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Sample records for affecting stress response

  1. Traumatic Experience in Infancy: How Responses to Stress Affect Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witten, Molly Romer

    2010-01-01

    Responses to traumatic stress during the earliest years of life can change quickly and can be difficult to identify because of the young child's rapid rate of development. The symptoms of traumatic stress will depend on the child's developmental level and individual coping styles, as well as the quality and nature of the child's most important…

  2. Aging affects the cardiovascular responses to cold stress in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Kari L.; Wilson, Thad E.; Sauder, Charity L.; Gao, Zhaohui; Ray, Chester A.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular-related mortality peaks during cold winter months, particularly in older adults. Acute physiological responses, such as increases in blood pressure, in response to cold exposure may contribute to these associations. To determine whether the blood pressure-raising effect (pressor response) of non-internal body temperature-reducing cold stress is greater with age, we measured physiological responses to 20 min of superficial skin cooling, via water-perfused suit, in 12 younger [25 ± 1 (SE) yr old] and 12 older (65 ± 2 yr old) adults. We found that superficial skin cooling elicited an increase in blood pressure from resting levels (pressor response; P < 0.05) in younger and older adults. However, the magnitude of this pressor response (systolic and mean blood pressure) was more than twofold higher in older adults (P < 0.05 vs. younger adults). The magnitude of the pressor response was similar at peripheral (brachial) and central (estimated in the aorta) measurement sites. Regression analysis revealed that aortic pulse wave velocity, a measure of central arterial stiffness obtained before cooling, was the best predictor of the increased pressor response to superficial skin cooling in older adults, explaining ∼63% of its variability. These results indicate that there is a greater pressor response to non-internal body temperature-reducing cold stress with age in humans that may be mediated by increased levels of central arterial stiffness. PMID:19679742

  3. Gender affects sympathetic and hemodynamic response to postural stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, J. K.; Hogeman, C. S.; Khan, M.; Kimmerly, D. S.; Sinoway, L. I.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that differences in sympathetic reflex responses to head-up tilt (HUT) between males (n = 9) and females (n = 8) were associated with decrements in postural vasomotor responses in women. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography), heart rate, stroke volume (SV; Doppler), and blood pressure (Finapres) were measured during a progressive HUT protocol (5 min at each of supine, 20 degrees, 40 degrees, and 60 degrees ). MSNA and hemodynamic responses were also measured during the cold pressor test (CPT) to examine nonbaroreflex neurovascular control. SV was normalized to body surface area (SV(i)) to calculate the index of cardiac output (Q(i)), and total peripheral resistance (TPR). During HUT, heart rate increased more in females versus males (P < 0.001) and SV(i) and Q(i) decreased similarly in both groups. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased to a lesser extent in females versus males in the HUT (P < 0.01) but increases in TPR during HUT were similar. MSNA burst frequency was lower in females versus males in supine (P < 0.03) but increased similarly during HUT. Average amplitude/burst increased in 60 degrees HUT for males but not females. Both males and females demonstrated an increase in MAP as well as MSNA burst frequency, mean burst amplitude, and total MSNA during the CPT. However, compared with females, males demonstrated a greater neural response (DeltaTotal MSNA) due to a larger increase in mean burst amplitude (P < 0.05). Therefore, these data point to gender-specific autonomic responses to cardiovascular stress. The different MSNA response to postural stress between genders may contribute importantly to decrements in blood pressure control during HUT in females.

  4. Modulation of Ethylene Responses Affects Plant Salt-Stress Responses1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wan-Hong; Liu, Jun; He, Xin-Jian; Mu, Rui-Ling; Zhou, Hua-Lin; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2007-01-01

    Ethylene signaling plays important roles in multiple aspects of plant growth and development. Its functions in abiotic stress responses remain largely unknown. Here, we report that alteration of ethylene signaling affected plant salt-stress responses. A type II ethylene receptor homolog gene NTHK1 (Nicotiana tabacum histidine kinase 1) from tobacco (N. tabacum) conferred salt sensitivity in NTHK1-transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants as judged from the phenotypic change, the relative electrolyte leakage, and the relative root growth under salt stress. Ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid suppressed the salt-sensitive phenotype. Analysis of Arabidopsis ethylene receptor gain-of-function mutants further suggests that receptor function may lead to salt-sensitive responses. Mutation of EIN2, a central component in ethylene signaling, also results in salt sensitivity, suggesting that EIN2-mediated signaling is beneficial for plant salt tolerance. Overexpression of the NTHK1 gene or the receptor gain-of-function activated expression of salt-responsive genes AtERF4 and Cor6.6. In addition, the transgene NTHK1 mRNA was accumulated under salt stress, suggesting a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism. These findings imply that ethylene signaling may be required for plant salt tolerance. PMID:17189334

  5. Repeated forced swim stress differentially affects formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour and the endocannabinoid system in stress normo-responsive and stress hyper-responsive rat strains.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Elaine M; Okine, Bright N; Olango, Weredeselam M; Roche, Michelle; Finn, David P

    2016-01-01

    Repeated exposure to a homotypic stressor such as forced swimming enhances nociceptive responding in rats. However, the influence of genetic background on this stress-induced hyperalgesia is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of repeated forced swim stress on nociceptive responding in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats versus the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, a genetic background that is susceptible to stress, negative affect and hyperalgesia. Given the well-documented role of the endocannabinoid system in stress and pain, we investigated associated alterations in endocannabinoid signalling in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and amygdala. In SD rats, repeated forced swim stress for 10 days was associated with enhanced late phase formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour, compared with naive, non-stressed SD controls. In contrast, WKY rats exposed to 10 days of swim stress displayed reduced late phase formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour. Swim stress increased levels of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) mRNA in the ipsilateral side of the dorsal spinal cord of SD rats, an effect not observed in WKY rats. In the amygdala, swim stress reduced anandamide (AEA) levels in the contralateral amygdala of SD rats, but not WKY rats. Additional within-strain differences in levels of CB1 receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) mRNA and levels of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) were observed between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the dorsal horn and/or amygdala. These data indicate that the effects of repeated stress on inflammatory pain-related behaviour are different in two rat strains that differ with respect to stress responsivity and affective state and implicate the endocannabinoid system in the spinal cord and amygdala in these differences. PMID:25988529

  6. Temperature stress affects the expression of immune response genes in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata) is affected by a fungal disease called chalkbrood. In several species of bees, chalkbrood is more likely to occur in larvae kept at 25-30 C than at 35 C. We found that both high and low temperature stress increased the expression of immune response g...

  7. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test: Validity and Relationship with Cardiovascular Stress-Responses

    PubMed Central

    van der Ploeg, Melanie M.; Brosschot, Jos F.; Thayer, Julian F.; Verkuil, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect

  8. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test: Validity and Relationship with Cardiovascular Stress-Responses.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, Melanie M; Brosschot, Jos F; Thayer, Julian F; Verkuil, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect

  9. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: Associations with future substance use

    PubMed Central

    CHAPLIN, TARA M.; VISCONTI, KARI JEANNE; MOLFESE, PETER J.; SUSMAN, ELIZABETH J.; KLEIN, LAURA COUSINO; SINHA, RAJITA; MAYES, LINDA C.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure may affect developing stress response systems in youth, potentially creating risk for substance use in adolescence. Further, pathways from prenatal risk to future substance use may differ for girls versus boys. The present longitudinal study examined multiple biobehavioral measures, including heart rate, blood pressure, emotion, and salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), in response to a stressor in 193 low-income 14- to 17-year-olds, half of whom were prenatally cocaine exposed (PCE). Youth’s lifetime substance use was assessed with self-report, interview, and urine toxicology/breathalyzer at Time 1 and at Time 2 (6–12 months later). PCExGender interactions were found predicting anxiety, anger, and sadness responses to the stressor, with PCE girls showing heightened responses as compared to PCE boys on these indicators. Stress Response × Gender interactions were found predicting Time 2 substance use in youth (controlling for Time 1 use) for sAA and sadness; for girls, heightened sadness responses predicted substance use, but for boys, dampened sAA responses predicted substance use. Findings suggest distinct biobehavioral stress response risk profiles for boys and girls, with heightened arousal for girls and blunted arousal for boys associated with prenatal risk and future substance use outcomes. PMID:25036298

  10. Coordination of cortisol response to social evaluative threat with autonomic and inflammatory responses is moderated by stress appraisals and affect.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Lucas, Todd; Pierce, Jennifer; Goetz, Stefan; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-07-01

    Recent approaches to stress regulation have emphasized coordination among multiple biological systems. This study builds on evidence that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity should be considered in coordination with other stress-sensitive biological systems to characterize healthy responses. Healthy African-Americans (n=115) completed the Trier Social Stress Test, and biological responses were assessed through salivary cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), alpha amylase (sAA), and C-reactive protein (sCRP). Multilevel modeling demonstrated that cortisol responses typically aligned with changes in DHEA-S, sAA, and sCRP across the session. At the same time, the degree of cortisol coordination with sAA and sCRP varied by participants' subjective stress following the task; participants with higher secondary stress appraisals showed greater cortisol-sAA alignment, whereas those experiencing more negative affect showed greater cortisol-sCRP alignment. Results highlight the importance of a multisystem approach to stress and suggest that positive HPA axis coordination with the autonomic response, but not with the immune/inflammatory response, may be adaptive. PMID:27155141

  11. KMT Set7/9 affects genotoxic stress response via the Mdm2 axis

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, Olga; Malikova, Daria; Shuvalov, Oleg; Antonov, Alexey V.; Tentler, Dmitri; Garabadgiu, Alexander V.; Melino, Gerry; Barlev, Nikolai A.

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxic stress inflicted by anti-cancer drugs causes DNA breaks and genome instability. DNA double strand breaks induced by irradiation or pharmacological inhibition of Topoisomerase II activate ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated) kinase signalling pathway that in turn triggers cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. ATM-dependent gamma-phosphorylation of histone H2Ax and other histone modifications, including ubiquitnylation, promote exchange of histones and recruitment of DNA damage response (DDR) and repair proteins. Signal transduction pathways, besides DDR itself, also control expression of genes whose products cause cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis thus ultimately affecting the sensitivity of cells to genotoxic stress. In this study, using a number of experimental approaches we provide evidence that lysine-specific methyltransferase (KMT) Set7/9 affects DDR and DNA repair, at least in part, by regulating the expression of an E3 ubiquitin ligase, Mdm2. Furthermore, we show that Set7/9 physically interacts with Mdm2. Several cancer cell lines with inverse expression of Set7/9 and Mdm2 displayed diminished survival in response to genotoxic stress. These findings are signified by our bioinformatics studies suggesting that the unleashed expression of Mdm2 in cancer patients with diminished expression of Set7/9 is associated with poor survival outcome. PMID:26317544

  12. Cerium oxide nanoparticle aggregates affect stress response and function in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Steven; Rice, Kevin M; Manne, Nandini DPK; Shokuhfar, Tolou; He, Kun; Selvaraj, Vellaisamy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The continual increase in production and disposal of nanomaterials raises concerns regarding the safety of nanoparticles on the environmental and human health. Recent studies suggest that cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles may possess both harmful and beneficial effects on biological processes. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate how exposure to different concentrations (0.17–17.21 µg/mL) of aggregated CeO2 nanoparticles affects indices of whole animal stress and survivability in Caenorhabditis elegans. Methods: Caenorhabditis elegans were exposed to different concentrations of CeO2 nanoparticles and evaluated. Results: Our findings demonstrate that chronic exposure of CeO2 nanoparticle aggregates is associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species and heat shock stress response (HSP-4) in Caenorhabditis elegans, but not mortality. Conversely, CeO2 aggregates promoted strain-dependent decreases in animal fertility, a decline in stress resistance as measured by thermotolerance, and shortened worm length. Conclusion: The data obtained from this study reveal the sublethal toxic effects of CeO2 nanoparticle aggregates in Caenorhabditis elegans and contribute to our understanding of how exposure to CeO2 may affect the environment. PMID:26770770

  13. Quiescence does not affect p53 and stress response by irradiation in human lung fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Jiawen; Itahana, Koji; Baskar, Rajamanickam

    2015-02-27

    Cells in many organs exist in both proliferating and quiescent states. Proliferating cells are more radio-sensitive, DNA damage pathways including p53 pathway are activated to undergo either G{sub 1}/S or G{sub 2}/M arrest to avoid entering S and M phase with DNA damage. On the other hand, quiescent cells are already arrested in G{sub 0}, therefore there may be fundamental difference of irradiation response between proliferating and quiescent cells, and this difference may affect their radiosensitivity. To understand these differences, proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblasts were exposed to 0.10–1 Gy of γ-radiation. The response of key proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were examined. Interestingly, p53 and p53 phosphorylation (Ser-15), as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, were induced similarly in both proliferating and quiescent cells after irradiation. Furthermore, the p53 protein half-life, and expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, or cytochrome c expression as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were comparable after irradiation in both phases of cells. The effect of radioprotection by a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor on p53 pathway was also similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. Our results showed that quiescence does not affect irradiation response of key proteins involved in stress and DNA damage at least in normal fibroblasts, providing a better understanding of the radiation response in quiescent cells, which is crucial for tissue repair and regeneration. - Highlights: • p53 response by irradiation was similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. • Quiescent cells showed similar profiles of cell cycle proteins after irradiation. • Radioprotection of GSK-3β inhibitor caused similar effects between these cells. • Quiescence did not affect p53 response despite its

  14. Spermidine affects the transcriptome responses to high temperature stress in ripening tomato fruit* #

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lin; Sun, Rong-rong; Wang, Fei-yan; Peng, Zhen; Kong, Fu-ling; Wu, Jian; Cao, Jia-shu; Lu, Gang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: High temperature adversely affects quality and yield of tomato fruit. Polyamine can alleviate heat injury in plants. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of polyamine and high temperature on transcriptional profiles in ripening tomato fruit. Methods: An Affymetrix tomato microarray was used to evaluate changes in gene expression in response to exogenous spermidine (Spd, 1 mmol/L) and high temperature (33/27 °C) treatments in tomato fruits at mature green stage. Results: Of the 10 101 tomato probe sets represented on the array, 127 loci were differentially expressed in high temperature-treated fruits, compared with those under normal conditions, functionally characterized by their involvement in signal transduction, defense responses, oxidation reduction, and hormone responses. However, only 34 genes were up-regulated in Spd-treated fruits as compared with non-treated fruits, which were involved in primary metabolism, signal transduction, hormone responses, transcription factors, and stress responses. Meanwhile, 55 genes involved in energy metabolism, cell wall metabolism, and photosynthesis were down-regulated in Spd-treated fruits. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that Spd might play an important role in regulation of tomato fruit response to high temperature during ripening stage. PMID:22467370

  15. Cardiovascular and Affective Responses to Social Stress in Adolescents with Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Paul D.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Usher, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral responses to stress and challenge are based in emotional and physiological arousal reactions. Adolescents with maladaptive or problematic behavior patterns, such as internalizing or externalizing problems, are likely to show atypical emotional and physiological reactions to stress. Relations between problems and reactions to stress were…

  16. Listeria monocytogenes DNA Glycosylase AdlP Affects Flagellar Motility, Biofilm Formation, Virulence, and Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Bae, Dongryeoul

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The temperature-dependent alteration of flagellar motility gene expression is critical for the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to respond to a changing environment. In this study, a genetic determinant, L. monocytogenes f2365_0220 (lmof2365_0220), encoding a putative protein that is structurally similar to the Bacillus cereus alkyl base DNA glycosylase (AlkD), was identified. This determinant was involved in the transcriptional repression of flagellar motility genes and was named adlP (encoding an AlkD-like protein [AdlP]). Deletion of adlP activated the expression of flagellar motility genes at 37°C and disrupted the temperature-dependent inhibition of L. monocytogenes motility. The adlP null strains demonstrated decreased survival in murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells and less virulence in mice. Furthermore, the deletion of adlP significantly decreased biofilm formation and impaired the survival of bacteria under several stress conditions, including the presence of a DNA alkylation compound (methyl methanesulfonate), an oxidative agent (H2O2), and aminoglycoside antibiotics. Our findings strongly suggest that adlP may encode a bifunctional protein that transcriptionally represses the expression of flagellar motility genes and influences stress responses through its DNA glycosylase activity. IMPORTANCE We discovered a novel protein that we named AlkD-like protein (AdlP). This protein affected flagellar motility, biofilm formation, and virulence. Our data suggest that AdlP may be a bifunctional protein that represses flagellar motility genes and influences stress responses through its DNA glycosylase activity. PMID:27316964

  17. Quiescence does not affect p53 and stress response by irradiation in human lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jiawen; Itahana, Koji; Baskar, Rajamanickam

    2015-02-27

    Cells in many organs exist in both proliferating and quiescent states. Proliferating cells are more radio-sensitive, DNA damage pathways including p53 pathway are activated to undergo either G1/S or G2/M arrest to avoid entering S and M phase with DNA damage. On the other hand, quiescent cells are already arrested in G0, therefore there may be fundamental difference of irradiation response between proliferating and quiescent cells, and this difference may affect their radiosensitivity. To understand these differences, proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblasts were exposed to 0.10-1 Gy of γ-radiation. The response of key proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were examined. Interestingly, p53 and p53 phosphorylation (Ser-15), as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, were induced similarly in both proliferating and quiescent cells after irradiation. Furthermore, the p53 protein half-life, and expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, or cytochrome c expression as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were comparable after irradiation in both phases of cells. The effect of radioprotection by a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor on p53 pathway was also similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. Our results showed that quiescence does not affect irradiation response of key proteins involved in stress and DNA damage at least in normal fibroblasts, providing a better understanding of the radiation response in quiescent cells, which is crucial for tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:25637534

  18. Responses to Positive Affect Predict Mood Symptoms in Children under Conditions of Stress: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijttebier, Patricia; Raes, Filip; Vasey, Michael W.; Feldman, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    Rumination to negative affect has been linked to the onset and maintenance of mood disorders in adults as well as children. Responses to positive affect have received far less attention thus far. A few recent studies in adults suggest that responses to positive affect are involved in the development of both depressive and hypomanic symptoms, but…

  19. Enhancer of Rudimentary Homolog Affects the Replication Stress Response through Regulation of RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, Gina; Zhao, Runxiang; Guo, Yan; Mohni, Kareem N.; Glick, Gloria; Lacy, Monica E.; Hutson, M. Shane; Ascano, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Accurate replication of DNA is imperative for the maintenance of genomic integrity. We identified Enhancer of Rudimentary Homolog (ERH) using a whole-genome RNA interference (RNAi) screen to discover novel proteins that function in the replication stress response. Here we report that ERH is important for DNA replication and recovery from replication stress. ATR pathway activity is diminished in ERH-deficient cells. The reduction in ATR signaling corresponds to a decrease in the expression of multiple ATR pathway genes, including ATR itself. ERH interacts with multiple RNA processing complexes, including splicing regulators. Furthermore, splicing of ATR transcripts is deficient in ERH-depleted cells. Transcriptome-wide analysis indicates that ERH depletion affects the levels of ∼1,500 transcripts, with DNA replication and repair genes being highly enriched among those with reduced expression. Splicing defects were evident in ∼750 protein-coding genes, which again were enriched for DNA metabolism genes. Thus, ERH regulation of RNA processing is needed to ensure faithful DNA replication and repair. PMID:26100022

  20. Amphetamine withdrawal differentially affects hippocampal and peripheral corticosterone levels in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Bray, Brenna; Scholl, Jamie L; Tu, Wenyu; Watt, Michael J; Renner, Kenneth J; Forster, Gina L

    2016-08-01

    Amphetamine withdrawal is associated with heightened anxiety-like behavior, which is directly driven by blunted stress-induced glucocorticoid receptor-dependent serotonin release in the ventral hippocampus. This suggests that glucocorticoid availability in the ventral hippocampus during stress may be reduced during amphetamine withdrawal. Therefore, we tested whether amphetamine withdrawal alters either peripheral or hippocampal corticosterone stress responses. Adult male rats received amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, ip) or saline for 14 days followed by 2 weeks of withdrawal. Contrary to our prediction, microdialysis samples from freely-moving rats revealed that restraint stress-induced corticosterone levels in the ventral hippocampus are enhanced by amphetamine withdrawal relative to controls. In separate groups of rats, plasma corticosterone levels increased immediately after 20min of restraint and decreased to below stress-naïve levels after 1h, indicating negative feedback regulation of corticosterone following stress. However, plasma corticosterone responses were similar in amphetamine-withdrawn and control rats. Neither amphetamine nor stress exposure significantly altered protein expression or enzyme activity of the steroidogenic enzymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) or hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) in the ventral hippocampus. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that amphetamine withdrawal potentiates stress-induced corticosterone in the ventral hippocampus, which may contribute to increased behavioral stress sensitivity previously observed during amphetamine withdrawal. However, this is not mediated by either changes in plasma corticosterone or hippocampal steroidogenic enzymes. Establishing enhanced ventral hippocampal corticosterone as a direct cause of greater stress sensitivity may identify the glucocorticoid system as a novel target for treating behavioral symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal. PMID:27208490

  1. The RNA exosome affects iron response and sensitivity to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Tsanova, Borislava; Spatrick, Phyllis; Jacobson, Allan; van Hoof, Ambro

    2014-07-01

    RNA degradation plays important roles for maintaining temporal control and fidelity of gene expression, as well as processing of transcripts. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the RNA exosome is a major 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease and also has an endonuclease domain of unknown function. Here we report a physiological role for the exosome in response to a stimulus. We show that inactivating the exoribonuclease active site of Rrp44 up-regulates the iron uptake regulon. This up-regulation is caused by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mutant. Elevated ROS also causes hypersensitivity to H2O2, which can be reduced by the addition of iron to H2O2 stressed cells. Finally, we show that the previously characterized slow growth phenotype of rrp44-exo(-) is largely ameliorated during fermentative growth. While the molecular functions of Rrp44 and the RNA exosome have been extensively characterized, our studies characterize how this molecular function affects the physiology of the organism. PMID:24860016

  2. Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting response to crowding stress in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture environmental stressors such as handling, overcrowding, sub-optimal water quality parameters and social interactions negatively impact growth, feed intake, feed efficiency, disease resistance, flesh quality and reproductive performance in rainbow trout. To identify QTL affecting response...

  3. Oxidative stress-related mechanisms affecting response to aspirin in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Santilli, Francesca; Lapenna, Domenico; La Barba, Sara; Davì, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major cardiovascular risk factor. Persistent platelet activation plays a key role in atherothrombosis in T2DM. However, current antiplatelet treatments appear less effective in T2DM patients vs nondiabetics at similar risk. A large body of evidence supports the contention that oxidative stress, which characterizes DM, may be responsible, at least in part, for less-than-expected response to aspirin, with multiple mechanisms acting at several levels. This review discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms related to oxidative stress and contributing to suboptimal aspirin action or responsiveness. These include: (1) mechanisms counteracting the antiplatelet effect of aspirin, such as reduced platelet sensitivity to the antiaggregating effects of NO, due to high-glucose-mediated oxidative stress; (2) mechanisms interfering with COX acetylation especially at the platelet level, e.g., lipid hydroperoxide-dependent impaired acetylating effects of aspirin; (3) mechanisms favoring platelet priming (lipid hydroperoxides) or activation (F2-isoprostanes, acting as partial agonists of thromboxane receptor), or aldose-reductase pathway-mediated oxidative stress, leading to enhanced platelet thromboxane A2 generation or thromboxane receptor activation; (4) mechanisms favoring platelet recruitment, such as aspirin-induced platelet isoprostane formation; (5) modulation of megakaryocyte generation and thrombopoiesis by oxidative HO-1 inhibition; and (6) aspirin-iron interactions, eventually resulting in impaired pharmacological activity of aspirin, lipoperoxide burden, and enhanced generation of hydroxyl radicals capable of promoting protein kinase C activation and platelet aggregation. Acknowledgment of oxidative stress as a major contributor, not only of vascular complications, but also of suboptimal response to antiplatelet agents in T2DM, may open the way to designing and testing novel antithrombotic strategies, specifically targeting

  4. Genetic variation in human NPY expression affects stress response and emotion

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhifeng; Zhu, Guanshan; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Scott, David; Sinha, Rajita; Virkkunen, Matti; Mash, Deborah C.; Lipsky, Robert H.; Hu, Xian-Zhang; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Xu, Ke; Buzas, Beata; Yuan, Qiaoping; Shen, Pei-Hong; Ferrell, Robert E.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Brown, Sarah M.; Hauger, Richard L.; Stohler, Christian S.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Goldman, David

    2009-01-01

    Understanding inter-individual differences in stress response requires the explanation of genetic influences at multiple phenotypic levels, including complex behaviours and the metabolic responses of brain regions to emotional stimuli. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is anxiolytic1,2 and its release is induced by stress3. NPY is abundantly expressed in regions of the limbic system that are implicated in arousal and in the assignment of emotional valences to stimuli and memories4–6. Here we show that haplotype-driven NPY expression predicts brain responses to emotional and stress challenges and also inversely correlates with trait anxiety. NPY haplotypes predicted levels of NPY messenger RNA in postmortem brain and lymphoblasts, and levels of plasma NPY. Lower haplotype-driven NPY expression predicted higher emotion-induced activation of the amygdala, as well as diminished resiliency as assessed by pain/stress-induced activations of endogenous opioid neurotransmission in various brain regions. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs16147) located in the promoter region alters NPY expression in vitro and seems to account for more than half of the variation in expression in vivo. These convergent findings are consistent with the function of NPY as an anxiolytic peptide and help to explain inter-individual variation in resiliency to stress, a risk factor for many diseases. PMID:18385673

  5. Genetic variation in human NPY expression affects stress response and emotion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhifeng; Zhu, Guanshan; Hariri, Ahmad R; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Scott, David; Sinha, Rajita; Virkkunen, Matti; Mash, Deborah C; Lipsky, Robert H; Hu, Xian-Zhang; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Xu, Ke; Buzas, Beata; Yuan, Qiaoping; Shen, Pei-Hong; Ferrell, Robert E; Manuck, Stephen B; Brown, Sarah M; Hauger, Richard L; Stohler, Christian S; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Goldman, David

    2008-04-24

    Understanding inter-individual differences in stress response requires the explanation of genetic influences at multiple phenotypic levels, including complex behaviours and the metabolic responses of brain regions to emotional stimuli. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is anxiolytic and its release is induced by stress. NPY is abundantly expressed in regions of the limbic system that are implicated in arousal and in the assignment of emotional valences to stimuli and memories. Here we show that haplotype-driven NPY expression predicts brain responses to emotional and stress challenges and also inversely correlates with trait anxiety. NPY haplotypes predicted levels of NPY messenger RNA in post-mortem brain and lymphoblasts, and levels of plasma NPY. Lower haplotype-driven NPY expression predicted higher emotion-induced activation of the amygdala, as well as diminished resiliency as assessed by pain/stress-induced activations of endogenous opioid neurotransmission in various brain regions. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs16147) located in the promoter region alters NPY expression in vitro and seems to account for more than half of the variation in expression in vivo. These convergent findings are consistent with the function of NPY as an anxiolytic peptide and help to explain inter-individual variation in resiliency to stress, a risk factor for many diseases. PMID:18385673

  6. Evidence of major genes affecting stress response in rainbow trout using Bayesian methods of complex segregation analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a first step towards the genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting stress response variation in rainbow trout, we performed complex segregation analyses (CSA) fitting mixed inheritance models of plasma cortisol using Bayesian methods in large full-sib families of rainbow trout. ...

  7. Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome for the distributions of stress-response elements potentially affecting gene expression by transcriptional interference.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunkai; Ye, Sujuan; Erkine, Alexandre M

    2009-01-01

    Cellular stress responses are characterized by coordinated transcriptional induction of genes encoding a group of conserved proteins known as molecular chaperones, most of which are also known as heat shock proteins (HSPs). In S. cerevisiae, transcriptional responses to stress are mediated via two trans-regulatory activators: heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) that bind to heat shock elements (HSEs), and the Msn2 and Msn4 transcription factors that bind to stress response elements (STREs). Recent studies in S. cerevisiae demonstrated that a significant portion of the non-coding region in the genome is transcribed and this intergenic transcription could regulate the transcription of adjacent genes by transcription interference. The goal of this study was to analyze the genomic distribution of HSF and Msn2/4 binding sites and to study the potential for transcription interference regulated by stress response systems. Our genome-wide analysis revealed that 297 genes have STREs in their promoter region, whereas 310 genes contained HSEs. Twenty-five genes had both HSEs and STREs in their promoters. The first set of genes is potentially regulated by the Msn2/Msn4/STRE interaction. For the second set of genes, regulation by heat shock could be mediated through HSF/HSE regulatory mechanisms. The overlap between these groups suggests a co-regulation by the two pathways. Our study yielded 239 candidate genes, whose regulation could potentially be affected by heat-shock via transcription interference directed both from upstream and downstream areas relative to the native promoters. In addition we have categorized 924 genes containing HSE and/or STRE elements within the Open Reading Frames (ORFs), which may also affect normal transcription. Our study revealed a widespread possibility for the regulation of genes via transcriptional interference initiated by stress response. We provided a categorization of genes potentially affected at the transcriptional level by known

  8. Prenatal stress programs neuroendocrine stress responses and affective behaviors in second generation rats in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Grundwald, Natalia J; Brunton, Paula J

    2015-12-01

    An adverse environment in early life is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and higher rates of mood disorders in adulthood. In rats, exposure to social stress during pregnancy results in hyperactive HPA axis responses to stress in the adult offspring and heightened anxiety behavior in the males, but not the females. Here we tested whether, without further intervention, the effects of prenatal stress (PNS) in the first filial generation (F1) are transmitted to the F2 generation via the maternal line. F1 control and PNS female rats were mated with control males and housed under non-stress conditions throughout pregnancy. HPA axis responses to acute stress, anxiety- and depressive-like behavior were assessed in the adult F2 offspring. ACTH and corticosterone responses to an acute stressor were markedly enhanced in F2 PNS females compared with controls. This was associated with greater corticotropin releasing hormone (Crh) mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus and reduced hippocampal glucocorticoid (Gr) and mineralocorticoid receptor (Mr) mRNA expression. Conversely, in the F2 PNS males, HPA axis responses to acute stress were attenuated and hippocampal Gr mRNA expression was greater compared with controls. F2 PNS males exhibited heightened anxiety-like behavior (light-dark box and elevated plus maze) compared with F2 control males. Anxiety-like behavior did not differ between F2 control and PNS females during metestrus/diestrus, however at proestrus/estrus, F2 control females displayed a reduction in anxiety-like behavior, but this effect was not observed in the F2 PNS females. Heightened anxiety in the F2 PNS males was associated with greater Crh mRNA expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala compared with controls. Moreover, Crh receptor-1 (Crhr1) mRNA expression was significantly increased, whereas Crhr2 mRNA was significantly decreased in discrete regions of the amygdala in F2 PNS males compared

  9. Prenatal stress programs neuroendocrine stress responses and affective behaviors in second generation rats in a sex-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Grundwald, Natalia J.; Brunton, Paula J.

    2015-01-01

    An adverse environment in early life is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and higher rates of mood disorders in adulthood. In rats, exposure to social stress during pregnancy results in hyperactive HPA axis responses to stress in the adult offspring and heightened anxiety behavior in the males, but not the females. Here we tested whether, without further intervention, the effects of prenatal stress (PNS) in the first filial generation (F1) are transmitted to the F2 generation via the maternal line. F1 control and PNS female rats were mated with control males and housed under non-stress conditions throughout pregnancy. HPA axis responses to acute stress, anxiety- and depressive-like behavior were assessed in the adult F2 offspring. ACTH and corticosterone responses to an acute stressor were markedly enhanced in F2 PNS females compared with controls. This was associated with greater corticotropin releasing hormone (Crh) mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus and reduced hippocampal glucocorticoid (Gr) and mineralocorticoid receptor (Mr) mRNA expression. Conversely, in the F2 PNS males, HPA axis responses to acute stress were attenuated and hippocampal Gr mRNA expression was greater compared with controls. F2 PNS males exhibited heightened anxiety-like behavior (light-dark box and elevated plus maze) compared with F2 control males. Anxiety-like behavior did not differ between F2 control and PNS females during metestrus/diestrus, however at proestrus/estrus, F2 control females displayed a reduction in anxiety-like behavior, but this effect was not observed in the F2 PNS females. Heightened anxiety in the F2 PNS males was associated with greater Crh mRNA expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala compared with controls. Moreover, Crh receptor-1 (Crhr1) mRNA expression was significantly increased, whereas Crhr2 mRNA was significantly decreased in discrete regions of the amygdala in F2 PNS males compared

  10. Metallothionein differentially affects the host response to Listeria infection both with and without an additional stress from cold-restraint.

    PubMed

    Emeny, Rebecca T; Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Mondal, Tapan; Lynes, Michael A; Lawrence, David A

    2015-11-01

    Acute stress alters anti-bacterial defenses, but the neuroimmunological mechanisms underlying this association are not yet well understood. Metallothionein (MT), a cysteine-rich protein, is a stress response protein that is induced by a variety of chemical, biological, and psychological stressors, and MT has been shown to influence immune activities. We investigated MT's role in the management of anti-bacterial responses that occur during stress, using a C57BL/6 (B6) strain that has targeted disruptions of the Mt1 and Mt2 genes (B6-MTKO), and a B6 strain that has additional copies of Mt (B6-MTTGN). The well-characterized listeriosis model was used to examine immune mechanisms that are altered by a 1-h stress treatment (cold-restraint, CR) administered just prior to bacterial infection. Intriguingly, MT gene doses both greater and lower than that of wild-type (WT) B6 mice were associated with improved host defenses against Listeria monocytogenes (LM). This augmented protection was diminished by CR stress in the MTKO mice, but transgenic mice with additional MT copies had no CR stress-induced increase in their listerial burden. During the transition from innate to adaptive immunity, on day 3 after infection, oxidative burst and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometric methods, and cytokine transcription was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. MT gene expression and CR-stress affected the expression of IL-6 and TNFα. Additionally, these genetic and environmental modulations altered the generation of ROS responses as well as the number of apoptotic cells in livers and spleens. Although the level of MT altered the listerial response, MT expression was equally elevated by listerial infection with or without CR stress. These results indicate the ability of MT to regulate immune response mechanisms and demonstrate that increased amounts of MT can eliminate the immunosuppression induced by CR. PMID:26267326

  11. Enigma, a mitochondrial protein affecting lifespan and oxidative stress response in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Mourikis, Philippos; Hurlbut, Gregory D.; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Spyros

    2006-01-01

    Deregulation of energy metabolism by external interventions or mutations in metabolic genes can extend lifespan in a wide range of species. We describe mutations in Drosophila melanogaster that confer resistance to oxidative stress and display a longevity phenotype. These phenotypes are associated with molecular lesions in a hitherto uncharacterized gene we named Enigma. We show that Enigma encodes a mitochondrial protein with homology to enzymes of the β-oxidation of fatty acids and that mutations in this locus affect lipid homeostasis. Our analysis provides further support to the notion that lipid metabolism may play a central role in metazoan lifespan regulation. PMID:16434470

  12. Chronic stress differentially affects antioxidant enzymes and modifies the acute stress response in liver of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, J; Djordjevic, A; Adzic, M; Niciforovic, A; Radojcic, M B

    2010-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest close interactions between stressors, particularly those of long duration, and liver diseases, such as hepatic inflammation, that is proposed to occur via reactive oxygen species. In the present study we have used 21-day social isolation of male Wistar rats as a model of chronic stress to investigate protein expression/activity of liver antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutases (SODs), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GLR), and protein expression of their upstream regulators: glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB). We have also characterized these parameters in either naive or chronically stressed animals that were challenged by 30-min acute immobilization. We found that chronic isolation caused decrease in serum corticosterone (CORT) and blood glucose (GLU), increase in NFkB signaling, and disproportion between CuZnSOD, peroxidases (CAT, GPx) and GLR, thus promoting H2O2 accumulation and prooxidative state in liver. The overall results suggested that chronic stress exaggerated responsiveness to subsequent stressor at the level of CORT and GLU, and potentiated GLR response, but compromised the restoration of oxido-reductive balance due to irreversible alterations in MnSOD and GPx. PMID:20406049

  13. The association between affective psychopathic traits, time incarcerated, and cortisol response to psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Megan M; Mikolajewski, Amy; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Eckel, Lisa A; Taylor, Jeanette

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that psychopathic personality traits are significantly predictive of blunted cortisol reactivity to a performance-based stressor task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) in college students. However, the relationship between cortisol reactivity and psychopathy has not been explored in high risk samples such as incarcerated populations. Further, the role of imprisonment in relation to cortisol stress reactivity has not been previously explored, but could have practical and conceptual consequences in regard to rehabilitation and biological sensitivity to context, respectively. The current study tested the hypotheses that both psychopathic personality traits and amount of time incarcerated are related to cortisol blunting in response to stress among incarcerated young adults. A sample of 49 young adult male offenders was recruited to complete the TSST. Salivary hormone samples were taken just prior to and 20 min post-stressor, and participants were interviewed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version. Variables quantifying the amount of time at the present facility prior to the date of testing and number of commitments in juvenile facilities were also collected. Correlational analyses indicated that only number of incarcerations was related to blunted cortisol. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that time incarcerated and number of commitments were related to a blunted cortisol response among responders and declining cortisol reactivity among nonresponders, respectively. Controlling for time incarcerated, psychopathic traits were significantly related to cortisol decline in response to the stressor among nonresponders, but were not related to blunted cortisol among responders. Results of this project highlight the potential biological effects of prolonged and repeated incarcerations, and extend our understanding about the relationship between psychopathic traits and cortisol reactivity in an incarcerated sample. PMID:25921588

  14. Myc-dependent purine biosynthesis affects nucleolar stress and therapy response in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barfeld, Stefan J.; Fazli, Ladan; Persson, Margareta; Marjavaara, Lisette; Urbanucci, Alfonso; Kaukoniemi, Kirsi M.; Rennie, Paul S.; Ceder, Yvonne; Chabes, Andrei; Visakorpi, Tapio; Mills, Ian G.

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor is a key transcription factor contributing to the development of all stages of prostate cancer (PCa). In addition, other transcription factors have been associated with poor prognosis in PCa, amongst which c-Myc (MYC) is a well-established oncogene in many other cancers. We have previously reported that the AR promotes glycolysis and anabolic metabolism; many of these metabolic pathways are also MYC-regulated in other cancers. In this study, we report that in PCa cells de novo purine biosynthesis and the subsequent conversion to XMP is tightly regulated by MYC and independent of AR activity. We characterized two enzymes, PAICS and IMPDH2, within the pathway as PCa biomarkers in tissue samples and report increased efficacy of established anti-androgens in combination with a clinically approved IMPDH inhibitor, mycophenolic acid (MPA). Treatment with MPA led to a significant reduction in cellular guanosine triphosphate (GTP) levels accompanied by nucleolar stress and p53 stabilization. In conclusion, targeting purine biosynthesis provides an opportunity to perturb PCa metabolism and enhance tumour suppressive stress responses. PMID:25869206

  15. Perfectionism Affects Blood Pressure in Response to Repeated Exposure to Stress.

    PubMed

    Albert, Phebe; Rice, Kenneth G; Caffee, Lauren

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of perfectionism on blood pressure (BP) in response to repeated exposure to mental arithmetic stressors. College students (N = 30) in a laboratory setting were administered a series of challenging mathematical tasks. BP was measured at baseline and after each task. Multilevel modelling analyses revealed that BP tended to decline over the course of the mathematical tasks. However, higher levels of performance standards predicted relatively stable levels of systolic BP, whereas moderate and lower levels of standards predicted declines in systolic BP. Higher levels of self-critical perfectionism predicted generally sustained levels of diastolic BP, with moderate and low self-criticism predicting declines in diastolic BP during the repeated stressors. These preliminary results suggest that students with higher levels of perfectionism may be at risk for physiological problems associated with stress reactivity, perhaps especially so in situations in which they experience persistent stress. Although results were qualified by a relatively small sample size, effects were statistically significant and supported the importance of examining the short-term and long-term implications of the effects of perfectionism on cardiovascular function and the different implications of elevations in systolic and diastolic BP. PMID:24966018

  16. Menstrual cycle and sex affect hemodynamic responses to combined orthostatic and heat stress.

    PubMed

    Meendering, Jessica R; Torgrimson, Britta N; Houghton, Belinda L; Halliwill, John R; Minson, Christopher T

    2005-08-01

    Women have decreased orthostatic tolerance compared with men, and anecdotal evidence suggests women are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance in warm environments. Because estrogen and progesterone affect numerous physiological variables that may alter orthostatic tolerance, the purpose of our study was to compare orthostatic tolerance across the menstrual cycle phases in women during combined orthostatic and heat stress and to compare these data with those of men. Eight normally menstruating women and eight males (22 +/- 4.0 and 23 +/- 3.5 yr, respectively) completed the protocol. Women were studied during their early follicular (EF), ovulatory (OV), and midluteal (ML) phases. Men were studied twice within 2-4 wk. Heart rate, cardiac output, blood pressure, core temperature (T(c)), and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) were measured during three head-up tilt tests, consisting of two tilts in the thermoneutral condition and one tilt after a 0.5 degrees C rise in T(c). There was no difference in orthostatic tolerance across the menstrual cycle phases, despite higher CVC in the ML phase after heating (EF, 42.3 +/- 4.8; OV, 40.1 +/- 3.7; ML, 57.5 +/- 4.5; P < 0.05). Orthostatic tolerance in the heat was greater in men than women (P < 0.05). These data suggest that although many physiological variables associated with blood pressure regulation fluctuate during the menstrual cycle, orthostatic tolerance in the heat remains unchanged. Additionally, our data support a clear sex difference in orthostatic tolerance and extend upon previous data to show that the sex difference in the heat is not attributable to fluctuating hormone profiles during the menstrual cycle. PMID:15778279

  17. Employee Affective Responses to Organizational Stress: Moderating Effects of Job Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Halim, Ahmed A.

    1978-01-01

    This study, in a manufacturing firm, examined the relative importance of three variables: role conflict, ambiguity, and overload, as sources of stress and dissatisfaction among managerial personnel, and the moderating effects of job enrichment characteristics. Results and implications for work design and stress management are discussed.…

  18. Physical exercise affects the epigenetic programming of rat brain and modulates the adaptive response evoked by repeated restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Kashimoto, R K; Toffoli, L V; Manfredo, M H F; Volpini, V L; Martins-Pinge, M C; Pelosi, G G; Gomes, M V

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics has recently been linked to molecular adaptive responses evoked by physical exercise and stress. Herein we evaluated the effects of physical exercise on global DNA methylation and expression of the Dnmt1 gene in the rat brain and also verified its potential to modulate responses evoked by repeated restraint stress (RRS). Wistar rats were classified into the following experimental groups: (1) physically active (EX): animals submitted to swimming during postnatal days 53-78 (PND); (2) stress (ST): animals submitted to RRS during 75-79PND; (3) exercise-stress (EX-ST): animals submitted to swimming during 53-78PND and to RRS during 75-79PND, and (4) control (CTL): animals that were not submitted to intervention. Samples from the hippocampus, cortex and hypothalamus were obtained at 79PND. The global DNA methylation profile was assessed using an ELISA-based method and the expression of Dnmt1 was evaluated by real-time PCR. Significantly increased methylation was observed in the hypothalamus of animals from the EX group in comparison to CTL. Comparative analysis involving the EX-ST and ST groups revealed increased global DNA methylation in the hippocampus, cortex, and hypothalamus of EX-ST, indicating the potential of physical exercise in modulating the responses evoked by RRS. Furthermore, decreased expression of the Dnmt1 gene was observed in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of animals from the EX-ST group. In summary, our data indicate that physical exercise affects DNA methylation of the hypothalamus and might modulate epigenetic responses evoked by RRS in the hippocampus, cortex, and hypothalamus. PMID:26342282

  19. Cryopreservation affects ROS-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant response in Arabidopsis seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant recovery status after cryopreservation by vitrification had a negative relationship to the oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings germinated for 48-h or 72-h with different cryopreservation survival tolerances were examined at five steps of a ...

  20. Cryopreservation affects ROS-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant response in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Qun; Ren, Li; Zhang, Jie; Reed, Barbara M; Zhang, Di; Shen, Xiao-Hui

    2015-02-01

    Plant recovery status after cryopreservation by vitrification had a negative relationship to the oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings germinated for 48 h or 72 h with different survival tolerances were examined at five steps of cryopreservation, to determine the role of ROS (O2(-), H2O2 and OH) and antioxidant systems (SOD, POD, CAT, AsA and GSH) in cryo-injury. In addition, the effects of the steps on membrane lipid peroxidation were studied using malondialdehyde (MDA) as an indicator. The results indicated that H2O2-induced oxidative stress at the steps of dehydration and rapid warming was the main cause of cryo-injury of 48-h seedlings (high survival rate) and 72-h seedlings (no survival). The H2O2 was mainly generated in cotyledons, shoot tips and roots of seedlings as indicated by Amplex Red staining. Low survival of 72-h seedlings was associated with severe membrane lipid peroxidation, which was caused by increased OH generation activity and decreased SOD activity. The antioxidant-related gene expression by qRT-PCR and physiological assays suggested that the antioxidant system of 48-h seedlings were activated by ROS, and they mounted a defense against oxidative stress. A high level of ROS led to the weakening of the antioxidant system of 72-h seedlings. Correlation analysis indicated that enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities contributed to the high survival rate of 48-h seedlings, which could reflect by cryopreservation of antioxidant mutant seedlings. This model system indicated that elevated CAT activity and AsA content were determinants of cryogenic stress tolerance, whose manipulation could improve the recovery of seedlings after cryopreservation. PMID:25489814

  1. QTL affecting stress response to crowding in a rainbow trout broodstock population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Genomic analyses have the potential to impact selective breeding programs by identifying markers that serve as proxies for traits which are expensive or difficult to measure. Also, identifying genes affecting traits of interest enhances our understanding of their underlying biochemical ...

  2. Age and food deprivation affects expression of the glucocorticosteroid stress response in Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Walker, Brian G; Wingfield, John C; Boersma, P Dee

    2005-01-01

    We examined how the glucocortical stress response in free-living Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks changes with age and whether adrenocortical function of chicks within a brood varies in relation to food provisioned by adults. Chicks showed little corticosterone response to capture stress shortly after hatching, an intermediate response around 45-d posthatch, and a robust stress response near fledging. However, in response to an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge, hatchlings were capable of secreting corticosterone at adult-like levels. The larger sibling in broods of two showed a similar gradual stress-response development pattern. In contrast, by day 45, when differences in body condition were well established between siblings, the smaller, food-deprived chicks significantly increased baseline levels of corticosterone but showed normal stress-induced levels. Near fledging, baseline levels had returned to normal, but stress-induced levels were lower than expected. Similar to altricial species, normally developing semialtricial Magellanic penguin chicks do not express a robust corticosterone stress response until near fledging. Chronic stressors such as food deprivation cause corticosterone use to be up-regulated earlier than expected. However, in cases of extended chronic stress, down-regulation may ensue, thus avoiding the negative effects of chronically elevated levels of corticosterone. PMID:15702466

  3. Quantitative trait loci analyses and RNA-seq identify genes affecting stress response in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic analyses have the potential to impact aquaculture production traits by identifying markers as proxies for traits which are expensive or difficult to measure and characterizing genetic variation and biochemical mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation. One such trait is the response of rai...

