution has a pH of 10, an osmolality of 168 sodium concentration of 89 mmol/dl and chloride of 84 mmol/dl. This remained stable for 14 days. An un-buffered solution of sodium hypochlorite with a concentration of 0.006% would be suitable for the topical management of burn wound infections caused by common pathogens. It has a shelf life of at least 6 days. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. [Accidental injection sodium hypochlorite during endodontic therapy. Better understand to better manage].

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb, H; Douki, N

    2015-09-01

    The high frequency of iatrogenic incidents during endodontic treatment is a source of stress for the practitioner. These incidents may occur during the different steps of a root canal treatment. During irrigation, extrusion of sodium hypochlorite beyond the apex is a rare but impressive accident. Sodium hypochlorite, is the most common irrigant used in modern endodontics, but when it comes in contact with the periapical tissue, it can cause complications ranging from mild discomfort to serious tissue damage such as the hematoma and hemato-emphysema. The aims of this article are to discuss through the presentation of two clinical cases: Etiological and predisposing factors; Signs guiding to suspicion of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite. In this work, we focused on clinical keys that help the practitioner in better understanding this accident in order to prevent it or to manage it well when it occurs.

  16. Sodium Hypochlorite Treatment and Nitinol Performance for Medical Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. D.; Gutierrez, E. J.; Nagaraja, S.; Stafford, P. R.; Sivan, S.; Di Prima, M.

    2017-09-01

    Processing of nitinol medical devices has evolved over the years as manufacturers have identified methods of reducing surface defects such as inclusions. One recent method proposes to soak nitinol medical devices in a 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution as a means of identifying surface inclusions. Devices with surface inclusions could in theory then be removed from production because inclusions would interact with NaClO to form a visible black material on the nitinol surface. To understand the effects of an NaClO soak on performance, we compared as-received and NaClO-soaked nitinol wires with two different surface finishes (black oxide and electropolished). Pitting corrosion susceptibility was equivalent between the as-received and NaClO-soaked groups for both surface finishes. Nickel ion release increased in the NaClO-soaked group for black oxide nitinol, but was equivalent for electropolished nitinol. Fatigue testing revealed a lower fatigue life for NaClO-soaked black oxide nitinol at all alternating strains. With the exception of 0.83% alternating strain, NaClO-soaked and as-received electropolished nitinol had similar average fatigue life, but the NaClO-soaked group showed higher variability. NaClO-soaked electropolished nitinol had specimens with the lowest number of cycles to fracture for all alternating strains tested with the exception of the highest alternating strain 1.2%. The NaClO treatment identified only one specimen with surface inclusions and caused readily identifiable surface damage to the black oxide nitinol. Damage from the NaClO soak to electropolished nitinol surface also appears to have occurred and is likely the cause of the increased variability of the fatigue results. Overall, the NaClO soak appears to not lead to an improvement in nitinol performance and seems to be damaging to the nitinol surface in ways that may not be detectable with a simple visual inspection for black material on the nitinol surface.

  17. DELAYED TOOTH REPLANTATION AFTER ROOT SURFACE TREATMENT WITH SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND SODIUM FLUORIDE: HISTOMORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Sottovia, André Dotto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2006-01-01

    In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8), had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin-embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (p<0.05). All groups were affected by root resorption but the treatment performed in group III was the least effective for its control. The treatment accomplished in groups I and II yielded similar results to each other. PMID:19089038

  18. [The microorganism count on impressions after their disinfection by submersion in sodium hypochlorite solutions].

    PubMed

    Koshmanova, T N; Panteleeva, L G

    1998-01-01

    The virucidal, bactericidal, and fungicidal activity of sodium hypochlorite is studied with silicone imprints. Poliomyelitis virus (type I vaccine strain Sabin LSc 2 ab with titer 10(7.36) TCD50/ml), bacteriophage f52 with titer 2.10(7) PFU/ml, Staphylococcus aureus strain 906, and Candida albicans in concentrations 10(7) corpuscles/ml in the presence of protein die completely in 20 min when submerged in 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution. Imprints from alginate materials are destroyed if submerged in this solution.

  19. Use of sodium hypochlorite for skin antisepsis before inserting a peripheral venous catheter: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Forni, Cristiana; Sabattini, Tania; D'Alessandro, Fabio; Fiorani, Ambra; Gamberini, Simonetta; Maso, Alessandra; Curci, Rosa; Zanotti, Enrichetta; Chiari, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Although it can be prevented, catheter-related bacteremia is common and dangerous. The antiseptics most widely used during insertion of peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) include povidone iodine, alcohol, and chlorhexidine. Another widely used antiseptic is a solution of 0.057 g sodium hypochlorite. This pilot study explored the contamination rate of the PVC tip inserted after skin decontamination with sodium hypochlorite. Culture analysis of the tips of the PVCs inserted into the 42 participants showed 7 (16.7%) colonized catheters. The results of this pilot study suggest taking into serious consideration the assessment of this antiseptic in randomized experimental studies.

  20. Spectrophotometric analysis of tooth discolouration induced by mineral trioxide aggregate after final irrigation with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Voveraityte, Valdone; Gleizniene, Simona; Lodiene, Greta; Grabliauskiene, Zivile; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2016-03-09

    The aim of this study was to evaluate specific chromatic alterations induced by white mineral trioxide aggregate after final irrigation with sodium hypochlorite. Sixty specimens were prepared mechanically and filled with mineral trioxide aggregate after different final irrigation protocols: Group 1 - distilled water, Group 2 - sodium hypochlorite followed by distilled water, Group 3 - sodium hypochlorite, only. Colour changes were recorded with a spectrophotometer at baseline, and then after 1, 2 and 4 months. The Commision Internationale de l'éclairage colour system was used and the total colour changes ΔE were calculated. In groups where sodium hypochlorite was used, parameter L* decreased significantly after the first month (Group 2 (P < 0.006), Group 3 (P < 0.009)). Group 3 demonstrated greater colour change ΔE than Group 1, after the first month (P < 0.02). In conclusion, white mineral trioxide aggregate can lead to tooth discolouration by contact with sodium hypochlorite residues in dentinal tubules.

  1. Electrochemical regeneration of sodium hypochlorite in the absorption-oxidation method of desorbing waste gases

    SciTech Connect

    Znamenskii, Yu.D.; Perchugov, G.Ya.

    1988-07-10

    The electrochemical synthesis of sodium hypochlorite from a solution with a reduced concentration of sodium chloride is efficiently carried out with the use of ruthenium oxide-titanium anodes (ROTA). In this context they investigated the electrolysis of a solution of sodium chloride with concentrations equal to 20 and 50 kg/m/sup 3/ in a single cell flow-type electrolyzer with an ROTA and, for comparison, with a graphite anode under laboratory conditions. A flow-type electrolyzer was selected in view of the fact that it most closely satisfies the purposes of gas purification. The current efficiency with respect to sodium hypochlorite was almost two times higher, and the specific consumption of electrical energy was 1.6-1.8 times lower in the case of the ROTA than in the case of the graphite electrode. The yield of sodium chlorate remained on the same level in both cases.

  2. A Wireless, Passive, Magnetically-soft Harmonic Sensor for Monitoring Sodium Hypochlorite Concentrations in Water

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Keat G.; Paulose, Maggie; Grimes, Craig A.

    2003-01-01

    A wireless, passive, remote-query sensor for monitoring sodium hypochlorite (bleach) solutions is reported. The sensor is comprised of a magnetically-soft ferromagnetic ribbon, coated with a layer of polyurethane and alumina, having a large and nonlinear permeability that supports higher-order harmonics in response to a time varying magnetic field. The hypochlorite ions induce swelling in the coating, with the resultant stress altering the harmonic signature of the sensor from which the sodium hypochlorite concentration can be determined. The wireless, passive nature of the sensor platform enables long-term monitoring of bleach concentrations in the environment. The sensor platform can be extended to other chemical analytes of interest as desired.

  3. The indirect detection of bleach (sodium hypochlorite) in beverages as evidence of product tampering.

    PubMed

    Jackson, David S; Crockett, David F; Wolnik, Karen A

    2006-07-01

    Bleach (sodium hypochlorite) has been identified as the adulterant in a relatively large number of product tamperings that have been investigated by the Forensic Chemistry Center (FCC) of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In this work, household bleach was added to 23 different beverages at each of three levels. The impact of sodium hypochlorite on these beverages over a 13-day study period was evaluated using the following techniques: diphenylamine spot test for oxidizing agents, potassium iodide-starch test paper for oxidizing agents, pH, iodometric titration for quantitating hypochlorite, ion chromatography for chloride and chlorate quantitation, automated headspace sampling with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) for determination of chloroform, and visual and organoleptic observations. This study has shown that hypochlorite is fragile when added to most common beverages and typically breaks down either partially or completely over time. In cases where a beverage is suspected of being adulterated with bleach but tests for hypochlorite are negative, it is still possible to characterize the product to demonstrate that the results are consistent with the addition of bleach. An adulterated product will give a positive test for oxidizing agents using the diphenylamine spot test. It is likely that the pH of the adulterated product will be higher than a control of that product. Ion chromatographic analysis shows elevated chloride and chlorate as compared with a control. And, chloroform may also be detected by GC-FID especially if the beverage that was adulterated contains citric acid.

  4. Resin penetration in artificial enamel carious lesions after using sodium hypochlorite as a deproteinization agent.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Ss; Bravo, P; Morales, R; Romero, A; Oyarzún, A

    2014-01-01

    To study the degree of penetration of an adhesive resin in artificial enamel carious lesions after using sodium hypochlorite as deproteinization agent. Twenty included human third-molars, extracted for surgical indication, were used. Artificial lesions were created in the buccal and lingual sides of each specimen through a cycle of demineralization-remineralization. Samples were then incubated in human saliva for 7 days at 37 ° C. After surface cleaning, lesions and the peripheral sound enamel were etched with 37% orthophosphoric acid for 20 seconds. One lesion of each specimen was treated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for one minute. The other lesion of each specimen was used as a control. Experimental and control lesions were sealed with a fluid resin marked with Rhodamine B. Lesions were sectioned for microscopic observation by epifluorescence and polarized light. The images obtained were analyzed morphometrically. The micrometer measurements were made with ImageJ ® software. The level of significance was assessed at p<0.05. The average sealant depth penetration in the control group was 94.9 ± 28.6 μm versus 122.8 ± 25.3 μm in the experimental group. This represents Δ 20.1% significantly greater penetration when using sodium hypochlorite (p<0.001). The results demonstrated a significant penetration of the sealing resin when the conventional technique is complemented with the application of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite for one minute in artificial enamel carious lesions.

  5. Comparing Peracetic Acid with Sodium Hypochlorite for Disinfection of Combined Sewer Overflows

    EPA Science Inventory

    This cooperative research and development agreement between U.S. EPA, Solvay, MSDGC, and CB&I is evaluating the potential of PAA for disinfection of Muddy Creek CSO wastewater and comparing that with sodium hypochlorite disinfection. This presentation will document the effective...

  6. Comparing Peracetic Acid with Sodium Hypochlorite for Disinfection of Combined Sewer Overflows

    EPA Science Inventory

    This cooperative research and development agreement between U.S. EPA, Solvay, MSDGC, and CB&I is evaluating the potential of PAA for disinfection of Muddy Creek CSO wastewater and comparing that with sodium hypochlorite disinfection. This presentation will document the effective...

  7. Rapid tissue dissolution efficiency of electrically-activated sodium hypochlorite on bovine muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ertugrul, Ihsan Furkan; Maden, Murat; Orhan, Ekim Onur; Ozkorucuklu, Sabriye Percin; Aglarca, Ali Vasfi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a common antimicrobial and tissue-dissolving irrigant. The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate and compare dissolution capacities of sodium hypochlorite solutions after electrically activation (E-NaOCl) on bovine muscle specimens at various time periods and concentrations. Materials and Methods: Three sodium hypochlorite solutions of 1.25%, 2.5%, and 5% were tested at 3-min. and 5-min. with and without activation by electrically. Distilled water and NaOCl solutions without electrically activation were used as controls. Pieces of bovine muscle tissue (34 ± 2 mg) were placed in 10 mL of each solution at room temperature. In the group of E-NaOCl, electrically activation was performed through the potentiostat. The tissue specimens were weighed before and after treatment, and the percentage of weight loss was calculated. Results: Weight loss of the tissue increased with the concentration of E-NaOCl and NaOCl. Higher concentration and electrically activation considerably enhanced the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite. The effect of electrically activation on tissue dissolution was much greater than that of same concentrations in the groups of NaOCl (P < 0.001). Tissue weight loss was significantly higher in 2.5% and 5% E-NaOCl at 3 min. than in 2.5% and 5% NaOCl at 5 min. (P < 0.05). There were not any significant differences between the 2.5% E-NaOCl and 5% NaOCl at 5 min. (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Electrically activation can improve the tissue-dissolving effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite. PMID:25512725

  8. Rapid tissue dissolution efficiency of electrically-activated sodium hypochlorite on bovine muscle.

    PubMed

    Ertugrul, Ihsan Furkan; Maden, Murat; Orhan, Ekim Onur; Ozkorucuklu, Sabriye Percin; Aglarca, Ali Vasfi

    2014-10-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a common antimicrobial and tissue-dissolving irrigant. The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate and compare dissolution capacities of sodium hypochlorite solutions after electrically activation (E-NaOCl) on bovine muscle specimens at various time periods and concentrations. Three sodium hypochlorite solutions of 1.25%, 2.5%, and 5% were tested at 3-min. and 5-min. with and without activation by electrically. Distilled water and NaOCl solutions without electrically activation were used as controls. Pieces of bovine muscle tissue (34 ± 2 mg) were placed in 10 mL of each solution at room temperature. In the group of E-NaOCl, electrically activation was performed through the potentiostat. The tissue specimens were weighed before and after treatment, and the percentage of weight loss was calculated. Weight loss of the tissue increased with the concentration of E-NaOCl and NaOCl. Higher concentration and electrically activation considerably enhanced the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite. The effect of electrically activation on tissue dissolution was much greater than that of same concentrations in the groups of NaOCl (P < 0.001). Tissue weight loss was significantly higher in 2.5% and 5% E-NaOCl at 3 min. than in 2.5% and 5% NaOCl at 5 min. (P < 0.05). There were not any significant differences between the 2.5% E-NaOCl and 5% NaOCl at 5 min. (P > 0.05). Electrically activation can improve the tissue-dissolving effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite.

  9. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Bachelli, Mara Lígia Biazotto; Amaral, Rívia Darla Álvares; Benedetti, Benedito Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L(-1)/10 min), peracetic acid (100 mg L(-1)/15 min) and ozonated water (1.2 mg L(-1)/1 min) as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L(-1) free chlorine/15 min) were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 °C with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 μm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days.

  10. Antimicrobial action of sodium hypochlorite and castor oil solutions for denture cleaning - in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Salles, Marcela Moreira; Oliveira, Viviane de Cássia; Souza, Raphael Freitas; Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial action of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50%) and 10% castor oil solutions against specific microorganisms, by counting Colony Forming Units (CFU) of clinically important bacteria and Candida species. Acrylic resin specimens (n = 320; Lucitone 550) were obtained from square metal matrices (10 x 10 x 2 mm), sterilized by microwave (650W, for 6 minutes) and contaminated by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida glabrata. The specimens were immersed for 20 minutes in one of the following hygiene solutions (n = 10/each): A - 0.25% Sodium hypochlorite; B - 0.5% Sodium hypochlorite; C - 10% Castor oil solution; and D (Control) - saline. Adhered cells were suspended and inoculated into a selective solid medium (37ºC for 24 h). The Student's t-test (α = 0.05) was performed to compare log10(CFU+1)/mL between Groups C and D. The results showed that sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.5%) completely eliminated all detectable microorganisms. The castor oil solution eliminated B. subtilis and reduced counts for other strains. Differences between C and D were significant (p < 0.05) for all species except for E. faecalis. Both sodium hypochlorite solutions (0.25% and 0.5%) were effective in eliminating all microorganisms evaluated, and may be useful as cleaning solutions for complete dentures. The castor oil solution provided moderate efficacy and performed differently on the tested species, with the strongest effect on B. subtilis and with non-significant action on E. faecalis.

  11. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Bachelli, Mara Lígia Biazotto; Amaral, Rívia Darla Álvares; Benedetti, Benedito Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L−1/10 min), peracetic acid (100 mg L−1/15 min) and ozonated water (1.2 mg L−1 /1 min) as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L−1 free chlorine/15 min) were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 °C with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 μm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days. PMID:24516433

  12. Control of microbiological corrosion on carbon steel with sodium hypochlorite and biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sara H; Lima, Maria Alice G A; França, Francisca P; Vieira, Magda R S; Silva, Pulkra; Urtiga Filho, Severino L

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, the interaction of a mixture of a biocide, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and a biopolymer, xanthan, with carbon steel coupons exposed to seawater in a turbulent flow regime was studied. The cell concentrations, corrosion rates, biomasses, and exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced on the coupon surfaces with the various treatments were quantified. The corrosion products were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the surfaces of steels were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that xanthan and the hypochlorite-xanthan mixture reduced the corrosion rate of steel.

  13. Generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution using C/PbO2 and Pb/PbO2 electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalwa, Nasser Abu; Tamos, Hassan; ElAskalni, Mohamed; El Agha, Abed Rhman

    2012-06-01

    Two modified electrodes (Pb/PbO2 and C/PbO2) were prepared by electrodepositing a lead oxide layer on lead and carbon substrates. These modified electrodes were used as anodes for the generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution. Different operating conditions and factors affecting the treatment process of NaOCl generation, including current density, pH values, conductive electrolytes, and electrolysis time, were studied and optimized. By comparison the C/PbO2 electrode shows a higher efficiency than the Pb/PbO2 electrode for the generation of NaOCl.

  14. In-vitro activity of sodium-hypochlorite gel on bacteria associated with periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Jurczyk, Karolina; Nietzsche, Sandor; Ender, Claudia; Sculean, Anton; Eick, Sigrun

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of a sodium hypochlorite formulation including its components against bacteria associated with periodontal disease. Sodium hypochlorite formulation (NaOCl gel), its components sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and the activating vehicle were compared with 0.1 % chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) solution. The antimicrobial activity was proven by determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentrations, and killing assays. Furthermore, the influence on formation as well as on a 4-day-old 6-species biofilm was tested. Except for one strain (Parvimonas micra ATCC 33270 in case of NaOCl gel), the MICs both of the CHX solution and NaOCl gel did not exceed 10 % of the formulations' concentration. In general, MICs of the NaOCl gel were equal as of the CHX solution against Gram-negatives but higher against Gram-positive bacteria. CHX but not NaOCl gel clearly inhibited biofilm formation; however, the activity of NaOCl gel was more remarkable on a 4-day-old biofilm. NaOCl killed bacteria in the biofilm and interfered with the matrix. The NaOCl gel acts antimicrobial in particular against Gram-negative species associated with periodontitis. Moreover, its component NaOCl hypochlorite is able to alter biofilm matrices. The NaOCl gel may represent a potential alternative for adjunctive topical antimicrobial treatment in periodontitis.

  15. Cytotoxic effect of sodium hypochlorite 0.5% (NaOCl) on ocular melanoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Missotten, G S; Keijser, S; de Keizer, R J W

    2008-01-01

    Excision with or without adjuvant cryotherapy or brachytherapy is the treatment of choice in conjunctival melanoma. Adjuvant rinsing with alcohol or sodium hypochlorite peroperatively (Dakin's solution) is used in some centers to prevent seeding of melanoma cells. The purpose of this research is to compare the cytotoxicity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with other potential cytotoxic solutions in the treatment of conjunctival melanoma. Three uveal melanoma cell lines (OCM8, Mel285, and Mel270) and one conjunctival melanoma cell line (CM2005.1) were tested in a proliferation test (CellTiter 96 AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay, Promega, Madison, WI). The 96-well plates were coated with melanoma cells and treated with sodium hypochlorite 0.5%, sodium bicarbonate (1.4% and 8.4%), ethanol 99%, or sodium chlorite during 3, 5, or 15 minutes. Each solution was tested in several dilutions. In all cell lines, no surviving cells were observed after treatment of 3 minutes with sodium hypochlorite. Ethanol 99% had a similar effect. A reduction of 70% of viable cells could be reached using sodium bicarbonate 1.4% or 8.4%. Water reduced the amount of viable cells by 40%. Sodium hypochlorite is cytotoxic for melanocytic cells in vitro. Its use may reduce local seeding of tumor cells and may decrease metastasis after extirpation of an extended ocular tumour. Further in vivo evaluation of sodium hypochlorite is required.

  16. Sodium Thiosulfate for Recovery of Bond Strength to Dentin Treated with Sodium Hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Pimentel Corrêa, Ana Carolina; Cecchin, Doglas; de Almeida, José Flávio Affonso; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida; Zaia, Alexandre Augusto; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) for restoring adhesion to pulp chamber dentin treated with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and EDTA. Sixty-three crowns of bovine incisors were cut to expose the dentin pulp chamber. The specimens were polished and randomly distributed into 9 groups (n = 7) according to the following protocols used: 0.9% sodium chloride for 30 minutes (negative control), 5.25% NaOCl for 30 minutes, 17% EDTA for 3 minutes, and 5.25% NaOCl for 1 minute (positive control). The other groups, after treatments with NaOCl and EDTA, were immersed in 0.5% or 5% Na2S2O3 for 1, 5, and 10 minutes or just immersed in an inert solution for 10 minutes (0.9% sodium chloride). After drying the specimens, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN) was applied to the pulp chamber dentin followed by Filtek Z250 composite (3M ESPE). Six rectangular slabs were obtained from each specimen, and the dentin/resin interface was tested by using a universal testing machine. The resulting data were submitted to 1-way analysis of variance and the Duncan test (P = .05). There was a significant decrease in bond strength regarding NaOCl and EDTA (P < .05). When 5% Na2S2O3 was used for 10 minutes, the bond strength was found to be statistically equal to the negative control and higher than the positive control (P < .05). The use of Na2S2O3 can significantly increase the bond strength of composite resin to NaOCl/EDTA-treated dentin, allowing adhesive restorations to be immediately applied after endodontic treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sodium Hypochlorite and Sodium Bromide Individualized and Stabilized Carbon Nanotubes in Water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Colombo, Veronica; Xin, Yangyang; Tao, Ran; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-09-20

    Aggregation is a major problem for hydrophobic carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in water because it reduces the effective particle concentrations, prevents particles from entering the medium and leads to unstable electronic device performances when a colloidal solution is used. Molecular ligands such as surfactants can help the particles to disperse, but they tend to degrade the electrical properties of CNTs. Therefore, self-dispersed particles without the need for surfactant are highly desirable. We report here, for the first time to our knowledge, new type of CNT particles with negatively charged hydrophobic/water interfaces can easily self-disperse themselves in water via pretreating the CNTs with a low concentration salted solution including sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and sodium bromide (NaBr). The obtained aqueous CNT suspensions exhibit stable and superior colloidal performances. A series of pH titration experiments confirmed the presence and role of the electrical double layers on the surface of the salted carbon nanotubes and provided an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of tetraacetylethylenediamine-sodium perborate versus sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Shakouie, Sahar; Salem Milani, Amin; Eskandarnejad, Mahsa; Rahimi, Saeed; Froughreyhani, Mohammad; Galedar, Saeede; Ranjbar, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Tetraacetylethylenediamine-sodium perborate (TAED-SP) in comparison to 2.5% and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis. Methods. A standard suspension of E. faecalis was inoculated on 60 plates containing Mueller-Hinton agar culture medium. Four sterile disks of Beckman filtration paper were placed on each plate. TAED-SP, 5% and 2.5% NaOCl were placed on three disks. Sterile physiologic saline was placed on the fourth disk as negative control. After 24-hour incubation, the diameter of the inhibition zone around the disks was measured using a transparent ruler. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the mean zone of microbial growth in the groups. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. There was a significant difference in the diameter of the inhibition zones between groups (P < 0.05). The Tukey post hoc test showed a higher diameter of the inhibitory zone with TAED-SP than that of 2.5% NaOCl. However, there were no significant differences between the inhibitory zones of TAED-SP and 5% NaOCl. Conclusion. TAED-SP and 5% NaOCl have similar antibacterial activity against E. faecalis; however, TAED-SP has a greater antibacterial effect compared to 2.5% NaOCl. PMID:27092214

  19. Antimicrobial activity of tetraacetylethylenediamine-sodium perborate versus sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Shakouie, Sahar; Salem Milani, Amin; Eskandarnejad, Mahsa; Rahimi, Saeed; Froughreyhani, Mohammad; Galedar, Saeede; Ranjbar, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Tetraacetylethylenediamine-sodium perborate (TAED-SP) in comparison to 2.5% and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis. Methods. A standard suspension of E. faecalis was inoculated on 60 plates containing Mueller-Hinton agar culture medium. Four sterile disks of Beckman filtration paper were placed on each plate. TAED-SP, 5% and 2.5% NaOCl were placed on three disks. Sterile physiologic saline was placed on the fourth disk as negative control. After 24-hour incubation, the diameter of the inhibition zone around the disks was measured using a transparent ruler. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the mean zone of microbial growth in the groups. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. There was a significant difference in the diameter of the inhibition zones between groups (P < 0.05). The Tukey post hoc test showed a higher diameter of the inhibitory zone with TAED-SP than that of 2.5% NaOCl. However, there were no significant differences between the inhibitory zones of TAED-SP and 5% NaOCl. Conclusion. TAED-SP and 5% NaOCl have similar antibacterial activity against E. faecalis; however, TAED-SP has a greater antibacterial effect compared to 2.5% NaOCl.

  20. The effect of sodium hypochlorite solutions on in vitro seedling growth and shoot regeneration of flax (Linum usitatissimum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Er, Celâl

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concentration (40, 60, and 80%) and temperature (0, 10, 20, and 30°C) of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions on seed germination, in vitro viability and growth of flax seedlings and regeneration capacity of hypocotyl explants. Results showed that seed germination, seedling growth and shoot regeneration were negatively affected by increasing concentration and temperature of disinfectant. The best results in seedling growth and shoot regeneration were obtained when 40% disinfectant concentration at 10°C was used.

  1. Qualitative comparison of sonic or laser energisation of 4% sodium hypochlorite on an Enterococcus faecalis biofilm grown in vitro.

    PubMed

    Seet, Aaron N; Zilm, Peter S; Gully, Neville J; Cathro, Peter R

    2012-12-01

    The effectiveness of sonic activation, laser activation and syringe irrigation of 4% sodium hypochlorite in removing an Enterococcus faecalis biofilm was compared. Biofilms were grown in extracted human single rooted teeth using a flow cell apparatus. After 4 weeks' growth, teeth were subjected to each treatment using 4% sodium hypochlorite and radicular dentinal surfaces of the root canals were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that sonic activation and syringe irrigation with sodium hypochlorite showed reduced numbers of bacterial cells on the radicular dentine but were not effective in eliminating E. faecalis in the dentinal tubules. Laser activation of sodium hypochlorite resulted in clean dentine walls and undetectable levels of bacteria within dentinal tubules. Qualitatively, sonic or laser activation of 4% NaOCl resulted in greater bacterial reduction compared with syringe irrigation, with laser activation producing the greatest overall reduction. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2012 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  2. Effect of chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite on the dissolution of human pulp tissue – An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sandeep; Sinha, Ramen; Kar, S.K.; Ather, Amber; Limaye, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Organic tissue dissolution is an important property of an irrigant which aids in the success of root canal treatment. Recent studies have advocated the use of Chlorine dioxide as an endodontic irrigant. The aim of this study is to compare the dissolution efficacy of chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite on human pulp tissue. Methods In this study, 2% Sodium hypochlorite, 5% Chlorine dioxide and isotonic saline solution (control) were used. Thirty human pulp tissue specimens were exposed to three test solutions (n = 10) for 30 min following which the loss of weight was compared from the original weight by using a digital analytical balance. Results Sodium hypochlorite was more efficient in dissolving human pulp tissue when compared to Chlorine dioxide. Isotonic saline solution failed to dissolve any of the specimens. Conclusion 5% Chlorine dioxide is capable of dissolving human pulp tissue but sodium hypochlorite was more effective. PMID:24532904

  3. Assessment of the efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Tetrahymena spp.

    PubMed

    Vaerewijck, M J M; Sabbe, K; Baré, J; Spengler, H-P; Favoreel, H W; Houf, K

    2012-03-01

    The efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and two Tetrahymena spp. was determined based on the European Standard EN 1276:2009 suspension test. Trophozoite viability was assessed by determination of the membrane integrity using flow cytometry as a fast screening technique. Bovine serum albumin was added to simulate clean (0.3 g/liter) and dirty (3 g/liter) conditions. Benzalkonium chloride caused cell lysis at concentrations above 50 mg/liter under clean and dirty conditions. A concentration of 50 mg of free chlorine per liter had a strong biocidal effect on acanthamoebae and tetrahymenae after 15 min under clean and dirty conditions. Our results suggest that benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite were effective against the three microorganisms at concentrations commonly applied in the food industry.

  4. Determination of mutagenicity of the precipitate formed by sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine using the Ames test.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pranali; Aminoshariae, Anita; Harding, Jarrod; Montagnese, Thomas A; Mickel, Andre

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the direct mutagenic potential of any precipitate formed by combining sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX). The precipitates formed by NaOCl and CHX were dissolved in 100% dimethyl sulfoxide and cultured with mutant Salmonella Typhimurium strains. The cells were observed for reverse mutation. The numbers of positive/mutated wells were statistically compared with those in the background plates using the two-sample proportion independent t-test. The precipitates were not found to be significantly more mutagenic than the background plates. Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that the precipitates formed when sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine contact did not show mutagenic (and are therefore carcinogenic) potential.

  5. Minimum lethal concentration of sodium hypochlorite for the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Matthew H; Gratwicke, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the active ingredient in household bleach and is commonly used as a disinfectant to clean equipment contaminated by the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in lab husbandry and field studies. We conducted a series of replicated exposure trials using a single Global Pandemic Lineage Bd isolate from Panama (JEL 310) and concentrations of NaOCl ranging from 0.006% to 0.6% for exposure times ranging from 30 seconds to 15 minutes to determine the minimum lethal concentration of NaOCl for this isolate of Bd. Sodium hypochlorite completely killed Bd at a concentration of 0.03% during a 15-minute exposure time, while 0.12% NaOCl was effective at all exposure times (30s-15min).

  6. Complications following an accidental sodium hypochlorite extrusion: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Bosch-Aranda, María L; Canalda-Sahli, Carlos; Figueiredo, Rui; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-07-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used solution in root canal treatments, as it is a low-cost method that displays a very effective antimicrobial activity against microbiota of infected root canals. However, this solution can cause complications especially due to its cytotoxic features. When this solution is injected into the adjacent tissues, the patient usually experiences intense pain, and an urgent treatment should be implemented in order to prevent a long-term sequelae. This paper describes the clinical features of two patients that experienced an accidental extrusion of NaOCl after endodontic treatment of varying severity and with different treatments. Furthermore, it shows the long-term neurologic injuries that this type of accidents may cause and a treatment protocol for these situations will be suggested. Key words:Nerve damage, root canal irrigation, root canal treatment, sodium hypochlorite.

  7. Complications following an accidental sodium hypochlorite extrusion: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Bosch-Aranda, María L.; Canalda-Sahli, Carlos; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used solution in root canal treatments, as it is a low-cost method that displays a very effective antimicrobial activity against microbiota of infected root canals. However, this solution can cause complications especially due to its cytotoxic features. When this solution is injected into the adjacent tissues, the patient usually experiences intense pain, and an urgent treatment should be implemented in order to prevent a long-term sequelae. This paper describes the clinical features of two patients that experienced an accidental extrusion of NaOCl after endodontic treatment of varying severity and with different treatments. Furthermore, it shows the long-term neurologic injuries that this type of accidents may cause and a treatment protocol for these situations will be suggested. Key words:Nerve damage, root canal irrigation, root canal treatment, sodium hypochlorite. PMID:24558554

  8. Staphylococcus aureus dry-surface biofilms are not killed by sodium hypochlorite: implications for infection control.

    PubMed

    Almatroudi, A; Gosbell, I B; Hu, H; Jensen, S O; Espedido, B A; Tahir, S; Glasbey, T O; Legge, P; Whiteley, G; Deva, A; Vickery, K

    2016-07-01

    Dry hospital environments are contaminated with pathogenic bacteria in biofilms, which suggests that current cleaning practices and disinfectants are failing. To test the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite solution against Staphylococcus aureus dry-surface biofilms. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Biofilm Reactor was adapted to create a dry-surface biofilm, containing 1.36 × 10(7)S. aureus/coupon, by alternating cycles of growth and dehydration over 12 days. Biofilm was detected qualitatively using live/dead stain confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and quantitatively with sonicated viable plate counts and crystal violet assay. Sodium hypochlorite (1000-20,000parts per million) was applied to the dry-surface biofilm for 10min, coupons were rinsed three times, and residual biofilm viability was determined by CLSM, plate counts and prolonged culture up to 16 days. Isolates before and after exposure underwent minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum eradication concentration (MEC) testing, and one pair underwent whole-genome sequencing. Hypochlorite exposure reduced plate counts by a factor of 7 log10, and reduced biofilm biomass by a factor of 100; however, staining of residual biofilm showed that live S. aureus cells remained. On prolonged incubation, S. aureus regrew and formed biofilms. Post-exposure S. aureus isolates had MICs and MECs that were not significantly different from the parent strains. Whole-genome sequencing of one pre- and post-exposure pair found that they were virtually identical. Hypochlorite exposure led to a 7-log kill but the organisms regrew. No resistance mutations occurred, implying that hypochlorite resistance is an intrinsic property of S. aureus biofilms. The clinical significance of this warrants further study. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Comparison of the effects of chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite and their combination on simulative water disinfection].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Li, Na; Lu, Yi; Wang, Yazhou

    2008-05-01

    To compare the effects of disinfection of chlorine dioxide (ClO2), sodium hypochlorite(NaClO) and their combination (ClO + NaClO) on simulative water samples. The simulative water samples containing 5.0 x 10(4) - 5.0 x 10(5) cfu/100ml Escherichia coli were prepared in laboratory and disinfected by different doses of chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite and their combination for 60, 60, 30 + 60 min respectively. The kill ratio for Escherichia coli, and the residual chlorine dioxide, and the product of chlorite ion (ClO2-) and total residual chlorine were detected and compared by the membrane filter(MF) technique and electrometric titration. The minimum effective dosage (MED) for disinfect of simulative water samples were 0.4 mg/L of chlorine dioxide, 0.5 mg/L of sodium hypochlorite, and the 0.1 mg/L + 0.3 mg/L or 0.2 mg/L + 0.2 mg/L of their combination. By comparision with disinfection of ClO2 and NaClO alone, the residual chlorine dioxide increased 13.43% - 166.67% in simulative water sample under disinfection by the combination of ClO2 + NaClO, While chlorite ion decreased 13.11% - 19.97% and total residual chlorine increased 9.34% - 40.15%. The combination of chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite for disinfection of drinking water could achieve better effect of disinfection and decrease disinfection by-products as well.

  10. Photoactivation of curcumin and sodium hypochlorite to enhance antibiofilm efficacy in root canal dentin.

    PubMed

    Neelakantan, Prasanna; Cheng, Cheng Qing; Ravichandran, Vinoddhine; Mao, Teresa; Sriraman, Priyanka; Sridharan, Swetha; Subbarao, Chandana; Sharma, Subash; Kishen, Anil

    2015-03-01

    To test the effect of ultrasonic or light activated curcumin and sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms in vitro. E. faecalis biofilms were grown within root canals (n=175) and divided into 7 groups (n=25). Group 1, sterile saline; group 2, 3% sodium hypochlorite; group 3, 3% sodium hypochlorite activated with ultrasonic files (30s cycles for 4min); group 4, 3% sodium hypochlorite irradiated with blue light (1200mw/cm(2) for 4min); group 5, curcumin (2.5mg/mL); group 6, curcumin (2.5mg/mL) activated with ultrasonic files (30s cycles for 4min); group 7, curcumin (2.5mg/mL) irradiated with blue light. The biofilms' ultrastructure was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Bacterial viability was assessed by confocal microscopy. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test (P=0.05). The quantitative analysis of the colony-forming units was carried out from dentinal shaving and analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison test (P=0.05). All treatment groups showed a significantly higher percentage of dead bacteria than the saline control (P<0.05). The percentage of dead bacteria was significantly higher when light activated curcumin was used (P<0.05). At both depths (200 and 400 microns), light activated curcumin showed no growth of bacteria. Light activation produced significantly higher antibacterial efficacy than ultrasonic agitation, with light activated curcumin producing the maximum elimination of biofilm bacteria within the root canal lumen and dentinal tubules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Water Hardness on Efficacy of Sodium Hypochlorite Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Water.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Sara; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2017-03-01

    This study examined how the hardness of water affected the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite in inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 in water. Water was prepared at different degrees of total hardness (0, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 5,000 mg/liter CaCO3). Inactivation was assessed at different levels of free chlorine (0, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm) at 2 to 4°C and pH 6.5. Thirty milliliters of chlorinated water was inoculated with 6 log CFU/ml of E. coli O157:H7 and allowed to mix for 3, 10, 20, or 30 s. In the absence of sodium hypochlorite, no reduction in counts of E. coli O157:H7 was observed regardless of the degree of water hardness. However, in the presence of hard water, under certain chlorine concentrations and exposure times, the reduction of E. coli O157:H7 in chlorinated hard water was significantly less than the reduction observed in chlorinated deionized water. For example, after exposure to 0.5 ppm of free chlorine for 10 s, E. coli O157:H7 counts were reduced by 4.8 ± 1.4, 2.0 ± 1.3, 1.6 ± 0.7, 0.5 ± 0.7, and 0.0 ± 0.1 log CFU/ml in water containing 0, 100, 1,000, 2,000, and 5,000 mg/liter CaCO3, respectively. With the exception of 5,000 mg/liter CaCO3, the effect of water hardness was no longer visible after 20 s of exposure to 0.5 ppm of free chlorine. Also, hard water significantly lowered the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite at 3 s of exposure to 1.0 ppm of free chlorine. But after 20 s of exposure to 1.0 ppm of free chlorine, the impact of water hardness was no longer observed. This study demonstrated that water hardness can affect the germicidal efficacy of sodium hypochlorite, and such an impact may or may not be apparent depending on the condition of the solution and the treatment time at which the observation is made. Under the conditions typically seen in commercial produce washing operations, the impact of water hardness on chlorine efficacy is likely to be insignificant compared with that of organic load.

  12. Effects of sodium hypochlorite on Agave tequilana Weber bagasse fibers used to elaborate cyto and biocompatible hydrogel films.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Carrillo, Karla Lizette; Nakasone, Kazuki; Sugita, Satoshi; Tagaya, Motohiro; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2014-09-01

    Waste bagasse of Agave tequilana-Weber fibers treated with sodium hydroxide was used to elaborate hydrogel films. The bagasse was offered in an alternative use for the preparation of hydrogel films by phase inversion method without crosslinking and further purification of cellulose. The effect on the properties of the obtained films was studied when the chemical treatment of the agave fibers was changed. It was found that the resultant hydrogels showed increment in tensile from 40 N/mm(2) to 56 N/mm(2) with the increase of sodium hypochlorite concentration from 1 to 10 vol.%, respectively. With regard to biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel films, platelet adhesion, clotting time and protein adsorption were investigated. Analysis of the morphology of adherent NIH3T3 fibroblast indicated that the projected cell area, aspect ratio and long axis gradually increased with the increment of sodium hypochlorite content in the agave treatment. It was presented that the chemical treatment affects cell adhesion and morphology and lignin content remains in the brown fibers.

  13. Potato starch oxidation induced by sodium hypochlorite and its effect on functional properties and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fengchao; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Hongwei; Chen, Qian; Kong, Baohua

    2016-03-01

    The effects of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (active chlorine content at 0.1, 0.2, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 g/100 g) on the properties of potato starch (PS) were investigated by determining the morphological, physicochemical, crystallinity, pasting, gel texture and digestive properties. The starch granules of PS oxidized with high oxidant concentrations caused cracks and pores, and oxidation mainly acts on the amorphous regions of the starch granules. As the sodium hypochlorite concentration increases, the carbonyl content, carboxyl content, solubility, and pasting temperature of PS increased, as measured using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA). The swelling power, breakdown, setback, and peak and final viscosities decreased according to the RVA (P<0.05). The gel strength increased under low-intensity oxidative treatments and decreased under high-intensity oxidative treatments. Oxidative treatment decreased the digestibility of gelatinized potato starch. The slowly digestible starch and resistant starch contents increased significantly, while the rapidly digestible starch content decreased after the oxidation modification (P<0.05). Overall, PS oxidation with sodium hypochlorite improved the functional characteristics of starch and decreased starch digestibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Disinfection of bore well water with chlorine dioxide/sodium hypochlorite and hydrodynamic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifei; Jia, Aiyin; Wu, Yue; Wu, Chunde; Chen, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) on potable water disinfection of chemicals was investigated. The bore well water was introduced into HC set-up to examine the effect of HC alone and combination of HC and chemicals such as chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite. The effect of inlet pressure and geometrical parameters on disinfection was studied using HC alone and the results showed that increasing inlet pressure and using more and bigger holes of orifice plates can result in a higher disinfection rates. When HC was combined with chemicals, HC can reduce the doses of the chemicals and shorten the time of disinfection. It was also found that the decrease in bacteria concentration followed a first-order kinetic model. As for the experiment of combination of HC and sodium hypochlorite for disinfection, HC not only improves the disinfection rate but also degrades natural organic matter and chloroform. Compared with only sodium hypochlorite disinfection, combined processes get higher disinfection rate and lower production of chloroform, particularly the pretreatment with HC enhances the disinfection rate by 32% and there is a simultaneous reduction in production of chloroform by 39%.

  15. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid in sanitizing green coconuts.

    PubMed

    Walter, E H M; Nascimento, M S; Kuaye, A Y

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of sanitizing green coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) through the treatment applied by juice industries using sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid. The surface of the fruits was inoculated with a mixture of five Listeria monocytogenes strains. The treatments consisted in immersing the fruits for 2 min at room temperature in sodium hypochlorite solution containing 200 mg l(-1) residual chlorine at pH 6.5, and 80 mg l(-1) solution of peracetic acid or sterile water. Bacterial populations were quantified by culturing on trypticase soy agar supplemented with yeast extract and Oxford selective culture medium; however, recovery was higher on the nonselective medium. Immersion in water produced a reduction in the L. monocytogenes population of 1.7 log(10) CFU per fruit, while immersion in sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid solutions resulted in population reductions of 2.7 and 4.7 log(10) CFU per fruit respectively. The treatments studied are efficient to green coconuts. Sanitation of green coconut is one of the most important control measures to prevent the contamination of coconut water. This article provides information that shows the adequacy of sanitizing treatments applied by the juice industries.

  16. Sodium hypochlorite chemical burn in an endodontist's eye during canal treatment using operating microscope.

    PubMed

    Regalado Farreras, Desirée C; Puente, Carlos García; Estrela, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    This study describes a case of eye burn induced by sodium hypochlorite used as an irrigant during root canal preparation. A 24-year-old female endodontist was using an operating microscope during root canal treatment, and as the root canal was irrigated, the pressure cannula burst and the irrigant (3.5% sodium hypochlorite) came into direct contact with her left eye. She immediately sought ophthalmologic emergency care for pain, redness of the cornea, burning sensation, photophobia, intraocular pressure, and blurred vision. The initial treatment consisted of washing the eye with saline solution and administering analgesic and anti-inflammatory (steroid) medications. One day after the accident, a topical demulcent and hydroxypropyl medication were applied to the eyeball (conjunctiva), the eye was bandaged for 24 hours, and rest was prescribed for 7 days. Eight days later, a corneal ulcer was diagnosed, and antibiotic and anti-inflammatory (steroid) medications were used. Vision was restored without any sequelae 4 weeks after the accident. The endodontist was instructed to apply control medication (Lagricel; Sophia SA, Caracas, Venezuela) for 3 months and to return for ophthalmologic follow-up every 6 months. Sodium hypochlorite is an effective antibacterial irrigant indicated for the treatment of root canal infections. The tissue cytotoxicity highlights the need to inform the patient of the risk factors of accidents and enhance care with individual protection equipment for the patient and the professional during clinical procedures. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of the effectiveness of Sodium Hypochlorite decontamination of cadaveric human tissues at retrieval.

    PubMed

    Paolin, Adolfo; Trojan, Diletta; Carniato, Antonio; Tasca, Fabio; Massarin, Ervino; Tugnoli, Alessandro; Cogliati, Elisa

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial contamination of tissues retrieved from cadaveric donors is a common feature worldwide, and every tissue bank, albeit using different methods, conducts decontamination to guarantee safe tissues suitable for clinical use. The effectiveness of the methods used to eradicate pathogens differs. In order to reduce the tissue bioburden at retrieval, we have introduced a new method involving rinsing tissues in a sodium hypochlorite solution. To test its effectiveness we analyzed two comparable groups of tissues: Group A: 1881 tissues, all rinsed with isotonic saline solution after retrieval, and Group B: 1968 tissues immersed in an isotonic saline solution containing sodium hypochlorite (final concentration 0.1 %) for different lengths of time and subsequently rinsed with isotonic saline. The rinsing solution of each tissue was then sampled for microbiological cultures in both groups. The resultant overall contamination rate was 40.5 % for Group A and 6.7 % for Group B, with an 82.8 % difference in the reduction of contamination between the two groups. This was especially the case for commensal skin bacteria in musculoskeletal tissue, which accounted for over half the overall contamination. Our data highlighted that decontamination with sodium hypochlorite was helpful in reducing the bacterial bioburden in tissues retrieved from cadaveric donors.

  18. Comparison of tetraacetylethylendiamine + sodium perborate and sodium hypochlorite cytotoxicity on L929 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Simbula, Gabriella; Dettori, Claudia; Camboni, Tania; Cotti, Elisabetta

    2010-09-01

    Tetraacetylethylenediamine in association with sodium perborate (TAED+P) can be suggested for its use as an endodontic disinfectant because of its antimicrobial activity against different bacterial species when used at low concentrations. The purpose of this study was to measure the cytotoxicity of TAED+P on L929 fibroblasts and to compare it with that of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). L929 fibroblasts were grown in Dulbecco Modified Eagle Medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) at 37 degrees C and 5% CO(2). At confluence, cells were split, plated in a 96-well plate, and incubated for 24 hours to allow attachment. The two disinfectants TAED+P and NaOCl were tested at various concentrations. The neutral red uptake and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assays were used to evaluate the cell viability. The 50% inhibitory dose values for both disinfectants were calculated and statistically analyzed. The effect of both disinfectants on fibroblast viability was also determined in the presence of various concentrations of FCS. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc analysis using Tukey multiple comparison test was used for parametric data. Both disinfectants induced a dose-related loss of cell viability; TAED+P resulted less cytotoxic than NaOCl in all the examined experimental conditions. These data support the possible use of TAED+P as an endodontic irrigant. Further studies are required to analyze its antibacterial activity against endodontic pathogens. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of Disinfection of Dental Stone Casts: Virkon versus Sodium Hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Moslehifard, Elnaz; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Robati Anaraki, Mahmood; Shafee, Elnaz; Tamjid-shabestari, Shabnam; Ghaffari, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this experimental study was to compare the disinfection efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and peroxygenic acid (Virkon) solutions for dental stone casts contaminated with microbial strains. Materials and Methods: A total of 960 spherical stone beads with a diameter of 10 mm were prepared and used as carriers of bacterial inoculums. They were individually inoculated by soaking in broth culture media containing each of the four understudy microorganisms. Different concentrations of Virkon and hypochlorite solutions were prepared using distilled water and then were sprayed on the surfaces of dental casts contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. The pour plate technique was used to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of each solution. Microbicidal effect (ME) was calculated according to the log10 of control colony counts minus the log10 of the remaining colony counts after the antimicrobial procedure. Statistical difference was assessed using the Kruskal Wallis and the Man Whitney U tests with a significance of 95%. Results: We observed different bactericidal effects of Virkon at various concentrations; 1% Virkon killed S. aureus, P aeruginosa, and Candida albicans, while 3% Virkon solution was required to kill B. subtilis. For S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans, no significant difference was observed between 1% Virkon and 0.525% sodium hypochlorite (P >0.05). For B. subtilis, the efficacy of 3% Virkon and 0.525% sodium hypochlorite was not significantly different (P >0.999). Conclusion: According to the obtained results for Virkon and based on its low toxicity and good environmental compatibility, it may be recommended as an antimicrobial disinfectant for dental stone casts as non-critical items. PMID:26622274

  20. Efficacy of Disinfection of Dental Stone Casts: Virkon versus Sodium Hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Moslehifard, Elnaz; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Robati Anaraki, Mahmood; Shafee, Elnaz; Tamjid-Shabestari, Shabnam; Ghaffari, Tahereh

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to compare the disinfection efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and peroxygenic acid (Virkon) solutions for dental stone casts contaminated with microbial strains. A total of 960 spherical stone beads with a diameter of 10 mm were prepared and used as carriers of bacterial inoculums. They were individually inoculated by soaking in broth culture media containing each of the four understudy microorganisms. Different concentrations of Virkon and hypochlorite solutions were prepared using distilled water and then were sprayed on the surfaces of dental casts contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. The pour plate technique was used to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of each solution. Microbicidal effect (ME) was calculated according to the log10 of control colony counts minus the log10 of the remaining colony counts after the antimicrobial procedure. Statistical difference was assessed using the Kruskal Wallis and the Man Whitney U tests with a significance of 95%. We observed different bactericidal effects of Virkon at various concentrations; 1% Virkon killed S. aureus, P aeruginosa, and Candida albicans, while 3% Virkon solution was required to kill B. subtilis. For S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans, no significant difference was observed between 1% Virkon and 0.525% sodium hypochlorite (P >0.05). For B. subtilis, the efficacy of 3% Virkon and 0.525% sodium hypochlorite was not significantly different (P >0.999). According to the obtained results for Virkon and based on its low toxicity and good environmental compatibility, it may be recommended as an antimicrobial disinfectant for dental stone casts as non-critical items.

  1. Shelf-life of a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution as determined by Arrhenius equation.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Maria Aparecida; Siqueira, Evandro Luiz; Bombana, Antonio Carlos; Oliveira, Gabriella Guimarães de

    2009-01-01

    Accelerated stability tests are indicated to assess, within a short time, the degree of chemical degradation that may affect an active substance, either alone or in a formula, under normal storage conditions. This method is based on increased stress conditions to accelerate the rate of chemical degradation. Based on the equation of the straight line obtained as a function of the reaction order (at 50 and 70 degrees C) and using Arrhenius equation, the speed of the reaction was calculated for the temperature of 20 degrees C (normal storage conditions). This model of accelerated stability test makes it possible to predict the chemical stability of any active substance at any given moment, as long as the method to quantify the chemical substance is available. As an example of the applicability of Arrhenius equation in accelerated stability tests, a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was analyzed due to its chemical instability. Iodometric titration was used to quantify free residual chlorine in the solutions. Based on data obtained keeping this solution at 50 and 70 degrees C, using Arrhenius equation and considering 2.0% of free residual chlorine as the minimum acceptable threshold, the shelf-life was equal to 166 days at 20 degrees C. This model, however, makes it possible to calculate shelf-life at any other given temperature.

  2. Effects of Chlorhexidine and Sodium Hypochlorite on the Setting Time of Calcium-Enriched Mixture Cement

    PubMed Central

    Frough Reyhani, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Negin; Shakouie, Sahar; Rahimi, Saeed; Salem Milani, Amin; Ranjbar, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether adding 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 2.6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) to calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement would affect its setting time (ST), or not. Methods and Materials: In this study, the setting time of CEM cement was evaluated in three groups (n=9) as follows: group 1; CEM cement, group 2; CEM cement+2% CHX and group 3; CEM cement+2.6% NaOCl. Then the mean values of ST were calculated and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate the normal distribution of data. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: The mean ST for groups 1, 2 and 3 were 105, 120 and 220 min, respectively. There was a significant increase in the duration of ST in group 3 (NaOCl) in comparison with the two other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: NaOCl significantly increased the ST of CEM cement, whereas chlorhexidine did not alter the ST. PMID:26213537

  3. The effect of dentin on the pulp tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite and calcium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Slutzky-Goldberg, Iris; Hanut, Aiham; Matalon, Shlomo; Baev, Valery; Slutzky, Hagay

    2013-08-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) have tissue dissolution capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effect of dentin on their tissue dissolution capacity in a novel dentin model. Dentin models were prepared from 25 freshly extracted human molar teeth; the crowns were separated from the roots, and a rectangular inner shape was prepared. Pulp tissue samples adjusted to similar weights of 6.5 ± 0.2 mg were randomly divided into 6 groups: NaOCl groups in test tubes or dentin models for 1 hour, Ca(OH)2 groups in test tubes or dentin models for 1 week, and control groups saline in test tubes or dentin models for 1 week. The final weights after the experimental period were checked and compared with the initial weights. The differences were statistically analyzed. The tissue dissolution capacity of Ca(OH)2 was affected by the presence of dentin. Similarly, NaOCl lost its effect on the pulp tissue after incubation in dentin. Comparison between all test groups showed highly significant differences (P < .001). Dentin has a detrimental effect on the ability of NaOCl and Ca(OH)2 to dissolve pulp tissue. The dentin model appears to be an efficient tool for the study of interactions between local endodontic medicaments, dentin, and pulp tissue. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduction of microbial pathogens during apple cider production using sodium hypochlorite, copper ion, and sonication.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Stephanie L; Ryser, Elliot T

    2004-04-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (100 ppm), copper ion water (1 ppm), and sonication (22 to 44 kHz and 44 to 48 kHz) were assessed individually and in combination for their ability to reduce populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes on apples and in apple cider. Commercial unpasteurized cider was inoculated to contain approximately 10(6) CFU/ml of either pathogen and then sonicated at 44 to 48 kHz, with aliquots removed at intervals of 30 to 60 s for up to 5 min and plated to determine numbers of survivors. Subsequently, whole apples were inoculated by dipping to contain approximately 10(6) CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes, held overnight, and then submerged in 1 ppm copper ion water with or without 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite for 3 min with or without sonication at 22 to 44 kHz and examined for survivors. Treated apples were also juiced, with the resulting cider sonicated for 3 min. Populations of both pathogens decreased 1 to 2 log CFU/ml in inoculated cider following 3 min of sonication. Copper ion water alone did not significantly reduce populations of either pathogen on inoculated apples. However, when used in combination with sodium hypochlorite, pathogen levels decreased approximately 2.3 log CFU/g on apples. Sonication of this copper ion-sodium hypochlorite solution at 22 to 44 kHz did not further improve pathogen reduction on apples. Numbers of either pathogen in the juice fraction were approximately 1.2 log CFU/ml lower after being juiced, with sonication (44 to 48 kHz) of the expressed juice decreasing L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 populations an additional 2 log. Hence, a 5-log reduction was achievable for both pathogens with the use of copper ion water in combination with sodium hypochlorite followed by juicing and sonication at 44 to 48 kHz.

  5. Injection of sodium hypochlorite beyond the apical foramen--a case report.

    PubMed

    Paschoalino, Marcelo de Almeida; Hanan, Ainda Assayag; Marques, Andre Augusto Franco; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Garrido, Angela Bittencourt; Sponchiado, Emilio Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report a clinical case of extravasation of 1% sodium hypochlorite into the periapical tissues during endodontic treatment. During apical debridement, absence of reflux of the irrigating solution was observed, followed by root canal hemorrhage. The patient immediately complained of intense pain, and a profuse edema and hyperemia was observed on the left side of her face compatible with extravasation of hypochlorite to the periapex. The patient was treated with ibuprofen 600 mg three times per day for three days, a single dose of dexamethasone 4 mg, amoxicillin 500 mg three times per day for seven days, and a cold compress for two days. Regression of the condition began on the fourth day, and normal tissue aspect and absence of sequelae were observed on the 14th day.

  6. Omics approaches on fresh-cut lettuce reveal global molecular responses to sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Daddiego, Loretta; Bianco, Linda; Capodicasa, Cristina; Carbone, Fabrizio; Dalmastri, Claudia; Daroda, Lorenza; Del Fiore, Antonella; De Rossi, Patrizia; Di Carli, Mariasole; Donini, Marcello; Lopez, Loredana; Mengoni, Alessio; Paganin, Patrizia; Perrotta, Gaetano; Bevivino, Annamaria

    2017-07-04

    Lettuce is a leafy vegetable that is extensively commercialized as a ready-to-eat product because of its widespread use in human nutrition as salad. It is well known that washing treatments can severely affect the quality and shelf-life of ready-to-eat vegetables. The study presented here evaluated the effect of two washing procedures on fresh-cut lettuce during storage. An omics approach was applied to reveal global changes at molecular level induced by peracetic acid washing in comparison with sodium hypochlorite treatment. Microbiological analyses were also performed to quantify total bacterial abundance and composition. The study revealed wide metabolic alterations induced by the two sanitizers. In particular, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses pointed out a number of transcripts and proteins differentially accumulated in response to peracetic acid washing, mainly occurring on the first day of storage. In parallel, different microbiota composition and significant reduction in total bacterial load following washing were also observed. The results provide useful information for the fresh-cut industry to select an appropriate washing procedure preserving fresh-like attributes as much as possible during storage of the end product. Molecular evidence indicated peracetic acid to be a valid alternative to sodium hypochlorite as sanitizer solution. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Comparison of the effectiveness of acidified sodium chlorite and sodium hypochlorite in reducing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Elano, Rachel Ramos; Kitagawa, Tomoko; Bari, Md Latiful; Kawasaki, Susumu; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Inatsu, Yasuhiro

    2010-12-01

    This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) in reducing several Escherichia coli strains isolated from different retail meat and fresh produce. Forty nonpathogenic E. coli strains were isolated and used in this study. A type strain of E. coli (JCM 1649) and four O157:H7 serotypes of E. coli (CR-3, MN-28, MY-29, and DT-66) were used as reference. In vitro assay results revealed that the viable cell counts of each isolated E. coli strain and control strains exhibited a reduction of ∼ 4.3 ± 0.9 log and 7.8 ± 1.7 log CFU/mL after a 3-minute exposure to 100 mg/L NaClO and 20 mg/L ASC (pH 4.6), respectively, at 25°C, when compared with the viable bacterial counts obtained from phosphate-buffered saline. The one exception was the flocs-forming strain, which showed a reduction of only 1.0 log CFU/mL with both disinfectants. However, reductions of only 1.7 ± 0.3 log and 1.9 ± 0.4 log CFU/g were observed in lettuce after 5 minutes of washing with NaClO and ASC, respectively. On the other hand, reductions of 1.6 ± 0.2 log and 1.6 ± 0.4 log CFU/g were observed in spinach after 5 minutes of washing with NaClO and ASC, respectively. No reduction in the population was observed after washing the inoculated, fresh-cut vegetables with distilled water only. No significant difference in the reduction of E. coli was observed among all the tested strains with both sanitizers in the in vivo assay. These data suggest that the tested sanitizers exhibit a similar reduction of the surface-attached E. coli on leafy vegetables irrespective of the strain source.

  8. Free Active Chlorine in Sodium Hypochlorite Solutions Admixed with Octenidine, SmearOFF, Chlorhexidine, and EDTA.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Unni; Saji, Sreeja; Clarkson, Roger; Lalloo, Ratilal; Moule, Alex J

    2017-08-01

    The therapeutic effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions are dependent on the levels of free available chlorine (FAC). Mixing these solutions with irrigants can result in significant reductions in FAC. Although the effect of some irrigants on FAC is known, the effect of other commonly used irrigants is not. Thus, the therapeutic ramifications of the concurrent use of these on the efficiency of NaOCl solutions is not known. Aliquots of 5.2% (w/v) NaOCl solutions were admixed in proportions of 90:10, 80:20, and 50:50 with the following irrigants: octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT); SmearOFF (Vista Dental Products, Racine, WI), 17% EDTA; and 0.2%, 2%, and 5% chlorhexidine (CHX) solutions. Changes in FAC were measured by iodometric titration. Statistical differences between means were determined using a post hoc Tukey analysis test after an analysis of variance. OCT appeared not to affect FAC and was significantly different than all other irrigants, except for 90:10 and 80:20 mixtures of low concentration (0.2%) CHX. CHX solutions showed a marked concentration- and mixture proportion-dependent detrimental effect on FAC. The reduction of FAC between different concentrations of CHX was statistically significant in 80:20 and 50:50 proportions, with 50:50 mixtures of 5% CHX having the greatest influence. Mixtures containing even small proportions of SmearOFF or EDTA exhibited significant losses in FAC. OCT has little effect on FAC and can be used concurrently with NaOCl solutions. Higher concentrations of CHX significantly affect FAC. Their combined use with NaOCl solutions should be avoided. EDTA and SmearOFF should not be mixed with NaOCl solutions. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid analysis of perchlorate, chlorate and bromate ions in concentrated sodium hypochlorite solutions.

    PubMed

    Pisarenko, Aleksey N; Stanford, Benjamin D; Quiñones, Oscar; Pacey, Gilbert E; Gordon, Gilbert; Snyder, Shane A

    2010-02-05

    A sensitive, rapid, and rugged liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for measuring concentrations of perchlorate, chlorate, and bromate ions in concentrated sodium hypochlorite solutions is presented. The LC-MS/MS method offers a practical quantitation limit (PQL) of 0.05 microg L(-1) for ClO(4)(-), 0.2 microg L(-1) for BrO(3)(-), and 0.7 microg L(-1) for ClO(3)(-) and a sample analysis time of only 10 min. Additionally, an iodometric titration technique was compared with the LC-MS/MS method for measurement of chlorate ion at high concentration. The LC-MS/MS method was the most reproducible for chlorate concentrations below 0.025 M while the iodometric titration method employed was the most reproducible above 0.025 M. By using both methods, concentrations of chlorate can be measured over a wide range, from 0.7 microg L(-1) to 210 g L(-1) in hypochlorite ion solutions. Seven quenching agents were also evaluated for their ability to neutralize hypochlorite ion, thereby stopping formation of perchlorate ion in solution, without adversely impacting the other oxyhalide ions. Malonic acid was chosen as the quenching agent of choice, meeting all evaluation criteria outlined in this manuscript.

  10. Ultrasound promoted reaction of Rhodamine B with sodium hypochlorite using sonochemical and dental ultrasonic instruments.

    PubMed

    Tiong, T Joyce; Price, Gareth J

    2012-03-01

    The sonochemical acceleration of bleaching of Rhodamine B by sodium hypochlorite has been studied using ultrasound intensities in the range 0-7 W cm(-2). Using a 20 kHz ultrasonic horn, it was shown that ultrasound could significantly shorten the treatment time and/or the concentration of hypochlorite required for the reaction. A number of intermediate species formed during the reaction have been identified. It was demonstrated that the same sonochemical reactions occur during the use of dental ultrasound instruments of the type used in endodontics where hypochlorite solutions act as disinfectants. Results showed pseudo-first order degradation kinetics for the degradation of Rhodamine B for both types of source. Both the distribution of cavitation and the resulting bleaching reactions were dependent on the design of the tips. The bleaching reaction can therefore be used to characterise the behaviour of dental instruments and aid in the optimisation of their performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical trial for evaluation of Ricinus communis and sodium hypochlorite as denture cleanser.

    PubMed

    Badaró, Maurício Malheiros; Salles, Marcela Moreira; Leite, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; Arruda, Carolina Noronha Ferraz de; Oliveira, Viviane de Cássia; Nascimento, Cássio do; Souza, Raphael Freitas de; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas de Oliveira; Silva-Lovato, Cláudia Helena

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated Ricinus communis and sodium hypochlorite solutions in terms of biofilm removal ability, remission of candidiasis, antimicrobial activity, and participant satisfaction. It was conducted a controlled clinical trial, randomized, double-blind, and crossover. Sixty-four denture wearers with (n=24) and without candidiasis (n=40) were instructed to brush (3 times/day) and immerse their dentures (20 min/day) in different storage solutions (S1 / S2: 0.25% / 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; S3: 10% R. communis; S4: Saline).The trial period for each solution was seven days and a washout period of seven days was used before starting the use of another solution. The variables were analyzed at baseline and after each trial period. The biofilm of inner surfaces of maxillary dentures was disclosed, photographed, and total and dyed areas were measured (Image Tool software). The percentage of biofilm was calculated. Remission of candidiasis was assessed by visual scale and score were attributed. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the DNA-Checkerboard hybridization method. Patient satisfaction was measured using a questionnaire. S1 (4.41±7.98%) and S2 (2.93±5.23%) were more effective then S3 (6.95±10.93%) in biofilm remotion(P<0.0001). All solutions were different from the control (11.07±11.99%). S3 was the most effective solution in remission of candidiasis (50%), followed by S1 (46%). Concerning antimicrobial action, S1/S2 were similar and resulted in the lowest microorganism mean count (P=0.04), followed by S3. No significant differences were found with patient's satisfaction. 10% R. communis and 0.25% sodium hypochlorite were effective in biofilm removal, causing remission of candidiasis and reducing the formation of microbial colonies in denture surfaces. All solutions were approved by patients.

  12. Comparative evaluation of sodium hypochlorite and microwave disinfection on dimensional stability of denture bases.

    PubMed

    Nirale, Rutuja Madhukarrao; Thombre, Ram; Kubasad, Girish

    2012-02-01

    To compare the effect of sodium hypochlorite and microwave disinfection on the dimensional stability of denture bases without and with relining. A brass die was prepared by simulating an edentulous maxillary arch. It was used to fabricate 1.5 mm and 3 mm of thickness denture bases (n = 40). The 1.5 mm of thickness-specimens (n = 20) were relined with 1.5 mm of autopolymerizing relining resin. Five holes were prepared over crest of ridge of brass die with intimately fitting stainless steel pins which were transferred to the intaglio surface of specimens during fabrication of denture bases. For calculation of dimensional changes in denture bases, differences between the baseline area before and after disinfection of the specimens were used. The denture bases without and with relining were divided into 2 groups (each n = 20). Data were analyzed using student paired 't' and unpaired 't' test. Microwave disinfection produces significant shrinkage in both denture bases without relining (t = 17.16; P<.001) and with relining (t = 14.9; P<.001). Denture bases without relining showed more shrinkage when compared with relined denture bases after microwave disinfection (t = 6.09; P<.001). The changes in dimensional stability after sodium hypochlorite disinfection were not significant for both denture bases without relining (t = 2.19; P=.056) and denture bases with relining (t = 2.17; P=.058). Microwave disinfection leads to increased shrinkage of denture bases without and with relining. Chemical disinfection with sodium hypochlorite seems to be a safer method of disinfection with regards to physical properties such as changes in dimensional stability.

  13. Comparative evaluation of sodium hypochlorite and microwave disinfection on dimensional stability of denture bases

    PubMed Central

    Thombre, Ram; Kubasad, Girish

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare the effect of sodium hypochlorite and microwave disinfection on the dimensional stability of denture bases without and with relining. MATERIALS AND METHODS A brass die was prepared by simulating an edentulous maxillary arch. It was used to fabricate 1.5 mm and 3 mm of thickness denture bases (n = 40). The 1.5 mm of thickness-specimens (n = 20) were relined with 1.5 mm of autopolymerizing relining resin. Five holes were prepared over crest of ridge of brass die with intimately fitting stainless steel pins which were transferred to the intaglio surface of specimens during fabrication of denture bases. For calculation of dimensional changes in denture bases, differences between the baseline area before and after disinfection of the specimens were used. The denture bases without and with relining were divided into 2 groups (each n = 20). Data were analyzed using student paired 't' and unpaired 't' test. RESULTS Microwave disinfection produces significant shrinkage in both denture bases without relining (t = 17.16; P<.001) and with relining (t = 14.9; P<.001). Denture bases without relining showed more shrinkage when compared with relined denture bases after microwave disinfection (t = 6.09; P<.001). The changes in dimensional stability after sodium hypochlorite disinfection were not significant for both denture bases without relining (t = 2.19; P=.056) and denture bases with relining (t = 2.17; P=.058). CONCLUSION Microwave disinfection leads to increased shrinkage of denture bases without and with relining. Chemical disinfection with sodium hypochlorite seems to be a safer method of disinfection with regards to physical properties such as changes in dimensional stability. PMID:22439097

  14. A Comparative Study Between Microwave Irradiation and Sodium Hypochlorite Chemical Disinfection: A Prosthodontic View

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Kashish; Gupta, Rupesh; Solanki, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prosthodontic procedures involving dental impressions, stone casts, record bases and prostheses may cause transmission of microorganisms between the patient, the dentist, auxiliary staff and laboratory personnel. In recent times, microwave radiation has gained wider acceptance in the field of applied science and has been used to reduce concentrations of bacteria and fungi, to dry dental casts,and to sterilize preparation media. Objective: This in-vitro study was conducted to compare microwave irradiation and 0.07% sodium hypochlorite chemical disinfection. The study also evaluated the effect of microwave irradiation and 0.07% sodium hypochlorite chemical disinfection on the dimensional stability of Kalstone casts. Materials and Methods: Forty impressions were made and divided into two groups of 20 each. Each group was contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. Each impression was divided into three parts and marked A, B, C. Impressions were then poured in kalastone. Part A of 20 kalastone casts were microwave disinfected, and Part B were chemically disinfected (0.07% NaOCl) while Part C were not disinfected and used as control. Results: On comparing the significant difference was seen in the microbial load between microwave and chemical disinfection (Z=56.480; p<0.001). Conclusion: On the basis of observations made for the antimicrobial assessment the microwave irradiated Kala stone casts proved to be a better disinfection method when compared with 0.07% sodium hypochlorite chemically disinfected incorporated cast. No significant difference was seen in the dimensional stability of Kala stone discs. PMID:24959515

  15. Effects of ozone and sodium hypochlorite on caries-like lesions in dentin.

    PubMed

    Zaura, E; Buijs, M J; ten Cate, J M

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that ozone promotes remineralization of dentinal lesions was tested in vitro. Artificial caries-like lesions in dentin were treated with ozone gas, with another potent oxidizer (sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl, 10%) or with water. The specimens were then remineralized and subsequently demineralized again. Mineral content was assessed by transverse microradiography. NaOCl-treated samples showed damaged surface and, after being remineralized, demineralized significantly more than water- or ozone-treated groups. No difference was found between ozone and water groups. The exposure to ozone had thus no effect on remineralization and subsequent demineralization of remineralized dentinal lesions.

  16. Effects of sodium hypochlorite and ozone on healing of intestinal anastomosis in simulated strangulation colorectal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lelyanov, A D; Sergienko, V I; Ivliev, N V; Emel'yanov, V V; Guseva, E D

    2004-01-01

    Strangulation colorectal obstruction was modeled in 60 Wistar rats. Necrotic segment of the intestine was resected under conditions of peritonitis and end-to-end intestinal anastomosis was performed on a PCV catheter conducted through the anus. Sodium hypochlorite and ozone solution were used for sanitation of the abdominal cavity and intestinal lavage, and the intestinal anastomosis was coated with Ozonide (ozonized oil). The use of physicochemical methods notably reduced the incidence of postoperative pyoinflammatory complications, incompetence of intestinal anastomosis sutures, and animal mortality.

  17. Biocidal Efficacy of Dissolved Ozone, Formaldehyde and Sodium Hypochlorite Against Total Planktonic Microorganisms in Produced Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puyate, Y. T.; Rim-Rukeh, A.

    The performance of three biocides (dissolved ozone, formaldehyde and sodium hypochlorite) in eliminating the bacteria and fungi in produced water is investigated experimentally. The analysis involves monitoring the microbial population in nine conical flasks each containing the same volume of a mixture of produced water, culture medium that sustains the growth of microorganisms and a known concentration of biocide. The concentrations of each biocide used in the study are 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 ppm. It is shown that dissolved ozone exhibits the best biocidal characteristics and a concentration of 0.5 ppm eliminated all the microorganisms in the produced water after 150 min contact time.

  18. Cyclic fatigue resistance of three different nickel-titanium instruments after immersion in sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Pedullà, Eugenio; Grande, Nicola M; Plotino, Gianluca; Pappalardo, Alfio; Rapisarda, Ernesto

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the resistance to cyclic fatigue of three nickel-titanium (NiTi) files after the immersion in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution in conditions similar to those used in clinical practice. A total of 150 new Twisted Files (SybronEndo, Orange, CA), Revo S SU files (Micro Mega, Besancon, France), and Mtwo files (Sweden and Martina, Padova, Italy), size 25.06, were tested. Fifty files of the same brand were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 10) and submitted to the following immersion protocol in 5% NaOCl at 37°C for 16 mm: no immersion (control), 5 minutes statically, 1 minute statically, 5 minutes dynamically (300 rpm/min), and 1 minute dynamically. Resistance to cyclic fatigue was determined by counting the numbers of cycles to failure in a 60° curve with a 5-mm radius. Data were analyzed by two-way analyses of variance. Resistance to cyclic fatigue of the same NiTi file was not significantly affected by immersion in NaOCl (P > .05). The Twisted File showed a higher resistance in all groups than Revo S SU (P < .001). The comparison between the same groups of Twisted Files and Mtwo files or between Mtwo and Revo S files did not show significant differences (P > .05) except for two cases: group 2 of the Twisted Files and Mtwo files and group 5 of the Mtwo and Revo S SU files (P < .05). Static or dynamic immersion in NaOCl for 1 minute or 5 minutes did not reduce the cyclic fatigue resistance of NiTi significantly. However, the type of instrument influences cyclic fatigue resistance. In our study, Twisted Files were more resistant followed by Mtwo and Revo S SU files. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Etidronate causes minimal changes in the ability of sodium hypochlorite to dissolve organic matter.

    PubMed

    Tartari, T; Guimarães, B M; Amoras, L S; Duarte, M A H; Silva e Souza, P A R; Bramante, C M

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of individual and combined use of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), etidronate (HEDP) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in tissue dissolution. Sixty fragments of bovine muscle tissue were prepared and their weights determined on a precision scale. The samples were then distributed in the following groups (n = 10): G1 - saline solution (control); G2 - 17% EDTA; G3 - 18% HEDP; G4 - 2.5% NaOCl; G5 - mixture of 5% NaOCl + 17% EDTA; and G6 - mixture of 5% NaOCl + 18% HEDP. The specimens in each group were immersed in the solutions for 5, 10 and 15 min and reweighted at each time period. Analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey's multiple-comparison tests (α<0.05) were applied to identify the intragroup and intergroup differences. G1, G2, G3 and G5 did not dissolve the organic matter. G4 and G6 significantly reduced the weights of specimens at all periods. Amongst the groups, the difference in ability to dissolve organic matter was greater and significant in the following order G4 = G6 > G5 = G3 = G2 = G1 after 5 min of immersion and G4 > G6 > G5 = G3 = G2 = G1 after 10 and 15 min of immersion. The only solution capable of dissolving organic matter was NaOCl. In the mixtures analysed, this ability was arrested by EDTA; however, it was minimally affected by the HEDP, proving that this combination, if used during the biomechanical preparation, is able to dissolve of organic matter. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Sodium hypochlorite accident resulting in life-threatening airway obstruction during root canal treatment: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sebaei, Maisa O; Halabi, Omar A; El-Hakim, Ibrahim E

    2015-01-01

    Aim This case report describes a serious and life-threatening complication of the use of sodium hypochlorite as an irrigation solution in root canal therapy. Summary This case report describes a hypochlorite accident that occurred in a healthy 42-year-old female who was undergoing routine root canal therapy for the lower right central incisor (tooth #41). After approximately 1 hour of irrigation with 3% sodium hypochlorite (for a total of 12 cc), the patient complained of severe pain and burning in the lip. The swelling progressed over the next 8 hours to involve the sublingual and submental fascial spaces with elevation of the tongue and resultant upper airway obstruction. The patient was intubated and remained on mechanical ventilation for 3 days. She recovered without any skin necrosis or nerve deficits. Key learning points This case report highlights the importance of carefully performing root canal irrigation with sodium hypochlorite to avoid complications. Careful injection without pressure, the use of proper rubber dam isolation, and the use of the endodontic needle are necessary to avoid this type of complication. Although it is a safe root canal irrigation solution, its use may lead to life-threatening complications. Early recognition and management of the untoward effects of sodium hypochlorite are vital for the patient’s safety. PMID:25767406

  1. Esophageal perforation and mediastinitis after suicidal ingestion of 4.5% sodium hypochlorite [correction of hydrochlorite] bleach.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Soo; Min, Jin Hong; Kim, Hoon; Lee, Suk Woo

    2011-10-01

    A 16-year-old woman deliberately drank 4.5% sodium hypochlorite bleach. She was transferred to the emergency department after gastric lavage was performed at a local clinic. She experienced chest pain and fever after several vomiting episodes and esophagoscopy. Chest computerized tomography (CT) revealed air bubbles and abnormal soft tissue density at the right lateral aspect of the mid esophagus, a small amount of complicated pleural effusion, and pneumothorax. Barium esophagography revealed abnormal leakage of contrast media at the right wall of the mid esophagus, which indicated acute mediastinitis. The patient received intensive care and underwent delayed esophageal repair and colonic transplant. She was discharged 12 weeks after admission. Sodium hypochlorite is found in household bleaching agents used to disinfect dishes and bleach laundry. Poisoning due to ingestion of sodium hypochlorite bleach usually follows a benign clinical course. Few studies report severe complications such as esophageal stenosis or perforation.

  2. Sodium hypochlorite alterations of dentin and dentin collagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, G. W.; Yücel, N.; Balooch, M.; Kinney, J. H.; Habelitz, S.; Marshall, S. J.

    2001-10-01

    that preventing hybrid layer formation by deproteinization, in some cases, can give good bonding, and as shown here, alters the substrate microstructure. There are significant changes as indicated by ANOVA in the reduced elastic modulus that require further study to determine if these changes might affect clinical efficacy.

  3. A clinical trial to assess the use of sodium hypochlorite and oxytetracycline on the healing of digital dermatitis lesions in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The increased frequency of diseases, especially those of the hoof, cause economic losses, such as premature culling of affected animals, decreased milk production, weight loss, reduced fertility, and the high costs of treatment. A great variety of hoof conditions may affect cattle, one of them is digital dermatitis. These conditions are probably due to multiple factorial diseases and present with similar clinical signs. Bovine lameness is typically treated by foot trimming and debridment of the lesions, coupled when necessary with systemic antibiotics and therapeutic footbaths, which results in a clinical cure in the majority of the cases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the topical action of sodium hypochlorite associated with the systemic use of oxytetracycline for the treatment of wounds clinically diagnosed as bovine digital dermatitis. One hundred and twenty Holstein cattle varying ages from 1 to 9 y and presenting the clinical signs of digital dermatitis, were used in this study. Group 1 (G1) received topical treatment with a 1% sodium hypochlorite footbath twice a day for 30 d and 4 treatments of parenteral oxytetracycline (10 mg/kg bodyweight, IM, q48h). Group 2 (G2) received only the topical treatment with 1% sodium hypochlorite, as described for G1. Group 3 (G3) received only with parenteral oxytetracycline, as described for G1. Group 4 (G4) was treated exclusively with a dicloro divynil pirrolidona, ortoiododimetil, para-nitofenil-fosforotioato in a vegetal tar-based ointment, immediately after the surgery. After 45 d, the recovery rates were as follows: G1, 86.67%; G2, 73.33%; G3, 56.67%; and G4, 50%. The surgical treatment of digital dermatitis with subsequent treatment with oxytetracycline systemically and 1% sodium hypochlorite topically was the most effective for the convalescence of cattle bearing wounds similar to digital dermatitis. PMID:15943122

  4. Penetration of Sodium Hypochlorite Modified with Surfactants into Root Canal Dentin.

    PubMed

    Palazzi, Flavio; Blasi, Andrea; Mohammadi, Zahed; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Estrela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of concentration, exposure time and temperature of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) added with surfactants on its penetration into dentinal tubules. Sixty-five extracted human permanent maxillary anterior teeth with single canals were prepared by ProTaper SX hand-operated instruments. The teeth were then sectioned perpendicular to the long axis. The crowns and apical thirds of all the teeth were removed. The remaining roots were processed into 4-mm-long blocks and stained overnight in crystal violet. One hundred and thirty stained blocks were further split into halves and treated by nine different types of NaOCl-based solutions. Three solutions were added with surfactants (Hypoclean, H6, Chlor-Xtra) and the others were regular hypochlorites at increasing concentrations (1%, 2%, 4%, 5.25%, <6%, 6% NaOCl) from different brands. The dentin blocks were exposed to the solutions for 2, 5, and 20 min at 20 °C, 37 °C and 45 °C, respectively. The depth of NaOCl penetration was determined by bleaching of the stain and measured by light microscopy at 20x and 40x. Statistical comparisons were made by using a generalized linear model with Bonferroni's post-hoc correction. The shortest penetration (81±6.6 μm) was obtained after incubation in 1% NaOCl for 2 min at 20 °C; the highest penetration (376.3±3.8 μm) was obtained with Chlor-Xtra for 20 min at 45 °C. Varying NaOCl concentration produced a minimal effect while temperature and exposure time had a significant direct relationship with NaOCl penetration into dentinal tubules, especially those with lowered surface tension. The exposure time and temperature of sodium hypochlorite as well as the addition of surfactants may influence the penetration depth of irrigants into dentinal tubules.

  5. In vitro algaecide effect of sodium hypochlorite and iodine based antiseptics on Prototheca zopfii strains isolated from bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Tatiana; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Langoni, Hélio; Siqueira, Amanda Keller; Costa, Elizabeth Oliveira da; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Bueno, Válter Ferreira Félix; Yamamura, Aline Artioli Machado; Roesler, Uwe; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira

    2010-04-01

    Prototheca zopfii has been considered one of the most important causes of environmental mastitis in Brazil. These algae are refractory to conventional therapy and cause great damage to the mammary gland. The present study evaluated the in vitro algaecide effect of sodium hypochlorite and iodine based antiseptics on 27 P. zopfii strains isolated from the milk of cattle. Low concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (0.0390625-0.15625%) and iodine (0.15625-0.625%) were effective against the isolates. These antiseptics may be recommended for hygiene routines, pre and postdipping and cauterization of bovine mammary glands infected by P. zopfii.

  6. Alkaline Peroxides Versus Sodium Hypochlorite for Removing Denture Biofilm: a Crossover Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Peracini, Amanda; Regis, Rômulo Rocha; Souza, Raphael Freitas de; Pagnano, Valéria Oliveira; Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato da; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of cleanser solutions on denture biofilm removal by a crossover randomized clinical trial. Thirty two edentulous patients were instructed to brush their dentures (specific brush and liquid soap) three times a day (after breakfast, lunch and dinner) and to soak them (≥ 8 h) in: (C) control -water; (AP): alkaline peroxide; or (SH) 0.5% sodium hypochlorite. Each solution was used for 21 days (three cycles of 7 days). At the end of each cycle, the inner surfaces of maxillary dentures were disclosed (1% neutral red) and photographed (HX1 - Sony). Areas (total and stained biofilm) were measured (Image Tool software) and the percentage of biofilm calculated as the ratio between the area of the biofilm multiplied by 100 and total surface area of the internal base of the denture. Data were compared by means of generalized estimating equation (α=5%) and multiple comparisons (Bonferroni; α=1.67%). Immersion in SH reduced biofilm (%) (8.3 ± 13.3B) compared to C (18.2 ± 14.9A) and AP (18.2 ± 16.6A). The 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was the most efficacious for biofilm removal. Alkaline peroxides may not lead to further biofilm removal in patients with adequate denture maintenance habits.

  7. Compatibility of electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solutions on long- term implanted dialysis catheters.

    PubMed

    Mishkin, G J

    2007-01-01

    More than 20% of the world's population use a catheter for dialysis, despite guidelines limiting their use. Although the structure and design of the catheters differ by manufacturer, the material used in central venous catheters and peritoneal dialysis catheters are the same across manufacturers. Given the long-term use of these catheters in the dialysis population, the good compatibility of the antiseptics and disinfectants used on the catheters is imperative to prevent failure and cracking of the catheter material. Tensile strengths of commercially available catheters were measured after exposure to commonly used disinfectants. The tensile strength was then compared between the catheters by analyzing the displacement vs. force (N) curves produced during the evaluation. A total of 44 catheter lumens were evaluated. The electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solution, Alcavis 50/ExSept Plus, was the only solution shown to be compatible with all three catheter materials resulting in a deviation of less than 10% for each of the different catheter types. Electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solutions were the only solutions in this study that did not alter the physical properties of any of the catheters after long-term exposure.

  8. Effect of sodium hypochlorite contamination on microhardness of dental core build-up materials.

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, Florian Just; Betschart, Jasmin; Attin, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) contamination on the microhardness of build-up composites. Fifty-two samples, from each of three build-up materials (LuxaCore Dual, MultiCore flow and Rebilda DC) were prepared. Half of the samples from each material were stored in physiologic saline (baseline control) while the other halves were stored in NaOCl. After 1 h, the samples were rinsed with tap water, cut axially and measured for Knoop hardness at different depth levels. The results were analysed by ANOVA and unpaired t-tests (p<0.05). Significant differences in microhardness were observed for LuxaCore Dual up to 0.2 mm, Rebilda DC up to 0.3 mm, and for MultiCore flow up to 0.4 mm under the surface level. Contact with sodium hypochlorite on build-up materials causes reduction of the microhardness. The softening is not only limited on the surface, but can also be found in deeper layers of build-up materials.

  9. The influence of sodium hypochlorite biocide on the corrosion of carbon steel in reclaimed water used as circulating cooling water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Weina; Tian, Yimei; Peng, Sen

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we investigated the influence of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) biocide on the corrosion of carbon steel in four different conditions during one dosing cycle. The results from the polarisation curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicated that NaClO could affect the activity of microorganisms, leading to corrosion inhibition. The equivalent circuits had two time constants in the presence of biocide, which suggested that an oxide layer of NaClO was formed on the carbon steel surface. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were both employed to demonstrate that NaClO produced a good antibacterial activity, thereby indirectly retarding corrosion while simultaneously inhibiting scaling.

  10. Comparative evaluation of human pulp tissue dissolution by different concentrations of chlorine dioxide, calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Sonali; Mishra, Neha; Malik, Shubhra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Irrigation plays an indispensable role in removal of tissue remnants and debris from the complicated root canal system. This study compared the human pulp tissue dissolution by different concentrations of chlorine dioxide, calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite. Materials and Methods: Pulp tissue was standardized to a weight of 9 mg for each sample. In all,60 samples obtained were divided into 6 groups according to the irrigating solution used- 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 5.25% NaOCl, 5% calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2), 10% Ca(OCl)2, 5%chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and 13% ClO2. Pulp tissue was placed in each test tube carrying irrigants of measured volume (5ml) according to their specified subgroup time interval: 30 minutes (Subgroup A) and 60 minutes (Subgroup B). The solution from each sample test tube was filtered and was left for drying overnight. The residual weight was calculated by filtration method. Results: Mean tissue dissolution increases with increase in time period. Results showed 5.25% NaOCl to be most effective at both time intervals followed by 2.5% NaOCl at 60 minutes, 10%Ca(OCl)2 and 13% ClO2 at 60 minutes. Least amount of tissue dissolving ability was demonstrated by 5% Ca(OCl)2 and 5% ClO2 at 30 minutes. Distilled water showed no pulp tissue dissolution. Conclusion: Withinthe limitations of the study, NaOCl most efficiently dissolved the pulp tissue at both concentrations and at both time intervals. Mean tissue dissolution by Ca(OCl)2 and ClO2 gradually increased with time and with their increase in concentration. PMID:25506141

  11. Comparative evaluation of human pulp tissue dissolution by different concentrations of chlorine dioxide, calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Sonali; Mishra, Neha; Malik, Shubhra

    2014-11-01

    Irrigation plays an indispensable role in removal of tissue remnants and debris from the complicated root canal system. This study compared the human pulp tissue dissolution by different concentrations of chlorine dioxide, calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite. Pulp tissue was standardized to a weight of 9 mg for each sample. In all,60 samples obtained were divided into 6 groups according to the irrigating solution used- 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 5.25% NaOCl, 5% calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2), 10% Ca(OCl)2, 5%chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and 13% ClO2. Pulp tissue was placed in each test tube carrying irrigants of measured volume (5ml) according to their specified subgroup time interval: 30 minutes (Subgroup A) and 60 minutes (Subgroup B). The solution from each sample test tube was filtered and was left for drying overnight. The residual weight was calculated by filtration method. Mean tissue dissolution increases with increase in time period. Results showed 5.25% NaOCl to be most effective at both time intervals followed by 2.5% NaOCl at 60 minutes, 10%Ca(OCl)2 and 13% ClO2 at 60 minutes. Least amount of tissue dissolving ability was demonstrated by 5% Ca(OCl)2 and 5% ClO2 at 30 minutes. Distilled water showed no pulp tissue dissolution. Withinthe limitations of the study, NaOCl most efficiently dissolved the pulp tissue at both concentrations and at both time intervals. Mean tissue dissolution by Ca(OCl)2 and ClO2 gradually increased with time and with their increase in concentration.

  12. Antimicrobial effects of electrolytic products of sodium chloride--comparative evaluation with sodium hypochlorite solution and efficacy in handwashing.

    PubMed

    Hitomi, S; Baba, S; Yano, H; Morisawa, Y; Kimura, S

    1998-11-01

    We examined the in vitro bactericidal effects and efficacy on handwashing of water containing electrolytic products of sodium chloride (electrolytic water). The electrolytic water, whose pH and concentration of free residual chlorine were 6.7-6.9 and 20-22 ppm, respectively, showed equal reduction of both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to dilution of commercially available sodium hypochlorite containing 60 ppm of free residual chlorine. This bactericidal effect was calculated to be due to hypochlorous acid, based on the pH and the amount of chlorine in solution. Handwashing with the electrolytic water reduced the numbers of S. aureus on hands by 1/10(2), while running water and 0.2% benzalkonium chloride with 80% ethanol gave a 1/10 and 1/10(5) reduction, respectively. We conclude that electrolytic water might be applicable for handwashing in place of running water.

  13. Comparison of efficacy of sodium hypochlorite with sodium perborate in removal of stains from heat-cured clear acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Mathai, Joseph Robin; Sholapurkar, Amar A; Raghu, Aparna; Shenoy, Revathi P; Mallya, H Madhukar; Pai, Keerthilatha M; D'Souza, Mariette

    2011-01-01

    Acrylic resin bases of removable dentures attract stains and odor-producing organic and inorganic deposits. The use of chemical denture cleanser soaks is the most popular method of denture cleansing. This study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of two different denture cleansers--sodium perborate (Clinsodent) and sodium hypochlorite (VI-Clean)--in removing tea, coffee, turmeric and tobacco (paan) stains from heat-cured clear acrylic resins. Distilled water was used as a control. Both Clinsodent and VI-Clean were found to be the least effective in removing coffee stains and best for removing turmeric stain. It is necessary that the dental professional be aware of these results to ensure that denture wearers know how to select the appropriate denture cleanser.

  14. Antiseptic solutions modulate the paracrine-like activity of bone chips: differential impact of chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Kosaku; Caballé-Serrano, Jordi; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Schaller, Benoit; Miron, Richard J; Buser, Daniel; Gruber, Reinhard

    2015-09-01

    Chemical decontamination increases the availability of bone grafts; however, it remains unclear whether antiseptic processing changes the biological activity of bone. Bone chips were incubated with four different antiseptic solutions including (1) povidone-iodine (0.5%), (2) chlorhexidine diguluconate (0.2%), (3) hydrogen peroxide (1%) and (4) sodium hypochlorite (0.25%). After 10 min. of incubation, changes in the capacity of the bone-conditioned medium (BCM) to modulate gene expression of gingival fibroblasts was investigated. Conditioned medium obtained from freshly prepared bone chips increased the expression of TGF-β target genes interleukin 11 (IL11), proteoglycan4 (PRG4), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and decreased the expression of adrenomedullin (ADM), and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in gingival fibroblasts. Incubation of bone chips with 0.2% chlorhexidine, followed by vigorously washing resulted in a BCM with even higher expression of IL11, PRG4 and NOX4. These findings were also detected with a decrease in cell viability and an activation of apoptosis signalling. Chlorhexidine alone, at low concentrations, increased IL11, PRG4 and NOX4 expression, independent of the TGF-β receptor I kinase activity. In contrast, 0.25% sodium hypochlorite almost entirely abolished the activity of BCM, whereas the other two antiseptic solutions, 1% hydrogen peroxide and 0.5% povidone-iodine, had relatively no impact respectively. These in vitro findings demonstrate that incubation of bone chips with chlorhexidine differentially affects the activity of the respective BCM compared to the other antiseptic solutions. The data further suggest that the main effects are caused by chlorhexidine remaining in the BCM after repeated washing of the bone chips. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Clinical trial for evaluation of Ricinus communis and sodium hypochlorite as denture cleanser

    PubMed Central

    BADARÓ, Maurício Malheiros; SALLES, Marcela Moreira; LEITE, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; de ARRUDA, Carolina Noronha Ferraz; OLIVEIRA, Viviane de Cássia; do NASCIMENTO, Cássio; de SOUZA, Raphael Freitas; PARANHOS, Helena de Freitas de Oliveira; SILVA-LOVATO, Cláudia Helena

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The development of opportunistic infections due to poor denture hygiene conditions justified the search for effective hygiene protocols for controlling denture biofilm. Objective This study evaluated Ricinus communis and sodium hypochlorite solutions in terms of biofilm removal ability, remission of candidiasis, antimicrobial activity, and participant satisfaction. Material and Methods It was conducted a controlled clinical trial, randomized, double-blind, and crossover. Sixty-four denture wearers with (n=24) and without candidiasis (n=40) were instructed to brush (3 times/day) and immerse their dentures (20 min/day) in different storage solutions (S1 / S2: 0.25% / 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; S3: 10% R. communis; S4: Saline).The trial period for each solution was seven days and a washout period of seven days was used before starting the use of another solution. The variables were analyzed at baseline and after each trial period. The biofilm of inner surfaces of maxillary dentures was disclosed, photographed, and total and dyed areas were measured (Image Tool software). The percentage of biofilm was calculated. Remission of candidiasis was assessed by visual scale and score were attributed. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the DNA-Checkerboard hybridization method. Patient satisfaction was measured using a questionnaire. Results S1 (4.41±7.98%) and S2 (2.93±5.23%) were more effective then S3 (6.95±10.93%) in biofilm remotion(P<0.0001). All solutions were different from the control (11.07±11.99%). S3 was the most effective solution in remission of candidiasis (50%), followed by S1 (46%). Concerning antimicrobial action, S1/S2 were similar and resulted in the lowest microorganism mean count (P=0.04), followed by S3. No significant differences were found with patient’s satisfaction. Conclusions 10% R. communis and 0.25% sodium hypochlorite were effective in biofilm removal, causing remission of candidiasis and reducing the formation of microbial

  16. Kinetics and mechanism of the reaction of sodium azide with hypochlorite in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Betterton, Eric A; Lowry, Joe; Ingamells, Robin; Venner, Brad

    2010-10-15

    Production of toxic sodium azide (NaN(3)) surged worldwide over the past two decades to meet the demand for automobile air bag inflator propellant. Industrial activity and the return of millions of inflators to automobile recycling facilities are leading to increasing release of NaN(3) to the environment so there is considerable interest in learning more about its environmental fate. Water soluble NaN(3) could conceivably be found in drinking water supplies so here we describe the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction of azide with hypochlorite, which is often used in water treatment plants. The reaction stoichiometry is: HOCl + 2N(3)(-) = 3N(2) + Cl(-) + OH(-), and proceeds by a key intermediate chlorine azide, ClN(3), which subsequently decomposes by reaction with a second azide molecule in the rate determining step: ClN(3) + N(3)(-) --> 3N(2) + Cl(-) (k = 0.52+/-0.04 M(-1) s(-1), 25 degrees C, mu = 0.1 M). We estimate that the half-life of azide would be approximately 15 s at the point of chlorination in a water treatment plant and approximately 24 days at some point downstream where only residual chlorine remains. Hypochlorite is not recommended for treatment of concentrated azide waste due to formation of the toxic chlorine azide intermediate under acidic conditions and the slow kinetics under basic conditions.

  17. Effects of irradiation and sodium hypochlorite on the micro-organisms attached to a commercial food container.

    PubMed

    Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jang Ho; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Hyun Ju; Jo, Cheorun

    2007-08-01

    Biofilm formation on various surfaces is a well-known phenomenon and it has caused pollution, health, and safety hazards, and a substantial economic loss. The present study was to evaluate the bactericidal effects of sodium hypochlorite and gamma irradiation on Psudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria innocua, and Escherichia coli biofilm formed on polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PET), and polycarbonate (PC), which are widely used as food container materials. The bacterial counts of all the micro-organisms tested in the bacterial suspension were decreased linearly by a gamma irradiation and 3 kGy of irradiation decreased the bacterial counts to below the detection limit (<10(1)cfu/ml). In sodium hypochlorite treated bacterial suspension only a 1 decimal point reduction in bacterial counts was observed until 100 ppm, beyond 100-400 ppm all micro-organisms tested were undetected. The microbial biofilms attached to PP, PE, and PC were very resistant to sodium hypochlorite, showing only 1-3 decimal point reductions even at 400 ppm of the total available chlorine level. In contrast, 3 kGy of gamma irradiation eliminated the micro-organisms attached to PP, PET, and PC with minor exceptions (P. aeruginosa attached to PE and Escherichia coli attached to PC). In conclusion, gamma irradiation was effective for reducing both the bacterial counts in the suspension and biofilms on PP, PET, and PC, while sodium hypochlorite was unable to eliminate the bacterial cells attached to PP, PET, and PC.

  18. The corrosive effects of sodium hypochlorite on nickel-titanium endodontic instruments: assessment by digital scanning microscope.

    PubMed

    Cavalleri, G; Cantatore, G; Costa, A; Grillenzoni, M; Comin Chiaramonti, L; Gerosa, R

    2009-05-01

    Prolonged contact (several hours) of nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic instruments with sodium hypochlorite has a considerable corrosive effect which reduces the instruments' resistance to fractures. The aim of this study was to verify whether short-term contact (several minutes, as is the case in clinical practice) produces the same effects. Using a digital scanning microscope, the blade surfaces of three groups of ProTaper instruments were examined, particularly of the #1 Shaping File. The blade's file (but not their handles) were soaked in sodium hypochlorite heated to 50 degrees C for three different times compatible with times in clinical practice, rather for 2, 5 and 10 minutes; the files were then compared with a control group. The micro-photographs did not reveal any appreciable signs of corrosion on the file blades. It is evident, therefore, that using sodium hypochlorite as an irrigating solution in root canals, where it comes into contact with NiTi rotary endodontic instruments, does not alter the surface structure of the files through corrosion. Thus it is possible to conclude that, considering the length of time used in clinical practice, sodium hypochlorite does not cause any increase of risk of fracture to Ni-Ti rotary instruments.

  19. [Antioxidant defense system state in blood plasma and heart muscle of rats under the influence of histamine and sodium hypochlorite].

    PubMed

    Bishko, O I; Harasym, N P; Sanahurs'kyĭ, D I

    2014-01-01

    There is a wide spectrum of antihistamine drugs in the pharmaceutical market, however all these chemical preparations cause side effects. Therefore, new alternative ways for histamine detoxication are to be found. For this aim in our experiment sodium hypochlorite was used because its solution possesses strong oxidizing properties. The influence of histamine and sodium hypochlorite on the antioxidant defence system state of blood plasma and cardiac muscle in rats has been researched. It was shown, that the investigated factors result in the disruption of the antioxidant system. It was found that histamine injection in concentration of 1 and 8 μg/kg in plasma leads to the increase of superoxide dismutase activity during all the experiment. When studying enzymes, that catalyze hydroperoxides and H2O2 decomposition it was shown that under the influence of histamine in a dose 1 μg/kg, the glutathione peroxidase activity increased on the 1st day of the experiment. However, on the 7th day of the experiment the increase of both glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity was fixed. The deviation in superoxide dismutase function in rats plasma under the action of sodium hypochlorite has been established. The activity of enzymes that decompose H2O2 and hydroperoxides were inhibited. Under the influence of histamine in the heart tissues we have stated the disturbance of superoxide dismutase work and increase ofcatalase activity and decrease of glutathione peroxidase activity. The influence of sodium hypochlorite on the myocardium of intact animals as well as joint influence of sodium hypochlorite and histamine result in the increase of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and lead to the considerable decline of activity of glutathione peroxidase.

  20. Complication of improper management of sodium hypochlorite accident during root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    Faras, Fatemah; Abo-Alhassan, Fawaz; Sadeq, Abdullah; Burezq, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a common irrigation solution used in root canal treatment. It has strong antibacterial and tissue dissolving properties. Nevertheless, it has some serious complications, some of which are life-threatening. A young male presented with severe chemical burn of the right infraorbital area and partial necrosis of the hard palate resulting from extrusion of NaOCl during root canal treatment of the upper right 2(nd) molar tooth. The patient had a facial scar, and mucosal damage healed nearly completely. Several precautions must be taken during NaOCl use to prevent the spread of the solution into surrounding tissues. Early recognition of NaOCl accident and proper immediate management are important to achieve the best possible outcome.

  1. Adsorbable organic halogens generation and reduction during degradation of phenol by UV radiation/sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qing-Fu; Fu, Jie; Shi, Yin-Tao; Xia, Dong-Sheng; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2009-02-01

    The degradation of phenol by UV radiation/sodium hypochlorite (UV/NaClO) was investigated. The degradation processes were analyzed by a UV-visible spectrometer, total organic carbon analyzer, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate that phenol can be photodegraded by UV/NaClO effectively. However, adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) were produced during the degradation process. Analysis of the mechanism of degradation indicates that the decrease in pH value would increase the formation of AOX. Also, dissolved oxygen greatly increased the rate of phenol degradation and reduced the formation of AOX. Therefore, appropriate conditions could increase degradation and inhibit chlorination. Adjusting the pH value and increasing the amount of oxygen were effective methods.

  2. Large scale extraction of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from Ralstonia eutropha H16 using sodium hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Isolation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from bacterial cell matter is a critical step in order to achieve a profitable production of the polymer. Therefore, an extraction method must lead to a high recovery of a pure product at low costs. This study presents a simplified method for large scale poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), poly(3HB), extraction using sodium hypochlorite. Poly(3HB) was extracted from cells of Ralstonia eutropha H16 at almost 96% purity. At different extraction volumes, a maximum recovery rate of 91.32% was obtained. At the largest extraction volume of 50 L, poly(3HB) with an average purity of 93.32% ± 4.62% was extracted with a maximum recovery of 87.03% of the initial poly(3HB) content. This process is easy to handle and requires less efforts than previously described processes. PMID:23164136

  3. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium hypochlorite and octenidine hydrochloride in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tirali, Resmiye E; Bodur, Haluk; Sipahi, Bilge; Sungurtekin, Elif

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and octenidine hydrochloride (OCT) in different concentrations against endodontic pathogens in vitro. Agar diffusion procedure was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the tested materials. Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and the mixture of these were used for this study. In the agar diffusion test, 5.25% NaOCl exhibited better antimicrobial effect than the other concentrations of NaOCl for all strains. All concentrations of OCT were effective against C. albicans and E. faecalis. Some 0.2% CHX was ineffective on all microorganisms. Antibacterial effectiveness of all experimental solutions decreased on the mixture of all strains. Decreasing concentrations of NaOCl resulted in significantly reduced antimicrobial effect. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2010 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  4. Complication of improper management of sodium hypochlorite accident during root canal treatment

    PubMed Central

    Faras, Fatemah; Abo-Alhassan, Fawaz; Sadeq, Abdullah; Burezq, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a common irrigation solution used in root canal treatment. It has strong antibacterial and tissue dissolving properties. Nevertheless, it has some serious complications, some of which are life-threatening. A young male presented with severe chemical burn of the right infraorbital area and partial necrosis of the hard palate resulting from extrusion of NaOCl during root canal treatment of the upper right 2nd molar tooth. The patient had a facial scar, and mucosal damage healed nearly completely. Several precautions must be taken during NaOCl use to prevent the spread of the solution into surrounding tissues. Early recognition of NaOCl accident and proper immediate management are important to achieve the best possible outcome. PMID:27891318

  5. Large scale extraction of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from Ralstonia eutropha H16 using sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Daniel; Madkour, Mohamed H; Al-Ghamdi, Mansour A; Shabbaj, Ibraheem I; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2012-11-19

    Isolation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from bacterial cell matter is a critical step in order to achieve a profitable production of the polymer. Therefore, an extraction method must lead to a high recovery of a pure product at low costs. This study presents a simplified method for large scale poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), poly(3HB), extraction using sodium hypochlorite. Poly(3HB) was extracted from cells of Ralstonia eutropha H16 at almost 96% purity. At different extraction volumes, a maximum recovery rate of 91.32% was obtained. At the largest extraction volume of 50 L, poly(3HB) with an average purity of 93.32% ± 4.62% was extracted with a maximum recovery of 87.03% of the initial poly(3HB) content. This process is easy to handle and requires less efforts than previously described processes.

  6. Impact of Ultrasonic Activation on the Effectiveness of Sodium Hypochlorite: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Giardino, Luciano; Palazzi, Flavio; Asgary, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Using ultrasonic devices in endodontics can enhance the antibacterial and tissue dissolving ability of different root canal irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) which is the most common irrigant with excellent antibacterial and tissue dissolving abilities. However, due to its high surface tension, its penetration into the irregularities of the root canal system is a challenge. The purpose of this paper was to review the different ultrasonic devices, different types of ultrasonic irrigation, the effect(s) of ultrasonic activation on the antibacterial and biofilm-removal abilities of NaOCl as well as the effect of ultrasonic activation on the smear layer removal ability of NaOCl. PMID:26525646

  7. Biofilm removal by 6% sodium hypochlorite activated by different irrigation techniques.

    PubMed

    Ordinola-Zapata, R; Bramante, C M; Aprecio, R M; Handysides, R; Jaramillo, D E

    2014-07-01

    To compare the removal of biofilm utilizing four irrigation techniques on a bovine root canal model. Fifty dentine specimens (2 × 2 mm) were infected with biofilm. The samples were then adapted to previously created cavities in the bovine model. The root canals were irrigated twice with 2 mL of 6% sodium hypochlorite for 2 min (4 min total). Following initial irrigation, the different treatment modalities were introduced for 60 s (3 × 20 s intervals). The evaluated techniques were needle irrigation, Endoactivator (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK, USA), passive ultrasonic irrigation and laser-activated irrigation (photon-induced photoacoustic streaming). The controls were irrigated with distilled water and conventional needle irrigation. Subsequently, the dentine samples were separated from the model and analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fifteen operative fields were scanned per block, and SEM pictures were captured. Two calibrated evaluators examined the images and collected data using a four-degree scale. Nonparametric tests were used to evaluate for statistical significance amongst the groups. The group undergoing laser-activated irrigation using photon-induced photoacoustic streaming exhibited the most favourable results in the removal of biofilm. Passive ultrasonic irrigation scores were significantly lower than both the Endoactivator and needle irrigation scores. Sonic and needle irrigation were not significantly different. The least favourable results were found in the control group. Laser activation of 6% sodium hypochlorite significantly improved the cleaning of biofilm-infected dentine followed by passive ultrasonic irrigation. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Antibacterial Efficacy of Different Concentrations of Sodium Hypochlorite Gel and Solution on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Zand, Vahid; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Soroush, Mohammad Hosein; Abdollahi, Amir Ardalan; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Mojadadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This in vitro study compared the antibacterial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite gel and 2.5% and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solutions on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilm. Methods and Materials: The root canals of 60 extracted human single-rooted teeth were contaminated with E. faecalis and incubated for 6 weeks. The samples were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and one control group (n=15). The study protocol in the experimental groups consisted of injection of 5 mL of each irrigant into the root canals. Samples were collected from the root canal walls and 1:10 serial dilutions were prepared and added to Muller Hinton Agar (MHA) plates and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. A classic colony counting technique was used for determining vital E. faecalis bacterial counts in MHA plates. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis of the data. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The antibacterial effect of the irrigants in all three experimental groups was significantly greater than the control group (P<0.05), with no significant difference between 2.5% and 5.25% NaOCl solutions (P>0.05). The effect of 2.5% and 5.25% NaOCl solutions were significantly superior to 2.5% NaOCl gel (P<0.05). Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, 2.5% NaOCl gel was effective in reducing E. faecalis counts; however this effect was less than that of NaOCl solutions. PMID:27790262

  9. The effect of surface tension reduction on the clinical performance of sodium hypochlorite in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Rossi-Fedele, G; Prichard, J W; Steier, L; de Figueiredo, J A P

    2013-06-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is recommended as an endodontic irrigant in view of its broad antimicrobial and tissue dissolution capacities. To enhance its penetration into inaccessible areas of root canals and to improve its overall effect, the addition of surface-active agents has been suggested. The aim of this investigation was to review the effect of the reduction of the surface tension on the performance of NaOCl in endodontics. A search was performed in the Medline electronic database (articles published up to 28 July 2012, in English) with the search terms and combinations as follows: 'sodium hypochlorite AND surface tension or interfacial force or interfacial tension or surface-active agent or amphiphilic agent or surface active agent or surfactant or tenside or detergent'. The purpose of this search was to identify publications that compared NaOCl alone and NaOCl modified with the addition of a surface-active agent in endodontics. A hand search of articles published online ('in-press' and 'early view'), and appearing in the reference list of the articles included, was further performed, using the same search criteria as the electronic search. The search identified 302 publications, of which 11 fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria of the review. The evidence available suggests that surface-active agents improve the penetration of NaOCl in the main canal and have no effect on its pulp tissue dissolution ability. There are, however, insufficient data to enable a sound conclusion to be drawn regarding the effect of modifying NaOCl's surface tension on lubrication, antimicrobial and smear layer or debris removal abilities. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  10. Immunotoxicologic evaluation of chlorine-based drinking water disinfectants, sodium hypochlorite and monochloramine.

    PubMed

    Exon, J H; Koller, L D; O'Reilly, C A; Bercz, J P

    1987-06-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to chlorine-based disinfectants in the drinking water from weaning to 12 weeks of age, at which time they were terminated and assessed for immune competence. Chlorine-based drinking water disinfectants used were sodium hypochlorite (5, 15 and 30 ppm) and monochloramine (9, 19 and 38 ppm). Parameters of immunity measured were spleen and thymus weights, antibody production, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions, natural killer cell (NKC) cytotoxicity, oxidative metabolism response (i.e chemiluminescence-CL) and phagocytosis by macrophages, and production of 2 immunoregulatory cytokines, interleukin 2 (IL2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Significant (P less than or equal to 0.05) reductions of spleen weight, DTH reactions, and oxidative metabolism by macrophages were observed only in groups of rats exposed to high levels (30 ppm) of sodium hypochlorite, while PGE2 production was elevated. Rats exposed to the higher doses of monochloramine had reduced spleen weights (38 ppm), decreased antibody synthesis (9 and 19 ppm) and augmented PGE2 production (19 and 38 ppm). These results extend the earlier observations of others that macrophage function of laboratory rodents may be impaired by exposure to high concentrations of chlorinated drinking water. Furthermore, the function of other major populations of immunocytes and types of immune responses may also be altered following subchronic exposure to high concentrations of chlorinated drinking water. These types of effects on the immune system are a previously unrecognized potential side-effect of the ubiquitous practice of disinfection of water with chlorine compounds. Alteration of immune function of chlorine-based disinfectant-exposed rats in this study was only evident at relatively high doses, and only selected immune responses were altered. It appears, therefore, that these chlorine-based disinfectants are not particularly strong immunodepressants. However, further studies in

  11. Antifungal activity of 4% chlorhexidine and 2% sodium hypochlorite against Candida albicans biofilms.

    PubMed

    Gama, Maria Clara Maneira; de Oliveira, Denise Gusmao; da Silva, Paulo Mauricio Batista; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duarte, Marco Hungaro; Porto, Vinicius Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the antifungal efficacy of 4% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on 24-hour Candida albicans biofilms. Candida albicans biofilms were developed on acrylic resin specimens, which were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups (n = 3 per group) exposed to 1 mL of 4% CHX for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 minutes. Biofilms in contact with 1 mL of distilled water or 2% NaOCl for 10 minutes were used as positive and negative controls (n = 3 per group), respectively. Specimens were analyzed with confocal laser scanning microscopy and a cell viability assay technique. The biovolume of the live subpopulation of the biofilm was calculated with biofilm image analysis software. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) in the biovolume of surviving cells were found among the positive control group and the 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-minute experimental periods. The biovolumes found after 6-10 minutes of exposure to chlorhexidine were significantly different (P < 0.05) from the biovolume after 2 minutes of exposure. The most effective decrease of the biovolume was found after the use of the negative control (sodium hypochlorite) solution. Exposure to 10 minutes of 2% NaOCl removed fungal cells more effectively than all the experimental groups (P < 0.05). The 4% CHX solution showed an antifungal activity against C albicans biofilms but failed to decrease the biovolume to the levels of 2% NaOCl, which eliminated viable cells more effectively and appeared to be more effective in disrupting the attached biofilms.

  12. Influence of Concentration and Agitation of Sodium Hypochlorite and Peracetic Acid Solutions on Tissue Dissolution.

    PubMed

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Silveira, Bruna Ramos Franco; Martelo, Roberta Bosso; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria

    2015-11-01

    To evaluated the tissue dissolution of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and peracetic acid (PA) solutions at different concentrations, with or without ultrasonic agitation. The following solutions were analyzed: 2.5% NaOCl, 0.5, 1 and 2% PA, 1% PA associated with 6.5% hydrogen peroxide (HP) and saline. Fragments of bovine pulp tissue with 25 ± 2g mg were immersed into test tubes containing 4 mL of the solutions for 10 minutes. In the groups with agitation, pulp tissues were submitted to 2 cycles of 1 minute of ultrasonic agitation. The specimens were weighed after the removal from the solutions. The percentage of mass loss was calculated according to the difference of mass before and after exposure to solutions. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (p < 0.05). A total of 2.5% NaOCl with or without agitation showed the higher tissue dissolution (between 64.5 and 67% of mass reduction) (p < 0.005). By comparing the PA solutions, the concentrations of 1 and 2% with or without agitation and the concentration of 0.5% with agitation showed similar dissolution activity (between 35.4 and 44% of mass reduction). The use of the ultrasonic agitation promoted an increase of the dissolution ability only for 0.5% PA. Peracetic acid solution has pulp tissue dissolution. However, this ability is lower than 2.5% NaOCl solution. The sodium hypochlorite solution shows higher ability to dissolve tissue than PA.

  13. Effect of super-oxidized water, sodium hypochlorite and EDTA on dentin microhardness.

    PubMed

    Ghisi, Alexandre Corrêa; Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli; Baldasso, Flávia E R; Stürmer, Caroline P; Rossi-Fedele, Giampiero; Steier, Liviu; Figueiredo, José Antonio Poli de; Morgental, Renata Dornelles; Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of the following irrigating solutions on the microhardness of root canal dentin: 2% sodium hypochlorite (2NaOCl), 5% sodium hypochlorite (5NaOCl), super-oxidized water (400 ppm Sterilox - Sx) and 17% EDTA (E). Eighty roots from bovine incisors were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=10): 2NaOCl, 5NaOCl, Sx, and 2NaOCl + E, 5NaOCl + E, Sx + E (associated with E as final irrigant for 5 min), E solely and distilled water (dH2O) as the negative control. Root canal preparation was performed by hand instruments, using one of the irrigation protocols for 30 min. Then, 5 mm of the cervical root third were cut out from each sample and subjected to the Vickers microhardness test, at two points, one at approximately 500-1000 µm from the root canal lumen (distance 1), and the other at approximately 500-1000 µm from the external root surface (distance 2). Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests at 5% significance level. Microhardness values at distance 1 were significantly lower than those at distance 2 for all groups, except 5NaOCl and 5NaOCl + E groups (p>0.05). EDTA showed the lowest microhardness values. However, no statistically significant difference was detected among groups at distance 1 and EDTA was significantly different only from Sx at distance 2. In conclusion, all tested solutions showed lower microhardness at the most superficial root canal dentin layer compared to the one found near the external root surface, except 5NaOCl and 5NaOCl + E; EDTA promoted lower microhardness values in comparison to Sterilox at this site.

  14. Effect of calcium hypochlorite and chloramine on blood biochemistry and sodium pentobarbital induced sleeping time in mice.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Sidra; Rasheed, Muhammad Adil; Ashraf, Muhammad; Altaf, Imran; Rehmat, Saima; Fatima, Ghulam

    2016-09-01

    Disinfectants are chemical agents used to eradicate, deactivate or kill microorganisms. Chemical disinfectants especially chlorine compound are extensively used for water sanitization. Among these calcium hypochlorite and chloramines are commonly used now a day. Large number of chemical compounds, drugs and endogenous substances are metabolized by hepatic enzymes known as cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Many chemicals are capable of enzyme induction. Enzyme induction may change the metabolism of other drugs and endogenous substances which may alter the plasma concentration of these chemicals. To evaluate the enzyme inducing ability of calcium hypochlorite and chloramine, sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital was noted in mice. Normal saline was taken as negative control. Rifampicin, chloramphenicol and grapefruit juice were taken as positive control group. On completion of dosing after 4 weeks, alteration in sleep induction and recovery times was noted and compared. Histological evaluation of liver was observed. A significant decrease in sleeping time was observed in calcium hypochlorite and chloramine treated groups. Both calcium hypochlorite and chloramine caused a significant change in liver enzymes and in the values of complete blood count. In histological evaluation both caused fat deposition in the hepatocytes. It was concluded from the study that both calcium hypochlorite and chloramine were hepatic microsomal enzyme inducer.

  15. Primum non nocere - The effects of sodium hypochlorite on dentin as used in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Gu, Li-Sha; Huang, Xue-Qing; Griffin, Brandon; Bergeron, Brian R; Pashley, David H; Niu, Li-Na; Tay, Franklin R

    2017-10-01

    The medical literature is replete with the maxim 'primum non nocere', cautioning health care providers to avoid doing any harm to human subjects in their delivery of medical care. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a well-established irrigant for root canal treatment because of its antimicrobial and organic tissue remnant dissolution capability. However, little is known about the deleterious effect of this strong oxidizing agent on the integrity of human mineralized dentin. Iatrogenically-induced loss of dentin integrity may precipitate post-treatment root fracture and has potential medico-legal complications. In the present work, transmission electron microscopy provided evidence for collagen destruction in the surface/subsurface of dentin treated with high NaOCl concentrations and long contact times. Size exclusion chromatography showed that the hypochlorite anion, because of its small size, penetrated the water compartments of apatite-encapsulated collagen fibrils, degraded the collagen molecules and produced a 25-35µm thick, non-uniform "ghost mineral layer" with enlarged, coalesced dentinal tubules and their lateral branches. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy identified increases in apatite/collagen ratio in NaOCl-treated dentin. The apatite-rich, collagen-sparse dentin matrix that remained after NaOCl treatment is more brittle, as shown by the reductions in flexural strength. Understanding the deleterious effects of NaOCl on mineralized dentin enables one to balance the risks and benefits in using high NaOCl concentrations for lengthy periods in root canal debridement. Delineating the mechanism responsible for such a phenomenon enables high molecular weight, polymeric antimicrobial and tissue dissolution irrigants to be designed that abides by the maxim of 'primum non nocere' in contemporary medical practices. The antimicrobial and tissue-dissolution capacities of NaOCl render it a well-accepted agent for root canal debridement. These highly desirable

  16. Outcomes of Endodontic Therapy Comparing Conventional Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigation with Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation Using Sodium Hypochlorite and Ethylenediaminetetraacetate. A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, Moritz; Sommer, Katja; Kostka, Eckehard; Imiolczyk, Sandra Maria; Ballout, Husam; Preissner, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of two different standardized endodontic irrigation protocols. It was assumed that the additional use of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) would result in an increased rate of absence of symptoms and remission based on the periapical index (PAI) compared to passive irrigation using only sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Data and radiographs from 199 teeth retrieved from the institutional endodontic database were analyzed retrospectively. In 106 teeth irrigation was performed using only NaOCl (protocol 1). Ninety-three teeth were irrigated using NaOCl and EDTA (protocol 2). Chlorhexidine (CHX) was additionally used in revision treatments in both groups. All irrigants in group 2 were activated by PUI. Mean follow-up periods were: protocol 1 = 9.2 ± 4.4 and protocol 2 = 6.6 ± 2.5 months (p < 0.0001 (chi-square test). The frequencies of the PAImasterpoint and PAIfollow-up scores did not differ significantly between teeth, which received either protocol 1 or 2 (p = 0.555 and 0.138). Statistical analysis revealed no significant association between treatment success (absence of clinical symptoms and PAIfollow-up = I or PAImasterpoint > PAIfollow-up > I) and the applied protocol (success rates: protocol 1 = 72.6% vs. protocol 2 = 82.8%; p = 0.203). Furthermore, the frequency of extractions did not differ significantly between the two protocols (p = 0.102). No association was found between follow-up time and treatment success (p = 0.888). The hypothesis was not confirmed. Even though the obtained success rate was higher after supplementing the irrigation protocol with EDTA and PUI, no significance was recorded. Hence, protocol 2 was not superior to protocol 1 regarding therapy success, at least within the limited follow-up period. It may be cautiously concluded that sufficient mechanical debridement combined with passive NaOCl irrigation results in comparably high

  17. Effects of sodium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and gaseous hydrogen peroxide on the natural properties of cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Bi, Long; Li, De-Cheng; Huang, Zhao-Song; Yuan, Zhi

    2013-07-01

    Processed xenegeneic cancellous bone represents an alternative to bone autograft. In order to observe the effects of present prion inactivation treatments on the natural properties of xenogeneic cancellous bones, we treated bovine bone granules with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and gaseous hydrogen peroxide (gH2 O2 ) respectively in this study. The microstructure, composition, and mineral content of the granules were evaluated by scanning electron micrograph, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, ash analysis, and micro-computed tomography. The biomechanical property was analyzed by a materials testing machine. The cytocompatibility was evaluated by using a mouse fibroblast cell line (3T3). The microstructure, organic content, and mechanical strength were dramatically altered at the surface of bone in both NaOH- and NaOCl-treated groups, but not in the gH2 O2 -treated group. Compared with the gH2 O2 -treated group, attachment and proliferation of 3T3 were reduced in either NaOH- or NaOCl-treated groups. As the consequence, gH2 O2 treatment may be a useful approach of disinfection for the preparation of natural cancellous bone with well-preserved structural, mechanical, and biological properties. © 2013, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2013, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Efficacy of Sodium Hypochlorite and Acidified Sodium Chlorite in Preventing Browning and Microbial Growth on Fresh-Cut Produce

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shih Hui; Kim, Su Jin; Kwak, Soo Jin; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2012-01-01

    The use of suitable sanitizers can increase the quality of fresh-cut produce and reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was to compare the washing effects of 100 mg/L sodium hypochlorite (SH) and 500 mg/L acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) on the prevention of enzymatic browning and the growth of microbial populations, including aerobic plate counts, E. coli, and coliforms, throughout storage at 4°C and 10°C. Fresh-cut zucchini, cucumbers, green bell peppers, and root vegetables such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, carrots, and radishes were used. Compared to SH washing, ASC washing significantly (p<0.05) reduced microbial contamination on the fresh-cut produce and prevented browning of fresh-cut potatoes and sweet potatoes during storage. More effective inhibition of aerobic plate counts and coliforms growth was observed on fresh-cut produce treated with ASC during storage at 10°C. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of fresh-cut potatoes and sweet potatoes was more effectively inhibited after washing with ASC. The use of 500 mg/L ASC can provide effective antimicrobial and anti-browning treatments of fresh-cut produce, including processed root vegetables. PMID:24471086

  19. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and acidified sodium chlorite in preventing browning and microbial growth on fresh-cut produce.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shih Hui; Kim, Su Jin; Kwak, Soo Jin; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2012-09-01

    The use of suitable sanitizers can increase the quality of fresh-cut produce and reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was to compare the washing effects of 100 mg/L sodium hypochlorite (SH) and 500 mg/L acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) on the prevention of enzymatic browning and the growth of microbial populations, including aerobic plate counts, E. coli, and coliforms, throughout storage at 4°C and 10°C. Fresh-cut zucchini, cucumbers, green bell peppers, and root vegetables such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, carrots, and radishes were used. Compared to SH washing, ASC washing significantly (p<0.05) reduced microbial contamination on the fresh-cut produce and prevented browning of fresh-cut potatoes and sweet potatoes during storage. More effective inhibition of aerobic plate counts and coliforms growth was observed on fresh-cut produce treated with ASC during storage at 10°C. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of fresh-cut potatoes and sweet potatoes was more effectively inhibited after washing with ASC. The use of 500 mg/L ASC can provide effective antimicrobial and anti-browning treatments of fresh-cut produce, including processed root vegetables.

  20. [Conservative treatment improved corrosive esophagitis and pneumomediastinum in a patient who ingested bleaching agent containing sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Iseki, Ken; Ozawa, Akiko; Tominaga, Aya; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Otani, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    A 69-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department 3 hours after ingestion of a bleaching agent containing hypochlorous acid and sodium hydroxide in a suicide attempt. Enhanced chest computed tomography scans taken on admission indicated an edematous esophagus and air bubbles in the mediastinum. He underwent endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation until day 9 because of laryngeal edema. On day 10, his endoscopy indicated diffuse reddish mucosal hyperemia, erosions, and lacerated mucosal lesions in the esophagus that were indicative of grade 2b corrosive esophagitis. Treatment with a proton pump inhibitor was initiated, with which the condition of the esophagus improved, and on day 44, a slight stricture of the upper part of the esophagus was observed. He was discharged on day 64 without any complaints. The ingestion of sodium hypochlorite induces corrosive esophagitis and acute phase of gastritis. Ingestion of any corrosive agent is known as a risk factor for esophagus cancer in the long-term. In such cases with esophageal stricture, esophagectomy is recommended for preventing esophagus cancer. Considering the age of the patient, however, he did not undergo esophagectomy.