  4. Neonatal stress affects the aging trajectory of female rats on the endocrine, temperature, and ventilatory responses to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Sébastien; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Baldy, Cécile; Joseph, Vincent; Kinkead, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Human and animal studies on sleep-disordered breathing and respiratory regulation show that the effects of sex hormones are heterogeneous. Because neonatal stress results in sex-specific disruption of the respiratory control in adult rats, we postulate that it might affect respiratory control modulation induced by ovarian steroids in female rats. The hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) of adult female rats exposed to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) is ∼30% smaller than controls (24), but consequences of NMS on respiratory control in aging female rats are unknown. To address this issue, whole body plethysmography was used to evaluate the impact of NMS on the HVR (12% O2, 20 min) of middle-aged (MA; ∼57 wk old) female rats. Pups subjected to NMS were placed in an incubator 3 h/day for 10 consecutive days (P3 to P12). Controls were undisturbed. To determine whether the effects were related to sexual hormone decline or aging per se, experiments were repeated on bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) young (∼12 wk old) adult female rats. OVX and MA both reduced the HVR significantly in control rats but had little effect on the HVR of NMS females. OVX (but not aging) reduced the anapyrexic response in both control and NMS animals. These results show that hormonal decline decreases the HVR of control animals, while leaving that of NMS female animals unaffected. This suggests that neonatal stress alters the interaction between sex hormone regulation and the development of body temperature, hormonal, and ventilatory responses to hypoxia. PMID:25652536

  5. Maternal deprivation in neonatal rats of different conditions affects growth rate, circadian clock, and stress responsiveness differentially.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Ayano; Ohtsuki, Yoshio; Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-Ichi

    2005-09-15

    Effects of periodic maternal deprivation (MD) were examined in rat pups on growth rate, circadian phase and period at weaning, and stress responsiveness in adulthood. MD was performed from postnatal day 1 to day 6 or day 7, with or without keeping ambient temperature at 37 degrees C and humidity at 70-80% during deprivation. Times of day and length of MD were also changed. Body weights were significantly reduced at weaning in MD12 (MD for 12 h) and MD6am (MD for 6 h in the morning) pups, whereas they were not changed in MD6pm (MD in the afternoon) and all MD3 groups. At 8 weeks old, body weight was still significantly lower in MD12 than the control, but not different from the control in other groups. Circadian phases of free-running locomotor rhythm at weaning were almost reversed in MD12, MD6am and MD6pm as compared with those in the control. Intermediate phase-shifts were observed in MD3Eam (3 h MD in the first quarter of the light phase; early am) and MD3Lam (late am; the second quarter), whereas no phase-shift was detected in MD3Epm (early pm; the third quarter) and MD3Lpm (late pm; the fourth quarter). Elevation of plasma corticosterone level after novelty exposure at 8 weeks old was more robustly in MD12 and MD3Lam than in the control, but the hormone response in MD3Lpm was not different from the control. Keeping ambient temperature at 37 degrees C during MD did not rescue the MD-induced body weight loss, but attenuated the phase-shifts of the circadian clock, and completely cancelled the stress-induced hormone response in MD12 rats. These findings indicate that MD in rat pups differentially affects growth rate, circadian clock, and stress responsiveness in adulthood, depending on time of day, length of MD and ambient temperature during MD. PMID:16126237

  6. The duration of gastrin treatment affects global gene expression and molecular responses involved in ER stress and anti-apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background How cells decipher the duration of an external signal into different transcriptional outcomes is poorly understood. The hormone gastrin can promote a variety of cellular responses including proliferation, differentiation, migration and anti-apoptosis. While gastrin in normal concentrations has important physiological functions in the gastrointestine, prolonged high levels of gastrin (hypergastrinemia) is related to pathophysiological processes. Results We have used genome-wide microarray time series analysis and molecular studies to identify genes that are affected by the duration of gastrin treatment in adenocarcinoma cells. Among 403 genes differentially regulated in transiently (gastrin removed after 1 h) versus sustained (gastrin present for 14 h) treated cells, 259 genes upregulated by sustained gastrin treatment compared to untreated controls were expressed at lower levels in the transient mode. The difference was subtle for early genes like Junb and c-Fos, but substantial for delayed and late genes. Inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide was used to distinguish between primary and secondary gastrin regulated genes. The majority of gastrin upregulated genes lower expressed in transiently treated cells were primary genes induced independently of de novo protein synthesis. This indicates that the duration effect of gastrin treatment is mainly mediated via post-translational signalling events, while a smaller fraction of the differentially expressed genes are regulated downstream of primary transcriptional events. Indeed, sustained gastrin treatment specifically induced prolonged ERK1/2 activation and elevated levels of the AP-1 subunit protein JUNB. Enrichment analyses of the differentially expressed genes suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and survival is affected by the duration of gastrin treatment. Sustained treatment exerted an anti-apoptotic effect on serum starvation-induced apoptosis via a PKC-dependent mechanism. In

  7. Chronic exposure to simulated space conditions predominantly affects cytoskeleton remodeling and oxidative stress response in mouse fetal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Beck, Michaël; Moreels, Marjan; Quintens, Roel; Abou-El-Ardat, Khalil; El-Saghire, Hussein; Tabury, Kevin; Michaux, Arlette; Janssen, Ann; Neefs, Mieke; Van Oostveldt, Patrick; De Vos, Winnok H; Baatout, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    Microgravity and cosmic rays as found in space are difficult to recreate on earth. However, ground-based models exist to simulate space flight experiments. In the present study, an experimental model was utilized to monitor gene expression changes in fetal skin fibroblasts of murine origin. Cells were continuously subjected for 65 h to a low dose (55 mSv) of ionizing radiation (IR), comprising a mixture of high‑linear energy transfer (LET) neutrons and low-LET gamma-rays, and/or simulated microgravity using the random positioning machine (RPM), after which microarrays were performed. The data were analyzed both by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and single gene analysis (SGA). Simulated microgravity affected fetal murine fibroblasts by inducing oxidative stress responsive genes. Three of these genes are targets of the nuclear factor‑erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which may play a role in the cell response to simulated microgravity. In addition, simulated gravity decreased the expression of genes involved in cytoskeleton remodeling, which may have been caused by the downregulation of the serum response factor (SRF), possibly through the Rho signaling pathway. Similarly, chronic exposure to low-dose IR caused the downregulation of genes involved in cytoskeleton remodeling, as well as in cell cycle regulation and DNA damage response pathways. Many of the genes or gene sets that were altered in the individual treatments (RPM or IR) were not altered in the combined treatment (RPM and IR), indicating a complex interaction between RPM and IR. PMID:24859186

  8. RpoS differentially affects the general stress response and biofilm formation in the endophytic Serratia plymuthica G3.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Xu, Fang; Halliday, Nigel; Gao, Kexiang; Chan, Kok Gan; Cámara, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The σ(S) subunit RpoS of RNA polymerase functions as a master regulator of the general stress response in Escherichia coli and related bacteria. RpoS has been reported to modulate biocontrol properties in the rhizobacterium Serratia plymuthica IC1270. However, the role of RpoS in the stress response and biofilm formation in S. plymuthica remains largely unknown. Here we studied the role of RpoS from an endophytic S. plymuthica G3 in regulating these phenotypes. Mutational analysis demonstrated that RpoS positively regulates the global stress response to acid or alkaline stresses, oxidative stress, hyperosmolarity, heat shock and carbon starvation, in addition to proteolytic and chitinolytic activities. Interestingly, rpoS mutations resulted in significantly enhanced swimming motility, biofilm formation and production of the plant auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which may contribute to competitive colonization and environmental fitness for survival. These findings provide further insight into the strain-specific role of RpoS in the endophytic strain G3 of S. plymuthica, where it confers resistance to general stresses encountered within the plant environment. The heterogeneous functionality of RpoS in rhizosphere and endophytic S. plymuthica populations may provide a selective advantage for better adaptation to various physiological and environmental stresses. PMID:26671319

  9. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience. PMID:27235953

  10. How mental stress affects endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Toda, Noboru; Nakanishi-Toda, Megumi

    2011-12-01

    Mental stress is an important factor contributing to recognized mechanisms underlying cardiovascular events. Among these, stress-related endothelial dysfunction is an early risk factor that predicts future development of severe cardiovascular disorders. Acute mental stress by a variety of tests impairs endothelial function in humans, although the opposite results have been reported by some investigators. Chronic stress always deteriorates endothelial function in humans and experimental animals. Stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and endothelin-1 liberated in response to mental stress participate in endothelial dysfunction possibly via downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, eNOS inactivation, decreased nitric oxide (NO) actions, and increased NO degradation, together with vasoconstriction counteracting against NO-induced vasodilatation. Catecholamines do not directly affect endothelial function but impair its function when blood pressure elevation by the amines is sustained. Endogenous opioids favorably affect endothelial function, which counteract deteriorating effects of other stress hormones and mediators. Inhibition of cortisol and endothelin-1 production, prevention of pro-inflammatory mediator accumulation, hypnotics, mirthful laughter, humor orientation, and lifestyle modification would contribute to the prevention and treatment for stress-related endothelial dysfunction and future serious cardiovascular disease. PMID:21947555

  11. Mediator tail subunits can form amyloid-like aggregates in vivo and affect stress response in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuefeng; Chen, Lihua; Carlsten, Jonas O. P.; Liu, Qian; Yang, Junsheng; Liu, Beidong; Gustafsson, Claes M.

    2015-01-01

    The Med2, Med3 and Med15 proteins form a heterotrimeric subdomain in the budding yeast Mediator complex. This Med15 module is an important target for many gene specific transcription activators. A previous proteome wide screen in yeast identified Med3 as a protein with priogenic potential. In the present work, we have extended this observation and demonstrate that both Med3 and Med15 form amyloid-like protein aggregates under H2O2 stress conditions. Amyloid formation can also be stimulated by overexpression of Med3 or of a glutamine-rich domain present in Med15, which in turn leads to loss of the entire Med15 module from Mediator and a change in stress response. In combination with genome wide transcription analysis, our data demonstrate that amyloid formation can change the subunit composition of Mediator and thereby influence transcriptional output in budding yeast. PMID:26138482

  12. Estrogen Sulfotransferase Is an Oxidative Stress-responsive Gene That Gender-specifically Affects Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan; Hu, Bingfang; Huang, Hai; Tsung, Allan; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Xu, Meishu; Jiang, Mengxi; Ren, Songrong; Fan, Jie; Billiar, Timothy R.; Huang, Min; Xie, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) regulates estrogen homeostasis by sulfonating and deactivating estrogens. Liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) involves both hypoxia during the ischemic phase and oxidative damage during the reperfusion phase. In this report, we showed that the expression of EST was markedly induced by I/R. Mechanistically, oxidative stress-induced activation of Nrf2 was responsible for the EST induction, which was abolished in Nrf2−/− mice. EST is a direct transcriptional target of Nrf2. In female mice, the I/R-responsive induction of EST compromised estrogen activity. EST ablation attenuated I/R injury as a result of decreased estrogen deprivation, whereas this benefit was abolished upon ovariectomy. The effect of EST ablation was sex-specific because the EST−/− males showed heightened I/R injury. Reciprocally, both estrogens and EST regulate the expression and activity of Nrf2. Estrogen deprivation by ovariectomy abolished the I/R-responsive Nrf2 accumulation, whereas the compromised estrogen deprivation in EST−/− mice was associated with increased Nrf2 accumulation. Our results suggested a novel I/R-responsive feedback mechanism to limit the activity of Nrf2 in which Nrf2 induces the expression of EST, which subsequently increases estrogen deactivation and limits the estrogen-responsive activation of Nrf2. Inhibition of EST, at least in females, may represent an effective approach to manage hepatic I/R injury. PMID:25922074

  13. Estrogen Sulfotransferase Is an Oxidative Stress-responsive Gene That Gender-specifically Affects Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan; Hu, Bingfang; Huang, Hai; Tsung, Allan; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Xu, Meishu; Jiang, Mengxi; Ren, Songrong; Fan, Jie; Billiar, Timothy R; Huang, Min; Xie, Wen

    2015-06-01

    Estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) regulates estrogen homeostasis by sulfonating and deactivating estrogens. Liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) involves both hypoxia during the ischemic phase and oxidative damage during the reperfusion phase. In this report, we showed that the expression of EST was markedly induced by I/R. Mechanistically, oxidative stress-induced activation of Nrf2 was responsible for the EST induction, which was abolished in Nrf2(-/-) mice. EST is a direct transcriptional target of Nrf2. In female mice, the I/R-responsive induction of EST compromised estrogen activity. EST ablation attenuated I/R injury as a result of decreased estrogen deprivation, whereas this benefit was abolished upon ovariectomy. The effect of EST ablation was sex-specific because the EST(-/-) males showed heightened I/R injury. Reciprocally, both estrogens and EST regulate the expression and activity of Nrf2. Estrogen deprivation by ovariectomy abolished the I/R-responsive Nrf2 accumulation, whereas the compromised estrogen deprivation in EST(-/-) mice was associated with increased Nrf2 accumulation. Our results suggested a novel I/R-responsive feedback mechanism to limit the activity of Nrf2 in which Nrf2 induces the expression of EST, which subsequently increases estrogen deactivation and limits the estrogen-responsive activation of Nrf2. Inhibition of EST, at least in females, may represent an effective approach to manage hepatic I/R injury. PMID:25922074

  14. Neutron Radiation Affects the Expression of Genes Involved in the Response to Auxin, Senescence and Oxidative Stress in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunati, A.; Tassone, P.; Migliaccio, F.

    2008-06-01

    Researches were conducted on the effect of neutron radiation on the expression of genes auxin activated or connected with the process of senescence in Arabidopsis plants. The research was done by applying the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The results indicated that the auxin response factors (ARFs) genes are clearly downregulated, whereas the indolacetic acid-induced (Aux/IAAs) genes in some cases were upregulated. By contrast in the mutants for auxin transport aux1 and eir1 the ARFs genes were upregulated. In addition, both in the wildtype and mutants, some already known genes activated by stress and senescence were significantly upregulated. On the basis of these researches we conclude that the process of senescence induced by irradiation is, at least in part, controlled by the physiology of the hormone auxin.

  15. LOV Histidine Kinase Modulates the General Stress Response System and Affects the virB Operon Expression in Brucella abortus

    PubMed Central

    Sycz, Gabriela; Carrica, Mariela Carmen; Tseng, Tong-Seung; Bogomolni, Roberto A.; Briggs, Winslow R.; Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Paris, Gastón

    2015-01-01

    Brucella is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease brucellosis, and its success as an intracellular pathogen relies on its ability to adapt to the harsh environmental conditions that it encounters inside the host. The Brucella genome encodes a sensor histidine kinase containing a LOV domain upstream from the kinase, LOVHK, which plays an important role in light-regulated Brucella virulence. In this report we study the intracellular signaling pathway initiated by the light sensor LOVHK using an integrated biochemical and genetic approach. From results of bacterial two-hybrid assays and phosphotransfer experiments we demonstrate that LOVHK functionally interacts with two response regulators: PhyR and LovR, constituting a functional two-component signal-transduction system. LOVHK contributes to the activation of the General Stress Response (GSR) system in Brucella via PhyR, while LovR is proposed to be a phosphate-sink for LOVHK, decreasing its phosphorylation state. We also show that in the absence of LOVHK the expression of the virB operon is down-regulated. In conclusion, our results suggest that LOVHK positively regulates the GSR system in vivo, and has an effect on the expression of the virB operon. The proposed regulatory network suggests a similar role for LOVHK in other microorganisms. PMID:25993430

  16. LPS-induced neonatal stress in mice affects the response profile to an inflammatory stimulus in an age and sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Barth, Cristiane R; Luft, Carolina; Funchal, Giselle A; de Oliveira, Jarbas R; Porto, Bárbara N; Donadio, Márcio V F

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the response to an inflammatory stimulus in mice exposed to LPS-induced neonatal stress at different ages and sexes. Balb/c mice were submitted to intraperitoneal injections on postnatal days 3 and 10 with lipopolysaccharide (nLPS) or saline solution (nSal). At 21 or 60 days, either saline solution was injected or an inflammatory stimulus was induced by the injection of 1% carrageenan. Inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) production were measured in peritoneal fluid. LPS-induced neonatal stress can reduce inflammatory cytokines in males and females. An increase in NETs production was observed when 60 day nLPS animals were compared to 21 day mice in both sexes. The ROS production was not affected by neonatal stress. The results shown here indicate that LPS-induced neonatal stress can alter cytokine production in response to inflammatory stimuli at different ages, in a sex-dependent effect. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 600-613, 2016. PMID:26956468

  17. General stress response signaling

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yi-Xin; Rosenthal, Adam Z.; Gralla, Jay D.

    2008-01-01

    E. coli responds to stress by a combination of specific and general transcription signaling pathways. The general pathways typically require the master stress regulator sigma38 (rpoS). Here we show that the signaling from multiple stresses that relax DNA is processed by a non-conserved 8 amino acid tail of the sigma 38 C-terminal domain (CTD). By contrast, responses to stresses that accumulate potassium glutamate do not rely on this short tail, but still require the overall CTD. In vitro transcription and footprinting studies suggest that multiple stresses can target a poised RNA polymerase and activate it by unwrapping DNA from a nucleosome-like state, allowing the RNA polymerase to escape into productive mode. This transition can be accomplished by either the DNA relaxation or potassium glutamate accumulation that characterizes many stresses. PMID:18761624

  18. Severity and timing: How prenatal stress exposure affects glial developmental, emotional behavioural and plasma neurosteroid responses in guinea pig offspring.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Greer A; Palliser, Hannah K; Walker, David; Hirst, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of developmental changes in offspring, notably those associated with brain development and subsequent risk for neuropathologies later in life. Recently, the importance of the timing and the severity of the stressor during pregnancy has been emphasized with neurosteroids including allopregnanolone implicated in the regulation of stress and also for endogenous neuroprotection in offspring. Prenatal stress was induced using strobe light exposure in pregnant guinea pigs (term 71days) in three defined stress exposure groups (Gestational Age (GA)35-65, GA50-65 and GA60-65). Stress was induced for 2h (9-11am) every 5days via strobe light exposure. A fetal cohort were euthanased at term with fetal brains and plasma collected. Anxiety-like behaviour was evaluated at 18 days of age in a separate cohort of offspring with brains and plasma collected at 21days of age. Markers for mature oligodendrocytes and reactive astrocytes were measured in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and the subcortical white matter. The neurosteroid allopregnanolone was measured by radioimmunoassay in offspring plasma. In the CA1 region of the hippocampus, fetuses from all stress groups showed reduced expression of mature oligodendrocytes and reactive astrocytes. By juvenility, all male stress exposure groups had recovered to levels of unaffected controls with the exception of the GA35-65 stress group. In juvenile females, mature oligodendrocyte marker expression was reduced in all stress groups and reactive astrocyte expression was reduced in the GA35-65 and GA60-65 stress groups by juvenility. Increased reactive astrocyte expression was also apparent in the subcortical white matter in both sexes both at term and at juvenility. Prenatally stressed offspring spent less time exploring in the object exploration test and also entered the inner zone of the open field less than controls at 18days of age. Circulating allopregnanolone concentrations were

  19. Will Stress during Pregnancy Affect My Baby?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Will stress during pregnancy affect my baby? Skip sharing on ... health care provider during your prenatal visits. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Pregnancy PTSD is a more ...

  20. Chronic stress exposure may affect the brain's response to high calorie food cues and predispose to obesogenic eating habits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exaggerated reactivity to food cues involving calorically-dense foods may significantly contribute to food consumption beyond caloric need Exaggerated reactivity to food cues involving calorically-dense foods may significantly contribute to food consumption beyond caloric need. Chronic stress, whi...

  1. Auxin response under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Naser, Victoria; Shani, Eilon

    2016-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) is a small organic molecule that coordinates many of the key processes in plant development and adaptive growth. Plants regulate the auxin response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, transport and perception. One of the most striking aspects of plant plasticity is the modulation of development in response to changing growth environments. In this review, we explore recent findings correlating auxin response-dependent growth and development with osmotic stresses. Studies of water deficit, dehydration, salt, and other osmotic stresses point towards direct and indirect molecular perturbations in the auxin pathway. Osmotic stress stimuli modulate auxin responses by affecting auxin biosynthesis (YUC, TAA1), transport (PIN), perception (TIR/AFB, Aux/IAA), and inactivation/conjugation (GH3, miR167, IAR3) to coordinate growth and patterning. In turn, stress-modulated auxin gradients drive physiological and developmental mechanisms such as stomata aperture, aquaporin and lateral root positioning. We conclude by arguing that auxin-mediated growth inhibition under abiotic stress conditions is one of the developmental and physiological strategies to acclimate to the changing environment. PMID:27052306

  2. Waterlogging and submergence stress: affects and acclimation.

    PubMed

    Phukan, Ujjal J; Mishra, Sonal; Shukla, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Submergence, whether partial or complete, imparts some serious consequences on plants grown in flood prone ecosystems. Some plants can endure these conditions by embracing various survival strategies, including morphological adaptations and physiological adjustments. This review summarizes recent progress made in understanding of the stress and the acclimation responses of plants under waterlogged or submerged conditions. Waterlogging and submergence are often associated with hypoxia development, which may trigger various morphological traits and cellular acclimation responses. Ethylene, abscisic acid, gibberellic acid and other hormones play a crucial role in the survival process which is controlled genetically. Effects at the cellular level, including ATP management, starch metabolism, elemental toxicity, role of transporters and redox status have been explained. Transcriptional and hormonal interplay during this stress may provide some key aspects in understanding waterlogging and submergence tolerance. The level and degree of tolerance may vary depending on species or climatic variations which need to be studied for a proper understanding of waterlogging stress at the global level. The exploration of regulatory pathways and interplay in model organisms such as Arabidopsis and rice would provide valuable resources for improvement of economically and agriculturally important plants in waterlogging affected areas. PMID:26177332

  3. Effects of mu and delta opioid agonists and antagonists on affective vocal and reflexive pain responses during social stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Vivian, J A; Miczek, K A

    1998-10-01

    The present experiments evaluated the influence of intraventricular mu and delta opioid receptors on affective vocal and reflexive responses to aversive stimuli in socially inexperienced, as well as defensive and submissive responses in defeated, adult male Long-Evans rats. Defeat stress consisted of: (1) an aggressive confrontation in which the experimental intruder rat exhibited escape, defensive and submissive behaviors [i.e., upright, supine postures and ultrasonic vocalizations (USV)], and subsequently, (2) protection from the resident stimulus rat with a wire mesh screen for 10-20 min. Defeat stress was immediately followed by an experimental session with tactile startle (20 psi). The mu opioid receptor agonists morphine (0.1-0.6 microg i.c.v.) and [D-Ala2-N-Me-Phe4-Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO; 0.01-0.3 microg i.c.v.), and the delta opioid receptor agonist [D-Pen2,5]-enkephalin (DPDPE; 10-100 microg i.c.v.) dose-dependently decreased startle-induced USV and increased tail-flick latencies in socially inexperienced and defeated rats. Of greater interest, morphine, DAMGO and DPDPE increased the occurrence of the submissive crouch posture, and defeated rats were more sensitive than socially inexperienced rats to the startle-induced USV-suppressive and antinociceptive effects of morphine and DPDPE. The antinociceptive effects of DAMGO were likewise obtained at lower doses in defeated rats. Finally, the USV-suppressive effects of morphine and DAMGO were reversed with the mu receptor antagonist naltrexone (0.1 mg/kg i.p.), but the USV-suppressive effects produced by DPDPE were not reversed with the delta receptor antagonist naltrindole (1 mg/kg i.p.). These results confirm mu, but not delta opioid receptor activation as significant in affective vocal, passive-submissive behavior, as well as reflexive antinociception. Furthermore, similar to previous studies with restraint and electric shock stress, the facilitation of mu opioid effects on vocal responses and

  4. Quantitative trait loci affecting response to crowding stress in an F2 generation of rainbow trout produced through phenotypic selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding programs for salmonids typically aim to improve traits associated with growth and disease resistance. It has been established that stressors common to production environments can adversely affect these and other traits which are important to producers and consumers. Previously,...

  5. Stress Responses of Shewanella

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jianhua; Gao, Haichun

    2011-01-01

    The shewanellae are ubiquitous in aquatic and sedimentary systems that are chemically stratified on a permanent or seasonal basis. In addition to their ability to utilize a diverse array of terminal electron acceptors, the microorganisms have evolved both common and unique responding mechanisms to cope with various stresses. This paper focuses on the response and adaptive mechanism of the shewanellae, largely based on transcriptional data. PMID:21912550

  6. The surgically induced stress response.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Celeste C; Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Ali, Arham; Kozar, Rosemary A; Herndon, David N

    2013-09-01

    The stress response to surgery, critical illness, trauma, and burns encompasses derangements of metabolic and physiological processes that induce perturbations in the inflammatory, acute phase, hormonal, and genomic responses. Hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism result, leading to muscle wasting, impaired immune function and wound healing, organ failure, and death. The surgery-induced stress response is largely similar to that triggered by traumatic injuries; the duration of the stress response, however, varies according to the severity of injury (surgical or traumatic). This spectrum of injuries and insults ranges from small lacerations to severe insults such as large poly-traumatic and burn injuries. Burn injuries provide an extreme model of trauma induced stress responses that can be used to study the long-term effects of a prolonged stress response. Although the stress response to acute trauma evolved to confer improved chances of survival following injury, in modern surgical practice the stress response can be detrimental. PMID:24009246

  7. Pre-pubertal stress exposure affects adult behavioral response in association with changes in circulating corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Bazak, Noam; Kozlovsky, Nitsan; Kaplan, Zeev; Matar, Michael; Golan, Hava; Zohar, Joseph; Richter-Levin, Gal; Cohen, Hagit

    2009-07-01

    Early-life stress produces a cascade of neurobiological events that cause enduring changes in neural plasticity and synaptic efficacy that appear to play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the neurobiological mechanisms of these changes, in interaction with components of the stress response, such as corticosterone. This study examined the consequences of juvenile stress for behavior during adulthood in association with circulating corticosterone levels and BDNF expression. The experiments examined single exposure to predator scent stress (soiled cat litter for 10 min) as compared to repeated exposure, early in life and later on. Behavioral responses were assessed in the elevated plus maze and the acoustic startle response paradigms at 28, 60 and 90 days of age. Plasma corticosterone was measured and brain areas analyzed for BDNF levels. The results show that juvenile stress exposure increased anxiety-like behavior and startle amplitude and decreased plasma corticosterone. This response was seen immediately after exposure and also long term. Adult stress exposure increased anxiety-like behavior, startle amplitude and plasma corticosterone. Exposure to both early and later life trauma elicited reduced levels of corticosterone following the initial exposure, which were not raised by re-exposure, and elicited significant downregulation of BDNF mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus CA1 subregion. The consequences of adult stress exposure were more severe in rats were exposed to the same stressor as juveniles, indicated increased vulnerability. The results suggest that juvenile stress has resounding effects in adulthood reflected in behavioral responses. The concomitant changes in BDNF and corticosterone levels may mediate the changes in neural plasticity and synaptic functioning underlying clinical manifestations of PTSD. PMID:19181453

  8. The application of ascorbate or its immediate precursor, galactono-1,4-lactone, does not affect the response of nitrogen-fixing pea nodules to water stress.

    PubMed

    Zabalza, Ana; Gálvez, Loli; Marino, Daniel; Royuela, Mercedes; Arrese-Igor, Cesar; González, Esther M

    2008-05-26

    Nitrogen fixation in legumes is dramatically inhibited by abiotic stresses, and this reduction is often associated with oxidative damage. Although ascorbate (ASC) has been firmly associated with antioxidant defence, recent studies have suggested that the functions of ASC are related primarily to developmental processes. This study examines the hypothesis that ASC is involved in alleviating the oxidative damage to nodules caused by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) under water stress. The hypothesis was tested by supplying 5mM ASC to pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) experiencing moderate water stress (ca. -1 MPa) and monitoring plant responses in relation to those experiencing the same water stress without ASC. A supply of exogenous ASC increased the nodule ASC+dehydroascorbate (DHA) pool compared to water-stressed nodules without ASC, and significantly modulated the response to water stress of the unspecific guaiacol peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) in leaves and nodules. However, ASC supply did not produce recovery from water stress in other nodule antioxidant enzymes, nodule carbon and nitrogen enzymes, or nitrogen fixation. The supply of the immediate ASC precursor, galactono-1,4-lactone (GL), increased the nodule ASC+DHA pool, but also failed to prevent the decline of nitrogen fixation and the reduction of carbon flux in nodules. These results suggest that ASC has a limited role in preventing the negative effects of water stress on nodule metabolism and nitrogen fixation. PMID:17931744

  9. Staphylococcal response to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Gaupp, Rosmarie; Ledala, Nagender; Somerville, Greg A.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococci are a versatile genus of bacteria that are capable of causing acute and chronic infections in diverse host species. The success of staphylococci as pathogens is due in part to their ability to mitigate endogenous and exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress. Endogenous oxidative stress is a consequence of life in an aerobic environment; whereas, exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress are often due to the bacteria's interaction with host immune systems. To overcome the deleterious effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress, staphylococci have evolved protection, detoxification, and repair mechanisms that are controlled by a network of regulators. In this review, we summarize the cellular targets of oxidative stress, the mechanisms by which staphylococci sense oxidative stress and damage, oxidative stress protection and repair mechanisms, and regulation of the oxidative stress response. When possible, special attention is given to how the oxidative stress defense mechanisms help staphylococci control oxidative stress in the host. PMID:22919625

  10. The Surgically Induced Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Finnerty, Celeste C.; Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Ali, Arham; Kozar, Rosemary A.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    The stress response to surgery, critical illness, trauma, and burns encompasses derangements of metabolic and physiological processes which induce perturbations in the inflammatory, acute phase, hormonal, and genomic responses. Hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism result, leading to muscle wasting, impaired immune function and wound healing, organ failure, and death. The surgery-induced stress response is largely similar to that triggered by traumatic injuries; the duration of the stress response, however, varies according to the severity of injury (surgical or traumatic). This spectrum of injuries and insults ranges from small lacerations to severe insults such as large poly-traumatic and burn injuries. Although the stress response to acute trauma evolved to improve chances of survival following injury, in modern surgical practice the stress response can be detrimental. PMID:24009246

  11. Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Catherine J; Butawan, Matthew; Yordy, Jennifer; Ball, Ray; Flewelling, Leanne; de Wit, Martine; Bonde, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of Florida's southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (p<0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the wild impacts some immune function components, and thus, overall health, in the Florida manatee. PMID:25678466

  12. Unconscious Affective Responses to Food.

    PubMed

    Sato, Wataru; Sawada, Reiko; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi; Fushiki, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Affective or hedonic responses to food are crucial for humans, both advantageously (e.g., enhancing survival) and disadvantageously (e.g., promoting overeating and lifestyle-related disease). Although previous psychological studies have reported evidence of unconscious cognitive and behavioral processing related to food, it remains unknown whether affective reactions to food can be triggered unconsciously and its relationship with daily eating behaviors. We investigated these issues by using the subliminal affective priming paradigm. Photographs of food or corresponding mosaic images were presented in the peripheral visual field for 33 ms. Target photos of faces with emotionally neutral expressions were then presented, and participants rated their preferences for the faces. Eating behaviors were also assessed using questionnaires. The food images, relative to the mosaics, increased participants' preference for subsequent target faces. Furthermore, the difference in the preference induced by food versus mosaic images was positively correlated with the tendency to engage in external eating. These results suggest that unconscious affective reactions are elicited by the sight of food and that these responses contribute to daily eating behaviors related to overeating. PMID:27501443

  13. Unconscious Affective Responses to Food

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Wataru; Sawada, Reiko; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi; Fushiki, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Affective or hedonic responses to food are crucial for humans, both advantageously (e.g., enhancing survival) and disadvantageously (e.g., promoting overeating and lifestyle-related disease). Although previous psychological studies have reported evidence of unconscious cognitive and behavioral processing related to food, it remains unknown whether affective reactions to food can be triggered unconsciously and its relationship with daily eating behaviors. We investigated these issues by using the subliminal affective priming paradigm. Photographs of food or corresponding mosaic images were presented in the peripheral visual field for 33 ms. Target photos of faces with emotionally neutral expressions were then presented, and participants rated their preferences for the faces. Eating behaviors were also assessed using questionnaires. The food images, relative to the mosaics, increased participants’ preference for subsequent target faces. Furthermore, the difference in the preference induced by food versus mosaic images was positively correlated with the tendency to engage in external eating. These results suggest that unconscious affective reactions are elicited by the sight of food and that these responses contribute to daily eating behaviors related to overeating. PMID:27501443

  14. Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion

    PubMed Central

    Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Fiebach, Christian J.

    2014-01-01

    Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect. PMID:24834024

  15. Protein Degradation and the Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Flick, Karin; Kaiser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Environmental stresses are manifold and so are the responses they elicit. This is particularly true for higher eukaryotes where various tissues and cell types are differentially affected by the insult. Type and scope of the stress response can therefore differ greatly among cell types. Given the importance of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) for most cellular processes, it comes as no surprise that the UPR plays a pivotal role in counteracting the effects of stressors. Here we outline contributions of the UPS to stress sensing, signaling, and response pathways. We make no claim to comprehensiveness but choose selected examples to illustrate concepts and mechanisms by which protein modification with ubiquitin and proteasomal degradation of key regulators ensures cellular integrity during stress situations. PMID:22414377

  16. Subjective Stress, Salivary Cortisol, and Electrophysiological Responses to Psychological Stress

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Mingming; Gao, Heming; Guan, Lili; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the subjective stress, salivary cortisol, and electrophysiological responses to psychological stress induced by a modified version of a mental arithmetic task. Fifteen participants were asked to estimate whether the multiplication product of two-decimal numbers was above 10 or not either with a time limit (the stress condition) or without a time limit (the control condition). The results showed that participants reported higher levels of stress, anxiety, and negative affect in the stress condition than they did in the control condition. Moreover, the salivary cortisol level continued to increase after the stress condition but exhibited a sharp decrease after the control condition. In addition, the electrophysiological data showed that the amplitude of the frontal-central N1 component was larger for the stress condition than it was for the control condition, while the amplitude of the frontal-central P2 component was larger for the control condition than it was for the stress condition. Our study suggests that the psychological stress characteristics of time pressure and social-evaluative threat caused dissociable effects on perception and on the subsequent attentional resource allocation of visual information. PMID:26925026

  17. Acute Effects of Brisk Walking on Sugary Snack Cravings in Overweight People, Affect and Responses to a Manipulated Stress Situation and to a Sugary Snack Cue: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Ledochowski, Larissa; Ruedl, Gerhard; Taylor, Adrian H.; Kopp, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that acute exercise reduces urges for chocolate in normal weight people. This study aimed to examine the effects of an acute exercise bout on urges to consume sugary snacks, affect as well as ‘psychological and physiological responses’ to stress and a ‘sugary snack cue’, in overweight individuals. Following 3 days of chocolate-abstinence, 47 overweight, sugary snack consumers were assessed, in 2 randomly ordered conditions, in a within-subject design: 15-min brisk walk or passive control. Following each, participants completed 2 tasks: Stroop color–word interference task, and handling sugary snacks. Urges for sugary snacks, affective activation and valence were assessed. ANOVAs revealed significant condition x time interaction effects for: urges to consume sugary snacks, affective valence and activation. Obtained data show that exercise reduces urges for sugary snacks and attenuates urges in response to the stress situation and the cue in overweight people. PMID:25760042

  18. Neuronal responses to physiological stress.

    PubMed

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner chemistry during normal development. For example, conditions such as intrinsic hypoxia and oxidative stress, due to an increase in tissue mass, have to be confronted by developing embryos in order to complete their development. Finally, organisms face the challenge of stochastic accumulation of molecular damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses include changes in the expression of molecules such as transcription factors and microRNAs that regulate stress resistance and adaptation. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic stresses have a tremendous impact on neuronal development and maintenance with implications in many diseases. Here, we review the responses of neurons to various physiological stressors at the molecular and cellular level. PMID:23112806

  19. Neuronal Responses to Physiological Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner chemistry during normal development. For example, conditions such as intrinsic hypoxia and oxidative stress, due to an increase in tissue mass, have to be confronted by developing embryos in order to complete their development. Finally, organisms face the challenge of stochastic accumulation of molecular damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses include changes in the expression of molecules such as transcription factors and microRNAs that regulate stress resistance and adaptation. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic stresses have a tremendous impact on neuronal development and maintenance with implications in many diseases. Here, we review the responses of neurons to various physiological stressors at the molecular and cellular level. PMID:23112806

  20. Plant responses to water stress

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Rup Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial plants most often encounter drought stress because of erratic rainfall which has become compounded due to present climatic changes.Responses of plants to water stress may be assigned as either injurious change or tolerance index. One of the primary and cardinal changes in response to drought stress is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is being considered as the cause of cellular damage. However, recently a signaling role of such ROS in triggering the ROS scavenging system that may confer protection or tolerance against stress is emerging. Such scavenging system consists of antioxidant enzymes like SOD, catalase and peroxidases, and antioxidant compounds like ascorbate, reduced glutathione; a balance between ROS generation and scavenging ultimately determines the oxidative load. As revealed in case of defence against pathogen, signaling via ROS is initiated by NADPH oxidase-catalyzed superoxide generation in the apoplastic space (cell wall) followed by conversion to hydrogen peroxide by the activity of cell wall-localized SOD. Wall peroxidase may also play role in ROS generation for signaling. Hydrogen peroxide may use Ca2+ and MAPK pathway as downstream signaling cascade. Plant hormones associated with stress responses like ABA and ethylene play their role possibly via a cross talk with ROS towards stress tolerance, thus projecting a dual role of ROS under drought stress. PMID:22057331

  1. EATING BEHAVIOR IN RESPONSE TO ACUTE STRESS.

    PubMed

    Mocanu, Veronica; Bontea, Amalia; Anton-Păduraru, Dana-teodora

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a medical and social problem with a dramatically increasing prevalence. It is important to take action since childhood to prevent and treat obesity and metabolic syndrome. Infantile obesity affects all body systems starting in childhood and continuing to adulthood. Understanding the impact of stressors on weight status may be especially important for preventing obesity. The relationship between stress, eating behavior and obesity is not fully understood. However, there is evidence that stress causes disorders in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, system that regulates both stress and feeding responses. Also, the response is different depending on the type of stressors. Chronic stress, especially when people live in a palatable food environment, induces HPA stimulation, excess glucocorticoids, insulin resistance, which lead to inhibition of lipid mobilization, accumulation of triglyceride and retention of abdominal fat. PMID:27483696

  2. The Chlamydomonas heat stress response.

    PubMed

    Schroda, Michael; Hemme, Dorothea; Mühlhaus, Timo

    2015-05-01

    Heat waves occurring at increased frequency as a consequence of global warming jeopardize crop yield safety. One way to encounter this problem is to genetically engineer crop plants toward increased thermotolerance. To identify entry points for genetic engineering, a thorough understanding of how plant cells perceive heat stress and respond to it is required. Using the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model system to study the fundamental mechanisms of the plant heat stress response has several advantages. Most prominent among them is the suitability of Chlamydomonas for studying stress responses system-wide and in a time-resolved manner under controlled conditions. Here we review current knowledge on how heat is sensed and signaled to trigger temporally and functionally grouped sub-responses termed response elements to prevent damage and to maintain cellular homeostasis in plant cells. PMID:25754362

  3. Osmotic stress at the barley root affects expression of circadian clock genes in the shoot.

    PubMed

    Habte, Ermias; Müller, Lukas M; Shtaya, Munqez; Davis, Seth J; von Korff, Maria

    2014-06-01

    The circadian clock is an important timing system that controls physiological responses to abiotic stresses in plants. However, there is little information on the effects of the clock on stress adaptation in important crops, like barley. In addition, we do not know how osmotic stress perceived at the roots affect the shoot circadian clock. Barley genotypes, carrying natural variation at the photoperiod response and clock genes Ppd-H1 and HvELF3, were grown under control and osmotic stress conditions to record changes in the diurnal expression of clock and stress-response genes and in physiological traits. Variation at HvELF3 affected the expression phase and shape of clock and stress-response genes, while variation at Ppd-H1 only affected the expression levels of stress genes. Osmotic stress up-regulated expression of clock and stress-response genes and advanced their expression peaks. Clock genes controlled the expression of stress-response genes, but had minor effects on gas exchange and leaf transpiration. This study demonstrated that osmotic stress at the barley root altered clock gene expression in the shoot and acted as a spatial input signal into the clock. Unlike in Arabidopsis, barley primary assimilation was less controlled by the clock and more responsive to environmental perturbations, such as osmotic stress. PMID:24895755

  4. Drought stress responses in crops.

    PubMed

    Shanker, Arun K; Maheswari, M; Yadav, S K; Desai, S; Bhanu, Divya; Attal, Neha Bajaj; Venkateswarlu, B

    2014-03-01

    Among the effects of impending climate change, drought will have a profound impact on crop productivity in the future. Response to drought stress has been studied widely, and the model plant Arabidopsis has guided the studies on crop plants with genome sequence information viz., rice, wheat, maize and sorghum. Since the value of functions of genes, dynamics of pathways and interaction of networks for drought tolerance in plants can only be judged by evidence from field performance, this mini-review provides a research update focussing on the current developments on the response to drought in crop plants. Studies in Arabidopsis provide the basis for interpreting the available information in a systems biology perspective. In particular, the elucidation of the mechanism of drought stress response in crops is considered from evidence-based outputs emerging from recent omic studies in crops. PMID:24408129

  5. Plant Responses to Nanoparticle Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Zahed; Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed substantially in understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against various stresses by providing a link between gene expression and cell metabolism. As the coding regions of genome are responsible for plant adaptation to adverse conditions, protein signatures provide insights into the phytotoxicity of NPs at proteome level. This review summarizes the recent contributions of plant proteomic research to elaborate the complex molecular pathways of plant response to NPs stress. PMID:26561803

  6. Vaccination pattern affects immunological response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etchegoin, P. G.

    2005-08-01

    The response of the immune system to different vaccination patterns is studied with a simple model. It is argued that the history and characteristics of the pattern defines very different secondary immune responses in the case of infection. The memory function of the immune response can be set to work in very different modes depending on the pattern followed during immunizations. It is argued that the history and pattern of immunizations can be a decisive (and experimentally accessible) factor to tailor the effectiveness of a specific vaccine.

  7. Ralstonia solanacearum ΔPGI-1 strain KZR-5 is affected in growth, response to cold stress and invasion of tomato.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Patricia; van Overbeek, Leonard Simon; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The survival and persistence of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 in temperate climates is still poorly understood. To assess whether genomic variants of the organism show adaptation to local conditions, we compared the behaviour of environmental strain KZR-5, which underwent a deletion of the 17.6 kb genomic island PGI-1, with that of environmental strain KZR-1 and potato-derived strains 1609 and 715. PGI-1 harbours two genes of potential ecological relevance, i.e. one encoding a hypothetical protein with a RelA/SpoT domain and one a putative cellobiohydrolase. We thus assessed bacterial fate under conditions of amino acid starvation, during growth, upon incubation at low temperature and invasion of tomato plants. In contrast to the other strains, environmental strain KZR-5 did not grow on media that induce amino acid starvation. In addition, its maximum growth rate at 28°C in rich medium was significantly reduced. On the other hand, long-term survival at 4°C was significantly enhanced as compared to that of strains 1609, 715 and KZR-1. Although strain KZR-5 showed growth rates (at 28°C) in two different media, which were similar to those of strains 1609 and 715, its ability to compete with these strains under these conditions was reduced. In singly inoculated tomato plants, no significant differences in invasiveness were observed among strains KZR-5, KZR-1, 1609 and 715. However, reduced competitiveness of strain KZR-5 was found in experiments on tomato plant colonisation and wilting when using 1:1 or 5:1 mixtures of strains. The potential role of PGI-1 in plant invasion, response to stress and growth in competition at high and moderate temperatures is discussed. PMID:20717661

  8. The Stress Response Regulator AflSkn7 Influences Morphological Development, Stress Response, and Pathogenicity in the Fungus Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Xu, Gaopo; Geng, Longpo; Lu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Kunlong; Yuan, Jun; Nie, Xinyi; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on AflSkn7, which is a stress response regulator in the aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. The ΔAflSkn7 mutants exhibited partially defective conidial formation and a complete inability to generate sclerotia, indicating AflSkn7 affects A. flavus asexual and sexual development. The mutants tolerated osmotic stress but were partially susceptible to the effects of cell wall stress. Additionally, the ΔAflSkn7 mutants were especially sensitive to oxidative stress. These observations confirmed that AflSkn7 influences oxidative stress responses rather than osmotic stress responses. Additionally, AflSkn7 was observed to increase aflatoxin biosynthesis and seed infection rates. These results indicate AflSkn7 affects A. flavus morphological development, stress response, aflatoxin production, and pathogenicity. The results of this study may facilitate the development of new methods to manage A. flavus infections. PMID:27399770

  9. The Stress Response Regulator AflSkn7 Influences Morphological Development, Stress Response, and Pathogenicity in the Fungus Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Xu, Gaopo; Geng, Longpo; Lu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Kunlong; Yuan, Jun; Nie, Xinyi; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on AflSkn7, which is a stress response regulator in the aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. The ΔAflSkn7 mutants exhibited partially defective conidial formation and a complete inability to generate sclerotia, indicating AflSkn7 affects A. flavus asexual and sexual development. The mutants tolerated osmotic stress but were partially susceptible to the effects of cell wall stress. Additionally, the ΔAflSkn7 mutants were especially sensitive to oxidative stress. These observations confirmed that AflSkn7 influences oxidative stress responses rather than osmotic stress responses. Additionally, AflSkn7 was observed to increase aflatoxin biosynthesis and seed infection rates. These results indicate AflSkn7 affects A. flavus morphological development, stress response, aflatoxin production, and pathogenicity. The results of this study may facilitate the development of new methods to manage A. flavus infections. PMID:27399770

  10. The Plant Heat Stress Transcription Factors (HSFs): Structure, Regulation, and Function in Response to Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Meng; Liu, Jin-Hong; Ma, Xiao; Luo, De-Xu; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Lu, Ming-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as high temperature, salinity, and drought adversely affect the survival, growth, and reproduction of plants. Plants respond to such unfavorable changes through developmental, physiological, and biochemical ways, and these responses require expression of stress-responsive genes, which are regulated by a network of transcription factors (TFs), including heat stress transcription factors (HSFs). HSFs play a crucial role in plants response to several abiotic stresses by regulating the expression of stress-responsive genes, such as heat shock proteins (Hsps). In this review, we describe the conserved structure of plant HSFs, the identification of HSF gene families from various plant species, their expression profiling under abiotic stress conditions, regulation at different levels and function in abiotic stresses. Despite plant HSFs share highly conserved structure, their remarkable diversification across plants reflects their numerous functions as well as their integration into the complex stress signaling and response networks, which can be employed in crop improvement strategies via biotechnological intervention. PMID:26904076

  11. Mental Stress in Atopic Dermatitis – Neuronal Plasticity and the Cholinergic System Are Affected in Atopic Dermatitis and in Response to Acute Experimental Mental Stress in a Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Eva Milena Johanne; Michenko, Anna; Kupfer, Jörg; Kummer, Wolfgang; Wiegand, Silke; Niemeier, Volker; Potekaev, Nikolay; Lvov, Andrey; Gieler, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Rationale In mouse models for atopic dermatitis (AD) hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) dysfunction and neuropeptide-dependent neurogenic inflammation explain stress-aggravated flares to some extent. Lately, cholinergic signaling has emerged as a link between innate and adaptive immunity as well as stress responses in chronic inflammatory diseases. Here we aim to determine in humans the impact of acute stress on neuro-immune interaction as well as on the non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS). Methods Skin biopsies were obtained from 22 individuals (AD patients and matched healthy control subjects) before and after the Trier social stress test (TSST). To assess neuro-immune interaction, nerve fiber (NF)-density, NF-mast cell contacts and mast cell activation were determined by immunohistomorphometry. To evaluate NNCS effects, expression of secreted mammal Ly-6/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor-related protein (SLURP) 1 and 2 (endogenous nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands) and their main corresponding receptors were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. Results With respect to neuro-immune interaction we found higher numbers of NGF+ dermal NF in lesional compared to non-lesional AD but lower numbers of Gap43+ growing NF at baseline. Mast cell-NF contacts correlated with SCORAD and itch in lesional skin. With respect to the NNCS, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 (α7nAChR) mRNA was significantly lower in lesional AD skin at baseline. After TSST, PGP 9.5+ NF numbers dropped in lesional AD as did their contacts with mast cells. NGF+ NF now correlated with SCORAD and mast cell-NF contacts with itch in non-lesional skin. At the same time, SLURP-2 levels increased in lesional AD skin. Conclusions In humans chronic inflammatory and highly acute psycho-emotional stress interact to modulate cutaneous neuro-immune communication and NNCS marker expression. These findings may have consequences for understanding and treatment of chronic inflammatory

  12. The bacterial translation stress response

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Agata L.; Lassak, Jürgen; Jung, Kirsten; Wilson, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    Throughout their life, bacteria need to sense and respond to environmental stress. Thus, such stress responses can require dramatic cellular reprogramming, both at the transcriptional as well as the translational level. This review focuses on the protein factors that interact with the bacterial translational apparatus in order to respond to and cope with different types of environmental stress. For example, the stringent factor RelA interacts with the ribosome to generate ppGpp under nutrient deprivation, whereas a variety of factors have been identified that bind to the ribosome under unfavorable growth conditions to shut-down (RelE, pY, RMF, HPF and EttA) or re-program (MazF, EF4 and BipA) translation. Additional factors have been identified that rescue ribosomes stalled due to stress-induced mRNA truncation (tmRNA, ArfA, ArfB), translation of unfavorable protein sequences (EF-P), heat shock induced subunit dissociation (Hsp15) or antibiotic inhibition (TetM, FusB). Understanding the mechanism of how the bacterial cell responds to stress will not only provide fundamental insight into translation regulation, but will also be an important step to identifying new targets for the development of novel antimicrobial agents. PMID:25135187

  13. Positive Affect and Stress Reactivity in Alcohol-Dependent Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Kaufman, Julia S.; Frost, Katherine H.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Reactivity to stress is a common feature of alcohol dependence and is associated with poorer treatment outcome among alcohol-dependent patients. Despite the importance of stress reactivity in alcohol dependence, little is known about markers of resilience to stress in this population. The current study examined whether positive affect buffered the effect of stress on negative affect and alcohol craving in an alcohol-dependent sample. Method: Outpatients (N = 1,375) enrolled in a large, randomized controlled trial for alcohol dependence (the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence [COMBINE] Study) completed measures of stress, positive affect, negative affect, and alcohol craving. In this secondary analysis, we hypothesized that positive affect would moderate the association between stress and negative affect and that positive affect would be negatively associated with craving. Results: Results supported these hypotheses, such that patients with higher levels of positive affect exhibited a weaker relationship between stress and negative affect relative to those with low positive affect. Positive affect was negatively associated with craving but did not moderate the association between stress and craving. Conclusions: These results replicate studies suggesting a protective effect of positive affect on stress reactivity and extend this effect to an alcohol-dependent sample. If positive affect can aid in resilience to stress, the utilization of interventions that enhance positive affect may be of particular utility for alcohol-dependent patients. Future experimental studies testing the causality of this association as well as studies examining the effect of interventions to enhance positive affect are needed. PMID:23200161

  14. Responses to Fiscal Stress in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robert A., Ed.

    Proceedings of the 1981 University of Arizona conference on responses to fiscal stress in higher education are presented. Topics include the impact of the federal government on higher education, state and institutional responses to new federal policies, developing responses to fiscal stress, alternate perspectives on fiscal stress, and tactical…

  15. Effects of cold pressor stress on the human startle response.

    PubMed

    Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schulz, André; Oitzl, Melly S; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Both emotion and attention are known to influence the startle response. Stress influences emotion and attention, but the impact of stress on the human startle response remains unclear. We used an established physiological stressor, the Cold Pressor Test (CPT), to induce stress in a non-clinical human sample (24 student participants) in a within-subjects design. Autonomic (heart rate and skin conductance) and somatic (eye blink) responses to acoustic startle probes were measured during a pre-stress baseline, during a three minutes stress intervention, and during the subsequent recovery period. Startle skin conductance and heart rate responses were facilitated during stress. Compared to baseline, startle eye blink responses were not affected during the intervention but were diminished afterwards. These data describe a new and unique startle response pattern during stress: facilitation of autonomic stress responses but no such facilitation of somatic startle eye blink responses. The absence of an effect of stress on startle eye blink responsiveness may illustrate the importance of guaranteeing uninterrupted visual input during periods of stress. PMID:23166784

  16. Effects of Cold Pressor Stress on the Human Startle Response

    PubMed Central

    Deuter, Christian E.; Kuehl, Linn K.; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schulz, André; Oitzl, Melly S.; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Both emotion and attention are known to influence the startle response. Stress influences emotion and attention, but the impact of stress on the human startle response remains unclear. We used an established physiological stressor, the Cold Pressor Test (CPT), to induce stress in a non-clinical human sample (24 student participants) in a within-subjects design. Autonomic (heart rate and skin conductance) and somatic (eye blink) responses to acoustic startle probes were measured during a pre-stress baseline, during a three minutes stress intervention, and during the subsequent recovery period. Startle skin conductance and heart rate responses were facilitated during stress. Compared to baseline, startle eye blink responses were not affected during the intervention but were diminished afterwards. These data describe a new and unique startle response pattern during stress: facilitation of autonomic stress responses but no such facilitation of somatic startle eye blink responses. The absence of an effect of stress on startle eye blink responsiveness may illustrate the importance of guaranteeing uninterrupted visual input during periods of stress. PMID:23166784

  17. Human cerebral response to animal affective vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Belin, Pascal; Fecteau, Shirley; Charest, Ian; Nicastro, Nicholas; Hauser, Marc D; Armony, Jorge L

    2007-01-01

    It is presently unknown whether our response to affective vocalizations is specific to those generated by humans or more universal, triggered by emotionally matched vocalizations generated by other species. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal participants to measure cerebral activity during auditory stimulation with affectively valenced animal vocalizations, some familiar (cats) and others not (rhesus monkeys). Positively versus negatively valenced vocalizations from cats and monkeys elicited different cerebral responses despite the participants' inability to differentiate the valence of these animal vocalizations by overt behavioural responses. Moreover, the comparison with human non-speech affective vocalizations revealed a common response to the valence in orbitofrontal cortex, a key component on the limbic system. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms involved in processing human affective vocalizations may be recruited by heterospecific affective vocalizations at an unconscious level, supporting claims of shared emotional systems across species. PMID:18077254

  18. Large-Scale Glycomics of Livestock: Discovery of Highly Sensitive Serum Biomarkers Indicating an Environmental Stress Affecting Immune Responses and Productivity of Holstein Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Ibrahim F; Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Amano, Maho; Hinou, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Tetsu; Kondo, Seiji; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Because various stresses strongly influence the food productivity of livestock, biomarkers to indicate unmeasurable environmental stress in domestic animals are of increasing importance. Thermal comfort is one of the basic principles of dairy cow welfare that enhances productivity. To discover sensitive biomarkers that monitor such environmental stresses in dairy cows, we herein performed, for the first time, large-scale glycomics on 336 lactating Holstein cow serum samples over 9 months between February and October. Glycoblotting combined with MALDI-TOF/MS and DMB/HPLC allowed for comprehensive glycomics of whole serum glycoproteins. The results obtained revealed seasonal alterations in serum N-glycan levels and their structural characteristics, such as an increase in high-mannose type N-glycans in spring, the occurrence of di/triantennary complex type N-glycans terminating with two or three Neu5Gc residues in summer and autumn, and N-glycans in winter dominantly displaying Neu5Ac. A multivariate analysis revealed a correlation between the serum expression levels of these season-specific glycoforms and productivity. PMID:26595672

  19. [Endoplasmic reticulum stress response in osteogenesis].

    PubMed

    Saito, Atsushi; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2013-11-01

    Various cellular conditions such as synthesis of abundant proteins, expressions of mutant proteins and oxidative stress lead to accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. This type of stress is called ER stress. The excessive ER stress causes cellular damages followed by apoptosis. When ER stress occurs, cells are activated ER stress response (unfolded protein response) to avoid cellular damages. Recently, it has been clear that ER stress response plays crucial roles not only in cell survival after ER stress but also in regulating various cellular functions and tissue formations. In particular, ER stress and ER stress response regulate protein quality control, secretory protein production, and smooth secretion of proteins in the cells such as osteoblasts which synthesize and secrete enormous matrix proteins. PMID:24162596

  20. Physiological Responses to Thermal Stress and Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyota, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Akira; Yamagata, Junko; Suzuki, Takashi; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Kawabata, Takashi

    The simple and noninvasive measuring methods of bioinstrumentation in humans is required for optimization of air conditioning and management of thermal environments, taking into consideration the individual specificity of the human body as well as the stress conditions affecting each. Changes in human blood circulation were induced with environmental factors such as heat, cold, exercise, mental stress, and so on. In this study, the physiological responses of human body to heat stress and exercise were investigated in the initial phase of the developmental research. We measured the body core and skin temperatures, skin blood flow, and pulse wave as the indices of the adaptation of the cardiovascular system. A laser Doppler skin blood flowmetry using an optical-sensor with a small portable data logger was employed for the measurement. These results reveal the heat-stress and exercise-induced circulatory responses, which are under the control of the sympathetic nerve system. Furthermore, it was suggested that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system could be evaluated from the signals of the pulse wave included in the signals derived from skin blood flow by means of heart rate variability assessments and detecting peak heights of velocity-plethysmogram.

  1. The stress response system of proteins: Implications for bioreactor scaleup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goochee, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    Animal cells face a variety of environmental stresses in large scale bioreactors, including periodic variations in shear stress and dissolved oxygen concentration. Diagnostic techniques were developed for identifying the particular sources of environmental stresses for animal cells in a given bioreactor configuration. The mechanisms by which cells cope with such stresses was examined. The individual concentrations and synthesis rates of hundreds of intracellular proteins are affected by the extracellular environment (medium composition, dissolved oxygen concentration, ph, and level of surface shear stress). Techniques are currently being developed for quantifying the synthesis rates and concentrations of the intracellular proteins which are most sensitive to environmental stress. Previous research has demonstrated that a particular set of stress response proteins are synthesized by mammalian cells in response to temperature fluctuations, dissolved oxygen deprivation, and glucose deprivation. Recently, it was demonstrated that exposure of human kidney cells to high shear stress results in expression of a completely distinct set of intracellular proteins.

  2. Association between neuroticism and amygdala responsivity emerges under stressful conditions.

    PubMed

    Everaerd, Daphne; Klumpers, Floris; van Wingen, Guido; Tendolkar, Indira; Fernández, Guillén

    2015-05-15

    Increased amygdala reactivity in response to salient stimuli is seen in patients with affective disorders, in healthy subjects at risk for these disorders, and in stressed individuals, making it a prime target for mechanistic studies into the pathophysiology of affective disorders. However, whereas individual differences in neuroticism are thought to modulate the effect of stress on mental health, the mechanistic link between stress, neuroticism and amygdala responsivity is unknown. Thus, we studied the relationship between experimentally induced stress, individual differences in neuroticism, and amygdala responsivity. To this end, fearful and happy faces were presented to a large cohort of young, healthy males (n=120) in two separate functional MRI sessions (stress versus control) in a randomized, controlled cross-over design. We revealed that amygdala reactivity was modulated by an interaction between the factors of stress, neuroticism, and the emotional valence of the facial stimuli. Follow-up analysis showed that neuroticism selectively enhanced amygdala responses to fearful faces in the stress condition. Thus, we show that stress unmasks an association between neuroticism and amygdala responsivity to potentially threatening stimuli. This effect constitutes a possible mechanistic link within the complex pathophysiology of affective disorders, and our novel approach appears suitable for further studies targeting the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25776217

  3. Hormonal, cardiovascular, and subjective responses to acute stress in smokers

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Harriet

    2009-01-01

    Rationale There are complex relationships between stress and smoking; smoking may reduce the emotional discomfort of stress, yet nicotine activates stress systems and may alter responses to acute stress. It is important to understand how smoking affects physiological and psychological outcomes after stress and how these may interact to motivate smoking. Objectives This study aimed to examine the magnitude and time course of hormonal, cardiovascular, and psychological responses to acute psychosocial stress in smokers and non-smokers to investigate whether responses to acute stress are altered in smokers. Materials and methods Healthy male non-smokers (n=20) and smokers (n=15) participated in two experimental sessions involving a standardized public speaking stress procedure and a control non-stressful task. The outcome measures included self-reported mood, cardiovascular measures (heart rate and blood pressure), and plasma hormone levels (noradrenaline, cortisol, progesterone, and allopregnanolone). Results Smokers exhibited blunted increases in cortisol after the Trier Social Stress Test, and they reported greater and more prolonged subjective agitation than non-smokers. Stress-induced changes in progesterone were similar between smokers and non-smokers, although responses overall were smaller among smokers. Stress did not significantly alter levels of allopregnanolone, but smokers exhibited lower plasma concentrations of this neurosteroid. Conclusions These findings suggest that smoking dampens hormonal responses to stress and prolongs subjective discomfort. Dysregulated stress responses may represent a breakdown in the body’s ability to cope efficiently and effectively with stress and may contribute to smokers’ susceptibility to acute stress, especially during abstinence. PMID:18936915

  4. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, Edward J. . E-mail: edwardc@schoolph.umass.edu; Bachmann, Kenneth A.; Bailer, A. John; Bolger, P. Michael; Borak, Jonathan; Cai, Lu; Cedergreen, Nina; Cherian, M. George; Chiueh, Chuang C.; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Cook, Ralph R.; Diamond, David M.; Doolittle, David J.; Dorato, Michael A.; Duke, Stephen O.; Feinendegen, Ludwig; Gardner, Donald E.; Hart, Ronald W.; Hastings, Kenneth L.; Hayes, A. Wallace; Hoffmann, George R.; Ives, John A.; Jaworowski, Zbigniew; Johnson, Thomas E.; Jonas, Wayne B.; Kaminski, Norbert E.

    2007-07-01

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines.

  5. Dynamic O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Modification of Proteins Affects Stress Responses and Survival of Mesothelial Cells Exposed to Peritoneal Dialysis Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Rebecca; Bender, Thorsten O.; Vychytil, Andreas; Bialas, Katarzyna; Aufricht, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The ability of cells to respond and survive stressful conditions is determined, in part, by the attachment of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to proteins (O-GlcNAcylation), a post-translational modification dependent on glucose and glutamine. This study investigates the role of dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of mesothelial cell proteins in cell survival during exposure to glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF). Immortalized human mesothelial cells and primary mesothelial cells, cultured from human omentum or clinical effluent of PD patients, were assessed for O-GlcNAcylation under normal conditions or after exposure to PDF. The dynamic status of O-GlcNAcylation and effects on cellular survival were investigated by chemical modulation with 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) to decrease or O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene)amino N-phenyl carbamate (PUGNAc) to increase O-GlcNAc levels. Viability was decreased by reducing O-GlcNAc levels by DON, which also led to suppressed expression of the cytoprotective heat shock protein 72. In contrast, increasing O-GlcNAc levels by PUGNAc or alanyl-glutamine led to significantly improved cell survival paralleled by higher heat shock protein 72 levels during PDF treatment. Addition of alanyl-glutamine increased O-GlcNAcylation and partly counteracted its inhibition by DON, also leading to improved cell survival. Immunofluorescent analysis of clinical samples showed that the O-GlcNAc signal primarily originates from mesothelial cells. In conclusion, this study identified O-GlcNAcylation in mesothelial cells as a potentially important molecular mechanism after exposure to PDF. Modulating O-GlcNAc levels by clinically feasible interventions might evolve as a novel therapeutic target for the preservation of peritoneal membrane integrity in PD. PMID:24854264

  6. Dynamic O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification of proteins affects stress responses and survival of mesothelial cells exposed to peritoneal dialysis fluids.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Rebecca; Bender, Thorsten O; Vychytil, Andreas; Bialas, Katarzyna; Aufricht, Christoph; Kratochwill, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    The ability of cells to respond and survive stressful conditions is determined, in part, by the attachment of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to proteins (O-GlcNAcylation), a post-translational modification dependent on glucose and glutamine. This study investigates the role of dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of mesothelial cell proteins in cell survival during exposure to glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF). Immortalized human mesothelial cells and primary mesothelial cells, cultured from human omentum or clinical effluent of PD patients, were assessed for O-GlcNAcylation under normal conditions or after exposure to PDF. The dynamic status of O-GlcNAcylation and effects on cellular survival were investigated by chemical modulation with 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) to decrease or O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene)amino N-phenyl carbamate (PUGNAc) to increase O-GlcNAc levels. Viability was decreased by reducing O-GlcNAc levels by DON, which also led to suppressed expression of the cytoprotective heat shock protein 72. In contrast, increasing O-GlcNAc levels by PUGNAc or alanyl-glutamine led to significantly improved cell survival paralleled by higher heat shock protein 72 levels during PDF treatment. Addition of alanyl-glutamine increased O-GlcNAcylation and partly counteracted its inhibition by DON, also leading to improved cell survival. Immunofluorescent analysis of clinical samples showed that the O-GlcNAc signal primarily originates from mesothelial cells. In conclusion, this study identified O-GlcNAcylation in mesothelial cells as a potentially important molecular mechanism after exposure to PDF. Modulating O-GlcNAc levels by clinically feasible interventions might evolve as a novel therapeutic target for the preservation of peritoneal membrane integrity in PD. PMID:24854264

  7. Stress intensifies demands on response selection during action cascading processes.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Ali; Wolf, Oliver T; Beste, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Stress has been shown to modulate a number of cognitive processes including action control. These functions are important in daily life and are mediated by various cognitive subprocesses. However, it is unknown if stress affects the whole processing cascade, or exerts specific effects on a restricted subset of processes involved in the chaining of actions. We examine the effects of stress on action selection processes in a stop-change paradigm and apply event-related potentials (ERPs) combined with source localization analysis to examine potentially restricted effects of stress on subprocesses mediating action cascading. The results show that attentional selection processes, as well as processes related to allocation of processing resources were not affected by stress. Stress only seems to affect response selection functions during action cascading and leads to slowing of responses when two actions are executed in succession. These changes are related to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Changes in response selection were predictable on the basis of individual salivary cortisol levels. The results show that stress does not affect the whole processing cascade involved in the cascading of different actions, but seems to exert circumscribed effects on response selection processes which have previously been shown to depend on dopaminergic neural transmission. PMID:24636514

  8. Relation between stress-precipitated seizures and the stress response in childhood epilepsy.

    PubMed

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Pet, Milou A; Otte, Willem M; Hillegers, Manon H J; Joels, Marian; Braun, Kees P J

    2015-08-01

    The majority of patients with epilepsy report that seizures are sometimes triggered or provoked. Stress is the most frequently self-reported seizure-precipitant. The mechanisms underlying stress-sensitivity of seizures are currently unresolved. We hypothesized that stress-sensitivity of seizures relates to alteration of the stress response, which could affect neuronal excitability and hence trigger seizures. To study this, children with epilepsy between 6 and 17 years of age and healthy controls, with similar age, sex and intelligence, were exposed to a standardized acute psychosocial stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test for Children), during which salivary cortisol and sympathetic parameters were measured. Beforehand, the relation between stress and seizures in children with epilepsy was assessed by (i) a retrospective questionnaire; and (ii) a prospective 6-week diary on stress and seizure occurrence. Sixty-four children with epilepsy and 40 control subjects were included in the study. Of all children with epilepsy, 49% reported that seizures were precipitated by acute stress. Diary analysis showed a positive association between acute stress and seizures in 62% of children who experienced at least one seizure during the diary period. The acute social stress test was completed by 56 children with epilepsy and 37 control subjects. Children with sensitivity of seizures for acute stress, either determined by the questionnaire or by the prospective diary, showed a blunted cortisol response to stress compared with patients without acute stress-precipitated seizures and healthy controls (questionnaire-based F = 2.74, P = 0.018; diary-based F = 4.40, P = 0.007). No baseline differences in cortisol were observed, nor differences in sympathetic stress response. The relation between acute stress-sensitivity of seizures and the cortisol response to stress remained significant in multivariable analysis (β = -0.30, P = 0.03). Other variables associated with the acute stress

  9. Seismic stress responses of soybean to different photosynthetic photon flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. S.; Coe, L. L.; Montgomery, L.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    Physical agitation applied as periodic seismic stress (shaking) reduced stem elongation, leaf expansion, and biomass accumulation by vegetative soybeans. Level of photon flux (PPF) influenced the type and extent of plant response to mechanical stress. Plant parts responded differently as PPF varied between 135 and 592 micromoles m-2 s-1. Stem length was significantly reduced by seismic stress at 135 micromoles m-2 s-1 but this effect was insignificant at higher PPFs. Reduced stem length resulted from an inhibition of internode elongation. Stem diameter was unaffected by stress at the PPFs tested. In contrast to effects on stem elongation, leaf area was insensitive to stress treatments at 135 micromoles m-2 s-1 but was progressively inhibited by stress as PPF increased. Statistically significant reductions in shoot f. wt and d. wt by seismic stress occurred only at 295 micromoles m-2 s-1. Root biomass accumulation was not affected by seismic stress at any PPF used in this study.

  10. Cold stress as it affects animal production.

    PubMed

    Young, B A

    1981-01-01

    Almost two-thirds of all livestock in North America are raised in regions where the mean January temperature is below 0 C. The effects of cold conditions on productivity and efficiency of feed conversion by swine, dairy and beef cattle are reviewed. Swine are rather cold-susceptible and are therefore usually kept in heated housing when raised in colder regions. Lactating or fattening cattle are extremely cold-hardy and rarely experience climatic conditions below their lower critical temperature. Despite the absence of a challenge to homothermy in cattle, there are marked seasonal fluctuations in the cattle's level and efficiency of production which probably arise from hormonal and adaptive changes occurring as a consequence of mild cold stress. Primary among these changes are an increase resting metabolic rate, and hence an increased energy requirement for maintenance, and an increased rate of passage of digesta, which results in reduced digestive efficiency. With cold there is stimulation of appetite, which may partially counteract the reduced level of production but not the reduced efficiency of utilization of dietary energy. PMID:7240034

  11. Acute stress affects the physiology and behavior of allergic mice.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M A; Shome, G P; Hulbert, L E; Krebs, N; Wachtel, M; McGlone, J J

    2009-09-01

    Physical and psychological stressors have been implicated in acute asthma exacerbation. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of forced swimming stress (FST) on allergic pulmonary inflammation in BALB/c mice. Eighty female mice were allocated to one of four treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial consisting of two levels of allergy and two levels of stress. The effects of stress and allergy were assessed by examination of cytokines and leukocyte differentials in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, corticosterone and immunoglobulin (Ig) E in the plasma, leukocyte differentials in the peripheral blood, natural killer cytotoxicity, and histopathology of the lungs. Behavior was recorded during the FST. Stress and allergy increased plasma corticosterone in mice. Allergy increased IgE concentrations and pulmonary inflammation. Interleukin-4 was greater among allergic stressed and non-stressed mice and stressed, non-allergic mice compared with non-stressed, non-allergic mice. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) and 6 (IL-6) were greater among allergic stressed and non-stressed mice compared with non-allergic mice. Interleukin-5 and 6 were reduced among stressed-allergic mice compared with non-stressed, allergic mice. Stress and allergy shifted mice towards a T-helper 2 response as shown by increased interleukin-4. Stress reduced IL-5 and IL-6 in allergic mice but not non-allergic mice. Pulmonary inflammation was not reduced among allergic stressed mice in spite of elevated glucocorticoids. Mice induced to be allergic responded to FST differently than non-allergic mice. Our findings suggest that stress induces a differential response among allergic and non-allergic mice. PMID:19527741

  12. Early hormonal changes affect the catabolic response to trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Bessey, P Q; Lowe, K A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine how temporary insulin suppression might alter the catabolic effects of cortisol, glucagon, and epinephrine. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The metabolic responses to injury include hypermetabolism, accelerated net skeletal muscle protein breakdown, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. These alterations are associated with increased stress hormone concentrations. Insulin elaboration is usually suppressed immediately after an injury but is abundant later during convalescence. An infusion of hydrocortisone, glucagon, and epinephrine increases both stress hormone concentrations and insulin levels. It induces many of the metabolic alterations seen in critically ill patients, but it does not affect net muscle breakdown. METHODS: Seven healthy adults received a stress hormone infusion for 3 days in two separate studies. During one study they, also received an infusion of the somatostatin analogue, octreotide (0.005 micrograms/kg/min), to suppress insulin elaboration for the first 24 hours. During the other study (control), insulin was permitted to rise unchecked. RESULTS: Stress hormone concentrations, hypermetabolism (+/- 20% above basal), and leukocytosis were similar during both study periods. When insulin elaboration was temporarily suppressed, whole-body nitrogen loss was increased during the first 48 hours, and the efflux of amino acids from the forearm after 72 hours of infusion was 60% greater than the control level. CONCLUSIONS: Temporary insulin suppression during physiologic increases in stress hormone concentrations amplified whole-body nitrogen loss and led to the development of accelerated net skeletal muscle protein breakdown. Early hormonal changes after an injury may affect the development of later catabolic responses. PMID:8215639

  13. Affective responsiveness, betrayal, and childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Reichmann-Decker, Aimee; DePrince, Anne P; McIntosh, Daniel N

    2009-01-01

    Several trauma-specific and emotion theories suggest that alterations in children's typical affective responses may serve an attachment function in the context of abuse by a caregiver or close other. For example, inhibiting negative emotional responses or expressions might help the child preserve a relationship with an abusive caregiver. Past research in this area has relied on self-report methods to discover links between affective responsiveness and caregiver abuse. Extending this literature, the current study used facial electromyography to assess affective responsiveness with 2 measures: mimicry of emotional facial expressions and affective modulation of startle. We predicted that women who reported childhood abuse by close others would show alterations in affective responsiveness relative to their peers. We tested 100 undergraduate women who reported histories of (a) childhood sexual or physical abuse by someone close, such as a parent (high-betrayal); (b) childhood abuse by someone not close (low-betrayal); or (c) no abuse in childhood (no-abuse). Especially when viewing women's emotional expressions, the high-betrayal group showed more mimicry of happy and less mimicry of angry faces relative to women who reported no- or low-betrayal abuse, who showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, women who reported high-betrayal abuse showed less affective modulation of startle during pictures depicting men threatening women than did the other two groups. Findings suggest that, as predicted by betrayal trauma theory, women who have experienced high-betrayal abuse show alterations in automatic emotional processes consistent with caregiving-maintenance goals in an abusive environment. PMID:19585337

  14. Arousal and Affective Responses to Writing Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohew, Lewis

    1981-01-01

    Measured the physiological and affective responses to three factors of newswriting style: narrative vs. traditional; direct quotations vs. paraphrased statements; and active vs. passive verbs and adjectives. (Mass suicides in Guyana were used as stimulus news stories.) Narrative style, direct quotations, and active verbs and adjectives produced…

  15. Molecular mechanisms of the plant heat stress response

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Ai-Li; Ding, Yan-Fei; Jiang, Qiong; Zhu, Cheng

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► This review elaborates the response networks of heat stress in plants. ► It elaborates proteins responding to heat stress in special physiological period. ► The proteins and pathways have formed a basic network of the heat stress response. ► Achievements of the various technologies are also combined. -- Abstract: High temperature has become a global concern, which seriously affects the growth and production of plants, particularly crops. Thus, the molecular mechanism of the heat stress response and breeding of heat-tolerant plants is necessary to protect food production and ensure crop safety. This review elaborates on the response networks of heat stress in plants, including the Hsf and Hsp response pathways, the response of ROS and the network of the hormones. In addition, the production of heat stress response elements during particular physiological periods of the plant is described. We also discuss the existing problems and future prospects concerning the molecular mechanisms of the heat stress response in plants.

  16. How plants handle multiple stresses: hormonal interactions underlying responses to abiotic stress and insect herbivory.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duy; Rieu, Ivo; Mariani, Celestina; van Dam, Nicole M

    2016-08-01

    Adaptive plant responses to specific abiotic stresses or biotic agents are fine-tuned by a network of hormonal signaling cascades, including abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid. Moreover, hormonal cross-talk modulates plant responses to abiotic stresses and defenses against insect herbivores when they occur simultaneously. How such interactions affect plant responses under multiple stresses, however, is less understood, even though this may frequently occur in natural environments. Here, we review our current knowledge on how hormonal signaling regulates abiotic stress responses and defenses against insects, and discuss the few recent studies that attempted to dissect hormonal interactions occurring under simultaneous abiotic stress and herbivory. Based on this we hypothesize that drought stress enhances insect resistance due to synergistic interactions between JA and ABA signaling. Responses to flooding or waterlogging involve ethylene signaling, which likely reduces plant resistance to chewing herbivores due to its negative cross-talk with JA. However, the outcome of interactions between biotic and abiotic stress signaling is often plant and/or insect species-dependent and cannot simply be predicted based on general knowledge on the involvement of signaling pathways in single stress responses. More experimental data on non-model plant and insect species are needed to reveal general patterns and better understand the molecular mechanisms allowing plants to optimize their responses in complex environments. PMID:27095445

  17. General Stress Responses in the Honey Bee.

    PubMed

    Even, Naïla; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Barron, Andrew B

    2012-01-01

    The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a "General Adaptation Syndrome" describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One of the main elements of the stress response pathway is the endocrine hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which underlies the "fight-or-flight" response via a hormonal cascade of catecholamines and corticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stress have been studied more recently in insects: they involve biogenic amines (octopamine, dopamine), neuropeptides (allatostatin, corazonin) and metabolic hormones (adipokinetic hormone, diuretic hormone). Here, we review elements of the physiological stress response that are or may be specific to honey bees, given the economical and ecological impact of this species. This review proposes a hypothetical integrated honey bee stress pathway somewhat analogous to the mammalian HPA, involving the brain and, particularly, the neurohemal organ corpora cardiaca and peripheral targets, including energy storage organs (fat body and crop). We discuss how this system can organize rapid coordinated changes in metabolic activity and arousal, in response to adverse environmental stimuli. We highlight physiological elements of the general stress responses that are specific to honey bees, and the areas in which we lack information to stimulate more research into how this fascinating and vital insect responds to stress. PMID:26466739

  18. General Stress Responses in the Honey Bee

    PubMed Central

    Even, Naïla; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Barron, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a “General Adaptation Syndrome” describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One of the main elements of the stress response pathway is the endocrine hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which underlies the “fight-or-flight” response via a hormonal cascade of catecholamines and corticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stress have been studied more recently in insects: they involve biogenic amines (octopamine, dopamine), neuropeptides (allatostatin, corazonin) and metabolic hormones (adipokinetic hormone, diuretic hormone). Here, we review elements of the physiological stress response that are or may be specific to honey bees, given the economical and ecological impact of this species. This review proposes a hypothetical integrated honey bee stress pathway somewhat analogous to the mammalian HPA, involving the brain and, particularly, the neurohemal organ corpora cardiaca and peripheral targets, including energy storage organs (fat body and crop). We discuss how this system can organize rapid coordinated changes in metabolic activity and arousal, in response to adverse environmental stimuli. We highlight physiological elements of the general stress responses that are specific to honey bees, and the areas in which we lack information to stimulate more research into how this fascinating and vital insect responds to stress. PMID:26466739

  19. The Arabidopsis Stress Responsive Gene Database

    PubMed Central

    Borkotoky, Subhomoi; Saravanan, Vijayakumar; Jaiswal, Amit; Das, Bipul; Selvaraj, Suresh; Murali, Ayaluru; Lakshmi, P. T. V.

    2013-01-01

    Plants in nature may face a wide range of favorable or unfavorable biotic and abiotic factors during their life cycle. Any of these factors may cause stress in plants; therefore, they have to be more adaptable to stressful environments and must acquire greater response to different stresses. The objective of this study is to retrieve and arrange data from the literature in a standardized electronic format for the development of information resources on potential stress responsive genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. This provides a powerful mean for manipulation, comparison, search, and retrieval of records describing the nature of various stress responsive genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. The database is based exclusively on published stress tolerance genes associated with plants. PMID:23573074

  20. Low-stress and high-stress singing have contrasting effects on glucocorticoid response.

    PubMed

    Fancourt, Daisy; Aufegger, Lisa; Williamon, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Performing music in public is widely recognized as a potentially stress-inducing activity. However, despite the interest in music performance as an acute psychosocial stressor, there has been relatively little research on the effects of public performance on the endocrine system. This study examined the impact of singing in a low-stress performance situation and a high-stress live concert on levels of glucocorticoids (cortisol and cortisone) in 15 professional singers. The results showed a significant decrease in both cortisol and cortisone across the low-stress condition, suggesting that singing in itself is a stress-reducing (and possibly health-promoting) activity, but significant increases across the high-stress condition. This is the first study to demonstrate that singing affects cortisol as well as cortisone responses and that these responses are modulated by the conditions of performance. PMID:26388794

  1. Low-stress and high-stress singing have contrasting effects on glucocorticoid response

    PubMed Central

    Fancourt, Daisy; Aufegger, Lisa; Williamon, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Performing music in public is widely recognized as a potentially stress-inducing activity. However, despite the interest in music performance as an acute psychosocial stressor, there has been relatively little research on the effects of public performance on the endocrine system. This study examined the impact of singing in a low-stress performance situation and a high-stress live concert on levels of glucocorticoids (cortisol and cortisone) in 15 professional singers. The results showed a significant decrease in both cortisol and cortisone across the low-stress condition, suggesting that singing in itself is a stress-reducing (and possibly health-promoting) activity, but significant increases across the high-stress condition. This is the first study to demonstrate that singing affects cortisol as well as cortisone responses and that these responses are modulated by the conditions of performance. PMID:26388794

  2. Human freezing in response to affective films.

    PubMed

    Hagenaars, Muriel A; Roelofs, Karin; Stins, John F

    2014-01-01

    Human freezing has been objectively assessed using a passive picture viewing paradigm as an analog for threat. These results should be replicated for other stimuli in order to determine their stability and generalizability. Affective films are used frequently to elicit affective responses, but it is unknown whether they also elicit freezing-like defense responses. To test whether this is the case, 50 participants watched neutral, pleasant and unpleasant film fragments while standing on a stabilometric platform and wearing a polar band to assess heart rate. Freezing-like responses (indicated by overall reduced body sway and heart rate deceleration) were observed for the unpleasant film only. The unpleasant film also elicited early reduced body sway (1-2 s after stimulus onset). Heart rate and body sway were correlated during the unpleasant film only. The results suggest that ecologically valid stimuli like films are adequate stimuli in evoking defense responses. The results also underscore the importance of including time courses in human experimental research on defense reactions in order to delineate different stages in the defense response. PMID:23805855

  3. Transgenerational response to stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Alex; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2010-08-01

    Plants exposed to stress pass the memory of exposure to stress to the progeny. Previously, we showed that the phenomenon of transgenerational memory of stress is of epigenetic nature and depends on the function of Dicer-like (DCL) 2 and DCL3 proteins. Here, we discuss a possible role of DNA methylation and function of small RNAs in establishing and maintaining transgenerational responses to stress. Our new data report that memory of stress is passed to the progeny predominantly through the female rather than male gamete. Possible evolutionary advantages of this mechanism are also discussed. PMID:20724818

  4. Does prenatal stress affect the motoric development of rat pups?

    PubMed

    Patin, V; Vincent, A; Lordi, B; Caston, J

    2004-04-19

    Pregnant rats were exposed to an acute or a repeated stress (presence of a cat) either at the 10th or the 14th gestational day, and the development of their offspring was studied during the first 2 weeks of life. Motor development was measured by different tests: rooting reflex, vibrissae placing response, righting reflex, negative geotaxis. Other landmarks such as eye opening and spontaneous locomotor activity were also recorded. The results showed that, except for the rooting reflex which was most often enhanced (while not significantly) in prenatally stressed rats, the development of the vibrissae placing response, the righting reflex and the negative geotaxis behavior was delayed in the offspring of dams stressed at the 10th gestational day and not (or almost not) in the offspring of dams stressed at the 14th gestational day, the delay being more severe when the prenatal stress was repeated than when it was acutely administered. The spontaneous motor activity was also altered in repeatedly prenatally stressed rats, whatever the day of pregnancy when it was administered, while it was unaffected in acutely prenatally stressed animals. The delay in motor reflexes development was interpreted as alterations in maturation of nervous structures sustaining motor skills, while permanent decrease of spontaneous motor activity was explained by emotional and motivational alterations due to prenatal stress. PMID:15063088

  5. Thinking of attachments reduces noradrenergic stress response.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A; Chan, Lilian

    2015-10-01

    Although there is much evidence that activating mental representations of attachments figure is beneficial for psychological health and can reduce stress response, no research has directly investigated whether attachment activation can ameliorate hormonal stress response. This study investigated whether activating an attachment figure or a non-attachment figure following administration of a socially evaluated cold pressor test to elicit stress impacted on glucocorticoid and noradrenergic response. Participants (N = 61) provided baseline salivary samples, underwent a cold pressor test, then imagined an attachment or non-attachment figure, and finally provided subsequent saliva samples. Participants who imagined a non-attachment figure had greater noradrenergic response following the stressor than those who imagined an attachment figure. These findings highlight that activating attachment representations can ameliorate the immediate noradrenergic stress response. PMID:26115145

  6. Process Control Minitoring by Stress Response

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.; Stahl, David A.

    2006-04-17

    Environmental contamination with a variety of pollutants hasprompted the development of effective bioremediation strategies. But howcan these processes be best monitored and controlled? One avenue underinvestigation is the development of stress response systems as tools foreffective and general process control. Although the microbial stressresponse has been the subject of intensive laboratory investigation, theenvironmental reflection of the laboratory response to specific stresseshas been little explored. However, it is only within an environmentalcontext, in which microorganisms are constantly exposed to multiplechanging environmental stresses, that there will be full understanding ofmicrobial adaptive resiliency. Knowledge of the stress response in theenvironment will facilitate the control of bioremediation and otherprocesses mediated by complex microbial communities.

  7. HPA axis responsiveness to stress: Implications for healthy aging

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Greti

    2010-01-01

    The major neuroendocrine response mediating stress adaptation is activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, with stimulation of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) from parvocellular neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, leading to stimulation of pituitary ACTH secretion and increases in glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex. Basal production and transient increases during stress of glucocorticoids and its hypothalamic regulators are essential for neuronal plasticity and normal brain function. While activation of the HPA axis is essential for survival during stress, chronic exposure to stress hormones can predispose to psychological, metabolic and immune alterations. Thus, prompt termination of the stress response is essential to prevent negative effects of inappropriate levels of CRH and glucocorticoids. This review addresses the regulation of HPA axis activity with emphasis on the mechanisms of termination of CRH transcription, which is a critical step in this process. In addition, the actions by which glucocorticoids, CRH and VP can affect the aging process will be discussed. PMID:20833240

  8. Stress responses in probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Nezhad, Marzieh; Hussain, Malik Altaf; Britz, Margaret Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Survival in harsh environments is critical to both the industrial performance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their competitiveness in complex microbial ecologies. Among the LAB, members of the Lactobacillus casei group have industrial applications as acid-producing starter cultures for milk fermentations and as specialty cultures for the intensification and acceleration of flavor development in certain bacterial-ripened cheese varieties. They are amongst the most common organisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and other animals, and have the potential to function as probiotics. Whether used in industrial or probiotic applications, environmental stresses will affect the physiological status and properties of cells, including altering their functionality and biochemistry. Understanding the mechanisms of how LAB cope with different environments is of great biotechnological importance, from both a fundamental and applied perspective: hence, interaction between these strains and their environment has gained increased interest in recent years. This paper presents an overview of the important features of stress responses in Lb. casei, and related proteomic or gene expression patterns that may improve their use as starter cultures and probiotics. PMID:24915363

  9. Psychophysiological Response Patterns to Affective Film Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Marieke G. N.; Jentgens, Pia; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

    2013-01-01

    Psychophysiological research on emotion utilizes various physiological response measures to index activation of the defense system. Here we tested 1) whether acoustic startle reflex (ASR), skin conductance response (SCR) and heart rate (HR) elicited by highly arousing stimuli specifically reflect a defensive state and 2) the relation between resting heart rate variability (HRV) and affective responding. In a within-subject design, participants viewed film clips with a positive, negative and neutral content. In contrast to SCR and HR, we show that ASR differentiated between negative, neutral and positive states and can therefore be considered as a reliable index of activation of the defense system. Furthermore, resting HRV was associated with affect-modulated characteristics of ASR, but not with SCR or HR. Interestingly, individuals with low-HRV showed less differentiation in ASR between affective states. We discuss the important value of ASR in psychophysiological research on emotion and speculate on HRV as a potential biological marker for demarcating adaptive from maladaptive responding. PMID:23646134

  10. Stress, stress-induced cortisol responses, and eyewitness identification performance.

    PubMed

    Sauerland, Melanie; Raymaekers, Linsey H C; Otgaar, Henry; Memon, Amina; Waltjen, Thijs T; Nivo, Maud; Slegers, Chiel; Broers, Nick J; Smeets, Tom

    2016-07-01

    In the eyewitness identification literature, stress and arousal at the time of encoding are considered to adversely influence identification performance. This assumption is in contrast with findings from the neurobiology field of learning and memory, showing that stress and stress hormones are critically involved in forming enduring memories. This discrepancy may be related to methodological differences between the two fields of research, such as the tendency for immediate testing or the use of very short (1-2 hours) retention intervals in eyewitness research, while neurobiology studies insert at least 24 hours. Other differences refer to the extent to which stress-responsive systems (i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) are stimulated effectively under laboratory conditions. The aim of the current study was to conduct an experiment that accounts for the contemporary state of knowledge in both fields. In all, 123 participants witnessed a live staged theft while being exposed to a laboratory stressor that reliably elicits autonomic and glucocorticoid stress responses or while performing a control task. Salivary cortisol levels were measured to control for the effectiveness of the stress induction. One week later, participants attempted to identify the thief from target-present and target-absent line-ups. According to regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses, stress did not have robust detrimental effects on identification performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 The Authors Behavioral Sciences & the Law Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27417874

  11. The hyperosmotic stress response of Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hyperosmotic stress response of Campylobacter jejuni: The diarrheal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and other gastrointestinal bacteria encounter changes in osmolarity in the environment, through exposure to food processing, or upon entering host organisms, where osmotic adaptation can be associa...

  12. Maternal Stress and Affect Influence Fetal Neurobehavioral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Hilton, Sterling C.; Hawkins, Melissa; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Pressman, Eva K.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated associations between maternal psychological and fetal neurobehavioral functioning with data provided at 24, 30, and 36 weeks gestation. Found that fetuses of women who were more affectively intense, appraised their lives as more stressful, and reported more pregnancy-specific hassles were more active across gestation. Fetuses of women…

  13. Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  14. Perinatal Oxidative Stress May Affect Fetal Ghrelin Levels in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Bilodeau, Jean-François; Monique Nuyt, Anne; Fraser, William D.; Julien, Pierre; Audibert, Francois; Xiao, Lin; Garofalo, Carole; Levy, Emile

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cell model studies have shown that oxidative stress may affect beta-cell function. It is unknown whether oxidative stress may affect metabolic health in human fetuses/newborns. In a singleton pregnancy cohort (n = 248), we studied maternal (24–28 weeks gestation) and cord plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA), F2-isoprostanes] in relation to fetal metabolic health biomarkers including cord plasma glucose-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of insulin sensitivity), proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of beta-cell function), insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II, leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin concentrations. Strong positive correlations were observed between maternal and cord plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress (r = 0.33 for MDA, r = 0.74 for total F2-isoprostanes, all p < 0.0001). Adjusting for gestational age at blood sampling, cord plasma ghrelin concentrations were consistently negatively correlated to oxidative stress biomarkers in maternal (r = −0.32, p < 0.0001 for MDA; r = −0.31, p < 0.0001 for F2-isoprostanes) or cord plasma (r = −0.13, p = 0.04 for MDA; r = −0.32, p < 0.0001 for F2-isoprostanes). Other fetal metabolic health biomarkers were not correlated to oxidative stress. Adjusting for maternal and pregnancy characteristics, similar associations were observed. Our study provides the first preliminary evidence suggesting that oxidative stress may affect fetal ghrelin levels in humans. The implications in developmental “programming” the vulnerability to metabolic syndrome related disorders remain to be elucidated. PMID:26643495

  15. Bacterial Stress Responses during Host Infection.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ferric C; Frawley, Elaine R; Tapscott, Timothy; Vázquez-Torres, Andrés

    2016-08-10

    Pathogenic bacteria must withstand diverse host environments during infection. Environmental signals, such as pH, temperature, nutrient limitation, etc., not only trigger adaptive responses within bacteria to these specific stress conditions but also direct the expression of virulence genes at an appropriate time and place. An appreciation of stress responses and their regulation is therefore essential for an understanding of bacterial pathogenesis. This review considers specific stresses in the host environment and their relevance to pathogenesis, with a particular focus on the enteric pathogen Salmonella. PMID:27512901

  16. Sex differences in the stress response in SD rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Wu, Xue-Yan; Zhu, Qiong-Bin; Li, Jia; Shi, Li-Gen; Wu, Juan-Li; Zhang, Qi-Jun; Huang, Man-Li; Bao, Ai-Min

    2015-05-01

    Sex differences play an important role in depression, the basis of which is an excessive stress response. We aimed at revealing the neurobiological sex differences in the same study in acute- and chronically-stressed rats. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), acute foot shock (FS) and controls, animals in all 3 groups were sacrificed in proestrus or diestrus. Male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: CUMS, FS and controls. Comparisons were made of behavioral changes in CUMS and control rats, plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), and of the hypothalamic mRNA-expression of stress-related molecules, i.e. estrogen receptor α and β, androgen receptor, aromatase, mineralocorticoid receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin. CUMS resulted in disordered estrus cycles, more behavioral and hypothalamic stress-related molecules changes and a stronger CORT response in female rats compared with male rats. Female rats also showed decreased E2 and T levels after FS and CUMS, while male FS rats showed increased E2 and male CUMS rats showed decreased T levels. Stress affects the behavioral, endocrine and the molecular response of the stress systems in the hypothalamus of SD rats in a clear sexual dimorphic way, which has parallels in human data on stress and depression. PMID:25687843

  17. Exposure to stressful environments - Strategy of adaptive responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhi, Leon E.