  1. Comparison of apical extrusion of sodium hypochlorite using 4 different root canal irrigation techniques.

    PubMed

    İriboz, Emre; Bayraktar, Koral; Türkaydın, Dilek; Tarçın, Bilge

    2015-03-01

    We compared the apical extrusion of sodium hypochlorite delivered with a 27-G needle, self-adjusting file (SAF), passive ultrasonic irrigation, or the EndoVac system (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) during the instrumentation and final irrigation of root canals. Matched paired single-canal teeth were divided into 8 groups. The experimental groups were needle irrigation size #30 (NI30) and #50 (NI50), SAF size #30 (SAF30) and #50 (SAF50), passive ultrasonic irrigation size #30 (PUI30) and #50 (PUI50), and EndoVac size #30 (EV30) and #50 (EV50). Teeth were embedded in 0.2% agarose gel (pH = 7.4) containing 1 mL 0.1% m-Cresol purple (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO), which changes color at a pH level of 9.0. Root canals were irrigated with sodium hypochlorite and EDTA using 4 different techniques, and the amount of irrigant was controlled. Standardized digital photographs were taken 20 minutes after the first irrigant was used and were analyzed to determine the amount of extrusion (expressed as a percentage of total pixels). The amounts of apical extrusion obtained in the NI30, NI50, SAF30, SAF50, PUI30, PUI50, EV30, and EV50 groups were 30% (3/10), 50% (5/10), 20% (2/10), 70% (7/10), 40% (4/10), 40% (4/10), 10% (1/10), and 10% (1/10), respectively. The overall extrusion frequency, regardless of the apical preparation size, was 40% (8/20) for needle, 45% (9/20) for SAF, 40% (8/20) for ultrasonic irrigation, and 10% (2/20) for EndoVac. Although the SAF group showed more extrusion, the percentage of pixels was significantly higher in the needle irrigation group (P < .01). The EndoVac group showed significantly lower extrusion values than the other techniques in terms of the number of teeth and pixels (P < .05 and P < .01, respectively). The risk of apical extrusion is significantly lower with the EndoVac in comparison with the 3 other techniques. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of complete denture cleanser solutions based on sodium hypochlorite and Ricinus communis - a randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Salles, Marcela Moreira; Badaró, Maurício Malheiros; Arruda, Carolina Noronha Ferraz de; Leite, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato da; Watanabe, Evandro; Oliveira, Viviane de Cássia; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    To preserve oral health and to maintain the prosthetic devices, it is important not only to improve the properties of commonly known hygiene products, but also to investigate new materials with antimicrobial action. Objectives This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50%) and 10% Ricinus communis' solutions against specific microorganisms. Sixty four maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures three times a day and to soak them (20 min/day) in the solutions: SH1: 0.25% sodium hypochlorite; SH2: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; RC: 10% R. communis oil; and C: 0.85% saline (control). The solutions were used for 7 days in a randomized sequence. Following each period of use, there was a 1-week washout period. Antimicrobial activity was determined by Colony Forming Units (CFU) counts of Streptococcus mutans, Candida spp., and gram-negative microorganisms. For collecting biofilm, the internal surface of maxillary dentures was brushed with saline solution, and biofilm suspension obtained. After dilutions (100 - 10-3), aliquots were seeded in Mitis salivarius, CHROMagar Candida, and MacConkey agar for detecting S. mutans, Candida spp., or gram-negative microorganisms, respectively. After incubation, colonies were counted, and CFU/mL values were calculated. Then, transformation - log10 (CFU+1) - data were analyzed using the Friedman test (α=0.05). Results showed significant differences between the solutions (p<0.001). All three solutions showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. Against Candida spp., RC and SH1 solutions showed similar effect while SH2 showed superior activity. SH1 and SH2 solutions showed antimicrobial action against gram-negative microorganisms. The Candida species most frequently isolated was C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was the most effective and might be used to control denture biofilm. C. albicans was the most

  3. Chemiluminescence behavior of CdTe-hydrogen peroxide enhanced by sodium hypochlorite and sensitized sensing of estrogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Bo; Bi, Jianhong; Pi, Zongxin; Dong, Huaze; Dong, Ling

    2014-05-01

    It has been found that sodium hypochlorite enhanced the chemiluminescence (CL) of the CdTe nanocrystal (NC)-hydrogen peroxide system and that estrogens inhibited these CL signals in alkaline solution. CL spectra were used to investigate the mechanism of the CL enhancement. On the basis of the inhibition, a flow-injection CL method has been established for determination of three natural estrogens.

  4. Degradation of poly(ether sulfone)/polyvinylpyrrolidone membranes by sodium hypochlorite: insight from advanced electrokinetic characterizations.

    PubMed

    Hanafi, Yamina; Szymczyk, Anthony; Rabiller-Baudry, Murielle; Baddari, Kamel

    2014-11-18

    Poly(ether sulfone) (PES)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) membranes are widely used in various industrial fields such as drinking water production and in the dairy industry. However, the use of oxidants to sanitize the processing equipment is known to impair the integrity and lifespan of polymer membranes. In this work we showed how thorough electrokinetic measurements can provide essential information regarding the mechanism of degradation of PES/PVP membranes by sodium hypochlorite. Tangential streaming current measurements were performed with ultrafiltration and nanofiltration PES/PVP membranes for various aging times. The electrokinetic characterization of membranes was complemented by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. Results confirmed that sodium hypochlorite induces the degradation of both PES and PVP. This latter is easily oxidized by sodium hypochlorite, which leads to an increase in the negative charge density of the membrane due to the formation of carboxylic acid groups. The PVP was also found to be partly released from the membrane with aging time. Thanks to the advanced electrokinetic characterization implemented in this work it was possible for the first time to demonstrate that two different mechanisms are involved in the degradation of PES. Phenol groups were first formed as a result of the oxidation of PES aromatic rings by substitution of hydrogen by hydroxyl radicals. For more severe aging conditions, this membrane degradation mechanism was followed by the formation of sulfonic acid functions, thus indicating a second degradation process through scission of PES chains.

  5. Comparative antimicrobial activities of aerosolized sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and electrochemically activated solutions evaluated using a novel standardized assay.

    PubMed

    Thorn, R M S; Robinson, G M; Reynolds, D M

    2013-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a standardized experimental assay to enable differential antimicrobial comparisons of test biocidal aerosols. This study represents the first chlorine-matched comparative assessment of the antimicrobial activities of aerosolized sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and electrochemically activated solution (ECAS) to determine their relative abilities to decontaminate various surface-associated health care-relevant microbial challenges. Standard microbiological challenges were developed by surface-associating typed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis spores, or a clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain on stainless steel, polypropylene, or fabric. All test coupons were subjected to 20-min biocidal aerosols of chlorine-matched (100 ppm) sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, or ECAS within a standard aerosolization chamber using a commercial humidifier under defined conditions. Biocidal treatment type and material surface had a significant effect on the number of microorganisms recovered from various material surfaces following treatment exposure. Under the conditions of the assay, the order of antimicrobial efficacy of biocidal aerosol treatment was as follows: ECAS > chlorine dioxide > sodium hypochlorite. For all biocides, greater antimicrobial reductions were seen when treating stainless steel and fabric than when treating plastic-associated microorganisms. The experimental fogging system and assay protocol designed within this study were shown capable of differentiating the comparative efficacies of multiple chlorine-matched biocidal aerosols against a spectrum of target organisms on a range of test surface materials and would be appropriate for testing other biocidal aerosol treatments or material surfaces.

  6. Comparative Antimicrobial Activities of Aerosolized Sodium Hypochlorite, Chlorine Dioxide, and Electrochemically Activated Solutions Evaluated Using a Novel Standardized Assay

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, R. M. S.; Robinson, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a standardized experimental assay to enable differential antimicrobial comparisons of test biocidal aerosols. This study represents the first chlorine-matched comparative assessment of the antimicrobial activities of aerosolized sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and electrochemically activated solution (ECAS) to determine their relative abilities to decontaminate various surface-associated health care-relevant microbial challenges. Standard microbiological challenges were developed by surface-associating typed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis spores, or a clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain on stainless steel, polypropylene, or fabric. All test coupons were subjected to 20-min biocidal aerosols of chlorine-matched (100 ppm) sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, or ECAS within a standard aerosolization chamber using a commercial humidifier under defined conditions. Biocidal treatment type and material surface had a significant effect on the number of microorganisms recovered from various material surfaces following treatment exposure. Under the conditions of the assay, the order of antimicrobial efficacy of biocidal aerosol treatment was as follows: ECAS > chlorine dioxide > sodium hypochlorite. For all biocides, greater antimicrobial reductions were seen when treating stainless steel and fabric than when treating plastic-associated microorganisms. The experimental fogging system and assay protocol designed within this study were shown capable of differentiating the comparative efficacies of multiple chlorine-matched biocidal aerosols against a spectrum of target organisms on a range of test surface materials and would be appropriate for testing other biocidal aerosol treatments or material surfaces. PMID:23459480

  7. Comparison of 2% chlorhexidine and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite irrigating solutions on postoperative pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bashetty, Kusum; Hegde, Jayshree

    2010-01-01

    To compare the levels of postoperative pain after cleaning and shaping of root canals using two different root canal irrigants for debridement. Forty patients with irreversible pulpitis, pulp necrosis and non-vital teeth exhibiting acute apical periodontitis requiring root canal treatment were included. At random, canals were cleaned and shaped with the following protocols. 2% chlorhexidine solution in group I and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution in group II were used as an irrigants. Access cavities were closed with a sterile cotton pellet and cavit. The patients recorded degree of pain at various time intervals after cleaning and shaping on a visual analogue scale for 1 week. The mean pain score for group I was between 0.65 and 3.35 and for group II was between 0.95 and 4.50. There was significant difference in the pain level between the two groups only at 6 th hour postoperatively (P<0.05) and the pain was more in sodium hypochlorite group. More pain was present in teeth irrigated using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite when compared to that in teeth irrigated using 2% chlorhexidine solution. Significant difference in pain level was present only at 6th hour postoperatively, and at all other periods (24 th hour, 4 th and 7 th days) there was no significant difference in pain level between the two groups.

  8. Effect of sodium hypochlorite with the addition of a proteolytic enzyme on postoperative discomfort: a multicenter randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Taschieri, S; Fabiani, C; Franco, V; Weinstein, T; Del Fabbro, M

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the patient's postoperative discomfort when root canal irrigation was performed either with standard sodium hypochlorite or with sodium hypochlorite with the adjunct of a proteolytic enzyme. Two hundred patients were endodontically treated in two clinics. The type of irrigant to be used during root canal instrumentation was randomly assigned. Final irrigation was done using EDTA 17%. The canals were filled by warm vertical condensation with guttha-percha and the coronal seal was made using IRM. Patients were given a questionnaire to assess pain and swelling and the number of analgesics and other drugs taken during the first week after treatment. A total of 166 questionnaires could have been evaluated. No significant difference was found between groups for pain, swelling and analgesics taken. Moderate pain and swelling was reported only in the first two days after treatment. No antibiotics use was reported. No guttha-percha excess beyond root apex was found by radiographic assessment. The irrigating solution containing a proteolytic enzyme does not produce greater postoperative discomfort as compared to the conventional sodium hypochlorite in patients undergoing endodontic therapy.

  9. Effect of sodium ascorbate on degree of conversion and bond strength of RealSeal SE to sodium hypochlorite treated root dentin.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Deepti; Wu, Wan-Cui; He, Qing-Yin; Wei, Xi; Ling, Jun-Qi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium ascorbate (Sa) on degree of conversion (DC) and bond strength (BS) of RealSeal SE to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) treated root dentin. Two hundreds simulated canals were prepared and irrigated with Distilled water(DW), 1.3% NaOCl (1.3% N), 5.2% NaOCl (5.2% N), MTAD, 17% EDTA (EDTA), 10% Sa, 1.3% NaOCl/MTAD (N-M), 1.3% NaOCl/Sa/MTAD(N-Sa-M), 5.2% NaOCl/EDTA(N-E), and 5.2% NaOCl/Sa/EDTA (N-Sa-E) respectively. They were subsequently bulk filled with RealSeal SE and analyzed with micro-Raman spectroscopy and universal testing machine for DC and BS respectively. One-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test showed DC of 1.3% N, 5.2% N, N-M and N-E were significantly lower (p<0.01) than other six groups. BS of DW, Sa, N-M were significantly lower than 1.3% N, 5.2% N, MTAD, EDTA, N-Sa-M and N-E (p<0.01), and group N-Sa-E achieved the highest BS among all groups (p<0.01). NaOCl negatively affected DC and BS of RealSeal SE, which could be reversed with 10% Sa.

  10. Root canal penetration of a sodium hypochlorite mixture using sonic or ultrasonic activation.

    PubMed

    Sáinz-Pardo, Marta; Estevez, Roberto; Pablo, Óliver Valencia de; Rossi-Fedele, Giampiero; Cisneros, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this ex vivo study was to determine, in "open" and "closed" systems, whether the design has an influence on the penetration length of sodium hypochlorite mixed with a radiopaque contrast medium, measured in millimeters, when delivered using positive pressure (PP) and using sonic (SI) or passive ultrasonic (PUI) activation. Sixty single-rooted teeth were divided into two groups: open and closed systems (n=30). Root canal shaping was performed to a working length of 17 mm. The samples were divided into three sub-groups (n=10) according to irrigant delivery and activation: PP, and SI or PUI activation. By using radiographs, penetration length was measured, and vapor lock was assessed. For the closed group, the penetration distance means were: PP 15.715 (±0.898) mm, SI 16.299 (±0.738) mm and PUI 16.813 (±0.465) mm, with vapor lock occurring in 53.3% of the specimens. In the open group, penetration to 17 mm occurred in 97.6% of the samples, and no vapor lock occurred. Irrigant penetration and distribution evaluation using open and closed systems provide significantly different results. For closed systems, PUI is the most effective in delivering the irrigant to working length, followed by SI.

  11. Effect of sodium hypochlorite on typical biofilms formed in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huirong; Zhu, Xuan; Wang, Yuxin; Yu, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Human health and biological safety problems resulting from urban drinking water pipe network biofilms pollution have attracted wide concern. Despite the inclusion of residual chlorine in drinking water distribution systems supplies, the bacterium is a recalcitrant human pathogen capable of forming biofilms on pipe walls and causing health risks. Typical drinking water bacterial biofilms and their response to different concentrations of chlorination was monitored. The results showed that the four bacteria all formed single biofilms susceptible to sodium hypochlorite. After 30 min disinfection, biomass and cultivability decreased with increasing concentration of disinfectant but then increased in high disinfectant doses. PMA-qPCR results indicated that it resulted in little cellular damage. Flow cytometry analysis showed that with increasing doses of disinfectant, the numbers of clusters increased and the sizes of clusters decreased. Under high disinfectant treatment, EPS was depleted by disinfectant and about 0.5-1 mg/L of residual chlorine seemed to be appropriate for drinking water treatment. This research provides an insight into the EPS protection to biofilms. Resistance of biofilms against high levels of chlorine has implications for the delivery of drinking water.

  12. Oxidation of aniline aerofloat in flotation wastewater by sodium hypochlorite solution.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weixiong; Tian, Jing; Ren, Jie; Xu, Pingting; Dai, Yongkang; Sun, Shuiyu; Wu, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Aniline aerofloat (dianilinodithiophosphoric acid (C6H5NH)2PSSH) is a widely used phosphorodithioic organic flotation collector that contains aniline groups and dithiophosphate groups. In the present study, sodium hypochlorite solution was used to oxidize aniline aerofloat. The effect of operational parameters and optimum oxidation conditions on aniline aerofloat was studied, and the oxidation pathway of aniline aerofloat was proposed by analyzing its main oxidation intermediates. The results showed that NaOCl concentration had a significant influence on aniline aerofloat oxidation and at 100 mg/L aniline aerofloat, 84.54% was removed under the following optimal conditions: NaOCl concentration = 1.25 g/L, pH = 4, and reaction time = 60 min. The main reaction of aniline aerofloat by NaOCl included N-P bond cleavage, aniline group oxidation, aniline group chlorination, and dithiophosphate group oxidation. The initial reaction was the N-P bond cleavage and the anilines and dithiophosphate was further oxidized to other intermediates by five parallel reaction pathways.

  13. [Evaluation of genotoxicity of sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide and peracetic acid using plant tests].

    PubMed

    Feretti, D; Zani, C; Alberti, A; Copetta, L; Nardi, G; Monarca, S

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential genotoxic effects of three drinking water disinfectants by means of in vivo short-term mutagenicity tests using plants. The study was carried out in laboratory using distilled water disinfected with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and peracetic acid (PAA) at different concentrations both in neutral and acid conditions. Untreated distilled water was used as a negative control. Micronuclei test in Tradescantia pollen cells and chromosomal aberration test in root cells of Allium cepa were the bioassays performed by exposing directly plant bioindicators to treated and untreated distilled water. The Tradescantia/micronuclei test gave positive results in most of the ClO2-treated water samples but only at acid pH. The Allium cepa test showed genotoxicity in NaClO-treated samples at acid pH and in a ClO2-treated sample at pH 7. PAA-treated samples were always nongenotoxic. Since the concentrations tested of free disinfectants are usually present in drinking water for biocidal purposes, genotoxicity of these compounds could be a public health problem.

  14. The roles of peroxide protective regulons in protecting Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris from sodium hypochlorite stress.

    PubMed

    Charoenlap, Nisanart; Sornchuer, Phornphan; Piwkam, Anong; Srijaruskul, Kriangsuk; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon

    2015-05-01

    The exposure of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris to sublethal concentrations of a sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution induced the expression of genes that encode peroxide scavenging enzymes within the OxyR and OhrR regulons. Sensitivity testing in various X. campestris mutants indicated that oxyR, katA, katG, ahpC, and ohr contributed to protection against NaOCl killing. The pretreatment of X. campestris cultures with oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), t-butyl hydroperoxide, and the superoxide generator menadione, protected the bacteria from lethal concentrations of NaOCl in an OxyR-dependent manner. Treating the bacteria with a low concentration of NaOCl resulted in the adaptive protection from NaOCl killing and also provided cross-protection from H2O2 killing. Taken together, the results suggest that the toxicity of NaOCl is partially mediated by the generation of peroxides and other reactive oxygen species that are removed by primary peroxide scavenging enzymes, such as catalases and AhpC, as a part of an overall strategy that protects the bacteria from the lethal effects of NaOCl.

  15. Spectrum of sodium hypochlorite toxicity in man—also a concern for nephrologists

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Brandon; Workeneh, Biruh; Kadikoy, Huseyin; Patel, Samir J.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the active ingredient in household bleach and is a very common chemical. It has been used in medical and commercial situations dating back to the 18th century for its disinfectant properties, including topical use in medicine as an antiseptic. For this indication, NaOCl is a proven and safe chemical. However, exposure of NaOCl beyond topical use, whether it is intentional or accidental, is associated with significant risks due to its strong oxidizing properties. Potentially damaging scenarios include ingestion, inhalation, deposition into tissue or injection into the bloodstream. All of these scenarios can lead to significant morbidity and even mortality. In this review, we examine the toxicity associated with NaOCl exposure and analyze potential mechanisms of injury, placing special emphasis on the potential for renal toxicity. Due to the extreme ease of access to household bleach products and its use in medicine, it is important for the clinician to understand the potential damage that can occur in NaOCl exposures so that complications can be prevented before they arise. PMID:25949487

  16. Effect of a surfactant on the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite solutions.

    PubMed

    Bolfoni, Marcos Rodolfo; Ferla, Marcelo dos Santos; Sposito, Otávio da Silva; Giardino, Luciano; Jacinto, Rogério de Castilho; Pappen, Fernanda Geraldes

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with a surfactant. Seventy single-rooted extracted human teeth were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 21 days (37 °C). The groups were distributed according to the irrigation solution used during root canal preparation: 5%, 2.5% and 1% NaOCl; 5%, 2.5% and 1% Hypoclean®, a solution containing a surfactant (cetrimide) associated with NaOCl. Three microbiological samples were collected from each tooth: S1 - before instrumentation; S2 - immediately after instrumentation; and S3 - after a seven-day period. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test with 5% significance level. The results showed that immediately after root canal preparation (S2), E. faecalis was eliminated in all the experimental groups. However, after 7 days (S3), only the groups in which Hypoclean was used, remained contamination-free, including Hypoclean associated with 1% NaOCl, while the root canals irrigated with 1% NaOCl only, presented the highest percentage of bacterial growth. In conclusion, the addition of surfactant increased the antimicrobial activity of 1% NaOCl to levels similar to 5% NaOCl.

  17. EFFICACY OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND CHLORHEXIDINE AGAINST Enterococcus faecalis – A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Estrela, Carlos; Silva, Julio Almeida; de Alencar, Ana Helena Gonçalves; Leles, Claudio Rodrigues; Decurcio, Daniel Almeida

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of the sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX) on Enterococcus faecalis was evaluated by systematic review and meta-analysis. The search strategies included search in electronic biomedical journal databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL) and handsearching records, using different matches of keywords for NaOCl, CHX and Enterococcus faecalis. From 41 in vivo studies, 5 studies met the inclusion criteria. In a sample containing 159 teeth, E. faecalis was detected initially in 16 (10%) teeth by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 42 (26.4%) teeth by microbial culture techniques. After root canal disinfection, this species was observed in 11 (6.9%) teeth by PCR and 12 (7.5%) teeth by culture. Risk differences of included studies were combined as generic inverse variance data type (Review Manager Version 5.0 – Cochrane Collaboration, http://www.cc-ims.net, accessed 15 May 2008), taking into account the separate tracking of positive and negative cultures/PCR. The level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05. In conclusion, NaOCl or CHX showed low ability to eliminate E. faecalis when evaluated by either PCR or culture techniques. PMID:19082392

  18. Does Para-chloroaniline Really Form after Mixing Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorhexidine?

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ekim Onur; Irmak, Özgür; Hür, Deniz; Yaman, Batu Can; Karabucak, Bekir

    2016-03-01

    Mixing sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with chlorhexidine (CHX) forms a brown-colored precipitate. Previous studies are not in agreement whether this precipitate contains para-chloroaniline (PCA). Tests used for analysis may demonstrate different outcomes. Purpose of this study was to determine whether PCA is formed through the reaction of mixing NaOCl and CHX by using high performance liquid chromatography, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography, thin layer chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. To obtain a brown precipitate, 4.99% NaOCl was mixed with 2.0% CHX. This brown precipitate was analyzed and compared with signals obtained from commercially available 4.99% NaOCl, 2% solutions, and 98% PCA in powder form. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses showed that brown precipitate does not contain free PCA. This study will be a cutoff proof for the argument on PCA formation from reaction of CHX and NaOCl. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Reaction of a Food Colorant with Sodium Hypochlorite: A Student-Designed Kinetics Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, Josefina; Betancourt, Rosa; Rivera, Yamil; Pijem, Joan

    1998-09-01

    The kinetics of the reaction of the food colorant FD&C Blue #1 with sodium hypochlorite (Clorox) is described in a student-designed experimental format. In this format, students are guided- by means of questions- to make decisions regarding concentration of reagents, choice of equipment, and actual laboratory procedures to be followed. This format provides an opportunity for students to apply the concepts and skills learned in class and in previous laboratory sessions to a new problem. We have found that this experience helps students gain depth of understanding of all concepts involved. The reaction (with a large excess of NaOCl) is followed with a Spectronic 20 at the Blue #1 colorant lmax of 630 nm. The %T is measured over time and three graphs: A vs time, ln A vs time and 1/A vs time are plotted to find that the second one is linear and thus first order with respect to the Blue #1. When the concentration of NaOCl is reduced to one-half the original value, it is found that the rate is reduced by one-half, indicating that the reaction is first order with respect to NaOCl and second order overall. The rate constant of the reaction is determined from the slope of the curve and the mean obtained by our students is 17 M-1 min-1 at room temperature (about 28° C).

  20. DFT Study of Benzofuroxan Synthesis Mechanism from 2-Nitroaniline via Sodium Hypochlorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Chun-yuan; Chen, Xiao-fang; Liu, Jian-yong; Lai, Wei-peng; Wang, Bo-zhou

    2010-08-01

    The oxidative cyclization reaction of 2-nitroaniline via sodium hypochlorite to yield benzofuroxan is investigated by the hybrid density functional theory B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method. Solvent effects are estimated with the polarizable continuum model to optimize structures. The title reaction is predicted to undergo two pathways, each of which is a stepwise process. Path A includes four steps, namely oxidization, H-attack, hydrolysis, and cyclization. Path B involves the nucleophilic attack of OH- to the H atom of the N-H bond and the proton transfer to the N atom of amino group leading to the cleavage of the N-H single bond in the amino group. The calculated results indicate that path A is favored mechanism for the title reaction. Furthermore, it is rational for one water molecule serving as a bridge to assist in the hydrolysis step of Path A and our calculations exhibit that this process is the rate-determining step.

  1. Sodium hypochlorite vs formocresol as pulpotomy medicaments in primary molars: 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Shabzendedar, Mahboobeh; Mazhari, Fatemeh; Alami, Maliheh; Talebi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the effects of 3 percent sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and formocresol (FC) as pulp dressing agents in pulpotomized primary molars. One hundred children between three and six years each with at least one primary mandibular second molar requiring pulpotomy were randomly allocated to two groups (of 50 each). All the teeth received stainless steel crown after conventional pulpotomy procedure with either NaOCI (applied for 15 second) or FC (applied for one minute). Clinical and radiographic signs/symptoms were blindly recorded at zero, six. and 12 months. The differences were statistically analyzed using the Fisher's exact test. At six months, 100 percent clinical success was found with both NaOCl, and FC. Radiographic success rates for NaOCl were 98 percent and 92 percent at 6- and 12-month recalls respectively. FC group showed 94 percent and 93 percent radiographic success rates at the same periods respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups. NaOCl can be suggested as a pulpotomy agent for primary teeth pulpotomies. However further clinical studies with long-term follow-ups are needed to test the efficacy of NaOCl as a pulpotomy medicament in primary teeth.

  2. A randomized study of sodium hypochlorite versus formocresol pulpotomy in primary molar teeth.

    PubMed

    Ruby, John D; Cox, Charles F; Mitchell, Stephen C; Makhija, Sonia; Chompu-Inwai, Papimon; Jackson, Janice

    2013-03-01

    Alternatives to vital pulpotomy treatment in primary teeth are being sought because of the high formaldehyde content of traditional formocresol (FC) pulpotomy medicaments. The aim was to compare the clinical and radiographic success of vital pulpotomy treatment in primary molars using 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) versus a 1:5 dilution of Buckley's FC. Pulpotomies were performed in primary molars of healthy children between 3 and 10 years old. Sixty-five primary teeth were randomized into two groups that were evaluated for treatment outcomes. Following treatment, the pulp chamber was filled with zinc oxide eugenol (ZnOE) and restored with a stainless steel crown cemented with glass ionomer cement. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were recorded at 6 and 12 months. The control (FC) and experimental (NaOCl) groups demonstrated 100% clinical success at 6 and 12 months. The NaOCl group had 86% (19/22) radiographic success at 6 months and 80% (12/15) at 12 months. The FC group had 84% (21/25) radiographic success at 6 months and 90% (9/10) at 12 months. No significant differences were found in the radiographic outcomes between the two groups at 6 and 12 months (Fisher's exact test; P=0.574 and P=0.468, respectively). NaOCl demonstrated clinical and radiographic success comparable to FC. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2012 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Sodium hypochlorite versus Formocresol in primary molars pulpotomies: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Al-Mutairi, M A; Bawazir, O A

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this randomised clinical trial was to compare the clinical and radiographic success rate of 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 20% Formocresol (FC) as a pulpotomy medicament in carious primary molars. Twenty-four children aged 4-8 years with at least 2 primary molars indicated for pulpotomy were included in this study. Eighty-two teeth received either 5% NaOCl or 20% FC using split mouth design, followed by restoration with IRM base/stainless steel crown (SSC). Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed at 3, 6 and 12 months. NaOCl and FC groups demonstrated 100% clinical success at 3 months. At 6 months, NaOCl showed 95% and 87.5% clinical and radiographic success rate respectively, while FC showed 95% clinical and radiographic success rate. After 12 months, the clinical and radiographic success rates were 94.6% and 86.5% respectively for NaOCl, and 92.1% and 86.8% for FC. The results of this study showed the success rate for NaOCl pulpotomy to be comparable to those for FC pulpotomy.

  4. [Influence of the container and environmental factors in the stability of sodium hypochlorite].

    PubMed

    Aparecida Nicoletti, M; Fernandes Magalhäes, J

    1996-10-01

    This study was performed to analyze the chemical stability of sodium hypochlorite (with 2.6% or 26.0 mg/mL of free residual chlorine) in the various types of containers when exposed to different light levels. Over a period of eight months, several samples of that solution were put into containers made of glass (amber or clear) and plastic (opaque white, opaque green, or clear) with and without a top, and were exposed to three different lighting conditions (continuous light, total dark, and ambient light of the laboratory where the study was carried out). The stability of the solution was analyzed by measuring the concentration of free residual chlorine in the samples exposed as described above. The environmental factors tested were chosen as representative of the various conditions under which this effective, cheap, and widely available household disinfectant is often stored and used by the general public. The results indicated that chemical instability increased with the presence of light, the absence of a top, and the length of time the solution was stored. The most suitable containers were those made of amber glass, opaque green plastic, or opaque white plastic, although the last one offered the least protection of the three.

  5. Anatomy of Sodium Hypochlorite Accidents Involving Facial Ecchymosis – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wan-chun; Gyamfi, Jacqueline; Niu, Li-na; Schoeffel, G. John; Liu, Si-ying; Santarcangelo, Filippo; Khan, Sara; Tay, Kelvin C-Y.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Root canal treatment forms an essential part of general dental practice. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used irrigant in endodontics due to its ability to dissolve organic soft tissues in the root canal system and its action as a potent antimicrobial agent. Although NaOCl accidents created by extrusion of the irrigant through root apices are relatively rare and are seldom life-threatening, they do create substantial morbidity when they occur. Methods To date, NaOCl accidents have only been published as isolated case reports. Although previous studies have attempted to summarise the symptoms involved in these case reports, there was no endeavor to analyse the distribution of soft tissue distribution in those reports. In this review, the anatomy of a classical NaOCl accident that involves facial swelling and ecchymosis is discussed. Results By summarising the facial manifestations presented in previous case reports, a novel hypothesis that involves intravenous infusion of extruded NaOCl into the facial vein via non-collapsible venous sinusoids within the cancellous bone is presented. Conclusions Understanding the mechanism involved in precipitating a classic NaOCl accident will enable the profession to make the best decision regarding the choice of irrigant delivery techniques in root canal débridement, and for manufacturers to design and improve their irrigation systems to achieve maximum safety and efficient cleanliness of the root canal system. PMID:23994710

  6. Effects of sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA and etidronate on apical root transportation.

    PubMed

    Silva e Souza, P A R; das Dores, R S E; Tartari, T; Pinheiro, T P S; Tuji, F M; Silva e Souza, M H

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA and etidronate on apical root transportation. Forty-five roots of human mandibular molars with curvatures of 15-25° were embedded in acrylic resin to allow standardized angulation of the initial and final radiographs. The pre-instrumentation radiographs of the mesiobuccal canal of each root were taken using a radiograph digital sensor with a size 15 K-file in the canal. The canals were prepared with the ProTaper Universal system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), using one of the following irrigation regimens during the instrumentation (n = 15): G1 - irrigation with 20 mL of saline solution (control); G2 - alternating irrigation with 2.5% hypochlorite solution (NaOCl) (15 mL); and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (5 mL). During instrumentation, the canal was filled with NaOCl and then between each exchange of instrument filled with EDTA for 1 min, and G3 - irrigation with 20 mL of 5% NaOCl and 18% etidronate solution (HEBP) mixed in equal parts. The postinstrumentation radiographs were made with a F3 instrument in the canal. The images were magnified and superposed with Adobe Photoshop software (Adobe Systems, Mountain View, CA, USA). Apical transportation was determined with AutoCAD 2012 software (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA) by measuring the distance in millimetres between the tips of the instruments. The results were subjected to the nonparametric statistical Kruskal-Wallis test (α < 0.05). The median transportation and interquartile range values were 0.00 ± 0.05 for G1, 0.08 ± 0.23 for G2 and 0.13 ± 0.14 for G3. Comparison between groups showed that apical transportation in G3 was significantly greater than in G1 (P < 0.05). The use of NaOCl associated with etidronate increased apical transportation in the canals of extracted teeth. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Povidone-iodine vs sodium hypochlorite enema for mechanical preparation before elective open colonic or rectal resection with primary anastomosis: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Alain; Msika, Simon; Kianmanesh, Reza; Hay, Jean-Marie; Couchard, Anne-Cécile; Flamant, Yves; Fingerhut, Abe; Fagniez, Pierre-Louis

    2006-12-01

    The anti-infective actions of povidone-iodine (PVI) and sodium hypochlorite enemas are different. Prospective, randomized, single-blind study. Multicenter. Five hundred seventeen consecutive patients with colorectal carcinoma or sigmoid diverticular disease undergoing elective open colorectal resection, followed by primary anastomosis. All patients received senna (1-2 packages diluted in a glass of water) at 6 pm the evening before surgery. Patients were administered two 2-L aqueous enemas of 5% PVI (n = 277) or 0.3% sodium hypochlorite (n = 240) at 9 pm the evening before surgery and at 3 hours before operation. Intravenous ceftriaxone sodium (1 g) and metronidazole (1 g) were administered at anesthetic induction. Rate of patients with 1 infective parietoabdominal complication or more. The percentages of patients with 1 infective parietoabdominal complication or more did not differ between the 2 groups (13.7% in the PVI-treated group vs 15.0% in the sodium hypochlorite-treated group). Tolerance was better in the PVI-treated group than in the sodium hypochlorite-treated group (79.4% vs 67.9%), with fewer patients experiencing abdominal pain (13.0% vs 24.6%) or discontinuing their preparation (3.0% vs 9.0%) (P=.02 for all). There were more patients with malaise in the PVI-treated group than in the sodium hypochlorite-treated group (9.1% vs 4.9%, P<.05). Three patients in the sodium hypochlorite-treated group had necrotic ulcerative colitis. When antiseptic enemas are chosen for mechanical preparation before colorectal surgery, PVI should be preferred over sodium hypochlorite because of better tolerance and avoidance of necrotic ulcerative colitis.

  8. [Disinfection with sodium hypochlorite in hospital environmental surfaces in the reduction of contamination and infection prevention: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Samantha Storer Pesani; Oliveira, Hadelândia Milon de; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida

    2015-08-01

    To search for evidence of the efficiency of sodium hypochlorite on environmental surfaces in reducing contamination and prevention of healthcare-associated infection HAIs. Systematic review in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration. We analyzed 14 studies, all controlled trials, published between 1989-2013. Most studies resulted in inhibition of microorganism growth. Some decreased infection, microorganism resistance and colonization, loss of efficiency in the presence of dirty and surface-dried viruses. The hypochlorite is an effective disinfectant, however, the issue of the direct relation with the reduction of HAIs remains. The absence of control for confounding variables in the analyzed studies made the meta-analysis performance inadequate. The evaluation of internal validity using CONSORT and TREND was not possible because its contents were not appropriate to laboratory and microbiological studies. As a result, there is an urgent need for developing specific protocol for evaluating such studies.

  9. Oxidation of the antibacterial agent norfloxacin during sodium hypochlorite disinfection of marine culture water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Rong, Chuan; Song, Yanqun; Wang, Yinghui; Pei, Jiying; Tang, Xinying; Zhang, Ruijie; Yu, Kefu

    2017-09-01

    Chlorination disinfection and antibiotic addition are two universal processes of marine culture. The generation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is unavoidable. Antibiotic residue not only pollutes water but also acts as a precursor to the production of new DBPs. The fate of antibiotic norfloxacin (NOR) in chlorination disinfection was investigated. It was observed that NOR could be oxidized by disinfection agent sodium hypochlorite, but the oxidation rate varied considerably with the type of disinfected water. For fresh water, marine culture water and sea water, the reaction rate constant was 0.066 min(-1), 0.466 min(-1) and 1.241 min(-1), respectively. The difference was primarily attributed to the promotion role of bromide ions in seawater and marine culture water. Moreover, the bromide ions could result in the generation of brominated DBPs (Br-DBPs). The kinetics, products, reaction centers and mechanisms were investigated. The active site of NOR was found to be the N4 atom on piperazinyl in fresh water. During marine culture water and sea water disinfection, the carboxyl on NOR was oxidized and two Br-DBPs were formed. This was attributed to the lowering of the reaction's required activation energy when performed in the presence of bromide ions. The Br-DBPs were also confirmed in real shrimp pond brackish water. Quantitative structure activity relationships and the total organic halogen analysis showed that the DBPs in marine culture water possessed stronger toxicological properties than the DBPs in fresh water. The toxicity increase was attributed to the production of Br-DBPs in the disinfection process of marine culture water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of organochlorine compounds formed during the contact of sodium hypochlorite with dentin and dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Varise, Tiago Gilioli; Estrela, Carlos; Guedes, Débora Fernandes Costa; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Pécora, Jesus Djalma

    2014-01-01

    This study used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect the products formed during the contact of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with bovine pulp and dentin. For analysis of the products formed in the volatile phase, 11 mg of bovine pulp tissue were placed in contact with 0.5%, 2.5% and 5.25% NaOCl until complete tissue dissolution occurred. The solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was exposed inside the container through the cover membrane and immediately injected into the GC-MS system. 30 mg of the of dentin were kept in contact with NaOCl, and then the SPME fiber was exposed inside the container through the cover membrane for adsorption of the products and injected into the GC-MS system. The same protocol was used for the aqueous phase. For analysis of the volatile compounds, the final solution was extracted using pure ethyl ether. The suspended particulate phase of the mixture was aspirated, and ether was separated from the aqueous phase of the solution. The ether containing the products that resulted from the chemical interaction of dentin and pulp with the NaOCl was filtered and then injected into the GC-MS system for analysis of the aqueous phase. The aqueous and volatile phases of both dentin and pulp showed the formation of chloroform, hexachloroethane, dichloromethylbenzene and benzaldehyde. In conclusion, organochlorine compounds are generated during the contact of dentin and pulp with NaOCl at concentrations of 0.5%, 2.5% and 5.25%.

  11. Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Smear Layer Removal Using Isolated or Interweaving EDTA with Sodium Hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Beraldo, Ângelo José; Silva, Rogério Vieira; da Gama Antunes, Alberto Nogueira; Silveira, Frank Ferreira; Nunes, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to verify the effect of alternating 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the smear layer removal from root canal surfaces. Methods and Materials: A total of 15 single-rooted human teeth, instrumented with ProTaper files, were randomly distributed in 3 groups. In group 1 (n=7) the canals were irrigated with 1 mL of 2.5% NaOCl between files and final irrigation was done with 1 mL of 2,5% NaOCl, followe by 1 mL of 17% EDTA, for a perio of 15 sec with new irrigtion of 1 mL of 2,5% NaOCl at each change of files. In group 3 (control group) (n=1), saline solution was used. All samples were cleaved into two sections, metalized and analyzed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence or absence of smear layer in the cervical, middle and apical thirds, with scores varying from 1 to 3, respectively were evaluated. The data were submitted to nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: It was observed that there was a greater discrepancy between groups with respect to the apical third. In the other areas there was a greater similarity between the scores attributed to the groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups only in the apical third, when group 1 presented the higher median (P<0.05). Conclusion: The alternating use of EDTA during instrumentation with NaOCl was the most effective irrigation method to remove the apical smear layer. Both forms of irrigation were effective on removal of the smear layer in the coronal and middle thirds of the canals. PMID:28179925

  12. Effectiveness of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), MTAD and sodium hypochlorite irrigants on smear layer.

    PubMed

    Venkataram, V; Gokhale, S T; Kenchappa, M; Nagarajappa, R

    2013-08-01

    Endodontic success depends heavily on effective chemo-mechanical debridement of root canals through the use of instruments and irrigating solutions. To compare the effectiveness of chamomile hydroalcoholic extract, Biopure™ mixture of tetracycline isomer, acid and detergent (MTAD) and 2.5 % sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on removal of the smear layer. Randomised controlled trial. Thirty extracted single-rooted, primary human teeth were allocated at random into three experimental groups of 10 teeth each. For each tooth, the canal was prepared using the step-back technique. During instrumentation, 2 ml of the irrigant was used for at least 10 s after each file and 10 ml as a final flush for 2 min for chamomile and NaOCL irrigants. Whereas for MTAD, an initial rinse with 1.3 % NaOCl for a cumulated period of 20 min, and use of MTAD as the final rinse for a period of 5 min was followed. Longitudinal grooves were made on root segments, then split into two halves with a chisel, stored in 2.5 % glutaraldehyde solution and fixed in ethanol series. Specimens were examined for the smear layer according to Hulsmann et al. (Int Endod J 35:668-679, 2002) criteria using a scanning electron microscope. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used. The most effective result in removal of smear layer occurred with the use of MTAD, followed by chamomile extract. The chamomile extract was found to be significantly more effective than 2.5 % NaOCl solution which had only minor effects. The efficacy of chamomile to remove the smear layer was superior to 2.5 % NaOCl alone, but less effective than MTAD mixture.

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Diode Laser and Sodium Hypochlorite in Enterococcus Faecalis-Contaminated Root Canals.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Khosrow; Sooratgar, Aidin; Zolfagharnasab, Kaveh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Afkhami, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the disinfection ability of 980-nm diode laser in comparison with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as a common root canal irrigant in canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). The root canals of 18 extracted single-rooted premolars were prepared by rotary system. After decoronation, the roots were autoclaved. One specimen was chosen for the negative control, and the remaining teeth were incubated with E. faecalis suspension for two weeks. Subsequently, one specimen was selected as the positive control and the remaining samples were divided into two groups (n=8). The samples of the first group were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl and the second group were treated with a 980-nm diode laser. Microbial samples were taken from the root canals and bacterial cultivation was carried out. The average value and the standard deviation of colony-forming units (CFU) of each specimen were measured using descriptive statistics. The student's t-test was used to compare the reduction in CFU in each group. The equality of variance of CFU was measured by the Levene's test. NaOCl resulted in 99.87% removal of the bacteria and showed significantly more antibacterial effect compared to the 980-nm diode laser which led to 96.56% bacterial reduction (P<0.05). Although 5.25% NaOCl seems to reduce E. faecalis more effectively, the diode laser also reduced the bacterial count. Therefore a 980-nm diode laser could be considered as a complementary disinfection method in root canal treatment.

  14. Synergistic antifungal activity of sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and cupric sulfate against Penicillium digitatum.

    PubMed

    Cerioni, Luciana; Rapisarda, Viviana Andrea; Hilal, Mirna; Prado, Fernando Eduardo; Rodríguez-Montelongo, Luisa

    2009-08-01

    Oxidizing compounds such as sodium hypochlorite (NaCIO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are widely used in food sanitization because of their antimicrobial effects. We applied these compounds and metals to analyze their antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of citrus green mold. The MICs were 300 ppm for NaClO and 300 mM for H2O2 when these compounds were individually applied for 2 min to conidia suspensions. To minimize the concentration of these compounds, we developed and standardized a sequential treatment for conidia that resulted in loss of viability on growth plates and loss of infectivity on lemons. The in vitro treatment consists of preincubation with 10 ppm of NaClO followed by incubation with 100 mM H2O2 and 6 mM CuSO4 (cupric sulfate). The combination of NaClO and H2O2 in the presence of CuSO4 produces a synergistic effect (fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.36). The sequential treatment applied in situ on lemon peel 24 h after the fruit was inoculated with conidia produced a significant delay in the fungal infection. The in vitro treatment was effective on both imazalil-sensitive and imazalil-resistant strains of P. digitatum and Geotrichum candidum, the causal agent of citrus sour rot. However, this treatment inhibited 90% of mycelial growth for Penicillium italicum (citrus blue mold). These results indicate that sequential treatment may be useful for postharvest control of citrus fruit diseases.

  15. Stabilizing sodium hypochlorite at high pH: effects on soft tissue and dentin.

    PubMed

    Jungbluth, Holger; Marending, Monika; De-Deus, Gustavo; Sener, Beatrice; Zehnder, Matthias

    2011-05-01

    When sodium hypochlorite solutions react with tissue, their pH drops and tissue sorption decreases. We studied whether stabilizing a NaOCl solution at a high pH would increase its soft-tissue dissolution capacity and effects on the dentin matrix compared with a standard NaOCl solution of the same concentration and similar initial pH. NaOCl solutions were prepared by mixing (1:1) a 10% stock solution with water (standard) or 2 mol/L NaOH (stabilized). Physiological saline and 1 mol/L NaOH served as the controls. Chlorine content and alkaline capacity of NaOCl solutions were determined. Standardized porcine palatal soft-tissue specimens and human root dentin bars were exposed to test and control solutions. Weight loss percentage was assessed in the soft-tissue dissolution assay. Three-point bending tests were performed on the root dentin bars to determine the modulus of elasticity and flexural strength. Values between groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance with the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (α < .05). Both solutions contained 5% NaOCl. One milliliter of the standard and the stabilized solution consumed 4.0 mL and 13.7 mL of a 0.1-mol/L HCl solution before they reached a pH level of 7.5, respectively. The stabilized NaOCl dissolved significantly more soft tissue than the standard solution, and the pH remained high. It also caused a higher loss in elastic modulus and flexure strength (P < .05) than the control solutions, whereas the standard solution did not. NaOH-stabilized NaOCl solutions have a higher alkaline capacity and are thus more proteolytic than standard counterparts. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Disinfection of herbal spa pool using combined chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite treatment.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ching-Shan; Huang, Da-Ji

    2015-02-01

    The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in public spa pools poses a serious threat to human health. The problem is particularly acute in herbal spas, in which the herbs and microorganisms may interact and produce undesirable consequences. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effectiveness of a combined disinfectant containing chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite in improving the water quality of a public herbal spa in Taiwan. Water samples were collected from the spa pool and laboratory tests were then performed to measure the variation over time of the microorganism content (total CFU and total coliforms) and residual disinfectant content given a single disinfection mode (SDM) with disinfectant concentrations of 5.2 × 10, 6.29 × 10, 7.4 × 10, and 11.4 × 10(-5) N, respectively. Utilizing the experience gained from the laboratory tests, a further series of on-site investigations was performed using three different disinfection modes, namely SDM, 3DM (once every 3 h disinfection mode), and 2DM (once every 2 h disinfection mode). The laboratory results showed that for all four disinfectant concentrations, the CFU concentration reduced for the first 6 h following SDM treatment, but then increased. Moreover, the ANOVA results showed that the sample treated with the highest disinfectant concentration (11.4 × 10(-5) N) exhibited the lowest rate of increase in the CFU concentration. In addition, the on-site test results showed that 3DM and 2DM treatments with disinfectant concentrations in excess of 9.3 × 10 and 5.5 × 10(-5) N, respectively, provided an effective reduction in the total CFU concentration. In conclusion, the experimental results presented in this study provide a useful source of reference for spa businesses seeking to improve the water quality of their spa pools.

  17. Tissue dissolution ability of sodium hypochlorite activated by photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming technique.

    PubMed

    Guneser, Mehmet Burak; Arslan, Dilara; Usumez, Aslihan

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) technique on the pulp tissue-dissolving capacity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and compare it with the EndoActivator System (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) and the Er:YAG laser with an endodontic fiber tip. Bovine pulp tissue samples (45 ± 15 mg) and dentin powder (10 mg) were placed in 1.5-mL Eppendorf tubes with 1 mL 5.25% NaOCl (Wizard; Rehber Kimya, Istanbul, Turkey) or distilled water (control) for 5 minutes with activation by the EndoActivator System, the Er:YAG laser with an endodontic fiber tip, and the PIPS technique. Nonactivated NaOCl served as the positive control. All testing procedures were performed at room temperature. The tissue samples were weighed before and after treatment, and the percentage of weight loss was calculated. The differences were statistically analyzed. The highest rate of tissue dissolution was observed in the NaOCl + Er:YAG group (P < .05). The NaOCl + PIPS group dissolved more bovine pulp tissue than the nonactivated NaOCl group (P < .05). There was no statistically significant difference between the rates of tissue dissolution of the NaOCl + EA and the nonactivated NaOCl groups (P > .05). NaOCl activation with the Er:YAG laser with an endodontic fiber tip was the most effective in bovine pulp tissue dissolution. The PIPS technique also promoted superior tissue-dissolving effects when compared with no activation. However, the EndoActivator System had no direct effect on tissue dissolution. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of a sodium hypochlorite/etidronic acid irrigant solution.

    PubMed

    Arias-Moliz, Maria Teresa; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Baca, Pilar; Ruiz-Linares, Matilde; Ferrer-Luque, Carmen María

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)/9% etidronic acid (HEBP) irrigant solution on Enterococcus faecalis growing in biofilms and a dentinal tubule infection model. The antimicrobial activity of the solutions 2.5% NaOCl and 9% HEBP alone and associated was evaluated on E. faecalis biofilms grown in the Calgary biofilm model (minimum biofilm eradication concentration high-throughput device). For the dentinal tubule infection test, the percentage of dead cells in E. faecalis-infected dentinal tubules treated with the solutions for 10 minutes was measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy and the live/dead technique. Available chlorine and pH of the solutions were also measured. Distilled water was used as the control. Nonparametric tests were used to determine statistical differences. The highest viability was found in the distilled water group and the lowest in the NaOCl-treated dentin (P < .05). Both NaOCl solutions killed 100% of the E. faecalis biofilms and showed the highest antimicrobial activity inside dentinal tubules, without statistical differences between the 2 (P < .05). The HEBP isolated solution killed bacteria inside dentinal tubules but did not present any significant effect against E. faecalis biofilms. The incorporation of HEBP to NaOCl did not cause any loss of available chlorine within 60 minutes. HEBP did not interfere with the ability of NaOCl to kill E. faecalis grown in biofilms and inside dentinal tubules. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Concentration-dependent effect of sodium hypochlorite on stem cells of apical papilla survival and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Martin, David E; De Almeida, Jose Flavio A; Henry, Michael A; Khaing, Zin Z; Schmidt, Christine E; Teixeira, Fabricio B; Diogenes, Anibal

    2014-01-01

    Intracanal disinfection is a crucial step in regenerative endodontic procedures. Most published cases suggest the use of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as the primary irrigant. However, the effect of clinically used concentrations of NaOCl on the survival and differentiation of stem cells is largely unknown. In this study, we tested the effect of various concentrations of NaOCl on the stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAPs) survival and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) expression. Standardized root canals were created in extracted human teeth and irrigated with NaOCl (0.5%, 1.5%, 3%, or 6%) followed by 17% EDTA or sterile saline. SCAPs in a hyaluronic acid-based scaffold were seeded into the canals and cultured for 7 days. Next, viable cells were quantified using a luminescence assay, and DSPP expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. There was a significant reduction in survival and DSPP expression in the group treated with 6% NaOCl compared with the untreated control group. Comparable survival was observed in the groups treated with the lower concentrations of NaOCl, but greater DSPP expression was observed in the 1.5% NaOCl group. In addition, 17% EDTA resulted in increased survival and DSPP expression partially reversing the deleterious effects of NaOCl. Collectively, the results suggest that dentin conditioning with high concentrations of NaOCl has a profound negative effect on the survival and differentiation of SCAPs. However, this effect can be prevented with the use of 1.5% NaOCl followed by 17% EDTA. The inclusion of this irrigation regimen might be beneficial in regenerative endodontic procedures. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of organic tissue dissolution capacities of sodium hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Cobankara, Funda Kont; Ozkan, Hatice Buyukozer; Terlemez, Arslan

    2010-02-01

    The organic tissue dissolution properties of irrigating solutions are important for the success of endodontic treatment. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) has been recently proposed as an irrigation solution in endodontics. The organic tissue dissolution property of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is well-known and extensively investigated, but apparently no data have been published on tissue-dissolving properties of ClO2. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare organic tissue dissolution capacity of NaOCl and ClO2. In this study, 5.25% NaOCl, 13.8% ClO2, and, as a control, isotonic saline solutions (0.9% NaCl) were used. Thirty bovine pulp specimens were previously weighed and immersed for 20 minutes in each test solution (changing the solution every 2 minutes). The pulp specimens were then blotted dry and weighed again. The percentage of weight loss was calculated and statistically analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference tests. Saline solution did not dissolve the organic tissue. Both 5.25% NaOCl and 13.8% ClO2 dissolved the tissue pieces more effectively than saline control (P < .05). No statistically significant difference was found between the tissue-dissolving properties of 5.25% NaOCl and those of 13.8% ClO2 (P > .05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that ClO2 and NaOCl are equally efficient for dissolving organic tissue. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sodium Hypochlorite Versus Formocresol and Ferric Sulfate Pulpotomies in Primary Molars: 18-month Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Farsi, Deema J; El-Khodary, Heba M; Farsi, Najat M; El Ashiry, Eman A; Yagmoor, Mohammed A; Alzain, Soha M

    2015-01-01

    This study's purpose was to compare the clinical and radiographic success rates of 5.25 percent Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) pulpotomies to Formocresol (FC) and Ferric Sulfate (FS) in decayed primary molars. Eighty-one primary molars, randomly divided into three groups, were treated with one of three different pulpotomy materials; NaOCl, FC and FS. The outcomes of the different groups were assessed clinically and radiographically every six months over 18 months. Chi-square test was used to detect differences in outcome measures in all groups. At six months, clinical and radiographic success rates were 100 percent for each group (27/27). At 12 months, clinical success was 100 percent (24/24), 96 percent (24/25), and 95.7 percent (22/23) for NaOCl, FC, and FS respectively. The radiographic success was 95.8 percent (23/24) for NaOCl group, and 100 percent for FC (25/25), and FS (23/23). At 18 months, the clinical success was 83.3 percent (20/24), 96 percent (24/25), and 87 percent (20/23) for NaOCL, FC, and FS respectively. The 18 month radiographic success was 91.7 percent (22/24), 100 percent (25/25), and 95.7 percent (22/23) for NaOCl, FC, and FS respectively. No significant differences were found in clinical or radiographic outcomes between the three groups at six, 12 and 18 months. The three pulpotomy medicaments yielded similar outcomes.

  2. Microleakage Evaluation of Adhesive Systems Following Pulp Chamber Irrigation with Sodium Hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddas, Mohammad Javad; Moosavi, Horieh; Ghavamnasiri, Marjaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of delaying composite resin restorative procedures bonded with total-etch and self-etch adhesive systems on microleakage following root canal irrigation with sodium hy-pochlorite (NaOCl) solution. Materials and methods. The roofs of pulp chambers and roots (1–2 mm below furcation) of 40 human first molar teeth were cut and pulp tissues completely removed. The teeth were randomly divided into two main groups (n = 20). Group E (experimental) was irrigated with 5% NaOCl and group C (control) was left untreated. For the experimental group, after obturation of root canals with gutta-percha and sealing the cavity with Cavit, the specimens were stored in artificialsaliva for two weeks. Then each group was divided into two subgroups according to the total-etch or self-etch adhesive application protocol: Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and Clearfil SE Bond. The specimens were restored with composite resin using each bonding agent: Z250 and Clearfil Photo Core, respectively. Fluid filtration method was used for evaluation of microleakage. Data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA ( α= 0.05). Results. Two types of dentin adhesive systems showed no statistically significant differences in microleakage (P = 0.77). NaOCl-treated groups demonstrated significantly higher microleakage values compared to the non-NaOCl-treated groups (P= 0.001). The interaction between the two factors was not significant (P = 0.78). Conclusion. Differences in inlay temperature had no effect on microleakage. CAD/CAM inlays had lower cement thick-ness than laboratory-made inlays, but this was not related to their microleakage. PMID:25024835

  3. Field stimulation-induced tetrodotoxin-resistant vasorelaxation is mediated by sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Varma, Daya R; Xia, Zhicheng; Ozgoli, Mehran; Chemtob, Sylvain; Mulay, Shree

    2006-11-01

    This study was done to determine the mechanism of field stimulation-induced tetrodotoxin (TTX)- and NG- nitro-l-arginine (LNA)-resistant vasorelaxation. Field stimulation with platinum and carbon, but not with silver, electrodes (30 V, 30 HZ, 2-5 ms pulse width) as well as electrically stimulated salt (0.9% NaCl) solution (ESSS) or Krebs solution caused 100% relaxation of phenylephrine-contracted rat aortic strips, which was TTX and LNA resistant and endothelium independent. ESSS also relaxed other vascular preparations (rabbit aorta and renal artery, dog coronary artery, pig ductus arteriosus, and rat portal vein). The electric current generated hypochlorite (OCl-) and H2O2 from the salt solution; however, vasorelaxation was caused by NaOCl and not by H2O2. ESSS and NaOCl caused contraction failure of spontaneously beating right atria of rats and did not affect uterine contractions, vascular cAMP, cGMP, or the pH of the tissue bath. Field stimulation, ESSS, and NaOCl did not relax aortic preparations contracted by 32 mmol/L potassium and their vasorelaxant effects on phenylephrine-contracted rat aortic strips and rings were completely reversed by tetraethylammonium and partially by glibenclamide and iberiotoxin. We conclude that electric pulses generate the oxidant OCl- from the salt solution, which causes vasorelaxation by increasing K+ conductance.

  4. Influence of sodium hypochlorite and EDTA on the microtensile bond strength of a self-etching adhesive system

    PubMed Central

    CECCHIN, Doglas; FARINA, Ana Paula; GALAFASSI, Daniel; BARBIZAM, João Vicente Baroni; CORONA, Silmara Aparecida Milori; CARLINI-JÚNIOR, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Chemical substances used during biomechanical preparation of root canals can alter the composition of dentin surface and affect the interaction with restorative materials. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of a self-etching adhesive system to dentin irrigated with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (eDTA). Material and Methods Thirty human third molars were sectioned 3 mm below the occlusal surface, polished with 600- to 1200-grit silicon carbide papers, and randomly divided into 3 groups: G1 (control): no irrigating solution; G2: 1% NaOCl; and G3: 1% NaOCl followed by the application of 17% eDTA. The specimens received the self-etching adhesive system (XeNO III - Dentsply), restored with microhybrid composite resin (Z250 - 3M ESPE), sectioned and trimmed to create 4 hourglass-shaped slabs of each tooth. The slabs were tested in microtensile strength in a universal testing machine (emic DL 2000) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. The results were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Newman-Keuls test. Results Mean µTBS values and standard deviations in MPa were: G1 = 11.89 ± 4.22; G2 = 19.41 ± 5.32; G3 = 11.34 ± 4.73. 1% NaOCl increased the adhesive resistance significantly (p<0.001/ F=22.5763). The application of 1% NaOCl/17% eDTA resulted in statistically similar µTBS to the control group. Conclusions None of the irrigants affected negatively the µTBS of XeNO III to dentin. The use of 1% NaOCl alone resulted in higher bond strength than the other treatments. The combination of 1% NaOCl and 17% eDTA produced similar bond strength to that of untreated dentin. PMID:20835574

  5. Influence of sodium hypochlorite and edta on the microtensile bond strength of a self-etching adhesive system.

    PubMed

    Cecchin, Doglas; Farina, Ana Paula; Galafassi, Daniel; Barbizam, João Vicente Baroni; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Carlini-Júnior, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Chemical substances used during biomechanical preparation of root canals can alter the composition of dentin surface and affect the interaction with restorative materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of a self-etching adhesive system to dentin irrigated with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Thirty human third molars were sectioned 3 mm below the occlusal surface, polished with 600- to 1200-grit silicon carbide papers, and randomly divided into 3 groups: G1 (control): no irrigating solution; G2: 1% NaOCl; and G3: 1% NaOCl followed by the application of 17% EDTA. The specimens received the self-etching adhesive system (XENO III - Dentsply), restored with microhybrid composite resin (Z250 - 3M ESPE), sectioned and trimmed to create 4 hourglass-shaped slabs of each tooth. The slabs were tested in microtensile strength in a universal testing machine (Emic DL 2000) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. The results were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Newman-Keuls test. Mean µTBS values and standard deviations in MPa were: G1 = 11.89 ± 4.22; G2 = 19.41 ± 5.32; G3 = 11.34 ± 4.73. 1% NaOCl increased the adhesive resistance significantly (p<0.001/F=22.5763). The application of 1% NaOCl/17% EDTA resulted in statistically similar µTBS to the control group. None of the irrigants affected negatively the µTBS of XENO III to dentin. The use of 1% NaOCl alone resulted in higher bond strength than the other treatments. The combination of 1% NaOCl and 17% EDTA produced similar bond strength to that of untreated dentin.

  6. Efficiency in bracket bonding with the use of pretreatment methods to tooth enamel before acid etching: sodium hypochlorite vs. hydrogen peroxide techniques.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Prado, Hermann; Moyaho-Bernal, Ángeles; Andrade-Torres, Alejandro; Franco-Romero, Guillermo; Montiel-Jarquín, Álvaro; Mendoza-Pinto, Claudia; García-Cano, Eugenio; Hernández-Ruíz, Ana K

    2015-04-01

    Bond failures are produced by the existence of biofilm on the tooth surface. Because biofilm is impermeable, it prevents contact in many areas, reducing the etching effect which selectively dissolves calcified tissues but does not seem to eliminate biofilm from the tooth surface, and thus the bond between the tooth and the bracket is not strong enough. The aim of this study is to compare bracket bonding efficiency with two dental surface pretreatments: sodium hypochlorite vs. hydrogen peroxide techniques. This was a cross-sectional, comparative, in vitro study. Seventy-five premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were evaluated. They were divided into three groups of 25 teeth and assigned randomly toone of the pretreatment techniques (5.25%sodium hypochlorite or 3.5% hydrogen peroxide) or to a control group. The most efficient pretreatment technique for bonding to brackets was sodium hypochlorite, with an average of 17.15 (kg/F). Significant differences were observed between groups (p=0.0001). The post hoc bond strength test showed statistically significant differences between the sodium hypochlorite technique and the control group (p=0.0001). The sodium hypochlorite technique improves bracket adhesion to tooth enamel.

  7. An in vitro study to determine the minimal bactericidal concentration of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) required to inhibit meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains isolated from canine skin.

    PubMed

    Pariser, Marlene; Gard, Sharon; Gram, Dunbar; Schmeitzel, Lynn

    2013-12-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is becoming a more common pathogen in animals treated in veterinary hospitals, raising concerns for transmission and possible contamination of the hospital itself. The identification of effective agents for the decontamination of veterinary patients and hospitals is crucial. Sodium hypochlorite (6.15%) or 'bleach' is an inexpensive and frequently used decontamination agent in human and veterinary hospitals and an adjunctive treatment for human patients. There are no published data on the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of sodium hypochlorite (6.15%) for MRSP. The objective of this study was to determine the MBC of sodium hypochlorite (6.15%) against MRSP strains isolated from canine skin. In this in vitro study, 12 canine skin isolates were obtained from the Antech Diagnostics microbiology department. Twofold serial dilutions of sodium hypochlorite (6.15%) were allowed to react with each of the MRSP strains for 15 min, followed by overnight incubation on agar plates. Colonies on each plate were counted. This process was repeated in triplicate. The overall MBC for the canine skin-isolated MRSP strains was 1:32, but most strains had an MBC between 1:64 and 1:128 dilution. This study shows that sodium hypochlorite (6.15%) is an effective agent for decontamination at easily achievable concentrations. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. Antibacterial Effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) or Curcuma longa (Turmeric) against Enterococcus faecalis Compared with That of 5% Sodium Hypochlorite or 2% Chlorhexidine in vitro.

    PubMed

    Joy Sinha, Dakshita; D S Nandha, Kanwar; Jaiswal, Natasha; Vasudeva, Agrima; Prabha Tyagi, Shashi; Pratap Singh, Udai

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antibacterial properties of Azadirachta indica (neem) or Curcuma longa (turmeric) against Enterococcus faecalis with those of 5% sodium hypochlorite or 2% chlorhexidine as root canal irrigants in vitro. The activity of neem, chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite, or turmeric against E. faecalis was measured on agar plates using the agar diffusion method. The tube dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the irrigants used. Chlorhexidine or neem exhibited the greatest antibacterial activity when used as endodontic irrigants against E. faecalis, followed by sodium hypochlorite. No statistically significant difference was observed between neem, sodium hypochlorite, or chlorhexidine. The MIC of neem was 1: 128, which was similar to that of chlorhexidine. The MBC for each of these irrigants was 1: 16. Neem yielded antibacterial activity equivalent to 2% chlorhexidine or sodium hypochlorite against E. faecalis, suggesting that it offers a promising alternative to the other root canal irrigants tested.