    1991-01-01

    Stresses such as hypoxia, water lack, and heat exposure can produce strains in more than a single organ system, in turn stimulating the body to adapt in multiple ways. Nevertheless, a general strategy of the various adaptive responses emerges when the challenges are divided into three groups: (1) conditions that affect the supply of essential molecules, (2) stresses that prevent the body from regulating properly the output of waste products such as CO2 and heat, and (3) environments that disrupt body transport systems. Problems may arise when there is a conflict between two stresses requiring conflicting adaptive changes. An alternative to adaptation, creation of microenvironment, is often favored by the animal.

  18. Narrative Centrality and Negative Affectivity: Independent and Interactive Contributors to Stress Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, David C.; Boals, Adriel; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2014-01-01

    Reactions to stressful negative events have long been studied using approaches based on either the narrative interpretation of the event or the traits of the individual. Here, we integrate these two approaches by using individual differences measures of both the narrative interpretation of the stressful event as central to one’s life and the personality characteristic of negative affectivity. We show that they each have independent contributions to stress reactions, and that high levels on both produce greater than additive effects. The effects on posttraumatic stress symptoms are substantial for both undergraduates (Study 1, n = 2,296; Study 3, n = 488) and veterans (Study 2, n = 104), with mean levels for participants low on both measures near floor on posttraumatic stress symptoms and those high on both measures scoring at or above diagnostic thresholds. Study 3 included three measures of narrative centrality and three of negative affectivity to demonstrate that the effects were not limited to a single measure. In Study 4 (n = 987), measures associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress correlated substantially with either with measures of narrative centrality or measures of negative affectivity. The concepts of narrative centrality and negative affectivity and the results are consistent with findings from clinical populations using similar measures and with current approaches to therapy. In broad non-clinical populations, such as those used here, the results suggest that we might be able to substantially increase our ability to account for the severity of stress response by including both concepts. PMID:24294867

  19. Juvenile stress impairs body temperature regulation and augments anticipatory stress-induced hyperthermia responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Yee, Nicole; Plassmann, Kerstin; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2011-09-01

    Clinical studies have implicated adolescence as an important and vulnerable period during which traumatic experiences can predispose individuals to anxiety and mood disorders. As such, a stress model in juvenile rats (age 27-29 d) was previously developed to investigate the long-term effects of stress exposure during adolescence on behavior and physiology. This paradigm involves exposing rats to different stressors on consecutive days over a 3-day period. Here, we studied the effects of juvenile stress on long-term core body temperature regulation and acute stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) responses using telemetry. We found no differences between control and juvenile stress rats in anxiety-related behavior on the elevated plus maze, which we attribute to stress associated with surgical implantation of telemetry devices. This highlights the severe impact of surgical stress on the results of subsequent behavioral measurements. Nonetheless, juvenile stress disrupted the circadian rhythmicity of body temperature and decreased circadian amplitude. It also induced chronic hypothermia during the dark phase of the day, when rats are most active. When subjected to acute social defeat stress as adults, juvenile stress had no impact on the SIH response relative to controls. However, 24 h later, juvenile stress rats displayed an elevated SIH response in anticipation of social defeat when re-exposed to the social defeat environment. Taken together, our findings indicate that juvenile stress can induce long-term alterations in body temperature regulation and heighten the increase in temperature associated with anticipation of social defeat. The outcomes of behavioral measurements in these experiments, however, are severely affected by surgical stress. PMID:21557956

  20. A Heartfelt Response: Oxytocin Effects on Response to Social Stress in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kubzansky, Laura D; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Appleton, Allison A.; Block, Jason; Adler, Gail K

    2012-01-01

    Background Animal research indicates that oxytocin is involved in social behavior, stress regulation, and positive physiologic adaptation. This study examines whether oxytocin enhances adaptive responses to social stress and compares effects between men and women. Methods Hypotheses were tested with a placebo-controlled, double-blind experiment. Social stress was induced. Changes in cardiovascular reactivity, affect, and behavior were assessed. Results Participants given oxytocin, relative to placebo, responded to social stress with a challenge orientation characterized by a benign pattern of cardiovascular reactivity. Gender differences emerged. Men given oxytocin reported less negative affect and had greater vagal rebound, while women given oxytocin reported more anger and had better math performance following social stress. Discussion Findings indicate oxytocin stimulates an approach-oriented cardiovascular profile during social stress, suggesting mechanisms by which oxytocin might improve physical health. However, before considering oxytocin as therapeutic or uniformly enhancing health, greater understanding of possible gender differences in effects is needed. PMID:22387929

  1. Biological responses of audiogenic stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, R.; Behari, J.; Sharma, K. N.

    1986-12-01

    Biological effects of prolonged exposure to sound waves (˜17 kHz) on developing female rats were examined. Rat pups of day 80 were grouped into two. Experimental group was exposed to sound waves and control group, who were not so exposed. Daily food, water intake were measured in developing animals and spontaneous motor activity, electrocardiogram and blood sugar were studied in adults. It was found that the experimental group of animals behaved differently from the control group. It is concluded that the sound waves produced changes in the animals which were within the physiological limits but were suggestive of development of stress.

  2. Stress for invasion success? Temperature stress of preceding generations modifies the response to insecticide stress in an invasive pest insect.

    PubMed

    Piiroinen, Saija; Lyytinen, Anne; Lindström, Leena

    2013-02-01

    Adaptation to stressful environments is one important factor influencing species invasion success. Tolerance to one stress may be complicated by exposure to other stressors experienced by the preceding generations. We studied whether parental temperature stress affects tolerance to insecticide in the invasive Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Field-collected pyrethroid-resistant beetles were reared under either stressful (17°C) or favourable (23°C) insecticide-free environments for three generations. Then, larvae were exposed to pyrethroid insecticides in common garden conditions (23°C). Beetles were in general tolerant to stress. The parental temperature stress alone affected beetles positively (increased adult weight) but it impaired their tolerance to insecticide exposure. In contrast, offspring from the favourable temperature regime showed compensatory weight gain in response to insecticide exposure. Our study emphasizes the potential of cross-generational effects modifying species stress tolerance. When resistant pest populations invade benign environments, a re-application of insecticides may enhance their performance via hormetic effects. In turn, opposite effects may arise if parental generations have been exposed to temperature stress. Thus, the outcome of management practices of invasive pest species is difficult to predict unless we also incorporate knowledge of the evolutionary and recent (preceding generations) stress history of the given populations into pest management. PMID:23467574

  3. Stress for invasion success? Temperature stress of preceding generations modifies the response to insecticide stress in an invasive pest insect

    PubMed Central

    Piiroinen, Saija; Lyytinen, Anne; Lindström, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to stressful environments is one important factor influencing species invasion success. Tolerance to one stress may be complicated by exposure to other stressors experienced by the preceding generations. We studied whether parental temperature stress affects tolerance to insecticide in the invasive Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Field-collected pyrethroid-resistant beetles were reared under either stressful (17°C) or favourable (23°C) insecticide-free environments for three generations. Then, larvae were exposed to pyrethroid insecticides in common garden conditions (23°C). Beetles were in general tolerant to stress. The parental temperature stress alone affected beetles positively (increased adult weight) but it impaired their tolerance to insecticide exposure. In contrast, offspring from the favourable temperature regime showed compensatory weight gain in response to insecticide exposure. Our study emphasizes the potential of cross-generational effects modifying species stress tolerance. When resistant pest populations invade benign environments, a re-application of insecticides may enhance their performance via hormetic effects. In turn, opposite effects may arise if parental generations have been exposed to temperature stress. Thus, the outcome of management practices of invasive pest species is difficult to predict unless we also incorporate knowledge of the evolutionary and recent (preceding generations) stress history of the given populations into pest management. PMID:23467574

  4. Diet of racing sled dogs affects erythrocyte depression by stress.

    PubMed

    Adkins, T O; Kronfeld, D S

    1982-09-01

    Fourteen racing huskies were matched into pairs then assigned to two diets, a commercial stress diet and an experimental diet. Proportions of protein: fat:carbohydrate on an available energy basis were 23:57:20 in a commercial stress diet and 28:69:3 in an experimental diet. The team participated in the 1979 Iditarod Trail race and was overtaken by an episode of diarrhea. Clinical signs were suggestive of parvovirus infection; high serum titers of parvo antibodies were found after the race. Blood examination showed normal levels of metabolites, electrolytes and enzymes after the race. Erythrocyte counts were depressed significantly during the race, by 15% in dogs fed an experimental diet and by 27% in those fed a commercial stress diet. Erythrocyte parameters have also become depressed during the racing season in middle distance sled dogs fed 28% protein (energy basis) but not 32 or 39%. Depressed red blood cell production has been demonstrated previously in dogs subjected to stress induced experimentally in several ways, and its restoration has been affected by dietary protein. Erythrocyte parameters may be useful indicies of the degree of stress in a dog as well as the adequacy of its protein intake during stress. PMID:17422178

  5. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  6. Proteomics Analysis of Alfalfa Response to Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weimin; Wei, Zhenwu; Qiao, Zhihong; Wu, Zinian; Cheng, Lixiang; Wang, Yuyang

    2013-01-01

    The proteome responses to heat stress have not been well understood. In this study, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Huaiyin) seedlings were exposed to 25°C (control) and 40°C (heat stress) in growth chambers, and leaves were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. The morphological, physiological and proteomic processes were negatively affected under heat stress. Proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and differentially expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Totally, 81 differentially expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF. These proteins were categorized into nine classes: including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis, protein destination/storage, transporters, intracellular traffic, cell structure, signal transduction and disease/defence. Five proteins were further analyzed for mRNA levels. The results of the proteomics analyses provide a better understanding of the molecular basis of heat-stress responses in alfalfa. PMID:24324825

  7. Sex differences in synaptic plasticity in stress-responsive brain regions following chronic variable stress.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Netto, Eduardo F; Myers, Brent; Jones, Kenneth; Solomon, Matia B; Herman, James P

    2011-08-01

    Increased stress responsiveness is implicated in the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Additionally, stress-related affective disorders have a higher incidence in women than men. Chronic stress in rodents produces numerous neuromorphological changes in a variety of limbic brain regions. Here, we examined the sex-dependent differences in presynaptic innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), prefrontal cortex (PFC), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), and amygdala in response to chronic variable stress (CVS). Following 14 days of CVS, the presynaptic protein synaptophysin was assessed in male and female rats. Our results demonstrate that synaptophysin staining density was higher in females than males in all brain areas evaluated, indicating sex differences in the organization of presynaptic innervation. After CVS, the PVN, principal nucleus of the BST (BSTpr), and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) displayed significantly reduced synaptophysin density in females but not males. Furthermore, males showed an increase in synaptophysin in the PVN after CVS, suggesting a sex difference in the modulation of presynaptic inputs to the PVN following chronic stress. Overall, these data suggest marked sex differences in PVN, BSTpr, and BLA presynaptic innervation as a consequence of chronic stress, which may be associated with differential stress responsivity and perhaps susceptibility to pathologies in males and females. PMID:21315096

  8. Protein phosphorylation in response to stress in Clostridium acetobutylicum

    SciTech Connect

    Balodimos, I.A.; Rapaport, E.; Kashket, E.R. )

    1990-07-01

    The possible involvement of protein phosphorylation in the clostridial stress response was investigated by radioactively labeling growing cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum with {sup 32}P{sub i} or cell extracts with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP. Several phosphoproteins were identified; these were not affected by the growth stage of the culture. Although the extent of protein phosphorylation was increased by heat stress, the phosphoproteins did not correspond to known stress proteins seen in one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified clostridial DnaK, a stress protein, acted as a kinase catalyzing the phosphorylation of a 50-kilodalton protein. The phosphorylation of this protein was enhanced in extracts prepared from heat-stressed cells. Diadenosine-5{prime},5{double prime}{prime}-P{sup 1},P{sup 4}-tetraphosphate had no influence on protein phosphorylation.

  9. Global Metabolic Responses to Salt Stress in Fifteen Species

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Georg R.; Kuehne, Andreas; Sauer, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Cells constantly adapt to unpredictably changing extracellular solute concentrations. A cornerstone of the cellular osmotic stress response is the metabolic supply of energy and building blocks to mount appropriate defenses. Yet, the extent to which osmotic stress impinges on the metabolic network remains largely unknown. Moreover, it is mostly unclear which, if any, of the metabolic responses to osmotic stress are conserved among diverse organisms or confined to particular groups of species. Here we investigate the global metabolic responses of twelve bacteria, two yeasts and two human cell lines exposed to sustained hyperosmotic salt stress by measuring semiquantitative levels of hundreds of cellular metabolites using nontargeted metabolomics. Beyond the accumulation of osmoprotectants, we observed significant changes of numerous metabolites in all species. Global metabolic responses were predominantly species-specific, yet individual metabolites were characteristically affected depending on species’ taxonomy, natural habitat, envelope structure or salt tolerance. Exploiting the breadth of our dataset, the correlation of individual metabolite response magnitudes across all species implicated lower glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, branched-chain amino acid metabolism and heme biosynthesis to be generally important for salt tolerance. Thus, our findings place the global metabolic salt stress response into a phylogenetic context and provide insights into the cellular phenotype associated with salt tolerance. PMID:26848578

  10. The Mind-Body Connection - Can Prolonged Stress Affect Whether Breast Cancer Returns?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues The Mind-Body Connection Can Prolonged Stress Affect Whether Breast Cancer Returns? Past Issues / Winter ... traumatic life events. The categories ranged from traumatic stress to some stress to no significant stress. According ...

  11. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition reduces stress-induced affective pathology.

    PubMed

    Gamble-George, Joyonna Carrie; Baldi, Rita; Halladay, Lindsay; Kocharian, Adrina; Hartley, Nolan; Silva, Carolyn Grace; Roberts, Holly; Haymer, Andre; Marnett, Lawrence J; Holmes, Andrew; Patel, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Mood and anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric conditions and are exacerbated by stress. Recent studies have suggested cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition could represent a novel treatment approach or augmentation strategy for affective disorders including anxiety disorders and major depression. We show that traditional COX-2 inhibitors and a newly developed substrate-selective COX-2 inhibitor (SSCI) reduce a variety of stress-induced behavioral pathologies in mice. We found that these behavioral effects were associated with a dampening of neuronal excitability in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) ex vivo and in vivo, and were mediated by small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel and CB1 cannabinoid receptor activation. Taken together, these data provide further support for the potential utility of SSCIs, as well as traditional COX-2 inhibitors, as novel treatment approaches for stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:27162170

  12. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition reduces stress-induced affective pathology

    PubMed Central

    Gamble-George, Joyonna Carrie; Baldi, Rita; Halladay, Lindsay; Kocharian, Adrina; Hartley, Nolan; Silva, Carolyn Grace; Roberts, Holly; Haymer, Andre; Marnett, Lawrence J; Holmes, Andrew; Patel, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Mood and anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric conditions and are exacerbated by stress. Recent studies have suggested cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition could represent a novel treatment approach or augmentation strategy for affective disorders including anxiety disorders and major depression. We show that traditional COX-2 inhibitors and a newly developed substrate-selective COX-2 inhibitor (SSCI) reduce a variety of stress-induced behavioral pathologies in mice. We found that these behavioral effects were associated with a dampening of neuronal excitability in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) ex vivo and in vivo, and were mediated by small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel and CB1 cannabinoid receptor activation. Taken together, these data provide further support for the potential utility of SSCIs, as well as traditional COX-2 inhibitors, as novel treatment approaches for stress-related psychiatric disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14137.001 PMID:27162170

  13. Gel-free proteomic analysis of soybean root proteins affected by calcium under flooding stress

    PubMed Central

    Oh, MyeongWon; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Soybean is sensitive to flooding stress and exhibits reduced growth under flooding conditions. To better understand the flooding-responsive mechanisms of soybean, the effect of exogenous calcium on flooding-stressed soybeans was analyzed using proteomic technique. An increase in exogenous calcium levels enhanced soybean root elongation and suppressed the cell death of root tip under flooding stress. Proteins were extracted from the roots of 4-day-old soybean seedlings exposed to flooding stress without or with calcium for 2 days and analyzed using gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins involved in protein degradation/synthesis/posttranslational modification, hormone/cell wall metabolisms, and DNA synthesis were decreased by flooding stress; however, their reductions were recovered by calcium treatment. Development, lipid metabolism, and signaling-related proteins were increased in soybean roots when calcium was supplied under flooding stress. Fermentation and glycolysis-related proteins were increased in response to flooding; however, these proteins were not affected by calcium supplementation. Furthermore, urease and copper chaperone proteins exhibited similar profiles in 4-day-old untreated soybeans and 4-day-old soybeans exposed to flooding for 2 days in the presence of calcium. These results suggest that calcium might affect the cell wall/hormone metabolisms, protein degradation/synthesis, and DNA synthesis in soybean roots under flooding stress. PMID:25368623

  14. Pharmacological modification of the perioperative stress response in noncardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Priebe, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    The perioperative period is associated with alterations in the neuroendocrine, metabolic, and immune systems, referred to as "stress response." The resultant increased sympathetic activity and elevated serum concentrations of catecholamines may adversely affect the cardiovascular system, resulting in cardiovascular instability (hypertension, tachycardia, and arrhythmia), morbidity (myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, and stroke), and mortality (cardiac death and fatal stroke), particularly in patients at an elevated cardiovascular risk and with reduced cardiovascular reserve. Various strategies have been used to ameliorate the adverse perioperative cardiovascular sequelae of the perioperative stress response. Effective pharmacologic blunting of the stress response plays a crucial role in perioperative cardiac risk reduction strategies. In this context, the role of beta-adrenoceptor blockers, alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists, and statins has been extensively examined. This chapter evaluates the available evidence with respect to treatment efficacy of these commonly prescribed drugs in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. PMID:27396805

  15. Stress in Context: Morpho-Syntactic Properties Affect Lexical Stress Assignment in Reading Aloud

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, Giacomo; Sulpizio, Simone; Primativo, Silvia; Burani, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings from English and Russian have shown that grammatical category plays a key role in stress assignment. In these languages, some grammatical categories have a typical stress pattern and this information is used by readers. However, whether readers are sensitive to smaller distributional differences and other morpho-syntactic properties (e.g., gender, number, person) remains unclear. We addressed this issue in word and non-word reading in Italian, a language in which: (1) nouns and verbs differ in the proportion of words with a dominant stress pattern; (2) information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties may contrast with other sources of information, such as stress neighborhood. Both aspects were addressed in two experiments in which context words were used to induce the desired morpho-syntactic properties. Experiment 1 showed that the relatively different proportions of stress patterns between grammatical categories do not affect stress processing in word reading. In contrast, Experiment 2 showed that information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties outweighs stress neighborhood in non-word reading. Thus, while general information specified by grammatical categories may not be used by Italian readers, stress neighbors with morpho-syntactic properties congruent with those of the target stimulus have a primary role in stress assignment. These results underscore the importance of expanding investigations of stress assignment beyond single words, as current models of single-word reading seem unable to account for our results. PMID:27445910

  16. Stress in Context: Morpho-Syntactic Properties Affect Lexical Stress Assignment in Reading Aloud.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Giacomo; Sulpizio, Simone; Primativo, Silvia; Burani, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings from English and Russian have shown that grammatical category plays a key role in stress assignment. In these languages, some grammatical categories have a typical stress pattern and this information is used by readers. However, whether readers are sensitive to smaller distributional differences and other morpho-syntactic properties (e.g., gender, number, person) remains unclear. We addressed this issue in word and non-word reading in Italian, a language in which: (1) nouns and verbs differ in the proportion of words with a dominant stress pattern; (2) information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties may contrast with other sources of information, such as stress neighborhood. Both aspects were addressed in two experiments in which context words were used to induce the desired morpho-syntactic properties. Experiment 1 showed that the relatively different proportions of stress patterns between grammatical categories do not affect stress processing in word reading. In contrast, Experiment 2 showed that information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties outweighs stress neighborhood in non-word reading. Thus, while general information specified by grammatical categories may not be used by Italian readers, stress neighbors with morpho-syntactic properties congruent with those of the target stimulus have a primary role in stress assignment. These results underscore the importance of expanding investigations of stress assignment beyond single words, as current models of single-word reading seem unable to account for our results. PMID:27445910

  17. A study of stress affecting police officers in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Zukauskas, Gediminas; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Burba, Benjaminas; Grigaliuniene, Viktorija; Mitchell, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    This research study aims to identify the key stresses encountered by police officers in Lithuania in 2003. A questionnaire was distributed to officers working in police departments throughout Lithuania. The 2003 results were a compared with a similar study carried out among male and female police officers in Lithuania 1999. The stressors determined to have the greatest negative effects were administrative problems, family problems, and an ineffective criminal justice system. Identified consequences of police stress included depression, alcoholism, physical illness, and suicide. Dealing with stressful situations led to more frequent physical illness in female police officers and higher alcohol consumption in male police officers. This paper confirms the findings of previous studies. It adds to the knowledge of the unique stresses affecting police officers. It briefly explores the consequences of stress in police work. Since the study represents a small sample of the 15,000 police officers in Lithuania, caution is urged in the application of the findings to other police departments. PMID:20524505

  18. Stress selectively affects the reactivated components of a declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Hupbach, Almut; Dorskind, Joelle M

    2014-10-01

    When long-term memories are reactivated, they can reenter a transient plastic state in which they are vulnerable to interference or physiological manipulations. The present study attempted to directly affect reactivated memories through a stress manipulation, and compared the effects of stress on reactivated and nonreactivated components of a declarative memory in a within-subject design. We presented image pairs that consisted of an image of an animal and an image of an unrelated object. Participants were instructed to memorize the object images. Forty-eight hours later, we presented half of the animal images again in an unrelated task to indirectly reactivate the associated object images. Immediately after reactivation, participants were exposed to cold pressor stress or a warm water control condition. Forty-eight hours later, we assessed memory for the object images with a free recall test. Reactivation boosted memory performance in the control condition, such that reactivated items were better recalled than nonreactivated items. This memory-enhancing effect of reactivation was completely abolished by cold pressor stress. Importantly, stress selectively impacted only the reactivated items while leaving memory for the nonreactivated items unaffected. The present study shows that it is possible to selectively reactivate and modulate specific parts of a declarative memory. PMID:24956014

  19. Thiol specific oxidative stress response in Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Dosanjh, Nirpjit S; Rawat, Mamta; Chung, Ji-Hae; Av-Gay, Yossef

    2005-08-01

    The cellular response of mycobacteria to thiol specific oxidative stress was studied in Mycobacterium bovis BCG cultures. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that upon diamide treatment at least 60 proteins were upregulated. Fourteen of these proteins were identified by MALDI-MS; four proteins, AhpC, Tpx, GroEL2, and GroEL1 are functionally related to oxidative stress response; eight proteins, LeuC, LeuD, Rv0224c, Rv3029c, AsnB, Rv2971, PheA and HisH are classified as part of the bacterial intermediary metabolism and respiration pathways; protein EchA14 belong to lipid metabolism, and NrdE, belongs to the mycobacterial information pathway category. Reverse transcription followed by quantitative real time PCR in response to diamide stress demonstrated that protein expression is directly proportional to the corresponding gene transcription. PMID:16006064

  20. The Effect of Music on the Human Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Myriam V.; La Marca, Roberto; Brönnimann, Rebecca; Finkel, Linda; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Music listening has been suggested to beneficially impact health via stress-reducing effects. However, the existing literature presents itself with a limited number of investigations and with discrepancies in reported findings that may result from methodological shortcomings (e.g. small sample size, no valid stressor). It was the aim of the current study to address this gap in knowledge and overcome previous shortcomings by thoroughly examining music effects across endocrine, autonomic, cognitive, and emotional domains of the human stress response. Methods Sixty healthy female volunteers (mean age = 25 years) were exposed to a standardized psychosocial stress test after having been randomly assigned to one of three different conditions prior to the stress test: 1) relaxing music (‘Miserere’, Allegri) (RM), 2) sound of rippling water (SW), and 3) rest without acoustic stimulation (R). Salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), subjective stress perception and anxiety were repeatedly assessed in all subjects. We hypothesized that listening to RM prior to the stress test, compared to SW or R would result in a decreased stress response across all measured parameters. Results The three conditions significantly differed regarding cortisol response (p = 0.025) to the stressor, with highest concentrations in the RM and lowest in the SW condition. After the stressor, sAA (p=0.026) baseline values were reached considerably faster in the RM group than in the R group. HR and psychological measures did not significantly differ between groups. Conclusion Our findings indicate that music listening impacted the psychobiological stress system. Listening to music prior to a standardized stressor predominantly affected the autonomic nervous system (in terms of a faster recovery), and to a lesser degree the endocrine and psychological stress response. These findings may help better understanding the

  1. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Quaedflieg, Conny W. E. M.; Merckelbach, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT) known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34) to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol) activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area. PMID:23671762

  2. Human Cardiovascular Responses to Passive Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, Craig G.; Wilson, Thad E.

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress increases human morbidity and mortality compared to normothermic conditions. Many occupations, disease states, as well as stages of life are especially vulnerable to the stress imposed on the cardiovascular system during exposure to hot ambient conditions. This review focuses on the cardiovascular responses to heat stress that are necessary for heat dissipation. To accomplish this regulatory feat requires complex autonomic nervous system control of the heart and various vascular beds. For example, during heat stress cardiac output increases up to twofold, by increases in heart rate and an active maintenance of stroke volume via increases in inotropy in the presence of decreases in cardiac preload. Baroreflexes retain the ability to regulate blood pressure in many, but not all, heat stress conditions. Central hypovolemia is another cardiovascular challenge brought about by heat stress, which if added to a subsequent central volumetric stress, such as hemorrhage, can be problematic and potentially dangerous, as syncope and cardiovascular collapse may ensue. These combined stresses can compromise blood flow and oxygenation to important tissues such as the brain. It is notable that this compromised condition can occur at cardiac outputs that are adequate during normothermic conditions but are inadequate in heat because of the increased systemic vascular conductance associated with cutaneous vasodilation. Understanding the mechanisms within this complex regulatory system will allow for the development of treatment recommendations and countermeasures to reduce risks during the ever-increasing frequency of severe heat events that are predicted to occur. PMID:25589263

  3. Human cardiovascular responses to passive heat stress.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Craig G; Wilson, Thad E

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress increases human morbidity and mortality compared to normothermic conditions. Many occupations, disease states, as well as stages of life are especially vulnerable to the stress imposed on the cardiovascular system during exposure to hot ambient conditions. This review focuses on the cardiovascular responses to heat stress that are necessary for heat dissipation. To accomplish this regulatory feat requires complex autonomic nervous system control of the heart and various vascular beds. For example, during heat stress cardiac output increases up to twofold, by increases in heart rate and an active maintenance of stroke volume via increases in inotropy in the presence of decreases in cardiac preload. Baroreflexes retain the ability to regulate blood pressure in many, but not all, heat stress conditions. Central hypovolemia is another cardiovascular challenge brought about by heat stress, which if added to a subsequent central volumetric stress, such as hemorrhage, can be problematic and potentially dangerous, as syncope and cardiovascular collapse may ensue. These combined stresses can compromise blood flow and oxygenation to important tissues such as the brain. It is notable that this compromised condition can occur at cardiac outputs that are adequate during normothermic conditions but are inadequate in heat because of the increased systemic vascular conductance associated with cutaneous vasodilation. Understanding the mechanisms within this complex regulatory system will allow for the development of treatment recommendations and countermeasures to reduce risks during the ever-increasing frequency of severe heat events that are predicted to occur. PMID:25589263

  4. Effects of d-amphetamine upon psychosocial stress responses.

    PubMed

    Childs, Emma; Bershad, Anya K; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    Psychostimulant drugs alter the salience of stimuli in both laboratory animals and humans. In animals, stimulants increase rates of responding to conditioned incentive stimuli, and in humans, amphetamine increases positive ratings of emotional images. However, the effects of stimulants on real-life emotional events have not been studied in humans. In this study, we examined the effect of d-amphetamine on responses to acute psychosocial stress using a public speaking task. Healthy volunteers (N=56) participated in two experimental sessions, one with a psychosocial stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test) and one with a non-stressful control task. They were randomly assigned to receive d-amphetamine (5 mg n=18, 10 mg n=20) or placebo (n=18) on both sessions under double blind conditions. Salivary cortisol, subjective mood, and vital signs were measured at regular intervals during the session. Subjects also provided cognitive appraisals of the tasks before and after their performances. Amphetamine produced its expected mood and physiological effects, and the Trier Social Stress Test produced its expected effects on cortisol and mood. Although neither dose of amphetamine altered cardiovascular or hormonal responses to stress, amphetamine (10 mg) increased participants' pre-task appraisals of how challenging the task would be, and it increased post-task ratings of self-efficacy. Paradoxically, it also increased ratings of how stressful the task was, and prolonged aversive emotional responses. These findings suggest that amphetamine differentially affects stress response components: it may increase participants' appraisals of self-efficacy without dampening the direct emotional or physiological responses to the stress. PMID:27235381

  5. Stress in Atlantic salmon: response to unpredictable chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Madaro, Angelico; Olsen, Rolf E; Kristiansen, Tore S; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Nilsen, Tom O; Flik, Gert; Gorissen, Marnix

    2015-08-01

    Combinations of stressors occur regularly throughout an animal's life, especially in agriculture and aquaculture settings. If an animal fails to acclimate to these stressors, stress becomes chronic, and a condition of allostatic overload arises with negative results for animal welfare. In the current study, we describe effects of exposing Atlantic salmon parr to an unpredictable chronic stressor (UCS) paradigm for 3 weeks. The paradigm involves exposure of fish to seven unpredictable stressors three times a day. At the end of the trial, experimental and control fish were challenged with yet another novel stressor and sampled before and 1 h after that challenge. Plasma cortisol decreased steadily over time in stressed fish, indicative of exhaustion of the endocrine stress axis. This was confirmed by a lower cortisol response to the novel stressor at the end of the stress period in chronically stressed fish compared with the control group. In the preoptic area (POA) and pituitary gland, chronic stress resulted in decreased gene expression of 11βhsd2, gr1 and gr2 in the POA and increased expression of those genes in the pituitary gland. POA crf expression and pituitary expression of pomcs and mr increased, whereas interrenal gene expression was unaffected. Exposure to the novel stressor had no effect on POA and interrenal gene expression. In the pituitary, crfr1, pomcs, 11βhsd2, grs and mr were down-regulated. In summary, our results provide a novel overview of the dynamic changes that occur at every level of the hypothalamic-pituitary gland-interrenal gland (HPI) axis as a result of chronic stress in Atlantic salmon. PMID:26056242

  6. Dysfunctional stress responses in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Woda, Alain; Picard, Pascale; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Many dysfunctional and chronic pain conditions overlap. This review describes the different modes of chronic deregulation of the adaptive response to stress which may be a common factor for these conditions. Several types of dysfunction can be identified within the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis: basal hypercortisolism, hyper-reactivity, basal hypocortisolism and hypo-reactivity. Neuroactive steroid synthesis is another component of the adaptive response to stress. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form DHEA-S, and progesterone and its derivatives are synthetized in cutaneous, nervous, and adipose cells. They are neuroactive factors that act locally. They may have a role in the localization of the symptoms and their levels can vary both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Persistent changes in neuroactive steroid levels or precursors can induce localized neurodegeneration. The autonomic nervous system is another component of the stress response. Its dysfunction in chronic stress responses can be expressed by decreased basal parasympathethic activity, increased basal sympathetic activity or sympathetic hyporeactivity to a stressful stimulus. The immune and genetic systems also participate. The helper-T cells Th1 secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1-β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, whereas Th2 secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-10, IGF-10, IL-13. Chronic deregulation of the Th1/Th2 balance can occur in favor of anti- or pro-inflammatory direction, locally or systemically. Individual vulnerability to stress can be due to environmental factors but can also be genetically influenced. Genetic polymorphisms and epigenetics are the main keys to understanding the influence of genetics on the response of individuals to constraints. PMID:27262345

  7. Mental Imagery Affects Subsequent Automatic Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hagenaars, Muriel A.; Mesbah, Rahele; Cremers, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing) during subsequent analog trauma (affective picture viewing). Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1, 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome) or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast) than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (n = 51), again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative-related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations. PMID:26089801

  8. Dynamics of active cellular response under stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Rumi; Zemel, Assaf; Safran, Samuel

    2008-03-01

    Forces exerted by and on adherent cells are important for many physiological processes such as wound healing and tissue formation. In addition, recent experiments have shown that stem cell differentiation is controlled, at least in part, by the elasticity of the surrounding matrix. Using a simple theoretical model that includes the forces due to both the mechanosensitive nature of cells and the elastic response of the matrix, we predict the dynamics of orientation of cells. The model predicts many features observed in measurements of cellular forces and orientation including the increase with time of the forces generated by cells in the absence of applied stress and the consequent decrease of the force in the presence of quasi-static stresses. We also explain the puzzling observation of parallel alignment of cells for static and quasi-static stresses and of nearly perpendicular alignment for dynamically varying stresses. In addition, we predict the response of the cellular orientation to a sinusoidally varying applied stress as a function of frequency. The dependence of the cell orientation angle on the Poisson ratio of the surrounding material can be used to distinguish systems in which cell activity is controlled by stress from those where cell activity is controlled by strain. Reference: Nature Physics, vol. 3, pp 655 (2007).

  9. Analysis of soybean root proteins affected by gibberellic acid treatment under flooding stress.

    PubMed

    Oh, Myeong Won; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is a serious abiotic stress for soybean because it restricts growth and reduces grain yields. To investigate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on soybean under flooding stress, root proteins were analyzed using a gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins were extracted from the roots of 4-days-old soybean seedlings exposed to flooding stress in the presence and absence of exogenous GA3 for 2 days. A total of 307, 324, and 250 proteins were identified from untreated, and flooding-treated soybean seedlings without or with GA3, respectively. Secondary metabolism- and cell-related proteins, and proteins involved in protein degradation/synthesis were decreased by flooding stress; however, the levels of these proteins were restored by GA3 supplementation under flooding. Fermentation- and cell wall-related proteins were not affected by GA3 supplementation. Furthermore, putative GA-responsive proteins, which were identified by the presence of a GA-responsive element in the promoter region, were less abundant by flooding stress; however, these proteins were more abundant by GA3 supplementation under flooding. Taken together, these results suggest that GA3 affects the abundance of proteins involved in secondary metabolism, cell cycle, and protein degradation/synthesis in soybeans under flooding stress. PMID:24702262

  10. Erythropoietin Action in Stress Response, Tissue Maintenance and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Li; Dey, Soumyadeep; Alnaeeli, Mawadda; Suresh, Sukanya; Rogers, Heather; Teng, Ruifeng; Noguchi, Constance Tom

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) regulation of red blood cell production and its induction at reduced oxygen tension provides for the important erythropoietic response to ischemic stress. The cloning and production of recombinant human EPO has led to its clinical use in patients with anemia for two and half decades and has facilitated studies of EPO action. Reports of animal and cell models of ischemic stress in vitro and injury suggest potential EPO benefit beyond red blood cell production including vascular endothelial response to increase nitric oxide production, which facilitates oxygen delivery to brain, heart and other non-hematopoietic tissues. This review discusses these and other reports of EPO action beyond red blood cell production, including EPO response affecting metabolism and obesity in animal models. Observations of EPO activity in cell and animal model systems, including mice with tissue specific deletion of EPO receptor (EpoR), suggest the potential for EPO response in metabolism and disease. PMID:24918289

  11. Erythropoietin action in stress response, tissue maintenance and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Li; Dey, Soumyadeep; Alnaeeli, Mawadda; Suresh, Sukanya; Rogers, Heather; Teng, Ruifeng; Noguchi, Constance Tom

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) regulation of red blood cell production and its induction at reduced oxygen tension provides for the important erythropoietic response to ischemic stress. The cloning and production of recombinant human EPO has led to its clinical use in patients with anemia for two and half decades and has facilitated studies of EPO action. Reports of animal and cell models of ischemic stress in vitro and injury suggest potential EPO benefit beyond red blood cell production including vascular endothelial response to increase nitric oxide production, which facilitates oxygen delivery to brain, heart and other non-hematopoietic tissues. This review discusses these and other reports of EPO action beyond red blood cell production, including EPO response affecting metabolism and obesity in animal models. Observations of EPO activity in cell and animal model systems, including mice with tissue specific deletion of EPO receptor (EpoR), suggest the potential for EPO response in metabolism and disease. PMID:24918289

  12. Response to stress in Drosophila is mediated by gender, age and stress paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Neckameyer, Wendi S.; Nieto, Andres

    2016-01-01

    All living organisms must maintain equilibrium in response to internal and external challenges within their environment. Changes in neural plasticity (alterations in neuronal populations, dendritic remodeling, and synaptic turnover) are critical components of the homeostatic response to stress, which has been strongly implicated in the onset of affective disorders. However, stress is differentially perceived depending on the type of stress and its context, as well as genetic background, age and sex; therefore, an individual’s maintenance of neuronal homeostasis must differ depending upon these variables. We established Drosophila as a model to analyze homeostatic responses to stress. Sexually immature and mature females and males from an isogenic wild-type strain raised under controlled environmental conditions were exposed to four reproducible and high-throughput translatable stressors to facilitate the analysis of a large number of animals for direct comparisons. These animals were assessed in an open-field arena, in a Light-Dark Box, and in a Forced Swim Test, as well as for sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol. These studies establish that immature and mature females and males represent behaviorally distinct populations under control conditions as well as after exposure to different stressors. Therefore, the neural substrates mediating the stress response must be differentially expressed depending upon the hormonal status of the brain. In addition, an adaptive response to a given stressor in one paradigm was not predictive for outcomes in other paradigms. PMID:25783197

  13. Environmental Change, the Stress Response, and Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    LaDage, Lara D

    2015-09-01

    Previous to the 1980's, the prevailing neuroscience dogma held that no new neurons were produced in the brains of adult mammals. Now, we understand that the production of new neurons, or neurogenesis, is a common and plastic process in the adult brain. To date, however, researchers have not come to a unified understanding of the functional significance of neurogenesis. Several factors have been shown to modulate hippocampal neurogenesis including spatial learning, stress, and aspects of environmental change, but questions still remain. How do these modulating factors overlap? Which aspects of environmental change induce a stress response? Is there a relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis, the stress response, and environmental change? Can this relationship be altered when taking into consideration other factors such as perception and predictability of the environment? Finally, do results from neurobiological research on laboratory rodents translate to wild systems? This review attempts to address these questions and synthesize research from the fields of ecology, psychology, and behavioral neuroscience. PMID:25980567

  14. Abiotic stress responses in plant roots: a proteomics perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Dipanjana; Xu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stress conditions adversely affect plant growth, resulting in significant decline in crop productivity. To mitigate and recover from the damaging effects of such adverse environmental conditions, plants have evolved various adaptive strategies at cellular and metabolic levels. Most of these strategies involve dynamic changes in protein abundance that can be best explored through proteomics. This review summarizes comparative proteomic studies conducted with roots of various plant species subjected to different abiotic stresses especially drought, salinity, flood, and cold. The main purpose of this article is to highlight and classify the protein level changes in abiotic stress response pathways specifically in plant roots. Shared as well as stressor-specific proteome signatures and adaptive mechanism(s) are simultaneously described. Such a comprehensive account will facilitate the design of genetic engineering strategies that enable the development of broad-spectrum abiotic stress-tolerant crops. PMID:24478786

  15. Transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to As (V) stress

    PubMed Central

    Abercrombie, Jason M; Halfhill, Matthew D; Ranjan, Priya; Rao, Murali R; Saxton, Arnold M; Yuan, Joshua S; Stewart, C Neal

    2008-01-01

    Background Arsenic is toxic to plants and a common environmental pollutant. There is a strong chemical similarity between arsenate [As (V)] and phosphate (Pi). Whole genome oligonucleotide microarrays were employed to investigate the transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to As (V) stress. Results Antioxidant-related genes (i.e. coding for superoxide dismutases and peroxidases) play prominent roles in response to arsenate. The microarray experiment revealed induction of chloroplast Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) (at2g28190), Cu/Zn SOD (at1g08830), as well as an SOD copper chaperone (at1g12520). On the other hand, Fe SODs were strongly repressed in response to As (V) stress. Non-parametric rank product statistics were used to detect differentially expressed genes. Arsenate stress resulted in the repression of numerous genes known to be induced by phosphate starvation. These observations were confirmed with qRT-PCR and SOD activity assays. Conclusion Microarray data suggest that As (V) induces genes involved in response to oxidative stress and represses transcription of genes induced by phosphate starvation. This study implicates As (V) as a phosphate mimic in the cell by repressing genes normally induced when available phosphate is scarce. Most importantly, these data reveal that arsenate stress affects the expression of several genes with little or unknown biological functions, thereby providing new putative gene targets for future research. PMID:18684332

  16. Stress affects salivary alpha-Amylase activity in bonobos.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Verena; Deschner, Tobias; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2012-01-18

    Salivary alpha-Amylase (sAA) is a starch digesting enzyme. In addition to its function in the context of nutrition, sAA has also turned out to be useful for monitoring sympathetic nervous system activity. Recent studies on humans have found a relationship between intra-individual changes in sAA activity and physical and psychological stress. In studies on primates and other vertebrates, non-invasive monitoring of short-term stress responses is usually based on measurements of cortisol levels, which are indicative of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. The few studies that have used both cortisol levels and sAA activity indicate that these two markers may respond differently and independently to different types of stress such that variation in the degree of the activation of different stress response systems might reflect alternative coping mechanisms or individual traits. Here, we present the first data on intra- and inter-individual variation of sAA activity in captive bonobos and compare the results with information from other ape species and humans. Our results indicate that sAA activity in the bonobo samples was significantly lower than in the human samples but within the range of other great ape species. In addition, sAA activity was significantly higher in samples collected at times when subjects had been exposed to stressors (judged by changes in behavioral patterns and cortisol levels) than in samples collected at other times. Our results indicate that bonobos possess functioning sAA and, as in other species, sAA activity is influenced by autonomic nervous system activity. Monitoring sAA activity could therefore be a useful tool for evaluating stress in bonobos. PMID:21945369

  17. Hyperosmotic Stress Response of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Andrew; Frirdich, Emilisa; Huynh, Steven; Parker, Craig T.

    2012-01-01

    The diarrheal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and other gastrointestinal bacteria encounter changes in osmolarity in the environment, through exposure to food processing, and upon entering host organisms, where osmotic adaptation can be associated with virulence. In this study, growth profiles, transcriptomics, and phenotypic, mutant, and single-cell analyses were used to explore the effects of hyperosmotic stress exposure on C. jejuni. Increased growth inhibition correlated with increased osmotic concentration, with both ionic and nonionic stressors inhibiting growth at 0.620 total osmol liter−1. C. jejuni adaptation to a range of osmotic stressors and concentrations was accompanied by severe filamentation in subpopulations, with microscopy indicating septum formation and phenotypic diversity between individual cells in a filament. Population heterogeneity was also exemplified by the bifurcation of colony morphology into small and large variants on salt stress plates. Flow cytometry of C. jejuni harboring green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the ATP synthase promoter likewise revealed bimodal subpopulations under hyperosmotic stress. We also identified frequent hyperosmotic stress-sensitive variants within the clonal wild-type population propagated on standard laboratory medium. Microarray analysis following hyperosmotic upshift revealed enhanced expression of heat shock genes and genes encoding enzymes for synthesis of potential osmoprotectants and cross-protective induction of oxidative stress genes. The capsule export gene kpsM was also upregulated, and an acapsular mutant was defective for growth under hyperosmotic stress. For C. jejuni, an organism lacking most conventional osmotic response factors, these data suggest an unusual hyperosmotic stress response, including likely “bet-hedging” survival strategies relying on the presence of stress-fit individuals in a heterogeneous population. PMID:22961853

  18. The Adaptive Calibration Model of stress responsivity

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Adaptive Calibration Model (ACM), an evolutionary-developmental theory of individual differences in the functioning of the stress response system. The stress response system has three main biological functions: (1) to coordinate the organism’s allostatic response to physical and psychosocial challenges; (2) to encode and filter information about the organism’s social and physical environment, mediating the organism’s openness to environmental inputs; and (3) to regulate the organism’s physiology and behavior in a broad range of fitness-relevant areas including defensive behaviors, competitive risk-taking, learning, attachment, affiliation and reproductive functioning. The information encoded by the system during development feeds back on the long-term calibration of the system itself, resulting in adaptive patterns of responsivity and individual differences in behavior. Drawing on evolutionary life history theory, we build a model of the development of stress responsivity across life stages, describe four prototypical responsivity patterns, and discuss the emergence and meaning of sex differences. The ACM extends the theory of biological sensitivity to context (BSC) and provides an integrative framework for future research in the field. PMID:21145350

  19. Exposure to Stressful Environments: Strategy of Adaptive Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhi, Leon E.

    1991-01-01

    Any new natural environment may generate a number of stresses (such as hypoxia, water lack, and heat exposure), each of which can produce strains in more than a single organ system. Every strain may in turn stimulate the body to adapt in multiple ways. Nevertheless, a general strategy of the various adaptive responses emerges when the challenges are divided into three groups. The first category includes conditions that affect the supply of essential molecules, while the second is made up by those stresses that prevent the body from regulating properly the output of waste products, such as CO2 and heat. In both classes, there is a small number of responses, similar in principle, regardless of the specific situation. The third unit is created by environments that disrupt body transport systems. Problems may arise when there is a conflict between two stresses requiring conflicting adaptive changes. An alternative to adaptation, creation of micro-environment, is often favored by the animal.