  9. Influence of ProTaper finishing files and sodium hypochlorite on cleaning and shaping of mandibuldar central incisors--a histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Baratto-Filho, Flares; Leonardi, Denise Piotto; Zielak, João César; Vanni, José Roberto; Sayão-Maia, Sandra Maria Alves; Sousa-Neto, Manoel D

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the last apical instrument of the ProTaper system with and without 2.5% sodium hypochlorite for cleaning mandibular central incisors. Thirty two mandibular central incisors were divided into six study groups: Group I--F1 instrument with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite; Group II--F1 and F2 with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite; Group III--F1, F2 and F3 with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite; Group IV--F1 with distilled water; Group V--F1 and F2 with distilled water; Group VI--F1, F2 and F3 with distilled water. The two remaining teeth comprised the negative control group. The specimens were prepared following the principles of the technique suggested by the manufacturer and then submitted to histological preparation and morphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal Wallis test at 1% significance level. There was statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between all study groups, except between Groups I and VI. It was concluded that no technique allowed complete cleaning of the root canals. However, the technique of finishing preparation of the apical third with the F3 instrument with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation was the most effective.

  10. An in vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activity of five herbal extracts and comparison of their activity with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Divya; Saha, Suparna Ganguly; Saha, Mainak Kanti; Dubey, Sandeep; Khatri, Margie

    2015-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite is the most widely used irrigant in endodontic practice, but it has various disadvantages. Literature has shown that herbal products such as Propolis, Azadirachta indica (AI), Triphala, Curcuma longa, and Morinda citrifolia (MC) possess good antimicrobial properties and thus can be used as potential endodontic irrigants. To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity of five herbal extracts, i.e., Propolis, AI, Triphala, C. longa, and MC with that of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis. E. faecalis American Type Culture Collection 21292 was inoculated onto brain heart infusion agar plate. Discs impregnated with herbal medicaments were placed on the inoculated plates and incubated at 37°C aerobically for 24 h and growth inhibition zones were measured. Mean zone of inhibition in descending order was found as sodium hypochlorite > Propolis > AI > Triphala > C. longa = MC > ethanol. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance which showed a significant difference in the zone of inhibition of sodium hypochlorite and Propolis (P < 0.001). Propolis showed highest zone of inhibition among all the herbal extracts next to sodium hypochlorite. Propolis and AI have significant antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis.

  11. The effect of blood on the antiviral activity of sodium hypochlorite, a phenolic, and a quaternary ammonium compound.

    PubMed

    Weber, D J; Barbee, S L; Sobsey, M D; Rutala, W A

    1999-12-01

    To assess the virucidal activity of three disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, a phenolic, and a quaternary ammonium compound) in the presence and absence of blood. Disinfectants at varying concentrations (hypochlorite: 5,000, 500, or 50 ppm; phenolic: 1:10 or 1:128 dilution; quaternary ammonium compound: 1:10 or 1:128 dilution) were added to either saline or whole blood (final concentration, 80% or 20% blood) and mixed. Test organisms included an attenuated vaccine strain of poliovirus type 1 (prototype for relatively resistant hydrophilic viruses) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (prototype for relatively susceptible lipophilic viruses). Virus was added to create a viral-blood suspension. Viral survival was tested at room temperature at the following times: 0, 15 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 5 minutes, and 10 minutes. A neutralizer stopped the reaction, and virus was assayed using a plaque technique. In the absence of blood, complete inactivation of HSV was achieved within 30 seconds with 5,000 (1:10 dilution of bleach) and 500 (1:100 dilution of bleach) ppm chlorine, 1:10 and 1:128 diluted phenolic (use dilution), and 1:10 and 1:128 diluted quaternary ammonium compound (use dilution). In the presence of 80% blood, only 5,000 ppm hypochlorite, 1:10 phenolic, and 1:10 or 1:128 quaternary ammonium compound were effective. In the absence of blood, complete inactivation of polio was achieved within 30 seconds by 5,000 and 500 ppm chlorine and 1:10 quaternary ammonium compound. In the presence of 80% blood, no solution tested was capable of completely inactivating poliovirus within 10 minutes. Our data suggest that, in the absence of visible blood, environmental surfaces may be disinfected with a diluted hypochlorite solution (1:10 or 1:100), a phenolic, or a quaternary ammonium compound. Based on our studies using HSV, which has similar susceptibilities to disinfectants as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), phenolics at their use dilution and 1

  12. Comparison of the virucidal efficacy of peracetic acid, potassium monopersulphate and sodium hypochlorite on bacteriophages P001 and MS2.

    PubMed

    Morin, T; Martin, H; Soumet, C; Fresnel, R; Lamaudière, S; Le Sauvage, A L; Deleurme, K; Maris, P

    2015-09-01

    The phagicidal activity of peroxy products against the virulent bacteriophage P001 infecting lactic acid bacteria and bacteriophage MS2 used as a surrogate of enteric viruses (EVs) was evaluated and compared to sodium hypochlorite using the EN 13610 European suspension test and a surface test developed in our laboratories. Infectivity tests were adapted and/or developed to determine the activity of disinfectants against reference P001 phage of Lactoccocus lactis and F-specific RNA phage MS2 of Escherichia coli in conditions simulating practical use. Similar concentrations of sodium hypochlorite were phagicidal against both bacteriophages, either at 0·05-0·125% of active chlorine using the suspension test or at 0·12-0·5% using the surface test. For Potassium monopersulphate (MPS), phagicidal concentrations varied from 0·006 to 0·012% whatever the type of test and phages. However, for peracetic acid products (PAP) used in suspension, concentrations 55 times higher were necessary against MS2 (0·271%) than against P001 (0·005%). With the surface test, 0·089-0·178% concentrations of PAP were effective against MS2, but these concentrations were 16-32 times greater than needed against P001. Sodium hypochlorite and MPS had similar phagicidal activities against P001 and MS2, but PAP did not. This is the first comparative study to investigate through suspension and surface tests the difference in resistance to peroxy compounds between a reference bacteriophage (P001) used to evaluate phagicidal concentrations in European standards and a surrogate of EVs (MS2). Results underline the importance of validation tests on pertinent surrogates of viruses or bacteriophages to adjust the concentration of disinfectants for use in the food and water industries. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Toxico-pathological effects of sodium hypochlorite administration through drinking water in female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Hamdullah; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, Ijaz

    2010-09-01

    Fifty female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) at 40 days were divided into five equal groups. Sodium hypochlorite was added in drinking water to provide 0, 25, 50, 200, 400 mg chlorine/L for 6 weeks. At week 7, the chlorine concentration of 25 and 50 mg groups was increased to 100 mg and further increased to 400, 1600 and 6400 mg at weeks 8, 9 and 10, respectively. At the end the experiment (week 10), all the birds were sacrificed. No clinical signs were observed in quail given 50 mg chlorine/L. Quail given 200-400 mg/L chlorine exhibited decreased feed intake, body weight and egg production. In addition, those given 1600-6400 mg/L chlorine also exhibited depression. Decreased hematocrit, erythrocyte, hemoglobin, leukocytes, plasma proteins and globulin were observed at 200 mg/L chlorine and higher concentration. Gross lesions were not observed in quail offered 200-400 mg/L chlorine for 6 weeks; however, those offered 1600-6400 mg/L chlorine exhibited atrophied pectoral muscles, prominently protruding keel bones, decreased weight of ovary and oviduct and a reduction in an area of the different segments of oviduct. The histopathological picture in mucosa of oviduct consisted of degenerated glandular cells. In some cases, glandular tissue was replaced by cord of cells and fibroblast. The present study suggested that sodium hypochlorite in drinking water yielding 50 mg/L chlorine was not toxic for 6 weeks. However, sodium hypochlorite providing 200 mg/L chlorine or higher concentrations in drinking water was toxic to the quail.

  14. Comparison of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Diode Laser, Triphala, and Sodium Hypochlorite in Primary Root Canals: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Seby; Asokan, Sharath; John, Baby; Priya, Geetha; Kumar, S

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of diode laser, triphala, and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococc-cus faecalis contaminated primary root canals. Forty-nine single-rooted human primary teeth were reduced up to cemento-enamel junction and biomechanically prepared. After sterilization, five teeth were selected as negative controls and remaining teeth were inoculated with E. faecalis. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups. The first group was irradiated with diode laser, the second group was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite, and the third group with triphala solution. The fourth group served as the positive control. The antimicrobial efficacy was tested by collecting transfer fluid saline from the canals and counting the colony forming units (CFUs) of viable E. faecalis on agar plates. The Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the results, using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 19. The results showed that mean bacterial CFU were 8.00 ± 7.87 for laser, 58.60 ± 16.63 for triphala, and 69.80 ± 19.57 for NaOCl. Laser group showed significant reduction in the colony count compared to the other groups. Triphala group showed better antibacterial activity than NaOCl, but the difference was not statistically significant. Laser was most effective against E. faecalis and triphala can be used as an alternative disinfectant to NaOCl in primary root canals. Thomas S, Asokan S, John B, Priya G, Kumar S. Comparison of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Diode Laser, Triphala, and Sodium Hypochlorite in Primary Root Canals: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):14-17.

  15. Comparison of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Diode Laser, Triphala, and Sodium Hypochlorite in Primary Root Canals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Asokan, Sharath; John, Baby; Priya, Geetha; Kumar, S

    2017-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of diode laser, triphala, and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococc-cus faecalis contaminated primary root canals. Materials and methods Forty-nine single-rooted human primary teeth were reduced up to cemento-enamel junction and biomechanically prepared. After sterilization, five teeth were selected as negative controls and remaining teeth were inoculated with E. faecalis. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups. The first group was irradiated with diode laser, the second group was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite, and the third group with triphala solution. The fourth group served as the positive control. The antimicrobial efficacy was tested by collecting transfer fluid saline from the canals and counting the colony forming units (CFUs) of viable E. faecalis on agar plates. The Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the results, using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 19. Results The results showed that mean bacterial CFU were 8.00 ± 7.87 for laser, 58.60 ± 16.63 for triphala, and 69.80 ± 19.57 for NaOCl. Laser group showed significant reduction in the colony count compared to the other groups. Triphala group showed better antibacterial activity than NaOCl, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion Laser was most effective against E. faecalis and triphala can be used as an alternative disinfectant to NaOCl in primary root canals. How to cite this article Thomas S, Asokan S, John B, Priya G, Kumar S. Comparison of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Diode Laser, Triphala, and Sodium Hypochlorite in Primary Root Canals: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):14-17. PMID:28377648

  16. Antimicrobial activity of complete denture cleanser solutions based on sodium hypochlorite and Ricinus communis – a randomized clinical study

    PubMed Central

    SALLES, Marcela Moreira; BADARÓ, Maurício Malheiros; de ARRUDA, Carolina Noronha Ferraz; LEITE, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; da SILVA, Cláudia Helena Lovato; WATANABE, Evandro; OLIVEIRA, Viviane de Cássia; PARANHOS, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To preserve oral health and to maintain the prosthetic devices, it is important not only to improve the properties of commonly known hygiene products, but also to investigate new materials with antimicrobial action. Objectives This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50%) and 10% Ricinus communis’ solutions against specific microorganisms. Material and Methods Sixty four maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures three times a day and to soak them (20 min/day) in the solutions: SH1: 0.25% sodium hypochlorite; SH2: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; RC: 10% R. communis oil; and C: 0.85% saline (control). The solutions were used for 7 days in a randomized sequence. Following each period of use, there was a 1-week washout period. Antimicrobial activity was determined by Colony Forming Units (CFU) counts of Streptococcus mutans, Candida spp., and gram-negative microorganisms. For collecting biofilm, the internal surface of maxillary dentures was brushed with saline solution, and biofilm suspension obtained. After dilutions (100 - 10-3), aliquots were seeded in Mitis salivarius, CHROMagar Candida®, and MacConkey agar for detecting S. mutans, Candida spp., or gram-negative microorganisms, respectively. After incubation, colonies were counted, and CFU/mL values were calculated. Then, transformation - log10 (CFU+1) - data were analyzed using the Friedman test (α=0.05). Results showed significant differences between the solutions (p<0.001). Results All three solutions showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. Against Candida spp., RC and SH1 solutions showed similar effect while SH2 showed superior activity. SH1 and SH2 solutions showed antimicrobial action against gram-negative microorganisms. The Candida species most frequently isolated was C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Conclusions The 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was the most effective and might be used to

  17. In Vivo Intracanal Temperature Evolution during Endodontic Treatment after the Injection of Room Temperature or Preheated Sodium Hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    de Hemptinne, Ferdinand; Slaus, Gunter; Vandendael, Mathieu; Jacquet, Wolfgang; De Moor, Roeland J; Bottenberg, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Heating a sodium hypochlorite solution improves its effectiveness. The aim of this study was to measure the in vivo temperature changes of sodium hypochlorite solutions that were initially preheated to 66°C or at room temperature inside root canals during routine irrigation. Thirty-five root canals were prepared to ISO size 40 with 4% taper. A type K (nickel-chromium-nickel) thermocouple microprobe (Testo NV, Ternat, Belgium) was positioned within 3 mm of the working length to measure the temperature at 1-second intervals. In each canal, 2 test protocols were evaluated in a randomized order with 3% sodium hypochlorite solutions: (1) preheated to 66°C and (2) at room temperature. The temperature measurements began 5 seconds before the 25 seconds of irrigant injections and continued for 240 seconds. This resulted in 270 data points for each protocol. The temperature of the irrigant at room temperature increased from the initial intracanal temperature after injection of 20.7°C (±1.2°C) to 30.9°C (±1.3°C) in 10 seconds and to 35°C (±0.9°C) after 240 seconds. The temperature of the preheated to 66°C solution decreased from 56.4°C (±2.7°C) to 45.4°C (±3.0°C) after 5 seconds, reached 37°C (±0.9°C) after 60 seconds, and reached 35.7°C (±0.8°C) after 240 seconds. The original temperatures of the sodium hypochlorite solutions were buffered inside the root canal and tended to rapidly evolve to equilibrium. The findings of this study contribute to an improved understanding of the thermodynamic behaviors of irrigant solutions inside root canals in vivo. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Influence of immobilized forms of sodium hypochlorite on the immediate and long-term results of treatment of the patients with diffuse peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Sukovatykh, B S; Blinkov, Iu Iu; Makienko, K G

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of complex examination and results of treatment was made in 290 patients with diffuse peritonitis. The patients were divided into two groups according to way of sanation of the abdominal cavity. The sanation with 0.03% aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite was used for the first group of 155 patients. The immobilized forms of sodium hypochlorite in carboxymethyl cellulose gel were applied in the second group. The rate of postoperative complications was decreased on 15.4%, the lethality--on 8.2% in the case of application of the immobilized forms of sodium hypochlorite. The developed technology allowed increasing of physical component of life quality of the patients in 1.3 times, though it didn't influence on psychical component.

  19. Antibacterial Efficacy of Octenisept, Alexidine, Chlorhexidine, and Sodium Hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Bukhary, Sundus; Balto, Hanan

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effectiveness of Octenisept (OCT; Schülke & Mayr GmBH, Norderstedt, Germany), 1% alexidine (ALX) (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc, Santa Cruz, CA), and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Root dentin discs were prepared from extracted human teeth, sterilized, and inoculated with E. faecalis strain (ATCC 29212) to establish 3-week-old biofilm model. Infected dentin discs were exposed to OCT (n = 20), 1% ALX (n = 20), and 2% CHX (n = 20) for 10 minutes. Dentin discs (n = 15) exposed to 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) were used as a positive control, whereas specimens exposed to saline (n = 15) were used as a negative control. After exposure, the dentin discs were stained with fluorescent LIVE/DEAD BacLight dye (Invitrogen Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR) and analyzed with confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine the proportion of dead cells in the biofilm. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (P < .05). The highest proportion of dead cells was found in the 5.25% NaOCl group (94.14%; range, 92.30%-98.20%) compared with the experimental groups (P < .05). A significantly greater proportion of dead cells was found in the OCT group (74.14%; range, 70.03%-78.96%) compared with the 1% ALX and 2% CHX groups (P < .05). The proportion of dead cells was 43.89% (range, 24.86%-55.63%) and 42.78% (range, 25.45%-55.06%) in the 1% ALX and 2% CHX groups, respectively, with no statistical significant difference between the 2 groups (P > .05). NaOCl had significantly greater antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis biofilms compared with OCT, CHX, and ALX. OCT was more effective than CHX and ALX. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of sodium hypochlorite on microleakage of composite resin restorations using three adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Mirela Sanae; Bedran-de-Castro, Ana Karina Barbieri; Amaral, Cristiane Mariote; Pimenta, Luiz André Freire

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different adhesive systems on microleakage of Class V restorations after the use of sodium hypochlorite. One-hundred eighty bovine incisors were selected and randomly divided into 9 groups (n = 20): G1: Single Bond (SB); G2: 10% NaOCl solution (NS) + SB; G3: 10% NaOCl gel (NG) + SB; G4: Prime & Bond NT (PB); G5: NS + PB; G6: NG + PB; G7: Gluma One Bond (GOB); G8: NS + GOB; G9: NG + GOB. Standardized Class V cavities were prepared. All teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s. In groups 2, 5, and 8, a 10% NaOCl solution was applied for 60 s to the dentin, and in groups 3, 6, and 9, a 10% NaOCl gel was applied to dentin for 60 s. All cavities were restored with composite resin Definite. The specimens were thermocycled for 1000 cycles (5 degrees C to 55 degrees C) and then immersed in 2% buffered solution of methylene blue for 4 h. The specimens were sectioned and analyzed according to a ranking score (0 to 4). Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests (p < or = 0.05) were used for statistical analysis. The NaOCl treatment significantly increased microleakage at the dentin margin (p = 0.0129) as shown by the following sums of ranks: G1 = 1008.0a; G4 = 1301.5ab; G3 = 1687.0ab; G7 = 1744.0bc; G2 = 1802.0c; G9 = 1880.0c; G5 = 1889.0c; G8 = 1950.0c; G6 = 1963.0c (different superscripts indicate significant differences). For enamel, there were no statistically significant differences among the groups (p > 0.05). Depending on the adhesive system used, the application of NaOCl increased microleakage along dentin margins.

  1. Tissue dissolution and modifications in dentin composition by different sodium hypochlorite concentrations

    PubMed Central

    TARTARI, Talita; BACHMANN, Luciano; MALIZA, Amanda Garcia Alves; ANDRADE, Flaviana Bombarda; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro; BRAMANTE, Clovis Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) remains the most used irrigation solution during root canal preparation because of characteristics such as wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity and organic tissue dissolution capacity. However, these solutions can alter dentin composition and there is no consensus on the optimal concentration of NaOCl to be used. Objectives To determine the organic matter dissolution and changes in dentin chemical composition promoted by different concentrations of NaOCl over time. Material and Methods: Fragments of bovine muscle tissue were weighed before and after 5, 10, and 15 min of immersion in the groups (n=10): G1- 0.9% saline solution; G2- 1% NaOCl; G3- 2.5% NaOCl; and G4- 5% NaOCl. Bovine dentin fragments were subjected to the same irrigants and absorption spectra were collected by Attenuated Total Reflectance of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) before and after 0,5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, and 10 min of immersion in the solutions. The ratios of the amide III/phosphate and carbonate/phosphate absorption bands were determined. The tissue dissolution and carbonate/phosphate ratios were submitted to the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey’s multiple-comparison test (α<0.05) and to the one-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s (α<0.05). The amide III/phosphate ratio was analyzed by Friedman test (α<0.05) and the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s post-hoc (α<0.05). Results The increase in NaOCl concentration and contact time intensified the dissolution of organic matter and dentin collagen with reduction in the amide III/phosphate ratio. Significant differences between all groups (p<0.05) were observed in the dissolution of organic matter at 10 min and in the amide III/phosphate ratio between the saline solution and 5% NaOCl at 5 min. The carbonate/phosphate ratio decreased significantly in G2, G3, and G4 after 0,5 min of immersion (p<0.05), but more alterations did not occur in the subsequent periods (p>0

  2. Antibacterial efficacy of polymer containing nanoparticles in comparison with sodium hypochlorite in infected root canals.

    PubMed

    Samiei, M; Ghasemi, N; Divband, B; Balaei, E; Hosien Soroush Barhaghi, M; Divband, A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the antibacterial properties of PLGA polymer containing ZnO, Ag and ZnO/Ag nanoparticles with those of 2.5% NaOCl in root canals contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. A total of 100 maxillary central incisors were selected. After the crowns were removed to achieve 12-mm-length roots, the root canals were prepared with RaCe rotary system. The samples were sterilized; then 200 µL of E. faecalis suspension (ATCC 29212) was placed in each root canal. The samples were divided into 5 groups based on the antibacterial agent used. Group 1 served as the control group. In group 2 the polymer suspension containing ZnO nanoparticles, in group 3 the polymer solution containing ZnO/Ag nanoparticles, in group 4 the polymer solution containing Ag nanoparticles and in group 5, 2.5% NaOCl were used. After 24 hours, a solution was prepared using dentin chips from each root canal and placed on agar plates, followed by colony-forming units (CFU) count determination. Means ± standard deviations were calculated and Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate the antibacterial properties of different irrigation agents. Mann-Whitney U test was used for two-by-two comparisons of the groups, with the level of significance being set at 0.05. The maximum and minimum CFU counts were observed in the control and NaOCl groups, respectively. In the polymer groups, the maximum and minimum CFU counts were observed in the Ag and ZnO/Ag groups, respectively. There were significant differences in CFU counts between the study groups after application of irrigation solutions (P<0.05). Two-by-two comparisons of the groups using Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences between all the study groups (P<0.05), except for groups ZnO and Ag (P=0.7). Sodium hypochlorite solution was more effective than copolymer containing nanoparticles and of all the tested nanoparticles; ZnO/Ag nanoparticles exhibited the highest antibacterial activity.

  3. Sodium hypochlorite with reduced surface tension does not improve in situ pulp tissue dissolution.

    PubMed

    De-Deus, Gustavo; de Berredo Pinho, Marco André; Reis, Claudia; Fidel, Sandra; Souza, Erick; Zehnder, Matthias

    2013-08-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions with added wetting agents are advertised to dissolve necrotic tissue in root canals faster than their counterparts without a lowered surface tension. This was tested in the current study, and the null hypothesis formulated was that there was no difference between a commercially available NaOCl solution with a lowered surface tension (Chlor-XTRA; Vista Dental Products, Racine, WI) and a counterpart containing the same amount of available chlorine without added wetting agents regarding the soft tissue that remains in oval-shaped canals after mechanical preparation and irrigation. Formerly vital extracted teeth (N = 44, 22 pairs) with similar anatomy were radiographically paired and chemomechanically prepared. In 1 tooth from each pair, a 5.25% NaOCl solution with reduced surface tension was used; in the other, a pure, technical-grade NaOCl solution of 5.25% was used. The percentage of remaining pulp tissue (PRPT) was histologically assessed in root cross-sections. The non-Gaussian raw data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests to verify the respective effect of the cross-section level and solution on the PRPT. The relationship between the cross-section level and the PRPT was estimated by the Spearman correlation test. The alpha-type error was set at 5%. The cross-section level significantly influenced the PRPT (P < .05), whereas the PRPT was not influenced by the solution used (P > .05). A significant inverse correlation was found between the cross-section level and the PRPT (P < .05, r = -0.330). The lower the distance to the apex, the higher the PRPT regardless of the solution used. Contrary to the advertised statement, the dental solution with a reduced surface tension did not dissolve vital pulp tissue in oval root canals any better than a conventional NaOCl solution of similar strength. Closer to the apex, pulp tissue dissolution is less efficient irrespective of the solution. Copyright © 2013 American

  4. Tissue dissolution by a novel multisonic ultracleaning system and sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Haapasalo, Markus; Wang, Zhejun; Shen, Ya; Curtis, Allison; Patel, Payal; Khakpour, Mehrzad

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel Multisonic Ultracleaning System (Sonendo Inc, Laguna Hills, CA) in tissue dissolution in comparison with conventional irrigation devices. Pieces of bovine muscle tissue (68 ± 2 mg) were placed in 0.7-mL test tubes (height: 23.60 mm, inner diameter: 6.00 mm, outer diameter: 7.75 mm) and exposed to 5 minutes of irrigation by different devices. Endodontic devices included the Multisonic Ultracleaning System, the Piezon Master 700 (EMS, Dallas, TX) ultrasonic system with agitation, the EndoVac negative-pressure irrigation system (SybronEndo, Orange, CA), and a conventional positive-pressure 27-G irrigation needle at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. The systems were tested with 0.5%, 3%, and 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) at room temperature (21°C) as well as 40°C. Irrigation with sterile water was used as a control. The mass of tissue specimens was measured and recorded before and after the use of each device, and if the specimen was completely dissolved visually within 5 minutes, the dissolution time was recorded. The rate of tissue dissolution (%/s) was then calculated. The Multisonic Ultracleaning System had the fastest rate of tissue dissolution (P < .05), at 1.0% ± 0.1% per second using 0.5% NaOCl, 2.3% ± 0.9% per second using 3% NaOCl, and 2.9% ± 0.7% per second using 6% NaOCl. This tissue dissolution rate was more than 8 times greater than the second fastest device tested (P < .01), the Piezon Master 700 ultrasonic system, which resulted in a tissue dissolution rate of 0.328% ± 0.002% per second using 6% NaOCl at 40°C. For all irrigation devices tested, the rate of tissue dissolution increased with a higher concentration and temperature of the NaOCl solution. The novel Multisonic Ultracleaning System achieved a significantly faster tissue dissolution rate when compared with the other systems examined in vitro. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. Antimicrobial activity and effectiveness of a combination of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide in killing and removing Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms from surfaces.

    PubMed

    DeQueiroz, G A; Day, D F

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate both the antimicrobial activity and the effectiveness of a combination of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide (Ox-B) for killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 19142 cells and removing P. aeruginosa biofilms on aluminum or stainless steel surfaces. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms were developed in tryptic soy broth containing vertically suspended aluminium or stainless steel plates. Biofilms were exposed to a mixed sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide solution as a sanitizer for 1, 5 and 20 min. The sanitizer was then neutralized, the cells dislodged from the test surfaces, and viable cells enumerated. Cell morphologies were determined using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cell viability was determined by confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). Biofilm removal was monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. Cell numbers were reduced by 5-log to 6-log after 1 min exposure and by 7-log after 5 min exposure to Ox-B. No viable cells were detected after a 20 min exposure. Treatment with equivalent concentrations of sodium hypochlorite reduced viable numbers by 3-log to 4-log after 1 min exposure and by 4-log to 6-log after 5 min, respectively. A 20 min exposure achieved a 7-log reduction. Hydrogen peroxide at test concentration treatments showed no effect. FTIR analysis of treated pseudomonad biofilms on aluminium or stainless steel plates showed either a significant reduction or complete removal of biofilm material after a 5 min exposure to the mixed sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide solution. SEM and TEM images revealed damage to cell wall and cell membranes. A combination of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide effectively killed P. aeruginosa cells and removed biofilms from both stainless steel and aluminium surfaces. The combination of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide can be used as an alternative disinfectant and/or biofilm remover of contaminated food processing

  6. Inactivation of Heat Adapted and Chlorine Adapted Listeria Monocytogenes ATCC 7644 on Tomatoes Using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate, Levulinic Acid and Sodium Hypochlorite Solution.

    PubMed

    Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin Ademola; Mnyandu, Elizabeth

    2017-04-13

    The effectiveness of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), sodium hypochlorite solution and levulinic acid in reducing the survival of heat adapted and chlorine adapted Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 was evaluated. The results against heat adapted L. monocytognes revealed that sodium hypochlorite solution was the least effective, achieving log reduction of 2.75, 2.94 and 3.97 log colony forming unit (CFU)/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. SDS was able to achieve 8 log reduction for both heat adapted and chlorine adapted bacteria. When used against chlorine adapted L. monocytogenes sodium hypochlorite solution achieved log reduction of 2.76, 2.93 and 3.65 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. Using levulinic acid on heat adapted bacteria achieved log reduction of 3.07, 2.78 and 4.97 log CFU/mL for 1, 3, 5 minutes, respectively. On chlorine adapted bacteria levulinic acid achieved log reduction of 2.77, 3.07 and 5.21 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. Using a mixture of 0.05% SDS and 0.5% levulinic acid on heat adapted bacteria achieved log reduction of 3.13, 3.32 and 4.79 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes while on chlorine adapted bacteria it achieved 3.20, 3.33 and 5.66 log CFU/mL, respectively. Increasing contact time also increased log reduction for both test pathogens. A storage period of up to 72 hours resulted in progressive log reduction for both test pathogens. Results also revealed that there was a significant difference (P≤0.05) among contact times, storage times and sanitizers. Findings from this study can be used to select suitable sanitizers and contact times for heat and chlorine adapted L. monocytogenes in the fresh produce industry.

  7. Comparative Antibacterial Efficacy of Endemic Satureja Khuzistanica Jamzad Essential Oil, Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorhexidine Gluconate Solutions as Root Canal Irrigations

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Nasrin; Zaree, Reyhane; Bakhtiar, Hengameh; Salehnia, AliNazar; Azimi, Shahram

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial efficacy of endemic Satureja Khuzistanica Jamzad (SKJ) essential oil as root canal irrigation versus 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate. Methods: In current in vitro experimental study, fifty four single-rooted teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups of 9 samples: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), 0.31 mg/ml SKJ, 0.62 mg/ml SKJ, positive and negative controls. Each tooth was instrumented, sealed and autoclaved. Then, test groups were inoculated with E. faecalis, treated with irrigation solution and viable bacterial counts in intracanal dentin chips were determined. Utilizing SPSS 18 software, collected data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one way analysis of variance (P = 0.05). Results: 99.94 % and 99.50% reduction in bacteria load after 5 min treatment with NaOCl and CHX were detected, respectively. Similarly, 99.97% and 99.96% reduction in bacterial counts were observed after 5 min application of 0.62 mg/ml and 0.31 mg/ml SKJ essential. No significant differences were detected among the four irrigation solutions (P = 0.755). Conclusion: SKJ essential oil with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.31 mg/ml could be an effective antibacterial irrigation solution. PMID:22132012

  8. The effect of sodium hypochlorite application on the success of calcium hydroxide and mineral trioxide aggregate pulpotomies in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Akcay, Merve; Sari, Saziye

    2014-01-01

    This study's purpose was to evaluate the success of calcium hydroxide (CH) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) pulpotomies following the use of five percent sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as an antibacterial agent to clean the chamber prior to application of the pulpotomy agent. A total of 128 teeth were randomly divided into two pulpotomy groups (CH or MTA). The teeth in each pulpotomy group, CH and MTA, were further randomly divided into subgroups to receive either the NaOCl (experimental) or saline (control) cleaning agent prior to applying the pulpotomy agent. The treatments were followed clinically and radiographically for 12 months. The radiographic success rates were 84 percent for CH NaOCl, 74 percent for CH saline control, 97 percent for MTA NaOCl, and 100 percent for MTA saline control. There were no significant differences between the radiographic success rates in the CH and MTA subgroups (CH NaOCl-CH control and MTA NaOCl-MTA control); no significant differences were observed when comparing the CH NaOCl-MTA NaOCl groups and the CH NaOCl-MTA control groups. Use of sodium hypochlorite as an antibacterial agent prior to application of the pulpotomy agent improved the success of calcium hydroxide pulpotomies to equal the success of mineral trioxide aggregate pulpotomies for observation up to 12 months.

  9. The effect of sodium hypochlorite on Enterococcus faecalis when grown on dentine as a single- and multi-species biofilm.

    PubMed

    Yap, Benlee; Zilm, Peter S; Briggs, Nancy; Rogers, Anthony H; Cathro, Peter C

    2014-12-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is often involved in the aetiology of apical periodontitis after endodontic treatment. This project aimed to establish, on dentine in vitro, a multi-species biofilm containing E. faecalis, and to determine if the organism had an increased resistance to sodium hypochlorite compared with an axenic biofilm. Biofilms were established on dentine discs in flow cells with either E. faecalis alone (axenic) or together with Fusobacterium nucleatum and Streptococcus sanguinis. Following treatment with either 0.9% sodium hypochlorite or saline, the viability of E. faecalis was determined by serial plating and qualitative analysis was performed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Viable counts indicated that 0.9% NaOCl is highly effective against E. faecalis grown alone and as part of a multi-species biofilm (P = 0.0005 and P = 0.001, respectively). No significant difference in its survival in the two biofilm types was found (P = 0.8276).

  10. Investigation of rpoS and dps genes in sodium hypochlorite resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 isolated from foodborne illness outbreaks in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Ana Carolina; Bacciu, Donatella; Santi, Lucélia; Silva, Walter Orlando Beys da; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Rubino, Salvatore; Uzzau, Sergio; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2012-03-01

    In Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the principal microorganisms responsible for foodborne disease. The present study was conducted to compare the sodium hypochlorite resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 with that of other strains of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from different regions of the world and to investigate the involvement of the rpoS and dps genes in resistance to this disinfectant. We tested five Salmonella Enteritidis wild-type (WT) strains isolated from different countries, two mutant strains of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86, and two tagged (3XFLAG) strains of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 for their resistance to sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm). The survival of the WT and attenuated strains was determined based on bacterial counts, and tagged proteins (Dps and RpoS) were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting with anti-FLAG antibodies. None of the WT strains of Salmonella Enteritidis were totally inactivated after 20 min. The SE86 strain lacking dps was more sensitive to sodium hypochlorite than was the WT SE86 strain, with a 2-log reduction in counts after 1 min. The RpoS and Dps proteins were actively expressed under the conditions tested, indicating that in Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 these genes, which are expressed when in contact with sodium hypochlorite, are related to oxidative stress.

  11. Long-term in vivo carcinogenicity tests of potassium bromate, sodium hypochlorite, and sodium chlorite conducted in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Y; Takayama, S; Konishi, Y; Hiasa, Y; Asahina, S; Takahashi, M; Maekawa, A; Hayashi, Y

    1986-11-01

    Long-term in vivo carcinogenicity tests of potassium bromate (KBrO3), sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and sodium chlorite (NaClO2) have been conducted in Japan from 1977 to 1985. In these investigations, groups of approximately 50 male and 50 female F344 rats or B6C3F1 mice were given solutions of the compounds as their drinking water ad libitum at two dose levels determined on the basis of preliminary 13-week tests. Control animals were given distilled water. The carcinogenic potential of KBrO3 was tested by administering doses of 500 or 250 ppm to rats for 110 weeks. Significantly elevated incidences of renal cell tumors in males and females and mesotheliomas of the peritoneum in males as compared to controls were observed. When female mice were given KBrO3 at doses of 1000 or 500 ppm for 78 weeks, no significant differences in tumor incidences between experimental and control groups were apparent. NaClO was administered to male and female rats, respectively, at doses of 1000 or 500 ppm and 2000 or 1000 ppm for 104 weeks. In mice, NaClO was given at doses of 1000 or 500 ppm to either sex for 103 weeks. The incidences of tumors in NaClO-treated and control animals of both sexes were not significantly different in both rat and mouse studies. NaClO2 was given to rats of both sexes at a dose of 600 or 300 ppm for 85 weeks. No statistically significant differences were observed in the incidences of tumor formation between NaClO2-treated and control groups of both sexes. NaClO2 was administered to mice at a concentration of 500 or 250 ppm for 85 weeks. In males, the combined incidences of hyperplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas of the liver in a low-dose group, and adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the lung in a high-dose group, were marginally increased compared to controls (p less than 0.05). However, these incidences in treated males were within the range of values of historical control data in our program. We concluded that KBrO3 was carcinogenic in rats of

  12. Long-term in vivo carcinogenicity tests of potassium bromate, sodium hypochlorite, and sodium chlorite conducted in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Kurokawa, Y; Takayama, S; Konishi, Y; Hiasa, Y; Asahina, S; Takahashi, M; Maekawa, A; Hayashi, Y

    1986-01-01

    Long-term in vivo carcinogenicity tests of potassium bromate (KBrO3), sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and sodium chlorite (NaClO2) have been conducted in Japan from 1977 to 1985. In these investigations, groups of approximately 50 male and 50 female F344 rats or B6C3F1 mice were given solutions of the compounds as their drinking water ad libitum at two dose levels determined on the basis of preliminary 13-week tests. Control animals were given distilled water. The carcinogenic potential of KBrO3 was tested by administering doses of 500 or 250 ppm to rats for 110 weeks. Significantly elevated incidences of renal cell tumors in males and females and mesotheliomas of the peritoneum in males as compared to controls were observed. When female mice were given KBrO3 at doses of 1000 or 500 ppm for 78 weeks, no significant differences in tumor incidences between experimental and control groups were apparent. NaClO was administered to male and female rats, respectively, at doses of 1000 or 500 ppm and 2000 or 1000 ppm for 104 weeks. In mice, NaClO was given at doses of 1000 or 500 ppm to either sex for 103 weeks. The incidences of tumors in NaClO-treated and control animals of both sexes were not significantly different in both rat and mouse studies. NaClO2 was given to rats of both sexes at a dose of 600 or 300 ppm for 85 weeks. No statistically significant differences were observed in the incidences of tumor formation between NaClO2-treated and control groups of both sexes. NaClO2 was administered to mice at a concentration of 500 or 250 ppm for 85 weeks. In males, the combined incidences of hyperplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas of the liver in a low-dose group, and adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the lung in a high-dose group, were marginally increased compared to controls (p less than 0.05). However, these incidences in treated males were within the range of values of historical control data in our program. We concluded that KBrO3 was carcinogenic in rats of

  13. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and coconut soap used as disinfecting agents in the reduction of denture stomatitis, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Barnabé, W; de Mendonça Neto, T; Pimenta, F C; Pegoraro, L F; Scolaro, J M

    2004-05-01

    This study evaluated the reduction of denture stomatitis and the antimicrobial activity of 0.05% sodium hypochlorite opposed to Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans (SGM) when associated with brushing complete dentures with coconut soap. The mucosal characteristics were evaluated according to Newton's classification at baseline, after cleansing the dentures with coconut soap for 15 days in group 1 (nine patients). In the other group (19 patients) the analysis were made before and after cleansing the dentures with coconut soap and with disinfection in a soak solution of 0.05% sodium hypochlorite for 10 min during 15 days. Microbiological tests were used to isolate C. albicans and SGM. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests were used to compare the mucosal characteristics and Fisher test and McNemar test to compare C. albicans and SGM levels. Statistical analysis at the 95% confidence level (P < 0.05) showed that: (i) the association of coconut soap and 0.05% sodium hypochlorite significantly reduced clinical signs of denture stomatitis, (ii) C. albicans did not reduce in counts, (iii) SGM were reduced but not significantly and (iv) the association of coconut soap and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite was effective in controlling denture biofilm.

  14. Use of a 660-nm Laser to Aid in the Healing of Necrotic Alveolar Mucosa Caused by Extruded Sodium Hypochlorite: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Duque, Jussaro Alves; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Bramante, Alexandre Silva; de Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2015-11-01

    The extrusion of sodium hypochlorite through the apical foramen is an accident that can occur during the flushing procedure in endodontic treatment. The symptomatology is immediate and intense, and there is a long period before the tissues return to normal. Low-level laser therapy might be useful as an adjunctive treatment for damaged soft tissues because of its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, which may reduce edema and prevent infection. In this clinical case, the accidental leakage of 1% sodium hypochlorite during the preparation of the root canal of a maxillary right central incisor is reported. This leakage caused immediate and intense pain and edema formation and resulted in an extensive necrotic area in the alveolar mucosa adjacent to the root of the treated tooth. The conventional treatment protocol was combined with low-level laser therapy. Clinical and radiographic examinations after 7 months revealed complete repair of the necrotic area with no paresthesia and further indicated the integrity of the apical region of the tooth where the extrusion of sodium hypochlorite occurred. The combination of low-level laser therapy with a conventional treatment protocol in this case of the extrusion of 1% sodium hypochlorite resulted in the healing of the wounds.

  15. Enhancement effects of ultrasound on secondary wastewater effluent disinfection by sodium hypochlorite and disinfection by-products analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Junyuan; Li, Zifu; Song, Jianing; Li, Xueying; Yang, Xin; Wang, Dongling

    2016-03-01

    Since fecal coliforms was introduced as a standard indicator of pollutants in effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants in China in 2003, chlorine had been widely used in many wastewater treatment plants. However, concerns about the disinfection by-products (DBPs) of chlorine have been increasing. One of the effective way to reduce the production of DBPs is to reduce the effective chlorine dosage by improving the utilization rate of disinfectant. Ultrasound (US) is proved to be effective in wastewater treatment for its multiple chemical and physical effects produced by cavitation, which could favor the disinfection process accordingly. For the purpose of improving disinfection efficiency with the help of US, following points are addressed in the current study: (1) investigate the enhancement effects of US on the disinfection efficiency of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) for real secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants; (2) evaluate the possibility of using US specific energy consumption (kJ/L) as an parameter for disinfection efficiency evaluation; and (3) quantify the reduction in chlorine-DBPs through US application. Results demonstrated that sonication could reduce two-thirds (US pretreatment) or one-third (simultaneous US and NaClO disinfection) of the required concentrations of NaClO (available chlorine) for 4 log reduction of fecal coliforms, which could meet the Class 1A (fecal coliforms less than 1000 CFU/L) discharge standard of China. In addition, US pretreatment with NaClO disinfection performed better enhancement in disinfection efficiency compared with simultaneous US and NaClO disinfection. Furthermore, analysis on DBPs showed that US application as pretreatment could obviously reduce the contents of trichloromethane (TCM) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) by more than 85% and 50%, respectively, compared with NaClO disinfection alone for the same disinfection efficiency. Meanwhile, the experimental results also showed that the

  16. A Comparative Evaluation on Antimicrobial Effect of Honey, Neem Leaf Extract and Sodium Hypochlorite as Intracanal Irrigant: An Ex-Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Divya; Narayanan, Retna Kumari; Vadakkepurayil, Kannan

    2016-08-01

    The major determinant of the success of root canal treatment depends on meticulous disinfection of the root canal using intracanal irrigants. The most commonly used root canal irrigant is sodium hypochlorite which has disadvantages of cytotoxicity and unpleasant taste. So there is a need to identify a more biocompatible root canal irrigant. The aim of this ex-vivo study was to evaluate the efficacy of 40% honey, 100% neem leaf extract and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as an intracanal irrigant against the isolated microorganisms from infected root canal. The samples were collected from infected root canals of 60 primary molar teeth indicated for pulpectomy. Alpha hemolytic Streptococci, gram negative bacilli, Candida, Staphylococci, Lactobacilli, Enterococci, Spore bearing gram positive bacilli and Micrococci were the microorganisms isolated from the samples. The zone of inhibition against the microbial growth was measured by agar well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was done by Repeated Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni method. Statistical analysis showed that the means of the zones of inhibition measured in this study were 18.56mm, 2.09mm and 1.62mm for sodium hypochlorite, 100% neem leaf extract and 40% honey respectively. The significance was greater between sodium hypochlorite and the other two agents as p-value was <0.001. The results indicated that 5.25% sodium hypochlorite is more effective as root canal irrigant when compared with 100% neem leaf extract and 40% honey. It was also observed that 100% neem leaf extract has greater antimicrobial effect than 40% honey.

  17. A Comparative Evaluation on Antimicrobial Effect of Honey, Neem Leaf Extract and Sodium Hypochlorite as Intracanal Irrigant: An Ex-Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Retna Kumari; Vadakkepurayil, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The major determinant of the success of root canal treatment depends on meticulous disinfection of the root canal using intracanal irrigants. The most commonly used root canal irrigant is sodium hypochlorite which has disadvantages of cytotoxicity and unpleasant taste. So there is a need to identify a more biocompatible root canal irrigant. Aim The aim of this ex-vivo study was to evaluate the efficacy of 40% honey, 100% neem leaf extract and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as an intracanal irrigant against the isolated microorganisms from infected root canal. Materials and Methods The samples were collected from infected root canals of 60 primary molar teeth indicated for pulpectomy. Alpha hemolytic Streptococci, gram negative bacilli, Candida, Staphylococci, Lactobacilli, Enterococci, Spore bearing gram positive bacilli and Micrococci were the microorganisms isolated from the samples. The zone of inhibition against the microbial growth was measured by agar well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was done by Repeated Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni method. Results Statistical analysis showed that the means of the zones of inhibition measured in this study were 18.56mm, 2.09mm and 1.62mm for sodium hypochlorite, 100% neem leaf extract and 40% honey respectively. The significance was greater between sodium hypochlorite and the other two agents as p-value was <0.001. Conclusion The results indicated that 5.25% sodium hypochlorite is more effective as root canal irrigant when compared with 100% neem leaf extract and 40% honey. It was also observed that 100% neem leaf extract has greater antimicrobial effect than 40% honey. PMID:27656571

  18. Simultaneous determination of ampicillin and sulbactam by liquid chromatography: post-column reaction with sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite using an active hollow-fibre membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Haginaka, J; Nishimura, Y

    1990-10-26

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ampicillin (ABPC) and sulbactam (SBT) in serum and urine. The method involves separation of ABPC and SBT from the background components of serum and urine on a C18 column, post-column reaction with sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite using an active hollow-fibre membrane reactor, and detection at 270 nm. At ABPC and SBT concentrations of 10 and 5 micrograms/ml in urine and serum samples, the precisions (relative standard deviations) were 0.9-2.5% (n = 8). The detection limits were 20 and 5 ng for ABPC and SBT, respectively, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3.

  19. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets as an alternative to sodium hypochlorite for the routine treatment of drinking water at the household level.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Thomas; Edmondson, Paul

    2006-03-01

    Household water treatment using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has been recognized as a cost-effective means of reducing the heavy burden of diarrhea and other waterborne diseases, especially among populations without access to improved water supplies. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), which is widely used in emergencies, is an alternative source of chlorine that may present certain advantages over NaOCl for household-based interventions in development settings. We summarize the basic chemistry and possible benefits of NaDCC, and review the available literature concerning its safety and regulatory treatment and microbiological effectiveness. We review the evidence concerning NaDCC in field studies, including microbiological performance and health outcomes. Finally, we examine studies and data to compare NaDCC with NaOCl in terms of compliance, acceptability, affordability and sustainability, and suggest areas for further research.

  20. Effect of immersion disinfection of alginate impressions in sodium hypochlorite solution on the dimensional changes of stone models.

    PubMed

    Hiraguchi, Hisako; Kaketani, Masahiro; Hirose, Hideharu; Yoneyama, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the immersion of alginate impressions in 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 min on the dimensional changes of stone models designed to simulate a sectional form of a residual ridge. Five brands of alginate impression materials, which underwent various dimensional changes in water, were used. A stone model made with an impression that had not been immersed was prepared as a control. The immersion of two brands of alginate impressions that underwent small dimensional changes in water did not lead to serious deformation of the stone models, and the differences in the dimensional changes between the stone models produced with disinfected impressions and those of the control were less than 15 µm. In contrast, the immersions of three brands of alginate impressions that underwent comparatively large dimensional changes in water caused deformation of the stone models.

  1. The effect of sodium hypochlorite and ginger extract on microorganisms and endotoxins in endodontic treatment of infected root canals.

    PubMed

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; Cardoso, Flavia Goulart Rosa; Oliveira, Luciane Dias de; Oliveira, Carolina Lima de; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate the biomechanical preparation action on microorganisms and endotoxins by using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and an intracanal medication containing Zingiber officinale, with or without calcium hydroxide. Single-rooted teeth were contaminated, and root canal instrumentation (using 2.5% NaOCl) was performed. Samples were divided into 4 groups, according to the intracanal medication employed. The root canal content was gathered 28 days after contamination (baseline), immediately after biomechanical preparation, 7 days after biomechanical preparation, 14 days after intracanal medication, and 7 days after intracanal medication was removed. The results (submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests) showed that the NaOCl eliminated 100% of root canal microorganisms and reduced 88.8% of endotoxins immediately after biomechanical preparation, and 83.2% at 7 days after biomechanical preparation.

  2. Oxidation of Pu(IV) and Pu(V) with sodium hypochlorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choppin, G. R.; Morgenstern, A.

    2000-07-01

    The hypochlorite ion (OCl-), a major product of the radiolysis of water in solutions containing high concentrations of chloride, can be expected to influence the oxidation state distribution of plutonium in these solutions. Since plutonium has significantly different chemistry in each of its oxidation states, knowledge of the oxidation state distribution of plutonium and of the kinetics of transfer between these oxidation states is essential for modeling the behavior of plutonium in aqueous systems and for design of efficient remediation procedures for plutonium containing wastes.

  3. The effect of passive ultrasonic activation of 2% chlorhexidine or 3% sodium hypochlorite in canal wall cleaning

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta, Carla; Forner, Leopoldo; Mozo, Sandra; Segura, Juan-Jose

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: the purpose of this study was to compare debris removal and open tubules effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX) applied as final irrigation in different protocols Study Design: sixty extracted premolars were divided into six groups according to the final irrigation technique: A and B 3 % NaOCl or 2 % CHX with the Miraject needle and no agitation; C and D, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) with Irrisafe 20 tips and 3 % NaOCl or 2 % CHX; E and F, PUI with Irrisafe 25 tips and 3 % NaOCl or 2% CHX. The remaining dentine debris and opened tubules were evaluated by SEM at three root levels by two blinded investigators. The Kruskal Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare groups and levels, with a significance of p<0.05. Results: Debris elimination was significantly higher in PUI groups (p<0.05). PUI groups showed a higher capability to open tubules, compared to groups A and B. In the coronal third, groups D to F eliminated more debris and opened more tubules than conventional irrigation (p<0.05). In medium third, group E eliminated significantly more debris (1.60) than group A (2.60). No differences were obtained among groups in apical third. Both NaOCl and CHX applied with PUI showed no differences in debris elimination or opened tubules. Conclusions: Final PUI with Irrisafe tips was the most effective procedure for eliminating the debris and opening up dentinal tubules, independent of the irrigant solution or Irrisafe type size. Key words:Ultrasonic irrigation, PUI, sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine. PMID:25810845

  4. Bovine pulp tissue dissolution ability of HealOzone®, Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® and sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Rossi-Fedele, Giampiero; Steier, Liviu; Dogramaci, Esma Jane; Canullo, Luigi; Steier, Gabriela; de Figueiredo, Jose Antonio Poli

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bovine pulp tissue dissolution ability of HealOzone, Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, used alone or in combination. Thirty bovine pulp fragments were weighed, divided into six groups and placed individually in Eppendorf tubes containing the tested solution until total dissolution occurred. The groups were: G1: saline (negative control), G2: Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte®, G3: 0.5% NaOCl (positive control), G4: Saline + HealOzone, G5: 0.5% NaOCl + HealOzone, G6: Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® + HealOzone. HealOzone was activated for 2 min with a #6 cup covering the test tube opening on a fixed platform. Two blinded observers using 2× loupes magnification assessed the samples continuously for the first 2 h, and then every hour for the next 8 h. Dissolution speed was calculated by dividing pulp weight by dissolution time (mg min(-1) ). G3 (NaOCl) and G5 (NaOCl + HealOzone) dissolved the pulp tissue completely. The mean dissolution speed for G3 was 0.396 mg min(-1) (SD 0.032) and for G5 was 0.775 mg min(-1) (SD 0.2). Student's t-test showed that G5 dissolved bovine pulp tissue faster than G3 (P = 0.01). Only groups containing sodium hypochlorite dissolved pulp tissue, whilst HealOzone enhanced speed of dissolution.

  5. Antimicrobial efficacy of different concentration of sodium hypochlorite on the biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis at different stages of development

    PubMed Central

    Frough-Reyhani, Mohammad; Soroush-Barhaghi, Mohammadhosien; Amini, Mahsa; Gholizadeh, Yousefreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Persistent infection of the root canal due to the presence of resistance bacterial species, such as Enterococcus faecalis, has always been one of the most important reasons for endodontic treatment failure. This study investigated the antimicrobial efficacy of 1%, 2.5 % and 5% sodium hypochlorite in eliminating E. faecalis biofilms at different stages of development. Material and Methods In this study 4-, 6- and 10-week-old E. faecalis biofilms were subjected to one of the following approaches: phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS) or 1%, 2.5% and 5% NaOCl. Dentin chip suspensions were used for colony forming unit (CFU) counting to estimate remaining E. faecalis counts. Statistical comparison of the means was carried out with Kruskal-Wallis test, and pair-wise comparisons were made by Mann-Whitney U test, at a significance level of P<0.05. Results The results showed that 2.5% and 5% NaOCl completely eliminated E. faecalis biofilms in three stages of biofilm development, whereas 1% NaOCl resulted in 85.73%, 81.88% and 78.62% decreases in bacterial counts in 4-, 6- and 10-week-old biofilms, respectively, which was significantly more than those with PBS (p<0.05). Conclusions The bacteria in mature and old biofilms were more resistant to 1% NaOCl than were the bacteria in young biofilms. Overall survival rate and residual bacteria increased with biofilm aging. Key words:Antibacterial, biofilm, E. faecalis, sodium hypochlorite. PMID:27957257

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - ON-SITE SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE GENERATION AND INACTIVATION OF PSEUDOMONAS IN RAW DRINKING WATER, CLORTEC T-12 EXCELTEC INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION, A SUBSIDIARY OF SEVERN TRENT SERVICES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of ExcelTec's on-site hypochlorite generation system ClorTec T-12 system was conducted for 30 days between 3/6-5/4/2000. The system is capable of producing at least one pound of chlorine in the form of sodium hypochlorite solution containing 0.8% +/- 0.1%) ch...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - ON-SITE SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE GENERATION AND INACTIVATION OF PSEUDOMONAS IN RAW DRINKING WATER, CLORTEC T-12 EXCELTEC INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION, A SUBSIDIARY OF SEVERN TRENT SERVICES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of ExcelTec's on-site hypochlorite generation system ClorTec T-12 system was conducted for 30 days between 3/6-5/4/2000. The system is capable of producing at least one pound of chlorine in the form of sodium hypochlorite solution containing 0.8% +/- 0.1%) ch...

  8. Radiolabeling of a cyclic RGD (cyclo Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Tyr-Lys) peptide using sodium hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent.

    PubMed

    Doll, Stephanie; Woolum, Karen; Kumar, Krishan

    2016-09-01

    A simple and rapid nonradioactive iodide labeling/radiolabeling method for peptides, using an inexpensive oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite and a cyclic peptide, cRGDyK (cyclo Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Tyr-Lys), was developed in this work. Labeling reaction was optimized by conducting experiments under variable ratios of the reagents, the reaction times, and the pH. The study demonstrated that radiolabeling of the cyclic peptide was fast and pH independent. Monoiodinated and di-iodinated cRGDyK were formed under all conditions and varied with the ratio of the reagents and the reaction time. Total percent of the iodinated cRGDyK (monoiodinated and di-iodinated cRGDyK) varied between 44 and 100 depending on the reaction conditions. Excess cyclic peptide over equal molar ratio of sodium iodide and sodium hypochlorite yielded in predominant amounts of monoiodinated cRGDyK, ie, >60% under 2:1:1 ratio and ~88% under 5:1:1 ratio of cRGDyK:sodium iodide:sodium hypochlorite.

  9. Management of the sodium hypochlorite accident: a rare but significant complication of root canal treatment

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Stephen; Wilson, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old female patient presented to the accident and emergency department, 3 h following a dental appointment. Significant right-sided facial swelling, bruising and pain were present. The patient had been sent by her general dental practitioner with a covering letter explaining that a hypochlorite accident had occurred during root canal treatment of the upper right first premolar tooth. An iatrogenic perforation was suspected. The patient was admitted under the care of the maxillofacial team and intravenous antibiotics, analgesia and steroids were administered. The patient was prepared for the possibility of requiring surgical intervention under a general anaesthetic. No nerve injury was encountered and the periorbital tissues were spared. A full recovery was made by the patient with no surgical intervention required but significant bruising and swelling were present up to 4 weeks following the incident. PMID:25809429

  10. Management of the sodium hypochlorite accident: a rare but significant complication of root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    Hatton, Jonathan; Walsh, Stephen; Wilson, Alan

    2015-03-25

    A 66-year-old female patient presented to the accident and emergency department, 3 h following a dental appointment. Significant right-sided facial swelling, bruising and pain were present. The patient had been sent by her general dental practitioner with a covering letter explaining that a hypochlorite accident had occurred during root canal treatment of the upper right first premolar tooth. An iatrogenic perforation was suspected. The patient was admitted under the care of the maxillofacial team and intravenous antibiotics, analgesia and steroids were administered. The patient was prepared for the possibility of requiring surgical intervention under a general anaesthetic. No nerve injury was encountered and the periorbital tissues were spared. A full recovery was made by the patient with no surgical intervention required but significant bruising and swelling were present up to 4 weeks following the incident. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Reduction of hard-tissue debris accumulation during rotary root canal instrumentation by etidronic acid in a sodium hypochlorite irrigant.

    PubMed

    Paqué, Frank; Rechenberg, Dan-Krister; Zehnder, Matthias

    2012-05-01

    Hard-tissue debris is accumulated during rotary instrumentation. This study investigated to what extent a calcium-complexing agent that has good short-term compatibility with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) could reduce debris accumulation when applied in an all-in-one irrigant during root canal instrumentation. Sixty extracted mandibular molars with isthmuses in the mesial root canal system were selected based on prescans using a micro-computed tomography system. Thirty teeth each were randomly assigned to be instrumented with a rotary system and irrigated with either 2.5% NaOCl or 2.5% NaOCl containing 9% (wt/vol) etidronic acid (HEBP). Using a side-vented irrigating tip, 2 mL of irrigant was applied by 1 blinded investigator to the mesial canals after each instrument. Five milliliters of irrigant was applied per canal as the final rinse. Mesial root canal systems were scanned at high resolution before and after treatment, and accumulated hard-tissue debris was calculated as vol% of the original canal anatomy. Values between groups were compared using the Student's t test (α < .05). Irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl resulted in 5.5 ± 3.6 vol% accumulated hard-tissue debris compared with 3.8 ± 1.8 vol% when HEBP was contained in the irrigant (P < .05). A hypochlorite-compatible chelator can reduce but not completely prevent hard-tissue debris accumulation during rotary root canal instrumentation. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Can sodium hypochlorite reduce the risk of species introductions from diapausing invertebrate eggs in non-ballasted ships?

    PubMed

    Gray, Derek K; Duggan, Ian C; Macisaac, Hugh J

    2006-06-01

    Many transoceanic vessels enter the Great Lakes carrying residual ballast water and sediment that harbours live animals and diapausing eggs. In this study, we examine the potential for sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) to reduce the risk of species introductions from diapausing invertebrate eggs in residual ballast sediment. We collected sediment from three transoceanic vessels and from Lake Erie and exposed them to NaOCl concentrations between 0 and 10,000 mg/L for 24 h. Hatching success was reduced by >89% in all four experiments at 1,000 mg/L relative to unexposed controls. Fewer species hatched at high than at low NaOCl concentrations. Based on an average residual ballast of 46.8 tonnes, the volume of NaOCl required to treat inbound vessels is 374 L. Impacts of NaOCl use could be minimized by neutralization of treated residuals with sodium bisulfite. Further research is needed, however, to evaluate the effect of NaOCl on ballast tank corrosion.

  13. Degradation models and ecotoxicity in marine waters of two antifouling compounds: sodium hypochlorite and an alkylamine surfactant.

    PubMed

    López-Galindo, Cristina; Garrido, M Carmen; Casanueva, José F; Nebot, Enrique

    2010-03-15

    Industrial wastes have a substantial impact on coastal environments. Therefore, to evaluate the impact of cooling water discharges from coastal power plants, we studied the kinetics of the degradative processes and the ecotoxicity of two antifouling products: (1) a classic antifouling product; sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and (2) an alternative one; aliphatic amines (commercial under the registered trade mark Mexel432). To assess the persistence of both compounds the decay of sodium hypochlorite and the primary biodegradation rate of Mexel432 were determined in natural seawater at 20 degrees C. The results indicated a more rapid decay of NaClO than Mexel432. The degradation behavior of both chemicals was described following a logistic model, which permitted calculating kinetic parameters such as t(50) or t(90). The t(50) was 1h and 2d for NaClO and Mexel432, respectively. To evaluate the potential risks of the aforementioned treatments to marine organisms, the acute toxicity of both antifouling products was studied on the microalgae Isochrysis galbana and Dunaliella salina, and on the invertebrate Brachionus plicatilis, using growth inhibition and death tests as toxic response, respectively. For I. galbana, the 96-h EC(50) values were 2.91+/-0.15mg/L of NaClO and 4.55+/-0.11mg/L of Mexel432. D. salina showed values of 96-h EC(50) of 1.73+/-0.16mg/L of NaClO and 7.21+/-0.1mg/L of Mexel432. Brachionus plicatilis showed a 24-h LC(50) of 1.23+/-0.1mg/L of NaClO and 3.62+/-0.37mg/L of Mexel432. Acute toxicity was highly dependent on the chemical and species tested. NaClO presented more toxic effects than Mexel432, also B. plicatilis was the most sensitive species in both cases. The lowest NOECs obtained, 0.25mg/L for NaClO and 2.12mg/L for Mexel432, were similar to the theoretical residual concentrations of these biocides in cooling water discharges. Therefore, these discharges can cause undesirable negative effects upon the aquatic organisms present.

  14. Antibacterial effect of roselle extracts (Hibiscus sabadariffa), sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid against multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains isolated from tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Alcántara, E J; Rangel-Vargas, E; Gómez-Aldapa, C A; Falfan-Cortes, R N; Rodríguez-Marín, M L; Godínez-Oviedo, A; Cortes-López, H; Castro-Rosas, J

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strains were isolated from saladette and red round type tomatoes, and an analysis done of the antibacterial activity of roselle calyx extracts against any of the identified strains. One hundred saladette tomato samples and 100 red round tomato samples were collected from public markets. Each sample consisted of four whole tomatoes. Salmonella was isolated from the samples by conventional culture procedure. Susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was tested for the isolated Salmonella strains by standard test. The antibacterial effect of four roselle calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid against antibiotic-resistant Salmonella isolates was evaluated on contaminated tomatoes. Twenty-four Salmonella strains were isolated from 12% of each tomato type. Identified Salmonella serotypes were Typhimurium and Typhi. All isolated strains exhibited resistance to at least three antibiotics and some to as many as 12. Over contaminated tomatoes, the roselle calyx extracts produced a greater reduction (2-2·6 log) in antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strain concentration than sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. The presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in vegetables is a significant public health concern. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains were isolated from raw tomatoes purchased in public markets in Mexico and challenged with roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts, sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. On tomatoes, the extracts caused a greater reduction in the concentration of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strains than sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. Roselle calyx extracts are a potentially useful addition to disinfection procedures of raw tomatoes in the field, processing plants, restaurants and homes. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Comparison of the antibacterial effect of sodium hypochlorite and aloe vera solutions as root canal irrigants in human extracted teeth contaminated with enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Sahebi, S; Khosravifar, N; Sedighshamsi, M; Motamedifar, M

    2014-03-01

    The main purpose of a root canal treatment is to eliminate the bacteria and their products from the pulp space. Sodium hypochlorite has excellent antibacterial properties, but also some negative features. The aim of the present study is to compare the antimicrobial effect of Aloe Vera solution with sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis in the root canals of human extracted teeth. Sixty human extracted single rooted teeth were selected for this in vitro study. The teeth recruited in this study had no cracks, internal resorption, external resorption and calcification. Enterococcus faecalis was injected in the root canals of all teeth. The teeth were then divided into three groups randomly. Each group consisted of 20 teeth that were all rinsed with one of the following solutions: sodium hypochlorite 2.5%, Aloe vera and normal saline. Subsequent to rinsing, root canals of all teeth were sampled. The samples were cultured and growth of the bacteria was assessed after 48 hours. The number of colonies of the bacteria was then counted. The difference between the inhibitory effect of Aloe vera and normal saline on E.faecalis was not significant according to independent t-test (p= 0.966). The inhibitory effect of sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis was much greater than that of Aloe vera and normal saline (p< 0.001). Aloe vera solution is not recommended as a root canal irrigator, but future studies are suggested to investigate the antibacterial effect of Aloe vera with longer duration of exposure and as an intra canal medicament.

  16. Comparison of the Antibacterial Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite and Aloe Vera Solutions as Root Canal Irrigants in Human Extracted Teeth Contaminated with Enterococcus Faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Sahebi, S.; Khosravifar, N.; SedighShamsi, M.; Motamedifar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Statement of Problem: The main purpose of a root canal treatment is to eliminate the bacteria and their products from the pulp space. Sodium hypochlorite has excellent antibacterial properties, but also some negative features. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to compare the antimicrobial effect of Aloe Vera solution with sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis in the root canals of human extracted teeth. Materials and Method: Sixty human extracted single rooted teeth were selected for this in vitro study. The teeth recruited in this study had no cracks, internal resorption, external resorption and calcification. Enterococcus faecalis was injected in the root canals of all teeth. The teeth were then divided into three groups randomly. Each group consisted of 20 teeth that were all rinsed with one of the following solutions: sodium hypochlorite 2.5%, Aloe vera and normal saline. Subsequent to rinsing, root canals of all teeth were sampled. The samples were cultured and growth of the bacteria was assessed after 48 hours. The number of colonies of the bacteria was then counted. Results: The difference between the inhibitory effect of Aloe vera and normal saline on E.faecalis was not significant according to independent t-test (p= 0.966). The inhibitory effect of sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis was much greater than that of Aloe vera and normal saline (p< 0.001). Conclusion: Aloe vera solution is not recommended as a root canal irrigator, but future studies are suggested to investigate the antibacterial effect of Aloe vera with longer duration of exposure and as an intra canal medicament. PMID:24738089

  17. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica (Neem) and 5% sodium hypochlorite on Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Sinha, Dakshita Joy; Garg, Paridhi; Singh, Udai Pratap; Mishra, Chandrakar Chaman; Nagpal, Rajni

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Endodontic infections are polymicrobial in nature. Candida albicans is the most common fungus isolated from failed endodontic cases. The constant increase in antibiotic resistant strains and side-effects caused by synthetic drugs has prompted researchers to look for herbal alternatives such as propolis, Morinda citrifolia and Azadirachta indica (Neem) etc., since, the gold standard for irrigation, i.e., sodium hypochlorite has many disadvantages. Materials and Methods: Extracted human mandibular premolars were biomechanically prepared, vertically sectioned, placed in tissue culture wells exposing the root canal surface to C. albicans grown on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar to form a biofilm. At the end of 2 days, all groups were treated with test solutions and control for 10 min and evaluated for Candida growth and number of colony forming units. The readings were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests. Results: Sodium hypochlorite and propolis groups exhibited highest antimicrobial efficacy against C. albicans with no statistically significant difference. It was followed by the A. indica (Neem) group. M. citrifolia had limited antifungal action followed by the negative control group of saline. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, propolis can be used as an effective antifungal agent similar to that of sodium hypochlorite, although long-term in vivo studies are warranted. PMID:24347888

  18. Effects of the peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite on the colour stability and surface roughness of the denture base acrylic resins polymerised by microwave and water bath methods.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Flavio H C N; Orsi, Iara A; Villabona, Camilo A

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the surface roughness (Ra) and color stability of acrylic resin colors (Lucitone 550, QC-20 and Vipi-Wave) used for fabricating bases for complete, removable dentures, overdentures and prosthetic protocol after immersion in chemical disinfectants (1% sodium hypochlorite and 2% peracetic acid) for 30 and 60 minutes. Sixty specimens were made of each commercial brand of resin composite, and divided into 2 groups according to the chemical disinfectants. Specimens had undergone the finishing and polishing procedures, the initial color and roughness measurements were taken (t=0), and after this, ten test specimens of each commercial brand of resin composite were immersed in sodium hypochlorite and ten in peracetic acid, for 30 and 60 minutes, with measurements being taken after each immersion period. These data were submitted to statistical analysis. There was evidence of an increase in Ra after 30 minutes immersion in the disinfectants in all the resins, with QC-20 presenting the highest Ra values, and Vipi-Wave the lowest. After 60 minutes immersion in the disinfectants all the resins presented statistically significant color alteration. Disinfection with 1% sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid altered the properties of roughness and color of the resins. © 2012 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. The Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorhexidine as Irrigant Solutions for Root Canal Disinfection: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Lucio Souza; Rodrigues, Renata Costa Val; Andrade Junior, Carlos Vieira; Soares, Renata G; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2016-04-01

    This systematic review aimed to compare the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine for root canal disinfection during root canal therapy. A literature search for clinical trials was made on the PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS, and Science Direct databases and in the reference lists of the identified articles up to January 2015. Quality assessment of the selected studies was performed according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement. One clinical trial and 4 randomized clinical trials were selected from the 172 articles initially identified. There was heterogeneity in the laboratory methods used to assess the root canal disinfection as well as in the concentrations of the irrigants used. Therefore, meta-analysis was not performed. Two studies reported effective and similar reductions in bacterial levels for both irrigants. Sodium hypochlorite was more effective than chlorhexidine in reducing microorganisms in 1 study, and another reported opposite findings. Both root irrigants were ineffective in eliminating endotoxins from necrotic pulp root canals in 1 study. Trial design and information regarding randomization procedures were not clearly described in the clinical trials. No study compared laboratory results with clinical outcomes. The available evidence on this topic is scarce, and the findings of studies were not consistent. Additional randomized clinical trials using clinical outcomes to compare the use of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine during root canal therapy are needed. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of antibiofilm effect of benzalkonium chloride, iodophore and sodium hypochlorite against biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of dairy origin.

    PubMed

    Pagedar, Ankita; Singh, Jitender

    2015-08-01

    The present study was undertaken with objectives of; a) to investigate and compare Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from two dairies for biofilm formation potential and, b) to compares three common biocides for biofilm eradication efficiencies. Amongst the isolates from commercial dairy, 70 % were strong and/or moderate biofilm former in comparison to 40 % isolates from small scale dairy. All isolates, irrespective of source, exhibited higher susceptibility to biocides in planktonic stage than in biofilm. Antibiofilm efficiencies of three biocides i.e. benzalkonium chloride, sodium hypochlorite and iodophore were determined in terms of their microbial biofilms eradicating concentration (MBEC). Our findings show that the three biocides were ineffective against preformed biofilms at recommended in-use concentrations. Biofilms were the most resistant to benzalkonium chloride and least against iodophore. A trend of decreasing MBECs was observed with extended contact time. The findings of present study warrant for a systematic approach for selecting types and concentrations of biocide for application as antibiofilm agent in food industry.

  1. Synergistic effects of sodium hypochlorite and ultraviolet radiation in reducing the levels of selected foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Ha, Sang-Do

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether combined treatment would produce synergistic effects to facilitate the sterilization of food products during production relative to single treatment. To assess this hypothesis, we investigated the bactericidal effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and a commercial chemical disinfectant, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), on Bacillus cereus F4810/72, Cronobacter sakazakii KCTC 2949, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 35556, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536, and Salmonella Typhimurium novobiocin/nalidixic acid in vitro. Various concentrations of NaClO (20, 60, 100, and 200 ppm NaClO) were tested along with exposure to UV radiation at various doses (6, 96, 216, 360, and 504 mW s/cm(2)). The combined NaClO/UV treatments resulted in greater reductions in bacterial counts than either treatment alone. The synergy values against B. cereus, C. sakazakii, S. aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and E. coli were 0.25-1.17, 0.33-1.97, 0.42-1.72, 0.02-1.44, and 0.01-0.85 log(10) CFU/mL, respectively. The results of this study suggest that a significant synergistic benefit results from combined NaClO/UV processing against food-borne pathogenic bacteria in vitro.

  2. In vivo antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Podar, Rajesh; Kulkarni, Gaurav P.; Dadu, Shifali S.; Singh, Shraddha; Singh, Shishir H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as root canal irrigants. Materials and Methods: Thirty nonvital maxillary anteriors were randomly assigned to one of the three groups corresponding to the irrigant to be tested; 6% Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ) (n = 10), A. indica (n = 10) and 3% NaOCl (n = 10). After the root canal access opening a root canal culture sample was taken with two paper points and cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Cleaning and shaping were completed with irrigation by 10 mL of respective irrigants and 5 mL of final rinse. The patients were recalled after 3 days and canals were rinsed again with 5 mL of the test irrigants. This was followed by obtaining a posttreatment root canal culture sample and culturing and analyzed by counting the colony forming units (CFUs). Results: Six percentage MCJ, A. indica, and 3% NaOCl showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the mean CFU counts for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria between baseline and 3 days. Conclusion: There was no difference in the antimicrobial efficacy of 6% M. citrifolia, A. indica, and 3% NaOCl as root canal irrigants. PMID:26929692

  3. Comparative Antimicrobial Efficacy of Eucalyptus Galbie and Myrtus Communis L. Extracts, Chlorhexidine and Sodium Hypochlorite against Enterococcus Faecalis.

    PubMed

    Nourzadeh, Mahdieh; Amini, Arezu; Fakoor, Farzaneh; Raoof, Maryam; Sharififar, Fariba

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Eucalyptusgalbie and Myrtus communis L. methanolic extracts, chlorhexidine (CHX) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) as the predominant species isolated from infected root canals. One hundred twenty mandibular premolars were randomly divided into 8 groups: Eucalyptusgalbie (E. galbie) 12.5 mg/mL, Myrtus communis L. (M. communis L.) 6.25 mg/mL, 0.2% CHX, %2 CHX, 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, positive and negative control group. Sampling was performed using paper points (from the root canal space lumen) and Gates-Glidden drills (from the dentinal tubules); then colony forming units (CFU) were counted and analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Mann Whitney U test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. All irrigants reduced more than 99% of bacteria in root canal. In the presence of M. communis L. and E. galbie, the bacterial count in dentin were significantly more than CHX and NaOCl groups (P<0.05) except 0.2% CHX in 200 µm and 400 µm depths (P>0.05). Although 5.25% NaOCl was the most effective irrigant, all agents exerted acceptable antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis.

  4. In vivo antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants.

    PubMed

    Podar, Rajesh; Kulkarni, Gaurav P; Dadu, Shifali S; Singh, Shraddha; Singh, Shishir H

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as root canal irrigants. Thirty nonvital maxillary anteriors were randomly assigned to one of the three groups corresponding to the irrigant to be tested; 6% Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ) (n = 10), A. indica (n = 10) and 3% NaOCl (n = 10). After the root canal access opening a root canal culture sample was taken with two paper points and cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Cleaning and shaping were completed with irrigation by 10 mL of respective irrigants and 5 mL of final rinse. The patients were recalled after 3 days and canals were rinsed again with 5 mL of the test irrigants. This was followed by obtaining a posttreatment root canal culture sample and culturing and analyzed by counting the colony forming units (CFUs). Six percentage MCJ, A. indica, and 3% NaOCl showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the mean CFU counts for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria between baseline and 3 days. There was no difference in the antimicrobial efficacy of 6% M. citrifolia, A. indica, and 3% NaOCl as root canal irrigants.

  5. The efficacy of passion fruit juice as an endodontic irrigant compared with sodium hypochlorite solution: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Jayahari, Nidhin Kumar; Niranjan, Nandini T; Kanaparthy, Aruna

    2014-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of several concentrations of two forms of passion fruit juice (PFJ) in the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis and to compare the antibacterial property of PFJ with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as an intracanal irrigant. Two types of PFJs, aqueous and alcohol extracts, were prepared and a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test was performed with both the extracts against E. faecalis. Two concentrations of each extract were selected from the results given by the MIC test and subjected to a broth dilution test (BDT) for nine different time periods. After each time period, samples were inoculated in brain-heart infusion agar plates for 24 h at 37°C and results were compared statistically. The MIC test showed that E. faecalis was sensitive to PFJ extracts at various concentrations. The results of the BDT showed a negative growth of E. faecalis by PFJ alcohol 20% at 30 min, PFJ aqueous 20% at 1 h, NaOCl 2.5% at 10 min and NaOCl 5.25% at 1 min. NaOCl showed a much better antibacterial efficacy than PFJ. The PFJ alcoholic and aqueous extracts had an antibacterial effect against E. faecalis. As PFJ shows promising results, further research in this field could lead to much better results as compared to NaOCl. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Efficacies of sodium hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium sanitizers for reduction of norovirus and selected bacteria during ware-washing operations.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Lizanel; Li, Jianrong; Lee, Jaesung; Pascall, Melvin A

    2012-01-01

    Cross-contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with pathogens on contaminated tableware and food preparation utensils is an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses. To prevent this, restaurants and food service establishments are required to achieve a minimum microbial reduction of 5 logs from these surfaces. This study evaluated the sanitization efficacies of ware-washing protocols (manual and mechanical) used in restaurants to clean tableware items. Ceramic plates, drinking glasses and stainless steel forks were used as the food contact surfaces. These were contaminated with cream cheese and reduced-fat milk inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV-1), Escherichia coli K-12 and Listeria innocua. The sanitizing solutions tested were sodium hypochlorite (chlorine), quaternary ammonium (QAC) and tap water (control). During the study, the survivability and response to the experimental conditions of the bacterial species was compared with that of MNV-1. The results showed that current ware-washing protocols used to remove bacteria from tableware items were not sufficient to achieve a 5 log reduction in MNV-1 titer. After washing, a maximum of 3 log reduction in the virus were obtained. It was concluded that MNV-1 appeared to be more resistant to both the washing process and the sanitizers when compared with E. coli K-12 and L. innocua.

  7. Susceptibility of Penicillium expansum spores to sodium hypochlorite, electrolyzed oxidizing water, and chlorine dioxide solutions modified with nonionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Okull, Derrick O; Demirci, Ali; Rosenberger, Dave; LaBorde, Luke F

    2006-08-01

    The use of water flotation tanks during apple packing increases the risk of contamination of apples by spores of Penicillium expansum, which may accumulate in the recirculating water. Routine addition of sanitizers to the water may prevent such contamination. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water have varied activity against spores of P. expansum, and their effectiveness could be enhanced using surfactants. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of three nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20), and sorbitan monolaurate (Span 20), to enhance the efficacy of NaOCl, ClO2, and EO water against spores of P. expansum in aqueous suspension at various temperatures and pH conditions. The efficacy of NaOCl solutions was enhanced by the addition of surfactants at both pH 6.3 and pH 8 (up to 5 log CFU reduction). EO water and ClO2 were effective against P. expansum spores (up to 5 log CFU and 4 log CFU reduction, respectively), but addition of surfactants was not beneficial. All solutions were less effective at 4 degrees C compared to 24 degrees C irrespective of the presence of surfactants. Nonionic surfactants could potentially be used with NaOCl to improve control of P. expansum in flotation tanks, but the efficacy of such formulations should be validated under apple packing conditions.

  8. The effects of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine irrigants on the antibacterial activities of alkaline media against Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinglei; Tong, Zhongchun; Ling, Junqi; Liu, Hongyan; Wei, Xi

    2015-07-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine (CHX) and calcium hydroxide are common intracanal medicaments. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of NaOCl and CHX on the antibacterial activities of alkaline media against Enterococcus faecalis. The survival rates of planktonic and biofilm E. faecalis were evaluated by plate counts after 1 min of pretreatment with NaOCl and CHX, and time-kill assays were then used to assess subsequent pH alkaline challenges. Dead and living cells in the E. faecalis biofilm were assessed with SYTO 9 and PI staining in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy following exposure to NaOCl or CHX and subsequent alkaline challenges by common root canal irrigation and dressing procedures. One minute of pretreatment with 2% CHX, 0.2% CHX, or 5.25% NaOCl in combination with a subsequent alkaline challenge significantly decreased planktonic E. faecalis survival rates, but pretreatment with 1% NaOCl did not. The E. faecalis biofilm survival rates were reduced in the subsequent alkaline challenge following CHX pretreatment but gradually increased following NaOCl pretreatment. Similarly, CLSM analysis revealed that the greatest proportions of dead E. faecalis cells in the biofilms were presented in the CHX and alkaline treatment group. CHX might be more effective in improving the antibacterial activities of alkaline root canal medicaments against E. faecalis than NaOCl during routine root canal therapy procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Chlorhexidine, Peracetic acid and Sodium hypochlorite/etidronate irrigant solutions against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms.

    PubMed

    Arias-Moliz, M T; Ordinola-Zapata, R; Baca, P; Ruiz-Linares, M; García García, E; Hungaro Duarte, M A; Monteiro Bramante, C; Ferrer-Luque, C M

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial effect of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite alone (NaOCl) and associated with 9% HEBP (NaOCl/HEBP), 2% peracetic acid (PAA) and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), on the viability of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms attached to dentine. Biofilms of E. faecalis were grown on the surface of dentine blocks for 5 days and then exposed to the irrigating solutions for 3 min. Distilled water was used as the control. The total biovolume and the percentage of dead cells of the infected dentine were measured by means of confocal microscopy and the live/dead technique. Nonparametric tests were used to determine statistical differences (P < 0.05). NaOCl and the NaOCl/HEBP mixture were associated with a significantly greater percentage of dead cells, followed by PAA (P < 0.05). No significant antimicrobial effect of CHX was observed in comparison with the control group. Total biovolume decreased significantly in NaOCl, NaOCl/HEBP and PAA solutions in comparison with the CHX and control groups. NaOCl alone or associated with HEBP were the most effective irrigant solutions in dissolving and killing E. faecalis biofilms. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An In Vitro Spectroscopic Analysis to Determine Whether para-Chloroaniline is Produced from Mixing Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorhexidine

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, John E.; Sem, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether para-chloroaniline (PCA) is formed through the reaction of mixing sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Methods Initially commercially available samples of chlorhexidine acetate (CHXa) and PCA were analyzed with 1H NMR spectroscopy. Two solutions, NaOCl and CHXa, were warmed to 37°C and when mixed they produced a brown precipitate. This precipitate was separated in half and pure PCA was added to one of the samples for comparison before they were each analyzed with 1H NMR spectroscopy. Results The peaks in the 1H NMR spectra of CHXa and PCA were assigned to specific protons of the molecules, and the location of the aromatic peaks in the PCA spectrum defined the PCA doublet region. While the spectrum of the precipitate alone resulted in a complex combination of peaks, upon magnification there were no peaks in the PCA doublet region which were intense enough to be quantified. In the spectrum of the precipitate, to which PCA was added, two peaks do appear in the PCA doublet region. Comparing this spectrum to that of precipitate alone, the peaks in the PCA doublet region are not visible prior to the addition of PCA. Conclusions Based on this in vitro study, the reaction mixture of NaOCl and CHXa does not produce PCA at any measurable quantity and further investigation is needed to determine the chemical composition of the brown precipitate. PMID:20113799

  11. Antibacterial and dissolution ability of sodium hypochlorite in different pHs on multi-species biofilms.

    PubMed

    del Carpio-Perochena, Aldo; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; de Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda; Maliza, Amanda G Alves; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Marciano, Marina A; Amoroso-Silva, Pablo; Duarte, Marco Hungaro

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether variation in pH of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) increased its antibacterial and dissolution ability on polymicrobial biofilms formed in situ. Fifty-six dentin blocks (eight/group) were intraorally infected for 48 h and incubated in BHI for 48 h to standardize the biofilm growth. The specimens were irrigated with 1 and 2.5% NaOCl with pH levels of 5, 7, and 12 for 20 min. The control group was irrigated with distilled water. The cell viability and the bacterial volume were measured at the pre- and post-irrigation procedures. Five random areas of each sample were chosen and analyzed with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Statistical analysis was performed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests (p < 0.05). All the experimental solutions were able to decrease the biomass (p < 0.05) except for the 1% NaOCl-pH 5 group. The antibacterial ability of the NaOCl was dependent on the concentration and acidification of the solution. The acidification of NaOCl improves its antibacterial ability, but the dissolution effect of the irrigant is decreased. Bacteria and their products are the main factors in development of apical periodontitis. The pH reduction in the NaOCl could enhance the reduction or elimination of the root canal bacterial colonies in comparison with the unaltered solution.

  12. Effect of endodontic irrigation with 1% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA on primary teeth: a scanning electron microscope analysis.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Marcos; Triches, Thaisa C; Beltrame, Ana Paula C A; Hilgert, Leandro A; Cardoso, Mariane

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 final irrigation solutions for removal of the smear layer (SL) from root canals of primary teeth, using scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Thirty primary molars were selected and a single operator instrumented the canals. The initial irrigation was done with a 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution. After the preparation, the roots were randomly divided into 3 groups for final irrigation: Group 1, 1% NaOCl (n = 10); Group 2, 17% EDTA + 1% NaOCl (n = 10); and Group 3, 17% EDTA + saline solution (n = 10). The roots were prepared for SEM analysis (magnification 1000X). The photomicrographs were independently analyzed by 2 investigators with SEM experience, attributing scores to each root third in terms of SL removal. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests revealed that there was no statistical difference between the groups (P = 0.489). However, a statistical difference was found (P < 0.05) in a comparison of root thirds, with the apical third having the worst results. Comparing the thirds within the same group, all canals showed statistical differences between the cervical and apical thirds (P < 0.05). The authors determined that no substance or association of substances were able to completely remove SL.

  13. Evaluation of smear layer removal by bicarbonate soda, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid with cetrimide and sodium hypochlorite with a new model.

    PubMed

    Leow, Natalie; Abbott, Paul; Castro Salgado, Jacqueline; Firth, Laura

    2012-12-01

    Various methods are used to evaluate irrigants. The primary aim was to develop a model for preliminary testing of potential irrigants. The second aim was to investigate the effect of bicarbonate soda on smear layer by comparing it with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid with cetrimide (EDTAC) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Extracted human single-canal teeth were halved, and a uniform filing method was used to create smear layer. The following solutions were then applied - distilled water (control), 1% NaOCl, 17% EDTAC and bicarbonate soda at concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10% and 15%. Some samples had multiple solutions in different sequences. Samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Representative images were scored based on the degree of smear layer remaining. Results were analysed with the SAS system, using the GENMOD procedure. Complete smear layer was found in samples treated with all solutions except EDTAC used alone. There were no significant differences between the sequences, EDTAC/NaOCl/EDTAC and NaOCl/EDTAC/NaOCl. There were no significant differences between groups with and without bicarbonate soda. In conclusion, the model was effective for testing chemical effects on solutions on smear layer. Bicarbonate soda did not remove smear layer and provided no additional cleaning effects after EDTAC and NaOCl. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2012 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  14. The development of BCB-sealed galvanic cells. Case study: aluminum-platinum cells activated with sodium hypochlorite electrolyte solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlutowski, J.; Biver, C. J.; Wang, W.; Knighton, S.; Bumgarner, J.; Langebrake, L.; Moreno, W.; Cardenas-Valencia, A. M.

    2007-08-01

    Energy on demand is an important concept in remote sensor development. The fabrication process for silicon-wafer-based, totally enclosed galvanic cells is presented herein. Benzocyclyobutene (BCB), a photo-patternable material, is used as the adhesive layer between the silicon wafers on which metal electrodes are patterned to form the cells' electrolyte cavity. As a case study, and since aluminum is an anode material with thermodynamic high energy density, this metal is evaporated onto a wafer and used as an anode. A sputtered platinum film collects the charge and provides a catalytic surface in the cell cathode. The metal film patterning process and wafer-to-wafer bonding with BCB is detailed. The difficulties encountered, and design modifications to overcome these, are presented. Cells of the mentioned design were activated with sodium hypochlorite solution electrolyte. Typical potential outputs for the cells, as a function of operational time, are also presented. With a 5 kΩ load, a potential of 1.4 V was maintained for over 240 min, until depletion of the electrolyte occurred. Average cell energy outputs under electrical loads between 100 Ω and 5 kΩ were in the range of 4-10 J with columbic densities ranging from 45 to 83 Ah L-1.

  15. Microbial responses to membrane cleaning using sodium hypochlorite in membrane bioreactors: Cell integrity, key enzymes and intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaomeng; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xueye; Zheng, Xiang; Ma, Jinxing; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is a commonly used reagent for membrane cleaning in membrane bioreactors (MBRs), while it, being a kind of disinfectant (oxidant), may impair viability of microbes or even totally inactivate them upon its diffusion into mixed liquor during membrane cleaning. In this study, we systematically examine the effects of NaClO on microorganisms in terms of microbial cell integrity, metabolism behaviours (key enzymes), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) under various NaClO concentrations. Different proportions of microbial cells in activated sludge were damaged within several minutes dependent on NaClO dosages (5-50 mg/g-SS), and correspondingly organic matters were released to bulk solution. Inhibition of key enzymes involved in organic matter biodegradation, nitrification and denitrification was observed in the presence of NaClO above 1 mg/g-SS, and thus organic matter and nitrogen removal efficiencies were decreased. It was also demonstrated that intracellular ROS production was increased with the NaClO dosage higher than 1 mg/g-SS, which likely induced further damage to microbial cells.

  16. Efficacies of Sodium Hypochlorite and Quaternary Ammonium Sanitizers for Reduction of Norovirus and Selected Bacteria during Ware-Washing Operations

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, Lizanel; Li, Jianrong; Lee, Jaesung; Pascall, Melvin A.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with pathogens on contaminated tableware and food preparation utensils is an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses. To prevent this, restaurants and food service establishments are required to achieve a minimum microbial reduction of 5 logs from these surfaces. This study evaluated the sanitization efficacies of ware-washing protocols (manual and mechanical) used in restaurants to clean tableware items. Ceramic plates, drinking glasses and stainless steel forks were used as the food contact surfaces. These were contaminated with cream cheese and reduced-fat milk inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV-1), Escherichia coli K-12 and Listeria innocua. The sanitizing solutions tested were sodium hypochlorite (chlorine), quaternary ammonium (QAC) and tap water (control). During the study, the survivability and response to the experimental conditions of the bacterial species was compared with that of MNV-1. The results showed that current ware-washing protocols used to remove bacteria from tableware items were not sufficient to achieve a 5 log reduction in MNV-1 titer. After washing, a maximum of 3 log reduction in the virus were obtained. It was concluded that MNV-1 appeared to be more resistant to both the washing process and the sanitizers when compared with E. coli K-12 and L. innocua. PMID:23227163

  17. Effects of water, sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite on in-shell hazelnuts inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Panama.

    PubMed

    Weller, Lisa D; Daeschel, Mark A; Durham, Catherine A; Morrissey, Michael T

    2013-12-01

    Recent foodborne disease outbreaks involving minimally processed tree nuts have generated a need for improved sanitation procedures. Chemical sprays and dips have shown promise for reducing pathogens on fresh produce, but little research has been conducted for in-shell hazelnuts. This study analyzed the effectiveness of 3 chemical sanitizers for reducing Salmonella on in-shell hazelnuts. Treatments of water, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl; 25 and 50 ppm), peroxyacetic acid (PAA; 80 and 120 ppm), and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC; 450, 830, and 1013 ppm) were sprayed onto hazelnut samples inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Panama. Hazelnut samples were immersed in liquid cultures of S. Panama for 24 h, air-dried, and then sprayed with water and chemical treatments. Inoculation achieved S. Panama populations of approximately 8.04 log CFU/hazelnut. Surviving S. panama populations were evaluated using a nonselective medium (tryptic soy agar), incubated 3 h, and then overlaid with selective media (xylose lysine deoxycholate agar). All of the chemical treatments significantly reduced S. Panama populations (P ≤ 0.0001). The most effective concentrations of ASC, PAA, and NaOCl treatments reduced populations by 2.65, 1.46, and 0.66 log units, respectively. ASC showed the greatest potential for use as a postharvest sanitation treatment.

  18. [Experimental substantiation of use of sodium hypochlorite and ozone at a formation of intestinal anastomosis in conditions of acute intestinal obstruction and peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Lelianov, A D; Ivliev, N V; Bazhenov, S M; Nesterov, A A

    2009-01-01

    Presented are the results of experimental research on 144 animals (the rats Wistar), on whom was carried out resection of a part of large intestine and a intestinal anastamosis was formed in the presents of acute intestinal obstruction and peritonitis. The sanitation of abdominal cavity in the basic group of animals (74) was performed using sodium hypochlorite solution and dissolved ozone. The intestinal lavage was carried out by dissolved ozone with the subsequent introduction of ozonized oil Ozonide in the area of intestinal anastamosis. The combined application of ozone and sodium produces an expressed samative effect which leads to healing of intestinal anastamosis and decreases unstability of intestinal sutures and mortality.

  19. The Effect of Canal Dryness on Bond Strength of Bioceramic and Epoxy-resin Sealers after Irrigation with Sodium Hypochlorite or Chlorhexidine

    PubMed Central

    Razmi, Hasan; Bolhari, Behnam; Karamzadeh Dashti, Negar; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of canal dryness on the push-out bond strength of two resin sealers (AH-Plus and Adseal) and a bioceramic sealer (Endosequence BC sealer) after canal irrigation with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Methods and Materials: A total of 18 extracted human premolars were used. Canals were prepared and were divided to two groups based on irrigation solution (either NaOCl or CHX). The samples were again divided based on pre-obturation canal condition (wet, half-wet and dry). The samples were sub-divided into 3 groups based on the sealer type; the teeth were obturated with gutta-percha and test sealers (Adseal, AH-Plus or BC sealer). A total number of 18 groups were available to be cut into dentine disks (12 disks in each group). The type of bond failure was also assessed in each group. Data were analyzed using the 3-way ANOVA, post hoc Tukey’s tests, t-test and the Fisher’s exact test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The bond strength of Adseal was not affected by the canal condition or irrigation with either NaOCl or CHX. Although the bond strength of AH-Plus was not affected by the irrigant type, the highest bond strength was seen in dry canals. For Endosequence BC sealer, the canal conditions did not affect the bond strength; however, CHX reduced the bond strength. Conclusion: Bond strength of resin sealers was not affected by irrigation solution; however, canal moisture negatively affected the bond strength of AH-Plus. CHX reduced the bond strength of BC sealer. PMID:27141222

  20. Cleanliness in the Root Canal System: An Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Manual and Automated Instrumentation using 4% Sodium Hypochlorite and EDTA (Glyde File Prep)―An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Meshram, GK

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim : To assess the cleaning efficacy of manual and automated instrumentation using 4% sodium hypochlorite singly and in combination with Glyde file Prep as root canal irrigant. Methodology : The study utilized 40 extracted human permanent premolars with single, straight and fully formed root. The teeth were then divided into four groups of ten each, Group I and II were prepared by manual instruments with 4% sodium hypochlorite used as irrigant singly [Group I] or in combination with Glyde file prep. Group III and IV were prepared by automated instruments at 250 rpm with 4% sodium hypochlorite as irrigant singly [Group III] and in combination with glyde file prep [Group IV] automated instrumentation. After completion of the root canal preparation the canal, teeth were prepared for SEM examination. These photomicrographs were qualitatively evaluated using criteria. Overall cleanliness, presence or absence of the smear layer, presence or absence of the debris, patency of the opening of dentinal tubules. Results : When comparing the cleansing efficacy of manual and automated instrumentation using 4% sodium hypochlorite better cleansing was there with manual instrumentation. When comparing the cleansing efficacy of manual and automated instrumentation using combination regime cleansing is better with automated instrumentation. When comparing the cleansing efficacy of manual instrumentation using 4% sodium hypochlorite singly and in combination with EDTA, the combination regime led to better cleansing. When comparing the cleansing efficacy of automated instrumentation using 4% sodium hypochlorite singly and in combination regime lead to better cleansing. Conclusion : Neither of instrumentation technique, nor irrigating regimes were capable of providing a completely clean canal. Automated instrumentation with a combination of sodium hypochlorite & EDTA resulted the best cleansing efficacy. PMID:27616839

  1. Antimicrobial effect of ozonated water, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate in primary molar root canals

    PubMed Central

    Goztas, Zeynep; Onat, Halenur; Tosun, Gul; Sener, Yagmur; Hadimli, Hasan Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to determine the antimicrobial effect of ozonated water, ozonated water with ultrasonication, sodium hypochloride and chlorhexidine (CHX) in human primary root canals contaminated by Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Materials and Methods: Fifty-eight extracted human primary molar teeth were used. Crowns were cut off using a diamond saw under water-cooling. One hundred roots were obtained and mechanically prepared. The roots were then sterilized by autoclaving in water for 15 min at 121°C. All samples were contaminated with E. faecalis for 24 h and the root canals were randomly divided into five groups (n = 20). Group I: 25 mg/L of Ozonated water (O3aq), Group II: 25 mg/L of O3aq with ultrasonication, Group III: 2.5% Sodium hypochloride (NaOCl), Group IV: 2% CHX and Group V: Positive control. The canal of each specimen was irrigated for 4 min and positive control was untreated. All root canals were agitated with sterile saline solution. The saline solution was collected from canals with sterile paper points. For each specimen, the paper points were transposed to eppendorf vials containing 2 ml of brain heart infusion. According to bacterial proliferation, the mean values of optical density were achieved by ELİSA (Biotek EL ×800, Absorbance Microplate Reader, ABD) and the data were analyzed. Results: NaOCI, CHX and two types of O3aq were found statistically different than positive control group. NaOCI irrigation was found significantly most effective. Conclusions: NaOCl, CHX and O3aq applications provide antibacterial effect in vitro conditions in primary root canals. PMID:25512726

  2. Influence of the dentinal wall on the pH of sodium hypochlorite during root canal irrigation.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Ricardo Gomes; Herrero, Noemi Pascual; Wesselink, Paul; Versluis, Michel; van der Sluis, Luc

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of dentin on the pH levels of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions over time and to evaluate if preconditioning of dentin with 17% EDTA or agitation of the NaOCl solution influences these pH levels. A novel clinically representative model that scales with the ratio of the irrigant volume to the dentin surface area of a human root canal was used. Three standardized bovine dentin bars (2 × 2 × 10 mm) were placed in a plastic test tube. A total of 150 tubes were distributed in 29 groups. In the first experiment, the pH of various NaOCl solutions, with different concentrations (3%, 6%, and 9%) and starting pH levels (5 and 12), was monitored during exposure to dentin between 10 and 300 seconds. In a second experiment, the effect of agitation (45 Hz) and pretreatment of dentin with 17% EDTA on the pH levels of various NaOCl solutions was studied after 30 seconds of exposure to dentin. The short-term chemical stability of the tested solutions was assessed for both the concentration and the pH. The exposure time (P < .001) and concentration of the NaOCl solution (P < .011) significantly influence the pH level after exposure to dentin. However, the change in pH is too small to induce a change in the irrigant antimicrobial/tissue dissolution capacity. Agitation of the irrigant and preconditioning of the dentin did not alter the pH (P > .05). Both the pH 5 and pH 12 solutions were chemically stable for 1 hour. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Qualitative Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Root Dentin Irrigated with Sodium Hypochlorite, EDTA, or Chlorhexidine.

    PubMed

    Kolosowski, Kamil P; Sodhi, Rana N S; Kishen, Anil; Basrani, Bettina R

    2015-10-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chelating agents, and chlorhexidine (CHX), which are commonly used irrigants during endodontic treatment, have the potential to alter the physical and chemical properties of the dentin structure. The aim of this study was to use time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to qualitatively evaluate the chemical characteristics of dentin surface and compare it with dentin exposed to NaOCl, EDTA, or CHX. Four blocks of dentin from a root of a human maxillary molar were embedded in resin and trimmed with a microtome to expose the dentin. Samples were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups: (1) no irrigation treatment (sample A), (2) 2.5% NaOCl (sample B), (3) 17% EDTA (sample C), and (4) 2% CHX (sample D). Dentin surfaces were analyzed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, which allowed characterization of dentin surface chemistry by both imaging and mass spectroscopic analysis obtained in high mass and spatial resolution modes. Sample A revealed intense peaks characteristics of hydroxyapatite in addition to Na(+), K(+), CH4N(+), CN(-), CNO(-), Mg(+), F(-), and HCO2(-) peaks. Sample B showed severely decreased CH4N(+) and increased intensity of Cl(-). Sample C lacked Ca(+) and Mg(+) and showed decreased PO2(-) and PO3(-). Sample D exhibited a distinct presence of CHX. The spectral image of sample A displayed even distribution of Na(+) and Ca(+) on a smeared surface. The surfaces of samples B and D had patent dentinal tubules, whereas sample D showed an intense CHX signal. Sample C had some patent dentinal tubules and lacked Ca(+). NaOCl removed protein components from the dentin matrix, EDTA removed calcium and magnesium ions from the dentin, and CHX formed an adsorbed layer on the dentin surface. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Different Antioxidants on the Microtensile Bond Strength of an Adhesive System to Sodium Hypochlorite-treated Dentin.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, Benin; Gurbuz, Ozge; Ozsoy, Alev; Eren, Meltem Mert; Cilingir, Aylin; Yucel, Taner

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of different antioxidant treatments on the microtensile bond strength of an adhesive system to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)-treated dentin. Thirty extracted third molars were sectioned 3 mm below the occlusal surface and divided into six groups according to the antioxidant treatment received: control group: distilled water; NaOCl group: 5.25% NaOCl and distilled water; proanthocyanidin (PA) group: 5.25% NaOCl, 5% PA and distilled water; 1-week storage group: 5.25% NaOCl and storage for 1 week in distilled water; Accel group: 5.25% NaOCl, Accel, and distilled water; noni group: 5.25% NaOCl, noni fruit juice, and distilled water. NaOCl, PA, Accel, noni, and distilled water were administered for 30 s, 10 min, 30 s, 10 min, and 30 s, respectively. A self-etching adhesive system (Single Bond Universal Adhesive) was applied to each specimen and a resin composite (Filtek Z550) was built up to a height of 5 mm on the dentin surface. Each specimen was serially sectioned to obtain sticks with a cross-sectional area of 1 mm2, and their microtensile bond strength was determined. Statistical differences between groups were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane's T2 test. Microtensile bond strength in the NaOCl group was significantly lower than in all other groups. However, there were no significant differences in the bond strength between the groups treated with different antioxidants. NaOCl significantly reduced the microtensile bond strength of the adhesive system. The application of PA, Accel, and noni fruit juice to NaOCl-treated dentin significantly improved the microtensile bond strength.

  5. Formation of chlorinated breakdown products during degradation of sunscreen agent, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate in the presence of sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Gackowska, Alicja; Przybyłek, Maciej; Studziński, Waldemar; Gaca, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a new degradation path of sunscreen active ingredient, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and 4-methoxycinnamic acid (MCA) in the presence of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), was discussed. The reaction products were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Since HOCl treatment leads to more polar products than EHMC, application of polar extracting agents, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate/n-hexane mixture, gave better results in terms of chlorinated breakdown products identification than n-hexane. Reaction of EHMC with HOCl lead to the formation of C=C bridge cleavage products such as 2-ethylhexyl chloroacetate, 1-chloro-4-methoxybenzene, 1,3-dichloro-2-methoxybenzene, and 3-chloro-4-methoxybenzaldehyde. High reactivity of C=C bond attached to benzene ring is also characteristic for MCA, since it can be converted in the presence of HOCl to 2,4-dichlorophenole, 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone, 1,3-dichloro-2-methoxybenzene, 1,2,4-trichloro-3-methoxybenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorophenole, and 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxyacetophenone. Surprisingly, in case of EHMC/HOCl/UV, much less breakdown products were formed compared to non-UV radiation treatment. In order to describe the nature of EHMC and MCA degradation, local reactivity analysis based on the density functional theory (DFT) was performed. Fukui function values showed that electrophilic attack of HOCl to the C=C bridge in EHMC and MCA is highly favorable (even more preferable than phenyl ring chlorination). This suggests that HOCl electrophilic addition is probably the initial step of EHMC degradation.

  6. Comparison of cytotoxicity of various concentrations origanum extract solution with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Ok, Evren; Adanir, Necdet; Hakki, Sema

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the cytotoxicity of 0.5-4.5 origanum extract solution (OES), 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with WST-1 test on human periodontal ligament (hPDL) fibroblasts. About 0.5-4.5% OES, 2% CHX and 5.25% NaOCl solutions cytotoxicity was evaluated with cell culture test using PDL fibroblasts. Viability of hPDL cells was evaluated with WST-1 (Cell Proliferation Reagent WST-1 Roche) test at 1, 24 and 72(nd) h. hPDL cells were plated at 20 × 10(3) cells per well in 96-well plates. Absorbance values were read in optical density 480 nm by ELISA plate reader spectrophotometer. The statistical differences between various groups were evaluated using one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Duncan's Multiple Range test using SAS software. Statistically, a significant difference was considered at P < 0.001. According to the 1-h cytotoxicity results, 0.5% OES showed the least cytotoxic effect in test groups. There were not found any statistical significance between 1% OES and 2% CHX. About 5.25% NaOCl showed more cytotoxic effect than 1% OES and 2% CHX. In 24 and 72 h, different concentrations of OES, 5.25% NaOCl, 2% CHX solutions showed similar cytotoxic effect. Based on these results, 1% OES and 2% CHX showed similar results and less cytotoxic effect than 5.25% NaOCl. It could be considered as a favorable solution concentration when OES was used as root canal irrigation solution.

  7. Antibacterial and Toxic Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide Combined with Different Concentrations of Chlorhexidine in Comparison with Sodium Hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Mirhadi, Hosein; Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Ranjbar, Mohammad Ali; Azar, Mohammad Reza; Geramizadeh, Bita; Torabi, Shima; Sadat Aleyasin, Zeinab; Gholami, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been suggested to be used in sequence or in combination with chlorhexidine (CHX) to enhance the antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, but there is no research in the literature on the safety and effectiveness of this irrigation protocol. Purpose This study aimed to assess the cytocompatibility and antibacterial activity of different concentrations of CHX combined with H2O2in comparison with the activity of 5.25 and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Materials and Method Different concentrations of H2O2 (10, 5, 3 and 1%) were exposed to the PDL cells. Then, the solution with minimal cytotoxicity was selected (3% H2O2). The cytocompatibility and antibacterial activity of 0.1, 0.2, 1 and 2% CHX combined with 3% H2O2 were evaluated and compared with 5.25 and 2.5% NaOCl. The differences in the mean viability of PDL cells were evaluated by one-way ANOVA. Kruskal-Wallis and post-hoc Dunn's tests were adopted to compare the antibacterial activity of the solutions against E.faecalis. Results The viability of PDL cells was lower when treated with 5.25 or 2.5% NaOCl than all combinations of CHX and H2O2.There was no significant difference in the antibacterial activity of the solutions against E.faecalis, except for the 0.1% CHX + 3% H2O2 combination, which had significantly lower efficacy than other groups. Conclusion All combinations of CHX and H2O2 (used in this study)except 0.1% CHX + 3% H2O2 were efficient irrigants against planktonic E.faecalis and had a better cytocompatibility with PDL cells than 5.25 and 2.5% NaOCl. PMID:26636124

  8. Comparison of cytotoxicity of various concentrations origanum extract solution with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Evren; Adanir, Necdet; Hakki, Sema

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the cytotoxicity of 0.5–4.5 origanum extract solution (OES), 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with WST-1 test on human periodontal ligament (hPDL) fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: About 0.5–4.5% OES, 2% CHX and 5.25% NaOCl solutions cytotoxicity was evaluated with cell culture test using PDL fibroblasts. Viability of hPDL cells was evaluated with WST-1 (Cell Proliferation Reagent WST-1 Roche) test at 1, 24 and 72nd h. hPDL cells were plated at 20 × 103 cells per well in 96-well plates. Absorbance values were read in optical density 480 nm by ELISA plate reader spectrophotometer. The statistical differences between various groups were evaluated using one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Duncan's Multiple Range test using SAS software. Statistically, a significant difference was considered at P < 0.001. Results: According to the 1-h cytotoxicity results, 0.5% OES showed the least cytotoxic effect in test groups. There were not found any statistical significance between 1% OES and 2% CHX. About 5.25% NaOCl showed more cytotoxic effect than 1% OES and 2% CHX. In 24 and 72 h, different concentrations of OES, 5.25% NaOCl, 2% CHX solutions showed similar cytotoxic effect. Conclusions: Based on these results, 1% OES and 2% CHX showed similar results and less cytotoxic effect than 5.25% NaOCl. It could be considered as a favorable solution concentration when OES was used as root canal irrigation solution. PMID:25713477

  9. The effect of 8.25% sodium hypochlorite on dental pulp dissolution and dentin flexural strength and modulus.

    PubMed

    Cullen, James K T; Wealleans, James A; Kirkpatrick, Timothy C; Yaccino, John M

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), including 8.25%, on dental pulp dissolution and dentin flexural strength and modulus. Sixty dental pulp samples and 55 plane parallel dentin bars were retrieved from extracted human teeth. Five test groups (n = 10) were formed consisting of a pulp sample and dentin bar immersed in various NaOCl solutions. The negative control group (n = 5) consisted of pulp samples and dentin bars immersed in saline. The positive control group (n = 5) consisted of pulp samples immersed in 8.25% NaOCl without a dentin bar. Every 6 minutes for 1 hour, the solutions were refreshed. The dentin bars were tested for flexural strength and modulus with a 3-point bend test. The time until total pulp dissolution and any changes in dentin bar flexural strength and modulus for the different NaOCl solutions were statistically analyzed. An increase in NaOCl concentration showed a highly significant decrease in pulp dissolution time. The pulp dissolution property of 8.25% NaOCl was significantly faster than any other tested concentration of NaOCl. The presence of dentin did not have a significant effect on the dissolution capacity of NaOCl if the solutions were refreshed. NaOCl concentration did not have a statistically significant effect on dentin flexural strength or modulus. Dilution of NaOCl decreases its pulp dissolution capacity. Refreshing the solution is essential to counteract the effects of dentin. In this study, NaOCl did not have a significant effect on dentin flexural strength or modulus. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Combined Antibacterial Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite and Root Canal Sealers against Enterococcus faecalis Biofilms in Dentin Canals.

    PubMed

    Du, Tianfeng; Wang, Zhejun; Shen, Ya; Ma, Jingzhi; Cao, Yingguang; Haapasalo, Markus

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial effect of the combined use of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and root canal sealers on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms using a dentin infection model. Cells of E. faecalis were introduced into the dentinal tubules by centrifugation and incubated in brain-heart infusion for 3 weeks. The biofilms in dentin were first subjected to 5% NaOCl or sterile water for 10 minutes followed by an equal thickness of AH Plus (Dentsply International Inc, York, PA), Endosequence BC Sealer (Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA), or MTA Fillapex (Angelus Indústria de Produtos Odontológicos S/A, Londrina, Brazil) placed on the root canal wall of the dentin specimens for 7, 30, and 60 days. Gutta-percha and water were used in a similar manner as controls. The proportions of dead and live bacteria inside the dentinal tubules were assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and viability staining. The combined use of NaOCl and sealers (30 and 60 days) killed significantly more bacteria than NaOCl or sealers alone (P < .05). NaOCl + MTA Fillapex was the most effective antibacterial combination by killing 83% bacteria in dentin tubules in 60 days. Thirty and 60 days of exposure to the sealers resulted in significantly more dead bacteria in dentin biofilms than 7-day exposures (P < .05). The placement of root canal sealer after NaOCl treatment enhanced antibacterial effects against E. faecalis in the dentinal tubules. Little additional effect was obtained after 30 days of exposure to sealers. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Evaluation of root canal isthmus debridement efficacy of Er:YAG laser in combination with sodium hypochlorite].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Meng-Qi; Wang, Hao-Ming; Xiao, Jia-Qi; Hong, Jin

    2016-10-01

    To histologically evaluate the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) in combination with Er:YAG (erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet) laser in dissolving necrotic tissue and cleaning root canals as well as canal isthmuses. After scanned by cone-beam CT (CBCT), 50 well-prepared premolars with root canal isthmuses were selected and randomly assigned into 5 groups. They were subsequently subjected to different regimens as followed: group A-irrigated with 1% NaClO for 1 minute, group B- irradiated by Er:YAG laser at 0.5 W combined with 1% NaClO irrigation for 1 minute, group C- irradiated by Er:YAG laser at 1.0 W combined with 1% NaClO irrigation for 1 minute, group D- irradiated by Er:YAG laser at 2.0 W combined with 1% NaClO irrigation for 1 minute,group E- negative control. After histological preparation and staining, the cross-sections were evaluated for percentage of tissue removal from root canals and isthmuses. The cleanliness values were calculated using SPSS 13.0 software package. The mean percentage of root canals in group A, B, C and D was 95.24%, 96.53%、97.63% and 98.22%, respectively, and the mean percentage of isthmuses was 16.50%, 51.48%, 52.56% and 53.83%, respectively. The mean percentage of root canal and isthmus cleanliness values were significantly higher in group B, C and D (P<0.05) than that in group A. There was no significant differences of root canal and isthmus cleanliness among group B, C and D. Er:YAG laser combined with 1% NaClO irrigation may be used effectively in root canal and root canal isthmus cleanliness as a new method.

  12. A comparative scanning electron microscopy evaluation of smear layer removal with apple vinegar and sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA

    PubMed Central

    CANDEIRO, George Táccio de Miranda; de MATOS, Isabela Barbosa; da COSTA, Clarice Fernandes Eloy; FONTELES, Cristiane Sá Roriz; do VALE, Mônica Sampaio

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the removal of smear layer from the middle and apical root thirds after use of different irrigating solutions. Material and Methods Forty roots of permanent human teeth had their canals instrumented and were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10), according to the irrigating solution: apple vinegar (group A), apple vinegar finished with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (group B), 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) finished with 17% EDTA (group C) and saline (group D - control). After chemomechanical preparation, the roots were cleaved longitudinally and their middle and apical thirds were examined by SEM at ×1,000 magnification. Two calibrated examiners (kappa=0.92) analyzed the SEM micrographs qualitatively attributing scores that indicated the efficacy of the solutions in removing the smear layer from the surface of the dentin tubules (1 - poor, 2 - good and 3 - excellent). Data from the control and experimental groups were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test, while the Wilcoxon test was used to compare the middle and apical thirds of the canals within the same group (α=0.05). Results The middle third presented less amount of smear layer than the apical third, regardless of the irrigant. There was statistically significant difference (p=0.0402) among the groups in the middle third. In the apical third, the apple vinegar/EDTA group showed the greatest removal of smear layer (p=0.0373). Conclusion Apple vinegar associated or not with EDTA was effective in removing smear layer when used as an endodontic irrigant. PMID:22231000

  13. Physicochemical and pulp tissue dissolution properties of some household bleach brands compared with a dental sodium hypochlorite solution.

    PubMed

    Jungbluth, Holger; Peters, Christine; Peters, Ove; Sener, Beatrice; Zehnder, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    Many clinicians use household bleach to irrigate root canals. Sodium hypochlorite solutions are also available from dental suppliers. We compared physicochemical features of these products and investigated their impact on pulp tissue dissolution. Six different brands of household bleach were bought from drugstores. These were compared with Chlor-XTRA and technical NaOCl solutions of controlled concentration and alkalinity regarding their chlorine content (wt% NaOCl), pH, alkaline capacity, osmolarity, surface tension (Wilhelmy plate method), and price. Bovine pulp tissue (n = 10 specimens per group) dissolution at 37°C by test and control solutions adjusted to 1.0% NaOCl was assessed. Reduction in tissue weight was compared between groups by one-way analysis of variance, followed by Bonferroni correction (P < .05). The pH of undiluted solutions ranged between 11.1 and 12.7. Batches of the same product differed in NaOCl content. No product contained more than an equivalent of 0.1 mol/L NaOH. One household bleach brand (Safeway Bleach Summit Fresh) was slightly alkalized; the other solutions under investigation were not. Osmolarity was similar between products. The surface tension of Chlor-XTRA and Safeway Bleach Summit Fresh was about half that of the other solutions. Tissue dissolution was statistically similar (P > .05) among all solutions. Price was about 100-fold higher per liter of Chlor-XTRA compared with household bleach. Other than its price, the Chlor-XTRA solution had no unique features. In contrast to an earlier report, reduced surface tension did not result in greater soft tissue dissolution by NaOCl. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In Vitro Analysis of Surface Roughness of Acrylic Resin Exposed to the Combined Hygiene Method of Brushing and Immersion in Ricinus communis and Sodium Hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Badaró, Maurício Malheiros; Salles, Marcela Moreira; de Arruda, Carolina Noronha Ferraz; Oliveira, Viviane de Cássia; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Paranhos, Helena Freitas Oliveira; Silva-Lovato, Cláudia Helena

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate a solution based on Ricinus communis (Castor oil) for denture cleansing, comparing it to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for the surface roughness of heat-polymerized acrylic resin. Forty polished and unpolished resin specimens (90 × 30 × 4 mm) were evaluated before and after their exposure to protocol hygiene: brushing the specimens with a specific denture brush and mild soap for 3 minutes, three times a day, and immersing them in hygiene solutions (0.25% NaOCl-S1 and 0.5% NaOCl-S2; 10% R. communis-S3; saline-S4: control) for 20 minutes. Surface roughness was evaluated by rugosimeter and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the protocol. For evaluation of surface roughness, polished and unpolished surfaces were used. The roughness of the polished surface was not affected by time (p = 0.062), but was affected by solutions (p < 0.0001) and the interaction between factors (p = 0.005). For S1 and S4, the period did not influence the roughness. For S2, there was a change after 7 days, remaining stable after 14 days. For S3, there were changes, and stabilization occurred after 14 days. After 7 and 14 days, S2 and S3 promoted major changes, but after 21 days, there were no differences among solutions, except saline. The unpolished surface was not influenced by factors: period (p = 0.115), solution (p = 0.120), and their interaction (p = 0.382). SEM analysis showed similar results on the evaluation of surface roughness. The polished surface of the prosthesis was more susceptible to changes when exposed to hygiene solutions, and although the 0.5% NaOCl solution promoted an increase in the surface roughness compared with the same solution at 0.25% and R. communis at 10%, the values are clinically acceptable. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. An evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of 3% sodium hypochlorite, high-frequency alternating current and 2% chlorhexidine on Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Karale, Rupali; Thakore, Ajay; Shetty, VK

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), high-frequency alternating current (HFAC) (Endox Endodontic System), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) in elimination of Enterococcus faecalis from experimentally infected root canals, in vitro. Materials and Methods: Eighty extracted, single rooted permanent upper anterior teeth were instrumented up to size 50, teeth were sterilized and inoculated with E. faecalis, subcultured in BHI broth which had its optical density adjusted to approximately 1.5Χ108 colony forming units (CFUs) ml-1 by comparing its turbidity to a McFarland 0.5 BaSO4 standard solution. After incubation for 24 h, the contaminated root canals were divided into four groups and subjected to action of NaOCl 3%, CHX 2%, and HFAC with physiological saline as a positive control. Sterile paper points were selected to take the sample of the bacteria and transferred to tubes containing 5ml of BHI broth and then incubated for 24 and 48 h, followed by agar plating of the resultant broth turbidity on Enterococcus confirmatory agar. Results: Data obtained were analyzed statistically for differences using chi-squared test, comparing different groups, with a significance level established at P<0.05 and 3% NaOCl showed no growth postoperatively, CHX and HFAC showed reduction of postoperative growth compared to physiological saline and, were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: In the present study, sodium hypochlorite, CHX, HFAC all were significantly effective in eliminating E. faecalis and sodium hypochlorite showed the maximum anti-bacterial activity against E. faecalis. PMID:21691496

  16. A comparative evaluation of antibacterial effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite, Curcuma longa, and Camellia sinensis as irrigating solutions on isolated anaerobic bacteria from infected primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Dhariwal, Neha Shashikant; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Harakuni, Sheetal; Sogi, Suma; Assudani, Harsha G; Mistry, Laresh Naresh

    2016-01-01

    In endodontics, most of the commercial intra-canal medicaments have cytotoxic reactions and because of their inability to eliminate bacteria from dentinal tubules, recent medicine has turned its attention to the usage of biologic medication prepared from natural plants. The literature to testify the efficacy of natural alternatives in primary teeth is meagre and its effects as irrigating solutions need to be evaluated. To evaluate the antibacterial effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite, ethanolic extracts of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Camellia sinensis (green tea) as irrigating solutions against the anaerobic bacteria isolated from the root canals of infected primary teeth. Thirty patients were selected based on the selected inclusion and exclusion criteria. Preoperative radiographs were taken. Rubber dam isolation and working length estimation were done, following which thirty samples were taken from the root canals of infected primary teeth using sterile absorbent paper points and transferred to tubes containing thioglycolate transport medium. The bacteria were then isolated using standard microbiological protocols and were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity testing using the three test irrigants. SPSS 18 software using Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. The most commonly isolated bacteria included Porphyromonas sp., Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus. Sodium hypochlorite and C. longa (turmeric) showed good antibacterial effect and were effective against most of the isolated bacteria. There was statistically significant difference in the antibacterial effect among the three tested groups (P < 0.001). The least effective was C. sinensis (green tea). The infected primary teeth almost always present with a polymicrobial structure with a wide variety of anaerobic bacteria. The chemo-mechanical preparation plays an important role in eradicating the population of predominant micro-organisms in treating these teeth with

  17. Automatic environmental disinfection with hydrogen peroxide and silver ions versus manual environmental disinfection with sodium hypochlorite: a multicentre randomized before-and-after trial.

    PubMed

    Mosci, D; Marmo, G W; Sciolino, L; Zaccaro, C; Antonellini, R; Accogli, L; Lazzarotto, T; Mongardi, M; Landini, M P

    2017-10-01

    New technologies for automated disinfection have been developed, including the use of hydrogen peroxide atomized by specific equipment, with associated silver compounds. To compare the effectiveness of an automated disinfection system with hydrogen peroxide <8% and silver ion versus a manual method with 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution when evaluating the reduction of microbial mesophilic contamination and Clostridium difficile presence; and to evaluate the time required for both of these processes. This was a randomized multicentre trial performed in different hospital wards that had been occupied previously by patients with Clostridium difficile infection. When patients were discharged their rooms were randomized to one of two decontamination arms. The surfaces where sampled using swabs, before and after disinfection. Swab samples were cultured for quantitative detection of microbial mesophilic contamination and qualitative detection of C. difficile. Before disinfection, 13% of surfaces decontaminated with hydrogen peroxide and silver ions and 20% of surfaces decontaminated with sodium hypochlorite showed presence of C. difficile spores. After disinfection, the samples containing C. difficile were 0% (P < 0.001) in the group decontaminated with hydrogen peroxide and silver ions, and were 3% (P < 0.001) in the group decontaminated with sodium hypochlorite. This difference was not statistically significant; nor was the difference in the reduction of the microbial mesophilic contamination. The differences between the groups were not statistically significant; however, the disinfection with hydrogen peroxide and silver ions is preferable due to less dependence on operators. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis - An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ghonmode, Wasudeo Namdeo; Balsaraf, Omkar D; Tambe, Varsha H; Saujanya, K P; Patil, Ashishkumar K; Kakde, Deepak D

    2013-12-01

    E. faecalis is the predominant micro-organism recovered from root canal of the teeth where previous endodontic treatment has failed. Thorough debridement and complete elimination of micro-organisms are objectives of an effective endodontic treatment. For many years, intracanal irrigants have been used as an adjunct to enhance antimicrobial effect of cleaning and shaping in endodontics. The constant increase in antibiotic-resistant strains and side-effects of synthetic drugs has promoted researchers to look for herbal alternatives. For thousands of years humans have sought to fortify their health and cure various illnesses with herbal remedies, but only few have been tried and tested to withstand modern scientific scrutiny. The present study was aimed to evaluate alternative, inexpensive simple and effective means of sanitization of the root canal systems. The antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives as endodontic irrigants is evaluated and compared with the standard irrigant sodium hypochlorite. Neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts, 3% Sodium hypochlorite, absolute ethanol, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) cultures, Brain heart infusion media. The agar diffusion test was performed in brain heart infusion media and broth. The agar diffusion test was used to measure the zone of inhibition. Neem leaf extracts and grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition suggesting that they had anti-microbial properties. Neem leaf extracts showed significantly greater zones of inhibition than 3% sodium hypochlorite. Also interestingly grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition but were not as significant as of neem extracts. Under the limitations of this study, it was concluded that neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis. Microbial inhibition potential of neem leaf extract observed in this study opens perspectives for its use as an intracanal medication. How to cite this article: Ghonmode WN, Balsaraf OD, Tambe VH, Saujanya KP

  19. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ghonmode, Wasudeo Namdeo; Balsaraf, Omkar D; Tambe, Varsha H; Saujanya, K P; Patil, Ashishkumar K; Kakde, Deepak D

    2013-01-01

    Background: E. faecalis is the predominant micro-organism recovered from root canal of the teeth where previous endodontic treatment has failed. Thorough debridement and complete elimination of micro-organisms are objectives of an effective endodontic treatment. For many years, intracanal irrigants have been used as an adjunct to enhance antimicrobial effect of cleaning and shaping in endodontics. The constant increase in antibiotic-resistant strains and side-effects of synthetic drugs has promoted researchers to look for herbal alternatives. For thousands of years humans have sought to fortify their health and cure various illnesses with herbal remedies, but only few have been tried and tested to withstand modern scientific scrutiny. The present study was aimed to evaluate alternative, inexpensive simple and effective means of sanitization of the root canal systems. The antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives as endodontic irrigants is evaluated and compared with the standard irrigant sodium hypochlorite. Materials & Methods: Neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts, 3% Sodium hypochlorite, absolute ethanol, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) cultures, Brain heart infusion media. The agar diffusion test was performed in brain heart infusion media and broth. The agar diffusion test was used to measure the zone of inhibition. Results: Neem leaf extracts and grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition suggesting that they had anti-microbial properties. Neem leaf extracts showed significantly greater zones of inhibition than 3% sodium hypochlorite. Also interestingly grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition but were not as significant as of neem extracts. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, it was concluded that neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis. Microbial inhibition potential of neem leaf extract observed in this study opens perspectives for its use as an intracanal medication. How to cite this

  20. Influence of EDTA and dentine in tissue dissolution ability of sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Luiza Helena Silva; Leonardo, Natália Gomes e Silva; Gomes, Ana Paula Neutzling; Souza, Erick Miranda; Pappen, Fernanda Geraldes

    2015-04-01

    This study verified whether ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) influences the pulp tissue dissolution capability of different concentrations of NaOCl, in the presence of dentine. NaOCl and EDTA solutions were simultaneously mixed in flasks either containing a dentine disc or those not containing a dentine disc. Previously weighed bovine pulp tissues were immersed in the solutions for 5, 15 and 30 min. The weight loss was measured. The dissolution tests were performed in triplicate. Univariate analysis of variance, along with further Tukey's honestly significant difference pairwise comparisons, was used to verify the effect of EDTA, different concentrations of NaOCl, dentine and time of incubation on the tissue dissolution. Higher concentrations of NaOCl increased the tissue dissolution. EDTA reduced the capacity of NaOCl to dissolve pulp tissue, even in presence of dentine. Dentine negatively affects the capacity of NaOCl to dissolve pulp tissue. In conclusion, the presence of EDTA and dentine negatively affects the tissue dissolution ability of NaOCl.