  20. Lichen growth responses to stress induced by automobile exhaust pollution.

    PubMed

    Lawrey, J D; Hale, M E

    1979-04-27

    Growth rates were significantly suppressed in juvenile thalli (less than 0.1 square millimeter in initial size) of the saxicolous lichen Pseudoparmelia baltimorensis from a Potomac River island with high atmospheric lead burden as compared to the case for a similar island with a lower lead burden. However, larger thalli showed no significant changes in growth response as a result of atmospheric pollution stress. Disruptions in lichen growth thus appear to affect life stages when growth is most rapid andfood reserves are low. Once a minimnum thallus size is attained, the stress tolerance of the lichen increases. PMID:17758017

  1. A sucrose transporter-interacting protein disulphide isomerase affects redox homeostasis and links sucrose partitioning with abiotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Erik; Obata, Toshihiro; Gerstenberger, Anne; Gier, Konstanze; Brandt, Tobias; Fernie, Alisdair R; Schulze, Waltraud; Kühn, Christina

    2016-06-01

    Sucrose accumulation in leaves in response to various abiotic stresses suggests a specific role of this disaccharide for stress tolerance and adaptation. The high-affinity transporter StSUT1 undergoes substrate-induced endocytosis presenting the question as to whether altered sucrose accumulation in leaves in response to stresses is also related to enhanced endocytosis or altered activity of the sucrose transporter. StSUT1 is known to interact with several stress-inducible proteins; here we investigated whether one of the interacting candidates, StPDI1, affects its subcellular localization in response to stress: StPDI1 expression is induced by ER-stress and salt. Both proteins, StSUT1 and StPDI1, were found in the detergent resistant membrane (DRM) fraction, and this might affect internalization. Knockdown of StPDI1 expression severely affects abiotic stress tolerance of transgenic potato plants. Analysis of these plants does not reveal modified subcellular localization or endocytosis of StSUT1, but rather a disturbed redox homeostasis, reduced detoxification of reactive oxygen species and effects on primary metabolism. Parallel observations with other StSUT1-interacting proteins are discussed. The redox status in leaves seems to be linked to the sugar status in response to various stress stimuli and to play a role in stress tolerance. PMID:26670204

  2. Early life stress dampens stress responsiveness in adolescence: Evaluation of neuroendocrine reactivity and coping behavior.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Young-Ming; Tsai, Tsung-Chih; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chien-Chung; Huang, Chiung-Chun; Hsu, Kuei-Sen

    2016-05-01

    Stressful experiences during early life (ELS) can affect brain development, thereby exerting a profound and long-lasting influence on mental development and psychological health. The stress inoculation hypothesis presupposes that individuals who have early experienced an attenuated form of stressors may gain immunity to its more virulent forms later in life. Increasing evidence demonstrates that ELS may promote the development of subsequent stress resistance, but the mechanisms underlying such adaptive changes are not fully understood. The present study evaluated the impact of fragmented dam-pup interactions by limiting the bedding and nesting material in the cage during postnatal days 2-9, a naturalistic animal model of chronic ELS, on the physiological and behavioral responses to different stressors in adolescent mice and characterized the possible underlying mechanisms. We found that ELS mice showed less social interaction deficits after chronic social defeat stress and acute restraint-tailshock stress-induced impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) and enhanced long-term depression (LTD) in hippocampal CA1 region compared with control mice. The effects of ELS on LTP and LTD were rescued by adrenalectomy. While ELS did not cause alterations in basal emotional behaviors, it significantly enhanced stress coping behaviors in both the tail suspension and the forced swimming tests. ELS mice exhibited a significant decrease in corticosterone response and trafficking of glucocorticoid receptors to the nucleus in response to acute restraint stress. Altogether, our data support the hypothesis that stress inoculation training, via early exposure to manageable stress, may enhance resistance to other unrelated extreme stressors in adolescence. PMID:26881834

  3. Relationship between obesity, negative affect and basal heart rate in predicting heart rate reactivity to psychological stress among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Park, Andres E.; Huynh, Pauline; Schell, Anne M.; Baker, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced cardiovascular responses to psychological stressors have been found to be associated with both obesity and negative affect in adults, but have been less well studied in children and adolescent populations. These findings have most often been interpreted as reflecting reduced sympathetic nervous system response, perhaps associated with heightened baseline sympathetic activation among the obese and those manifesting negative affect. However, obesity and negative affect may themselves be correlated, raising the question of whether they both independently affect cardiovascular reactivity. The present study thus examined the separate effects of obesity and negative affect on both cardiovascular and skin conductance responses to stress (e.g., during a serial subtraction math task) in adolescents, while controlling for baseline levels of autonomic activity during rest. Both obesity and negative affect had independent and negative associations with cardiovascular reactivity, such that reduced stress responses were apparent for obese adolescents and those with high levels of negative affect. In contrast, neither obesity nor negative affect was related to skin conductance responses to stress, implicating specifically noradrenergic mechanisms rather than sympathetic mechanisms generally as being deficient. Moreover, baseline heart rate was unrelated to obesity in this sample, which suggests that heightened baseline of sympathetic activity is not necessary for the reduced cardiovascular reactivity to stress. PMID:26049136

  4. Comparative transcriptome analysis of grapevine in response to copper stress.

    PubMed

    Leng, Xiangpeng; Jia, Haifeng; Sun, Xin; Shangguan, Lingfei; Mu, Qian; Wang, Baoju; Fang, Jinggui

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most economically important and widely cultivated fruit crop worldwide. With the industrialization and the popular application of cupric fungicides in grape industry, copper stress and copper pollution are also the factors affecting grape production and berry and wine quality. Here, 3,843 transcripts were significantly differently expressed genes in response to Cu stress by RNA-seq, which included 1,892 up-regulated and 1,951 down-regulated transcripts. During this study we found many known and novel Cu-induced and -repressed genes. Biological analysis of grape samples were indicated that exogenous Cu can influence chlorophylls metabolism and photosynthetic activities of grapevine. Most ROS detoxification systems, including antioxidant enzyme, stress-related proteins and secondary metabolites were strongly induced. Concomitantly, abscisic acid functioned as a negative regulator in Cu stress, in opposite action to ethylene, auxin, jasmonic acid, and brassinolide. This study also identified a set of Cu stress specifically activated genes coding copper transporter, P1B-type ATPase, multidrug transporters. Overall, this work was carried out to gain insights into the copper-regulated and stress-responsive mechanisms in grapevine at transcriptome level. This research can also provide some genetic information that can help us in better vinery management and breeding Cu-resistant grape cultivars. PMID:26673527

  5. Comparative transcriptome analysis of grapevine in response to copper stress

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Xiangpeng; Jia, Haifeng; Sun, Xin; Shangguan, Lingfei; Mu, Qian; Wang, Baoju; Fang, Jinggui

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most economically important and widely cultivated fruit crop worldwide. With the industrialization and the popular application of cupric fungicides in grape industry, copper stress and copper pollution are also the factors affecting grape production and berry and wine quality. Here, 3,843 transcripts were significantly differently expressed genes in response to Cu stress by RNA-seq, which included 1,892 up-regulated and 1,951 down-regulated transcripts. During this study we found many known and novel Cu-induced and -repressed genes. Biological analysis of grape samples were indicated that exogenous Cu can influence chlorophylls metabolism and photosynthetic activities of grapevine. Most ROS detoxification systems, including antioxidant enzyme, stress-related proteins and secondary metabolites were strongly induced. Concomitantly, abscisic acid functioned as a negative regulator in Cu stress, in opposite action to ethylene, auxin, jasmonic acid, and brassinolide. This study also identified a set of Cu stress specifically activated genes coding copper transporter, P1B-type ATPase, multidrug transporters. Overall, this work was carried out to gain insights into the copper-regulated and stress-responsive mechanisms in grapevine at transcriptome level. This research can also provide some genetic information that can help us in better vinery management and breeding Cu-resistant grape cultivars. PMID:26673527

  6. Silver nanoparticles induce endoplasmatic reticulum stress response in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Christen, Verena; Capelle, Martinus; Fent, Karl

    2013-10-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) find increasing applications, and therefore humans and the environment are increasingly exposed to them. However, potential toxicological implications are not sufficiently known. Here we investigate effects of AgNPs (average size 120 nm) on zebrafish in vitro and in vivo, and compare them to human hepatoma cells (Huh7). AgNPs are incorporated in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) and Huh7, and in zebrafish embryos. In ZFL cells AgNPs lead to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress response, and TNF-α. Transcriptional alterations also occur in pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. The transcriptional profile differed in ZFL and Huh7 cells. In ZFL cells, the ER stress marker BiP is induced, concomitant with the ER stress marker ATF-6 and spliced XBP-1 after 6h and 24h exposure to 0.5 g/L and 0.05 g/L AgNPs, respectively. This indicates the induction of different pathways of the ER stress response. Moreover, AgNPs induce TNF-α. In zebrafish embryos exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5mg/L AgNPs hatching was affected and morphological defects occurred at high concentrations. ER stress related gene transcripts BiP and Synv are significantly up-regulated after 24h at 0.1 and 5mg/L AgNPs. Furthermore, transcriptional alterations occurred in the pro-apoptotic genes Noxa and p21. The ER stress response was strong in ZFL cells and occurred in zebrafish embryos as well. Our data demonstrate for the first time that AgNPs lead to induction of ER stress in zebrafish. The induction of ER stress can have several consequences including the activation of apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. PMID:23800688

  7. Sustained stress response after oxidative stress in trabecular meshwork cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guorong; Luna, Coralia; Liton, Paloma B.; Navarro, Iris; Epstein, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the mechanisms by which chronic oxidative stress may lead to a sustained stress response similar to that previously observed in the trabecular meshwork (TM) of glaucoma donors. Methods Porcine TM cells were treated with 200 μM H2O2 twice a day for four days and were allowed to recover for three additional days. After the treatment, TM cells were analyzed for generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS), mitochondrial potential, activation of NF-κB, and the expression of inflammatory markers IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and ELAM-1. Potential sources of iROS were evaluated using inhibitors for nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthetase, cyclooxygenase, xanthine oxidase, NADPH oxidase, mitochondrial ROS, and PKC. The role of NF-κB activation in the induction of inflammatory markers was evaluated using the inhibitors Lactacystin and BAY11–7082. Results Chronic oxidative stress simulated by H2O2 exposure of porcine TM cells resulted in the sustained production of iROS by the mitochondria. Inhibition of mitochondrial iROS had a significant inhibitory effect on the activation of NF-κB and the induction of IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and ELAM-1 triggered by chronic oxidative stress. Inhibition of NF-κB partially prevented the induction of IL-1α, IL-8, and ELAM-1, but not IL-6. Conclusions Chronic oxidative stress in TM cells induced iROS production in mitochondria. This increase in iROS may contribute to the pathogenesis of the TM in glaucoma by inducing the expression of inflammatory mediators previously observed in glaucoma donors as well as the levels of oxidative damage in the tissue. PMID:18199969

  8. Daphnia response to biotic stress is modified by PCBs.

    PubMed

    Bernatowicz, Piotr; Pijanowska, Joanna

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of xenobiotics (PCBs) on the responses of Daphnia to biotic factors such as the presence of a predator (fish kairomone) or filamentous cyanobacteria. Both behaviour (depth selection) and life history (body size at first reproduction and fecundity) were affected by these stressors. Though there was no direct effect of PCBs, their influence resulted in disruption of the "natural" reaction to the presence of fish or cyanobacteria, leading to inadequate responses of Daphnia to these biotic threats. Examined clones of Daphnia showed significant diversity in their reaction to these stress factors, which was greater than that between Daphnia clones exposed to different environmental conditions. PCB pollution may change the frequency of Daphnia clones in favour of those whose responses to biotic stress are similar in both the absence and presence of these toxic chemicals. PMID:21095006

  9. Chronic variable stress prevents amphetamine-elicited 50-kHz calls in rats with low positive affectivity.

    PubMed

    Kõiv, Kadri; Metelitsa, Mait; Vares, Marten; Tiitsaar, Kai; Raudkivi, Karita; Jaako, Külli; Vulla, Kaspar; Shimmo, Ruth; Harro, Jaanus

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between stress response and positive affective states is thought to be bidirectional: whilst stress can lead to a blunted hedonic response, positive affect reduces the negative effects of stress. We have previously shown that persistently high positive affectivity as measured by 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) is protective against chronic variable stress (CVS). The present study examined the effect of CVS on 50-kHz USVs elicited by amphetamine administration, simultaneously considering the stable inter-individual differences in positive affectivity. Forty juvenile male Wistar rats were categorised as of high (HC) or low (LC) positive affectivity based on their 50-kHz USV response to imitation of rough-and-tumble play ('tickling'). As adults, the rats were subjected to four weeks of CVS, after which D-amphetamine was administered in five daily doses followed by a challenge dose (all 1mg/kg IP) nine days later. CVS reduced sucrose preference in LC-rats only. After CVS, amphetamine-elicited 50-kHz USVs were significantly reduced in LC-rats, the effect of stress in HC-rats being smaller and less consistent. In previously stressed and amphetamine-treated LC-rats, locomotor response to amphetamine was attenuated. In stressed LC-rats, DOPAC levels and dopamine turnover were increased in striatum after amphetamine treatment, and dopamine D1 receptor levels were upregulated in nucleus accumbens. LC-rats had lower isoleucine levels in frontal cortex. These results show that stress-related changes in response to amphetamine are dependent on inter-individual differences in positive affectivity both at neurochemical and behavioural levels, and further support the notion of higher vulnerability of animals with low positive affect. PMID:26951611

  10. Regulated cell death and adaptive stress responses.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Kepp, Oliver; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic cells react to potentially dangerous perturbations of the intracellular or extracellular microenvironment by activating rapid (transcription-independent) mechanisms that attempt to restore homeostasis. If such perturbations persist, cells may still try to cope with stress by activating delayed and robust (transcription-dependent) adaptive systems, or they may actively engage in cellular suicide. This regulated form of cell death can manifest with various morphological, biochemical and immunological correlates, and constitutes an ultimate attempt of stressed cells to maintain organismal homeostasis. Here, we dissect the general organization of adaptive cellular responses to stress, their intimate connection with regulated cell death, and how the latter operates for the preservation of organismal homeostasis. PMID:27048813

  11. Psychological hardiness predicts neuroimmunological responses to stress.

    PubMed

    Sandvik, Asle M; Bartone, Paul T; Hystad, Sigurd William; Phillips, Terry M; Thayer, Julian F; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge

    2013-01-01

    Psychological hardiness characterizes people who remain healthy under psychosocial stress. The present exploratory study investigates possible links between hardiness and several immune and neuroendocrine markers: IL-6, IL-12, IL-4, IL-10, & neuropeptide-Y. A total of 21 Norwegian navy cadets were studied in the context of a highly stressful military field exercise. Blood samples were collected midway, and again late in the exercise when stress levels were highest. Psychological hardiness (including commitment, control, and challenge) was measured two days before the exercise. While all subjects scored high in hardiness, some were high only in commitment and control, but relatively low in challenge. These "unbalanced" hardiness subjects were also more stress reactive, showing suppressed proinflammatory cytokines (IL-12), increased anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10), and lower neuropeptide-Y levels as compared to the hardiness-balanced group. This study thus shows that being high in hardiness with a balanced profile is linked to more moderate and healthy immune and neuroendocrine responses to stress. PMID:23458268

  12. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Underlying Affective Vulnerabilities, and Smoking for Affect Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Amanda R.; Cook, Jessica W.; Japuntich, Sandra J.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is overrepresented among cigarette smokers. It has been hypothesized that those with PTSD smoke to alleviate negative affect and counteract deficient positive affect commonly associated with the disorder; however, limited research has examined associations between PTSD symptoms, smoking motives, and affective vulnerability factors. In the current study, we examined (1) whether PTSD symptoms were associated with positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement smoking motives; and (2) whether two affective vulnerability factors implicated in PTSD—anxiety sensitivity and anhedonia—mediated relationships between PTSD symptoms and smoking motives. Methods Data were drawn from a community sample of non-treatment-seeking smokers recruited without regard for trauma history (N = 342; 10+cig/day). We used the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) to assess overall PTSD symptom severity as well as individual PTSD subfactors. Results Overall, PTSD symptom severity was significantly associated with negative reinforcement, but not positive reinforcement, smoking motives. Variation in anxiety sensitivity significantly mediated the relation between PTSD symptom severity and negative reinforcement smoking motives, whereas anhedonia did not. Regarding PTSD subfactors, emotional numbing was the only PTSD subfactor associated with smoking rate, while re-experiencing symptoms were uniquely associated with both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement smoking motives. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity may be an important feature associated with PTSD that enhances motivation to smoke for negative reinforcement purposes. Smoking cessation interventions that alleviate anxiety sensitivity and enhance coping with negative affect may be useful for smokers with elevated PTSD symptoms. PMID:25823634

  13. Chronic Heat Stress Induces Immune Response, Oxidative Stress Response, and Apoptosis of Finishing Pig Liver: A Proteomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yanjun; Hao, Yue; Li, Jielei; Bao, Weiguang; Li, Gan; Gao, Yanli; Gu, Xianhong

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) negatively affects human health, animal welfare, and livestock production. We analyzed the hepatic proteomes of finishing pigs subjected to chronic heat stress (HS), thermal neutral (TN), and restricted feed intake conditions, identifying differences between direct and indirect (via reduced feed intake) HS. Twenty-four castrated male pigs were randomly allocated to three treatments for three weeks: (1) thermal neutral (TN) (22 °C) with ad libitum feeding; (2) chronic HS (30 °C) with ad libitum feeding; and (3) TN, pair-fed to HS intake (PF). Hepatic proteome analysis was conducted using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Both HS and PF significantly reduced liver weight (p < 0.05). Forty-five hepatic proteins were differentially abundant when comparing HS with TN (37), PF with TN (29), and HS with PF (16). These proteins are involved in heat shock response and immune defense, oxidative stress response, cellular apoptosis, metabolism, signal transduction, and cytoskeleton. We also observed increased abundance of proteins and enzymes associated with heat shock response and immune defense, reduced the redox state, enhanced multiple antioxidant abilities, and increased apoptosis in HS liver. Heat-load, independent of reduced feed intake, induced an innate immune response, while food restriction caused stress and cellular apoptosis. Our results provide novel insights into the effects of chronic HS on liver. PMID:27187351

  14. Chronic Heat Stress Induces Immune Response, Oxidative Stress Response, and Apoptosis of Finishing Pig Liver: A Proteomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanjun; Hao, Yue; Li, Jielei; Bao, Weiguang; Li, Gan; Gao, Yanli; Gu, Xianhong

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) negatively affects human health, animal welfare, and livestock production. We analyzed the hepatic proteomes of finishing pigs subjected to chronic heat stress (HS), thermal neutral (TN), and restricted feed intake conditions, identifying differences between direct and indirect (via reduced feed intake) HS. Twenty-four castrated male pigs were randomly allocated to three treatments for three weeks: (1) thermal neutral (TN) (22 °C) with ad libitum feeding; (2) chronic HS (30 °C) with ad libitum feeding; and (3) TN, pair-fed to HS intake (PF). Hepatic proteome analysis was conducted using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Both HS and PF significantly reduced liver weight (p < 0.05). Forty-five hepatic proteins were differentially abundant when comparing HS with TN (37), PF with TN (29), and HS with PF (16). These proteins are involved in heat shock response and immune defense, oxidative stress response, cellular apoptosis, metabolism, signal transduction, and cytoskeleton. We also observed increased abundance of proteins and enzymes associated with heat shock response and immune defense, reduced the redox state, enhanced multiple antioxidant abilities, and increased apoptosis in HS liver. Heat-load, independent of reduced feed intake, induced an innate immune response, while food restriction caused stress and cellular apoptosis. Our results provide novel insights into the effects of chronic HS on liver. PMID:27187351

  15. Stressed out? Associations between perceived and physiological stress responses in adolescents: the TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ormel, Johan; Bosch, Nienke M; Bouma, Esther M C; Van Roon, Arie M; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Riese, Harriëtte

    2011-04-01

    Studies regarding the interrelation of perceived and physiological stress indices have shown diverging results. Using a population sample of adolescents (N=715, 50.9% girls, mean age 16.11 years, SD=0.59), we tested three hypotheses: (1) perceived responses during social stress covary with concurrent physiological stress responses; (2) high pretest levels of perceived stress predict large physiological responses; and (3) large physiological responses to social stress predict low posttest perceived stress levels. Perceived arousal, unpleasantness, and dominance were related to heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and cortisol responses to a laboratory social stress test. Although effect sizes were small, the results suggest covariation of perceived stress and concurrent physiological stress responses in both the ANS and the HPA axis, as well as inverse associations between heart rate responsiveness and the subsequent appraisal of stress. PMID:21361964

  16. Silver nanoparticles induce endoplasmatic reticulum stress response in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Verena; Capelle, Martinus; Fent, Karl

    2013-10-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) find increasing applications, and therefore humans and the environment are increasingly exposed to them. However, potential toxicological implications are not sufficiently known. Here we investigate effects of AgNPs (average size 120 nm) on zebrafish in vitro and in vivo, and compare them to human hepatoma cells (Huh7). AgNPs are incorporated in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) and Huh7, and in zebrafish embryos. In ZFL cells AgNPs lead to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress response, and TNF-α. Transcriptional alterations also occur in pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. The transcriptional profile differed in ZFL and Huh7 cells. In ZFL cells, the ER stress marker BiP is induced, concomitant with the ER stress marker ATF-6 and spliced XBP-1 after 6 h and 24 h exposure to 0.5 g/L and 0.05 g/L AgNPs, respectively. This indicates the induction of different pathways of the ER stress response. Moreover, AgNPs induce TNF-α. In zebrafish embryos exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs hatching was affected and morphological defects occurred at high concentrations. ER stress related gene transcripts BiP and Synv are significantly up-regulated after 24 h at 0.1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs. Furthermore, transcriptional alterations occurred in the pro-apoptotic genes Noxa and p21. The ER stress response was strong in ZFL cells and occurred in zebrafish embryos as well. Our data demonstrate for the first time that AgNPs lead to induction of ER stress in zebrafish. The induction of ER stress can have several consequences including the activation of apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. - Highlights: • Effects of silver nanoparticles (120 nm AgNPs) are investigated in zebrafish. • AgNPs induce all ER stress reponses in vitro in zebrafish liver cells. • AgNPs induce weak ER stress in zebrafish embryos. • AgNPs induce oxidative stress and transcripts of pro-apoptosis genes.

  17. Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and DNA Damage Responses Elicited by Silver, Titanium Dioxide, and Cerium Oxide Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous literature on the biological effects of engineered nanomaterials has focused largely on oxidative stress and inflammation endpoints without further investigating potential pathways. Here we examine time-sensitive biological response pathways affected by engineered nanoma...

  18. Responses of Yeast Biocontrol Agents to Environmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Yuan; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Biological control of postharvest diseases, utilizing wild species and strains of antagonistic yeast species, is a research topic that has received considerable attention in the literature over the past 30 years. In principle, it represents a promising alternative to chemical fungicides for the management of postharvest decay of fruits, vegetables, and grains. A yeast-based biocontrol system is composed of a tritrophic interaction between a host (commodity), a pathogen, and a yeast species, all of which are affected by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and UV light as well as osmotic and oxidative stresses. Additionally, during the production process, biocontrol agents encounter various severe abiotic stresses that also impact their viability. Therefore, understanding the ecological fitness of the potential yeast biocontrol agents and developing strategies to enhance their stress tolerance are essential to their efficacy and commercial application. The current review provides an overview of the responses of antagonistic yeast species to various environmental stresses, the methods that can be used to improve stress tolerance and efficacy, and the related mechanisms associated with improved stress tolerance. PMID:25710368

  19. Dopamine signaling promotes the xenobiotic stress response and protein homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Kishore K; Matlack, Tarmie L; Rongo, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    Multicellular organisms encounter environmental conditions that adversely affect protein homeostasis (proteostasis), including extreme temperatures, toxins, and pathogens. It is unclear how they use sensory signaling to detect adverse conditions and then activate stress response pathways so as to offset potential damage. Here, we show that dopaminergic mechanosensory neurons in C. elegans release the neurohormone dopamine to promote proteostasis in epithelia. Signaling through the DA receptor DOP-1 activates the expression of xenobiotic stress response genes involved in pathogenic resistance and toxin removal, and these genes are required for the removal of unstable proteins in epithelia. Exposure to a bacterial pathogen (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) results in elevated removal of unstable proteins in epithelia, and this enhancement requires DA signaling. In the absence of DA signaling, nematodes show increased sensitivity to pathogenic bacteria and heat-shock stress. Our results suggest that dopaminergic sensory neurons, in addition to slowing down locomotion upon sensing a potential bacterial feeding source, also signal to frontline epithelia to activate the xenobiotic stress response so as to maintain proteostasis and prepare for possible infection. PMID:27261197

  20. Cellular Stress Responses and Monitored Cellular Activities.

    PubMed

    Sawa, Teiji; Naito, Yoshifumi; Kato, Hideya; Amaya, Fumimasa

    2016-08-01

    To survive, organisms require mechanisms that enable them to sense changes in the outside environment, introduce necessary responses, and resist unfavorable distortion. Consequently, through evolutionary adaptation, cells have become equipped with the apparatus required to monitor their fundamental intracellular processes and the mechanisms needed to try to offset malfunction without receiving any direct signals from the outside environment. It has been shown recently that eukaryotic cells are equipped with a special mechanism that monitors their fundamental cellular functions and that some pathogenic proteobacteria can override this monitoring mechanism to cause harm. The monitored cellular activities involved in the stressed intracellular response have been researched extensively in Caenorhabditis elegans, where discovery of an association between key mitochondrial activities and innate immune responses was named "cellular associated detoxification and defenses (cSADD)." This cellular surveillance pathway (cSADD) oversees core cellular activities such as mitochondrial respiration and protein transport into mitochondria, detects xenobiotics and invading pathogens, and activates the endocrine pathways controlling behavior, detoxification, and immunity. The cSADD pathway is probably associated with cellular responses to stress in human inflammatory diseases. In the critical care field, the pathogenesis of lethal inflammatory syndromes (e.g., respiratory distress syndromes and sepsis) involves the disturbance of mitochondrial respiration leading to cell death. Up-to-date knowledge about monitored cellular activities and cSADD, especially focusing on mitochondrial involvement, can probably help fill a knowledge gap regarding the pathogenesis of lethal inflammatory syndromes in the critical care field. PMID:26954943

  1. Ferritin and the response to oxidative stress.

    PubMed Central

    Orino, K; Lehman, L; Tsuji, Y; Ayaki, H; Torti, S V; Torti, F M

    2001-01-01

    Iron is required for normal cell growth and proliferation. However, excess iron is potentially harmful, as it can catalyse the formation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) via Fenton chemistry. For this reason, cells have evolved highly regulated mechanisms for controlling intracellular iron levels. Chief among these is the sequestration of iron in ferritin. Ferritin is a 24 subunit protein composed of two subunit types, termed H and L. The ferritin H subunit has a potent ferroxidase activity that catalyses the oxidation of ferrous iron, whereas ferritin L plays a role in iron nucleation and protein stability. In the present study we report that increased synthesis of both subunits of ferritin occurs in HeLa cells exposed to oxidative stress. An increase in the activity of iron responsive element binding proteins in response to oxidative stress was also observed. However, this activation was transient, allowing ferritin protein induction to subsequently proceed. To assess whether ferritin induction reduced the accumulation of ROS, and to test the relative contribution of ferritin H and L subunits in this process, we prepared stable transfectants that overexpressed either ferritin H or ferritin L cDNA under control of a tetracycline-responsive promoter. We observed that overexpression of either ferritin H or ferritin L reduced the accumulation of ROS in response to oxidant challenge. PMID:11415455

  2. Systems biology meets stress ecology: linking molecular and organismal stress responses in Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Sibly, Richard M; Connon, Richard; Hooper, Helen L; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Maund, Steve J; Hill, Christopher J; Bouetard, Anthony; Callaghan, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Background Ibuprofen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been designed to interrupt eicosanoid metabolism in mammals, but little is known of how they affect nontarget organisms. Here we report a systems biology study that simultaneously describes the transcriptomic and phenotypic stress responses of the model crustacean Daphnia magna after exposure to ibuprofen. Results Our findings reveal intriguing similarities in the mode of action of ibuprofen between vertebrates and invertebrates, and they suggest that ibuprofen has a targeted impact on reproduction at the molecular, organismal, and population level in daphnids. Microarray expression and temporal real-time quantitative PCR profiles of key genes suggest early ibuprofen interruption of crustacean eicosanoid metabolism, which appears to disrupt signal transduction affecting juvenile hormone metabolism and oogenesis. Conclusion Combining molecular and organismal stress responses provides a guide to possible chronic consequences of environmental stress for population health. This could improve current environmental risk assessment by providing an early indication of the need for higher tier testing. Our study demonstrates the advantages of a systems approach to stress ecology, in which Daphnia will probably play a major role. PMID:18291039

  3. Exogenous abscisic acid significantly affects proteome in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) exposed to drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Xu, Hui; Mischke, Sue; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Zhang, Dapeng; Zhu, Xujun; Li, Xinghui; Fang, Wanping

    2014-01-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important economic crop, and drought is the most important abiotic stress affecting yield and quality. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone responsible for activating drought resistance. Increased understanding of ABA effects on tea plant under drought stress is essential to develop drought-tolerant tea genotypes, along with crop management practices that can mitigate drought stress. The objective of the present investigation is evaluation of effects of exogenous ABA on the leaf proteome in tea plant exposed to drought stress. Leaf protein patterns of tea plants under simulated drought stress [(polyethylene glycol (PEG)-treated] and exogenous ABA treatment were analyzed in a time-course experiment using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Among the 72 protein spots identified by MALDI-TOF MS, 16 proteins were downregulated and two were upregulated by exogenous ABA. The upregulated proteins have roles in glycolysis and photosystem II stabilization. Twenty-one protein spots were responsive to drought stress and most participate in carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism, control of reactive oxygen species (ROS), defense, signaling or nucleic acid metabolism. The combined treatments of exogenous ABA and drought showed upregulation of 10 protein spots at 12 h and upregulation of 11 proteins at 72 h after initiation of drought stress. The results support the importance of the role that ABA plays in the tea plant during drought stress, by improving protein transport, carbon metabolism and expression of resistance proteins. PMID:27076915

  4. Transcriptional 'memory' of a stress: transient chromatin and memory (epigenetic) marks at stress-response genes.

    PubMed

    Avramova, Zoya

    2015-07-01

    Drought, salinity, extreme temperature variations, pathogen and herbivory attacks are recurring environmental stresses experienced by plants throughout their life. To survive repeated stresses, plants provide responses that may be different from their response during the first encounter with the stress. A different response to a similar stress represents the concept of 'stress memory'. A coordinated reaction at the organismal, cellular and gene/genome levels is thought to increase survival chances by improving the plant's tolerance/avoidance abilities. Ultimately, stress memory may provide a mechanism for acclimation and adaptation. At the molecular level, the concept of stress memory indicates that the mechanisms responsible for memory-type transcription during repeated stresses are not based on repetitive activation of the same response pathways activated by the first stress. Some recent advances in the search for transcription 'memory factors' are discussed with an emphasis on super-induced dehydration stress memory response genes in Arabidopsis. PMID:25788029

  5. Disruption of insulin signalling affects the neuroendocrine stress reaction in Drosophila females.

    PubMed

    Rauschenbach, Inga Y; Karpova, Evgenia K; Adonyeva, Natalya V; Andreenkova, Olga V; Faddeeva, Natalya V; Burdina, Elena V; Alekseev, Alexander A; Menshanov, Petr N; Gruntenko, Nataly E

    2014-10-15

    Juvenile hormone (JH) and dopamine are involved in the stress response in insects. The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling pathway has also recently been found to be involved in the regulation of various processes, including stress tolerance. However, the relationships between the JH, dopamine and insulin signalling pathways remain unclear. Here, we study the role of insulin signalling in the regulation of JH and dopamine metabolism under normal and heat stress conditions in Drosophila melanogaster females. We show that suppression of the insulin-like receptor (InR) in the corpus allatum, a specialised endocrine gland that synthesises JH, causes an increase in dopamine level and JH-hydrolysing activity and alters the activities of enzymes that produce as well as those that degrade dopamine [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-dependent arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (DAT)]. We also found that InR suppression in the corpus allatum modulates dopamine, ALP, TH and JH-hydrolysing activity in response to heat stress and that it decreases the fecundity of the flies. JH application restores dopamine metabolism and fecundity in females with decreased InR expression in the corpus allatum. Our data provide evidence that the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling pathway regulates dopamine metabolism in females of D. melanogaster via the system of JH metabolism and that it affects the development of the neuroendocrine stress reaction and interacts with JH in the control of reproduction in this species. PMID:25214494

  6. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bergsma, Alexis L.; Senchuk, Megan M.; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response, and the DAF-16-mediated stress response. We find that the decline in stress resistance with age is at least partially due to a decreased ability to activate protective mechanisms in response to stress. In contrast, we find that any baseline increase in stress caused by the advancing age is too mild to detectably upregulate any of the stress response pathways. Further exploration of how worms respond to stress with increasing age revealed that the ability to mount a hormetic response to heat stress is also lost with increasing age. Overall, this work demonstrates that resistance to all types of stress declines with age. Based on our data, we speculate that the decrease in stress resistance with advancing age results from a genetically-programmed inactivation of stress response pathways, not accumulation of damage. PMID:27053445

  7. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways.

    PubMed

    Dues, Dylan J; Andrews, Emily K; Schaar, Claire E; Bergsma, Alexis L; Senchuk, Megan M; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response, and the DAF-16-mediated stress response. We find that the decline in stress resistance with age is at least partially due to a decreased ability to activate protective mechanisms in response to stress. In contrast, we find that any baseline increase in stress caused by the advancing age is too mild to detectably upregulate any of the stress response pathways. Further exploration of how worms respond to stress with increasing age revealed that the ability to mount a hormetic response to heat stress is also lost with increasing age. Overall, this work demonstrates that resistance to all types of stress declines with age. Based on our data, we speculate that the decrease in stress resistance with advancing age results from a genetically-programmed inactivation of stress response pathways, not accumulation of damage. PMID:27053445

  8. The early stress responses in fish larvae.

    PubMed

    Pederzoli, Aurora; Mola, Lucrezia

    2016-05-01

    During the life cycle of fish the larval stages are the most interesting and variable. Teleost larvae undergo a daily increase in adaptability and many organs differentiate and become active. These processes are concerted and require an early neuro-immune-endocrine integration. In larvae communication among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems utilizes several known signal molecule families which could be different from those of the adult fish. The immune-neuroendocrine system was studied in several fish species, among which in particular the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), that is a species of great commercial interest, very important in aquaculture and thus highly studied. Indeed the immune system of this species is the best known among marine teleosts. In this review the data on main signal molecules of stress carried out on larvae of fish are considered and discussed. For sea bass active roles in the early immunological responses of some well-known molecules involved in the stress, such as ACTH, nitric oxide, CRF, HSP-70 and cortisol have been proposed. These molecules and/or their receptors are biologically active mainly in the gut before complete differentiation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), probably acting in an autocrine/paracrine way. An intriguing idea emerges from all results of these researches; the molecules involved in stress responses, expressed in the adult cells of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, during the larval life of fish are present in several other localizations, where they perform probably the same role. It may be hypothesized that the functions performed by hypothalamic-pituitary system are particularly important for the survival of the larva and therefore they comprises several other localizations of body. Indeed the larval stages of fish are very crucial phases that include many physiological changes and several possible stress both internal and environmental. PMID:26968620

  9. Severe Injury Is Associated With Insulin Resistance, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response, and Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.; Song, Juquan; Boehning, Darren; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Baker, Henry V.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We determined whether postburn hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) activation leading to impaired insulin receptor signaling. Background Inflammation and cellular stress, hallmarks of severely burned and critically ill patients, have been causally linked to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes via induction of ER stress and the UPR. Methods Twenty severely burned pediatric patients were compared with 36 nonburned children. Clinical markers, protein, and GeneChip analysis were used to identify transcriptional changes in ER stress and UPR and insulin resistance–related signaling cascades in peripheral blood leukocytes, fat, and muscle at admission and up to 466 days postburn. Results Burn-induced inflammatory and stress responses are accompanied by profound insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Genomic and protein analysis revealed that burn injury was associated with alterations in the signaling pathways that affect insulin resistance, ER/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and cell growth/apoptosis up to 466 days postburn. Conclusion Burn-induced insulin resistance is associated with persistent ER/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress/UPR and subsequent suppressed insulin receptor signaling over a prolonged period of time. PMID:22241293

  10. Rate of environmental change determines stress response specificity

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jonathan W.; Locke, James C. W.; Elowitz, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Cells use general stress response pathways to activate diverse target genes in response to a variety of stresses. However, general stress responses coexist with more specific pathways that are activated by individual stresses, provoking the fundamental question of whether and how cells control the generality or specificity of their response to a particular stress. Here we address this issue using quantitative time-lapse microscopy of the Bacillus subtilis environmental stress response, mediated by σB. We analyzed σB activation in response to stresses such as salt and ethanol imposed at varying rates of increase. Dynamically, σB responded to these stresses with a single adaptive activity pulse, whose amplitude depended on the rate at which the stress increased. This rate-responsive behavior can be understood from mathematical modeling of a key negative feedback loop in the underlying regulatory circuit. Using RNAseq we analyzed the effects of both rapid and gradual increases of ethanol and salt stress across the genome. Because of the rate responsiveness of σB activation, salt and ethanol regulons overlap under rapid, but not gradual, increases in stress. Thus, the cell responds specifically to individual stresses that appear gradually, while using σB to broaden the cellular response under more rapidly deteriorating conditions. Such dynamic control of specificity could be a critical function of other general stress response pathways. PMID:23407164

  11. Cannibalism stress response in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Höfler, Carolin; Heckmann, Judith; Fritsch, Anne; Popp, Philipp; Gebhard, Susanne; Fritz, Georg; Mascher, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    When faced with carbon source limitation, the Gram-positive soil organism Bacillus subtilis initiates a survival strategy called sporulation, which leads to the formation of highly resistant endospores that allow B. subtilis to survive even long periods of starvation. In order to avoid commitment to this energy-demanding and irreversible process, B. subtilis employs another strategy called 'cannibalism' to delay sporulation as long as possible. Cannibalism involves the production and secretion of two cannibalism toxins, sporulation delaying protein (SDP) and sporulation killing factor (SKF), which are able to lyse sensitive siblings. The lysed cells are thought to then provide nutrients for the cannibals to slow down or even prevent them from entering sporulation. In this study, we uncovered the role of the cell envelope stress response (CESR), especially the Bce-like antimicrobial peptide detoxification modules, in the cannibalism stress response during the stationary phase. SDP and SKF specifically induce Bce-like systems and some extracytoplasmic function σ factors in stationary-phase cultures, but only the latter provide some degree of protection. A full Bce response is only triggered by mature toxins, and not by toxin precursors. Our study provides insights into the close relationship between stationary-phase survival and the CESR of B. subtilis. PMID:26364265

  12. Prenatal stress enhances responsiveness to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Kippin, Tod E; Szumlinski, Karen K; Kapasova, Zuzana; Rezner, Betsy; See, Ronald E

    2008-03-01

    Early environmental events have profound influences on a wide range of adult behavior. In the current study, we assessed the influence of maternal stress during gestation on psychostimulant and neurochemical responsiveness to cocaine, cocaine self-administration, and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in adult offspring. Pregnant, female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either no treatment or to restraint stress three times per day for the last 7 days of gestation and cocaine-related behavior was assessed in offspring at 10 weeks of age. Relative to controls, a noncontingent cocaine injection elevated locomotor activity as well as nucleus accumbens levels of extracellular dopamine and glutamate to a greater extent in both cocaine-naive and cocaine-experienced prenatal stress (PNS) rats and elevated prefrontal cortex dopamine in cocaine-experienced PNS rats. To assess the impact of PNS on cocaine addiction-related behavior, rats were trained to lever press for intravenous (i.v.) infusions of cocaine (0.25, 0.5, or 1 mg/kg/infusion), with each infusion paired with a light+tone-conditioned stimulus. Lever-pressing was extinguished and cocaine-seeking reinstated by re-exposure to the conditioned cues or by intraperitoneal cocaine-priming injections (5 or 10 mg/kg). PNS elevated active lever responding both during extinction and cocaine-primed reinstatement, but not during self-administration or conditioned-cued reinstatement. PNS also did not alter intake during self-administration. These findings demonstrate that PNS produces enduring nervous system alterations that increase the psychomotor stimulant, motivational, and neurochemical responsiveness to noncontingent cocaine. Thus, early environmental factors contribute to an individual's initial responsiveness to cocaine and propensity to relapse to cocaine-seeking. PMID:17487224

  13. The importance of physical activity and sleep for affect on stressful days: Two intensive longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the potential stress-buffering effect of 3 health behaviors-physical activity, sleep quality, and snacking-on affect in the context of everyday life in young adults. In 2 intensive longitudinal studies with up to 65 assessment days over an entire academic year, students (Study 1, N = 292; Study 2, N = 304) reported stress intensity, sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, and positive and negative affect. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Stress and positive affect were negatively associated; stress and negative affect were positively associated. The more physically active than usual a person was on a given day, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Study 1) and negative affect (Studies 1 and 2). The better than usual a person's sleep quality had been during the previous night, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and negative affect (Study 2). The association between daily stress and positive or negative affect did not differ as a function of daily snacking (Studies 1 and 2). On stressful days, increasing physical activity or ensuring high sleep quality may buffer adverse effects of stress on affect in young adults. These findings suggest potential targets for health-promotion and stress-prevention programs, which could help reduce the negative impact of stress in young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26709860

  14. Cancer Microenvironment and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Giampietri, Claudia; Petrungaro, Simonetta; Conti, Silvia; Facchiano, Antonio; Filippini, Antonio; Ziparo, Elio

    2015-01-01

    Different stressful conditions such as hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, pH changes, or reduced vascularization, potentially able to act as growth-limiting factors for tumor cells, activate the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR is therefore involved in tumor growth and adaptation to severe environments and is generally cytoprotective in cancer. The present review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying UPR and able to promote survival and proliferation in cancer. The critical role of UPR activation in tumor growth promotion is discussed in detail for a few paradigmatic tumors such as prostate cancer and melanoma. PMID:26491226

  15. Waterborne Risperidone Decreases Stress Response in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kalichak, Fabiana; Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; de Oliveira, Tiago Acosta; Koakoski, Gessi; Gusso, Darlan; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Giacomini, Ana Cristina Varrone; Barcellos, Heloísa Helena de Alcântara

    2015-01-01

    The presence of drugs and their metabolites in surface waters and municipal effluents has been reported in several studies, but its impacts on aquatic organisms are not yet well understood. This study investigated the effects of acute exposure to the antipsychotic risperidone on the stress and behavioral responses in zebrafish. It became clear that intermediate concentration of risperidone inhibited the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis and displayed anxiolytic-like effects in zebrafish. The data presented here suggest that the presence of this antipsychotic in aquatic environments can alter neuroendocrine and behavior profiles in zebrafish. PMID:26473477

  16. High positive affect shortly after missile attacks and the heightened risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among Israeli adolescents.

    PubMed

    Israel-Cohen, Yael; Kashy-Rosenbaum, Gabriela; Kaplan, Oren

    2014-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that positive emotions help build psychological resources and facilitate adaptation to stress, yet few studies have considered the possible negative effects of positive emotions on stress. This study examined the relationship between high arousal, positive and negative affect, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among 503 Israeli adolescents following a period of escalated missile attacks on their city. Our findings revealed that not only negative affect, but also positive affect at very high levels exhibited 2 weeks following missile attacks were independently associated with PTSD symptoms 2½ months later (η(2) = .09, η(2) = .02, respectively). Although the literature recognizes the risk factor of negative affect on the development of PTSD, we suggest that also positive affect at high levels immediately after such experiences may be a case of emotion context insensitivity and thus a maladaptive response to trauma. Further research should examine the mechanisms associated with positive emotions and PTSD. PMID:24801888

  17. "Cold training" affects rat liver responses to continuous cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Paola; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Di Meo, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Continuous exposure of homeothermic animals to low environmental temperatures elicits physiological adaptations necessary for animal survival, which are associated to higher generation of pro-oxidants in thermogenic tissues. It is not known whether intermittent cold exposure (cold training) is able to affect tissue responses to continuous cold exposure. Therefore, we investigated whether rat liver responses to continuous cold exposure of 2 days are modified by cold training (1h daily for 5 days per week for 3 consecutive weeks). Continuous cold increased liver oxidative metabolism by increasing tissue content of mitochondrial proteins and mitochondrial aerobic capacity. Cold training did not affect such parameters, but attenuated or prevented the changes elicited by continuous cold exposure. Two-day cold exposure increased lipid hydroperoxide and protein-bound carbonyl levels in homogenates and mitochondria, whereas cold training decreased such effects although it decreased only homogenate protein damage in control rats. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes GPX and GR and H2O2 production were increased by continuous cold exposure. Despite the increase in GPX and GR activities, livers from cold-exposed rats showed increased susceptibility to in vitro oxidative challenge. Such cold effects were decreased by cold training, which in control rats reduced only H2O2 production and susceptibility to stress. The changes of PGC-1, NRF-1, and NRF-2 expression levels were consistent with those induced by cold exposure and cold training in mitochondrial protein content and antioxidant enzyme activities. However, the mechanisms by which cold training attenuates the effects of the continuous cold exposure remain to be elucidated. PMID:26808664

  18. Tolerant and Susceptible Sesame Genotypes Reveal Waterlogging Stress Response Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linhai; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Yanxin; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Jingyin; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Waterlogging is a common adverse environmental condition that limits plant growth. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is considered a drought-tolerant oil crop but is typically susceptible to harmful effects from waterlogging. The present study used comparative analysis to explore the waterlogging stress response associated with two sesame genotypes. The RNA-seq dataset generated during a time course of 0, 3, 9 and 15 h of waterlogging as well as 20 h post-drainage indicated that stress gradually suppressed the expression of sesame genes, with 9 h as the critical time point for the response of sesame to waterlogging stress. Of the 19,316 genes expressed during waterlogging, 72.1% were affected significantly. Sesame of both tolerant and susceptible genotypes showed decreased numbers of upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) but increased numbers of downregulated DEGs at the onset of waterlogging. However, the tolerant-genotype sesame exhibited 25.5% more upregulated DEGs and 29.7% fewer downregulated DEGs than those of the susceptible-genotype strain between 3 and 15 h. The results indicated that the tolerant sesame displayed a more positive gene response to waterlogging. A total of 1,379 genes were significantly induced and commonly expressed in sesame under waterlogging conditions from 3 to 15 h regardless of tolerance level; of these genes, 98 are known homologous stress responsive genes, while the remaining 1,281 are newly reported here. This gene set may represent the core genes that function in response to waterlogging, including those related mainly to energy metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, a set of 3,016 genes functioning in energy supply and cell repair or formation was activated in sesame recovery from waterlogging stress. A comparative analysis between sesame of the tolerant and susceptible genotypes revealed 66 genes that may be candidates for improving sesame tolerance to waterlogging. This study provided a comprehensive

  19. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  20. Stress, Nutrition, and Intestinal Immune Responses in Pigs - A Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Kyu; Kye, Yoon Chul; Kim, Girak; Kim, Han Wool; Gu, Min Jeong; Umboh, Johnny; Maaruf, Kartini; Kim, Sung Woo; Yun, Cheol-Heui

    2016-08-01

    Modern livestock production became highly intensive and large scaled to increase production efficiency. This production environment could add stressors affecting the health and growth of animals. Major stressors can include environment (air quality and temperature), nutrition, and infection. These stressors can reduce growth performance and alter immune systems at systemic and local levels including the gastrointestinal tract. Heat stress increases the permeability, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses in the gut. Nutritional stress from fasting, antinutritional compounds, and toxins induces the leakage and destruction of the tight junction proteins in the gut. Fasting is shown to suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas deoxynivalenol increases the recruitment of intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines and the level of lymphocytes in the gut. Pathogenic and viral infections such as Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus can lead to loosening the intestinal epithelial barrier. On the other hand, supplementation of Lactobacillus or Saccharaomyces reduced infectious stress by ETEC. It was noted that major stressors altered the permeability of intestinal barriers and profiles of genes and proteins of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in mucosal system in pigs. However, it is not sufficient to fully explain the mechanism of the gut immune system in pigs under stress conditions. Correlation and interaction of gut and systemic immune system under major stressors should be better defined to overcome aforementioned obstacles. PMID:27189643

  1. Does Leisure Time as a Stress Coping Resource Increase Affective Complexity? Applying the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA).

    PubMed

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M; Almeida, David M

    2013-01-01

    Affective complexity, a manifestation of psychological well-being, refers to the relative independence between positive and negative affect (PA, NA). According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful situations lead to highly inverse PA-NA relationship, reducing affective complexity. Meanwhile, positive events can sustain affective complexity by restoring PA-NA independence. Leisure, a type of positive events, has been identified as a coping resource. This study used the DMA to assess whether leisure time helps restore affective complexity on stressful days. We found that on days with more leisure time than usual, an individual experienced less negative PA-NA relationship after daily stressful events. The finding demonstrates the value of leisure time as a coping resource and the DMA's contribution to coping research. PMID:24659826

  2. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  3. Staufen Recruitment into Stress Granules Does Not Affect Early mRNA Transport in Oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, María G.; Tosar, Leandro J. Martinez; Loschi, Mariela; Pasquini, Juana M.; Correale, Jorge; Kindler, Stefan; Boccaccio, Graciela L.