  1. Inadvertent Apical Extrusion of Sodium Hypochlorite with Evaluation by Dental Volumetric Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Başer Can, Elif Delve; Karapınar Kazandağ, Meriç; Kaptan, Rabia Figen

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the tissue injury caused by inadvertently extruded NaOCl through the apical constriction. A 56-year-old female patient with complaints of pain, swelling, and ecchymosis on the left side of her face was referred to our clinic. The symptoms had emerged following root canal treatment of the maxillary left first premolar, and a soft tissue complication due to apical extrusion of NaOCl was diagnosed. Antibiotics and analgesics were prescribed. DVT images revealed that the buccal root apex had perforated the maxillary bone. The patient was followed up every other day and became asymptomatic on the 10th day. Endodontic therapy was completed with routine procedures. Determining working length precisely and following irrigation protocols meticulously are indispensable to prevent this type of complication. 3D visualization of the affected area may reveal the cause of the incident. PMID:25883812

  2. Cyclic fatigue resistance of D-RaCe, ProTaper, and Mtwo nickel-titanium retreatment instruments after immersion in sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Pala, Kanşad; Aktı, Ahmet; Düzgün, Salih; Topçuoğlu, Gamze

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of immersion in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on cyclic fatigue resistance of three different rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) retreatment files. A total of 90 new ProTaper, D-RaCe, and Mtwo retreatment files were tested. Thirty files of the same brand were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 15). Group 1 was no immersion (control group) and 16 mm of group 2 instruments were immersed in 5 % NaOCl at 37 °C for 5 min. All instruments were then tested for cyclic fatigue. Resistance to cyclic fatigue was determined by counting the numbers of cycles to failure in a 60° curve with a 5-mm radius, recording the time in seconds to fracture. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance. Resistance to cyclic fatigue decreased significantly for D-RaCe retreatment files after immersion in NaOCl. ProTaper and Mtwo retreatment files were not affected from immersion to NaOCl. D-RaCe retreatment instruments showed better cyclic fatigue resistance than ProTaper and Mtwo retreatment instruments, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between ProTaper and Mtwo retreatment instrument groups (p > 0.05). D-RaCe retreatment instruments had the highest cyclic fatigue resistance among retreatment files tested in this study, but immersion to NaOCl decreased the cyclic fatigue resistance of D-RaCe retreatment instrument. It should be considered that cyclic fatigue resistance of D-RaCe can decrease in contact with NaOCl during the removal of canal filling material.

  3. A comparison of orthodontic bracket shear bond strength on enamel deproteinized by 5.25% sodium hypochlorite using total etch and self-etch primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongkowidjaja, F.; Soegiharto, B. M.; Purbiati, M.

    2017-08-01

    The shear bond strength (SBS) can be increased by removing protein pellicles from the enamel surface by deproteinization using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The SBS of a self-etch primer is lower than that of a total etch primer; nonetheless, it prevents white spot lesions. This study aimed to assess the SBS of the Anyetch (AE) total etch primer and FL-Bond II Shofu (FL) self-etch primer after enamel deproteinization using 5.25% NaOCl. Forty eight human maxillary first premolars were extracted, cleaned, and divided into four groups. In group A, brackets were bonded to the enamel without deproteinization before etching (A1: 10 teeth using total etch primer (AE); A2: 10 teeth using self-etch primer (FL)). In group B, brackets were bonded to the enamel after deproteinization with 5.25% NaOCl before etching (B1: 10 teeth using total etch primer (AE); B2: 10 teeth using self-etch primer (FL)). Brackets were bonded using Transbond XT, stored in artificial saliva for 24 h at 37°C, mounted on acrylic cylinders, and debonded using a Shimadzu AG-5000 universal testing machine. There were no significant differences in SBS between the total etch (AE) groups (p > 0.05) and between the self-etch (FL) groups (p > 0.05). There were significant differences in SBS between groups A and B. The mean SBS for groups A1, A2, B1, and B2 was 12.91±3.99, 4.46±2.47, 13.06±3.66, and 3.62±2.36 MPa, respectively. Deproteinization using NaOCl did not affect the SBS of the total etch primer (AE) group; it reduced the SBS of the self-etch primer (FL) group, but not with a statistically significant difference.

  4. Influence of Smear Layer on the Antimicrobial Activity of a Sodium Hypochlorite/Etidronic Acid Irrigating Solution in Infected Dentin.

    PubMed

    Morago, Ana; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Ferrer-Luque, Carmen María; Baca, Pilar; Ruiz-Linares, Matilde; Arias-Moliz, María Teresa

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the smear layer on the antimicrobial activity of a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)/9% etidronic acid (HEBP) irrigating solution against bacteria growing inside dentin tubules. Dentin tubules were infected with Enterococcus faecalis by centrifugation. After 5 days of incubation, the smear layer had formed in half of the samples, which were then treated with 2.5% NaOCl either alone or combined with 9% HEBP for 3 minutes. The percentage of dead cells in infected dentinal tubules was measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy and the live/dead technique. The smear layer on the surface of the root canal wall was also observed by scanning electron microscopy. Results of the percentage of dead cells were compared using parametric tests after subjecting data to the normalized Anscombe transformation. The level of significance was P < .05. In the absence of the smear layer, 2.5% NaOCl alone and combined with 9% HEBP showed high antimicrobial activity without significant differences between the 2. The smear layer reduced the antimicrobial activity of 2.5% NaOCl significantly, whereas the solution with HEBP was not affected. No dentin tubules free of the smear layer were obtained in the 2.5% NaOCl group. In the case of 2.5% NaOCl/9% HEBP, 95.40% ± 3.63% of dentin tubules were cleaned. The presence of the smear layer reduced the antimicrobial activity of 2.5% NaOCl. The combination of 2.5% NaOCl/9% HEBP exerted antimicrobial activity that was not reduced by the smear layer. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cyclic fatigue resistance of two reciprocating nickel-titanium instruments after immersion in sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Pedullà, E; Grande, N M; Plotino, G; Palermo, F; Gambarini, G; Rapisarda, E

    2013-02-01

    To assess resistance to cyclic fatigue of reciprocating nickel-titanium ( NiTi ) files (Reciproc and WaveOne) after immersion in NaOCl solution over several time periods. A total of 90 new Reciproc R25 and WaveOne Primary were tested. The 45 files of the same brand were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 15) and submitted to the following immersion protocol in 5% NaOCl at 37 °C for 16 mm: no immersion (control), 1 or 5 min dynamically. The dynamic immersion and the following cyclic fatigue tests were performed using the appropriate preset reciprocation modes ('RECIPROC ALL' or 'WAVEONE ALL') in a specially designed endodontic motor. Resistance to cyclic fatigue was determined by recording time to fracture (TtF) in a stainless steel artificial canal with a 60° angle of curvature and 5 mm radius of curvature. The artificial canal was manufactured reproducing the instrument's size and taper. Data were analysed by 2-way analyses of variance. Resistance to cyclic fatigue of the same NiTi file was not significantly affected by immersion in NaOCl . Reciproc R25 was associated with a higher cyclic fatigue resistance in all groups compared to WaveOne Primary (P < 0.0001). Reciprocating dynamic immersion in NaOCl for 1 or 5 min did not reduce the cyclic fatigue resistance of NiTi files significantly. However, the type of reciprocating instrument influenced cyclic fatigue resistance with Reciproc R25 being more resistant than WaveOne Primary. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  6. Evaluation of 4 Different Irrigating Systems for Apical Extrusion of Sodium Hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Yost, Ross A; Bergeron, Brian E; Kirkpatrick, Timothy C; Roberts, Mark D; Roberts, Howard W; Himel, Van T; Sabey, Kent A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate NaOCl apical extrusion by using negative apical pressure (EndoVac), sonic agitation (EndoActivator), side-vented needle (Max-i-Probe), and photon induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS 10 mJ and PIPS 20 mJ) laser irrigation in an in vitro gel model. Extracted mandibular and maxillary central incisors (n = 18) were prepared to size 35/.04 and 55/.04, respectively. Teeth were mounted in transparent containers with clear acrylic and suspended in a color-changing pH-sensitive gel, creating a closed system. By using a crossover design, each tooth was sequentially irrigated by using 6% NaOCl with each device following manufacturers' recommendations. Each tooth served as its own control. Pre-irrigation and post-irrigation buccal and proximal view photographs served to measure the longest distance of extrusion and were analyzed with ImageJ software. Mean results were analyzed by using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post hoc test (P < .05). There were no significant differences between EndoVac, EndoActivator, and the passive extrusion groups. The EndoVac and EndoActivator groups produced significantly less extrusion than PIPS irrigation. Max-i-Probe extrusion results were more variable than those of EndoActivator but had no significant difference. Across all irrigation systems, there were no significant differences with respect to apical preparation size. Under the in vitro conditions of this study, no difference was found between the 10 mJ and 20 mJ PIPS laser groups. EndoVac demonstrated significantly less potential for apical extrusion than PIPS and Max-i-Probe, whereas apical preparation size did not significantly affect extrusion of irrigant. The potential for apical extrusion of endodontic irrigants should be a consideration when selecting a system for final irrigation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Disinfection efficiencies of sage and spearmint essential oils against planktonic and biofilm Staphylococcus aureus cells in comparison with sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Vetas, Dimitrios; Dimitropoulou, Eleni; Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Giaouris, Efstathios

    2017-09-18

    Staphylococcus aureus causes human infections and foodborne intoxications. This study explored the potential antibacterial actions of sage and spearmint essential oils (EOs) against both its planktonic and biofilm cells, in comparison with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), a commonly applied chemical sanitizer. Initially, the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MICs, MBCs) of each plant mixture were determined against planktonic cultures, following growth at 30°C for 24h. Stationary phase planktonic bacteria were then individually exposed for 6min to either each EO (applied at 1-2×MBC; 2.5-5%), or NaOCl (250-450ppm). These were also left to form biofilms on 96-well polystyrene microplates, at 30°C for 96h, with medium renewal at 48h, in the presence of 10 different concentrations of each EO, expanding from sub- to super-inhibitory for planktonic growth, and the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs; >90% inhibition) of each plant mixture were calculated. Formed biofilms were finally exposed for 6min to either each EO (applied at 2-6×MBC; 5-15%), or NaOCl (7500-25,000ppm; applied either alone or in combination with each EO at 5%). Results showed that both EOs presented MIC and MBC equal to 1.25 and 2.5%, respectively. As expected, their application at their MIC and above significantly inhibited biofilm formation, while spearmint EO was still able to cause this at ½ of its MIC, with MBICs equal to 1.25 and 0.63% for sage and spearmint EOs, respectively. Alarmingly, the application of both EOs at 1/8 to 1/16 of their MIC further increased biofilm formation. Regarding biofilm disinfection experiments, the individual application of each EO against the pre-established sessile communities resulted in log decrease ranges of 0.8-3logCFU/cm(2), while in the case of NaOCl application (either alone or combined with each EO), the observed reductions never exceeded 1.7logCFU/cm(2). These last results highlight the great antimicrobial recalcitrance of

  8. Comparison of sodium hypochlorite extrusion by five irrigation systems using an artificial root socket model and a quantitative chemical method.

    PubMed

    Azim, Adham A; Aksel, Hacer; Margaret Jefferson, M; Huang, George T-J

    2017-07-26

    This is to compare the volumes of irrigant apically extruded by five irrigation systems in an artificial socket model simulating clinical conditions. Twenty extracted human single-rooted teeth were enlarged to size 40/04 and then embedded in silicone impression material. The root canal space was irrigated with nominal 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) using standard needle irrigation (SNI) with a 30-gauge notched needle, EndoActivator (EA), XP Endo Finisher (XP Endo), EndoVac (EV), and photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS). Extruded NaOCl was collected, reacted with taurine to form taurine-monochloramine, and absorbance of taurine-monochloramine was measured at 252 nm using a spectrophotometer. The five irrigation systems were compared with repeated measures ANOVA and pairwise comparisons. The EV group had very low extrusion (mean ± SD = 0.12 ± 0.2 μL) and differed significantly from the other four groups (P ≤ 0.001). Larger volumes of irrigant were extruded in the other irrigation groups. There were no significant differences in the extruded volumes among the SNI (7.4 ± 3.4 μL), EA (7.0 ± 6.1 μL), and XP Endo (7.8 ± 4.1 μL) groups (P = 1). The PIPS group had the highest mean extruded volume (12.9 ± 6.8 μL) and differed significantly from SNI (P = 0.030), EV (P < 0.0005), and EA (P = 0.02), but not XP Endo (P = 0.154). Under the in vitro conditions of this study, irrigant extrusion appears unavoidable unless negative pressure irrigation such as EV is used. PIPS extrudes more irrigant than other systems, while SNI, EA, and XP Endo extrude similar volumes of irrigant. The findings help clinicians select the optimal irrigation system to avoid irrigant extrusion.

  9. Comparative evaluation of calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite associated with passive ultrasonic irrigation on antimicrobial activity of a root canal system infected with Enterococcus faecalis: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Ana Paula; Souza, Matheus Albino; Miyagaki, Daniela Cristina; Dal Bello, Yuri; Cecchin, Doglas; Farina, Ana Paula

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare in vitro the effectiveness of calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl]2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with passive ultrasonic irrigation in root canals of bovine teeth infected with Enterococcus faecalis. The root canals of 60 single-rooted bovine extracted teeth were enlarged up to a file 45, autoclaved, inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 30 days. The samples were divided into 6 groups (n = 10) according to the protocol for decontamination: G1: no treatment; G2: distilled water; G3: 2.5% NaOCl; G4: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2; G5: 2.5% NaOCl with ultrasonic activation; and G6: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2 with ultrasonic activation (US). Microbiological testing (colony-forming unit [CFU] counting) was performed to evaluate and show, respectively, the effectiveness of the proposed treatments. Data were subjected to 1-way analysis of variance followed by the post hoc Tukey test (α = 0.05). Groups 1 and 2 showed the highest mean contamination (3.26 log10 CFU/mL and 2.69 log10 CFU/mL, respectively), which was statistically different from all other groups (P < .05). Group 6 (Ca[OCl]2 + US) showed the lowest mean contamination (1.00 log10 CFU/mL), with no statistically significant difference found in groups 3 (NaOCl), 4 (Ca[OCl]2), and 5 (NaOCl + US) (P < .05). Ca(OCl)2 as well as passive ultrasonic irrigation can aid in chemomechanical preparation, contributing in a significant way to the reduction of microbial content during root canal treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease and African swine fever viruses with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite on birch wood carriers.

    PubMed

    Krug, Peter W; Larson, Christopher R; Eslami, Angelique C; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2012-04-23

    Transboundary animal disease viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) are highly contagious and cause severe morbidity and mortality in livestock. Proper disinfection during an outbreak can help prevent virus spread and will shorten the time for contaminated agriculture facilities to return to food production. Wood surfaces are prevalent at these locations, but there is no standardized method for porous surface disinfection; commercial disinfectants are only certified for use on hard, nonporous surfaces. To model porous surface disinfection in the laboratory, FMDV and ASFV stocks were dried on wood coupons and exposed to citric acid or sodium hypochlorite. We found that 2% citric acid was effective at inactivating both viruses dried on a wood surface by 30 min at 22°C. While 2000 ppm sodium hypochlorite was capable of inactivating ASFV on wood under these conditions, this chemical did not meet the 4-log disinfection threshold for FMDV. Taken together, our data supports the use of chemical disinfectants containing at least 2% citric acid for porous surface disinfection of FMDV and ASFV.

  11. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, citric acid and phosphoric acid in calcium hydroxide removal from the root canal: a microscopic cleanliness evaluation.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana Melo; Silveira, Amanda; Santos, Elizandra; Prado, Laiìs; Pessoa, Oscar F

    2011-12-01

    Rooted molars were subjected to standardized canal instrumentation to a master apical file (MAF). The samples were dressed with Ca(OH)(2), and after 7 days, teeth were reopened and Ca(OH)(2) medication was removed by 1 of 4 different experimental procedures: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (n = 10); 17% EDTA-T (n = 10); 10% citric acid (n = 10); or 37% phosphoric acid (n = 10). This was followed by reinstrumentation with MAF plus 15 mL saline solution. The roots were prepared for scanning electron microscopic analysis of the cervical, middle, and apical thirds. Statistical analysis was performed with the Kruskal-Wallis test. EDTA-T and phosphoric acid gave the best results in the apical third, with significant statistical differences compared with other groups. NaOCl gave the worst results. Irrigation with 17% EDTA-T and 37% phosphoric acid is more effective than sodium hypochlorite and citric acid in the removal of calcium hydroxide from the apical third. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Simultaneous comparison of murine norovirus, feline calicivirus, coliphage MS2, and GII.4 norovirus to evaluate the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite against human norovirus on a fecally soiled stainless steel surface.

    PubMed

    Park, Geun Woo; Sobsey, Mark D

    2011-09-01

    Free chlorine as hypochlorite is recommended to decontaminate fecally contaminated surfaces to control human norovirus (NoV). We evaluated the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite to decontaminate GII.4 NoV and three surrogates of human NoVs, feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), and coliphage MS2, on a fecally soiled stainless steel surface. Reduction of infectivity of FCV, MNV, and MS2 was measured by plaque assay and the decline of genomic copy numbers of GII.4 NoV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Sodium hypochlorite solution at 5000 ppm could inactivate FCV by 3 log(10) plaque forming units after approximately 1.9 minutes of contact time, but required longer exposure times of 3.2 and 4.5 minutes to reduce MNV and MS2 by 3 log(10), respectively. However, detection of viral RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay may not be reliable to estimate the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite against human NoV. Of three NoV surrogates, FCV is not the most resistant of the virus tested for inactivation by hypochlorite and thus is not the worst-case model for estimating NoV inactivation. Although the use of 5000 ppm of hypochlorite for fecally soiled surfaces is effective, it may require longer exposure times of ≥3 minutes to control NoVs. Surface precleaning before hypochlorite disinfection is recommended to initially reduce the fecal organic load for better virus inactivation and should be a part of the environmental hygiene response measures during an NoV outbreak or where NoV fecal contamination of environmental surfaces is likely or suspected to be present.

  13. Debris remaining in the apical third of root canals after chemomechanical preparation by using sodium hypochlorite and glyde: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Alvaro; Vera, Jorge; Gascón, Gerardo; Palafox-Sánchez, Claudia A; Amezcua, Octavio; Mercado, Gabriela

    2014-09-01

    During chemomechanical instrumentation, several liquid or paste substances are used to ease the action of the files and to eliminate debris and the smear layer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the use of a paste containing EDTA during cleaning and shaping of the root canal helps to eliminate debris. Twenty root canals in dog teeth were instrumented by a crown-down technique by using nickel-titanium rotary files. In 10 root canals (group A), sodium hypochlorite was used during instrumentation, followed by a final irrigation with 17% liquid EDTA. In another 10 canals (group B), sodium hypochlorite was again used as the irrigating solution, but Glyde File Prep paste was used with every instrument, and a final irrigation with EDTA was also carried out. Two additional teeth were used as positive and 2 as negative controls. The jaws were prepared for histologic evaluation. In group A where Glyde was not used during cleaning and shaping, little or no debris was found in the apical third of the instrumented root canals; however; in group B in which Glyde File Prep paste was used during chemomechanical instrumentation, moderate to high accumulation of debris was observed in the apical third. The use of Glyde File Prep paste during rotary mechanical instrumentation favors the accumulation of debris in the apical third of the root canals. Irrigation with NaOCl and a final flush with EDTA by means of a small-gauge needle with simultaneous aspiration led to less accumulation of debris than in the Glyde File Prep group (P < .05). Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Duration of Irrigation with Sodium Hypochlorite in Clinical Protocol of MTAD on Removal of Smear Layer and Creating Dentinal Erosion

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Mehrdad; Moghaddam, Negar; Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh; Zand, Vahid; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The aim of the present study was to compare 1.3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in MTAD (mixture of tetracycline isomer, acid, and detergent) for the removal of the smear layer and induction of canal erosion. Materials and methods 38 maxillary incisors were divided in three experimental groups of 10 and two positive and negative control groups of each 4 teeth, and prepared using rotary files. In test groups, 1.3% NaOCl was used for 5, 10 and 20 minutes during preparation followed by MTAD as the final rinse. In negative control group, 5.25% NaOCl was used for 10 minutes followed by 17% Ethylenediamine Tetra-Acetic Acid (EDTA) as the final rinse. In positive control group, dis-tilled water was used for 10 minutes during preparation and then as the final rinse. The samples were examined under scan-ning electron microscope, and the smear layer and dentinal erosion scores were recorded. Results Five and 10 min groups had significant differences with 20 min group (p < 0.05). In apical third, 5 and 10 min groups had also significant differences with 20 min (p < 0.05). In the coronal thirds, when the time of irrigation with 1.3% NaOCl increased from 5 min to 20 min, erosion also increased significantly. However, 5 and 10 min groups had no signifi-cant differences with negative control group. Conclusion The use of 1.3% sodium hypochlorite for 5 and 10 minutes in the MTAD protocol removes the smear layer in the coronal and middle thirds but does not induce erosion. PMID:22991642

  15. Effect of Duration of Irrigation with Sodium Hypochlorite in Clinical Protocol of MTAD on Removal of Smear Layer and Creating Dentinal Erosion.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Mehrdad; Moghaddam, Negar; Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh; Zand, Vahid; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare 1.3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in MTAD (mixture of tetracycline isomer, acid, and detergent) for the removal of the smear layer and induction of canal erosion. 38 maxillary incisors were divided in three experimental groups of 10 and two positive and negative control groups of each 4 teeth, and prepared using rotary files. In test groups, 1.3% NaOCl was used for 5, 10 and 20 minutes during preparation followed by MTAD as the final rinse. In negative control group, 5.25% NaOCl was used for 10 minutes followed by 17% Ethylenediamine Tetra-Acetic Acid (EDTA) as the final rinse. In positive control group, dis-tilled water was used for 10 minutes during preparation and then as the final rinse. The samples were examined under scan-ning electron microscope, and the smear layer and dentinal erosion scores were recorded. Five and 10 min groups had significant differences with 20 min group (p < 0.05). In apical third, 5 and 10 min groups had also significant differences with 20 min (p < 0.05). In the coronal thirds, when the time of irrigation with 1.3% NaOCl increased from 5 min to 20 min, erosion also increased significantly. However, 5 and 10 min groups had no signifi-cant differences with negative control group. The use of 1.3% sodium hypochlorite for 5 and 10 minutes in the MTAD protocol removes the smear layer in the coronal and middle thirds but does not induce erosion.

  16. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Sodium hypochlorite, Chlorhexidine gluconate and Octenidine Dihydrochloride in elimination of microor- ganisms within dentinal tubules of primary and permanent teeth

    PubMed Central

    Bodur, Haluk; Ece, Gülden

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different irrigation solutions at different time intervals for the elimination of E.faecalis and C.albicans penetrated into the dentine tubules of primary and permanent teeth in vitro. The 4 mm primary and permanent teeth sections were sterilized and contaminated with a mixture of E.faecalis and C.albicans strains. After the application of different irrigation solutions (Sodium hypochlorite, Chlorhexidine gluconate, Octenidine Dihydrochloride, saline) to the contaminated tooth sections according to study groups, neutralizers were applied for inactivation of the solutions after 30 sec, 1 min and 5 min. Dentine shavings were placed into TSB and 10µL from each tube was inoculated on agar plates, followed by an incubation period of 24h at 37°C. The colonies were counted macroscopically. The results were compared by using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests, with a significance level at p<0.05. Among the irrigation solutions that were tested against E.faecalis on primary and permanent teeth, the most effective one was found as 5-minute application of 0.1% Octenidine Dihydrochloride. The antibacterial effects of the tested solutions on the same time periods against C.albicans revealed no significant difference. There were no statistically significant differences between primary and permanent teeth with respect to the antimicrobial activity of the tested solutions. Moreover, Octenidine Dihydrochloride may be used as an alternative endodontic irrigant. Key words:Chlorhexidine gluconate, dentine tubules, irrigation solutions, Octenidine Dihydrochloride, Sodium hypochlorite. PMID:22143724

  17. Comparison of Antibacterial Efficacy of Turmeric Extract, Morinda Citrifolia and 3% Sodium Hypochlorite on Enterococcus faecalis: An In-vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Chaitanya, Bathula Vimala; Somisetty, Kusum Valli; Diwan, Abhinav; Pasha, Shiraz; Shetty, Nandaprasad; Reddy, Yashwanth; Nadigar, Shankar

    2016-10-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), the most commonly used irrigant, has many potential properties like its unique ability to dissolve pulp tissue, excellent antimicrobial activity, but has a cytotoxic effect when injected into periapical tissues. It is also known to produce allergic reactions, foul smell and taste, and potential for corrosion. Facultative organisms such as Enterococcus faecalis and aerobes like Staphylococcus aureus are considered to be the most resistant species and one of the possible causes of root canal treatment failure. So there is a need to find an alternative to sodium hypochlorite to act against these resistant microorganisms. To evaluate and compare the antibacterial efficacy of morinda citrifolia and turmeric extract with 3% NaOCl as a root canal irrigant, against E. faecalis and S.aureus. The antimicrobial efficacy was assessed in vitro using agar well diffusion method. Agar plates were prepared using Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI) agar. Cultures of E.faecalis and S.aureus were grown in nutrient broth at 37°C. Plates were incubated for 24 hours at 37°C and microbial zones of inhibition were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. NaOCl (3%) showed larger zones of inhibition than herbal irrigants against both the microorganisms. Among the herbal irrigants, morinda citrifolia showed larger zones of inhibition than turmeric hydro-alcoholic extract and turmeric water extract which was statistically significant (p<0.05). NaOCl (3%) showed maximum antibacterial activity against E. faecalis, followed by morinda citrifolia and turmeric extracts. Considering the potential for undesirable properties of NaOCl, use of herbal alternatives in endodontics might prove to be advantageous.

  18. Comparison of Antibacterial Efficacy of Turmeric Extract, Morinda Citrifolia and 3% Sodium Hypochlorite on Enterococcus faecalis: An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Somisetty, Kusum Valli; Diwan, Abhinav; Pasha, Shiraz; Shetty, Nandaprasad; Reddy, Yashwanth; Nadigar, Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), the most commonly used irrigant, has many potential properties like its unique ability to dissolve pulp tissue, excellent antimicrobial activity, but has a cytotoxic effect when injected into periapical tissues. It is also known to produce allergic reactions, foul smell and taste, and potential for corrosion. Facultative organisms such as Enterococcus faecalis and aerobes like Staphylococcus aureus are considered to be the most resistant species and one of the possible causes of root canal treatment failure. So there is a need to find an alternative to sodium hypochlorite to act against these resistant microorganisms. Aim To evaluate and compare the antibacterial efficacy of morinda citrifolia and turmeric extract with 3% NaOCl as a root canal irrigant, against E. faecalis and S.aureus. Materials and Methods The antimicrobial efficacy was assessed in vitro using agar well diffusion method. Agar plates were prepared using Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI) agar. Cultures of E.faecalis and S.aureus were grown in nutrient broth at 37°C. Plates were incubated for 24 hours at 37°C and microbial zones of inhibition were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. Results NaOCl (3%) showed larger zones of inhibition than herbal irrigants against both the microorganisms. Among the herbal irrigants, morinda citrifolia showed larger zones of inhibition than turmeric hydro-alcoholic extract and turmeric water extract which was statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion NaOCl (3%) showed maximum antibacterial activity against E. faecalis, followed by morinda citrifolia and turmeric extracts. Considering the potential for undesirable properties of NaOCl, use of herbal alternatives in endodontics might prove to be advantageous. PMID:27891459

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Two Final Irrigation Techniques for the Removal of Precipitate Formed by the Interaction between Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorhexidine.

    PubMed

    Metri, Malasiddappa; Hegde, Swaroop; Dinesh, K; Indiresha, H N; Nagaraj, Shruthi; Bhandi, Shilpa H

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of two final irrigation techniques for the removal of precipitate formed by the interaction between sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Sixty freshly extracted human maxillary incisor teeth were taken and randomly divided into three groups, containing 20 teeth each. Group 1 (control group), were irrigated with 5 ml of 2.5% NaOCl and a final flush with 5 ml of 2% chlorhexidine. Group 2 were irrigated with 5 ml of 2.5% NaOCl and 5 ml of 2% chlorhexidine followed by 5 ml of saline and agitated with F-files. Group 3 were irrigated with 5 ml of 2.5% NaOCl and 5 ml of 2% chlorhexidine followed by 5 ml of 15% citric acid and passively agitated with ultrasonics. A thin longitudinal groove was made along the buccal and lingual aspect of the root using diamond disks and split with chisel and mallet. Both halves of the split tooth will be examined under stereomicroscope. Results were tabulated and analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Mann-Whitney U test. There was a significant difference between the mean values (p < 0.05) in groups 2 and 3 compared to group 1 at each level. Passive ultrasonic irrigation is more effective than the F-file agitation technique to remove the precipitate at all three levels measured. Combination of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine irrigation protocol has been practiced since from many years to achieve good results. However, it has adverse effect in the form of precipitate and which is considered to be a carcinogenic in nature, hence this precipitate should be removed.

  20. Comparison of the virucidal efficiency of peracetic acid, potassium monopersulfate and sodium hypochlorite on hepatitis A and enteric cytopathogenic bovine orphan virus.

    PubMed

    Martin, H; Soumet, C; Fresnel, R; Morin, T; Lamaudière, S; Le Sauvage, A L; Deleurme, K; Maris, P

    2013-10-01

    The virucidal activity of peroxy-products was evaluated and compared with sodium hypochlorite using the EN 14675 European suspension test and a surface test developed in our laboratory. The classical approach on infectivity of viruses was complemented with a prospective approach on virus genomes. Both infectivity tests were adapted and/or developed to determine the activity of disinfectants against reference bovine enterovirus type 1 [enteric cytopathogenic bovine orphan virus (ECBO)] and resistant hepatitis A virus (HAV) in conditions simulating practical use. Similar concentrations of active chlorine were virucidal against both viruses, either at 0·062% using the suspension test or at 0·50-1% using the surface test. However, for potassium monopersulfate and peracetic acid products, concentrations of approximately three times (3%) to 72 times (9%) higher were necessary against HAV than ECBO when determined with the suspension test. With the surface test, 4-8% peroxy-products were virucidal against HAV, either 16 times more peroxy-products concentrations than against ECBO. No significant impact on the targeted area of the viral genome measured by real-time RT-PCRs was obtained for ECBO and HAV suspensions treated with disinfectants, even with doses higher than the minimal virucidal concentrations. Sodium hypochlorite, but not peroxy-products, had similar activity against ECBO and HAV. No relation could be established between infectivity tests and genome destruction. This is the first comparative study that investigates with novel suspension and surface tests the reduction of infectivity and genome destruction of two resistant viruses by peroxy-compounds. The results and conclusions collected with European standards are discussed. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Efficacy of peracetic acid in rapid disinfection of Resilon and gutta-percha cones compared with sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine, and povidone-iodine.

    PubMed

    Subha, N; Prabhakar, V; Koshy, Minu; Abinaya, K; Prabu, M; Thangavelu, Lavanya

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare the effectiveness of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine, 1% peracetic acid, and 10% povidone-iodine in the rapid disinfection of Resilon (Pentron Clinical Technologies, LLC, Wallingford, CT) and gutta-percha cones contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis. Two hundred fifty-six samples consisting of 128 gutta-percha cones and 128 Resilon cones were used in this study. The materials were tested for disinfection according to the type of solution (3% NaOCl, 2% chlorhexidine, 1% peracetic acid, or 10% povidone-iodine), the time of exposure to each solution (1 or 5 minutes), and the type of microorganisms (E. faecalis or B. subtilis). Subsequent to the disinfection, samples were placed in test tubes containing 10 mL Mueller-Hinton broth and incubated at 37°C for 7 days. All test tubes were observed at 24-hour intervals and visually checked for turbidity, signifying microbial growth. In this study, 1% peracetic acid showed the best results for both 1 minute and 5 minutes of disinfection, 2% chlorhexidine showed the second best results although it was statistically at par with peracetic acid, and 3% hypochlorite ranked third in disinfection; this was statistically significant when compared with peracetic acid and chlorhexidine. Disinfection by povidone-iodine was the least within all the groups for both contact times although disinfection for 5 minutes showed better results than disinfection for 1 minute for gutta-percha. The outcome of this study confirmed the efficacy of 1% peracetic acid and 2% chlorhexidine in the rapid disinfection of both Resilon and gutta-percha. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid on the surface roughness of acrylic resin polymerized by heated water for short and long cycles

    PubMed Central

    Sczepanski, Felipe; Sczepanski, Claudia Roberta Brunnquell; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Gonini-Júnior, Alcides; Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the surface roughness of acrylic resin submitted to chemical disinfection via 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) or 1% peracetic acid (C2H4O3). Materials and Methods: The disc-shaped resin specimens (30 mm diameter ×4 mm height) were polymerized by heated water using two cycles (short cycle: 1 h at 74°C and 30 min at 100°C; conventional long cycle: 9 h at 74°C). The release of substances by these specimens in water solution was also quantified. Specimens were fabricated, divided into four groups (n = 10) depending on the polymerization time and disinfectant. After polishing, the specimens were stored in distilled deionized water. Specimens were immersed in 1% NaClO or 1% C2H4O3 for 30 min, and then were immersed in distilled deionized water for 20 min. The release of C2H4O3 and NaClO was measured via visual colorimetric analysis. Roughness was measured before and after disinfection. Roughness data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: There was no interaction between polymerization time and disinfectant in influencing the average surface roughness (Ra, P = 0.957). Considering these factors independently, there were significant differences between short and conventional long cycles (P = 0.012), but no significant difference between the disinfectants hypochlorite and C2H4O3 (P = 0.366). Visual colorimetric analysis did not detect release of substances. Conclusion: It was concluded that there was the difference in surface roughness between short and conventional long cycles, and disinfection at acrylic resins polymerized by heated water using a short cycle modified the properties of roughness. PMID:25512737

  3. Multi-stage Mass Spectrometry of Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and Its Vinyl Succinimide Copolymer Formed upon Exposure to Sodium Hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Fouquet, Thierry; Torimura, Masaki; Sato, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    The degradation routes of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) exposed to sodium hypochlorite (bleach) have been previously investigated using chemical analyses such as infrared spectroscopy. So far, no reports have proposed mass spectrometry (MS) as an alternative tool despite its capability to provide molecular and structural information using its single stage electrospray (ESI) or matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and multi stage (MSn) configurations, respectively. The present study thus reports on the characterization of PVP after its exposure to bleach by high resolution MALDI spiralTOF-MS and Kendrick mass defect analysis providing clues as to the formation of a vinyl pyrrolidone/vinyl succinimide copolymeric degradation product. A thorough investigation of the fragmentation pathways of PVP adducted with sodium and proton allows one main route to be described—namely the release of the pyrrolidone pendant group in a charge remote and charge driven mechanism, respectively. Extrapolating this fragmentation pathway, the oxidation of vinyl pyrrolidone into vinyl succinimide hypothesized from the single stage MS is validated by the detection of an alternative succinimide neutral loss in lieu of the pyrrolidone release in the ESI-MSn spectra of the aged PVP sample. It constitutes an example of application of multi-stage mass spectrometry for the characterization of the degradation of polymeric samples at a molecular level. PMID:27800293

  4. Sodium hypochlorite as dentin pretreatment for etch-and-rinse single-bottle and two-step self-etching adhesives: atomic force microscope and tensile bond strength evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fawzy, Amr S; Amer, Mohamed A; El-Askary, Farid S

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using 5.25% commercial sodium hypochlorite treatment prior to the application of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesives on dentin surface microtopography and tensile bond strength. Thirty-two noncarious, nonrestored human third molars were collected. The occlusal enamel of all teeth was removed using diamond disks to expose flat dentin surfaces. The exposed dentin surfaces were abraded using 600-grit SiC disks, to create a uniform dentin smear layer. For AFM characterization, 12 teeth were equally divided into 4 groups according to the proposed dentin surface treatment. Three dentin disks, 2 mm thick, were evaluated per group using tapping mode assessment. Twenty teeth were used for TBS and SEM evaluation and were equally divided into 4 groups, according to the proposed dentin surface treatment. For TBS, 8 dentin/composite slabs, 2 mm thick, were used in each group, while for SEM evaluation 2 slabs were used. Each slab was tested in tension at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure occurred. The samples were examined using SEM operated at 30 kv to evaluate the hybrid layer photographically at 1500X. Statistical analysis was carried out using StatsDirect 2.5.7. One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple-comparison post-hoc tests were performed to test the difference between roughness parameters and TBS between groups. Sodium hypochlorite followed by the application of 37% phosphoric acid significantly increased the arithmetic average of the absolute values of surface height deviations (Sa), the surface area ratio which expresses the ratio between the surface area (taking the z height into account) and the area of the flat x,y plane (Sdr), and the surface bearing index (Sbi) parameters, while the application of sodium hypochlorite prior to the application of the self-etching primer significantly increased the valley fluid retention index (Svi) parameter. Self-etching primer without sodium hypochlorite

  5. The Effect of Disinfection with Sodium Hypochlorite 0.5% on Dimensional Stability of Condensation Silicone Impression Materials of Speedex and Irasil

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Mohammad Hasan; Malekzadeh, Afsaneh; Emami, Ameneh

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Impression materials are concerned as a significant source of cross-contamination because of exposure to blood and saliva. Purpose: Considering the importance of infection control in the dental environments, this study is performed to investigate the dimensional changes of two condensation silicone impression materials, Speedex and Irasil, after immersion in 0.5% sodium hypochlorite. Materials and Method: In this in-vitro study, two condensation silicone impression materials, Speedex and Irasil, were used on a prefabricated metal model having two dies, one with and the other without undercut. Each impression material was used to prepare 30 impressions; half of each group was immersed in 0.5% sodium hypochlorite for 20 min. The casts were prepared and a profile projector was used to measure the casts in terms of height and diameter of the die without undercut, distance between the two dies, die diameter below the undercut, and the height of the die above the undercut. The results were statistically analyzed using Student t-test. Results: In Speedex group, an increase was detected in the height of die without undercut and the height of the die above the undercut, but other dimensions have decreased. No significant change was observed in dimensions of Speedex group except for the distance between the two dies and die height above the undercut. In Irasil group, the height of the die without undercut, the distance between the two dies and the height of the die above the undercut have increased; while decrease was observed in other dimensions. Compared with the original sample, no significant difference was observed in dimensions except for the height of the die above the undercut. Conclusion: These changes for Speedex group include changes in distance between the two dies and the height above the undercut which can impede proper placement of prosthesis, particularly fixed partial dentures in which the accuracy of the distance between the two

  6. The effect of disinfection with sodium hypochlorite 0.5% on dimensional stability of condensation silicone impression materials of speedex and irasil.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Mohammad Hasan; Malekzadeh, Afsaneh; Emami, Ameneh

    2014-09-01

    Impression materials are concerned as a significant source of cross-contamination because of exposure to blood and saliva. Considering the importance of infection control in the dental environments, this study is performed to investigate the dimensional changes of two condensation silicone impression materials, Speedex and Irasil, after immersion in 0.5% sodium hypochlorite. In this in-vitro study, two condensation silicone impression materials, Speedex and Irasil, were used on a prefabricated metal model having two dies, one with and the other without undercut. Each impression material was used to prepare 30 impressions; half of each group was immersed in 0.5% sodium hypochlorite for 20 min. The casts were prepared and a profile projector was used to measure the casts in terms of height and diameter of the die without undercut, distance between the two dies, die diameter below the undercut, and the height of the die above the undercut. The results were statistically analyzed using Student t-test. In Speedex group, an increase was detected in the height of die without undercut and the height of the die above the undercut, but other dimensions have decreased. No significant change was observed in dimensions of Speedex group except for the distance between the two dies and die height above the undercut. In Irasil group, the height of the die without undercut, the distance between the two dies and the height of the die above the undercut have increased; while decrease was observed in other dimensions. Compared with the original sample, no significant difference was observed in dimensions except for the height of the die above the undercut. These changes for Speedex group include changes in distance between the two dies and the height above the undercut which can impede proper placement of prosthesis, particularly fixed partial dentures in which the accuracy of the distance between the two dies are of utmost importance. In Irasil group, the height of above the

  7. Efficacy of low concentrations of sodium hypochlorite and low-powered Er,Cr:YSGG laser activated irrigation against an Enterococcus faecalis biofilm.

    PubMed

    Christo, J E; Zilm, P S; Sullivan, T; Cathro, P R

    2016-03-01

    To establish the antibacterial efficacy of low concentrations of sodium hypochlorite with and without Er,Cr:YSGG laser activation on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms in extracted teeth. The root canals of 96 decoronated single-rooted extracted human teeth were prepared to a size 40, 0.06 taper 1 mm beyond the apex. They were mounted within a flow cell, which was sterilized before pumping a nutrient media through the root canals. The flow cell was inoculated with E. faecalis (ATCC 700802) and cultivated for 4 weeks. The root-ends were sealed, and the roots were then subjected to one of six treatment groups: group 1: syringe irrigation (SI) with saline (control) using a 27 -gauge Monoject needle 1 mm from the apex for 2 min; group 2: as for group 1 but with 1% NaOCl; group 3: as for group 1 but with 4% NaOCl; group 4: 0.5% NaOCl irrigation for 15 s followed by laser-activated irrigation (LAI) with four 15-s cycles replenishing the irrigant between cycles; group 5: as for group 4 but with 1% NaOCl as the irrigant; group 6: as for group 4 but with 4% NaOCl as the irrigant. Following treatment, teeth were crushed and viable bacteria were quantitated by serial dilution and plating. The colony-forming unit values were compared between groups using one-way anova and Tukey-adjusted post hoc tests. A two-tailed P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean number of cells recovered from the 1% NaOCl SI group was significantly higher than that from the 4% NaOCl LAI group (P = 0.02). Within the limitations of this laboratory study, low-powered (0.5 W) Er,Cr:YSGG laser activation did not improve the antibacterial effect of low concentrations of sodium hypochlorite. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Trisodium phosphate and sodium hypochlorite are more effective as antimicrobials against Campylobacter and Salmonella on duck as compared to chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Sarjit, Amreeta; Dykes, Gary A

    2015-06-16

    Little work has been reported on the use of commercial antimicrobials against foodborne pathogens on duck meat. We investigated the effectiveness of trisodium phosphate (TSP) and sodium hypochlorite (SH) as antimicrobial treatments against Campylobacter and Salmonella on duck meat under simulated commercial water chilling conditions. The results were compared to the same treatments on well-studied chicken meat. A six strain Campylobacter or Salmonella cocktail was inoculated (5 ml) at two dilution levels (10(4) and 10(8) cfu/ml) onto 25 g duck or chicken meat with skin and allowed to attach for 10 min. The meat was exposed to three concentrations of pH adjusted TSP (8, 10 and 12% (w/v), pH 11.5) or SH (40, 50 and 60 ppm, pH 5.5) in 30 ml water under simulated spin chiller conditions (4 °C, agitation) for 10 min. In a parallel experiment the meat was placed in the antimicrobial treatments before inoculation and bacterial cocktails were added to the meat after the antimicrobial solution was removed while all other parameters were maintained. Untreated controls and controls using water were included in all experiments. Bacterial numbers were determined on Campylobacter blood-free selective agar and Mueller Hinton agar or xylose deoxycholate agar and tryptone soya agar using the thin agar layer method for Campylobacter and Salmonella, respectively. All TSP concentrations significantly (p<0.05) reduced numbers of Campylobacter (~1.2-6.4 log cfu/cm(2)) and Salmonella (~0.4-6.6 log cfu/cm(2)) on both duck and chicken meat. On duck meat, numbers of Campylobacter were less than the limit of detection at higher concentrations of TSP and numbers of Salmonella were less than the limit of detection at all concentrations of TSP except one. On chicken meat, numbers of Campylobacter and Salmonella were less than the limit of detection only at the lower inoculum level and higher TSP concentrations. By contrast only some of the concentrations of SH significantly (p<0.05) reduced

  9. Evaluation of the antiviral activity of chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite against feline calicivirus, human influenza virus, measles virus, canine distemper virus, human herpesvirus, human adenovirus, canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Sanekata, Takeshi; Fukuda, Toshiaki; Miura, Takanori; Morino, Hirofumi; Lee, Cheolsung; Maeda, Ken; Araki, Kazuko; Otake, Toru; Kawahata, Takuya; Shibata, Takashi

    2010-06-01

    We evaluated the antiviral activity of a chlorine dioxide gas solution (CD) and sodium hypochlorite (SH) against feline calicivirus, human influenza virus, measles virus, canine distemper virus, human herpesvirus, human adenovirus, canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus. CD at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 ppm produced potent antiviral activity, inactivating >or= 99.9% of the viruses with a 15 sec treatment for sensitization. The antiviral activity of CD was approximately 10 times higher than that of SH.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of QMiX, 2.5% Sodium Hypochlorite, 2% Chlorhexidine, Guava Leaf Extract and Aloevera Extract Against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans – An in-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamma, Shoba; Peedikayil, Faizal; Aman, Shibu; Tomy, Nithya; Mariodan, Jithin Pulickal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Debridement and disinfection of the root canal system is a critical step in endodontic treatment. Most of the irrigants presently used in the endodontic treatment can have an impact on the microbes surviving in the biofilm but none of them are able to do all of the required tasks. Researches are going on its full swing in order to produce an endodontic irrigant having ideal properties. Aim To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of different irrigants like QMiX, guava leaf extract, aloevera extract, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Materials and Methods The antimicrobial activity was determined using agar diffusion test. The solutions were divided into five groups: Group I- QMiX, Group II- Guava leaf extract and Group III-Aloevera extract, Group IV–2.5% Sodium hypochlorite and Group V-2% Chlorhexidine. The zones of inhibition of growth were recorded. Results Statistical analysis was performed using one way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey’s HSD. Values obtained were statistically analyzed (p<0.05). QMiX showed maximum inhibitory effect against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans followed by, 2% chlorhexidine, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite, guava leaf extract and aloevera extract. Results obtained were statistically significant. Conclusion Guava leaf extract showed significant inhibitory effects against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. QMiX demonstrated the best results among the tested solutions and can be considered as a potential alternative to existing root canal irrigants. PMID:27437354

  11. Chlorine Dioxide is a Better Disinfectant than Sodium Hypochlorite against Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Hinenoya, Atsushi; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Yasuda, Noritomo; Shima, Ayaka; Morino, Hirofumi; Koizumi, Tomoko; Fukuda, Toshiaki; Miura, Takanori; Shibata, Takashi; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated and compared the antibacterial activity of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) on various multidrug-resistant strains in the presence of bovine serum albumin and sheep erythrocytes to mimic the blood contamination that frequently occurs in the clinical setting. The 3 most important species that cause nosocomial infections, i.e., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP), and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRA), were evaluated, with three representative strains of each. At a 10-ppm concentration, ClO2 drastically reduced the number of bacteria of all MDRP and MDRA strains, and 2 out of 3 MRSA strains. However, 10 ppm of NaClO did not significantly kill any of the 9 strains tested in 60 seconds (s). In addition, 100 ppm of ClO2 completely killed all MRSA strains, whereas 100 ppm of NaClO failed to significantly lower the number of 2 MRSA strains and 1 MDRA strain. A time-course experiment demonstrated that, within 15 s, 100 ppm of ClO2, but not 100 ppm of NaClO, completely killed all tested strains. Taken together, these data suggest that ClO2 is more effective than NaClO against MRSA, MDRP, and MDRA, and 100 ppm is an effective concentration against these multidrug-resistant strains, which cause fatal nosocomial infections.

  12. Shear bond strength evaluation of chemically-cured and light-cured orthodontic adhesives after enamel deproteinization with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, J. C.; Krisnawati; Purbiati, M.

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of enamel deproteinization with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) before etching on the shear bond strength (SBS) of Unite (UN; 3M Unitek) and Xihu-BIOM adhesive (XB). Fifty-two maxillary first premolars were divided into four groups: (1) UN and (2) XB according to manufacturer’s recommendation and (3) UN and (4) XB deproteinized with 5.25% NaOCl. Brackets were bonded, and a mechanical test was performed using a universal testing machine. The mean SBS value for groups A1, A2, B1, and B2 was 13.51 ± 2.552, 14.36 ± 2.902, 16.43 ± 2.615, and 13.05 ± 2.348 MPa, respectively. A statistically significant difference in SBSs was observed between chemically cured groups and between group B (p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference in SBSs was observed between light-cured adhesive groups and between group A (p > 0.05). NaOCl enamel deproteinization before acid etching has a significant effect on the SBS of Unite adhesive, but not on that of the Xihu-BIOM adhesive. Furthermore, a significant difference in the SBS of Unite and Xihu-BIOM adhesives within the enamel deproteinization group was observed in this study.

  13. In vitro antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine gluconate and octenidine dihydrochloride in elimination of microorganisms within dentinal tubules of primary and permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Tirali, Resmiye-Ebru; Bodur, Haluk; Ece, Gülden

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different irrigation solutions at different time intervals for the elimination of E. faecalis and C. albicans penetrated into the dentine tubules of primary and permanent teeth in vitro. The 4 mm primary and permanent teeth sections were sterilized and contaminated with a mixture of E. faecalis and C. albicans strains. After the application of different irrigation solutions (Sodium hypochlorite, Chlorhexidine gluconate, Octenidine Dihydrochloride, saline) to the contaminated tooth sections according to study groups, neutralizers were applied for inactivation of the solutions after 30 sec, 1 min and 5 min. Dentine shavings were placed into TSB and 10 µL from each tube was inoculated on agar plates, followed by an incubation period of 24 h at 37°C. The colonies were counted macroscopically. The results were compared by using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests, with a significance level at p<0.05. Among the irrigation solutions that were tested against E. faecalis on primary and permanent teeth, the most effective one was found as 5-minute application of 0.1% Octenidine Dihydrochloride. The antibacterial effects of the tested solutions on the same time periods against C. albicans revealed no significant difference. There were no statistically significant differences between primary and permanent teeth with respect to the antimicrobial activity of the tested solutions. Moreover, Octenidine Dihydrochloride may be used as an alternative endodontic irrigant.

  14. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S.; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica extract, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Materials and Methods: The bacterial E. faecalis (ATCC) culture was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and inoculated in Mueller–Hinton agar plates. Antibacterial inhibition was assessed using agar well diffusion method. All five study irrigants were added to respective wells in agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibition zone around each well was recorded. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows, version 19.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Results: Highest inhibitory zone against E. faecalis was seen in NaOCl fallowed by M. citrifolia and A. indica extract, and the least by A. vera extract. Conclusion: Tested herbal medicine (A. indica extract, M. citrifolia, A. vera) showed inhibitory zone against E. faecalis. Hence, these irrigants can be used as root canal irrigating solutions. PMID:27382533

  15. In-situ leaching of south Texas uranium ores--part 2: oxidative removal of adsorbed ammonium ions with sodium hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J.M.; Fletcher, A.; Johnson, W.F.; Venuto, P.B.

    1983-04-01

    This paper reports a laboratory study of the oxidative destruction by sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) of ammonium ions adsorbed on relatively reduced south Texas uranium ore. Included are an assessment of reaction stoichiometry, determination of some major reaction pathways and side reactions, and identification of several intermediates. Adsorbed ammonium ions were completely removed by 0.5% NaOCl, with the concentration of NH/sub 3/ in the effluent falling to a very low value after 10 to 15 PV NaOCl oxidant. A small fraction (5 to 10%) of NaOCl was utilized in reacting with NH/sub 3/. After the NH/sub 3/ was nearly depleted, mono-, di-, and trichloramines, the expected intermediates in NaOCl oxidation of NH/sub 3/, were observed. Chloramine decomposition studies showed that all three decomposed completely within 12 days. Since the ore was relatively highly reducing, the major part of the NaOCl was, not unexpectedly, consumed in side reactions. Substantial quantities of sulfate, reflecting oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite, were formed, large amounts of uranium were leached out, and substantial amounts of calcium and magnesium ions were also produced during the presaturation with NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ preceding the oxidation stage.

  16. In vitro comparison of antimicrobial effect of sodium hypochlorite solution and Zataria multiflora essential oil as irrigants in root canals contaminated with Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sedigh-Shams, Mahdi; Badiee, Parisa; Adl, Alireza; Sarab, Milad Dadollahi; Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Nabavizadeh, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study compared the antifungal effect of Zataria multiflora essential oil (EO) with that of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as an irrigant for root canals infected with Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Sixty mandibular premolars were infected with C. albicans suspension. After 72 h of incubation, the samples were divided into four groups. Teeth in Group 1 were irrigated with minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of Z. multiflora EO, in Group 2 with twice the MFC of Z. multiflora, in Group 3 with MFC of NaOCl, and in Group 4 with distilled water (DW). Pre- and post-operative samples were cultured, and fungal colony count of each specimen was obtained. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (P < 0.05). Results: NaOCl at MFC and Z. multiflora EO at twice the MFC showed the highest antifungal efficacy, with no significant difference (P > 0.05). However, antifungal efficacies of these irrigants were significantly different from those of Z. multiflora EO at MFC and DW (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results showed that Z. multiflora EO at twice the MFC had the same antifungal efficacy as NaOCl at MFC. PMID:26957804

  17. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica extract, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The bacterial E. faecalis (ATCC) culture was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and inoculated in Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Antibacterial inhibition was assessed using agar well diffusion method. All five study irrigants were added to respective wells in agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibition zone around each well was recorded. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows, version 19.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Highest inhibitory zone against E. faecalis was seen in NaOCl fallowed by M. citrifolia and A. indica extract, and the least by A. vera extract. Tested herbal medicine (A. indica extract, M. citrifolia, A. vera) showed inhibitory zone against E. faecalis. Hence, these irrigants can be used as root canal irrigating solutions.

  18. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Karkare, Swati Ramesh; Ahire, Nivedita Pramod; Khedkar, Smita Uday

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis are the most resistant and predominant microorganisms recovered from root canals of teeth where previous treatment has failed. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. In dentistry, phytomedicines has been used as an anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative, and also as an endodontic irrigant. In endodontics, because of the cytotoxic reactions of most of the commercial intracanal medicaments and their inability to eliminate bacteria completely from dentinal tubules, the trend is shifting toward use of biologic medication extracted from natural plants. To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of newer irrigating agents which would probably be as effective or more and at the same time less irritating to the tissues than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of saturated and diluted (1:1) hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% NaOCl against E. faecalis using the commonly used agar diffusion method. Saturated hydroalcoholic extract of A. vera showed the highest zone of inhibition against E. faecalis. NaOCl, which is considered as gold standard, also showed higher zones of inhibition.

  19. Evaluation of 4% Sodium Hypochlorite in eliminating Enterococcus faecalis from the Root Canal when Used with Three Irrigation Methods: An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Priyank, Harsh; Pandey, Vinisha; Bagul, Abhishek; Majety, Kishore Kumar; Verma, Parul; Choudhury, Basanta Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Endodontic treatment removes all pathogens, such as Enterococcus faecalis from pulp and root canals. The aim of this study is to assess the usefulness of sodium hypo-chlorite (NaOCl) in removing E. faecalis from the root canal used with three different irrigation methods. This study was conducted on freshly extracted maxillary incisors. After biomechanical preparation, root canals were injected with E. faecalis. Three groups were made which contained 30 teeth in each group; 2 mL of NaOCl solution was used for irrigation followed by agitation with K-files in group I; 2 mL of NaOCl solution was used for irrigation and ultrasonic agitation was done in group II. In group III, an alternate irrigation with NaOCl and 3% hydrogen peroxide was done. The fourth group (control) was irrigated with sterile saline solution. E. fae-calis bacteria were sampled to the root canals with paper points and were transferred to tubes that contained 5 mL of brain heart infusion broth. Tubes were incubated and the presence of broth turbidity was suggestive of bacteria remaining in the root canal. All three groups showed no statistically significant difference. However, difference existed between experimental groups and control groups. The author concluded that all three methods of application of NaOCl were effective in disinfecting the root canal than the saline solution. No single irrigant has 100% efficiency. Thus by this study, a best irrigating solution with maximum properties can be established.

  20. In-situ leaching of south Texas uranium ores--part 2: Oxidative removal of adsorbed ammonium ions with sodium hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J.M.; Fletcher, A.; Johnson, W.F.; Venuto, P.B.

    1983-04-01

    This paper reports a laboratory study of the oxidative destruction by sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) of ammonium ions adsorbed on relatively reduced south Texas uranium ore. Included are an assessment of reaction stoichiometry, determination of some major reaction pathways and side reactions, and identification of several intermediates. Adsorbed ammonium ions were completely removed by 0.5% NaOCl, with the concentration of NH/sub 3/ in the effluent falling to a very low value after 10 to 15 PV NaOCl oxidant. A small fraction (5 to 10%) of NaOCl was utilized in reacting with NH/sub 3/. After the NH/sub 3/ was nearly depleted, mono-, di-, and trichloramines, the expected intermediates in NaOCl oxidation of NH/sub 3/, were observed. Chloramine decomposition studies showed that all three decomposed completely within 12 days. Since the ore was relatively highly reducing, the major part of the NaOCl was, not unexpectedly, consumed in side reactions. Substantial quantities of sulfate, reflecting oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite, were formed, large amounts of uranium were leached out, and substantial amounts of calcium and magnesium ions were also produced during the presaturation with NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ preceding the oxidation stage.

  1. Effect of dentin on the antimicrobial efficacy of 3% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and 18% etidronic acid on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Karale, Rupali; Odedra, Kamal Maldebhai; Srirekha, A.; Champa, C.; Shetty, Ashwija; Pushpalatha, S; Sharma, Rini

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentin on the antimicrobial efficacy of 3% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine, 17% EDTA and 18% etidronic acid against C. albicans. Methodology: Dentin powder was prepared from mandibular first premolar using electrical grinder and sterilized. 3% NaOCl, 2%CHX, 17% EDTA and 18% etidronic acid were tested against C. albicans in the presence and absence of dentin, in eppendorf tubes. Group 1 (presence of dentin):- 100ul dentin powder + 100ul C. albicans suspension + 100ul irrigating solution. Group 2 (absence of dentin):- 100ul C. albicans suspension+ 100ul irrigating solution. Control group:- 100ul C. albicans suspension.+ 100ul sterile saline Suspension was thoroughly mixed, submitted for serial dilution upto10-5 after 1 min and colony forming units were counted. Results: In group 2 (without dentin powder), 3% NaOCl and 2% CHX showed the lowest bacterial count compared to group 1 (with dentin powder). Dentin had a significant inhibitory effect on 3% NaOCl (P < 0.001) and 2% CHX (P<0.001). 17% EDTA showed lowest bacterial count in group 1 (with dentin powder) compared to group 2 (without dentin powder). 18% Etidronic acid showed similar bacterial counts in the both the groups. No reduction was observed in the control group. Conclusion: NaOCl & EDTA showed measurable antimicrobial effect even in the presence of dentin which can be promising in the reduction of C. albicans in root canal therapy. PMID:27656066

  2. Physicochemical properties of selectively oxidized 1-monolaurin from 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyl oxoammonium ion/sodium hypochlorite-mediated reaction.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Seon Min; Lee, Hyong Joo; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jaehwan; Chang, Pahn-Shick

    2009-04-08

    The primary alcohol group of 1-monolaurin (1-ML) was selectively oxidized using 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidine oxoammonium ion/sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) without NaBr at two different conditions. The selective oxidation occurred more efficiently at 35 degrees C and 32.2 mmol of NaOCl than at 25 degrees C and 18.7 mmol of NaOCl. Regioselective oxidation of the primary alcohol without oxidation of a secondary alcohol was confirmed by a chemical shift at 175 ppm and no resonance between 198 and 205 ppm in (13)C NMR and the presence of a peak at 1560-1570 cm(-1) in IR spectra. The water solubility of oxidized 1-monolaurin (OML) was remarkably increased by 33.2 times as compared to that of 1-ML. Creaming velocities resulting from fat flocculation in a 0.2% level of OML and 1-ML were 0.16 and 1.13 mm/h, respectively, implying that OML showed higher efficiency and emulsion stability in preventing fat flocculation than 1-ML due to the selective oxidation of primary alcohol.

  3. Comparative antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives (Emblica officinalis, Psidium guajava), MTAD, and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives (Emblica officinalis, Psidium guajava), BioPure MTAD, and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis. The testing of the antimicrobial efficacy of selected medicaments against E. faecalis was done by the agar disk-diffusion method. Whatman paper discs of 6 mm diameter were prepared and soaked with the test solution. These discs were then placed onto the previously seeded agar Petri plates. Later, these plates were incubated for 48 h at 37 °C under the appropriate gaseous conditions in a CO2 incubator. A zone of inhibition was recorded in millimeter for each plate and the results were analyzed statistically. MTAD was found to be superior in its antibacterial abilities against E. faecalis compared with the other irrigants used. All the other tested irrigants showed significant zone of inhibition. BioPure MTAD offers better antibacterial efficacy than NaOCl. E. officinalis and P. guajava are effective antibacterial agents against E. faecalis and can be used to reduce root canal microflora and root canal failures.

  4. Comparative antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives (Emblica officinalis, Psidium guajava), MTAD, and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives (Emblica officinalis, Psidium guajava), BioPure MTAD, and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and method The testing of the antimicrobial efficacy of selected medicaments against E. faecalis was done by the agar disk-diffusion method. Whatman paper discs of 6 mm diameter were prepared and soaked with the test solution. These discs were then placed onto the previously seeded agar Petri plates. Later, these plates were incubated for 48 h at 37 °C under the appropriate gaseous conditions in a CO2 incubator. A zone of inhibition was recorded in millimeter for each plate and the results were analyzed statistically. Result MTAD was found to be superior in its antibacterial abilities against E. faecalis compared with the other irrigants used. All the other tested irrigants showed significant zone of inhibition. Conclusions BioPure MTAD offers better antibacterial efficacy than NaOCl. E. officinalis and P. guajava are effective antibacterial agents against E. faecalis and can be used to reduce root canal microflora and root canal failures. PMID:26937369

  5. Free available chlorine concentration in sodium hypochlorite solutions obtained from dental practices and intended for endodontic irrigation: are the expectations true?

    PubMed

    van der Waal, Suzette; Connert, Thomas; Laheij, Alexa; de Soet, Johannes; Wesselink, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is an important tool in root canal disinfection although it is well known that the shelf-life of NaOCl is limited. In this study, NaOCl solutions that were collected from dental practices and were intended for endodontic irrigation were investigated to see whether they contained the expected concentration of free available chlorine. NaOCl solutions were collected from dental practices. The concentration of available chlorine per sample was determined with iodometric titration and the pH was measured. Each participating dentist completed a questionnaire that requested data on a range of issues relating to the assumed concentration of NaOCl and handling of the sample. Eighty-four samples with questionnaires were received. NaOCl was purchased from supermarkets and drugstores (36%), dental suppliers (48%), or pharmacies (16%). The median expected concentration was 2% (n = 36). On average, 27% less available chlorine was measured than the dentist assumed was in the sample (P < .001). Fifteen percent of samples contained less than 1% available chlorine, which is needed for tissue dissolution and disinfection. The average pH was 11.5. The greatest differences in concentrations were found in NaOCl sourced from supermarkets or drugstores. Future studies should elucidate the cause of this discrepancy. In the meantime it is recommended to purchase NaOCl from professional suppliers, because this group showed the most reliable content of free available chlorine.

  6. A novel flow-injection analysis system for evaluation of antioxidants by using sodium dichloroisocyanurate as a source of hypochlorite anion.

    PubMed

    Ichiba, H; Hanami, K; Yagasaki, K; Tanaka, M; Ito, H; Fukushima, T

    2012-02-01

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) system for evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a compound capable of scavenging a hypochlorite anion (OCl⁻), one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), was developed. Aminophenyl fluorescein (APF), a fluorescence indicator of ROS, was mixed manually with the test compounds and the mixed solution was injected into the FIA system. The injected solution was reacted in-line with OCl⁻, that was produced by using sodium dichloroisocyanurate in the presence of 0.1 M CH3CO2Na in H2O. The fluorescence intensity of fluorescein generated from non-fluorescent APF was significantly attenuated in compounds that had a scavenging effect on OCl⁻. The precision obtained by the FIA system was satisfactory (relative standard deviation < 5.0%) and a rapid assay within 0.5 min per sample was achieved. The proposed FIA system was used to demonstrate that reduced glutathione, dithiothreitol, and 3-methyl-1-phenyl-5-pyrazolone (edaravone) showed a significant scavenging effect on OCl⁻. Therefore, the proposed FIA system can be used as a screening assay for OCl⁻-scavenging compounds.

  7. Effects of sodium hypochlorite and high pH buffer solution in electrokinetic soil treatment on soil chromium removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Cang, Long; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Alshawabkeh, Akram N; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2007-04-02

    Effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), applied as an oxidant in catholyte, and high pH buffer solution on soil Cr removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community during enhanced electrokinetic treatments of a chromium (Cr) contaminated red soil are evaluated. Using pH control system to maintain high alkalinity of soil together with the use of NaClO increased the electrical conductivities of soil pore liquid and electroosmotic flux compared with the control (Exp-01). The pH control and NaClO improved the removal of Cr(VI) and total Cr from the soil. The highest removal percentages of soil Cr(VI) and total Cr were 96 and 72%, respectively, in Exp-04 when the pH value of the anolyte was controlled at 10 and NaClO was added in the catholyte. The alkaline soil environment and introduction of NaClO in the soil enhanced the desorption of Cr(VI) from the soil and promoted Cr(III) oxidation to mobile Cr(VI), respectively. However, the elevated pH and introduction of NaClO in the soil, which are necessary for improving the removal efficiency of soil Cr, resulted in a significantly adverse impact on the functional diversity of soil microbial community. It suggests that to assess the negative impact of extreme conditions for enhancing the extraction efficiencies of Cr on the soil properties and function is necessary.

  8. Influence of sodium hypochlorite treatment of electropolished and magnetoelectropolished nitinol surfaces on adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3 pre-osteoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Rokicki, Ryszard; Haider, Waseem; Hryniewicz, Tadeusz

    2012-09-01

    The influence of 6 % sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) treatment on adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3 pre-osteoblast cells seeded on electropolished (EP) and magnetoelectropolished (MEP) nitinol surfaces were investigated. The chemistry, topography, roughness, surface energy, wettability of EP and MEP nitinol surfaces before and after NaClO treatment were studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), profilometry, and contact angle meter. In vitro interaction of osteoblast cell and NaClO treated EP and MEP nitinol surfaces were assessed after 3 days of incubation by scanning electron microscopy. The XPS analysis shows that NaClO treatment increases oxygen content especially in subsurface oxide layer of EP and MEP nitinol. The changes of both basic components of nitinol, namely nickel and titanium in oxide layer, were negligible. The NaClO treatment did not influence physico-morphological surface properties of EP and MEP nitinol to a big extent. The osteoblast cells show remarkable adherence and proliferation improvement on NaClO treated EP and MEP nitinol surfaces. After 3 days of incubation they show almost total confluence on both NaClO treated surfaces. The present study shows that NaClO treatment of EP and MEP nitinol surfaces alters oxide layer by enriching it in oxygen and by this improves bone cell-nitinol interaction.

  9. Confocal laser scanning, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy investigation of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm degradation using passive and active sodium hypochlorite irrigation within a simulated root canal model.

    PubMed

    Mohmmed, Saifalarab A; Vianna, Morgana E; Penny, Matthew R; Hilton, Stephen T; Mordan, Nicola; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2017-08-01

    Root canal irrigation is an important adjunct to control microbial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 2.5% (wt/vol) sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) agitation on the removal, killing, and degradation of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm. A total of 45 root canal models were manufactured using 3D printing with each model comprising an 18 mm length simulated root canal of apical size 30 and taper 0.06. E. faecalis biofilms were grown on the apical 3 mm of the models for 10 days. A total of 60 s of 9 ml of 2.5% NaOCl irrigation using syringe and needle was performed, the irrigant was either left stagnant in the canal or agitated using manual (Gutta-percha), sonic, and ultrasonic methods for 30 s. Following irrigation, the residual biofilms were observed using confocal laser scanning, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Dunnett post hoc tests at a level of significance p ≤ .05. Consequence of root canal irrigation indicate that the reduction in the amount of biofilm achieved with the active irrigation groups (manual, sonic, and ultrasonic) was significantly greater when compared with the passive and untreated groups (p < .05). Collectively, finding indicate that passive irrigation exhibited more residual biofilm on the model surface than irrigant agitated by manual or automated (sonic, ultrasonic) methods. Total biofilm degradation and nonviable cells were associated with the ultrasonic group. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effect of Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid and sodium hypochlorite solution conditioning on microtensile bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Kasraei, Shahin; Azarsina, Mohadese; Khamverdi, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attempts to improve bond strength of self-etch adhesives can enhance the durability of composite restorations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of collagen and smear layer removal with sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl) and EDTA on micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) of self-etch adhesives to dentin. Settings and Design: It was an in-vitro study. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two teeth were divided into eight groups and their crowns were ground perpendicular to their long axis to expose dentin. The teeth were polished with silicon-carbide papers. The groups were treated as follows: No conditioning, 0.5-M EDTA conditioning, 2.5% NaOCl conditioning, NaOCl + EDTA conditioning. The surfaces were rinsed and blot-dried. Clearfil S3 and I-Bond were applied according to manufacturers’ instructions and restored with Z100 composite. After 500 cycles of thermo-cycling between 5°C and 55°C, the samples were sectioned and tested for μTBS. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD test. Results: The highest μTBS was recorded with Clearfil S3 + NaOCl + EDTA, and the lowest was recorded with I-Bond without conditioning. μTBS in EDTA-and EDTA + NaOCl-treated groups was significantly higher than the control and NaOCl-conditioned groups. Conclusions: Application of EDTA or EDTA + NaOCl before one-step self-etch adhesives increased μTBS. PMID:23833459

  11. Qualitative analysis of precipitate formation on the surface and in the tubules of dentin irrigated with sodium hypochlorite and a final rinse of chlorhexidine or QMiX.

    PubMed

    Kolosowski, Kamil P; Sodhi, Rana N S; Kishen, Anil; Basrani, Bettina R

    2014-12-01

    Interaction of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) mixed with chlorhexidine (CHX) produces a brown precipitate containing para-chloroaniline (PCA). When QMiX is mixed with NaOCl, no precipitate forms, but color change occurs. The aim of this study was to qualitatively assess the formation of precipitate and PCA on the surface and in the tubules of dentin irrigated with NaOCl, followed either by EDTA, NaOCl, and CHX or by saline and QMiX by using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Dentin blocks were obtained from human maxillary molars, embedded in resin, and cross-sectioned to expose dentin. Specimens in group 1 were immersed in 2.5% NaOCl, followed by 17% EDTA, 2.5% NaOCl, and 2% CHX. Specimens in group 2 were immersed in 2.5% NaOCl, followed by saline and QMiX. The dentin surfaces were subjected to TOF-SIMS spectra analysis. Longitudinal sections of dentin blocks were then exposed and subjected to TOF-SIMS analysis. All samples and analysis were performed in triplicate for confirmation. TOF-SIMS analysis of group 1 revealed an irregular precipitate, containing PCA and CHX breakdown products, on the dentin surfaces, occluding and extending into the tubules. In TOF-SIMS analysis of group 2, no precipitates, including PCA, were detected on the dentin surface or in the tubules. Within the limitations of this study, precipitate containing PCA was formed in the tubules of dentin irrigated with NaOCl followed by CHX. No precipitates or PCA were detected in the tubules of dentin irrigated with NaOCl followed by saline and QMiX. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interaction between Octenidine-based Solution and Sodium Hypochlorite: A Mass Spectroscopy, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and Scanning Electron Microscopy-based Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Thaha, Khaleel Ahamed; Varma, R Luxmi; Nair, Mali G; Sam Joseph, V G; Krishnan, Unni

    2017-01-01

    Octenisept (OCT; Schülke & Mayr, Nordersdedt, Germany), an antimicrobial, antibiofilm agent and a promising root canal irrigant, can be potentially combined with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) during endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was first to identify the precipitate formed on the interaction between OCT and NaOCl and secondly to compare its effect on dentinal tubules with that of precipitate formed on combining chlorhexidine (CHX) and NaOCl. This observational study was conducted in 3 stages. Initially, the color changes and precipitate formation were assessed when the test solution 0.1% OCT and 5.2% NaOCl were mixed. Color changes were compared with those observed when 2% CHX was mixed with 5.2% NaOCl. The residue obtained on combining OCT and NaOCl was subjected to proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and mass spectrometric (MS) analysis. In the final stage, dentinal surfaces irrigated alternatively with OCT and NaOCl were compared using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with the dentinal surface irrigated with CHX and NaOCl. The OCT-NaOCl mixture changed in color from initial milky white to transparent over time, whereas the CHX-NaOCl mixture showed an immediate peach-brown discoloration. (1)H NMR and MS analysis established that the whitish precipitate obtained on combining OCT and NaOCl solutions correlated with the structure of phenoxyethanol (PE). SEM revealed dense precipitate occluding the dentinal tubules with the CHX and NaOCl group, whereas the precipitate was sparse and partially occluded in the OCT and NaOCl group. The whitish precipitate formed with the OCT-NaOCl mixture was identified as PE, a compound already present in OCT, and it partly occluded the dentinal tubules. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  13. [Alpha-hemolytic streptococci and root canal irrigants. An evaluation of the bactericidal efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate plus cetrimide].

    PubMed

    D'Arcangelo, C; Di Nardo Di Maio, F; Varvara, G

    1998-09-01

    The main bacterial species present in pulpal and periapical microbic flora is alpha-hemolytic streptococci. They are regarded as facultative anaerobes which prefer to grow in anaerobiosis. Canal irrigation plays an important role in the success of endodontic treatment given that, on the one hand, it encourages the gradual elimination of the smear layer, and on the other it neutralises microbic flora in the root canal. The aim of this study was to test the microbiological efficacy of sodium hypochlorite 1% and s new generation irrigant based on chlorhexidine 0.2% and cetrimide 0.2%. The test was performed on the following alpha-hemolytic streptococci bacteria (Dasit, Cornaredo, Italy): Streptococcus mitis ATCC 9811; Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668; Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419; Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10556. The working concentration (CFU/ml) was defined as 0.5 Mc Farland which corresponds to a concentration of microorganisms of approximately 1.5 x 10(8) bacteria. The following canal irrigants were used: 1) cetrimide 0.2% + chlorhexidine 0.2% (Cetrexidin Vebas, S. Giuliano Milanese, Italy); 2) NaOCl 1% (Ogna, Milan, Italy). Each individual substance remained in contact with the bacterial species used in the test for 10'-20'-30'. The results obtained show the bactericidal efficacy of both the irrigants used, even after a short period of contact. This does not mean that all irrigants are equal and/or promise the same results. This was a microbiological study, but it is nonetheless important to take other variables into account, such as contact time. Moreover, in order to increase the probabilities for the success of endodontic treatment, canal irrigants must also present other characteristics, namely: biocompatibility, scarce toxicity, high proteolytic power.

  14. The Effect of Root Canal Irrigation with Combination of Sodium Hypo-chlorite and Chlorhexidine Gluconate on the Sealing Ability of Obturation Materials.

    PubMed

    Homayouni, Hamed; Majd, Nima Moradi; Zohrehei, Heidar; Mosavari, Behrad; Adel, Mamak; Dajmar, Reyhaneh; Homayouni, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the precipitate that was formed by combining Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) and Chlorhexidine Gluconate (CHX) on the sealing ability of root canal obturation materials. The fluid filtration method was conducted on a total of 100 roots. Samples were randomly divided into two control (n=5) and three experimental groups (n=30). The samples in group 1 were irrigated with 1.5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl, and then the smear layers of the teeth were removed by 17% EDTA, while the specimens of group 2 were irrigated by 1.5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl and 1.5 mL of 2% CHX; after the smear layer removal, a final flush with 1.5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl was performed. The samples of group 3 were irrigated the same as group 1 but after the smear layer removal canals were irrigated again with 1.5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl and then a final flush with 1.5 mL of 2% CHX was performed. Teeth were obturated with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer and after seven days, microleakage was evaluated by the fluid filtration technique. The results were analyzed by the ANOVA and Tukey's test. The samples in group 3 had significantly greater microleakage compared to teeth in group 1, 2 (p<0.05), and the specimens in group 1 showed significantly less amount of microleakage than samples in group 2, 3 (p<0.05). The presence of the precipitate that is formed due to interaction between NaOCl and CHX has negative effect on the sealing ability of gutta-percha and AH26 sealer.

  15. Generation of dissolved organic matter and byproducts from activated sludge during contact with sodium hypochlorite and its implications to on-line chemical cleaning in MBR.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weiwei; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xiangru; Ng, Wun Jern; Liu, Yu

    2016-11-01

    On-line chemical cleaning of membranes with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) has been commonly employed for maintaining a constant permeability of membrane bioreactor (MBR) due to its simple and efficient operation. However, activated sludge is inevitably exposed to NaClO during this cleaning process. In spite of the broad applications of on-line chemical cleaning in MBR such as chemical cleaning-in-place (CIP) and chemical enhanced backwash (CEB), little information is currently available for the release of emerging dissolved organic matter (DOM) and byproducts from this prevalent practice. Therefore, in this study, activated sludge suspended in a phosphate buffered saline solution was exposed to different doses of NaClO in order to determine the generation of potential DOM and byproducts. The results showed the occurrence of significant DOM release (up to 24.7 mg/L as dissolved organic carbon) after exposure to NaClO for 30 min. The dominant components of the released DOM were characterized to be humic acid-like as well as protein-like substances by using an excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectrophotometer. Furthermore, after the contact of activated sludge with NaClO, 19 kinds of chlorinated and brominated byproducts were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, eight of which were confirmed and characterized with standard compounds. Many byproducts were found to be halogenated aromatic compounds, including halopyrroles and halo(hydro)benzoquinones, which had been reported to be significantly more toxic than the halogenated aliphatic ones. Consequently, this study offers new insights into the practice of on-line chemical cleaning, and opens up a window to re-examine the current operation of MBR by looking into the generation of micropollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of the in vivo antimicrobial effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine used as root canal irrigants: a molecular microbiology study.

    PubMed

    Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to compare the antimicrobial effects of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) when used as irrigants during treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis. Forty-seven single-rooted single-canal teeth with necrotic pulps and asymptomatic apical periodontitis were selected for this study according to stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria. Bacterial samples were taken at the baseline (S1) and after (S2) chemomechanical preparation using 2.5% NaOCl (n = 30) or 0.12% CHX (n = 17) as the irrigant. Bacterial, archaeal, and fungal presence was evaluated by broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR), whereas bacterial identifications were performed by a closed-ended reverse-capture checkerboard approach targeting 28 candidate endodontic pathogens. All S1 samples were PCR positive for bacterial presence but negative for both archaea and fungi. Both NaOCl- and CHX-based protocols were significantly effective in reducing the bacterial levels and number of taxa. No significant differences were observed between them in all tested parameters including the incidence of negative PCR results in S2 (40% for NaOCl vs 47% for CHX, p = 0.8), reduction in the number of taxa per canal (p = 0.3), and reduction in the bacterial levels (p = 0.07). The most prevalent taxa in S2 samples from the NaOCl group were Propionibacterium acnes, Streptococcus species, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Selenomonas sputigena. In the CHX group, the most prevalent taxa in S2 were Dialister invisus, Actinomyces israelii, Prevotella baroniae, Propionibacterium acidifaciens, and Streptococcus species. Treatment protocols using irrigation with either NaOCl or CHX succeeded in significantly reducing the the number of bacterial taxa and their levels in infected root canals, with no significant difference between these substances. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the interaction between sodium hypochlorite and several formulations containing chlorhexidine and its effect on the radicular dentin--SEM and push-out bond strength analysis.

    PubMed

    Graziele Magro, Miriam; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Regina Victorino, Keli; Vázquez-Garcia, Fernando Antonio; Aranda-Garcia, Arturo Javier; Faria-Junior, Norberto Batista; Faria, Gisele; Luis Shinohara, André

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the presence of debris and smear layer after endodontic irrigation with different formulations of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and its effects on the push-out bond strength of an epoxy-based sealer on the radicular dentin. One hundred extracted human canines were prepared to F5 instrument and irrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Fifty teeth were divided into five groups (n = 10), according to the final irrigation protocol with different 2% CHX formulations: G1 (control, no final rinse irrigation), G2 (CHX solution), G3 (CHX gel), G4 (Concepsis), and G5 (CHX Plus). In sequence, the specimens were submitted to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, in the cervical-medium and medium-apical segments, to evaluate the presence of debris and smear layer. The other 50 teeth were treated equally to a SEM study, but with the root canals filled with an epoxy-based endodontic sealer and submitted to a push-out bond strength test, in the cervical, middle, and apical thirds. G2, G3, G4, and G5 provided higher precipitation of the debris and smear layer than G1 (P < 0.05), but these groups were similar to each other (P > 0.05), in both segments. The values obtained in the push out test did not differ between groups, independent of the radicular third (P > 0.05). The CHXs formulations caused precipitation of the debris and smear layer on the radicular dentin, but these residues did not interfere in the push-out bond strength of the epoxy-based sealer. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effect of superoxidized water and sodium hypochlorite, associated or not with EDTA, on organic and inorganic components of bovine root dentin.

    PubMed

    Ghisi, Alexandre Corrêa; Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli; Baldasso, Flávia E R; Stürmer, Caroline P; Rossi-Fedele, Giampiero; Steier, Liviu; de Figueiredo, José Antonio Poli; Morgental, Renata Dornelles; Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Sterilox (Sx), a superoxidized water, 5% and 2% sodium hypochlorite (5NaOCl and 2NaOCl), and 17% EDTA (E) on the organic and inorganic components of bovine dentin. Eighty bovine incisors were randomly divided into 8 groups (n = 10): 5NaOCl, 5NaOCl + E, 2NaOCl, 2NaOCl + E, Sx, Sx + E, E alone, and distilled water (H2O). Root canal instrumentation was performed by using the corresponding irrigant. The apical 15 mm was longitudinally sectioned into 2 fragments, one for light microscopy analysis in slides stained with picrosirius red (organic component) and the other for scanning electron microscopy analysis (inorganic component). Scores data obtained in the light microscopy analysis were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by multiple comparisons test (P < .05). Scanning electron microscopy images were analyzed descriptively. The chemical solution 5NaOCl had a greater effect on the organic component of dentin in area and depth than 2NaOCl. The chemical solutions 5NaOCl + E, 5NaOCl and 2NaOCl + E caused the greatest change in the collagenous organic matrix near the root canal lumen. The chemical solution 2NaOCl showed similar behavior to Sx, associated or not with E, promoting more superficial disorganization of collagen in a smaller area. Demineralization was observed in all groups in which E was used. However, areas of erosion and open dentinal tubules were detected only when it was combined with NaOCl. Five percent NaOCl promoted the most extensive damage to the organic component of dentin, and when associated to EDTA, dentinal erosion could be seen. Considering these specific aspects, 2% NaOCl and Sx had milder effects on bovine root dentin. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of using an alternative irrigant between sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine to prevent the formation of para-chloroaniline within the root canal system.

    PubMed

    Mortenson, D; Sadilek, M; Flake, N M; Paranjpe, A; Heling, I; Johnson, J D; Cohenca, N

    2012-09-01

    To determine if the formation of para-chloroaniline (PCA) can be avoided by using an alternative irrigant following sodium hypochlorite but before chlorhexidine. Fifty-five single-rooted teeth were decoronated, instrumented to size 40, .06 taper whilst being irrigated with 14% ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) and 6% NaOCl. Samples were then randomly divided into three experimental and two control groups. Group 1 was irrigated with saline followed by 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX). Group 2 was irrigated with 50% citric acid (CA) followed by 2% CHX. Group 3 was irrigated with 14% EDTA followed by 2% CHX. The chemical identity and quantification of the PCA in the formed precipitate was determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). All experimental groups contained PCA. The mean level of PCA for group 1 (sterile saline) was 229 ng mL(-1), group 2 (citric acid) 72 ng mL(-1) and group 3 (EDTA) 400 ng mL(-1), respectively. A significant difference was found between the saline and EDTA groups and the negative control (P < 0.05). Although no statistical significance was found between the negative control and citric acid group, PCA was still present in this experimental group. Citric acid used as the intermittent irrigant had the least amount of PCA formation in the canal system. Until the threshold required to cause biological damage in humans is determined, the combination of NaOCl and CHX in root canal treatment should be avoided. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  20. Similar influence of stabilized alkaline and neutral sodium hypochlorite solutions on the fracture resistance of root canal-treated bovine teeth.

    PubMed

    Souza, Erick Miranda; Calixto, Amanda Martins; Lima, Camila Nara E; Pappen, Fernanda Geraldo; De-Deus, Gustavo

    2014-10-01

    Stabilizing sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) at an alkaline pH is proposed to increase solution stability and tissue dissolution ability; however, a reduction on the flexural strength of dentin discs has been found to be a side effect. This study sought to determine whether a stabilized alkaline NaOCl reduces the fracture resistance of root canal-treated bovine teeth after root canal preparation compared with a neutral solution counterpart. The 4 anterior incisors were removed from 20 mandibular bovine jaws, and each 1 was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups (20 teeth each). Teeth were prepared with a sequence of 6 K-type files. The following experimental groups received a different irrigation regimen: G1: distilled water (negative control), G2: 5% NaOCl at a pH of 7.2, and G3: 5% NaOCl at a pH of 12.8; in the positive control group (G4), teeth remained untreated. The time of contact and volume of solution were carefully standardized. After bone and periodontal ligament simulation, teeth were subjected to a fracture resistance test. A significant difference was observed among the 4 groups tested (analysis of variance, P < .05). The 5% NaOCl groups (G2 and G3) presented significantly lower resistance to fracture than the control (G1 and G4) (Tukey test, P < .05). Both NaOCl solutions similarly reduced the fracture resistance at approximately 30% (Tukey test, P > .05). No differences were observed between positive and negative control groups (Tukey test, P > .05). Stabilized alkaline and neutral NaOCl solutions similarly reduced the fracture resistance of root canal-treated bovine teeth by about 30%. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bactericidal effect of Er:YAG laser combined with sodium hypochlorite irrigation against Enterococcus faecalis deep inside dentinal tubules in experimentally infected root canals.

    PubMed

    Cheng, X; Chen, B; Qiu, J; He, W; Lv, H; Qu, T; Yu, Q; Tian, Y

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the bactericidal effect of Er:YAG laser radiation combined with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation in the treatment of Enterococcus faecalis deep inside dentinal tubules. The Er:YAG laser was activated, respectively, at 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 W for either 20 or 30 s; 52.5 g l(-1) NaOCl and normal saline were used for the control groups. Root canals before and after treatments were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bacterial reductions both on the root canal walls and at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 μm inside the dentinal tubules were analysed using a one-way analysis of variance. SEM results showed that the Er:YAG laser combined with NaOCl disinfected the dentinal tubules from 200 to over 500 μm depth as irradiation power and time increased. This combination killed significantly more bacteria than both the negative control group at each level tested and the positive control group at 300, 400 and 500 μm inside the dentinal tubules. It reached 100% in all experimental groups, both on the root canal walls and at 100 and 200 μm inside the dentinal tubules. However, at 300, 400 and 500 μm inside the dentinal tubules, only the groups treated with 0.5 and 1.0 W for 30s exhibited no bacterial growth. Of the two groups in which no bacteria were detected at all tested depths, Er:YAG laser irradiation at 0.5 W for 30 s combined with NaOCl irrigation was preferable because of the lower emission power and shorter irradiation time, and may serve as a new option for effective root canal disinfection.

  2. Decalcifying effect of 15% EDTA, 15% citric acid, 5% phosphoric acid and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite on root canal dentine.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Heredia, M; Ferrer-Luque, C M; González-Rodríguez, M P; Martín-Peinado, F J; González-López, S

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate and compare ex vivo the decalcifying effect of 15% EDTA, 15% citric acid, 5% phosphoric acid and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite on root canal dentine. Two 2-mm-thick slices were cut from the coronal third of the root of 10 human incisors. Each slice was sectioned into two equal parts. Specimens were assigned to one of four groups (n = 10) for immersion in 20 mL of either 15% EDTA, or 15% citric acid, 5% phosphoric acid or 2.5% NaOCl, for three time periods (5, 10 and 15 min). The concentration of Ca(2+) extracted from the dentine was measured by atomic absorption spectrophometry. The amount of calcium extracted was analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test for global comparisons and the Mann-Whitney U-test for pairwise comparisons. In the three time periods, 15% EDTA and 15% citric acid extracted the largest amount of calcium, with no significant differences between them. The 2.5% NaOCl solution extracted insignificant amounts of calcium, whereas 15% EDTA extracted 86.72% of the calcium in the first 5 min, and 15% citric acid and 5% phosphoric acid had a similar pattern of calcium removal (77.03% and 67.08% in first 5 min, respectively). Solutions of 15% EDTA, 15% citric acid and 5% phosphoric acid decalcify root dentine, with most calcium extracted during the first 5 min of action. The efficacy of 15% citric acid and 15% EDTA solutions was significantly greater than that of 5% phosphoric acid solution at each time period (5, 10 and 15 min).

  3. The Fate of Sulfamethazine in Sodium-Hypochlorite-Treated Drinking Water: Monitoring by LC-MSn-IT-TOF

    PubMed Central

    Melton, Tyler C.; Brown, Stacy D.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds represent a rapidly emerging class of environmental contaminants. Such compounds were recently classified by the U.S. Geological Survey, including several antibiotics. An LC-MS/MS screening method for the top five antibiotics in drinking water was developed and validated using a Shimadzu LC-MS-IT-TOF. The separation was performed using a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column with a gradient elution. Sulfamethazine was exposed to conditions intended to mimic drinking water chlorination, and samples were collected and quenched with excess sodium sulfite. Kinetics of sulfamethazine degradation was followed as well as the formation of the major chlorinated byproduct (m/z 313). For the screening method, all five antibiotic peaks were baseline resolved within 5 minutes. Additionally, precision and accuracy of the screening method were less than 15%. Degradation of sulfamethazine upon exposure to drinking water chlorination occurred by first order kinetics with a half-life of 5.3 × 104 min (approximately 37 days) with measurements starting 5 minutes after chlorination. Likewise, the formation of the major chlorinated product occurred by first order kinetics with a rate constant of 2.0 × 10−2. The proposed identification of the chlorinated product was 4-amino-(5-chloro-4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidinyl)-benzenesulfonamide (C12H13N4O2SCl) using MSn spectra and databases searches of SciFinder and ChemSpider. PMID:25954529

  4. A comparative evaluation of effect on water sorption and solubility of a temporary soft denture liner material when stored either in distilled water, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite or artificial saliva: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Aditi; Shenoy, K. Kamalakanth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Soft denture liners have a key role in modern removable prosthodontics since they restore health to inflamed and abused mucosa by redistribution of forces transmitted to the edentulous ridges. The most common problems encountered using soft denture liners are water sorption and solubility when in contact with saliva or storage media. These problems are associated with swelling, distortion, support of Candida albicans growth, and stresses at the liner/denture base interface that reduces the bond strength. Objective: To evaluate the water sorption and solubility of commercially available acrylic based self cure soft denture lining material (GC RELINE™ Tissue Conditioner) after immersion in three different storage media (distilled water, Shellis artificial saliva, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite disinfectant solution) at time interval of 4, 7, 11, and 15 days. Material and Methods: The study involved preparation of artificial saliva using Shellis formula. A total 45 standardized samples of the material (GC RELINE™) were prepared in disk form (15 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness). The study was divided into three groups with storage in Control (distilled water), Shellis artificial saliva, and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. Samples were dried in a desiccator and weighed in the analytical balance to measure the initial weight (mg/cm2) of the disks (W1). The first groups (15 samples) were placed in 30 ml distilled water (Group A) at 37ºC, second group 30 ml of artificial saliva (Group B) and third group in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (Group C). Disks were removed from disinfectant after 5 min and placed in 30 ml distilled water. On days 4, 7, 11, and 15, all samples were removed from their containers and reweighed to measure the weight (mg/cm2) of the disks after sorption (W2). The solubility was measured by placing the disks back in the desiccator after each sorption cycle and drying them to constant weight in the desiccator. These values were weight after

  5. A comparative evaluation of effect on water sorption and solubility of a temporary soft denture liner material when stored either in distilled water, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite or artificial saliva: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Garg, Aditi; Shenoy, K Kamalakanth

    2016-01-01

    Soft denture liners have a key role in modern removable prosthodontics since they restore health to inflamed and abused mucosa by redistribution of forces transmitted to the edentulous ridges. The most common problems encountered using soft denture liners are water sorption and solubility when in contact with saliva or storage media. These problems are associated with swelling, distortion, support of Candida albicans growth, and stresses at the liner/denture base interface that reduces the bond strength. To evaluate the water sorption and solubility of commercially available acrylic based self cure soft denture lining material (GC RELINE™ Tissue Conditioner) after immersion in three different storage media (distilled water, Shellis artificial saliva, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite disinfectant solution) at time interval of 4, 7, 11, and 15 days. The study involved preparation of artificial saliva using Shellis formula. A total 45 standardized samples of the material (GC RELINE™) were prepared in disk form (15 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness). The study was divided into three groups with storage in Control (distilled water), Shellis artificial saliva, and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. Samples were dried in a desiccator and weighed in the analytical balance to measure the initial weight (mg/cm2) of the disks (W1). The first groups (15 samples) were placed in 30 ml distilled water (Group A) at 37ºC, second group 30 ml of artificial saliva (Group B) and third group in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (Group C). Disks were removed from disinfectant after 5 min and placed in 30 ml distilled water. On days 4, 7, 11, and 15, all samples were removed from their containers and reweighed to measure the weight (mg/cm2) of the disks after sorption (W2). The solubility was measured by placing the disks back in the desiccator after each sorption cycle and drying them to constant weight in the desiccator. These values were weight after desiccation (W3). Water sorption and solubility

  6. The effect of temperature and contact time of sodium hypochlorite on human roots infected with Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Gulsahi, Kamran; Tirali, R Ebru; Cehreli, S Burcak; Karahan, Zeynep Ceren; Uzunoglu, Emel; Sabuncuoglu, Bizden

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 2.5 % NaOCl at different temperature and time intervals on Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans-infected human roots. A total of 112 root cylinders prepared from extracted single-rooted humans were infected by E. faecalis (Group A, n = 56) or C. albicans (Group B, n = 56); 3 root cylinders served as negative controls. Both groups were further divided into 6 subgroups according to three contact times (30 s, 1 min, 5 min) with NaOCl at two different temperatures (25 or 37 °C). Microorganism growth was controlled at the 24th and 48th hours. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-square test. While NaOCl at 25 °C for 5 min was the most effective irrigation regimen to eliminate E. faecalis (p < 0.001), NaOCl at 37 °C for 5 min exhibited significantly superior antifungal properties (p < 0.05). At the same contact times, difference in the temperature of NaOCl did not affect the growth of either E. faecalis or C. albicans. As a result, the irrigation time of NaOCl was more effective than the temperature to eliminate E. faecalis, while pre-heating of NaOCl to 37 °C increased its effectiveness on C. albicans at 5 min contact time.

  7. Liquid-liquid reaction of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite for the production of singlet oxygen in a centrifugal flow singlet oxygen generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Rong-rong; Deng, Lie-zheng; Shi, Wen-bo; Yang, He-ping; Sha, Guo-he; Zhang, Cun-hao

    2011-02-01

    An attempt is made to produce gas-phase singlet oxygen O2(a1Δg) in a liquid-liquid reaction between acidic hydrogen peroxide (AHP) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The attempt arises from the fact that basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) has long been the prime source for producing singlet delta oxygen through its reaction with chlorine. However, BHP suffers from the defect of being unstable during storage. Exploratory experiments were performed in a centrifugal flow singlet oxygen generator (CF-SOG) with two streams of solutions, AHP and NaOCl, mixed in a slit nozzle and then injected into the arc-shaped concavity in the CF-SOG to form a rotating liquid flow with a remarkable centrifugal force. With the help of this centrifugal force, the product of the O2(1Δ) reaction was quickly separated from the liquid phase. The gas-phase O2(1Δ) was detected via the spectrum of O2(1Δ) cooperative dimolecular emission with a CCD spectrograph. Experimental results show that it is feasible to produce gas-phase O2(1Δ) from the AHP + NaOCl reaction, and the stronger the acidity, the more efficient the O2(1Δ) production. However, since in the AHP + NaOCl reaction, Cl2 unavoidably appears as a byproduct, its catalytic action on the decomposition of H2O2 into ground-state O2 remains a major obstacle to utilising the AHP + NaOCl reaction in producing gas-phase O2(1Δ). Qualitative interpretation shows that the AHP + NaOCl reaction is virtually the reaction of interaction of molecular H2O2 with molecular HOCl, its mechanism being analogous to that of reaction of BHP with Cl2, where HOOCl is the key intermediate. It is difficult to form the intermediate HOOCl via the H2O2 + NaOCl reaction in a basic medium, thus gas-phase O2(1Δ) cannot be obtained in appreciable quantities.

  8. Efficacy of four different irrigation techniques combined with 60 °C 3% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA in smear layer removal.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiangjun; Miao, Hui; Li, Lei; Zhang, Shasha; Zhou, Dongyan; Lu, Yan; Wu, Ligeng

    2014-09-08

    Efforts to improve the efficacy of smear layer removal by applying irrigant activation at the final irrigation or by elevating the temperature of the irrigant have been reported. However, the combination of such activation protocols with 60 °C 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has seldom been mentioned. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy in smear layer removal of four different irrigation techniques combined with 60 °C 3% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. Fifty single-rooted teeth were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10) according to the irrigant agitation protocols used during chemomechanical preparation(Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland): a side-vented needle group, a ultrasonic irrigation (UI) group, a NaviTip FX group, an EndoActivator group, and a control group (no agitation). After each instrumentation, the root canals were irrigated with 1 mL of 3% NaOCl at 60 °C for 1 minute, and after the whole instrumentation, the root canals were rinsed with 1 mL of 17% EDTA for 1 minute. Both NaOCl and EDTA were activated with one of the five irrigation protocols. The efficacy of smear layer removal was scored at the apical, middle and coronal thirds. The Data were statistically analyzed using SAS version 9.2 for Windows (rank sum test for a randomised block design and ANOVA). No significant differences among the NaviTip FX group, EndoActivator group and control groups, and each of these groups showed a lower score than that of UI group (P < 0.05). Within each group, all three thirds were ranked in the following order: coronal > middle > apical (P < 0.05). In the coronal third, the NaviTip FX group was better than UI group. In the middle and apical third, the differences were not significant among any of the groups. Even without any activation, the combination of 60 °C 3% NaOCl and 17% EDTA could remove the smear layer effectively, similar to NaviTip FX or EndoActivator, and these three protocols were more effective than UI. However, regardless of

  9. Efficacy of UV, acidified sodium hypochlorite, and mild heat for decontamination of surface and infiltrated Escherichia coli O157:H7 on green onions and baby spinach.

    PubMed

    Durak, M Zeki; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2012-07-01

    Produce-associated foodborne illnesses outbreaks have highlighted the need for more effective decontamination methods to ensure the safety of fresh produce. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the individual and combined efficacies of germicidal UV light (12.5 to 500 mJ/cm(2)), acidified sodium hypochlorite (ASC 10 to 200 ppm), and mild heat (40 to 50°C) for decontaminating green onions and baby spinach infected with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were inoculated by spot and dip inoculation methods to mimic surface and infiltrated E. coli O157:H7 contamination, respectively. In green onions and baby spinach, the individual efficacies of UV, ASC, and mild-heat treatments varied based on the produce type and contamination method. Following analysis of the efficacies of the single treatments, a combined treatment with 125 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 50°C was selected for spot-inoculated green onions, and a combined treatment with 125 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 20°C was selected for spot- and dip-inoculated baby spinach. While a >5-log reduction was achieved with the combination treatment for spot-inoculated green onions with an initial contamination level of 7.2 log CFU per spot, the same treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations below the detection limit (<1 log) on green onions spot inoculated at a lower contamination level (4.3 log CFU per spot). On spot- and dip-inoculated baby spinach, the combined treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations by 2.8 log CFU per spot and 2.6 log CFU/g, respectively. The combined treatment of 500 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 50°C selected for the decontamination of dip-inoculated green onions resulted in a 2.2-log CFU/g reduction. These findings suggest that when foodborne pathogens contaminate produce and subsequently infiltrate, attach to, or become localized into protected areas, the individual or combined applications of UV, ASC, and mild-heat treatments have limited decontamination

  10. Penetration Depth of Sodium Hypochlorite in Dentinal Tubules after Conventional Irrigation, Passive Ultrasonic Agitation and Nd:YAG Laser Activated Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah; Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Sohrabi, Khosro; Chiniforush, Nasim; Ghafari, Sarvenaz; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza; Noroozi, Niusha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The penetration depth of irrigating solutions in dentinal tubules is limited; consequently, bacteria can remain inside dentinal tubules after the cleaning and shaping of the root canal system. Therefore, new irrigation systems are required to increase the penetration depth of irrigating solutions in dentinal tubules. Methods: A comparative study regarding the penetration depth of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution in dentinal tubules using four methods, (1) conventional irrigation (CI), (2) smear layer removal plus conventional irrigation (gold standard), (3) passive ultrasonic agitation (PUA) and (4) Nd:YAG laser activated irrigation (LAI), took place on 144 extracted mandibular teeth with a single root canal. After decoronation with a diamond disc and working length determination, the apical foramen was sealed with wax. The canals were prepared up to #35 Mtwo rotary file and 5.25% NaOCl was used for irrigation during preparation. To study the penetration depth of NaOCl, smear layer was eliminated in all samples. Dentinal tubules were stained with crystal violet and after longitudinal sectioning of teeth, the two halves were reassembled and root canal preparation was performed up to #40 Mtwo rotary file. Then the samples were distributed into four experimental groups. Depth of the bleached zone was evaluated by stereomicroscope (20X). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The highest and lowest average for NaOCl penetration depth in all three coronal, middle and apical sections belonged to CI + smear layer removal and CI. A statistically significant difference was seen when comparing the penetration depth of CI + smear layer removal group to CI and PUA groups in coronal and middle third, in which the average NaOCl penetration depth of the gold standard group was higher (P < 0.05). A statistically significant difference was seen between CI + smear layer removal group and the other three groups including CI, PUA and LAI in apical third

  11. Disinfecting Effects of Rotary Instrumentation with Either 2.5% Sodium Hypochlorite or 2% Chlorhexidine as the Main Irrigant: A Randomized Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Rôças, Isabela N; Provenzano, José Claudio; Neves, Mônica A S; Siqueira, José F

    2016-06-01

    This randomized clinical study compared the antibacterial effects of irrigation with either 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) during the preparation of infected root canals with rotary nickel-titanium instruments. The root canals of 50 single-rooted teeth with apical periodontitis were prepared by using BioRaCe rotary instruments (FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) and irrigation with either 2.5% NaOCl (n = 25) or 2% CHX (n = 25). Samples were taken from the canal at baseline (S1) and after (S2) chemomechanical preparation. DNA was extracted from the clinical samples, and the reduction of the levels of total bacteria and streptococci was evaluated by means of a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. All S1 samples were positive for the presence of bacteria. After chemomechanical preparation using either 2.5% NaOCl or 2% CHX, 44% and 40% of the root canals still had detectable bacteria, respectively. As for total bacterial counts, a mean number of 3.7 × 10(5) bacterial cell equivalents was present in S1 samples from the NaOCl group, with a substantial reduction in S2 to a mean of 5.49 × 10(2) cell equivalents (P < .001). In the CHX group, a mean bacterial load of 8.77 × 10(4) cell equivalents occurred in S1, with a significant reduction in S2 to a mean of 2.81 × 10(3) cells (P < .001). The differences in both the presence/absence and quantitative data were not statistically significant (P > .05). Both irrigation protocols were highly effective in reducing the levels of Streptococcus species (P < .001). No significant difference was observed for the clinical antibacterial effectiveness of rotary preparation using either 2.5% NaOCl or 2% CHX as the main irrigant. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Effect of sodium hypochlorite irrigation with or without surfactants on the bond strength of an epoxy-based sealer to dentin.

    PubMed

    Guneser, Mehmet Burak; Arslan, Dilara; Dincer, Asiye Nur; Er, Gamze

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation with or without surfactants on the bond strength of an epoxy-based sealer to the root canal dentin. Eighty decoronated single-rooted human mandibular premolars were instrumented using the rotary system. The roots were subsequently rinsed with 5 ml 17 % EDTA for 1 min and then randomly divided into 3 test groups (n = 20) and 1 control group (n = 20) according to the type of irrigation with experimental 5 % NaOCl (Wizard, RehberKimya, Istanbul, Turkey) solutions: Group 1: NaOCl-0.1 % benzalkonium chloride; Group 2: NaOCl-0.1 % Tween 80; Group 3: NaOCl-0.1 % Triton X-100; control group: NaOCl without any surfactants. Five samples from each group were prepared for scanning electron microscopy to examine the surface of root canal dentin. The 15 samples remaining in each group were obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany) using the cold lateral compaction technique. A push-out test was used to measure the bond strength between the sealer and root canal dentin. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc tests (P = 0.05). The NaOCl-0.1 % Triton X-100 group demonstrated the highest mean bond-strength values in all root thirds among the groups (P < 0.05). However, the bond strength of the sealer in the NaOCl-0.1 % benzalkonium chloride and NaOCl-0.1 % Tween 80 groups did not differ from that in the control group (P > 0.05). Additionally, the bond-strength values decreased in the corono-apical direction for all groups (P < 0.05). NaOCl solution with Triton X-100 can provide higher bond strength of the epoxy resin-based sealer to root dentin compared to NaOCl solution wiithout any surfactant. The bond strength of sealer to dentin can be improved by the addition of the surfactants to NaOCl solution.

  13. Chemical removal of necrotic periodontal ligament on delayed replanted teeth by sodium hypochlorite: morphological analysis and microhardness indentation test of cementum.

    PubMed

    Bai, J; Qin, M; Zhao, Y-M; Huang, M-W; Ji, A-P

    2016-04-01

    To compare the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) used at different concentrations and working times for removing necrotic periodontal ligament (PDL) from delayed replanted teeth and to observe the effects of NaOCl on surface structure and microhardness of cementum. A total of 88 healthy premolars with a single root extracted for orthodontic purposes were selected and kept dry at room temperature for 1 h. The teeth were divided into 11 groups: group 1 (control): roots were untreated; group 2: necrotic PDL was removed with gauze; groups 3-11: teeth were immersed in NaOCl at different concentrations (1, 2.5 and 5.25%) and for different working times (5, 10 and 15 min). The specimens in each group were inspected separately for cementum integrity and the presence of PDL remnants by histomorphometric analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Another 14 healthy premolars with roots divided into two pieces were selected for Vickers microhardness indentation tests before and after NaOCl treatment. The data were analysed statistically using Wilcoxon signed-rank test of two-related samples (P = 0.05). In teeth treated with 1% NaOCl for 15 min or 5.25% NaOCl for 5 min, the cementum remained morphologically intact without cracks, and PDL remnants were absent. In the 1% NaOCl for 15 min group, the microstructure of cementum was arranged more regularly, as observed ×8000 magnification by SEM. Teeth in each of the other groups displayed cementum damage and/or the presence of PDL remnants. Microhardness tests revealed that treatment with 1% NaOCl for 15 min or 5.25% NaOCl for 5 min significantly decreased microhardness of root cementum (P < 0.05). Use of either 1% NaOCl for 15 min or 5.25% NaOCl for 5 min was effective at removing necrotic PDL from the delayed replanted teeth whilst having a minimal influence on cementum integrity. However, 1% NaOCl for 15 min was less damaging to cementum. © 2015 International Endodontic

  14. The efficacy of photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming and sonic-activated irrigation combined with QMiX solution or sodium hypochlorite against intracanal E. faecalis biofilm.

    PubMed

    Balić, M; Lucić, R; Mehadžić, K; Bago, I; Anić, I; Jakovljević, S; Plečko, V

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the antibacterial efficacy of photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) using an Er:YAG laser and sonic-activated irrigation combined with QMiX irrigant or sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis intracanal biofilm. Root canals of 91 human extracted single-canal teeth were instrumented, sterilized, contaminated with E. faecalis and incubated for 15 days. The infected teeth were then randomly distributed into six experimental groups: G1: PIPS/Er:YAG laser (wavelength 2940 nm, pulse energy 20 mJ, 15 Hz, pulse duration 50 μs, energy density 2.06 J/cm(2), 3 × 20 s) with the QMiX irrigant; G2: PIPS/Er:YAG laser-activated 2.5 % NaOCl; G3 sonic-activated irrigation (EndoActivator system) for 60 s with the QMiX irrigant; G4 sonic-activated irrigation for 60 s with 2.5 % NaOCl; G5 30-gauge needle irrigation with the QMiX irrigant; G6 30-gauge needle irrigation with 2.5 % NaOCl. The positive control group was rinsed with sterile saline solution. The root canals were sampled by flushing with saline solution at baseline and after the treatments, serially diluted and cultured. The number of bacteria in each canal was determined by plate count. The presence and the absence of E. faecalis in root canals were demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the pattern of the bacteria colonization was visualized by scanning electron microscopy. There was significant reduction in the bacterial population for all groups (p < 0.001). The best antibacterial efficacy was recorded after sonic-activated irrigation with both NaOCl (99.999 %) and QMiX (99.999 %) and after PIPS with QMiX (99.999 %), which were more effective than conventional irrigation with NaOCl (99.998 %) and the PIPS with the NaOCl (99.966 %). Also, the PIPS with QMiX solution provided the highest number of sterile samples (five). There was no difference in the bacteria reduction between the active irrigation techniques, regardless of the irrigant used

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - ON-SITE GENERATION OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE CLORTEC, DIVISION OF CAPITAL CONTROLS, CLORTEC MODEL MC100 - NSF 00/16/EPADW395

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE EPA and NSF verified the performance of the ClorTec Model MC100 System under the EPA's ETV program. The concentrated hypochlorite generator stream from the treatment system underwent a twice-daily analysis from 3/8-4/6/00. The chlorine analyses were conducted onsite in United...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - ON-SITE GENERATION OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE CLORTEC, DIVISION OF CAPITAL CONTROLS, CLORTEC MODEL MC100 - NSF 00/16/EPADW395

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE EPA and NSF verified the performance of the ClorTec Model MC100 System under the EPA's ETV program. The concentrated hypochlorite generator stream from the treatment system underwent a twice-daily analysis from 3/8-4/6/00. The chlorine analyses were conducted onsite in United...

  17. The effect of three different antioxidants on the dentinal tubular penetration of Resilon and Real Seal SE on sodium hypochlorite-treated root canal dentin: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, Sarah Renjelina; Mathai, Vijay; Nair, Rajesh Sasidharan; Angelo, Jeyabalaji Mano Christaine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The effect of 10% ascorbic acid, 10% tannic acid, and 10% gallic acid on the dentinal tubular penetration of Resilon and Real Seal SE on sodium hypochlorite-treated root canal dentin was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Fifty human premolars were decoronated to attain 14-mm root length and divided into five groups of 10 teeth each. Biomechanical preparation was done with rotary instruments. Group I specimens were irrigated with saline and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Specimens from groups II, III, IV, and V were irrigated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA. Specimens from groups III, IV, and V underwent additional irrigation with antioxidants–10% ascorbic acid, 10% tannic acid, and 10% gallic acid, respectively. Following obturation with Resilon and Real Seal SE, scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis was done to note the maximum dentinal tubular penetration at the cervical, middle, and apical thirds of each specimen. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Post hoc and Dunnett's test. Results: Maximum dentinal tubular penetration of Resilon and Real Seal SE was obtained following irrigation with 10% gallic acid. Conclusion: 10% gallic acid was superior among the antioxidant irrigants that enabled the increased dentinal tubular penetration of Resilon and Real Seal SE. PMID:27099424

  18. Attachment of 13 Types of Foodborne Bacteria to Jalapeño and Serrano Peppers and Antibacterial Effect of Roselle Calyx Extracts, Sodium Hypochlorite, Colloidal Silver, and Acetic Acid against These Foodborne Bacteria on Peppers.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Falfan-Cortes, Reyna N; Rodríguez-Marín, María L; Godínez-Oviedo, Angélica; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2017-03-01

    Chili peppers are a very important crop in Mexico. However, these peppers have been associated with Salmonella infection outbreaks in the United States, and Salmonella and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes have been isolated from jalapeño and serrano peppers in Mexico. To decrease microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables, chemical agents are commonly used; however, chemical agents used to eliminate pathogenic bacteria on vegetables have a limited antimicrobial effect. Roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa ) calyces have been reported to have an antimicrobial effect on pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the antibacterial effect of four roselle calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite, colloidal silver, and acetic acid against foodborne bacteria was evaluated on contaminated jalapeño and serrano peppers. The 13 types of foodborne bacteria evaluated were Listeria monocytogenes , Shigella flexneri , Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Montevideo, Staphylococcus aureus , E. coli O157:H7, five E. coli pathotypes (Shiga toxin producing, enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, enteroinvasive, and enteroaggregative), and Vibrio cholerae O1. All 13 types attached to both pepper types, with no significant differences in attachment between jalapeño and serrano peppers. Roselle calyx extract treatment resulted in a greater reduction in levels of all foodborne bacteria than did treatment with sodium hypochlorite, colloidal silver, and acetic acid on both pepper types. Roselle calyx extracts may be a useful for disinfection of chili peppers in the field, processing plants, restaurants, and homes.

  19. Efficiency of sodium hypochlorite, fumaric acid, and mild heat in killing native microflora and Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium DT104, and Staphylococcus aureus attached to fresh-cut lettuce.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Nozomi; Murata, Masatsune; Isshiki, Kenji

    2006-02-01

    The effect of the disinfectant sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), with or without mild heat (50 degrees C) and fumaric acid, on native bacteria and the foodborne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 attached to iceberg lettuce leaves was examined. The retail lettuce examined consistently harbored 6 to 7 log CFU/g of native bacteria throughout the study period. Inner leaves supported 1 to 2 log CFU/g fewer bacteria than outer leaves. About 70% of the native bacterial flora was removed by washing five times with 0.85% NaCl. S. aureus, E. coli, and Salmonella allowed to attach to lettuce leaves for 5 min were more easily removed by washing than when allowed to attach for 1 h or 2 days, with more S. aureus being removed than E. coli or Salmonella Typhimurium. An increase of time for attachment of pathogens from 5 min to 2 days leads to decreased efficiency of the washing and sanitizing treatment. Treatment with fumaric acid (50 mM for 10 min at room temperature) was the most effective, although it caused browning of the lettuce, with up to a 2-log reduction observed. The combination of 200 ppm of sodium hypochlorite and mild heat treatment at 50 degrees C for 1 min reduced the pathogen populations by 94 to 98% (1.2- to 1.7-log reduction) without increasing browning.

  20. Sensitivity of antioxidant-deficient yeast to hypochlorite and chlorite.

    PubMed

    Kwolek-Mirek, Magdalena; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Spickett, Corinne M

    2011-08-01

    Sodium hypochlorite and sodium chlorite are commonly used as disinfectants, and understanding the mechanisms of microbial resistance to these compounds is of considerable importance. In this study, the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in the sensitivity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to hypochlorite and chlorite was studied. Yeast mutants lacking Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, but not mutants deficient in cytoplasmic and peroxisomal catalase, were hypersensitive to the action of both hypochlorite and chlorite. Both compounds depleted cellular glutathione, induced the production of reactive oxygen species and decreased the viability of the cells. The toxicity of hypochlorite and chlorite was abolished by hypoxic and anoxic conditions and ameliorated by thiol antioxidants and ascorbate. The results demonstrated that the action of hypochlorite and chlorite involves the formation of superoxide and peroxide and that SOD1 is protective, probably by limiting the formation of hydroxyl radicals and damage to proteins.

  1. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension.

  2. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na+/K+-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:27043552

  3. Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite on Push-out Bond Strength of Four Calcium Silicate-based Endodontic Materials when used for repairing Perforations on Human Dentin: An in vitro Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Alsubait, Sara A

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the push-out bond strength of NeoMTA Plus (NMTA), EndoSequence root repair material fast set putty (ERRMF), biodentine (BD), and ProRoot white mineral trioxide aggregate (PMTA) when used as perforation repair materials after exposure to 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) during the early setting phase. Horizontal midroot sections were prepared from single-rooted human teeth. Sections (n = 144) were randomly divided into four groups: PMTA, BD, NMTA, and ERRMF. Materials were condensed and allowed to set for 10 minutes. The groups were further divided into two subgroups. The NaOCl group included specimens that were immersed in 2.5% NaOCl for 30 minutes, and the control group included specimens on which a wet cotton pellet was placed over the test material. After 48 hours, the highest force applied to the materials at the time of dislodgement was recorded. Slices were then examined under a digital microscope to evaluate the nature of the bond failure. The surfaces of two specimens from each subgroup were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Data were statistically analyzed with two-way and one-way analysis of variances, independent t-tests, and chi-square tests. The statistical significance was set at 0.05. In NaOCl-treated groups, PMTA showed a significantly higher push-out bond strength than the other three materials (p = 0.00). In the control groups, the bond strength of BD was significantly higher than that of PMTA, ERRMF, and NMTA (p < 0.05). Compared with the control group, NaOCl treatment significantly increased the push-out bond strength of PMTA (p = 0.00) and ERRMF (p = 0.00) and significantly reduced the bond strength of BD (p = 0.00) and NMTA (p = 0.03). None of the specimens showed an adhesive type of failure. The majority of the samples exhibited a cohesive failure type. Morphological observations revealed that the surfaces exhibited cubic crystals. In ERRMF, the crystals were few in number. Sodium hypochlorite enhanced the

  4. Extracellular pancuronium affects sodium current in chick embryo sensory neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Maestrone, E.; Magnelli, V.; Nobile, M.; Usai, C.

    1994-01-01

    1. The action of pancuronium on transmembrane sodium conductance was investigated in dorsal root ganglion neurones of chick embryos. The Na+ current was measured by use of the patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. 2. Externally perfused pancuronium (50 microM to 1 mM) reversibly inhibited the current by a fast mechanism of action. Inhibition was concentration-dependent (with a half-effective dose of 170 microM) but not voltage-dependent. 3. The activation and inactivation kinetics of the Na+ current were estimated in pancuronium and in control solution by fitting experimental data with a Hodgkin-Huxley theoretical model. 4. The activation time constant tau m, at negative membrane voltages, was larger in the presence of pancuronium than in the control. In contrast, the inactivation time constant tau h was smaller during drug perfusion at membrane voltages < -10 mV. The steady-state inactivation h infinity was not affected by pancuronium. 5. These results suggest that pancuronium may reduce the sodium current by interacting with the sodium channels in both the resting and open states. PMID:8012707

  5. Comparative evaluation of efficacy of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, maleic acid, and dimercaptosuccinic acid against the combination of these with sodium hypochlorite for removal of smear layer: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Meshram, Rishikesh; Sathawane, Nikhil; Samuel, Roshan; Jibhkate, Narayan Gunaji; Gyanani, Hitesh; Patil, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    The effect of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and maleic acid (MA) when used alone on smear layer has been evaluated with mixed results, but their effect when combined with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has not been studied. To compare the effectiveness of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, MA, and DMSA against the combination of these with NaOCl in the removal of smear layer. n = 4pq/L(2) q = 1 - p p = Incident rate L = Allowable error. One hundred and forty extracted, anterior teeth were radiovisiographically assessed. Access preparation was done; apical patency was established. Cleaning and shaping was accomplished using step-back technique. The specimens were randomly allocated as per the final irrigation protocol. After final irrigation, teeth were prepared for scanning electron microscope analysis, and the middle and apical thirds of radicular dentin were evaluated at ×1000 for evaluation of severity of occlusion of dentinal tubules with smear layer. The data were statistically analyzed using the Student's t-test and kappa test. For combined irrigation, 10% DMSA + NaOCl was significantly better than all other groups both in the middle third and the apical third. It was more effective in the middle third than at apical third. Ten percent DMSA in combination with NaOCl removes the smear layer more effectively at both the middle and apical third.

  6. Efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation with natural irrigants (Morinda citrifolia juice, Aloe Vera and Propolis) in comparison with 1% sodium hypochlorite for removal of E. faecalis biofilm: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Anuj; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Ballal, Suma

    2013-01-01

    Present study evaluated the efficacy of natural derivative irrigants, Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ), Aloe Vera and Propolis in comparison to 1% sodium hypochlorite with passive ultrasonic irrigation for removal of the intraradicular E. faecalis biofilms in extracted single rooted human permanent teeth. Biofilms of E. faecalis were grown on the prepared root canal walls of 60 standardized root halves which were longitudinally sectioned. These root halves were re-approximated and the samples were divided into five groups of twelve each. The groups were, Group A (1% NaOCl), Group B (MCJ), Group C (Aloe vera), Group D (Propolis) and Group E (Saline). These groups were treated with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) along with the respective irrigants. The root halves were processed for scanning electron microscopy. Three images (X2.5), coronal, middle and apical, were taken for the twelve root halves in each of the five groups. The images were randomized and biofilm coverage assessed independently by three calibrated examiners, using a four-point scoring system. 1% NaOCl with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm and was superior to the natural irrigants like MCJ, Aloe vera and Propolis tested in this study. 1% NaOCl used along with passive ultrasonic irrigation was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm when compared to natural irrigants (MCJ, Aloe Vera and Propolis).

  7. An in vitro comparison of antimicrobial effcacy of three root canal irrigants-BioPure MTAD, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as a final rinse against E. faecalis.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Vinod; Rao, Ms Rama; Dhingra, Kanupriya; Gopal, V Rajesh; Mohapatra, Abhijita; Mohapatra, Abhilash

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and BioPure MTAD when used as a fnal rinse against Enterococcus faecalis. Sixty single-rooted premolars were biomechanically prepared, inoculated with E. faecalis and divided into various groups. These were then irrigated with the test irrigants and tested microbiologically for growth of E. faecalis immediately after irrigation and after 48 hours. Statistical analysis showed that there was a signifcant difference between the antibacterial activities of BioPure MTAD, 2% CHX and 5.25% NaOCl at 5 minutes; however, the antibacterial activities of the three irrigants were comparable after 2 days of irrigation. The present study concludes that BioPure MTAD is as effective against E. faecalis as 5.25% NaOCl and more effective than 2% CHX. CLINICAL SIGNIFCANCE: E. faecalis is one of the most resistant intracanal species and a possible cause of root canal failure. Many authors have stressed the importance of using antimicrobial irrigants during chemomechanical preparation to ensure complete disinfection. Therefore, various irrigating solutions have been used during and immediately after root canal preparation to remove debris and necrotic pulp tissue and to eliminate microorganisms that cannot be reached by mechanical instrumentation.

  8. Comparative evaluation of efficacy of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, maleic acid, and dimercaptosuccinic acid against the combination of these with sodium hypochlorite for removal of smear layer: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Meshram, Rishikesh; Sathawane, Nikhil; Samuel, Roshan; Jibhkate, Narayan Gunaji; Gyanani, Hitesh; Patil, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Context: The effect of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and maleic acid (MA) when used alone on smear layer has been evaluated with mixed results, but their effect when combined with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has not been studied. Aim: To compare the effectiveness of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, MA, and DMSA against the combination of these with NaOCl in the removal of smear layer. Settings and Design: n = 4pq/L2 q = 1 − p p = Incident rate L = Allowable error Methods: One hundred and forty extracted, anterior teeth were radiovisiographically assessed. Access preparation was done; apical patency was established. Cleaning and shaping was accomplished using step-back technique. The specimens were randomly allocated as per the final irrigation protocol. After final irrigation, teeth were prepared for scanning electron microscope analysis, and the middle and apical thirds of radicular dentin were evaluated at ×1000 for evaluation of severity of occlusion of dentinal tubules with smear layer. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed using the Student's t-test and kappa test. Results: For combined irrigation, 10% DMSA + NaOCl was significantly better than all other groups both in the middle third and the apical third. It was more effective in the middle third than at apical third. Conclusion: Ten percent DMSA in combination with NaOCl removes the smear layer more effectively at both the middle and apical third. PMID:27994408

  9. An in vitro scanning electron microscopic study comparing the efficacy of passive ultrasonic and syringe irrigation methods using sodium hypochlorite in removal of debris from the root canal system.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Vineet S; Kapoor, Sonali

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the cleaning ability of the more biocompatible 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) to that of 2.5% NaOCl with syringe method irrigation. Thirty-six extracted permanent single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were decoronated at the cemento-enamel junction and divided randomly into four groups (nine in each group) after biomechanical preparation. Group 1: Control group - normal saline was used as an irrigant solution. Group 2: PUI with 1% NaOCl. Group 3: syringe irrigation with 1% NaOCl. Group 4: syringe irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl. Roots were split and canal walls were examined at the apical third at 1,000X magnification in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Debris scores were recorded using a scoring scale. Means were tested for significance using nonparametric Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests. Group 2 showed the lowest mean score of 0.33 compared to the other groups and Group 1 had the highest mean score. Significant difference was found when PUI with 1% NaOCl (Group 2) was done compared to syringe irrigation with 1% NaOCl (Group 3, p=0.001), and syringe irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl (Group 4, p=0.002). PUI with 1% NaOCl is more effective in removal of debris from the root canal system than syringe irrigation with a higher concentration of 2.5% NaOCl.

  10. Effectiveness of several solutions to prevent the formation of precipitate due to the interaction between sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine and its effect on bond strength of an epoxy-based sealer.

    PubMed

    Magro, M G; Kuga, M C; Aranda-Garcia, A J; Victorino, K R; Chávez-Andrade, G M; Faria, G; Keine, K C; Só, M V R

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of isopropyl alcohol, saline or distilled water to prevent the precipitate formed between sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX) and its effect on the bond strength of an epoxy-based sealer in radicular dentine. The root canals of 50 extracted human canines (n = 10) were instrumented. In G1, root canals were irrigated with 17% EDTA and 2.5% NaOCl; G2, as G1, except that 2% CHX was used as the final irrigant. In the other groups, intermediate flushes with isopropyl alcohol (G3), saline (G4) or distilled water (G5) were used between NaOCl and CHX. The specimens were submitted to SEM analysis to evaluate the presence of debris and smear layer, in the apical and cervical segments. In sequence, fifty extracted human canines were distributed into five groups (n = 10), similar to the SEM study. After root filling, the roots were sectioned transversally to obtain dentine slices, in the cervical, middle and apical thirds. The root filling was submitted to a push-out bond strength test using an electromechanical testing machine. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests (α = 5%). All groups had similar amounts of residue precipitated on the canal walls (P > 0.05). The push-out bond strength values were similar for all groups, independently of the root third evaluated (P > 0.05). Isopropyl alcohol, saline and distilled water failed to prevent the precipitation of residues on canal walls following the use of NaOCl and CHX. The residues did not interfere with the push-out bond strength of the root filling. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The nature and classification of Australian soils affected by sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Brian; Greene, Richard; Harms, Ben

    2017-04-01

    Large areas of Australia are affected by the processes of salinity and sodicity and they are important processes to understand as they can result in the degradation of agricultural lands used for both intensive cropping and extensive grazing practices. Sodic soils are defined as those having ESP of at least 6% in Australia. Northcote and Skene (1972) estimated that of Australia's total area of 770 M ha, 39 M ha was affected by salinity and 193-257 M ha by sodicity. However, in a more recent publication, Rengasamy (2006), quoted the areas of saline and sodic soils as 66 M ha and 340 M ha respectively. The soils affected by sodium in Australia include a large group of contrasting soils (Northcote and Skene 1972). Based on the Australian soil classification, included are: • Alkaline strongly sodic to sodic clay soils with uniform texture profiles - largely Vertosols 666 400 km2 • Alkaline strongly sodic to sodic coarse and medium textured soils with uniform and gradational texture profiles - largely Calcarosols 600 700 km2 • Alkaline strongly sodic to sodic texture contrast soils - largely Sodosols 454 400 km2 • Non-alkaline sodic and strongly sodic neutral texture contrast soils - largely Sodosols 134 700 km2 • Non-alkaline sodic acid texture contrast soils - Sodosols and Kurosols 140 700 km2 Many Australian sodic soils have not developed by the traditional solonetz process of leaching of a solonchak, but rather have developed by the accumulation of sodium on the cation exchange complex in preference to the other exchangeable cations without any recognisable intermediate saline phase occurring. This is especially the case for the sodic, non-alkaline texture contrast soils or Sodosols. The major sodic soil group in WRB is the Solonetz soils. These require the presence of a Natric horizon which has to contain illuviated clay and at least 15% ESP. However, there is provision for Sodic qualifiers with at least 6% ESP for many other reference Soil Groups

  12. Hypochlorite treatments are not a significant source of perchlorate exposure in lettuce.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, C A; Fonseca, J M; Blount, B C; Krieger, R I

    2009-03-25

    Leafy vegetables, such as lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L), have been identified as a potential source of perchlorate exposure to humans. Perchlorate is of concern because excessive amounts may impair thyroid function by inhibiting iodide uptake by the sodium iodide symporter. Perchlorate has been identified as an oxidation product in sodium hypochlorite. Dilute hypochlorite solutions are widely used on lettuce as a preservative and as a treatment to reduce microbial food risks. However, the potential of hypochlorite to be a source of human perchlorate exposure from lettuce had not been evaluated. Studies were conducted with lettuce collected in the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado and in the lower Colorado River Valley of southwestern Arizona to represent conditions under which hypochlorite is applied to lettuce in the field and in salad processing facilities. We used spray and dipping solutions that were dilutions of concentrated sodium hypochlorite that would contain from 12000 and 120000 microg/L perchlorate. The perchlorate content of iceberg and romaine lettuce averaged 6.2 and 7.2 microg/kg fw in southern Colorado and 14.0 and 56.7 microg/kg fw in southwestern Arizona and there were no significant (P > 0.05) increases in the perchlorate content of lettuce due to hypochlorite treatments. Because of the relatively low concentrations of perchlorate present after dilution and the low volumes applied to lettuce, hypochlorite solutions do not appear to be a significant source of the perchlorate levels found in lettuce.