    2005-01-01

    Staufen is a conserved double-stranded RNA-binding protein required for mRNA localization in Drosophila oocytes and embryos. The mammalian homologues Staufen 1 and Staufen 2 have been implicated in dendritic RNA targeting in neurons. Here we show that in rodent oligodendrocytes, these two proteins are present in two independent sets of RNA granules located at the distal myelinating processes. A third kind of RNA granules lacks Staufen and contains major myelin mRNAs. Myelin Staufen granules associate with microfilaments and microtubules, and their subcellular distribution is affected by polysome-disrupting drugs. Under oxidative stress, both Staufen 1 and Staufen 2 are recruited into stress granules (SGs), which are stress-induced organelles containing transiently silenced messengers. Staufen SGs contain the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), the RNA-binding proteins HuR and TIAR, and small but not large ribosomal subunits. Staufen recruitment into perinuclear SGs is paralleled by a similar change in the overall localization of polyadenylated RNA. Under the same conditions, the distribution of recently transcribed and exported mRNAs is not affected. Our results indicate that Staufen 1 and Staufen 2 are novel and ubiquitous SG components and suggest that Staufen RNPs are involved in repositioning of most polysomal mRNAs, but not of recently synthesized transcripts, during the stress response. PMID:15525674

  4. Drought stress affects plant metabolites and herbivore preference but not host location by its parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Weldegergis, Berhane T; Zhu, Feng; Poelman, Erik H; Dicke, Marcel

    2015-03-01

    One of the main abiotic stresses that strongly affects plant survival and the primary cause of crop loss around the world is drought. Drought stress leads to sequential morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes that can have severe effects on plant growth, development and productivity. As a consequence of these changes, the interaction between plants and insects can be altered. Using cultivated Brassica oleracea plants, the parasitoid Microplitis mediator and its herbivorous host Mamestra brassicae, we studied the effect of drought stress on (1) the emission of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs), (2) plant hormone titres, (3) preference and performance of the herbivore, and (4) preference of the parasitoid. Higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were recorded in response to herbivory, but no significant differences were observed for salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Drought significantly impacted SA level and showed a significant interactive effect with herbivory for IAA levels. A total of 55 VOCs were recorded and the difference among the treatments was influenced largely by herbivory, where the emission rate of fatty acid-derived volatiles, nitriles and (E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene [(E)-DMNT] was enhanced. Mamestra brassicae moths preferred to lay eggs on drought-stressed over control plants; their offspring performed similarly on plants of both treatments. VOCs due to drought did not affect the choice of M. mediator parasitoids. Overall, our study reveals an influence of drought on plant chemistry and insect-plant interactions. PMID:25370387

  5. Coping behaviours and post-traumatic stress in war-affected eastern Congolese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mels, Cindy; Derluyn, Ilse; Broekaert, Eric; García-Pérez, Coral

    2015-02-01

    This study explores coping strategies used by war-affected eastern Congolese adolescents across age and sex, and the association between post-traumatic stress symptoms and engagement and disengagement coping. Cross-sectional data were collected in 11 secondary schools across four areas in the Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo. A total of 952 pupils (45.3% girls, 54.7% boys) aged 13-21 years (M = 15.83, standard deviation = 1.81) participated in self-report assessment, using instruments that were either specifically developed (Adolescent Complex Emergency Exposure Scale, assessing traumatic exposure), validated (Impact of Event Scale Revised, assessing post-traumatic stress symptoms) or reviewed (Kidcope, assessing coping strategies) for the study population. Reported coping strategies varied with age, and boys more frequently reported problem solving and resignation as compared with girls. Disengagement coping was associated with lower symptom scores in younger adolescent girls, as was the interaction effect between engagement and disengagement coping. We conclude that disengagement coping is not necessarily a maladaptive reaction to stressful events in war-affected situations and that future research should aim to better understand the heterogeneous patterns of stress and coping responses, including the role of factors such as the nature and appraisal of stressors, available resources for coping and cultural preferences. PMID:24130163

  6. WRKY Transcription Factors: Molecular Regulation and Stress Responses in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Phukan, Ujjal J.; Jeena, Gajendra S.; Shukla, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Plants in their natural habitat have to face multiple stresses simultaneously. Evolutionary adaptation of developmental, physiological, and biochemical parameters give advantage over a single window of stress but not multiple. On the other hand transcription factors like WRKY can regulate diverse responses through a complicated network of genes. So molecular orchestration of WRKYs in plant may provide the most anticipated outcome of simultaneous multiple responses. Activation or repression through W-box and W-box like sequences is regulated at transcriptional, translational, and domain level. Because of the tight regulation involved in specific recognition and binding of WRKYs to downstream promoters, they have become promising candidate for crop improvement. Epigenetic, retrograde and proteasome mediated regulation enable WRKYs to attain the dynamic cellular homeostatic reprograming. Overexpression of several WRKYs face the paradox of having several beneficial affects but with some unwanted traits. These overexpression-associated undesirable phenotypes need to be identified and removed for proper growth, development and yeild. Taken together, we have highlighted the diverse regulation and multiple stress response of WRKYs in plants along with the future prospects in this field of research. PMID:27375634

  7. Stress Management Affects Outcomes in the Pathophysiology of an Endometriosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Myrella L.; Hernández, Siomara; Thompson, Kenira J.; Bayona, Manuel; Flores, Idhaliz

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown detrimental effects of stress in an animal model of endometriosis. We now investigated whether the ability to control stress can affect disease parameters. Endometriosis was surgically induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats before exposing animals to a controllable (submerged platform) or uncontrollable (no platform) swim stress protocol. Corticosterone levels and fecal pellet numbers were measured as an indicator of stress. Uncontrollable stress increased the number and size of the endometriotic cysts. Rats receiving uncontrollable stress had higher anxiety than those exposed to controllable stress or no stress and higher corticosterone levels. Uncontrollable stressed rats had more colonic damage and uterine cell infiltration compared to no stress, while controllable stress rats showed less of an effect. Uncontrollable stress also increased both colonic and uterine motility. In summary, the level of stress controllability appears to modulate the behavior and pathophysiology of endometriosis and offers evidence for evaluating therapeutic interventions. PMID:25015902

  8. Human mesangial cells resist glycoxidative stress through an antioxidant response.

    PubMed

    Nitti, Mariapaola; Furfaro, Anna Lisa; Patriarca, Stefania; Balbis, Emanuela; Domenicotti, Cinzia; Cottalasso, Damiano; Pronzato, Maria Adelaide; Marinari, Umberto Maria; Traverso, Nicola

    2011-02-01

    The generation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE), the interaction with their receptors, the generation of reactive oxygen species, and the modulation of intracellular redox equilibrium are believed to be the main factors causing alterations of mesangial cell physiology leading to diabetic nephropathy. Normal human primary mesangial cells were exposed to glycoxidative stress by culture in high glucose (HG) or treatment with AGE for up to 6 days. In both cases only a moderate generation of reactive oxygen species and production of HNE-protein adducts were induced while protein nitrotyrosination was not affected. Moreover, HG and AGE caused a significant antioxidant response, confirmed by the induction of heme oxygenase 1 and the consumption of vitamin E. Glutathione was decreased only by HG. Mesangial cell proliferation and viability were slightly affected by HG and AGE. Furthermore, both treatments failed to influence TGF-ß1 and MCP-1 secretion and to modulate RAGE and collagen IV expression. We believe that normal human mesangial cells can resist glycoxidative stress by the observed antioxidant response. These results support the concept that mesangial cells are only partly responsible for the onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy and that the role of other cell types, such as podocytes and endothelial cells, should be taken into consideration. PMID:21152865

  9. Job stress factors, stress response, and social support in association with insomnia of Japanese male workers.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relation of insomnia with job stress factors, stress response, and social support. A self-completed questionnaire survey was conducted in 212 male Japanese workers at a synthetic fiber plant. With regard to insomnia, subjects were asked the first 5 of the 8 questions on the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). Job stress factors, stress response and social support were assessed using the Job Stress Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses showed that psychological job stress factors of poor appropriateness of work and high qualitative workload were associated with insomnia. The psychological stress response of depression and physical stress responses were also related with insomnia. Depression was also related to appropriateness of work. The present results showed that insomnia was closely related with the psychological job stress factor of appropriateness of work and the psychological response of depression. These mutual relationships between insomnia and poor mental health need be investigated further. PMID:20424348

  10. The weight gain response to stress during adulthood is conditioned by both sex and prenatal stress exposure.

    PubMed

    García-Cáceres, Cristina; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda; Lagunas, Natalia; Calmarza-Font, Isabel; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis M; Frago, Laura M; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2010-04-01

    Food intake and weight gain are known to be affected by stress. However, the type and duration of the stress may have variable effects, with males and females responding differently. We report the short-term and long-term effects of prenatal and adult immobilization stress, as well as the combination of these two stresses, on weight gain and food intake in male and female rats and the role of post-pubertal gonadal hormones in this process. No long-term effect of prenatal stress on food intake or weight gain was found in either sex. However, during the period of adult stress [at postnatal day (P) 90; 10 days duration] stressed male rats gained significantly less weight than controls and previous exposure to prenatal stress attenuated this effect (control: 31.2+/-2.1g; prenatal stress: 24.6+/-3.8g; adult stress: 8.1+/-3.4g; prenatal and adult stress: 18.2+/-3.3g; p<0.0001). There was no change in food intake in response to either prenatal or adult stress. Adult stress increased circulating corticosterone levels during the initial part of the stress period, in both male and female rats with this rise being greater in male rats. No effect on corticosterone levels was observed on the last day of stress in either sex. No effect on weight gain or food intake was observed in female rats. Following adult stress, male rats increased their weight gain, with no change in food intake, such that 1 month later they reached control levels. At the time of sacrifice (P180), there were no differences in weight or circulating metabolic hormone levels between any of the male groups. Although castration alone modulated body weight in both male and female rats, it did not affect their weight gain response to adult stress. These results indicate that the weight gain response to adult stress is sexually dimorphic and that this is not dependent on post-pubertal gonadal steroids. Furthermore, the outcome of this response closely depends on the time at which the change in weight is analyzed

  11. Age differences in emotional responses to daily stress: The role of timing, severity, and global perceived stress

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Stacey B.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Blanchard Fields, Fredda

    2013-01-01

    Research on age differences in emotional responses to daily stress has produced inconsistent findings. Guided by recent theoretical advances in aging theory (Charles, 2010) that emphasize the importance of context for predicting when and how age is related to affective well-being, the current study examined age differences in emotional responses to everyday stressors. The present study examines how three contextual features (e.g., timing of exposure, stressor severity, global perceived stress [GPS]) moderate age differences in emotional experience in an ecological momentary assessment study of adults aged 18–81 (N=190). Results indicated older adults’ negative affect (NA) was less affected by exposure to recent stressors than younger adults, but that there were no age differences in the effects of stressor exposure three to six hours afterward. Higher levels of GPS predicted amplified NA responses to daily stress, and controlling for GPS eliminated age differences in NA responses to stressors. No age differences in NA responses as a function of stressor severity were observed. In contrast, older age was associated with less of a decrease in PA when exposed to recent stressors or with more severe recent stressors. There were no age differences in the effect of previous stressor exposure or severity on PA, nor any interactions between momentary or previous stress and GPS on PA. Together, these results support the notion that chronic stress plays a central role in emotional experience in daily life. Implications of these results for emotion theories of aging are discussed. PMID:24364410

  12. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress

    PubMed Central

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jérémie; Nachury, Maxence V.; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules - which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport - can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of larger damages, which further decrease microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses. PMID:26343914

  13. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jérémie; Nachury, Maxence V; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Microtubules--which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport--can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of more extensive damage, which further decreases microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses. PMID:26343914

  14. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jérémie; Nachury, Maxence V.; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Microtubules--which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport--can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of more extensive damage, which further decreases microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses.

  15. Considering Affective Responses towards Environments for Enhancing Location Based Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Gartner, G.; Klettner, S.; Schmidt, M.

    2014-04-01

    A number of studies in the field of environmental psychology show that humans perceive and evaluate their surroundings affectively. Some places are experienced as unsafe, while some others as attractive and interesting. Experiences from daily life show that many of our daily behaviours and decision-making are often influenced by this kind of affective responses towards environments. Location based services (LBS) are often designed to assist and support people's behaviours and decision-making in space. In order to provide services with high usefulness (usability and utility), LBS should consider these kinds of affective responses towards environments. This paper reports on the results of a research project, which studies how people's affective responses towards environments can be modelled and acquired, as well as how LBS can benefit by considering these affective responses. As one of the most popular LBS applications, mobile pedestrian navigation systems are used as an example for illustration.

  16. Phenotypic responses of wild barley to experimentally imposed water stress.

    PubMed

    Ivandic, V; Hackett, C A; Zhang, Z J; Staub, J E; Nevo, E; Thomas, W T; Forster, B P

    2000-12-01

    Responses to water stress within a population of wild barley from Tabigha, Israel, were examined. The population's distribution spans two soil types: Terra Rossa (TR) and Basalt (B). Seeds were collected from plants along a 100 m transect; 24 genotypes were sampled from TR and 28 from B. Due to different soil water-holding capacities, plants growing on TR naturally experience more intense drought than plants growing on B. In a glasshouse experiment, water was withheld from plants for two periods (10 d and 14 d) after flag leaf emergence. A total of 15 agronomic, morphological, developmental, and fertility related traits were examined by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Ten of these traits were significantly affected by the treatment. A high degree of phenotypic variation was found in the population with significant genotypextreatment and soil typextreatment interactions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using combined control and stress treatment data sets. The first three principal components (pc) explained 88.8% of the variation existing in the population with pc1 (47.9%) comprising yield-related and morphological traits, pc2 (22.9%) developmental characteristics and pc3 (18.0%) fertility-related traits. The relative performance of individual genotypes was determined and water stress tolerant genotypes identified. TR genotypes were significantly less affected by the imposed water stress than B genotypes. Moreover, TR genotypes showed accelerated development under water deficit conditions. Data indicate that specific genotypes demonstrating differential responses may be useful for comparative physiological studies, and that TR genotypes exhibiting yield stability may have value for breeding barley better adapted to drought. PMID:11141176

  17. Affective responses to qigong: a pilot study of regular practitioners.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Mattias; Hassmén, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Single sessions of Qigong have been associated with increased positive affect/emotional benefits. In the present study the aim was to refine the present understanding by using newly developed research methodologies. Therefore, affective reactions were studied in a group performing Qigong through pre-, during, and post-assessments using a modified version of the short Swedish Core Affect Scale complemented with open-ended questions. Affect was measured on a group and individual level. The results showed a shift during Qigong toward increased pleasant activated and deactivated affect in the group of 46 women who regularly practice Qigong. Inter-individual responses displayed positive affective responses, which also increased as the bout proceeded for the majority of practitioners. Acknowledging some limitations, these findings have practical implications for the enhancement of positive affect and subjective well-being. PMID:23561864

  18. Emotional Stress-reactivity and Positive Affect among College Students: The Role of Depression History

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Ross E.; Armeli, Stephen; Boynton, Marcella H.; Tennen, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Multiple theories posit that people with a history of depression are at higher risk for a depressive episode than people who have never experienced depression, which may be partly due to differences in stress-reactivity. Additionally, both the dynamic model of affect and the broaden-and-build theory suggest that stress and positive affect interact to predict negative affect, but this moderation has never been tested in the context of depression history. The current study used multilevel modeling to examine these issues among 1549 college students with or without a history of depression. Students completed a 30-day online diary study in which they reported daily their perceived stress, positive affect, and negative affect (including depression, anxiety, and hostility). On days characterized by higher than usual stress, students with a history of depression reported greater decreases in positive affect and greater increases in depressed affect than students with no history. Furthermore, the relations between daily stress and both depressed and anxious affect were moderated by daily positive affect among students with remitted depression. These results indicate that students with a history of depression show greater stress-reactivity even when in remission, which may place them at greater risk for recurrence. These individuals may also benefit more from positive affect on higher stress days despite being less likely to experience positive affect on such days. The current findings have various implications both clinically and for research on stress, mood, and depression. PMID:24274764

  19. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) affect oxidative stress biomarkers in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wielsøe, Maria; Long, Manhai; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C

    2015-06-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) have been widely used since 1950s and humans are exposed through food, drinking water, consumer products, dust, etc. The long-chained PFAS are persistent in the environment and accumulate in wildlife and humans. They are suspected carcinogens and a potential mode of action is through generation of oxidative stress. Seven long-chained PFAS found in human serum were investigated for the potential to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), induce DNA damage and disturb the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The tested PFAS were perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA). Using the human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and an exposure time of 24h we found that all three endpoints were affected by one or more of the compounds. PFHxS, PFOA, PFOS and PFNA showed a dose dependent increase in DNA damage in the concentration range from 2×10(-7) to 2×10(-5)M determined by the comet assay. Except for PFDoA, all the other PFAS increased ROS generation significantly. For PFHxS and PFUnA the observed ROS increases were dose-dependent. Cells exposed to PFOA were found to have a significant lower TAC compared with the solvent control, whereas a non-significant trend in TAC decrease was observed for PFOS and PFDoA and an increase tendency for PFHxS, PFNA and PFUnA. Our results indicate a possible genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of the PFAS in human liver cells. PMID:25455676

  20. Salt Stress Affects the Redox Status of Arabidopsis Root Meristems

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Keni; Moe-Lange, Jacob; Hennet, Lauriane; Feldman, Lewis J.

    2016-01-01

    We report the redox status (profiles) for specific populations of cells that comprise the Arabidopsis root tip. For recently germinated, 3–5-day-old seedlings we show that the region of the root tip with the most reduced redox status includes the root cap initials, the quiescent center and the most distal portion of the proximal meristem, and coincides with (overlays) the region of the auxin maximum. As one moves basally, further into the proximal meristem, and depending on the growth conditions, the redox status becomes more oxidized, with a 5–10 mV difference in redox potential between the two borders delimiting the proximal meristem. At the point on the root axis at which cells of the proximal meristem cease division and enter the transition zone, the redox potential levels off, and remains more or less unchanged throughout the transition zone. As cells leave the transition zone and enter the zone of elongation the redox potentials become more oxidized. Treating roots with salt (50, 100, and 150 mM NaCl) results in marked changes in root meristem structure and development, and is preceded by changes in the redox profile, which flattens, and initially becomes more oxidized, with pronounced changes in the redox potentials of the root cap, the root cap initials and the quiescent center. Roots exposed to relatively mild levels of salt (<100 mM) are able to re-establish a normal, pre-salt treatment redox profile 3–6 days after exposure to salt. Coincident with the salt-associated changes in redox profiles are changes in the distribution of auxin transporters (AUX1, PIN1/2), which become more diffuse in their localization. We conclude that salt stress affects root meristem maintenance, in part, through changes in redox and auxin transport. PMID:26904053

  1. Understanding the responses of rice to environmental stress using proteomics.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raksha; Jwa, Nam-Soo

    2013-11-01

    Diverse abiotic and biotic stresses have marked effects on plant growth and productivity. To combat such stresses, plants have evolved complex but not well understood responses. Common effects upon perception of environmental stress are differential expression of the plant proteome and the synthesis of novel regulatory proteins for protection from and acclimation to stress conditions. Plants respond differently in terms of activation of stress-responsive signaling pathways depending upon the type and nature of the stresses to which they are exposed. Progress in proteomics and systems biology approaches has made it possible to identify the novel proteins and their interactions that function in abiotic stress responses. This will enable elucidation of the functions of individual proteins and their roles in signaling networks. Proteomic analysis of the responses to various stress conditions is performed most commonly using 2D gel electrophoresis and high-throughput identification by LC-MS/MS. Because of recent developments in proteomics techniques, numerous proteomics studies of rice under abiotic stress conditions have been performed. In this review, proteomics studies addressing rice responses to the major environmental stresses--including cold, heat, drought, salt, heavy metals, minerals, UV radiation, and ozone--are discussed. Unique or common protein responses to these stress conditions are summarized and interpreted according to their possible physiological responses in each stress. Additionally, proteomics studies on various plant systems under various abiotic stress conditions are compared to provide deeper understanding of specific and common proteome responses in rice and other plant systems, which will further contribute to the identification of abiotic stress tolerance factor at protein level. Functional analysis of stress-responsive proteins will provide new research objectives with the aim of achieving stable crop productivity in the face of the

  2. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L.; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    An individual’s susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure e.g., cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardised laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the TSST. Individuals with high Agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high Communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease. PMID:25036730

  3. A NAP-Family Histone Chaperone Functions in Abiotic Stress Response and Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Amit K; Pareek, Ashwani; Singla-Pareek, Sneh Lata

    2016-08-01

    Modulation of gene expression is one of the most significant molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress response in plants. Via altering DNA accessibility, histone chaperones affect the transcriptional competence of genomic loci. However, in contrast to other factors affecting chromatin dynamics, the role of plant histone chaperones in abiotic stress response and adaptation remains elusive. Here, we studied the physiological function of a stress-responsive putative rice (Oryza sativa) histone chaperone of the NAP superfamily: OsNAPL6. We show that OsNAPL6 is a nuclear-localized H3/H4 histone chaperone capable of assembling a nucleosome-like structure. Utilizing overexpression and knockdown approaches, we found a positive correlation between OsNAPL6 expression levels and adaptation to multiple abiotic stresses. Results of comparative transcriptome profiling and promoter-recruitment studies indicate that OsNAPL6 functions during stress response via modulation of expression of various genes involved in diverse functions. For instance, we show that OsNAPL6 is recruited to OsRad51 promoter, activating its expression and leading to more efficient DNA repair and abrogation of programmed cell death under salinity and genotoxic stress conditions. These results suggest that the histone chaperone OsNAPL6 may serve a regulatory role in abiotic stress physiology possibly via modulating nucleosome dynamics at various stress-associated genomic loci. Taken together, our findings establish a hitherto unknown link between histone chaperones and abiotic stress response in plants. PMID:27342307

  4. A NAP-Family Histone Chaperone Functions in Abiotic Stress Response and Adaptation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Ashwani; Singla-Pareek, Sneh Lata

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of gene expression is one of the most significant molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress response in plants. Via altering DNA accessibility, histone chaperones affect the transcriptional competence of genomic loci. However, in contrast to other factors affecting chromatin dynamics, the role of plant histone chaperones in abiotic stress response and adaptation remains elusive. Here, we studied the physiological function of a stress-responsive putative rice (Oryza sativa) histone chaperone of the NAP superfamily: OsNAPL6. We show that OsNAPL6 is a nuclear-localized H3/H4 histone chaperone capable of assembling a nucleosome-like structure. Utilizing overexpression and knockdown approaches, we found a positive correlation between OsNAPL6 expression levels and adaptation to multiple abiotic stresses. Results of comparative transcriptome profiling and promoter-recruitment studies indicate that OsNAPL6 functions during stress response via modulation of expression of various genes involved in diverse functions. For instance, we show that OsNAPL6 is recruited to OsRad51 promoter, activating its expression and leading to more efficient DNA repair and abrogation of programmed cell death under salinity and genotoxic stress conditions. These results suggest that the histone chaperone OsNAPL6 may serve a regulatory role in abiotic stress physiology possibly via modulating nucleosome dynamics at various stress-associated genomic loci. Taken together, our findings establish a hitherto unknown link between histone chaperones and abiotic stress response in plants. PMID:27342307

  5. RNA-seq analysis of stress response in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish under intensive rearing conditions experience various stress conditions, which have negative impacts on survival, growth and fillet quality. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying stress responses will facilitate improvement of animal welfare and production efficiency. Our objective ...

  6. The atypical hyperosmotic stress response of Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atypical Hyperosmotic Stress Response of Campylobacter jejuni Background. Campylobacter species are unusually sensitive to hyperosmotic stress conditions imposed in the laboratory and encode no characterized osmoprotectant systems. Despite these limitations, the Gram-negative Campylobacter jeju...

  7. Biological Stress Response Terminology: Integrating the Concepts of Adaptive Response and Preconditioning Stress Within a Hormetic Dose-Response Framework

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stres...

  8. Lipid signalling in plant responses to abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Hou, Quancan; Ufer, Guido; Bartels, Dorothea

    2016-05-01

    Lipids are one of the major components of biological membranes including the plasma membrane, which is the interface between the cell and the environment. It has become clear that membrane lipids also serve as substrates for the generation of numerous signalling lipids such as phosphatidic acid, phosphoinositides, sphingolipids, lysophospholipids, oxylipins, N-acylethanolamines, free fatty acids and others. The enzymatic production and metabolism of these signalling molecules are tightly regulated and can rapidly be activated upon abiotic stress signals. Abiotic stress like water deficit and temperature stress triggers lipid-dependent signalling cascades, which control the expression of gene clusters and activate plant adaptation processes. Signalling lipids are able to recruit protein targets transiently to the membrane and thus affect conformation and activity of intracellular proteins and metabolites. In plants, knowledge is still scarce of lipid signalling targets and their physiological consequences. This review focuses on the generation of signalling lipids and their involvement in response to abiotic stress. We describe lipid-binding proteins in the context of changing environmental conditions and compare different approaches to determine lipid-protein interactions, crucial for deciphering the signalling cascades. PMID:26510494

  9. Transcriptome Response Mediated by Cold Stress in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Calzadilla, Pablo I.; Maiale, Santiago J.; Ruiz, Oscar A.; Escaray, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Lotus genus are important as agricultural forage sources under marginal environmental conditions given their high nutritional value and tolerance of various abiotic stresses. However, their dry matter production is drastically reduced in cooler seasons, while their response to such conditions is not well studied. This paper analyzes cold acclimation of the genus by studying Lotus japonicus over a stress period of 24 h. High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to identify and classify 1077 differentially expressed genes, of which 713 were up-regulated and 364 were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes were principally related to lipid, cell wall, phenylpropanoid, sugar, and proline regulation, while down-regulated genes affected the photosynthetic process and chloroplast development. Together, a total of 41 cold-inducible transcription factors were identified, including members of the AP2/ERF, NAC, MYB, and WRKY families; two of them were described as putative novel transcription factors. Finally, DREB1/CBFs were described with respect to their cold stress expression profiles. This is the first transcriptome profiling of the model legume L. japonicus under cold stress. Data obtained may be useful in identifying candidate genes for breeding modified species of forage legumes that more readily acclimate to low temperatures. PMID:27066029

  10. STRESS ETHYLENE EVOLUTION: A MEASURE OF OZONE AFFECTS ON PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine if ethylene evolution by plants is correlated with the ozone stress, a range of plants species and cultivars was exposed to varying ozone concentrations. Following exposure, the plants were encapsulated in plastic bags and incubated for up to 22h. The stress-induced ...

  11. Effect of prenatal stress on subsequent response to mixing stress and a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sows subjected to prenatal stress have been found to produce offspring that alter the manner in which they respond to stress. Our objective was to determine if exposing a sow to stress altered the response of the offspring to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 2 mo of age or their response to mixing stres...

  12. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

  13. Assessing Affective Learning Using a Student Response System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimland, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Affective learning relates to students' attitudes, emotions, and feelings. This study focuses on measuring affective learning during library instruction by using a student response system. Participants were undergraduate students who received course-related library instruction for a research assignment. Students rated their confidence levels…

  14. Comparison of physiological responses to affect eliciting pictures and music.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both. PMID:26752207

  15. Ultra-endurance exercise induces stress and inflammation and affects circulating hematopoietic progenitor cell function.

    PubMed

    Stelzer, I; Kröpfl, J M; Fuchs, R; Pekovits, K; Mangge, H; Raggam, R B; Gruber, H-J; Prüller, F; Hofmann, P; Truschnig-Wilders, M; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Haushofer, A C; Kessler, H H; Mächler, P

    2015-10-01

    Although amateur sports have become increasingly competitive within recent decades, there are as yet few studies on the possible health risks for athletes. This study aims to determine the impact of ultra-endurance exercise-induced stress on the number and function of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (CPCs) and hematological, inflammatory, clinical, metabolic, and stress parameters in moderately trained amateur athletes. Following ultra-endurance exercise, there were significant increases in leukocytes, platelets, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, tissue enzymes, blood lactate, serum cortisol, and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Ultra-endurance exercise did not influence the number of CPCs but resulted in a highly significant decline of CPC functionality after the competition. Furthermore, Epstein-Barr virus was seen to be reactivated in one of seven athletes. The link between exercise-induced stress and decline of CPC functionality is supported by a negative correlation between cortisol and CPC function. We conclude that ultra-endurance exercise induces metabolic stress and an inflammatory response that affects not only mature hematopoietic cells but also the function of the immature hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell fraction, which make up the immune system and provide for regeneration. PMID:25438993

  16. Differential response of hippocampal subregions to stress and learning.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Darby F; Morch, Kristin; Christie, Brian R; Leasure, J Leigh

    2012-01-01

    The hippocampus has two functionally distinct subregions-the dorsal portion, primarily associated with spatial navigation, and the ventral portion, primarily associated with anxiety. In a prior study of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in rodents, we found that it selectively enhanced cellular plasticity in the dorsal hippocampal subregion while negatively impacting it in the ventral. In the present study, we determined whether this adaptive plasticity in the dorsal subregion would confer CUS rats an advantage in a spatial task-the radial arm water maze (RAWM). RAWM exposure is both stressful and requires spatial navigation, and therefore places demands simultaneously upon both hippocampal subregions. Therefore, we used Western blotting to investigate differential expression of plasticity-associated proteins (brain derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], proBDNF and postsynaptic density-95 [PSD-95]) in the dorsal and ventral subregions following RAWM exposure. Lastly, we used unbiased stereology to compare the effects of CUS on proliferation, survival and neuronal differentiation of cells in the dorsal and ventral hippocampal subregions. We found that CUS and exposure to the RAWM both increased corticosterone, indicating that both are stressful; nevertheless, CUS animals had significantly better long-term spatial memory. We also observed a subregion-specific pattern of protein expression following RAWM, with proBDNF increased in the dorsal and decreased in the ventral subregion, while PSD-95 was selectively upregulated in the ventral. Finally, consistent with our previous study, we found that CUS most negatively affected neurogenesis in the ventral (compared to the dorsal) subregion. Taken together, our data support a dual role for the hippocampus in stressful experiences, with the more resilient dorsal portion undergoing adaptive plasticity (perhaps to facilitate escape from or neutralization of the stressor), and the ventral portion involved in affective responses

  17. Glucocorticoids mediate stress-induced impairment of retrieval of stimulus-response memory.

    PubMed

    Atsak, Piray; Guenzel, Friederike M; Kantar-Gok, Deniz; Zalachoras, Ioannis; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Meijer, Onno C; Quirarte, Gina L; Wolf, Oliver T; Schwabe, Lars; Roozendaal, Benno

    2016-05-01

    Acute stress and elevated glucocorticoid hormone levels are well known to impair the retrieval of hippocampus-dependent 'declarative' memory. Recent findings suggest that stress might also impair the retrieval of non-hippocampal memories. In particular, stress shortly before retention testing was shown to impair the retrieval of striatal stimulus-response associations in humans. However, the mechanism underlying this stress-induced retrieval impairment of non-hippocampal stimulus-response memory remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated whether an acute elevation in glucocorticoid levels mediates the impairing effects of stress on retrieval of stimulus-response memory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on a stimulus-response task in an eight-arm radial maze until they learned to associate a stimulus, i.e., cue, with a food reward in one of the arms. Twenty-four hours after successful acquisition, they received a systemic injection of vehicle, corticosterone (1mg/kg), the corticosterone-synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (35mg/kg) or were left untreated 1h before retention testing. We found that the corticosterone injection impaired the retrieval of stimulus-response memory. We further found that the systemic injection procedure per se was stressful as the vehicle administration also increased plasma corticosterone levels and impaired the retrieval of stimulus-response memory. However, memory retrieval was not impaired when rats were tested 2min after the systemic vehicle injection, before any stress-induced elevation in corticosterone levels had occurred. Moreover, metyrapone treatment blocked the effect of injection stress on both plasma corticosterone levels and memory retrieval impairment, indicating that the endogenous corticosterone response mediates the stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. None of the treatments affected rats' locomotor activity or motivation to search for the food reward within the maze. These findings show that stress

  18. How Do Observer's Responses Affect Visual Long-Term Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makovski, Tal; Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

    2013-01-01

    How does responding to an object affect explicit memory for visual information? The close theoretical relationship between action and perception suggests that items that require a response should be better remembered than items that require no response. However, conclusive evidence for this claim is lacking, as semantic coherence, category size,…

  19. Protease Inhibitors Do Not Affect Antibody Responses to Pneumococcal Vaccination.

    PubMed

    De La Rosa, Indhira; Munjal, Iona M; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria; Yu, Xiaoying; Pirofski, Liise-Anne; Mendoza, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    HIV(+) subjects on optimal antiretroviral therapy have persistently impaired antibody responses to pneumococcal vaccination. We explored the possibility that this effect may be due to HIV protease inhibitors (PIs). We found that in humans and mice, PIs do not affect antibody production in response to pneumococcal vaccination. PMID:27074938

  20. Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Autonomic and Endocrine Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; King, Lucy; Schreier, Hannah; Howard, Jamie M.; Rosenfield, David; Ritz, Thomas; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early environmental exposures may help shape the development of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, influencing vulnerability for health problems across the lifespan. Little is known about the role of maternal sensitivity in influencing the development of the ANS in early life. Aims To examine associations among maternal sensitivity and infant behavioral distress and ANS and HPA axis reactivity to the Repeated Still-Face Paradigm (SFP-R), a dyadic stress task. Study Design Observational repeated measures study. Subjects Thirty-five urban, sociodemographically diverse mothers and their 6-month-old infants. Outcome Measures Changes in infant affective distress, heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and T-wave amplitude (TWA) across episodes of the SFP-R were assessed. A measure of cortisol output (area under the curve) in the hour following cessation of the SFP-R was also obtained. Results Greater maternal insensitivity was associated with greater infant sympathetic activation (TWA) during periods of stress and tended to be associated with greater cortisol output following the SFP-R. There was also evidence for greater affective distress and less parasympathetic activation (RSA) during the SFP-R among infants of predominantly insensitive mothers. Conclusions Caregiving quality in early life may influence the responsiveness of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the ANS as well as the HPA axis. Consideration of the ANS and HPA axis systems together provides a fuller representation of adaptive versus maladaptive stress responses. The findings highlight the importance of supporting high quality caregiving in the early years of life, which is likely to promote later health. PMID:24794304

  1. Sexually Dimorphic Responses to Early Adversity: Implications for Affective Problems and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-01-01

    During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the lifecycle. For these reason the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorder (greater male prevalence). Recent prospective studies illustrating the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposure to stress and stress hormones for males and females are considered here. Plausible biological mechanisms including the role of the sexually differentiated placenta are discussed. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two sets of developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorders (greater male prevalence). PMID:25038479

  2. Origins of asymmetric stress-strain response in phase transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Sehitoglu, H.; Gall, K.

    1997-12-31

    It has been determined that the transformation stress-strain behavior of CuZnAl and NiTi shape memory alloys is dependent on the applied stress state. The uniaxial compressive stress necessary to macroscopically trigger the transformation is approximately 34% (CuZnAl) and 26% (NiTi) larger than the required uniaxial tensile stress. For three dimensional stress states, the response of either alloy system is dependent on the directions of the dominant principal stresses along with the hydrostatic stress component of the stress state. The stress state effects are dominated by the favored growth and nucleation of more martensite plates in tension versus compression. The effect of different hydrostatic pressure levels between stress states on martensite plates volume change is considered small.

  3. Maternal Influences on Youth Responses to Peer Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abaied, Jamie L.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how youths develop particular styles of responding to stress is critical for promoting effective coping. This research examined the prospective, interactive contribution of maternal socialization of coping and peer stress to youth responses to peer stress. A sample of 144 early adolescents (mean age = 12.44 years, SD = 1.22) and…

  4. An overview of stress response proteomes in Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes adapts to diverse stress conditions including cold, osmotic, heat, acid, and alkali stresses encountered during food processing and preservation which is a serious food safety threat. In this review, we have presented the major findings on this bacterium’s stress response prot...

  5. Khat use and trait anger: effects on affect regulation during an acute stressful challenge.

    PubMed

    Bongard, Stephan; al'Absi, Mustafa; Khalil, Najat Sayem; Al Habori, Molham

    2011-01-01

    Khat (Catha edulis) is a widely used stimulating drug often consumed in daily routine in Yemen and East African countries. Chewing khat acutely elicits states of euphoria and feelings of well-being which later shift into emotional instability and low mood. Little is known about emotional regulation in habitual khat chewers. In this study, we compared self-reports on trait anger as well as positive and negative affect responses to a mental arithmetic challenge. Participants included 135 men and women from Yemen who chew khat regularly, occasionally or not at all. Participants attended a laboratory session that involved resting periods and performing a math challenge. Analyses of variance and regression show that regular khat chewing is associated with higher trait anger, more pronounced negative responses during stress and less pronounced positive emotional states. These results suggest that regular khat chewing is associated with disturbances in emotion regulation processes. PMID:21860244

  6. A Nervous Tumor Microenvironment: The Impact of Adrenergic Stress on Cancer Cells, Immunosuppression, and Immunotherapeutic Response

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Jason W.-L.; Kokolus, Kathleen M.; Reed, Chelsey B.; Hylander, Bonnie L.; Ma, Wen W.; Repasky, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Long conserved mechanisms maintain homeostasis in living creatures in response to a variety of stresses. However, continuous exposure to stress can result in unabated production of stress hormones, especially catecholamines, which can have detrimental health effects. While the long-term effects of chronic stress have well known physiological consequences, recent discoveries have revealed that stress may affect therapeutic efficacy in cancer. Growing epidemiological evidence reveals strong correlations between long term survival and cancer progression and β-blocker usage in patients. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of how the catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine, affect cancer cell survival and tumor progression. We also highlight new data exploring the potential contributions of stress on immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment and the implications of these findings for the efficacy of immunotherapies. PMID:25307152

  7. Regulation of Stress Responses and Translational Control by Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Fung, To Sing; Liao, Ying; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other viruses, coronavirus infection triggers cellular stress responses in infected host cells. The close association of coronavirus replication with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in the ER stress responses, which impose a challenge to the viruses. Viruses, in turn, have come up with various mechanisms to block or subvert these responses. One of the ER stress responses is inhibition of the global protein synthesis to reduce the amount of unfolded proteins inside the ER lumen. Viruses have evolved the capacity to overcome the protein translation shutoff to ensure viral protein production. Here, we review the strategies exploited by coronavirus to modulate cellular stress response pathways. The involvement of coronavirus-induced stress responses and translational control in viral pathogenesis will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27384577

  8. Regulation of Stress Responses and Translational Control by Coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Fung, To Sing; Liao, Ying; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other viruses, coronavirus infection triggers cellular stress responses in infected host cells. The close association of coronavirus replication with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in the ER stress responses, which impose a challenge to the viruses. Viruses, in turn, have come up with various mechanisms to block or subvert these responses. One of the ER stress responses is inhibition of the global protein synthesis to reduce the amount of unfolded proteins inside the ER lumen. Viruses have evolved the capacity to overcome the protein translation shutoff to ensure viral protein production. Here, we review the strategies exploited by coronavirus to modulate cellular stress response pathways. The involvement of coronavirus-induced stress responses and translational control in viral pathogenesis will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27384577

  9. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans

    PubMed Central

    de Berker, Archy O.; Rutledge, Robb B.; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function. PMID:27020312

  10. Increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant response in Lafora disease.

    PubMed

    Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Aguado, Carmen; García-Giménez, José Luis; Ibáñez-Cabellos, José Santiago; Seco-Cervera, Marta; Pallardó, Federico V; Knecht, Erwin; Sanz, Pascual

    2014-10-01

    Lafora Disease (LD, OMIM 254780, ORPHA501) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of glycogen-like intracellular inclusions called Lafora bodies and caused, in the vast majority of cases, by mutations in either EPM2A or EPM2B genes, encoding respectively laforin and malin. In the last years, several reports have revealed molecular details of these two proteins and have identified several processes affected in LD, but the pathophysiology of the disease still remains largely unknown. Since autophagy impairment has been reported as a characteristic treat in both Lafora disease cell and animal models, and as there is a link between autophagy and mitochondrial performance, we sought to determine if mitochondrial function could be altered in those models. Using fibroblasts from LD patients, deficient in laforin or malin, we found mitochondrial alterations, oxidative stress and a deficiency in antioxidant enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Similar results were obtained in brain tissue samples from transgenic mice deficient in either the EPM2A or EPM2B genes. Furthermore, in a proteomic analysis of brain tissue obtained from Epm2b-/- mice, we observed an increase in a modified form of peroxirredoxin-6, an antioxidant enzyme involved in other neurological pathologies, thus corroborating an alteration of the redox condition. These data support that oxidative stress produced by an increase in ROS production and an impairment of the antioxidant enzyme response to this stress play an important role in development of LD. PMID:26461389

  11. Stress-responsive hydroxycinnamate glycosyltransferase modulates phenylpropanoid metabolism in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Babst, Benjamin A.; Chen, Han-Yi; Wang, Hong-Qiang; Payyavula, Raja S.; Thomas, Tina P.; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of phenylpropanoids offers a rich inventory of bioactive chemicals that can be exploited for plant improvement and human health. Recent evidence suggests that glycosylation may play a role in the partitioning of phenylpropanoid precursors for a variety of downstream uses. This work reports the functional characterization of a stress-responsive glycosyltransferase, GT1-316 in Populus. GT1-316 belongs to the UGT84A subfamily of plant glycosyltransferase family 1 and is designated UGT84A17. Recombinant protein analysis showed that UGT84A17 is a hydroxycinnamate glycosyltransferase and able to accept a range of unsubstituted and substituted cinnamic and benzoic acids as substrates in vitro. Overexpression of GT1-316 in transgenic Populus led to plant-wide increases of hydroxycinnamoyl-glucose esters, which were further elevated under N-limiting conditions. Levels of the two most abundant flavonoid glycosides, rutin and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, decreased, while levels of other less abundant flavonoid and phenylpropanoid conjugates increased in leaves of the GT1-316-overexpressing plants. Transcript levels of representative phenylpropanoid pathway genes were unchanged in transgenic plants, supporting a glycosylation-mediated redirection of phenylpropanoid carbon flow as opposed to enhanced phenylpropanoid pathway flux. The metabolic response of N-replete transgenic plants overlapped with that of N-stressed wild types, as the majority of phenylpropanoid derivatives significantly affected by GT1-316 overexpression were also significantly changed by N stress in the wild types. These results suggest that UGT84A17 plays an important role in phenylpropanoid metabolism by modulating biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamoyl-glucose esters and their derivatives in response to developmental and environmental cues. PMID:24803501

  12. Divergent responses of the amygdala and ventral striatum predict stress-related problem drinking in young adults: Possible differential markers of affective and impulsive pathways of risk for alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Yuliya S.; Knodt, Annchen R.; Radtke, Spenser R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    Prior work suggests there may be two distinct pathways of alcohol use disorder (AUD) risk: one associated with positive emotion enhancement and behavioral impulsivity, and one associated with negative emotion relief and coping. We sought to map these two pathways onto individual differences in neural reward and threat processing assessed using BOLD fMRI in a sample of 759 undergraduate students (426 women, mean age 19.65±1.24) participating in the Duke Neurogenetics Study. We demonstrate that problem drinking is highest in the context of stress and in those with one of two distinct neural phenotypes: 1) a combination of relatively low reward-related activity of the ventral striatum (VS) and high threat-related reactivity of the amygdala; or 2) a combination of relatively high VS activity and low amygdala reactivity. In addition, we demonstrate that the relationship between stress and problem alcohol use is mediated by impulsivity, as reflected in monetary delay discounting rates, for those with high VS-low amygdala reactivity, and by anxious/depressive symptomatology for those with the opposite neural risk phenotype. Across both neural phenotypes, we found that greater divergence between VS and amygdala reactivity predicted greater risk for problem drinking. Finally, for those individuals with the low VS-high amygdala risk phenotype we found that stress not only predicted the presence of a DSM-IV diagnosed AUD at the time of neuroimaging, but also subsequent problem drinking reported three months following study completion. These results offer new insight into the neural basis of AUD risk and suggest novel biological targets for early individualized treatment or prevention. PMID:26122584

  13. Divergent responses of the amygdala and ventral striatum predict stress-related problem drinking in young adults: possible differential markers of affective and impulsive pathways of risk for alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Y S; Knodt, A R; Radtke, S R; Hariri, A R

    2016-03-01

    Prior work suggests that there may be two distinct pathways of alcohol use disorder (AUD) risk: one associated with positive emotion enhancement and behavioral impulsivity, and another associated with negative emotion relief and coping. We sought to map these two pathways onto individual differences in neural reward and threat processing assessed using blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 759 undergraduate students (426 women, mean age 19.65±1.24 years) participating in the Duke Neurogenetics Study. We demonstrate that problem drinking is highest in the context of stress and in those with one of two distinct neural phenotypes: (1) a combination of relatively low reward-related activity of the ventral striatum (VS) and high threat-related reactivity of the amygdala; or (2) a combination of relatively high VS activity and low amygdala reactivity. In addition, we demonstrate that the relationship between stress and problem alcohol use is mediated by impulsivity, as reflected in monetary delay discounting rates, for those with high VS-low amygdala reactivity, and by anxious/depressive symptomatology for those with the opposite neural risk phenotype. Across both neural phenotypes, we found that greater divergence between VS and amygdala reactivity predicted greater risk for problem drinking. Finally, for those individuals with the low VS-high amygdala risk phenotype we found that stress not only predicted the presence of AUD diagnosis at the time of neuroimaging but also subsequent problem drinking reported 3 months following study completion. These results offer new insight into the neural basis of AUD risk and suggest novel biological targets for early individualized treatment or prevention. PMID:26122584

  14. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Snagg, Arielle; Heerey, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer’s general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation. PMID:27149106

  15. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Louise P; Snagg, Arielle; Heerey, Erin; Cross, Emily S

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer's general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation. PMID:27149106

  16. Responses to combined abiotic and biotic stress in tomato are governed by stress intensity and resistance mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kissoudis, Christos; Sunarti, Sri; van de Wiel, Clemens; Visser, Richard G F; van der Linden, C Gerard; Bai, Yuling

    2016-09-01

    Stress conditions in agricultural ecosystems can occur at variable intensities. Different resistance mechanisms against abiotic stress and pathogens are deployed by plants. Thus, it is important to examine plant responses to stress combinations under different scenarios. Here, we evaluated the effect of different levels of salt stress ranging from mild to severe (50, 100, and 150mM NaCl) on powdery mildew resistance and overall performance of tomato introgression lines with contrasting levels of partial resistance, as well as near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying the resistance gene Ol-1 (associated with a slow hypersensitivity response; HR), ol-2 (an mlo mutant associated with papilla formation), and Ol-4 (an R gene associated with a fast HR). Powdery mildew resistance was affected by salt stress in a genotype- and stress intensity-dependent manner. In susceptible and partial resistant lines, increased susceptibility was observed under mild salt stress (50mM) which was accompanied by accelerated cell death-like senescence. In contrast, severe salt stress (150mM) reduced disease symptoms. Na(+) and Cl(-) accumulation in the leaves was linearly related to the decreased pathogen symptoms under severe stress. In contrast, complete resistance mediated by ol-2 and Ol-4 was unaffected under all treatment combinations, and was associated with a decreased growth penalty. Increased susceptibility and senescence under combined stress in NIL-Ol-1 was associated with the induction of ethylene and jasmonic acid pathway genes and the cell wall invertase gene LIN6. These results highlight the significance of stress severity and resistance type on the plant's performance under the combination of abiotic and biotic stress. PMID:27436279

  17. Responses to combined abiotic and biotic stress in tomato are governed by stress intensity and resistance mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kissoudis, Christos; Sunarti, Sri; van de Wiel, Clemens; Visser, Richard G.F.; van der Linden, C. Gerard; Bai, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    Stress conditions in agricultural ecosystems can occur at variable intensities. Different resistance mechanisms against abiotic stress and pathogens are deployed by plants. Thus, it is important to examine plant responses to stress combinations under different scenarios. Here, we evaluated the effect of different levels of salt stress ranging from mild to severe (50, 100, and 150mM NaCl) on powdery mildew resistance and overall performance of tomato introgression lines with contrasting levels of partial resistance, as well as near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying the resistance gene Ol-1 (associated with a slow hypersensitivity response; HR), ol-2 (an mlo mutant associated with papilla formation), and Ol-4 (an R gene associated with a fast HR). Powdery mildew resistance was affected by salt stress in a genotype- and stress intensity-dependent manner. In susceptible and partial resistant lines, increased susceptibility was observed under mild salt stress (50mM) which was accompanied by accelerated cell death-like senescence. In contrast, severe salt stress (150mM) reduced disease symptoms. Na+ and Cl− accumulation in the leaves was linearly related to the decreased pathogen symptoms under severe stress. In contrast, complete resistance mediated by ol-2 and Ol-4 was unaffected under all treatment combinations, and was associated with a decreased growth penalty. Increased susceptibility and senescence under combined stress in NIL-Ol-1 was associated with the induction of ethylene and jasmonic acid pathway genes and the cell wall invertase gene LIN6. These results highlight the significance of stress severity and resistance type on the plant’s performance under the combination of abiotic and biotic stress. PMID:27436279

  18. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress.