  13. Use of buffered hypochlorite solution for disinfecting fibrescopes.

    PubMed

    Coates, D; Death, J E

    1982-03-01

    The possible use of sodium hypochlorite solution buffered to pH 7.6 and containing 100 ppm available chlorine (avCl) for disinfecting fibrescopes was investigated. A flexible fibrescope experimentally contaminated with Pseudomonas putida, Mycobacterium fortuitum, or Bacillus subtilis spores was effectively disinfected within 10 m in repeatedly and without any observable adverse effect on the instrument. The corrosive nature of buffered hypochlorite was investigated by immersing various fibrescope components and metal wires in solutions of different strength for long periods and examining them for damage. Stainless steel, platinum, glass, Teflon, polythene and epoxy resin were apparently unaffected whereas polyurethane, rubber and other metals tested were damaged to different extents. Buffered hypochlorite solutions may have many applications pertaining to the disinfection of items which are either thermolabile or require rapid effective disinfection.

  14. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) baths to reduce Staphylococcus aureus colonization in childhood onset moderate-to-severe eczema: A randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Hon, K L; Tsang, Y C K; Lee, V W Y; Pong, N H; Ha, Gladys; Lee, S T; Chow, C M; Leung, T F

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization/infection is an important factor in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD). Clinical trials have demonstrated conflicting efficacy of diluted bleach baths in treating moderate-to-severe AD. We conducted a double-blinded, placebo-controlled (water), cross-over trial among patients with AD to investigate the efficacy of bleach baths in reducing S. aureus colonization and AD severity. In this cross-over trial, 40 patients with moderate-to-severe AD were randomized to receive twice-weekly bleach and water baths, each for four consecutive weeks with a four-week wash-out period in between. Condition of S. aureus growth and SCORing Atopic Dermatitis index (SCORAD) were recorded at baseline and four-weekly intervals. Patients' blood was collected in first and second visits to investigate blood eosinophil count, serum levels of total IgE and specific IgEs against Staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B. In every visit, Children Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI), skin hydration (SH), transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and usage frequency of prohibited medications (topical antibiotic, steroid and oral antihistamine) were recorded. All 40 patients completed the trial, but 14 were non-adherent. By intention-to-treat (ITT) approach, comparing with water baths, bleach baths conferred no significant efficacy in CDLQI, SH, TEWL, blood eosinophil count, total IgE and the two specific IgEs over four weeks. Water baths caused a greater reduction in affected area of SCORAD than bleach baths (-5.7 ± 15.4 for water vs. 0.6 ± 12.4 for bleach; p = 0.03) by ITT, and in objective SCORAD and affected area (p < 0.05) from per-protocol approach. Bleach baths reduced topical corticosteroid use (mean difference = 1.1 ± 2.6 days/week; p = 0.014) and topical antibiotic use (mean difference = 1.0 ± 2.8 days/week; p = 0.044) in within-group analysis. This study demonstrated that a four-week, twice

  15. Experimental evaluation of cyclic fatigue resistance of four different nickel-titanium instruments after immersion in sodium hypochlorite and/or sterilization.

    PubMed

    Bulem, Üreyen Kaya; Kececi, Ayse Diljin; Guldas, Hilmi Egemen

    2013-01-01

    NiTi instruments have a high risk of separation due to torsional or flexural fatigue (cyclic fatigue). Chemomechanical preparation, cleaning procedures, chemical disinfection and sterilization cause the corrosion of endodontic instruments that may weaken the fracture resistance of the instruments. Objective To assess the effects of NaOCl immersion and autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of ProFile, FlexMaster, Mtwo and TwistedFiles NiTi instruments (tip size 25, 0.06 taper, n=160). Material and Methods The instruments (n=10 for each subgroup) were dynamically immersed in NaOCl; immersed in NaOCl and sterilized in one autoclave cycle; 5 cycles immersed in NaOCl and sterilized in autoclave and not immersed in NaOCl and not sterilized (control group). Dynamic cyclic fatigue resistance was tested. The number of cycles to failure (NCF) were statistically analyzed (P<0.05). Results Kruskall-Wallis test indicated significant differences among the tested instruments in terms of NCF (P=0.000). The mean NCF of Mtwo (556.75) was higher than that of the Twisted File, Flexmaster and ProFile, 483.1, 376.12, 365.25, respectively. NaOCl immersion and autoclave sterilization have no effect on the NCF values of the tested instruments (P>.05). Conclusions Cyclic fatigue resistance of the tested NiTi instruments cannot be adversely affected by NaOCl immersion and autoclave sterilization. Production process (TwistedFiles) or design (Twisted Files, FlexMaster, Mtwo and ProFile) of the instruments can influence their cyclic fatigue resistance.

  16. Experimental evaluation of cyclic fatigue resistance of four different nickel-titanium instruments after immersion in sodium hypochlorite and/or sterilization

    PubMed Central

    BULEM, Üreyen Kaya; KECECI, Ayse Diljin; GULDAS, Hilmi Egemen

    2013-01-01

    NiTi instruments have a high risk of separation due to torsional or flexural fatigue (cyclic fatigue). Chemomechanical preparation, cleaning procedures, chemical disinfection and sterilization cause the corrosion of endodontic instruments that may weaken the fracture resistance of the instruments. Objective To assess the effects of NaOCl immersion and autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of ProFile, FlexMaster, Mtwo and TwistedFiles NiTi instruments (tip size 25, 0.06 taper, n=160). Material and Methods The instruments (n=10 for each subgroup) were dynamically immersed in NaOCl; immersed in NaOCl and sterilized in one autoclave cycle; 5 cycles immersed in NaOCl and sterilized in autoclave and not immersed in NaOCl and not sterilized (control group). Dynamic cyclic fatigue resistance was tested. The number of cycles to failure (NCF) were statistically analyzed (P<0.05). Results Kruskall-Wallis test indicated significant differences among the tested instruments in terms of NCF (P=0.000). The mean NCF of Mtwo (556.75) was higher than that of the Twisted File, Flexmaster and ProFile, 483.1, 376.12, 365.25, respectively. NaOCl immersion and autoclave sterilization have no effect on the NCF values of the tested instruments (P>.05). Conclusions Cyclic fatigue resistance of the tested NiTi instruments cannot be adversely affected by NaOCl immersion and autoclave sterilization. Production process (TwistedFiles) or design (Twisted Files, FlexMaster, Mtwo and ProFile) of the instruments can influence their cyclic fatigue resistance. PMID:24473715

  17. Sodium affects the sperm motility in the European eel.

    PubMed

    Vílchez, M Carmen; Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Gallego, Víctor; Asturiano, Juan F; Pérez, Luz

    2016-08-01

    The role of seminal plasma sodium and activation media sodium on sperm motility was examined by selectively removing the element from these two media, in European eel sperm. Sperm size (sperm head area) was also measured using an ASMA (Automated Sperm Morphometry Analyses) system, in the different conditions. Intracellular sodium [Na(+)]i was quantitatively analyzed by first time in the spermatozoa from a marine fish species. Measurement of [Na(+)]i was done before and after motility activation, by Flow Cytometry, using CoroNa Green AM as a dye. Sperm motility activation induced an increase in [Na(+)]i, from 96.72mM in quiescent stage to 152.21mM post-activation in seawater. A significant decrease in sperm head area was observed post-activation in seawater. There was a notable reduction in sperm motility when sodium was removed from the seminal plasma, but not when it was removed from the activation media. Sodium removal was also linked to a significant reduction in sperm head area in comparison to the controls. Our results indicate that the presence of the ion Na(+) in the seminal plasma (or in the extender medium) is necessary for the preservation of sperm motility in European eel, probably because it plays a role in maintaining an appropriate sperm cell volume in the quiescent stage of the spermatozoa.

  18. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... De .. t 51" "",Mt Ivtni,1It ;; IItp';-OI'" (I> Clul III IIlltll, .h.Slls n •• ,.i,,,,.t i. t .. ~""II "'"'1'. JIst hhr, In. ~Hih~' .I~ Slf'!.ctS lIitll I ~ ~ .."illll). (""itt' .Ultill • Ant. ...

  19. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... ee~nc~ .lt~ l~ .. :~ lS.~ ~i.tfr :~'n ten ,:10) ~I~S "!ttr ,IUf}!!\\;tse'J <:'l!~l~~ :is: tit ":4J :n5~~ :~t ~~~ stl~::c~ M::: ~rrvler ~~ ~SC~~~ o~ ~il!g~~~ ...

  20. Two recombinant depressant scorpion neurotoxins differentially affecting mammalian sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuzhe; Luo, Lan; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Zhu, Shunyi

    2010-07-01

    The scorpion depressant toxins are a group of evolutionarily conserved polypeptides targeting sodium channels, which show preferential ability to induce flaccid paralysis in insects, making them attractive candidates for the construction of transgenic plants or viral vectors to control pests. In this study, two new depressant toxin-like peptides (BmKITc and BmKITc2) differing only at position 52 (Lys for Thr) were produced in Escherichia coli. Circular dichroism analysis indicated that these two recombinant peptides display a typical structural feature similar to native scorpion toxins. They both cause a maintained current component at the last phase of inactivation of the insect sodium channel DmNav1/tipE expressed in Xenopus oocytes and interestingly, they do not produce a beta effect despite of their primary structure as beta-toxins. Furthermore, an inhibitory effect with BmKITc but not with BmKITc2 was observed on TTX-R sodium currents in rat DRG neurons. We hypothesize that such differential potency highlights a crucial role of lysine 52 in channel selectivity. Our results therefore indicate that, in spite of the general idea, not all scorpion depressant toxins interact with mammalian and/or insect sodium channels in the same manner.

  1. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  2. Exploring how animations of sodium chloride dissolution affect students' explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Resa M.

    2005-11-01

    In an attempt to improve the learning of molecular structures and dynamics, animations of microchemistry processes have been developed to supplement instruction. Since many studies (Kelly, Phelps and Sanger, 2004; Sanger, Phelps and Feinhold, 2000; Wu, Krajcik, and Soloway, 2001; Burke, Greenbowe and Windschitl, 1998; and Williamson and Abraham, 1995) have suggested that students who receive instruction including computer animations or visualizations of chemical processes at the molecular level are better able to answer conceptual questions about particulate phenomena, publishers have supplemented their textbooks with compact discs or websites containing molecular animations. In this study, eighteen college students enrolled in general chemistry participated in three research sessions. First, they were individually shown two popular textbook animations of salt dissolution after each performed an activity of the same event. Second, after one week the same subjects were asked to interpret a precipitation reaction at the molecular level. Third, a debriefing session and semi-structured interview were held. An analysis of the data from the first session showed that students incorporated some of the microscopic structural and functional features from the animations into their explanations, and many were able to connect how the microscopic process of dissolution related to the macroscopic disappearance of the salt. Although students' drawn explanations displayed many features seen in the salt dissolution animations, their verbal explanations sometimes indicated that they drew these features without full comprehension of their meaning. In a study of the transfer of learning, it was found that most students did not see a relation between the sodium chloride solution made when dissolving the salt and the sodium chloride solution used in a precipitation reaction.

  3. Anthropogenic changes in sodium affect neural and muscle development in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C; Espeset, Anne; Boser, Christopher J; White, William A; Smykalski, Rhea

    2014-07-15

    The development of organisms is changing drastically because of anthropogenic changes in once-limited nutrients. Although the importance of changing macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, is well-established, it is less clear how anthropogenic changes in micronutrients will affect organismal development, potentially changing dynamics of selection. We use butterflies as a study system to test whether changes in sodium availability due to road salt runoff have significant effects on the development of sodium-limited traits, such as neural and muscle tissue. We first document how road salt runoff can elevate sodium concentrations in the tissue of some plant groups by 1.5-30 times. Using monarch butterflies reared on roadside- and prairie-collected milkweed, we then show that road salt runoff can result in increased muscle mass (in males) and neural investment (in females). Finally, we use an artificial diet manipulation in cabbage white butterflies to show that variation in sodium chloride per se positively affects male flight muscle and female brain size. Variation in sodium not only has different effects depending on sex, but also can have opposing effects on the same tissue: across both species, males increase investment in flight muscle with increasing sodium, whereas females show the opposite pattern. Taken together, our results show that anthropogenic changes in sodium availability can affect the development of traits in roadside-feeding herbivores. This research suggests that changing micronutrient availability could alter selection on foraging behavior for some roadside-developing invertebrates.

  4. Anthropogenic changes in sodium affect neural and muscle development in butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C.; Espeset, Anne; Boser, Christopher J.; White, William A.; Smykalski, Rhea

    2014-01-01

    The development of organisms is changing drastically because of anthropogenic changes in once-limited nutrients. Although the importance of changing macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, is well-established, it is less clear how anthropogenic changes in micronutrients will affect organismal development, potentially changing dynamics of selection. We use butterflies as a study system to test whether changes in sodium availability due to road salt runoff have significant effects on the development of sodium-limited traits, such as neural and muscle tissue. We first document how road salt runoff can elevate sodium concentrations in the tissue of some plant groups by 1.5–30 times. Using monarch butterflies reared on roadside- and prairie-collected milkweed, we then show that road salt runoff can result in increased muscle mass (in males) and neural investment (in females). Finally, we use an artificial diet manipulation in cabbage white butterflies to show that variation in sodium chloride per se positively affects male flight muscle and female brain size. Variation in sodium not only has different effects depending on sex, but also can have opposing effects on the same tissue: across both species, males increase investment in flight muscle with increasing sodium, whereas females show the opposite pattern. Taken together, our results show that anthropogenic changes in sodium availability can affect the development of traits in roadside-feeding herbivores. This research suggests that changing micronutrient availability could alter selection on foraging behavior for some roadside-developing invertebrates. PMID:24927579

  5. Sodium

    MedlinePlus

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  6. Tissue-dissolving capacity and antibacterial effect of buffered and unbuffered hypochlorite solutions.

    PubMed

    Zehnder, Matthias; Kosicki, Daniel; Luder, Hansueli; Sener, Beatrice; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the dissolving potential of Dakin's solution with that of equivalent buffered and unbuffered sodium hypochlorite solutions on fresh and decayed tissues. In addition, the antimicrobial effect of Dakin's solution and equivalent unbuffered hypochlorite was tested. Tissue specimens were obtained from freshly dissected pig palates. Unbuffered 2.5% and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solutions and 0.5% solutions buffered at a pH of 12 and a pH of 9 (Dakin's solution) were tested on fresh and decayed tissue. Tissue decay was assessed histologically. Antimicrobial testing was performed with Enterococcus faecalis in dentin blocks and on filter papers. The 2.5% NaOCl solution was substantially more effective than the three 0.5% solutions in dissolving the test tissues. Buffering had little effect on tissue dissolution, and Dakin's solution was equally effective on decayed and fresh tissues. No differences were recorded for the antibacterial properties of Dakin's solution and an equivalent unbuffered hypochlorite solution. In contrast to earlier statements, the results of this study do not demonstrate any benefit from buffering sodium hypochlorite with sodium bicarbonate according to Dakin's method. An irrigation solution with less dissolving potential may be obtained by simply diluting stock solutions of NaOCl with water.

  7. Soil salinity study in Northern Great Plains sodium affected soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharel, Tulsi P.

    Climate and land-use changes when combined with the marine sediments that underlay portions of the Northern Great Plains have increased the salinization and sodification risks. The objectives of this dissertation were to compare three chemical amendments (calcium chloride, sulfuric acid and gypsum) remediation strategies on water permeability and sodium (Na) transport in undisturbed soil columns and to develop a remote sensing technique to characterize salinization in South Dakota soils. Forty-eight undisturbed soil columns (30 cm x 15 cm) collected from White Lake, Redfield, and Pierpont were used to assess the chemical remediation strategies. In this study the experimental design was a completely randomized design and each treatment was replicated four times. Following the application of chemical remediation strategies, 45.2 cm of water was leached through these columns. The leachate was separated into 120- ml increments and analyzed for Na and electrical conductivity (EC). Sulfuric acid increased Na leaching, whereas gypsum and CaCl2 increased water permeability. Our results further indicate that to maintain effective water permeability, ratio between soil EC and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) should be considered. In the second study, soil samples from 0-15 cm depth in 62 x 62 m grid spacing were taken from the South Dakota Pierpont (65 ha) and Redfield (17 ha) sites. Saturated paste EC was measured on each soil sample. At each sampling points reflectance and derived indices (Landsat 5, 7, 8 images), elevation, slope and aspect (LiDAR) were extracted. Regression models based on multiple linear regression, classification and regression tree, cubist, and random forest techniques were developed and their ability to predict soil EC were compared. Results showed that: 1) Random forest method was found to be the most effective method because of its ability to capture spatially correlated variation, 2) the short wave infrared (1.5 -2.29 mum) and near infrared (0

  8. Dietary Sodium Restriction Decreases Insulin Secretion Without Affecting Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Loretta M.; Yu, Chang; Wang, Thomas J.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system prevents incident diabetes in high-risk individuals, although the mechanism remains unclear. Objective: To test the hypothesis that activation of the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system or exogenous aldosterone impairs insulin secretion in humans. Design: We conducted a randomized, blinded crossover study of aldosterone vs vehicle and compared the effects of a low-sodium versus a high-sodium diet. Setting: Academic clinical research center. Participants: Healthy, nondiabetic, normotensive volunteers. Interventions: Infusion of exogenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg/h for 12.5 h) or vehicle during low or high sodium intake. Low sodium (20 mmol/d; n = 12) vs high sodium (160 mmol/d; n = 17) intake for 5–7 days. Main Outcome Measures: Change in acute insulin secretory response assessed during hyperglycemic clamps while in sodium balance during a low-sodium vs high-sodium diet during aldosterone vs vehicle. Results: A low-sodium diet increased endogenous aldosterone and plasma renin activity, and acute glucose-stimulated insulin (−16.0 ± 5.6%; P = .007) and C-peptide responses (−21.8 ± 8.4%; P = .014) were decreased, whereas the insulin sensitivity index was unchanged (−1.0 ± 10.7%; P = .98). Aldosterone infusion did not affect the acute insulin response (+1.8 ± 4.8%; P = .72) or insulin sensitivity index (+2.0 ± 8.8%; P = .78). Systolic blood pressure and serum potassium were similar during low and high sodium intake and during aldosterone infusion. Conclusions: Low dietary sodium intake reduces insulin secretion in humans, independent of insulin sensitivity. PMID:25029426

  9. Color stability of white mineral trioxide aggregate in contact with hypochlorite solution.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Josette

    2014-03-01

    One of the uses of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is as an apical barrier in immature teeth. Although this treatment has been reported to have high success rates, a number of cases of discoloration have been noted. The aim of this research was to investigate the color stability of white MTA in contact with various solutions used in endodontics. The change in color of white MTA after immersion in water, sodium hypochlorite, or hydrogen peroxide was assessed by viewing the color change on digital photographs and also by using a spectrophotometer. White MTA, white Portland cement, and bismuth oxide were assessed. The changes in the material after immersion in the different solutions were assessed by x-ray diffraction analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Immersion of white MTA and bismuth oxide in sodium hypochlorite resulted in the formation of a dark brown discoloration. This change was not observed in Portland cement. X-ray diffraction analysis and Fourier transform infrared analysis displayed the reduction of sodium hypochlorite in contact with bismuth oxide and MTA to sodium chloride. Contact of white MTA and other bismuth-containing materials with sodium hypochlorite solution should be avoided. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cytogenetic and molecular localization of tipE: a gene affecting sodium channels in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Feng, G; Deák, P; Kasbekar, D P; Gil, D W; Hall, L M

    1995-04-01

    Voltage-sensitive sodium channels play a key role in nerve cells where they are responsible for the increase in sodium permeability during the rising phase of action potentials. In Drosophila melanogaster a subset of temperature-sensitive paralytic mutations affect sodium channel function. One such mutation is temperature-induced paralysis locus E (tipE), which has been shown by electrophysiology and ligand binding studies to reduce sodium channel numbers. Three new gamma-ray-induced tipE alleles associated with either visible deletions in 64AB or a translocation breakpoint within 64B2 provide landmarks for positional cloning of tipE. Beginning with the flanking cloned gene Ras2, a 140-kb walk across the translocation breakpoint was completed. Germline transformation using a 42-kb cosmid clone and successively smaller subclones localized the tipE gene within a 7.4-kb genomic DNA segment. Although this chromosome region is rich in transcripts, only three overlapping mRNAs (5.4, 4.4, and 1.7 kb) lie completely within the smallest rescuing construct. The small sizes of the rescuing construct and transcripts suggest that tipE does not encode a standard sodium channel alpha-subunit with four homologous repeats. Sequencing these transcripts will elucidate the role of the tipE gene product in sodium channel functional regulation.

  11. Cytogenetic and molecular localization of tipE: A gene affecting sodium channels in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, G.; Deak, P.; Hall, L.M.

    1995-04-01

    Voltage-sensitive sodium channels play a key role in nerve cells where they are responsible for the increase in sodium permeability during the rising phase of action potentials. In Drosophila melanogaster a subset of temperature-sensitive paralytic mutations affect sodium channel function. One such mutation is temperature-induced paralysis locus E (tipE), which has been shown by electrophysiology and ligand binding studies to reduce sodium channel numbers. Three new {gamma}-ray-induced tipE alleles associated with either visible deletions in 64AB or a translocation breakpoint within 64B2 provide landmarks for positional cloning of tipE. Beginning with the flanking cloned gene Ras2, a 140-kb walk across the translocation breakpoint was completed. Germline transformation using a 42-kb cosmid clone and successively smaller subclones localized the tipE gene within a 7.4-kb genomic DNA segment. Although this chromosome region is rich in transcripts, only three overlapping mRNAs (5.4, 4.4, and 1.7 kb) lie completely within the smallest rescuing construct. The small sizes of the rescuing construct and transcripts suggests that tipE does not encode a standard sodium channel {alpha}-subunit with four homologous repeats. Sequencing these transcripts will elucidate the role of the tipE gene product in sodium channel functional regulation. 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Alcohol, Base, and Available Chlorine: Three Factors Affect the Oxidation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene to Trinitrobenzyl Chloride and Hexanitrobibenzyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ting; Lu, Ming

    2011-04-01

    Trinitrobenzyl chloride and hexanitrobibenzyl can be prepared by the oxidation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene with sodium hypochlorite. Alcohol, base, and available chlorine are the three key factors that affect the oxidation. The reason why base led the production of trinitrobenzyl chloride and hexanitrobibenzyl with alcohol is explained and the mechanism of reaction is also discussed. Available chlorine reflected the oxidation capacity of sodium hypochlorite. Too low available chlorine cannot make 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene oxidize completely and produces many by-products.

  13. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-01-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level…

  14. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-01-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level…

  15. Reagent or myeloperoxidase-generated hypochlorite affects discrete regions in lipid-free and lipid-associated human apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed Central

    Bergt, C; Oettl, K; Keller, W; Andreae, F; Leis, H J; Malle, E; Sattler, W

    2000-01-01

    We have previously shown that the modification of high-density lipoprotein subclass 3 (HDL(3)) by HOCl transformed an anti-atherogenic lipoprotein into a high-uptake form for macrophages and caused a significant impairment of cholesterol efflux capacity [Panzenboeck, Raitmayer, Reicher, Lindner, Glatter, Malle and Sattler (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 29711-29720]. To elucidate the consequences of treatment with OCl(-) on distinct regions in apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), lipid-free and lipid-associated apo A-I were modified with increasing molar ratios of NaOCl or HOCl generated by the myeloperoxidase/H(2)O(2)/Cl(-) system. CD analysis revealed a pronounced decrease in alpha-helicity for lipid-free apo A-I modified by NaOCl, whereas lipid-associated apo A-I was less affected. The modification of apo A-I by NaOCl (molar oxidant-to-lipoprotein ratio 6:1) resulted in the formation of two distinct oxidized forms of apo A-I with molecular masses 32 or 48 atomic mass units (a.m.u.) higher than that of native apo A-I, indicating the addition of two or three oxygen atoms to the native protein. HPLC analysis of tryptic digests obtained from lipid-free and lipid-associated apo A-I modified with increasing oxidant-to-apolipoprotein molar ratios revealed a concentration-dependent modification of apo A-I: at a low molar oxidant-to-lipoprotein ratio (5:1) the peaks corresponding to the methionine-containing tryptic peptides T11 (residues 84-88), T16 (residues 108-116) and T22 (residues 141-149), located in the central region of apo A-I, disappeared. Their loss was accompanied by the formation of three oxidation products with a molecular mass 16 a.m.u. higher than that of the native peptides. This indicates the addition of oxygen, most probably caused by the oxidation of Met(86), Met(112) and Met(148) to the corresponding methionine sulphoxides. At a molar NaOCl-to-apo A-I ratio of 10:1 the disappearance of peptides T1 (residues 1-10), T7 (residues 46-59) and T9 (residues 62-77) was

  16. Effect of Bromide-Hypochlorite Bactericides on Microorganisms1

    PubMed Central

    Shere, Lewis; Kelley, Maurice J.; Richardson, J. Harold

    1962-01-01

    A new principle in compounding stable, granular bactericidal products led to unique combinations of a water-soluble inorganic bromide salt with a hypochlorite-type disinfectant of either inorganic or organic type. Microbiological results are shown for an inorganic bactericide composed of chlorinated trisodium phosphate containing 3.1% “available chlorine” and 2% potassium bromide, and for an organic bactericide formulated from sodium dichloroisocyanurate so as to contain 13.4% “available chlorine” and 8% potassium bromide. Comparison of these products with their nonbromide counterparts are reported for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus lactis, Aerobacter aerogenes, and Proteus vulgaris. Test methods employed were the Chambers test, the A.O.A.C. Germicidal and Detergent Sanitizer-Official test, and the Available Chlorine Germicidal Equivalent Concentration test. The minimal killing concentrations for the bromide-hypochlorite bactericides against this variety of organisms were reduced by a factor 2 to 24 times those required for similar hypochlorite-type disinfectants not containing the bromide. PMID:13977149

  17. Decomposition of hypochlorite in the presence of copper in a homogeneous medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopchik, A. YU.; Butkyavichyus, Yu. P.

    1988-01-01

    Spectrophotometric, spectrographic and chemical methods have demonstrated that yellow staining of a hypochlorite alkaline solution in the presence of sodium cuproate was determined by the formation of an unstable intermediate compound of trivalent copper of the type NaCu(OH)4 sorium cupriate.

  18. Decomposition of hypochlorite in the presence of copper in a homogeneous medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopchik, A. YU.; Butkyavichyus, Yu. P.

    1988-01-01

    Spectrophotometric, spectrographic and chemical methods have demonstrated that yellow staining of a hypochlorite alkaline solution in the presence of sodium cuproate was determined by the formation of an unstable intermediate compound of trivalent copper of the type NaCu(OH)4 sorium cupriate.

  19. A Double Blind Trial of Divalproex Sodium for Affective Liability and Alcohol Use Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    TITLE: A Double Blind Trial of Divalproex Sodium for Affective L ability and Alcohol Use Following Traumatic Brain Injury PRINCIPAL...Final 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2013 to 14 Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Double Blind Trial of Divalproex Sodium for Affective 5a. CONTRACT...subjects treated with divalproex sodium , a mood stabilizing medication, as compared to placebo. To test the primary hypothesis, we propose an 8 week

  20. Occurrence of bromate, chlorite and chlorate in drinking waters disinfected with hypochlorite reagents. Tracing their origins.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Villanova, Rafael J; Oliveira Dantas Leite, M Vilani; Hernández Hierro, J Miguel; de Castro Alfageme, Santiago; García Hernández, Cristina

    2010-05-15

    Bromate was first reported as a disinfection by-product from ozonated waters, but more recently it has been reported also as a result of treatment using hypochlorite solutions worldwide. The aim of this study was to study the scope of this phenomenon in the drinking waters (n=509) of Castilla y León, Spain, and in the hypochlorite disinfectant reagents. Two thirds of the treated waters monitored were found to have bromate concentrations higher than 1 microg/l, and of them a median value of 8 microg/l and a maximum of 49 microg/l. These concentrations are higher than those reported so far, however, a great variability can be found. Median values for chlorite were of 5 microg/l, and of 119 microg/l for chlorate. Only 7 out of 40 hypochlorite feedstock solutions were negative for bromate, the rest showing a median of 1022 mg/l; and 4 out of 14 calcium hypochlorite pellets were also negative, the rest with a median of 240 mg/kg. Although bromate is cited as potentially added to water from calcium hypochlorite pellets, no reference is found in scientific literature regarding its real content. Chlorite (median 2646 mg/l) and chlorate (median 20,462 mg/l) and chlorite (median 695 mg/kg) and chlorate (median 9516 mg/kg) were also monitored, respectively, in sodium hypochlorite solutions and calcium hypochlorite pellets. The levels of chlorite and chlorate in water are considered satisfactory, but not those of bromate, undoubtedly owing to the high content of bromide in the raw brines employed by the chlor-alkali manufacturers. Depending on the manufacturer, the bromate concentrations in the treated waters may be very heterogeneous owing to the lack of specification for this contaminant in the disinfectant reagents -the European Norms EN 900 and 901 do not mention it.

  1. Metabolic Response of Escherichia coli upon Treatment with Hypochlorite at Sub-Lethal Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Jeannette; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Hypochlorite is a reactive oxygen species that is worldwide as an antibacterial disinfectant. Hypochlorite exposure is known to cause oxidative damage to DNA and proteins. As a response to these effects, the metabolite profiles of organisms treated with sub-lethal doses of hypochlorite are assumed to be severely modified; however, the nature of these changes is hardly understood. Therefore, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry, we analyzed the time-dependent impact of hypochlorite exposure with a sub-lethal concentration (50 µM) on the metabolite profile of the Escherichia coli strain MG1655. Principle component analysis clearly distinguished between the metabolite profiles of bacteria treated for 0, 5,10, 20, 40, or 60 min. Major changes in the relative amounts of fatty acids, acetic acid, and formic acid occurred within the first 5 min. Comparative gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the amounts of free methionine and alanine were significantly decreased in the treated cells, demonstrating their susceptibility to hypochlorite exposure. The concentrations of succinate, urea, orotic acid, 2-aminobutyric acid, and 2-hydroxybutyric acid were also severely affected, indicating general changes in the metabolic network by hypochlorite. However, most metabolite levels relaxed to the reference values of untreated cells after 40–60 min, reflecting the capability of E. coli to rapidly adapt to environmental stress factors such as the presence of sub-lethal oxidant levels. PMID:25932918

  2. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of amaranth with hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Nadupalli, S; Koorbanally, N; Jonnalagadda, S B

    2011-07-14

    The reaction mechanism of the oxidation of Amaranth dye (2-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonato-1-naphthylazo) naphthalene-3,6-disulfonate) with hypochlorite under varied pH conditions was elucidated by a kinetic approach. Under excess concentration of oxidant, the reaction followed pseudo-first-order kinetics with respect to Amaranth, and the oxidation was found to occur through two competitive reactions, initiated by hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid. The reaction order with respect to both OCl(-) ion and HOCl was unity. While the latter reaction was fast, the significance of the oxidation paths depended on the relative concentration of the two oxidizing species, which was dictated by the reaction pH. The role of the H(+) ion in the reaction was established. For the hypochlorite ion and hypochlorous acid facilitated reactions, the second-order rate coefficients were 1.9 and 23.2 M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The energy parameters were E(a) = 33.7 kJ mol(-1), ΔH(‡) = 31.2 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS(‡) = -190.6 J K(-1) mol(-1) for the OCl(-) ion-driven oxidation, and E(a) = 26.9 kJ mol(-1), ΔH(‡) = 24.3 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS(‡) = -222.8 J K(-1) mol(-1) for the reaction with HOCl-initiated oxidation. The major oxidation products for both the pathways were 3,4-dihydroxy naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic sodium salt (P(1)), dichloro-1,4-naphthoquione (P(2)) and naphtha(2,3)oxirene-2, 3-dione (P(3)). On the basis of the primary salt effect and other kinetic data, the rate law for the overall reaction and probable reaction mechanism was elucidated. The proposed mechanism was validated by simulations using Simkine-2.

  3. Vascular dysfunction induced by hypochlorite is improved by the selective phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitor vardenafil.

    PubMed

    Radovits, Tamás; Arif, Rawa; Bömicke, Timo; Korkmaz, Sevil; Barnucz, Enikő; Karck, Matthias; Merkely, Béla; Szabó, Gábor

    2013-06-15

    Reactive oxygen species, such as hypochlorite induce oxidative stress, which impairs nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signalling and leads to vascular dysfunction. It has been proposed, that elevated cGMP-levels may contribute to an effective cytoprotection against oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of vardenafil, a selective inhibitor of the cGMP-degrading phosphodiesterase-5 enzyme on vascular dysfunction induced by hypochlorite. In organ bath experiments for isometric tension, we investigated the endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation of isolated rat aortic rings using cumulative concentrations of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Vascular dysfunction was induced by exposing rings to hypochlorite (100-400 µM). In the treatment groups, rats were pretreated with vardenafil (30 and 300 µg/kg i.v.). Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for the oxidative stress markers nitrotyrosine, poly(ADP-ribose) and for apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). Exposure to hypochlorite resulted in a marked impairment of acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of aortic rings. Pretreatment with vardenafil led to improved endothelial function as reflected by the higher maximal vasorelaxation (Rmax) to acetylcholine. Regarding endothelium-independent vasorelaxation, hypochlorite exposure led to a left-shift of SNP concentration-response curves in the vardenafil groups without any alterations of the Rmax. In the hypochlorite groups immunohistochemical analysis showed enhanced poly(ADP-ribose)-formation and nuclear translocation of AIF, which were prevented by vardenafil-pretreatment. Our results support the view that cytoprotective effects of PDE-5-inhibitors on the endothelium may underlie the improved endothelial function, however, a slight sensitisation of vascular smooth muscle to NO was also confirmed. PDE-5-inhibition may represent a potential therapy approach for treating vascular

  4. Optimization of dicarboxylic acid cellulose synthesis: reaction stoichiometry and role of hypochlorite scavengers.

    PubMed

    Sirviö, Juho Antti; Liimatainen, Henrikki; Visanko, Miikka; Niinimäki, Jouko

    2014-12-19

    The reaction conditions in terms of reaction time, sodium chlorite stoichiometry, and the effect of hypochlorite scavengers on the chlorite oxidation of dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) was studied. The impact of storage on the reactivity of DAC fibers was also investigated. It was found that chlorite oxidation of DAC is a rapid reaction, resulting in oxidation of 71% of the aldehyde after only 8 min when 2.5 times excess of sodium chlorite compared to aldehyde groups was used. Reactivity of DAC was observed to decrease quickly during the storage and only 68% of the aldehyde groups reacted after two weeks storage compared to the reaction performed with freshly prepared DAC. Hydrogen peroxide and sulfamic acid were observed to increase the reaction efficiency of chlorite oxidation by reducing the amount of side-reactions between chlorite and hypochlorite. A minor amount of sulfamic acid can be used to replace acetic acid as a catalyst. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypochlorite scavenging by Pseudomonas aeruginosa alginate.

    PubMed Central

    Learn, D B; Brestel, E P; Seetharama, S

    1987-01-01

    Alginic acid was purified from a mucoid clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated neutrophils was inhibited by this alginate, but oxygen consumption was unaffected. Further studies indicated that this effect was due to the ability of the pseudomonal alginate to scavenge hypochlorite. A seaweed alginate was less effective and dextran T500 was ineffective in hypochlorite scavenging. It appears that the uronic acid core and the O-acetyl groups of pseudomonal alginate are involved in its hypochlorite-scavenging ability. The relevance of this phenomenon was demonstrated by the greater resistance to killing by hypochlorite of mucoid P. aeruginosa compared with a nonmucoid revertant, and the addition of purified alginate to the nonmucoid revertant protected the organism from hypochlorite. Thus, this extracellular polysaccharide may enhance the virulence of P. aeruginosa by scavenging the phagocyte-generated oxidant HOCl. This enhanced virulence may be involved in disease processes in which mucoid organisms predominate, such as cystic fibrosis. PMID:3038752

  6. Brivaracetam Differentially Affects Voltage-Gated Sodium Currents Without Impairing Sustained Repetitive Firing in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Niespodziany, Isabelle; André, Véronique Marie; Leclère, Nathalie; Hanon, Etienne; Ghisdal, Philippe; Wolff, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Aims Brivaracetam (BRV) is an antiepileptic drug in Phase III clinical development. BRV binds to synaptic vesicle 2A (SV2A) protein and is also suggested to inhibit voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). To evaluate whether the effect of BRV on VGSCs represents a relevant mechanism participating in its antiepileptic properties, we explored the pharmacology of BRV on VGSCs in different cell systems and tested its efficacy at reducing the sustained repetitive firing (SRF). Methods Brivaracetam investigations on the voltage-gated sodium current (INa) were performed in N1E-155 neuroblastoma cells, cultured rat cortical neurons, and adult mouse CA1 neurons. SRF was measured in cultured cortical neurons and in CA1 neurons. All BRV (100–300 μM) experiments were performed in comparison with 100 μM carbamazepine (CBZ). Results Brivaracetam and CBZ reduced INa in N1E-115 cells (30% and 40%, respectively) and primary cortical neurons (21% and 47%, respectively) by modulating the fast-inactivated state of VGSCs. BRV, in contrast to CBZ, did not affect INa in CA1 neurons and SRF in cortical and CA1 neurons. CBZ consistently inhibited neuronal SRF by 75–93%. Conclusions The lack of effect of BRV on SRF in neurons suggests that the reported inhibition of BRV on VGSC currents does not contribute to its antiepileptic properties. PMID:25444522

  7. Antibacterial validation of electrogenerated hypochlorite using carbon-based electrodes.

    PubMed

    Locker, J; Fitzgerald, P; Sharp, D

    2014-12-01

    This proof-of-concept study explores the novel use of carbon-based electrodes for the electrochemical generation of hypochlorite and compares the antimicrobial efficacy against commercial hypochlorite solution. Antimicrobial concentrations of hypochlorite were generated using pad-printed carbon and carbon fibre electrodes, yielding up to 0·027% hypochlorite in 60 min and 0·1% hypochlorite in 15 min, respectively, in a nondivided assembly. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the electrogenerated hypochlorite produced using carbon fibre electrodes was established for four medically important bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus approx. 0·025%, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis approx. 0·012%) and found to be in agreement with those determined using commercial hypochlorite solution. Therefore, carbon-based electrodes, particularly carbon fibre, have proven effective for the generation of antimicrobial concentrations of hypochlorite. The similarity of the MIC values to commercial hypochlorite solutions suggests that the antimicrobial efficacy is derived from the quantified hypochlorite generated and not due to marked cogeneration of reactive oxygen species, as identified for other assemblies. As such, the application of carbon electrodes may be suitable for the local production of hypochlorite for healthcare antisepsis. Carbon fibre electrodes can rapidly generate antimicrobial concentrations of hypochlorite; as such, these cheap and commercially available electrodes are proposed for the local production of hypochlorite for healthcare antisepsis. Importantly, the antimicrobial properties of the electrochemically generated hypochlorite mirror those of commercial hypochlorite, suggesting this is not enhanced by the cogeneration of reactive oxygen species. This illustrates the potential use of disposable carbon electrodes for localized small-volume production of hypochlorite for surface and skin cleansing, and opens a broader

  8. Carcass maturity and dicationic salts affect preblended, low-fat, low-sodium restructured beef.

    PubMed

    Pojedinec, S L; Slider, S D; Kenney, P B; Head, M K; Jittinandana, S; Henning, W R

    2011-05-01

    Preblending A- and C-maturity muscles with MgCl(2) and/or CaCl(2) was investigated in low-fat, low-sodium restructured beef. Products were formulated to contain: 1) 80% chunks, preblended 12h with 0.05% MgCl(2), 0.05% CaCl(2), or a combination of each (0.1%) and 0.4% sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and 2) 20% mince preblended 12h with 0.05% of each dicationic salt or the combination of dicationic salts (0.1%), 0.4% STPP, and 1.0% NaCl. This formulation achieved a raw product NaCl content of 0.2%. Additionally, a control was formulated with chunks and mince that contained no dicationic salt. CaCl(2) decreased raw and cooked pH and cook yield, and increased cohesiveness; whereas, MgCl(2) increased cook yield and myosin solubility. Total protein solubility was not affected by muscle maturity or dicationic treatment. Myosin solubility of the combination treatment was greater for C-maturity muscle (57 months) compared to A-maturity muscle (20 months) formulations. Control, C-maturity muscle treatments contained more insoluble and total collagen (p < 0.05), and these treatments were more cohesive (p < 0.05) than control, A-maturity treatments. The combination of CaCl(2) and MgCl(2) increased hardness of A-maturity products, but it decreased hardness of C-maturity products. In addition to increasing hardness of A-maturity products, the combination treatment lowered (p < 0.05) cook yield for these products. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sodium-bicarbonated mineral water decreases aldosterone levels without affecting urinary excretion of bone minerals.

    PubMed

    Schoppen, Stefanie; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Carbajal, Angeles; Sarriá, Beatriz; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Pilar Vaquero, M

    2008-06-01

    AIM To assess in healthy postmenopausal women the influence of consuming sodium-bicarbonated mineral water on postprandial evolution of serum aldosterone and urinary electrolyte excretion. Eighteen postmenopausal women consumed 500 ml of two sodium-bicarbonated mineral waters (sodium-bicarbonated mineral water 1 and sodium-bicarbonated mineral water 2) and a low-mineral water with a standard meal. Postprandial blood samples were taken at 60, 120, 240, 360 and 420 min and aldosterone concentrations were measured. Postprandial urinary minerals were determined. Urinary and total mineral excretion and urinary mineral concentrations did not differ except for sodium concentration, which was significantly higher with sodium-bicarbonated mineral water 1 than with low-mineral water (P = 0.005). There was a time effect (P = 0.003) on the aldosterone concentration. At 120 min, aldosterone concentrations were lower with sodium-bicarbonated mineral water 1 (P = 0.021) and sodium-bicarbonated mineral water 2 (P = 0.030) compared with low-mineral water. Drinking a sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral water with a meal increases urinary sodium concentration excretion without changes in the excretion of potassium and bone minerals.

  10. Sodium lactate affects sensory and objective characteristics of tray-packed broiler chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Williams, S K; Phillips, K

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial properties of sodium lactate solutions adjusted to various pH values. The effectiveness of sodium lactate increases with increased concentrations; however, there are off-flavor development problems associated with increasing concentrations of sodium lactate above 2.0%. This study evaluated the effects of 2% sodium lactate treatments, adjusted to various pH values, on sensory characteristics, instrumental texture, and microbial populations of tray-packed broiler breast meat. Breast meat was treated with either tap water (pH 7.85) or 2% sodium lactate solutions (pH 7.30, 5.50, 5.00, 4.50, and 4.00) and stored at 2 +/- 1 C for 12 d. Approximately 15% of the panelists reported acidic aftertastes in samples treated with pH 5.00 sodium lactate solutions, and 10% of the panelists reported slight sodium or metallic off-flavor in all samples treated with sodium lactate. Instrumental texture measurements were similar (P > 0.05) for all treatments. Sodium lactate (pH 7.30 and 5.50) enhanced (P < 0.05) cooking yields and retarded the growth of spoilage bacteria (pH 5.50 and 5.00). Due to the development of severe discoloration and intense acidic off-odors and -flavors, testing was not conducted on samples treated with pH 4.50 and 4.00 sodium lactate solutions.

  11. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-10-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level general chemistry students dissolved table salt in water, after which they individually viewed two animations of salt dissolution. Before and after viewing each animation the participants provided pictorial, written, and oral explanations of the process at the macroscopic and molecular levels. The students then discussed the animations as a group. An analysis of the data showed that students incorporated some of the microscopic structural and functional features from the animations into their explanations. However, oral explanations revealed that in many cases, participants who drew or wrote correct explanations did not comprehend their meanings. Students' drawings may have reflected only what they had seen, rather than a cohesive understanding. Students' explanations given after viewing the animations improved, but some prior misconceptions were retained and in some cases, new misconceptions appeared. Students reported that they found the animations useful in learning; however, they sometimes missed essential features when they watched the animation alone.

  12. Listeria monocytogenes behaviour and quality attributes during sausage storage affected by sodium nitrite, sodium lactate and thyme essential oil.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Lizarazo, Carla María; Betancourt-Cortés, Rubén; Lombana, Angélica; Carrillo-Castro, Katerine; Sotelo-Díaz, Indira

    2017-04-01

    The effects of the addition of nitrite at 200 ppm (N), sodium lactate 1.5% (L) and thyme essential oil at 100 ppm (T1) on Listeria monocytogenes behaviour and ATPase activity inhibition were evaluated, as well as lipid oxidation through the quantification of malonaldehydes, in sausage stored at 8 ℃ for 41 days and at 30 ℃ for 14 days. The changes in the colour profile were performed during storage time at 8 ℃. Quantitative descriptive sensory analyses were performed after two days at 4 ℃. At 8 ℃, the treatments with the highest inhibition on L. monocytogenes were L and N, without significant differences. In turn, at 30 ℃, the bacterium was most inhibited with treatment L, followed by T1 and N, without significant differences. A 44.1% and 19% inhibition of ATPase activity was detected in L and T1 treatments, respectively. At 8 ℃ and 30 ℃, malonaldehydes content was not different between the treatments. N presented the highest values of a* and concentration of metmyoglobin after 41 days at 8 ℃. The panel detected differences between T1 and N for the aroma in the descriptors spices and herbal.

  13. Factors Affecting the Plasticity of Sodium Chloride, Lithium Fluoride, and Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, Carl A.; Pack, Ann E.; Lad, Robert A.

    1959-01-01

    A study was made of the relative magnitude of the effects of various factors on the ductility of single crystals of sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium fluoride (LiF), and magnesium oxide (MgO). Specimen treatments included water-polishing, varying cleavage rate, annealing, quenching, X-irradiation, surface coating, aging, and combinations of some of these treatments. The mechanical behavior of the crystals was studied in flexure and in compression, the latter study being performed at both constant strain rate and constant load. Etch-pit studies were carried out to provide some pertinent information on the results of pretreatment on the dislocation concentration and distribution in the vicinity of the surface. The load deformation curves for these ionic single crystals show an initial region of very low slope which proved to be due to anelastic deformation. The extent of initial anelastic deformation is modified by specimen pretreatment in a way that suggests that this deformation is the result of expansion of cleaved-in dislocation loops, which can contract on the removal of the stress. The effects of the various pretreatments on the load and deflection at fracture are in accord with the prediction one might make with regard to their effect on the nucleation of fatal surface cracks. For NaCl, increases in ductility are always accompanied by increases in strength. The creep constants for NaCl are a function of treatments which affect the bulk structure but are not a function of treatments which only affect the surface.

  14. Viability of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in delicatessen salads and hummus as affected by sodium content and storage temperature.

    PubMed

    Alali, Walid Q; Mann, David A; Beuchat, Larry R

    2012-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine survival and growth behavior of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in commercially prepared mayonnaise-based potato salad, macaroni salad, and coleslaw and in hummus (initial mean pH values were 4.80 to 4.94, 4.18 to 4.31, 3.87, and 4.50 to 4.52, respectively) as affected by sodium concentration (133 to 364, 190 to 336, 146 to 272, and 264 to 728 mg/100 g, respectively) and storage at 4 or 10°C for up to 27 days. Salmonella did not grow in any of the test products. Initial populations (2.02 to 2.38 log CFU/g) decreased in coleslaw to undetectable levels (<1 CFU/25 g) within 13 days and in most formulations of macaroni salad within 20 to 27 days. Salmonella survived in highest numbers in potato salad and hummus. The presence of added sodium in macaroni salad stored at 4°C and hummus stored at 4 or 10°C appeared to protect Salmonella against inactivation. L. monocytogenes, at an initial population of 1.86 to 2.23 log CFU/g, did not grow in test products, but with the exception of coleslaw containing sodium at a concentration used in the standard (control) recipe, this pathogen was detected by direct plating (≥ 1.0 log CFU/g) in all products stored at 4 or 10°C for 27 days. L. monocytogenes populations were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in potato salad and hummus with no added sodium than in test products with added sodium after storage at 4°C. Sodium concentration did not markedly affect aerobic plate counts over the 27-day storage period. Results confirm that the acidic pH of mayonnaise-based salads and hummus is a major factor preventing growth and influencing rates of inactivation of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes. In the absence of added sodium, death of these bacteria may be more rapid. However, in general decreasing or increasing the sodium concentration in selected delicatessen salad and hummus recipes does not markedly affect the behavior of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes when products are stored at 4 or 10

  15. Does sodium intake affect the relationship between blood pressure and vascular damage?

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Piotr; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Olszanecka, Agnieszka; Cwynar, Marcin; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Czarnecka, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Although the differences between central and peripheral blood pressure (BP) values have been known for decades, the consequences of decision making based on peripheral rather than central BP have only recently been recognized. Recently, a U-shaped relation between sodium intake and cardiovascular risk has been suggested. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between intima-media thickness (IMT) and central and peripheral BP as well as the effect of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion on this relationship. The study included 182 subjects (mean age, 37.3 ±14.0 years, 92 men and 90 women) who were members of families randomly selected from one of the gminas (administrative regions) in southern Poland. In all patients, peripheral and central BP (using applanation tonometry), IMT, and 24-hour sodium excretion were measured. Hypertension was observed in 44.5% of the participants. The mean urinary sodium excretion was 243 ±81 mmol/d. IMT was significantly more correlated with central pulse pressure (PP) compared with peripheral PP (r = 0.54 vs r = 0.27; P <0.01). After multivariate adjustments, IMT remained significantly related to central systolic BP and central and peripheral PP. When the study group was divided according to the tertiles of sodium excretion, central PP was related to IMT only in the second and third tertiles. When the study group was divided according to sex and sex-specific median values of sodium excretion, IMT was associated with central PP only in subjects with sodium excretion exceeding the median values (both in men and women). IMT is more correlated with central than with peripheral BP. The association between IMT and central PP may be modulated by sodium intake. This hypothesis should be tested in larger studies.

  16. Geographic information science: Contribution to understanding salt and sodium affected soils in the Senegal River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndiaye, Ramatoulaye

    The Senegal River valley and delta (SRVD) are affected by long term climate variability. Indicators of these climatic shifts include a rainfall deficit, warmer temperatures, sea level rise, floods, and drought. These shifts have led to environmental degradation, water deficits, and profound effects on human life and activities in the area. Geographic Information Science (GIScience), including satellite-based remote sensing methods offer several advantages over conventional ground-based methods used to map and monitor salt-affected soil (SAS) features. This study was designed to assess the accuracy of information on soil salinization extracted from Landsat satellite imagery. Would available imagery and GIScience data analysis enable an ability to discriminate natural soil salinization from soil sodication and provide an ability to characterize the SAS trend and pattern over 30 years? A set of Landsat MSS (June 1973 and September 1979), Landsat TM (November 1987, April 1994 and November 1999) and ETM+ (May 2001 and March 2003) images have been used to map and monitor salt impacted soil distribution. Supervised classification, unsupervised classification and post-classification change detection methods were used. Supervised classifications of May 2001 and March 2003 images were made in conjunction field data characterizing soil surface chemical characteristics that included exchange sodium percentage (ESP), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the electrical conductivity (EC). With this supervised information extraction method, the distribution of three different types of SAS (saline, saline-sodic, and sodic) was mapped with an accuracy of 91.07% for 2001 image and 73.21% for 2003 image. Change detection results confirmed a decreasing trend in non-saline and saline soil and an increase in saline-sodic and sodic soil. All seven Landsat images were subjected to the unsupervised classification method which resulted in maps that separate SAS according to their degree of

  17. Evolutionary Diversification of Mesobuthus α-Scorpion Toxins Affecting Sodium Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shunyi; Peigneur, Steve; Gao, Bin; Lu, Xiuxiu; Cao, Chunyang; Tytgat, Jan

    2012-01-01

    α-Scorpion toxins constitute a family of peptide modulators that induce a prolongation of the action potential of excitable cells by inhibiting voltage-gated sodium channel inactivation. Although they all adopt a conserved structural scaffold, the potency and phylogentic preference of these toxins largely vary, which render them an intriguing model for studying evolutionary diversification among family members. Here, we report molecular characterization of a new multigene family of α-toxins comprising 13 members (named MeuNaTxα-1 to MeuNaTxα-13) from the scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus. Of them, five native toxins (MeuNaTxα-1 to -5) were purified to homogeneity from the venom and the solution structure of MeuNaTxα-5 was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance. A systematic functional evaluation of MeuNaTxα-1, -2, -4, and -5 was conducted by two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings on seven cloned mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav1.2 to Nav1.8) and the insect counterpart DmNav1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Results show that all these four peptides slow inactivation of DmNav1 and are inactive on Nav1.8 at micromolar concentrations. However, they exhibit differential specificity for the other six channel isoforms (Nav1.2 to Nav1.7), in which MeuNaTxα-4 shows no activity on these isoforms and thus represents the first Mesobuthus-derived insect-selective α-toxin identified so far with a half maximal effective concentration of 130 ± 2 nm on DmNav1 and a half maximal lethal dose of about 200 pmol g−1 on the insect Musca domestica; MeuNaTxα-2 only affects Nav1.4; MeuNaTxα-1 and MeuNaTxα-5 have a wider range of channel spectrum, the former active on Nav1.2, Nav1.3, Nav1.6, and Nav1.7, whereas the latter acting on Nav1.3–Nav1.7. Remarkably, MeuNaTxα-4 and MeuNaTxα-5 are two nearly identical peptides differing by only one point mutation at site 50 (A50V) but exhibit rather different channel subtype selectivity, highlighting a switch role of this site in

  18. Blood gas values and pulmonary hypertension as affected by dietary sodium source in broiler chickens reared at cool temperature in a high-altitude area.

    PubMed

    Saedi, Mostafa; Khajali, Fariborz

    2010-09-01

    One hundred and twenty day-old male chicks (Ross 308) reared at a cool temperature at high altitude were subjected to the following two treatments in a completely randomised design: (1) a group for which the sodium requirements were supplied by sodium chloride from day-old age and regarded as control, (2) a group similar to the control but for which 50% of the sodium requirements was supplied by sodium bicarbonate from day-old age. Provision of sodium equally from NaCl and NaHCO₃ significantly (P < 0.05) increased the partial pressure of oxygen and the saturation of haemoglobin with oxygen, and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. The right ventricle to total ventricles ratio shifted to lower values as a result of substituting NaHCO₃ for NaCl as a sodium source. Growth performance and carcass characteristics were not affected significantly by the dietary sodium source.

  19. Short communication: Sodium salicylate negatively affects rumen fermentation in vitro and in situ.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, A J; Rodriguez, C F Vargas; Jantz, J A B; Bradford, B J

    2017-03-01

    Administration of sodium salicylate (SS) to cows in early lactation has a positive effect on whole-lactation milk production but a negative effect on metabolism in some cases. The objective of this trial was to determine whether SS directly affects rumen fermentation. Experiment 1 was designed to investigate the effects of direct inclusion of SS in a 24-h batch culture, and experiment 2 was designed to test the fermentative ability of rumen fluid from heifers who had received SS. In experiment 1, we combined strained and pooled rumen fluid from 3 heifers in a 2:1 ratio with McDougall's buffer, and added 150 mL of the inoculum to each flask (n = 5/treatment) with 2.5 g of fermentation substrate similar to a lactating cow ration, ground to 1 mm. We then added premixed treatments (1-mL volume) to achieve the desired final amount of SS (CON1 = 0 mg, LOW = 125 mg, MED = 250 mg, HI = 375 mg). In experiment 2, 6 heifers (n = 3/treatment) were drenched daily for 3 d, either with 62.5 g of SS dissolved in water (SAL) or an equal volume of water (CON2). Rumen fluid was collected from each heifer and was not pooled. After the fluid was mixed 2:1 with McDougall's buffer, 150 mL of inoculum was added to the fermentation flasks (n = 4/heifer) with 2.5 g of fermentation substrate. This experiment was performed the day before SS treatment began and repeated 1, 13, and 35 d after the end of the treatment period. We also performed an in situ experiment at each of these time points. In the first experiment, inclusion of SS resulted in a decrease in dry matter disappearance (DMD) over 24 h, as well as an increase in final pH. We detected no difference between treatments for gas production asymptotic volume, rate, or lag. In the second experiment, we detected a significant treatment × day interaction for DMD: we observed no difference between groups during a 24-h batch culture on the day following treatment, but SAL resulted in lower DMD on d 13 and d 35. We detected no treatment

  20. Consideration of factors affecting strip effluent pH and sodium content

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  1. Consideration of factors affecting strip effluent pH and sodium content

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  2. Insulin affects the sodium affinity of the rat adipocyte (Na ,K )-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Lytton, J.

    1985-08-25

    The K0.5 for intracellular sodium of the two forms of (Na ,K )-ATPase which exist in rat adipocytes has been determined by incubating the cells in the absence of potassium in buffers of varying sodium concentration; these conditions shut off the Na pump and allow sodium to equilibrate into the cell. The activity of (Na ,K )-ATPase was then monitored with YWRb /K pumping which was initiated by adding isotope and KCl to 5 mM, followed by a 3-min uptake period. Atomic absorption and SSNa tracer equilibration were used to determine the actual intracellular (Na ) under the different conditions. The K0.5 values thus obtained were 17 mM for alpha and 52 mM for alpha(+). Insulin treatment of rat adipocytes had no effect on the intracellular (Na+) nor on the Vmax of YWRb /K pumping, but did produce a shift in the sodium ion K0.5 values to 14 mM for alpha and 33 mM for alpha(+). This change in affinity can explain the selective stimulation of alpha(+) by insulin under normal incubation conditions.

  3. Early high-sodium solid diet does not affect sodium intake, sodium preference, blood volume and blood pressure in adult Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ufnal, Marcin; Drapala, Adrian; Sikora, Mariusz; Zera, Tymoteusz

    2011-07-01

    A high-Na diet may lead to the development of hypertension in both humans and rats; however, the causes of Na intake in amounts greater than physiologically needed as well as the mechanisms whereby high-Na food elevates blood pressure are not clear. Therefore, we decided to test the hypothesis that a high-Na diet introduced after suckling affects Na intake, food preference, resting blood pressure and blood volume in adult rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into three groups and placed on either a high-Na (3.28%), a medium-Na (0.82%) or a regular diet (0.22%) with the same energy content for 8 weeks. Subsequently, food preference, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were evaluated. When offered a choice of diets, all the groups preferred the regular chow, and there was no significant difference in total Na intake between the groups. When the rats experienced the change from their initial chow to a new one with different Na content, they continued to eat the same amount of food. Body weight, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, the results show that a high-Na diet introduced immediately after suckling does not affect Na preference and Na intake in adult WKY rats. Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that both blood volume and arterial blood pressure are highly protected in normotensive rats on a high-Na diet.

  4. Mitigation of Alicyclobacillus spp. spores on food contact surfaces with aqueous chlorine dioxide and hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Loretta M; Goodrich-Schneider, Renee; Parish, Mickey E; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2009-12-01

    The prevalence of Alicyclobacillus spp. and other spore-forming spoilage organisms in food handling and processing environments presents a sanitation challenge to manufacturers of products such as juices and beverages. The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite in killing Alicyclobacillus spores in situ and to evaluate the efficacy of various chlorine dioxide and hypochlorite sanitizing regimes on Alicyclobacillus spp. spores on stainless steel, wood, and rubber conveyor material. Five or two log CFU/ml spore concentrations were left in aqueous solution or inoculated onto stainless steel, rubber, or wood coupons and challenged with sanitizer for varied time intervals. After treatment, the coupons were placed in sterile sample bags, massaged with neutralizing buffer, and enumerated on Ali agar. Surfaces were also examined before and after treatment by scanning electron microscopy to confirm destruction or removal of the spores. For both five and two log CFU/ml spore concentrations, treatments of 50 and 100 ppm of chlorine dioxide and 1000 and 2000 ppm of hypochlorite, respectively, were the most effective. Of the range of chlorine dioxide concentrations and contact time regimes evaluated for all surfaces, the most effective concentration/time regime applied was 100 ppm for 10 min. Reductions ranged from 0 to 4.5 log CFU/coupon. Chlorine dioxide was least effective when applied to wood. Hypochlorite was not efficient at eliminating Alicyclobacillus spores from any of the food contact surfaces at any time and concentration combinations tested. Chlorine dioxide is an alternative treatment to kill spores of Alicyclobacillus spp. in the processing environment.

  5. [Mechanism of action of biogenic chloramines and hypochlorite on initial aggregation of blood platelets].

    PubMed

    Murina, M A; Savel'eva, E L; Roshchupkin, D I

    2006-01-01

    The antiaggregant action of two reactive oxidants N,N-dichlorotaurine (chloramine of biogenic type) and sodium hypochlorite on the initial ADP-induced aggregation of rabbit blood platelets has been studied. Platelet aggregation in the reconstructed platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was measured by the nephelometric method, and the aggregation index was an increase in the intensity of small-angle light scattering. The introduction of chloramine at comparatively small concentrations (no greater than 1 mM active chlorine) directly into the reconstructed platelet-rich plasma induces the suppression of the initial aggregation (formation of small aggregates) several times stronger than in the case of its preliminary incubation with plasma alone. This suggests that N,N-dichlorotaurine exerts its antiaggeregant action on the platelet-rich plasma by direct interaction with cells. The effects of the inhibition of platelet aggregation in two variants of introduction of high concentrations of N,N-dichlorotaurine do not significantly differ. In this case a great amount of residual chloramine remains in the plasma, which just induces the suppression of platelet aggregation during subsequent reconstruction of the platelet-rich plasma. Similar data have been obtained in the study of the antiaggregant action of hypochlorite. N,N-Dichlorotaurine and hypochlorite at final concentrations of 0.2-0.3 and 0.15 mM, respectively, inhibit strongly the initial aggregation of isolated platelets (approximately 2 x 10(8) cells in 1 ml) preliminarily activated for 1.5 min b