  19. Measuring Physiological Stress Responses in Children: Lessons from a Novice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quas, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author describes challenges associated with integrating physiological measures of stress into developmental research, especially in the domains of memory and cognition. An initial critical challenge concerns how to define stress, which can refer to one or a series of events, a response, the consequence of that response, an…

  20. Transposable Elements Contribute to Activation of Maize Genes in Response to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Makarevitch, Irina; Waters, Amanda J.; West, Patrick T.; Stitzer, Michelle; Hirsch, Candice N.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Springer, Nathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) account for a large portion of the genome in many eukaryotic species. Despite their reputation as “junk” DNA or genomic parasites deleterious for the host, TEs have complex interactions with host genes and the potential to contribute to regulatory variation in gene expression. It has been hypothesized that TEs and genes they insert near may be transcriptionally activated in response to stress conditions. The maize genome, with many different types of TEs interspersed with genes, provides an ideal system to study the genome-wide influence of TEs on gene regulation. To analyze the magnitude of the TE effect on gene expression response to environmental changes, we profiled gene and TE transcript levels in maize seedlings exposed to a number of abiotic stresses. Many genes exhibit up- or down-regulation in response to these stress conditions. The analysis of TE families inserted within upstream regions of up-regulated genes revealed that between four and nine different TE families are associated with up-regulated gene expression in each of these stress conditions, affecting up to 20% of the genes up-regulated in response to abiotic stress, and as many as 33% of genes that are only expressed in response to stress. Expression of many of these same TE families also responds to the same stress conditions. The analysis of the stress-induced transcripts and proximity of the transposon to the gene suggests that these TEs may provide local enhancer activities that stimulate stress-responsive gene expression. Our data on allelic variation for insertions of several of these TEs show strong correlation between the presence of TE insertions and stress-responsive up-regulation of gene expression. Our findings suggest that TEs provide an important source of allelic regulatory variation in gene response to abiotic stress in maize. PMID:25569788

  1. Affect-Laden Imagery and Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Stress and Risk Perception

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how affect-laden imagery that evokes emotional stress influences risk perception and risk taking in real-life scenarios. In a series of three studies, we instructed participants to imagine the consequences of risky scenarios and then rate the intensity of the experienced stress, perceived risk and their willingness to engage in risky behavior. Study 1 showed that people spontaneously imagine negative rather than positive risk consequences, which are directly related to their lower willingness to take risk. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by feelings of stress and risk perception. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by showing that imagining negative risk consequences evokes psychophysiological stress responses observed in elevated blood pressure. Finally, in Study 3, we once again demonstrated that a higher intensity of mental images of negative risk consequences, as measured by enhanced brain activity in the parieto-occipital lobes, leads to a lower propensity to take risk. Furthermore, individual differences in creating vivid and intense negative images of risk consequences moderated the strength of the relationship between risk perception and risk taking. Participants who created more vivid and intense images of negative risk consequences paid less attention to the assessments of riskiness in rating their likelihood to take risk. To summarize, we showed that feelings of emotional stress and perceived riskiness mediate the relationship between mental imagery and risk taking, whereas individual differences in abilities to create vivid mental images may influence the degree to which more cognitive risk assessments are used in the risk-taking process. PMID:25816238

  2. VOC emissions of Grey poplar leaves as affected by salt stress and different N sources.

    PubMed

    Teuber, M; Zimmer, I; Kreuzwieser, J; Ache, P; Polle, A; Rennenberg, H; Schnitzler, J-P

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen nutrition and salt stress experiments were performed in a greenhouse with hydroponic-cultured, salt-sensitive Grey poplar (Populus x canescens) plants to study the combined influence of different N sources (either 1 mm NO(3) (-) or NH(4)(+)) and salt (up to 75 mm NaCl) on leaf gas exchange, isoprene biosynthesis and VOC emissions. Net assimilation and transpiration proved to be highly sensitive to salt stress and were reduced by approximately 90% at leaf sodium concentrations higher than 1,800 microg Na g dry weight (dw)(-1). In contrast, emissions of isoprene and oxygenated VOC (i.e. acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and acetone) were unaffected. There was no significant effect of combinations of salt stress and N source, and neither NO(3)(-) or NH(4)(+) influenced the salt stress response in the Grey poplar leaves. Also, transcript levels of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (PcDXR) and isoprene synthase (PcISPS) did not respond to the different N sources and only responded slightly to salt application, although isoprene synthase (PcISPS) activity was negatively affected at least in one of two experiments, despite high isoprene emission rates. A significant salt effect was the strong reduction of leaf dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP) content, probably due to restricted availability of photosynthates for DMADP biosynthesis. Further consequences of reduced photosynthetic gas exchange and maintaining VOC emissions are a very high C loss, up to 50%, from VOC emissions related to net CO(2) uptake and a strong increase in leaf internal isoprene concentrations, with maximum mean values up to 6.6 microl x l(-1). Why poplar leaves maintain VOC biosynthesis and emission under salt stress conditions, despite impaired photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, is discussed. PMID:18211549

  3. Affect-laden imagery and risk taking: the mediating role of stress and risk perception.

    PubMed

    Traczyk, Jakub; Sobkow, Agata; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how affect-laden imagery that evokes emotional stress influences risk perception and risk taking in real-life scenarios. In a series of three studies, we instructed participants to imagine the consequences of risky scenarios and then rate the intensity of the experienced stress, perceived risk and their willingness to engage in risky behavior. Study 1 showed that people spontaneously imagine negative rather than positive risk consequences, which are directly related to their lower willingness to take risk. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by feelings of stress and risk perception. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by showing that imagining negative risk consequences evokes psychophysiological stress responses observed in elevated blood pressure. Finally, in Study 3, we once again demonstrated that a higher intensity of mental images of negative risk consequences, as measured by enhanced brain activity in the parieto-occipital lobes, leads to a lower propensity to take risk. Furthermore, individual differences in creating vivid and intense negative images of risk consequences moderated the strength of the relationship between risk perception and risk taking. Participants who created more vivid and intense images of negative risk consequences paid less attention to the assessments of riskiness in rating their likelihood to take risk. To summarize, we showed that feelings of emotional stress and perceived riskiness mediate the relationship between mental imagery and risk taking, whereas individual differences in abilities to create vivid mental images may influence the degree to which more cognitive risk assessments are used in the risk-taking process. PMID:25816238

  4. Does orthostatic stress influence the neuroendocrine response to subsequent hypoglycemia in humans?

    PubMed

    Radikova, Z; Penesova, A; Koska, J; Kvetnansky, R; Jezova, D; Huckova, M; Vigas, M; Macho, L

    2004-06-01

    Neuroendocrine response to stress stimuli is influenced by previous stimuli of different nature. The aim of the study was to test whether antecedent orthostatic stress may affect the neuroendocrine response to subsequent hypoglycemia. A group of 12 (6 men, 6 women) nonobese, healthy volunteers aged 19 to 27 y (mean 24 +/- 0.8) participated in the study in two sessions: controlled insulin-induced hypoglycemia to 2.7 mmol/L for 15 min either with or without antecedent orthostatic stress (30 min of 60 degrees head-up tilt before insulin administration). Orthostatic stress caused a significant decrease in plasma volume (-9.6%; P < 0.001) and a significant increase in plasma renin activity, aldosterone, norepinephrine (P < 0.01), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations (P < 0.05) in all subjects. Growth hormone response to hypoglycemia was diminished in women (P < 0.01). The epinephrine response to hypoglycemia was diminished in women in comparison to men (P < 0.001), but was unaffected by antecedent orthostatic stress. Hypoglycemia failed to induce the ACTH release after its elevation during orthostatic stress. ACTH response to moderate hypoglycemia without previous orthostatic stress was evident only in men in comparison to women (P < 0.05). We conclude that the epinephrine, growth hormone, and ACTH responses to hypoglycemia were diminished in women. Except ACTH, the neuroendocrine response to mild hypoglycemia was not affected by previous orthostatic stress in healthy subjects. In the case of ACTH, the first stress stimulus is consequential for the subsequent response of this hormone, probably due to short-loop negative feedback effects. PMID:15240417

  5. Image-Word Pairing-Congruity Effect on Affective Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Sambai, Ami; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

    The present study explores the effects of familiarity on affective responses (pleasure and arousal) to Japanese ad elements, based on the schema incongruity theory. Print ads showing natural scenes (landscapes) were used to create the stimuli (images and words). An empirical study was conducted to measure subjects' affective responses to image-word combinations that varied in terms of incongruity. The level of incongruity was based on familiarity levels, and was statistically determined by a variable called ‘pairing-congruity status’. The tested hypothesis proposed that even highly familiar image-word combinations, when combined incongruously, would elicit strong affective responses. Subjects assessed the stimuli using bipolar scales. The study was effective in tracing interactions between familiarity, pleasure and arousal, although the incongruous image-word combinations did not elicit the predicted strong effects on pleasure and arousal. The results suggest a need for further research incorporating kansei (i.e., creativity) into the process of stimuli selection.

  6. Mechanical Stress Induces Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses via a Novel cis-Element

    PubMed Central

    Walley, Justin W; Coughlan, Sean; Hudson, Matthew E; Covington, Michael F; Kaspi, Roy; Banu, Gopalan; Harmer, Stacey L; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2007-01-01

    Plants are continuously exposed to a myriad of abiotic and biotic stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these stress signals are perceived and transduced are poorly understood. To begin to identify primary stress signal transduction components, we have focused on genes that respond rapidly (within 5 min) to stress signals. Because it has been hypothesized that detection of physical stress is a mechanism common to mounting a response against a broad range of environmental stresses, we have utilized mechanical wounding as the stress stimulus and performed whole genome microarray analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissue. This led to the identification of a number of rapid wound responsive (RWR) genes. Comparison of RWR genes with published abiotic and biotic stress microarray datasets demonstrates a large overlap across a wide range of environmental stresses. Interestingly, RWR genes also exhibit a striking level and pattern of circadian regulation, with induced and repressed genes displaying antiphasic rhythms. Using bioinformatic analysis, we identified a novel motif overrepresented in the promoters of RWR genes, herein designated as the Rapid Stress Response Element (RSRE). We demonstrate in transgenic plants that multimerized RSREs are sufficient to confer a rapid response to both biotic and abiotic stresses in vivo, thereby establishing the functional involvement of this motif in primary transcriptional stress responses. Collectively, our data provide evidence for a novel cis-element that is distributed across the promoters of an array of diverse stress-responsive genes, poised to respond immediately and coordinately to stress signals. This structure suggests that plants may have a transcriptional network resembling the general stress signaling pathway in yeast and that the RSRE element may provide the key to this coordinate regulation. PMID:17953483

  7. Transcriptional profiling in response to terminal drought stress reveals differential responses along the wheat genome

    PubMed Central

    Aprile, Alessio; Mastrangelo, Anna M; De Leonardis, Anna M; Galiba, Gabor; Roncaglia, Enrica; Ferrari, Francesco; De Bellis, Luigi; Turchi, Luana; Giuliano, Giovanni; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Background Water stress during grain filling has a marked effect on grain yield, leading to a reduced endosperm cell number and thus sink capacity to accumulate dry matter. The bread wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS), a Chinese Spring terminal deletion line (CS_5AL-10) and the durum wheat cultivar Creso were subjected to transcriptional profiling after exposure to mild and severe drought stress at the grain filling stage to find evidences of differential stress responses associated to different wheat genome regions. Results The transcriptome analysis of Creso, CS and its deletion line revealed 8,552 non redundant probe sets with different expression levels, mainly due to the comparisons between the two species. The drought treatments modified the expression of 3,056 probe sets. Besides a set of genes showing a similar drought response in Creso and CS, cluster analysis revealed several drought response features that can be associated to the different genomic structure of Creso, CS and CS_5AL-10. Some drought-related genes were expressed at lower level (or not expressed) in Creso (which lacks the D genome) or in the CS_5AL-10 deletion line compared to CS. The chromosome location of a set of these genes was confirmed by PCR-based mapping on the D genome (or the 5AL-10 region). Many clusters were characterized by different level of expression in Creso, CS and CS_AL-10, suggesting that the different genome organization of the three genotypes may affect plant adaptation to stress. Clusters with similar expression trend were grouped and functional classified to mine the biological mean of their activation or repression. Genes involved in ABA, proline, glycine-betaine and sorbitol pathways were found up-regulated by drought stress. Furthermore, the enhanced expression of a set of transposons and retrotransposons was detected in CS_5AL-10. Conclusion Bread and durum wheat genotypes were characterized by a different physiological reaction to water stress and by a

  8. Campylobacter: stress responses and biofilm formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of Campylobacter jejuni to tolerate stresses, including heat and acid stress, in the presence and absence of a competitive microflora was investigated. D-values showed that C. jejuni 81-176 parent and luxS mutant strains were inactivated more rapidly when in the presence of a competitiv...

  9. Repeated stressful experiences differently affect brain dopamine receptor subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Puglisi-Allegra, S.; Cabib, S. , Roma ); Kempf, E.; Schleef, C. )

    1991-01-01

    The binding of tritiated spiperone (D2 antagonist) and tritiated SCH 23390 (D1 antagonist), in vivo, was investigated in the caudatus putamen (CP) and nucleus accumbens septi (NAS) of mice submitted to ten daily restraint stress sessions. Mice sacrificed 24 hr after the last stressful experience presented a 64% decrease of D2 receptor density (Bmax) but no changes in D1 receptor density in the NAS. In the CP a much smaller (11%) reduction of D2 receptor density was accompanied by a 10% increase of D1 receptors. These results show that the two types of dopamine (DA) receptors adapt in different or even opposite ways to environmental pressure, leading to imbalance between them.

  10. Soy and social stress affect serotonin neurotransmission in primates.

    PubMed

    Shively, C A; Mirkes, S J; Lu, N Z; Henderson, J A; Bethea, C L

    2003-01-01

    Stress and sex steroidal milieu can each influence mood in women. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of long-term conjugated equine estrogen (CEE), soy phytoestrogen (SPE), and social subordination stress on dorsal raphe serotonin neurotransmission of ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) protein content were determined, and the in vitro degradation of macaque SERT protein was examined in the presence and absence of protease inhibitors, serotonin (5-HT), and citalopram. Like CEE, SPE increased TPH protein levels. Social subordinates had markedly lower TPH protein levels than dominants regardless of hormone replacement. Therefore, these two variables had independent and additive effects. CEE and SPE increased SERT, and social status had no effect. Thus, the hormone-induced increase in SERT was accompanied by increased 5-HT synthesis and neuronal firing, which appears biologically reasonable as 5-HT prevented SERT degradation in vitro. PMID:12746737

  11. [Modality of individual response to stress ].

    PubMed

    Cassitto, M G

    2009-01-01

    "Stress is a state which is accompanied by physical, psychological or social complaints or dysfunctions and which results from individuals feeling unable to bridge the gap with the requirements or expectations placed on them......stress is not a disease but prolonged exposure to it may reduce effectiveness at work and may cause ill health". This is the stress definition reported by the EU Framework Agreement on Work Related Stress signed 8 October '04 by four workers and employers signatory parties. In order to describe this state of distress, four observation levels can be used, namely data from literature, the subjective symptoms, the related or observed behaviour dysfunctions and the occupational, social performance dysfunctions. Analysis of and interrelations among these four areas can help a better identification of the stress effects and characterize the most frequently observed aspects. PMID:19827284

  12. Developmental and Evolutionary History Affect Survival in Stressful Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Gareth R.; Brodie, Edmund D.; French, Susannah S.

    2014-01-01

    The world is increasingly impacted by a variety of stressors that have the potential to differentially influence life history stages of organisms. Organisms have evolved to cope with some stressors, while with others they have little capacity. It is thus important to understand the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival in stressful environments. We present evidence of the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival of a freshwater vertebrate, the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa) in an osmotically stressful environment. We compared the survival of larvae in either NaCl or MgCl2 that were exposed to salinity either as larvae only or as embryos as well. Embryonic exposure to salinity led to greater mortality of newt larvae than larval exposure alone, and this reduced survival probability was strongly linked to the carry-over effect of stunted embryonic growth in salts. Larval survival was also dependent on the type of salt (NaCl or MgCl2) the larvae were exposed to, and was lowest in MgCl2, a widely-used chemical deicer that, unlike NaCl, amphibian larvae do not have an evolutionary history of regulating at high levels. Both developmental and evolutionary history are critical factors in determining survival in this stressful environment, a pattern that may have widespread implications for the survival of animals increasingly impacted by substances with which they have little evolutionary history. PMID:24748021

  13. Physiological responses to water stress and waterlogging in Nothofagus species.

    PubMed

    Sun, O J; Sweet, G B; Whitehead, D; Buchan, G D

    1995-10-01

    Gas exchange and water relations were investigated in Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides (Hook. f.) Poole (mountain beech) and Nothofagus menziesii (Hook. f.) Oerst (silver beech) seedlings in response to water stress and waterlogging. At soil matric potentials (Psi(soil)) above -0.005 MPa, N. solandri had significantly higher photosynthetic rates (A), and stomatal and residual conductances (g(sw) and g(rc)), and lower predawn xylem water potentials (Psi(predawn)) than N. menziesii. The relative tolerance of plants to water stress was defined in terms of critical soil matric potential (Psi(cri)) and lethal xylem water potential (Psi(lethal)). The estimated values of Psi(cri) and Psi(lethal) were -1.2 and -7 MPa, respectively, for N. solandri, and -0.7 and -4 MPa, respectively, for N. menziesii. Photosynthesis was sustained to a xylem water potential (Psi(xylem)) of -7 MPa in N. solandri compared with -4 MPa in N. menziesii. Following rewatering, both A and Psi(xylem) recovered quickly in N. solandri, whereas the two variables recovered more slowly in N. menziesii. During the development of water stress, nonstomatal inhibition significantly affected A in both N. solandri and N. menziesii. Nothofagus menziesii was more susceptible to inhibition of A by waterlogging than N. solandri. However, the tolerance of N. solandri to severe waterlogging was also limited as a result of a failure to form adventitious roots, suggesting a lack of adaptation to these conditions. The differences in tolerance to water stress and waterlogging between the two species are consistent with the distribution patterns of N. solandri and N. menziesii in New Zealand. PMID:14965996

  14. Stress Response and Perinatal Reprogramming: Unraveling (Mal)adaptive Strategies.

    PubMed

    Musazzi, Laura; Marrocco, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stressors induce coping strategies in the majority of individuals. The stress response, involving the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and the consequent release of corticosteroid hormones, is indeed aimed at promoting metabolic, functional, and behavioral adaptations. However, behavioral stress is also associated with fast and long-lasting neurochemical, structural, and behavioral changes, leading to long-term remodeling of glutamate transmission, and increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. Of note, early-life events, both in utero and during the early postnatal life, trigger reprogramming of the stress response, which is often associated with loss of stress resilience and ensuing neurobehavioral (mal)adaptations. Indeed, adverse experiences in early life are known to induce long-term stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals. Here, we discuss recent findings about stress remodeling of excitatory neurotransmission and brain morphology in animal models of behavioral stress. These changes are likely driven by epigenetic factors that lie at the core of the stress-response reprogramming in individuals with a history of perinatal stress. We propose that reprogramming mechanisms may underlie the reorganization of excitatory neurotransmission in the short- and long-term response to stressful stimuli. PMID:27057367

  15. Stress Response and Perinatal Reprogramming: Unraveling (Mal)adaptive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Musazzi, Laura; Marrocco, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stressors induce coping strategies in the majority of individuals. The stress response, involving the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and the consequent release of corticosteroid hormones, is indeed aimed at promoting metabolic, functional, and behavioral adaptations. However, behavioral stress is also associated with fast and long-lasting neurochemical, structural, and behavioral changes, leading to long-term remodeling of glutamate transmission, and increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. Of note, early-life events, both in utero and during the early postnatal life, trigger reprogramming of the stress response, which is often associated with loss of stress resilience and ensuing neurobehavioral (mal)adaptations. Indeed, adverse experiences in early life are known to induce long-term stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals. Here, we discuss recent findings about stress remodeling of excitatory neurotransmission and brain morphology in animal models of behavioral stress. These changes are likely driven by epigenetic factors that lie at the core of the stress-response reprogramming in individuals with a history of perinatal stress. We propose that reprogramming mechanisms may underlie the reorganization of excitatory neurotransmission in the short- and long-term response to stressful stimuli. PMID:27057367

  16. Hemodynamic response patterns to mental stress: diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Rüddel, H; Langewitz, W; Schächinger, H; Schmieder, R; Schulte, W

    1988-08-01

    Stress has been identified as contributing to the development of cardiovascular disease. The pathophysiologic link between stress and disease still remains unclear. Because experimental stress testing in the laboratory permits the examination of the underlying mechanism for stress-induced blood pressure, analyses of cardiovascular reactivity during emotional stress could be of particular clinical importance. The analyses of pooled data during the past 6 years (n = 298, age from 20 to 60 years, normotensive subjects as well as patients with borderline and mild essential hypertension) reveal that stress-induced changes in stroke volume and especially in total peripheral resistance are crucial parameters to analyze the hemodynamic stress response. However, neither those simple nor complex response patterns such as "hot reactor" describe clinically distinct subgroups of persons. When physiologic testing was repeated in hypertensive patients after effective long-term antihypertensive therapy with clonidine, oxprenolol, nitrendipine, or enalapril, no attenuation of the stress-induced increase in blood pressure was found in any of these groups. However, heart rate reactivity and stress-induced changes in total peripheral resistance were altered significantly by oxprenolol and nitrendipine. The beta-adrenoceptor blocker decreased heart rate reactivity and increased reactivity of peripheral resistance; the calcium antagonist decreased stress-induced changes in peripheral resistance and increased the heart rate response. The centrally acting sympatholytic regimen and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor had no impact on the hemodynamic response pattern during emotional challenge. PMID:3394640

  17. Anxiety, Affect, Self-Esteem, and Stress: Mediation and Moderation Effects on Depression

    PubMed Central

    Nima, Ali Al; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Background Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression. Methods Two hundred and two university students (males  = 93, females  = 113) completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses. Main Findings The results indicated that (i) anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii) that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii) that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv) that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression. Conclusion The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators. PMID:24039896

  18. Hypothalamic oxytocin mediates social buffering of the stress response

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam S.; Wang, Zuoxin

    2013-01-01

    Background While stressful life events can enhance the risk of mental disorders, positive social interactions can propagate good mental health and normal behavioral routines. Still, the neural systems that promote these benefits are undetermined. Oxytocin is a hormone involved in social behavior and stress; thus, we focus on the impact that social buffering has on the stress response and the governing effects of oxytocin. Methods Female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) were exposed to 1 hr immobilization stress then recovered alone or with their male partner to characterize the effect of social contact on the behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine stress response. In addition, we treated immobilized females recovering alone with oxytocin, or vehicle, and females recovering with their male partner with a selective oxytocin receptor antagonist, or vehicle. Group sizes varied from 6 to 8 voles (n = 98 total). Results We found that 1 hr immobilization increased anxiety-like behaviors and circulating levels of corticosterone, a stress hormone, in females recovering alone, but not the females recovering with their male partner. This social buffering by the male partner on biobehavioral responses to stress was accompanied by increased oxytocin release in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Intra-PVN oxytocin injections reduced behavioral and corticosterone responses to immobilization whereas injections of an oxytocin receptor antagonist blocked the effects of the social buffering. Conclusions Together, our data demonstrate that PVN oxytocin mediates the social buffering effects on the stress response, and thus may be a target for treatment of stress-related disorders. PMID:24183103

  19. Role of shame and body esteem in cortisol stress responses.

    PubMed

    Lupis, Sarah B; Sabik, Natalie J; Wolf, Jutta M

    2016-04-01

    Studies assessing the role of shame in HPA axis reactivity report mixed findings. Discrepancies may be due to methodological difficulties and inter-individual differences in the propensity to experience shame in a stressful situation. Hence, the current study combined self-report of shame and facial coding of shame expressions and assessed the role of body esteem as a moderator of the shame-stress link. For this, 44 healthy students (24F, age 20.5 ± 2.1 years) were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Salivary cortisol levels were measured throughout the protocol. Trait shame was measured before the stress test, and state shame immediately afterwards. Video recordings of the TSST were coded to determine emotion expressions. State shame was neither associated with cortisol stress responses nor with body esteem (self-report: all ps ≥ .24; expression: all ps ≥ .31). In contrast, higher trait shame was associated with both negative body esteem (p = .049) and stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .013). Lastly, having lower body esteem predicted stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .022); however, it did not significantly moderate the association between shame indices and cortisol stress responses (all ps ≥ .94). These findings suggest that body esteem and trait shame independently contribute to strength of cortisol stress responses. Thus, in addition to trait shame, body esteem emerged as an important predictor of cortisol stress responses and as such, a potential contributor to stress-related negative health outcomes. PMID:26577952

  20. DHA-induced stress response in human colon cancer cells - Focus on oxidative stress and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Kristine; Monsen, Vivi Talstad; Hakvåg Pettersen, Caroline Hild; Overland, Hilde Bremseth; Pettersen, Grete; Samdal, Helle; Tesfahun, Almaz Nigatu; Lundemo, Anne Gøril; Bjørkøy, Geir; Schønberg, Svanhild A

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important constituents of the diet and health benefits of omega-3/n-3 PUFAs, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) have been well documented in relation to several diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that n-3 PUFAs may have anticancer activity and improve the effect of conventional cancer therapy. The mechanisms behind these effects are still unclear and need to be elucidated. We have examined the DHA-induced stress response in two human colon cancer cell lines, SW620 and Caco-2. SW620 cells are growth-inhibited at early time points by DHA, while the growth of Caco-2 cells almost remains unaffected by the same treatment. Gene expression analysis of SW620 cells treated with DHA revealed changes at early time points; transcripts involved in oxidative stress and autophagy were among the first to be differentially expressed. We find that oxidative stress is induced in both cell lines, although at different time points and to different extent. DHA induced nuclear translocation of the oxidative stress sensor NFE2L2 in both cell lines, indicating an induction of an anti-oxidative response. However, vitamin E did not counteract ROS-production or the translocation of NFE2L2 to the nucleus. Neither vitamin E nor the antioxidants butylated hydoxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydoxytoluene (BHT) did affect the growth inhibition in SW620 cells after DHA-treatment. Also, siRNA-mediated down-regulation of NFE2L2 did not sensitize SW620 and Caco-2 cells to DHA. These results indicate that oxidative stress response is not the cause of DHA-induced cytotoxicity in SW620 cells. Using biochemical and imaging based functional assays, we found a low basal level of autophagy and no increase in autophagic flux after adding DHA to the SW620 cells. However, Caco-2 cells displayed a higher level of autophagy, both in the absence and presence of DHA. Inhibition of autophagy by siRNA mediated knock down

  1. StressMicrobesInfo: Database of Microorganisms Responsive to Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Prabha, Ratna; Singh, Dhananjaya P; Rai, Anil

    2016-09-01

    Microorganisms are continuously exposed to numerous stress conditions and had evolved with numerous evolutionary adaptations and physiological acclimation mechanisms against stress effects. Any information related to the microbes responsive to stress conditions will help scientists working in the area of stress biology. Currently, there is lack of information resource on this aspect and for getting information about microbes susceptible or tolerant to different environmental changes, literature searching is the only option. Here, we present a database StressMicrobesInfo that was developed with a mandate to provide information about microbes responding to various biotic and abiotic stress conditions. This database currently contains information about 183 microbes along with a brief detail for each. StressMicrobesInfo will facilitate researchers working on stress-related microbes as a starting point and will facilitate them with the microbes which are susceptible or resistant towards particular stress conditions. PMID:26264053

  2. Proteomic analysis of endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Qian, Dandan; Tian, Lihong; Qu, Leqing

    2015-01-01

    The defects in storage proteins secretion in the endosperm of transgenic rice seeds often leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which produces floury and shrunken seeds, but the mechanism of this response remains unclear. We used an iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis of ER-stressed rice seeds due to the endosperm-specific suppression of OsSar1 to identify changes in the protein levels in response to ER stress. ER stress changed the expression of 405 proteins in rice seed by >2.0- fold compared with the wild-type control. Of these proteins, 140 were upregulated and 265 were downregulated. The upregulated proteins were mainly involved in protein modification, transport and degradation, and the downregulated proteins were mainly involved in metabolism and stress/defense responses. A KOBAS analysis revealed that protein-processing in the ER and degradation-related proteasome were the predominant upregulated pathways in the rice endosperm in response to ER stress. Trans-Golgi protein transport was also involved in the ER stress response. Combined with bioinformatic and molecular biology analyses, our proteomic data will facilitate our understanding of the systemic responses to ER stress in rice seeds. PMID:26395408

  3. Proteomic analysis of endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in rice seeds

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Dandan; Tian, Lihong; Qu, Leqing

    2015-01-01

    The defects in storage proteins secretion in the endosperm of transgenic rice seeds often leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which produces floury and shrunken seeds, but the mechanism of this response remains unclear. We used an iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis of ER-stressed rice seeds due to the endosperm-specific suppression of OsSar1 to identify changes in the protein levels in response to ER stress. ER stress changed the expression of 405 proteins in rice seed by >2.0- fold compared with the wild-type control. Of these proteins, 140 were upregulated and 265 were downregulated. The upregulated proteins were mainly involved in protein modification, transport and degradation, and the downregulated proteins were mainly involved in metabolism and stress/defense responses. A KOBAS analysis revealed that protein-processing in the ER and degradation-related proteasome were the predominant upregulated pathways in the rice endosperm in response to ER stress. Trans-Golgi protein transport was also involved in the ER stress response. Combined with bioinformatic and molecular biology analyses, our proteomic data will facilitate our understanding of the systemic responses to ER stress in rice seeds. PMID:26395408

  4. Age differences in emotional responses to daily stress: the role of timing, severity, and global perceived stress.

    PubMed

    Scott, Stacey B; Sliwinski, Martin J; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2013-12-01

    Research on age differences in emotional responses to daily stress has produced inconsistent findings. Guided by recent theoretical advances in aging theory (S. T. Charles, 2010, Strength and vulnerability integration: A model of emotional well-being across adulthood, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 136, pp. 1068-1091) that emphasize the importance of context for predicting when and how age is related to affective well-being, the current study examined age differences in emotional responses to everyday stressors. The present study examined how three contextual features (e.g., timing of exposure, stressor severity, global perceived stress [GPS]) moderate age differences in emotional experience in an ecological momentary assessment study of adults (N = 190) aged 18-81 years. Results indicated that older adults' negative affect (NA) was less affected by exposure to recent stressors than younger adults, but that there were no age differences in the effects of stressor exposure 3-6 hr afterward. Higher levels of GPS predicted amplified NA responses to daily stress, and controlling for GPS eliminated age differences in NA responses to stressors. No age differences in NA responses as a function of stressor severity were observed. In contrast, older age was associated with less of a decrease in PA when exposed to recent stressors or with more severe recent stressors. There were no age differences in the effect of previous stressor exposure or severity on PA, or any interactions between momentary or previous stress and GPS on PA. Together, these results support the notion that chronic stress plays a central role in emotional experience in daily life. We discuss the implications of these results for emotion theories of aging. PMID:24364410

  5. Cellular Stress Responses Elicited by Engineered Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanomaterials are being incorporated continuously into consumer products, resulting in increased human exposures. The study of engineered nanomaterials has focused largely on oxidative stress and inflammation endpoints without further investigation of underlying pathwa...

  6. Proteomics of stress responses in wheat and barley—search for potential protein markers of stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Prášil, Ilja T.

    2014-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum; T. durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) agricultural production is severely limited by various abiotic and biotic stress factors. Proteins are directly involved in plant stress response so it is important to study proteome changes under various stress conditions. Generally, both abiotic and biotic stress factors induce profound alterations in protein network covering signaling, energy metabolism (glycolysis, Krebs cycle, ATP biosynthesis, photosynthesis), storage proteins, protein metabolism, several other biosynthetic pathways (e.g., S-adenosylmethionine metabolism, lignin metabolism), transport proteins, proteins involved in protein folding and chaperone activities, other protective proteins (LEA, PR proteins), ROS scavenging enzymes as well as proteins affecting regulation of plant growth and development. Proteins which have been reported to reveal significant differences in their relative abundance or posttranslational modifications between wheat, barley or related species genotypes under stress conditions are listed and their potential role in underlying the differential stress response is discussed. In conclusion, potential future roles of the results of proteomic studies in practical applications such as breeding for an enhanced stress tolerance and the possibilities to test and use protein markers in the breeding are suggested. PMID:25566285

  7. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Sexual Coercion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…

  8. Factors Affecting Educational Innovation with in Class Electronic Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Mark; Bell, Amani; Comerton-Forde, Carole; Pickering, Joanne; Blayney, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the use of Rogers' diffusion of innovation perspective to understand the factors affecting educational innovation decisions, specifically in regard to in class electronic response systems. Despite decreasing costs and four decades of research showing strong student support, academic adoption is limited. Using data collected from…

  9. Genomic Analysis of Stress Response against Arsenic in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Surasri N.; Lewis, Jada; Patel, Isha; Bozdag, Serdar; Lee, Jeong H.; Sprando, Robert; Cinar, Hediye Nese

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, a known human carcinogen, is widely distributed around the world and found in particularly high concentrations in certain regions including Southwestern US, Eastern Europe, India, China, Taiwan and Mexico. Chronic arsenic poisoning affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with increased risk of many diseases including arthrosclerosis, diabetes and cancer. In this study, we explored genome level global responses to high and low levels of arsenic exposure in Caenorhabditis elegans using Affymetrix expression microarrays. This experimental design allows us to do microarray analysis of dose-response relationships of global gene expression patterns. High dose (0.03%) exposure caused stronger global gene expression changes in comparison with low dose (0.003%) exposure, suggesting a positive dose-response correlation. Biological processes such as oxidative stress, and iron metabolism, which were previously reported to be involved in arsenic toxicity studies using cultured cells, experimental animals, and humans, were found to be affected in C. elegans. We performed genome-wide gene expression comparisons between our microarray data and publicly available C. elegans microarray datasets of cadmium, and sediment exposure samples of German rivers Rhine and Elbe. Bioinformatics analysis of arsenic-responsive regulatory networks were done using FastMEDUSA program. FastMEDUSA analysis identified cancer-related genes, particularly genes associated with leukemia, such as dnj-11, which encodes a protein orthologous to the mammalian ZRF1/MIDA1/MPP11/DNAJC2 family of ribosome-associated molecular chaperones. We analyzed the protective functions of several of the identified genes using RNAi. Our study indicates that C. elegans could be a substitute model to study the mechanism of metal toxicity using high-throughput expression data and bioinformatics tools such as FastMEDUSA. PMID:23894281

  10. Genomic analysis of stress response against arsenic in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Surasri N; Lewis, Jada; Patel, Isha; Bozdag, Serdar; Lee, Jeong H; Sprando, Robert; Cinar, Hediye Nese

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, a known human carcinogen, is widely distributed around the world and found in particularly high concentrations in certain regions including Southwestern US, Eastern Europe, India, China, Taiwan and Mexico. Chronic arsenic poisoning affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with increased risk of many diseases including arthrosclerosis, diabetes and cancer. In this study, we explored genome level global responses to high and low levels of arsenic exposure in Caenorhabditis elegans using Affymetrix expression microarrays. This experimental design allows us to do microarray analysis of dose-response relationships of global gene expression patterns. High dose (0.03%) exposure caused stronger global gene expression changes in comparison with low dose (0.003%) exposure, suggesting a positive dose-response correlation. Biological processes such as oxidative stress, and iron metabolism, which were previously reported to be involved in arsenic toxicity studies using cultured cells, experimental animals, and humans, were found to be affected in C. elegans. We performed genome-wide gene expression comparisons between our microarray data and publicly available C. elegans microarray datasets of cadmium, and sediment exposure samples of German rivers Rhine and Elbe. Bioinformatics analysis of arsenic-responsive regulatory networks were done using FastMEDUSA program. FastMEDUSA analysis identified cancer-related genes, particularly genes associated with leukemia, such as dnj-11, which encodes a protein orthologous to the mammalian ZRF1/MIDA1/MPP11/DNAJC2 family of ribosome-associated molecular chaperones. We analyzed the protective functions of several of the identified genes using RNAi. Our study indicates that C. elegans could be a substitute model to study the mechanism of metal toxicity using high-throughput expression data and bioinformatics tools such as FastMEDUSA. PMID:23894281

  11. Stress and affective disorders: animal models elucidating the molecular basis of neuroendocrine-behavior interactions.

    PubMed

    Touma, C

    2011-05-01

    Profound dysfunctions in several neuroendocrine systems have been described in patients suffering from affective disorders such as major depression. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these functional alterations, animal models including mice genetically modified by either direct gene-targeting or by selective breeding approaches have been used exceedingly, revealing valuable insights into neuroendocrine pathways conserved between rodents and men. This review focuses on altered function and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, including its involvement in emotionality and stress responsiveness. In this context, the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and disturbances in glucocorticoid receptor signaling seem to be of central importance. However, changes in the expression and release patterns of vasopressin, dopamine and serotonin have also been shown to contribute to variation in emotionality, stress coping, cognitive functions and social behaviors. Affective disorders show a high degree of complexity, involving a multitude of molecular, neuroendocrine, and behavioral alterations as well as an intense gene-environment interaction, making it difficult to dissociate the primary causes from secondary consequences of the disease. Thus, interdisciplinary research, as applied in the emerging field of systems biology, involving adequate animal models and combined methodologies can significantly contribute to our understanding regarding the transmission of genetic predispositions into clinically relevant endophenotypes. It is only with deep insight into the mechanisms by which the stress hormone systems are regulated that novel treatment strategies and promising targets for therapeutic interventions can be developed in the future. Such in-depth understanding is ultimately essential to realizing our goal of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. PMID:21544741

  12. Phosphoproteomic analysis of the response of maize leaves to drought, heat and their combination stress

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiuli; Wu, Liuji; Zhao, Feiyun; Zhang, Dayong; Li, Nana; Zhu, Guohui; Li, Chaohao; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Drought and heat stress, especially their combination, greatly affect crop production. Many studies have described transcriptome, proteome and phosphoproteome changes in response of plants to drought or heat stress. However, the study about the phosphoproteomic changes in response of crops to the combination stress is scare. To understand the mechanism of maize responses to the drought and heat combination stress, phosphoproteomic analysis was performed on maize leaves by using multiplex iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic and LC-MS/MS methods. Five-leaf-stage maize was subjected to drought, heat or their combination, and the leaves were collected. Globally, heat, drought and the combined stress significantly changed the phosphorylation levels of 172, 149, and 144 phosphopeptides, respectively. These phosphopeptides corresponded to 282 proteins. Among them, 23 only responded to the combined stress and could not be predicted from their responses to single stressors; 30 and 75 only responded to drought and heat, respectively. Notably, 19 proteins were phosphorylated on different sites in response to the single and combination stresses. Of the seven significantly enriched phosphorylation motifs identified, two were common for all stresses, two were common for heat and the combined stress, and one was specific to the combined stress. The signaling pathways in which the phosphoproteins were involved clearly differed among the three stresses. Functional characterization of the phosphoproteins and the pathways identified here could lead to new targets for the enhancement of crop stress tolerance, which will be particularly important in the face of climate change and the increasing prevalence of abiotic stressors. PMID:25999967

  13. Estradiol levels modulate brain activity and negative responses to psychosocial stress across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Albert, Kimberly; Pruessner, Jens; Newhouse, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Although ovarian hormones are thought to have a potential role in the well-known sex difference in mood and anxiety disorders, the mechanisms through which ovarian hormone changes contribute to stress regulation are not well understood. One mechanism by which ovarian hormones might impact mood regulation is by mediating the effect of psychosocial stress, which often precedes depressive episodes and may have mood consequences that are particularly relevant in women. In the current study, brain activity and mood response to psychosocial stress was examined in healthy, normally cycling women at either the high or low estradiol phase of the menstrual cycle. Twenty eight women were exposed to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with brain activity determined through functional magnetic resonance imaging, and behavioral response assessed with subjective mood and stress measures. Brain activity responses to psychosocial stress differed between women in the low versus high estrogen phase of the menstrual cycle: women with high estradiol levels showed significantly less deactivation in limbic regions during psychosocial stress compared to women with low estradiol levels. Additionally, women with higher estradiol levels also had less subjective distress in response to the MIST than women with lower estradiol levels. The results of this study suggest that, in normally cycling premenopausal women, high estradiol levels attenuate the brain activation changes and negative mood response to psychosocial stress. Normal ovarian hormone fluctuations may alter the impact of psychosocially stressful events by presenting periods of increased vulnerability to psychosocial stress during low estradiol phases of the menstrual cycle. This menstrual cycle-related fluctuation in stress vulnerability may be relevant to the greater risk for affective disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder in women. PMID:26123902

  14. Extracytoplasmic Stress Responses Induced by Antimicrobial Cationic Polyethylenimines

    PubMed Central

    Lander, Blaine A.; Checchi, Kyle D.; Koplin, Stephen A.; Smith, Virginia F.; Domanski, Tammy L.; Isaac, Daniel D.; Lin, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    The ability of an antimicrobial, cationic polyethylenimine (PEI+) to induce the three known extracytoplasmic stress responses of Escherichia coli was quantified. Exposure of E. coli to PEI+ in solution revealed specific, concentration-dependent induction of the Cpx extracytoplasmic cellular stress response, ~2.0-2.5 fold at 320 μg/mL after 1.5 hours without significant induction of the σE or Bae stress responses. In comparison, exposure of E. coli to a non-antimicrobial polymer, polyethylene oxide (PEO), resulted in no induction of the three stress responses. The antimicrobial small molecule vanillin, a known membrane pore-forming compound, was observed to cause specific, concentration-dependent induction of the σE stress response, ~6-fold at 640 μg/mL after 1.5 hours, without significant induction of the Cpx or Bae stress responses. The different stress response induction profiles of PEI+ and vanillin suggest that although both are antimicrobial compounds, they interact with the bacterial membrane and extracytoplasmic area by unique mechanisms. EPR studies of liposomes containing spin-labeled lipids exposed to PEI+, vanillin, and PEO reveal that PEI+ and PEO increased membrane stability whereas vanillin was found to have no effect. PMID:22797865

  15. Dynamical theory of active cellular response to external stress.

    PubMed

    De, Rumi; Safran, Samuel A

    2008-09-01

    We present a comprehensive, theoretical treatment of the orientational response to external stress of active, contractile cells embedded in a gel-like elastic medium. The theory includes both the forces that arise from the deformation of the matrix as well as forces due to the internal regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions of the cell. We calculate the time-dependent response of both the magnitude and the direction of the elastic dipole that characterizes the active forces exerted by the cell, for various situations. For static or quasistatic external stress, cells orient parallel to the stress while for high frequency dynamic external stress, cells orient nearly perpendicular. Both numerical and analytical calculations of these effects are presented. In addition we predict the relaxation time for the cellular response for both slowly and rapidly varying external stresses; several characteristic scaling regimes for the relaxation time as a function of applied frequency are predicted. We also treat the case of cells for which the regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions is controlled by strain (instead of stress) and show that the predicted dependence of the cellular orientation on the Poisson ratio of the matrix can differentiate strain vs stress regulation of cellular response. PMID:18851081

  16. Dynamical theory of active cellular response to external stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Rumi; Safran, Samuel A.

    2008-09-01

    We present a comprehensive, theoretical treatment of the orientational response to external stress of active, contractile cells embedded in a gel-like elastic medium. The theory includes both the forces that arise from the deformation of the matrix as well as forces due to the internal regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions of the cell. We calculate the time-dependent response of both the magnitude and the direction of the elastic dipole that characterizes the active forces exerted by the cell, for various situations. For static or quasistatic external stress, cells orient parallel to the stress while for high frequency dynamic external stress, cells orient nearly perpendicular. Both numerical and analytical calculations of these effects are presented. In addition we predict the relaxation time for the cellular response for both slowly and rapidly varying external stresses; several characteristic scaling regimes for the relaxation time as a function of applied frequency are predicted. We also treat the case of cells for which the regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions is controlled by strain (instead of stress) and show that the predicted dependence of the cellular orientation on the Poisson ratio of the matrix can differentiate strain vs stress regulation of cellular response.

  17. Negative affect predicts posttraumatic stress symptoms in Brazilian volunteer United Nations peacekeepers in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Souza, Wanderson F; Figueira, Ivan; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Volchan, Eliane; Mendonça-de-Souza, Ana C; Duarte, Antônio F A; Monteiro da Silva, Angela M; Marques-Portella, Carla; Mari, Jair J; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2008-11-01

    Our study evaluated the relationship between positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) traits on the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among peacekeepers. A longitudinal study with 138 army personnel deployed to a peacekeeping mission in Haiti was conducted. An instrument for measuring PA and NA traits was used before deployment. PTSS, indexed by posttraumatic stress disorder Checklist--Military Version (PCL-M) and frequency of stressful situations were measured after return. Regression analysis showed that both NA and number of stressful situations contributed toward increasing PCL-M scores (Adjusted R = 0.25; p < 0.001). We also found that NA traits interact with intensively stressful situations enhancing the occurrence of PTSS (Adjusted R = 0.32; p < 0.001). These findings suggest that NA traits are an important predictor for PTSS among peacekeepers and also worsen the consequences of being exposed to stressful situations. PMID:19008738

  18. Detection of early plant stress responses in hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmann, Jan; Steinrücken, Jörg; Plümer, Lutz

    2014-07-01

    Early stress detection in crop plants is highly relevant, but hard to achieve. We hypothesize that close range hyperspectral imaging is able to uncover stress related processes non-destructively in the early stages which are invisible to the human eye. We propose an approach which combines unsupervised and supervised methods in order to identify several stages of progressive stress development from series of hyperspectral images. Stress of an entire plant is detected by stress response levels at pixel scale. The focus is on drought stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Unsupervised learning is used to separate hyperspectral signatures into clusters related to different stages of stress response and progressive senescence. Whereas all such signatures may be found in both, well watered and drought stressed plants, their respective distributions differ. Ordinal classification with Support Vector Machines (SVM) is used to quantify and visualize the distribution of progressive stages of senescence and to separate well watered from drought stressed plants. For each senescence stage a distinctive set of most relevant Vegetation Indices (VIs) is identified. The method has been applied on two experiments involving potted barley plants under well watered and drought stress conditions in a greenhouse. Drought stress is detected up to ten days earlier than using NDVI. Furthermore, it is shown that some VIs have overall relevance, while others are specific to particular senescence stages. The transferability of the method to the field is illustrated by an experiment on maize (Zea mays).

  19. The Mind-Body Connection - Can Prolonged Stress Affect Whether Breast Cancer Returns?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mind-Body Connection Can Prolonged Stress Affect Whether Breast Cancer Returns? Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... NCI) funded a study of 94 women whose breast cancer had spread (metastatic) or returned (recurrent). Researchers asked ...

  20. Relationship between Microtubule Network Structure and Intracellular Transport in Cultured Endothelial Cells Affected by Shear Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Susumu; Ikezawa, Kenji; Ikeda, Mariko; Tanishita, Kazuo

    Endothelial cells (ECs) that line the inner surface of blood vessels are barriers to the transport of various substances into or from vessel walls, and are continuously exposed to shear stress induced by blood flow in vivo. Shear stress affects the cytoskeleton (e.g., microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments), and affects the transport of macromolecules. Here, the relationship between the microtubule network structure and this transport process for albumin uptake within cultured aortic endothelial cells affected by shear stress was studied. Based on fluorescent images of albumin uptake obtained by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), both the microtubule network and albumin uptake in ECs were disrupted by colchicine and were affected by shear stress loading.

  1. Fasting and diet content affect stress-induced changes in plasma glucose and cortisol in Juvenile chinook salmon. [Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, B.A.; Schreck, C.B. ); Fowler, L.G. )

    1988-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared on low-, medium-, or high-lipid diets for 18 weeks were either kept on their respective diets or fasted for 20 d; then they were subjected to a 30-s handling stress or to handling plus continuous confinement. In fish that were handled but not confined, poststress hyperglycemia was greatest in fed fish that received the high-lipid diet and was generally lower in fasted than in fed fish. Plasma cortisol elevations in response to handling or handling plus confinement stress were not appreciably affected by diet type or fasting. The result indicated that prior feeding regimes and the types of diet fed should be considered when one is interpreting the magnitude of hyperglycemic stress responses in juvenile chinook salmon.

  2. Stress Generation and Adolescent Depression: Contribution of Interpersonal Stress Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the proposal that ineffective responses to common interpersonal problems disrupt youths' relationships, which, in turn, contributes to depression during adolescence. Youth (86 girls, 81 boys; M age = 12.41, SD = 1.19) and their primary female caregivers participated in a three-wave longitudinal study. Youth completed a…

  3. Stress Response and Translation Control in Rotavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    López, Susana; Oceguera, Alfonso; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The general stress and innate immune responses are closely linked and overlap at many levels. The outcomes of these responses serve to reprogram host expression patterns to prevent viral invasions. In turn, viruses counter attack these cell responses to ensure their replication. The mechanisms by which viruses attempt to control host cell responses are as varied as the number of different virus families. One of the most recurrent strategies used by viruses to control the antiviral response of the cell is to hijack the translation machinery of the host, such that viral proteins are preferentially synthesized, while the expression of the stress and antiviral responses of the cell are blocked at the translation level. Here, we will review how rotaviruses, an important agent of acute severe gastroenteritis in children, overcome the stress responses of the cell to establish a productive infectious cycle. PMID:27338442

  4. Stress Response and Translation Control in Rotavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    López, Susana; Oceguera, Alfonso; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The general stress and innate immune responses are closely linked and overlap at many levels. The outcomes of these responses serve to reprogram host expression patterns to prevent viral invasions. In turn, viruses counter attack these cell responses to ensure their replication. The mechanisms by which viruses attempt to control host cell responses are as varied as the number of different virus families. One of the most recurrent strategies used by viruses to control the antiviral response of the cell is to hijack the translation machinery of the host, such that viral proteins are preferentially synthesized, while the expression of the stress and antiviral responses of the cell are blocked at the translation level. Here, we will review how rotaviruses, an important agent of acute severe gastroenteritis in children, overcome the stress responses of the cell to establish a productive infectious cycle. PMID:27338442

  5. Regulation of Non-coding RNAs in Heat Stress Responses of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianguo; He, Qingsong; Chen, Gang; Wang, Li; Jin, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is an important factor limiting plant growth, development, and productivity; thus, plants have evolved special adaptive mechanisms to cope with high-temperature stress. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a class of regulatory RNAs that play an important role in many biological processes. Recently developed advanced technologies, such as genome-wide transcriptomic analysis, have revealed that abundant ncRNAs are expressed under heat stress. Although this area of research is still in its infancy, an increasing number of several classes of regulatory ncRNA (i.e., miRNA, siRNA, and lncRNA) related to heat stress responses have been reported. In this mini-review, we discuss our current understanding of the role of ncRNAs in heat stress responses in plants, especially miRNAs, siRNAs, and their targets. For example, the miR398-CSD/CCS-HSF, miR396-WRKY6, miR159-GAMYB, and TAS1-HTT-HSF pathways regulate plant heat tolerance. We highlight the hormone/development-related miRNAs involved in heat stress, and discuss the regulatory networks of miRNA-targets. We also note that DNA methylation and alternative splicing could affect miRNA expression under heat stress, and some lncRNAs could respond to heat stress. Finally, we briefly discuss future prospects concerning the ncRNA-related mechanisms of heat stress responses in plants. PMID:27588021

  6. Regulation of Non-coding RNAs in Heat Stress Responses of Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianguo; He, Qingsong; Chen, Gang; Wang, Li; Jin, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is an important factor limiting plant growth, development, and productivity; thus, plants have evolved special adaptive mechanisms to cope with high-temperature stress. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a class of regulatory RNAs that play an important role in many biological processes. Recently developed advanced technologies, such as genome-wide transcriptomic analysis, have revealed that abundant ncRNAs are expressed under heat stress. Although this area of research is still in its infancy, an increasing number of several classes of regulatory ncRNA (i.e., miRNA, siRNA, and lncRNA) related to heat stress responses have been reported. In this mini-review, we discuss our current understanding of the role of ncRNAs in heat stress responses in plants, especially miRNAs, siRNAs, and their targets. For example, the miR398-CSD/CCS-HSF, miR396-WRKY6, miR159-GAMYB, and TAS1-HTT-HSF pathways regulate plant heat tolerance. We highlight the hormone/development-related miRNAs involved in heat stress, and discuss the regulatory networks of miRNA-targets. We also note that DNA methylation and alternative splicing could affect miRNA expression under heat stress, and some lncRNAs could respond to heat stress. Finally, we briefly discuss future prospects concerning the ncRNA-related mechanisms of heat stress responses in plants. PMID:27588021

  7. NAC transcription factors in plant multiple abiotic stress responses: progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Hongyan; Tang, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses adversely affect plant growth and agricultural productivity. According to the current climate prediction models, crop plants will face a greater number of environmental stresses, which are likely to occur simultaneously in the future. So it is very urgent to breed broad-spectrum tolerant crops in order to meet an increasing demand for food productivity due to global population increase. As one of the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in plants, NAC TFs play vital roles in regulating plant growth and development processes including abiotic stress responses. Lots of studies indicated that many stress-responsive NAC TFs had been used to improve stress tolerance in crop plants by genetic engineering. In this review, the recent progress in NAC TFs was summarized, and the potential utilization of NAC TFs in breeding abiotic stress tolerant transgenic crops was also be discussed. In view of the complexity of field conditions and the specificity in multiple stress responses, we suggest that the NAC TFs commonly induced by multiple stresses should be promising candidates to produce plants with enhanced multiple stress tolerance. Furthermore, the field evaluation of transgenic crops harboring NAC genes, as well as the suitable promoters for minimizing the negative effects caused by over-expressing some NAC genes, should be considered. PMID:26579152

  8. Antioxidant responses of wheat plants under stress

    PubMed Central

    Caverzan, Andréia; Casassola, Alice; Brammer, Sandra Patussi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, food security depends on the increased production of cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which is an important source of calories and protein for humans. However, cells of the crop have suffered from the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause severe oxidative damage to the plants, due to environmental stresses. ROS are toxic molecules found in various subcellular compartments. The equilibrium between the production and detoxification of ROS is sustained by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. In the present review, we offer a brief summary of antioxidant defense and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) signaling in wheat plants. Wheat plants increase antioxidant defense mechanisms under abiotic stresses, such as drought, cold, heat, salinity and UV-B radiation, to alleviate oxidative damage. Moreover, H2O2 signaling is an important factor contributing to stress tolerance in cereals. PMID:27007891

  9. Antioxidant responses of wheat plants under stress.

    PubMed

    Caverzan, Andréia; Casassola, Alice; Brammer, Sandra Patussi

    2016-03-01

    Currently, food security depends on the increased production of cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which is an important source of calories and protein for humans. However, cells of the crop have suffered from the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause severe oxidative damage to the plants, due to environmental stresses. ROS are toxic molecules found in various subcellular compartments. The equilibrium between the production and detoxification of ROS is sustained by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. In the present review, we offer a brief summary of antioxidant defense and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) signaling in wheat plants. Wheat plants increase antioxidant defense mechanisms under abiotic stresses, such as drought, cold, heat, salinity and UV-B radiation, to alleviate oxidative damage. Moreover, H2O2 signaling is an important factor contributing to stress tolerance in cereals. PMID:27007891

  10. Under a neighbour's influence: public information affects stress hormones and behaviour of a songbird

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Jamie M.; Breuner, Creagh W.; Hahn, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    Socially acquired information improves the accuracy and efficiency of environmental assessments and can increase fitness. Public information may be especially useful during unpredictable food conditions, or for species that depend on resources made less predictable by human disturbance. However, the physiological mechanisms by which direct foraging assessments and public information are integrated to affect behaviour remain largely unknown. We tested for potential effects of public information on the behavioural and hormonal response to food reduction by manipulating the social environment of captive red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra). Red crossbills are irruptive migrants that are considered sensitive to changes in food availability and use public information in decision making. Here, we show that public information can attenuate or intensify the release of glucocorticoids (i.e. stress hormones) during food shortage in red crossbills. The observed modulation of corticosterone may therefore be a physiological mechanism linking public information, direct environmental assessments and behavioural change. This mechanism would not only allow for public information to affect individual behaviour, but might also facilitate group decision making by bringing group members into more similar physiological states. The results further suggest that stressors affecting entire populations may be magnified in individual physiology through social interactions. PMID:20356895

  11. Suppression of the HSF1-mediated proteotoxic stress response by the metabolic stress sensor AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Siyuan; Tang, Zijian; Cao, Junyue; Zhou, Wei; Li, Huawen; Sampson, Stephen; Dai, Chengkai

    2015-01-01

    Numerous extrinsic and intrinsic insults trigger the HSF1-mediated proteotoxic stress response (PSR), an ancient transcriptional program that is essential to proteostasis and survival under such conditions. In contrast to its well-recognized mobilization by proteotoxic stress, little is known about how this powerful adaptive mechanism reacts to other stresses. Surprisingly, we discovered that metabolic stress suppresses the PSR. This suppression is largely mediated through the central metabolic sensor AMPK, which physically interacts with and phosphorylates HSF1 at Ser121. Through AMPK activation, metabolic stress represses HSF1, rendering cells vulnerable to proteotoxic stress. Conversely, proteotoxic stress inactivates AMPK and thereby interferes with the metabolic stress response. Importantly, metformin, a metabolic stressor and popular anti-diabetic drug, inactivates HSF1 and provokes proteotoxic stress within tumor cells, thereby impeding tumor growth. Thus, these findings uncover a novel interplay between the metabolic stress sensor AMPK and the proteotoxic stress sensor HSF1 that profoundly impacts stress resistance, proteostasis, and malignant growth. PMID:25425574

  12. Exploration of Lexical-Semantic Factors Affecting Stress Production in Derived Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether lexical frequency, semantic knowledge, or sentence context affect children's production of primary stress in derived words with stress-changing suffixes (e.g., "-ity"). Method: Thirty children (M[subscript age] = 9;1 [years;months]) produced a limited set of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) derived…

  13. Relationship between Defenses, Personality, and Affect during a Stress Task in Normal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Hans; Erickson, Sarah J.; MacLean, Peggy; Medic, Sanja; Plattner, Belinda; Koopman, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although there are extensive data on the relationship between personality and stress reactivity in adults, there is little comparable empirical research with adolescents. This study examines the simultaneous relationships between long term functioning (personality, defenses) and observed stress reactivity (affect) in adolescents.…

  14. Transcriptome analysis in different rice cultivars provides novel insights into desiccation and salinity stress responses.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Rama; Bhattacharjee, Annapurna; Jain, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Drought and salinity are the major environmental factors that affect rice productivity. Comparative transcriptome analysis between tolerant and sensitive rice cultivars can provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in these stress responses. In this study, the comparison of transcriptomes of a drought-tolerant [Nagina 22 (N22)] and a salinity-tolerant (Pokkali) rice cultivar with IR64 (susceptible cultivar) revealed variable transcriptional responses under control and stress conditions. A total of 801 and 507 transcripts were exclusively differentially expressed in N22 and Pokkali rice cultivars, respectively, under stress conditions. Gene ontology analysis suggested the enrichment of transcripts involved in response to abiotic stress and regulation of gene expression in stress-tolerant rice cultivars. A larger number of transcripts encoding for members of NAC and DBP transcription factor (TF) families in N22 and members of bHLH and C2H2 TF families in Pokkali exhibited differential regulation under desiccation and salinity stresses, respectively. Transcripts encoding for thioredoxin and involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism were up-regulated in N22, whereas transcripts involved in wax and terpenoid metabolism were up-regulated in Pokkali. Overall, common and cultivar-specific stress-responsive transcripts identified in this study can serve as a helpful resource to explore novel candidate genes for abiotic stress tolerance in rice. PMID:27029818

  15. Transcriptome analysis in different rice cultivars provides novel insights into desiccation and salinity stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Rama; Bhattacharjee, Annapurna; Jain, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Drought and salinity are the major environmental factors that affect rice productivity. Comparative transcriptome analysis between tolerant and sensitive rice cultivars can provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in these stress responses. In this study, the comparison of transcriptomes of a drought-tolerant [Nagina 22 (N22)] and a salinity-tolerant (Pokkali) rice cultivar with IR64 (susceptible cultivar) revealed variable transcriptional responses under control and stress conditions. A total of 801 and 507 transcripts were exclusively differentially expressed in N22 and Pokkali rice cultivars, respectively, under stress conditions. Gene ontology analysis suggested the enrichment of transcripts involved in response to abiotic stress and regulation of gene expression in stress-tolerant rice cultivars. A larger number of transcripts encoding for members of NAC and DBP transcription factor (TF) families in N22 and members of bHLH and C2H2 TF families in Pokkali exhibited differential regulation under desiccation and salinity stresses, respectively. Transcripts encoding for thioredoxin and involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism were up-regulated in N22, whereas transcripts involved in wax and terpenoid metabolism were up-regulated in Pokkali. Overall, common and cultivar-specific stress-responsive transcripts identified in this study can serve as a helpful resource to explore novel candidate genes for abiotic stress tolerance in rice. PMID:27029818

  16. Response of human cells to desiccation: comparison with hyperosmotic stress response

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zebo; Tunnacliffe, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Increasing interest in anhydrobiosis (‘life without water’) has prompted the use of mammalian cells as a model in which candidate adaptations suspected of conferring desiccation tolerance can be tested. Despite this, there is no information on whether mammalian cells are able to sense and respond to desiccation. We have therefore examined the effect of desiccation on stress signalling pathways and on genes which are proposed to be expressed in response to water loss through osmotic stress. Depending on the severity of the drying regime, human cells survived for at least 24 h. Both SAPK/JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were activated within 30 min by desiccation as well as by all osmotica tested, and therefore MAPK pathways probably play an important role in both responses. Gene induction profiles differed under the two stress conditions, however: quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments showed that AR, BGT-1 and SMIT, which encode proteins governing organic osmolyte accumulation, were induced by hypersalinity but not by desiccation. This was surprising, since these genes have been proposed to be regulated by ionic strength and cell volume, both of which should be significantly affected in drying cells. Further investigation demonstrated that AR, BGT-1 and SMIT expression was dependent on the nature of the osmolyte. This suggests that their regulation involves factors other than intracellular ionic strength and cell volume changes, consistent with the lack of induction by desiccation. Our results show for the first time that human cells react rapidly to desiccation by MAPK activation, and that the response partially overlaps with that to hyperosmotic stress. PMID:15146043

  17. Effects of regional analgesia on stress responses to pediatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    Invasive surgery induces a combination of local response to tissue injury and generalized activation of systemic metabolic and hormonal pathways via afferent nerve pathways and the central nervous system. The local inflammatory responses and the parallel neurohumoral responses are not isolated but linked through complex signaling networks, some of which remain poorly understood. The magnitude of the response is broadly related to the site of injury (greater in regions with visceral pain afferents such as abdomen and thorax) and the extent of the trauma. The changes include alterations in metabolic, hormonal, inflammatory, and immune systems that can be collectively termed the stress response. Integral to the stress responses are the effects of nociceptive afferent stimuli on systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance, heart rate, and blood pressure, which are a combination of efferent autonomic response and catecholamine release via the adrenal medulla. Therefore, pain responses, cardiovascular responses, and stress responses need to be considered as different aspects of a combined bodily reaction to surgery and trauma. It is important at the outset to understand that not all components of the stress response are suppressed together and that this is important when discussing different analgesic modalities (i.e. opioids vs regional anesthesia). For example, in terms of the use of fentanyl in the infant, the dose required to provide analgesia (1-5 mcg·kg(-1)) is less than that required for hemodynamic stability in response to stimuli (5-10 mcg·kg(-1)) (1) and that this in turn is less than that required to suppress most aspects of the stress response (25-50 mcg·kg(-1)) (2). In contrast to this considerable dose dependency, central local anesthetic blocks allow blockade of the afferent and efferent sympathetic pathways at relatively low doses resulting in profound suppression of hemodynamic and stress responses to surgery. PMID:21999144

  18. Auxin Response in Arabidopsis under Cold Stress: Underlying Molecular Mechanisms[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Shibasaki, Kyohei; Uemura, Matsuo; Tsurumi, Seiji; Rahman, Abidur

    2009-01-01

    To understand the mechanistic basis of cold temperature stress and the role of the auxin response, we characterized root growth and gravity response of Arabidopsis thaliana after cold stress, finding that 8 to 12 h at 4°C inhibited root growth and gravity response by ∼50%. The auxin-signaling mutants axr1 and tir1, which show a reduced gravity response, responded to cold treatment like the wild type, suggesting that cold stress affects auxin transport rather than auxin signaling. Consistently, expression analyses of an auxin-responsive marker, IAA2-GUS, and a direct transport assay confirmed that cold inhibits root basipetal (shootward) auxin transport. Microscopy of living cells revealed that trafficking of the auxin efflux carrier PIN2, which acts in basipetal auxin transport, was dramatically reduced by cold. The lateral relocalization of PIN3, which has been suggested to mediate the early phase of root gravity response, was also inhibited by cold stress. Additionally, cold differentially affected various protein trafficking pathways. Furthermore, the inhibition of protein trafficking by cold is independent of cellular actin organization and membrane fluidity. Taken together, these results suggest that the effect of cold stress on auxin is linked to the inhibition of intracellular trafficking of auxin efflux carriers. PMID:20040541

  19. Habitual Response to Stress in Recovering Adolescent Anorexic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Samantha P.; Erickson, Sarah J.; Branom, Christina; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Although previous research has investigated the stress response in acutely anorexic patients, there is currently little research addressing this response in recovering adolescent anorexic girls. Therefore, this study investigated partially and fully weight-restored anorexic adolescent girls' psychological and physiological response to a…

  20. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  1. Stress-related serotonergic systems: implications for symptomatology of anxiety and affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Hale, Matthew W; Shekhar, Anantha; Lowry, Christopher A

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested that serotonergic neurons in the midbrain raphe complex have a functional topographic organization. Recent studies suggest that stimulation of a bed nucleus of the stria terminalis-dorsal raphe nucleus pathway by stress- and anxiety-related stimuli modulates a subpopulation of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRD) and caudal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC) that participates in facilitation of anxiety-like responses. In contrast, recent studies suggest that activation of a spinoparabrachial pathway by peripheral thermal or immune stimuli excites subpopulations of serotonergic neurons in the ventrolateral part of the dorsal raphe nucleus/ventrolateral periaqueducal gray (DRVL/VLPAG) region and interfascicular part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRI). Studies support a role for serotonergic neurons in the DRVL/VLPAG in inhibition of panic-like responses, and serotonergic neurons in the DRI in antidepressant-like effects. Thus, data suggest that while some subpopulations of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus play a role in facilitation of anxiety-like responses, others play a role in inhibition of anxiety- or panic-like responses, while others play a role in antidepressant-like effects. Understanding the anatomical and functional properties of these distinct serotonergic systems may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of affective and anxiety disorders. In this review, we describe the anatomical and functional properties of subpopulations of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, with a focus on those implicated in symptoms of anxiety and affective disorders, the DRD/DRC, DRVL/VLPAG, and DRI. PMID:22484834

  2. Running away from stress: How regulatory modes prospectively affect athletes' stress through passion.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, F; Pica, G; Mallia, L; Castrucci, E; Manganelli, S; Bélanger, J J; Pierro, A

    2016-06-01

    A prospective field study conducted with runners training for an upcoming marathon (Marathon of Rome 2013) examined the relation between regulatory modes, locomotion and assessment, and stress. Integrating regulatory mode theory and the dualistic model of passion, we hypothesized that the relation between regulatory modes (evaluated 3 months before the race) and the experience of stress approaching the marathon, is mediated by the type of passion (harmonious vs obsessive) athletes experience with regard to marathoning. Results revealed that (a) locomotion positively predicted harmonious passion, which in turn reduced athletes' experience of stress; and (b) assessment positively predicted obsessive passion, which in turn enhanced athletes' experience of stress. Overall, the present results suggest that proximal psychological mechanisms such as basic regulatory mode orientations can predict distal outcomes such as stress indirectly through their relation with motivational phenomena such as passion. PMID:26059847

  3. Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical stress response

    PubMed Central

    Herman, James P.; McKlveen, Jessica M.; Ghosal, Sriparna; Kopp, Brittany; Wulsin, Aynara; Makinson, Ryan; Scheimann, Jessie; Myers, Brent

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis) is required for stress adaptation. Activation of the HPA axis causes secretion of glucocorticoids, which act on multiple organ systems to redirect energy resources to meet real or anticipated demand. The HPA stress response is driven primarily by neural mechanisms, invoking corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) release from hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons. Pathways activating CRH release are stressor dependent: reactive responses to homeostatic disruption frequently involve direct noradrenergic or peptidergic drive of PVN neurons by sensory relays, whereas anticipatory responses use oligosynaptic pathways originating in upstream limbic structures. Anticipatory responses are driven largely by disinhibition, mediated by trans-synaptic silencing of tonic PVN inhibition via GABAergic neurons in the amygdala. Stress responses are inhibited by negative feedback mechanisms, whereby glucocorticoids act to diminish drive (brainstem), promote trans-synaptic inhibition by limbic structures (e.g, hippocampus). Glucocorticoids also act at the PVN to rapidly inhibit CRH neuronal activity via membrane glucocorticoid receptors. Chronic stress-induced activation of the HPA axis takes many forms (chronic basal hypersecretion, sensitized stress responses, even adrenal exhaustion), with manifestation dependent upon factors such as stressor chronicity, intensity, frequency and modality. Neural mechanisms driving chronic stress responses can be distinct from those controlling acute reactions, including recruitment of novel limbic, hypothalamic and brainstem circuits. Importantly, an individual’s response to acute or chronic stress is determined by numerous factors, including genetics, early life experience, environmental conditions, sex and age. The context in which stressors occur will determine whether an individual’s acute or chronic stress responses are adaptive or maladaptive (pathological). PMID:27065163

  4. AMPK-independent inhibition of human macrophage ER stress response by AICAR.

    PubMed

    Boß, Marcel; Newbatt, Yvette; Gupta, Sahil; Collins, Ian; Brüne, Bernhard; Namgaladze, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-associated insulin resistance is driven by inflammatory processes in response to metabolic overload. Obesity-associated inflammation can be recapitulated in cell culture by exposing macrophages to saturated fatty acids (SFA), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses essentially contribute to pro-inflammatory signalling. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central metabolic regulator with established anti-inflammatory actions. Whether pharmacological AMPK activation suppresses SFA-induced inflammation in a human system is unclear. In a setting of hypoxia-potentiated inflammation induced by SFA palmitate, we found that the AMP-mimetic AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) potently suppressed upregulation of ER stress marker mRNAs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, AICAR inhibited macrophage ER stress responses triggered by ER-stressors thapsigargin or tunicamycin. Surprisingly, AICAR acted independent of AMPK or AICAR conversion to 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl monophosphate (ZMP) while requiring intracellular uptake via the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) ENT1 or the concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) CNT3. AICAR did not affect the initiation of the ER stress response, but inhibited the expression of major ER stress transcriptional effectors. Furthermore, AICAR inhibited autophosphorylation of the ER stress sensor inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), while activating its endoribonuclease activity in vitro. Our results suggest that AMPK-independent inhibition of ER stress responses contributes to anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects of AICAR. PMID:27562249

  5. AMPK-independent inhibition of human macrophage ER stress response by AICAR

    PubMed Central

    Boß, Marcel; Newbatt, Yvette; Gupta, Sahil; Collins, Ian; Brüne, Bernhard; Namgaladze, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-associated insulin resistance is driven by inflammatory processes in response to metabolic overload. Obesity-associated inflammation can be recapitulated in cell culture by exposing macrophages to saturated fatty acids (SFA), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses essentially contribute to pro-inflammatory signalling. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central metabolic regulator with established anti-inflammatory actions. Whether pharmacological AMPK activation suppresses SFA-induced inflammation in a human system is unclear. In a setting of hypoxia-potentiated inflammation induced by SFA palmitate, we found that the AMP-mimetic AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) potently suppressed upregulation of ER stress marker mRNAs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, AICAR inhibited macrophage ER stress responses triggered by ER-stressors thapsigargin or tunicamycin. Surprisingly, AICAR acted independent of AMPK or AICAR conversion to 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl monophosphate (ZMP) while requiring intracellular uptake via the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) ENT1 or the concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) CNT3. AICAR did not affect the initiation of the ER stress response, but inhibited the expression of major ER stress transcriptional effectors. Furthermore, AICAR inhibited autophosphorylation of the ER stress sensor inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), while activating its endoribonuclease activity in vitro. Our results suggest that AMPK-independent inhibition of ER stress responses contributes to anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects of AICAR. PMID:27562249

  6. The stress-response-dampening effects of placebo.

    PubMed

    Balodis, Iris M; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Olmstead, Mary C

    2011-04-01

    This experiment used both biological and self-report measures to examine how alcohol modifies stress responses, and to test whether the interaction between these two factors alters risk-taking in healthy young adults. Participants were divided into stress or no-stress conditions and then further divided into one of three beverage groups. The alcohol group consumed a binge-drinking level of alcohol; the placebo group consumed soda, but believed they were consuming alcohol; the sober group was aware that they were not consuming alcohol. Following beverage consumption, the stress group was subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) while the no-stress group completed crossword puzzles; all participants subsequently completed a computerized risk-taking task. Exposure to the TSST significantly increased salivary levels of the hormone cortisol and the enzyme alpha-amylase, as well as subjective self-ratings of anxiety and tension. In the stress condition, both placebo and intoxicated groups reported less tension and anxiety, and exhibited a smaller increase in cortisol, following the TSST than did the sober group. Thus, the expectation of receiving alcohol altered subjective and physiological responses to the stressor. Neither alcohol nor stress increased risk taking, however the sober group demonstrated lower risk-taking on the computer task on the second session. These findings clearly demonstrate that the expectation of alcohol (placebo) alters subsequent physiological responses to stress. PMID:21272586

  7. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Hyacinthe Le; Philippe, Florian; Domon, Jean-Marc; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic), transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i) an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii) an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions. PMID:27135320

  8. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Hyacinthe; Philippe, Florian; Domon, Jean-Marc; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic), transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i) an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii) an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions. PMID:27135320

  9. Feedbacks and tipping points in organismal response to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Klanjscek, Tin; Muller, Erik B; Nisbet, Roger M

    2016-09-01

    Biological feedbacks play a crucial role in determining effects of toxicants, radiation, and other environmental stressors on organisms. Focusing on reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are increasingly recognized as a crucial mediator of many stressor effects, we investigate how feedback strength affects the ability of organisms to control negative effects of exposure. We do this by developing a general theoretical framework for describing effects of a wide range of stressors and species. The framework accounts for positive and negative feedbacks representing cellular processes: (i) production of ROS due to metabolism and the stressor, (ii) ROS reactions with cellular compounds that cause damage, and (iii) cellular control of both ROS and damage. We suggest functional forms that capture generic properties of cellular control mechanisms constituting the feedbacks, assess stability of equilibrium states in the resulting models, and investigate tipping points at which cellular control breaks down causing unregulated increase of ROS and damage. Depending on the chosen functional forms, the models can have zero, one, or two positive steady states; except in one singular case, the steady state with lowest values of ROS and damage is locally stable. We found two types of tipping points: those induced by changes in the parameters (including the stressor intensity), and those induced by the history of exposure, i.e. ROS and damage levels. The relatively simple models effectively describe several patterns of cellular responses to stress, such as the covariation of ROS and damage, the break-down of cellular control leading to explosion of ROS and/or damage, increase in damage even when ROS is (near)-constant, and the effects of exposure history on the ability of the cell to handle additional stress. The models quantify dynamics of cellular control, and could therefore be used to estimate the metabolic costs of stress and help integrate them into models that use energetic

  10. Are karrikins involved in plant abiotic stress responses?

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqiang; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-09-01

    Recent reports have shown that strigolactones play a positive role in plant responses to drought and salt stress through MAX2 (More Axillary Growth 2). Increasing evidence suggests that MAX2 is also involved in karrikin signaling, raising the question whether karrikins play any role in plant adaptation to abiotic stresses. PMID:26255855

  11. Personality, Stressful Life Events, and Treatment Response in Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulmash, Eric; Harkness, Kate L.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism or dependency moderated the effect of stressful life events on treatment response. Depressed outpatients (N = 113) were randomized to 16 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, or antidepressant medication (ADM). Stressful life events were…

  12. STRESS INTERACTIONS AND MYCRORRHIZAL PLANT RESPONSE: UNDERSTANDING CARBON ALLOCATION PRIORITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a framework for studying responses of mycorrhizal roots to external stresses, including possible feedback effects, which are likely to occur. A conceptual model is presented to discuss how carbon may be involved in singular and multiple stress interactions of ...

  13. Oxidative stress contributes to autophagy induction in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Marta; Pérez-Pérez, María Esther; Lemaire, Stéphane D; Crespo, José L

    2014-10-01

    The accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in the activation of stress responses, such as the unfolded protein response or the catabolic process of autophagy to ultimately recover cellular homeostasis. ER stress also promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, which play an important role in autophagy regulation. However, it remains unknown whether reactive oxygen species are involved in ER stress-induced autophagy. In this study, we provide evidence connecting redox imbalance caused by ER stress and autophagy activation in the model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Treatment of C. reinhardtii cells with the ER stressors tunicamycin or dithiothreitol resulted in up-regulation of the expression of genes encoding ER resident endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin1 oxidoreductase and protein disulfide isomerases. ER stress also triggered autophagy in C. reinhardtii based on the protein abundance, lipidation, cellular distribution, and mRNA levels of the autophagy marker ATG8. Moreover, increases in the oxidation of the glutathione pool and the expression of oxidative stress-related genes were detected in tunicamycin-treated cells. Our results revealed that the antioxidant glutathione partially suppressed ER stress-induced autophagy and decreased the toxicity of tunicamycin, suggesting that oxidative stress participates in the control of autophagy in response to ER stress in C. reinhardtii In close agreement, we also found that autophagy activation by tunicamycin was more pronounced in the C. reinhardtii sor1 mutant, which shows increased expression of oxidative stress-related genes. PMID:25143584

  14. [The effect of stressor experiences and optimism upon stress responses].

    PubMed

    Tonan, K; Sonoda, A

    1994-10-01

    The present studies investigated whether or not optimism/pessimism is a cognitive mediator of future depression for people who have experienced many negative life events. Subjects were administered optimism scales, stress response scales at Time 1. They then completed the stressor scale and stress response scales at Time 2, about six weeks later. The results showed the interaction of stressor experiences and optimistic diathesis: Subjects who have higher stressor experiences and higher stable and global explanatory style for negative events showed higher depressive responses. Other indices of optimistic diathesis--Life Orientation, Cognitive Style, and Internality dimension of Attributional Style--did not produce this interaction effect. Moreover, this interaction did not appear in the psychological stress response other than depression. These results were consistent with diathesis-stress model of depression. PMID:7861687

  15. The Role of Canonical and Noncanonical Pre-mRNA Splicing in Plant Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Dubrovina, A. S.; Kiselev, K. V.; Zhuravlev, Yu. N.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms capable of adapting to various environmental constraints, such as high or low temperatures, drought, soil salinity, or pathogen attack. To survive the unfavorable conditions, plants actively employ pre-mRNA splicing as a mechanism to regulate expression of stress-responsive genes and reprogram intracellular regulatory networks. There is a growing evidence that various stresses strongly affect the frequency and diversity of alternative splicing events in the stress-responsive genes and lead to an increased accumulation of mRNAs containing premature stop codons, which in turn have an impact on plant stress response. A number of studies revealed that some mRNAs involved in plant stress response are spliced counter to the traditional conception of alternative splicing. Such noncanonical mRNA splicing events include trans-splicing, intraexonic deletions, or variations affecting multiple exons and often require short direct repeats to occur. The noncanonical alternative splicing, along with common splicing events, targets the spliced transcripts to degradation through nonsense-mediated mRNA decay or leads to translation of truncated proteins. Investigation of the diversity, biological consequences, and mechanisms of the canonical and noncanonical alternative splicing events will help one to identify those transcripts which are promising for using in genetic engineering and selection of stress-tolerant plants. PMID:23509698

  16. Urticarial dermographism: clinical features and response to psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Wallengren, Joanna; Isaksson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Studies report that urticarial dermographism is exacerbated by "life events" and emotions. The aim of this study was to determine what aspects of life quality are affected by symptomatic dermographism and whether acute stress is a potential triggering factor. A total of 21 adult patients with urticarial dermographism completed a questionnaire on symptoms and quality of life. Twelve patients agreed to enrol in the study, which involved provocation by prick test and dermographism before and after a standardized psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test). Seventeen age-matched controls underwent corresponding tests. Of the patients answering the questionnaire, 43% reported that their disease had an impact on their quality of life and 33% that psychosocial stress precipitated the symptoms. However, the dermographic reaction in patients with urticaria factitia was not significantly intensified after the stress test. We conclude that the acute psychosocial stress test does not alter the magnitude of the dermographic reactions. PMID:17989886

  17. Bioenergetic phenotypes and metabolic stress responses in cells derived from ecologically and commercially important fish species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various stressors negatively affect wild and cultured fish and can result in metabolic disturbances that first manifest at the level of the cell. In the present study, we sought to further our understanding of cellular metabolism in fish by examining the stress responses of cells derived from three...

  18. Affective response to a set of new musical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Hill, W Trey; Palmer, Jack A

    2010-04-01

    Recently, a novel set of musical stimuli was developed in an attempt to bring more rigor to a paradigm which often falls under scientific scrutiny. Although these musical clips were validated in terms of recognition for emotion, valence, and arousal, the clips were not specifically tested for their ability to elicit certain affective responses. The present study examined self-reported "elation" among 82 participants after listening to one of two types of the musical clips; 47 listened to happy music and 35 listened to sad music. Individuals who listened to happy music reported significantly higher "elation" than individuals who listened to the sad music. These results support the idea that music can elicit certain affective state responses. PMID:20524563

  19. Effects of picture content and intensity on affective physiological response

    PubMed Central

    BERNAT, EDWARD; PATRICK, CHRISTOPHER J.; BENNING, STEPHEN D.; TELLEGEN, AUKE

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of affective intensity and thematic content of foreground photographic stimuli on various physiological response systems. This was accomplished by assessing responses to pictures that varied systematically in these parameters. Along with overall effects of picture valence reported in previous work, we found effects of thematic content (i.e., specific nature of objects/events depicted) for all measures except heart rate. In addition, we found that the magnitude of startle blink, skin conductance, and corrugator muscle reactions increased with increasing affective intensity of pictures. Additionally, for these three measures, intensity effects also interacted with effects of picture content. These results indicate that stimulus parameters of intensity and thematic content exert separate—and in some cases interactive—modulatory effects on physiological reactions to emotional pictures. PMID:16629689

  20. Stability analysis of Reynolds stress response functional candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Dafinger, M.; Hallatschek, K.; Itoh, K.

    2013-04-15

    Complete information on the behavior of zonal flows in turbulence systems is coded in the turbulent stress response to the respective flow pattern. We show that turbulence stress response functionals containing only the linear first order wavenumber dependence on the flow pattern result in unstable structures up to the system size. A minimal augmentation to reproduce the flow patterns observed in turbulence simulations is discussed.

  1. The unpredictability of prolonged activation of stress response pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lamech, Lilian T.

    2015-01-01

    In response to stress, cellular compartments activate signaling pathways that mediate transcriptional programs to promote survival and reestablish homeostasis. Manipulation of the magnitude and duration of the activation of stress responses has been proposed as a strategy to prevent or repair the damage associated with aging or degenerative diseases. However, as these pathways likely evolved to respond specifically to transient perturbations, the unpredictability of prolonged activation should be considered. PMID:26101215

  2. Context and strain-dependent behavioral response to stress

    PubMed Central

    Nosek, Katarzyna; Dennis, Kristen; Andrus, Brian M; Ahmadiyeh, Nasim; Baum, Amber E; Woods, Leah C Solberg; Redei, Eva E

    2008-01-01

    Background This study posed the question whether strain differences in stress-reactivity lead to differential behavioral responses in two different tests of anxiety. Strain differences in anxiety-measures are known, but strain differences in the behavioral responses to acute prior stress are not well characterized. Methods We studied male Fisher 344 (F344) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats basally and immediately after one hour restraint stress. To distinguish between the effects of novelty and prior stress, we also investigated behavior after repeated exposure to the test chamber. Two behavioral tests were explored; the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the open field (OFT), both of which are thought to measure activity, exploration and anxiety-like behaviors. Additionally, rearing, a voluntary behavior, and grooming, a relatively automatic, stress-responsive stereotyped behavior were measured in both tests. Results Prior exposure to the test environment increased anxiety-related measures regardless of prior stress, reflecting context-dependent learning process in both tests and strains. Activity decreased in response to repeated testing in both tests and both strains, but prior stress decreased activity only in the OFT which was reversed by repeated testing. Prior stress decreased anxiety-related measures in the EPM, only in F344s, while in the OFT, stress led to increased freezing mainly in WKYs. Conclusion Data suggest that differences in stressfulness of these tests predict the behavior of the two strains of animals according to their stress-reactivity and coping style, but that repeated testing can overcome some of these differences. PMID:18518967

  3. “Omics” of Maize Stress Response for Sustainable Food Production: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Fangping; Yang, Le; Tai, Fuju; Hu, Xiuli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Maize originated in the highlands of Mexico approximately 8700 years ago and is one of the most commonly grown cereal crops worldwide, followed by wheat and rice. Abiotic stresses (primarily drought, salinity, and high and low temperatures), together with biotic stresses (primarily fungi, viruses, and pests), negatively affect maize growth, development, and eventually production. To understand the response of maize to abiotic and biotic stresses and its mechanism of stress tolerance, high-throughput omics approaches have been used in maize stress studies. Integrated omics approaches are crucial for dissecting the temporal and spatial system-level changes that occur in maize under various stresses. In this comprehensive analysis, we review the primary types of stresses that threaten sustainable maize production; underscore the recent advances in maize stress omics, especially proteomics; and discuss the opportunities, challenges, and future directions of maize stress omics, with a view to sustainable food production. The knowledge gained from studying maize stress omics is instrumental for improving maize to cope with various stresses and to meet the food demands of the exponentially growing global population. Omics systems science offers actionable potential solutions for sustainable food production, and we present maize as a notable case study. PMID:25401749

  4. Acoustic stress responses in juvenile sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax induced by offshore pile driving.

    PubMed

    Debusschere, Elisabeth; Hostens, Kris; Adriaens, Dominique; Ampe, Bart; Botteldooren, Dick; De Boeck, Gudrun; De Muynck, Amelie; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Underwater sound generated by pile driving during construction of offshore wind farms is a major concern in many countries. This paper reports on the acoustic stress responses in young European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (68 and 115 days old), based on four in situ experiments as close as 45 m from a pile driving activity. As a primary stress response, whole-body cortisol seemed to be too sensitive to 'handling' bias. On the other hand, measured secondary stress responses to pile driving showed significant reductions in oxygen consumption rate and low whole-body lactate concentrations. Furthermore, repeated exposure to impulsive sound significantly affected both primary and secondary stress responses. Under laboratory conditions, no tertiary stress responses (no changes in specific growth rate or Fulton's condition factor) were noted in young sea bass 30 days after the treatment. Still, the demonstrated acute stress responses and potentially repeated exposure to impulsive sound in the field will inevitably lead to less fit fish in the wild. PMID:26561450

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tti2 Regulates PIKK Proteins and Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Kyle S; Duennwald, Martin L; Karagiannis, Jim; Genereaux, Julie; McCarton, Alexander S; Brandl, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    The TTT complex is composed of the three essential proteins Tel2, Tti1, and Tti2 The complex is required to maintain steady state levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) proteins, including mTOR, ATM/Tel1, ATR/Mec1, and TRRAP/Tra1, all of which serve as regulators of critical cell signaling pathways. Due to their association with heat shock proteins, and with newly synthesized PIKK peptides, components of the TTT complex may act as cochaperones. Here, we analyze the consequences of depleting the cellular level of Tti2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae We show that yeast expressing low levels of Tti2 are viable under optimal growth conditions, but the cells are sensitive to a number of stress conditions that involve PIKK pathways. In agreement with this, depleting Tti2 levels decreased expression of Tra1, Mec1, and Tor1, affected their localization and inhibited the stress responses in which these molecules are involved. Tti2 expression was not increased during heat shock, implying that it does not play a general role in the heat shock response. However, steady state levels of Hsp42 increase when Tti2 is depleted, and tti2L187P has a synthetic interaction with exon 1 of the human Huntingtin gene containing a 103 residue polyQ sequence, suggesting a general role in protein quality control. We also find that overexpressing Hsp90 or its cochaperones is synthetic lethal when Tti2 is depleted, an effect possibly due to imbalanced stoichiometry of a complex required for PIKK assembly. These results indicate that Tti2 does not act as a general chaperone, but may have a specialized function in PIKK folding and/or complex assembly. PMID:27172216

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tti2 Regulates PIKK Proteins and Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kyle S.; Duennwald, Martin L.; Karagiannis, Jim; Genereaux, Julie; McCarton, Alexander S.; Brandl, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The TTT complex is composed of the three essential proteins Tel2, Tti1, and Tti2. The complex is required to maintain steady state levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) proteins, including mTOR, ATM/Tel1, ATR/Mec1, and TRRAP/Tra1, all of which serve as regulators of critical cell signaling pathways. Due to their association with heat shock proteins, and with newly synthesized PIKK peptides, components of the TTT complex may act as cochaperones. Here, we analyze the consequences of depleting the cellular level of Tti2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that yeast expressing low levels of Tti2 are viable under optimal growth conditions, but the cells are sensitive to a number of stress conditions that involve PIKK pathways. In agreement with this, depleting Tti2 levels decreased expression of Tra1, Mec1, and Tor1, affected their localization and inhibited the stress responses in which these molecules are involved. Tti2 expression was not increased during heat shock, implying that it does not play a general role in the heat shock response. However, steady state levels of Hsp42 increase when Tti2 is depleted, and tti2L187P has a synthetic interaction with exon 1 of the human Huntingtin gene containing a 103 residue polyQ sequence, suggesting a general role in protein quality control. We also find that overexpressing Hsp90 or its cochaperones is synthetic lethal when Tti2 is depleted, an effect possibly due to imbalanced stoichiometry of a complex required for PIKK assembly. These results indicate that Tti2 does not act as a general chaperone, but may have a specialized function in PIKK folding and/or complex assembly. PMID:27172216

  7. The classical pink-eyed dilution mutation affects angiogenic responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michael S; Boyartchuk, Victor; Rohan, Richard M; Birsner, Amy E; Dietrich, William F; D'Amato, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels are formed from existing vessels. Mammalian populations, including humans and mice, harbor genetic variations that alter angiogenesis. Angiogenesis-regulating gene variants can result in increased susceptibility to multiple angiogenesis-dependent diseases in humans. Our efforts to dissect the complexity of the genetic diversity that regulates angiogenesis have used laboratory animals due to the availability of genome sequence for many species and the ability to perform high volume controlled breeding. Using the murine corneal micropocket assay, we have observed more than ten-fold difference in angiogenic responsiveness among various mouse strains. This degree of difference is observed with either bFGF or VEGF induced corneal neovascularization. Ongoing mapping studies have identified multiple loci that affect angiogenic responsiveness in several mouse models. In this study, we used F2 intercrosses between C57BL/6J and the 129 substrains 129P1/ReJ and 129P3/J, as well as the SJL/J strain, where we have identified new QTLs that affect angiogenic responsiveness. In the case of AngFq5, on chromosome 7, congenic animals were used to confirm the existence of this locus and subcongenic animals, combined with a haplotype-based mapping approach that identified the pink-eyed dilution mutation as a candidate polymorphism to explain AngFq5. The ability of mutations in the pink-eyed dilution gene to affect angiogenic response was demonstrated using the p-J allele at the same locus. Using this allele, we demonstrate that pink-eyed dilution mutations in Oca2 can affect both bFGF and VEGF-induced corneal angiogenesis. PMID:22615734

  8. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood

    PubMed Central

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress. PMID:27020850

  9. Exposure to Solute Stress Affects Genome-Wide Expression but Not the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Activity of Sphingomonas sp. Strain LH128 in Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Fida, Tekle Tafese; Breugelmans, Philip; Lavigne, Rob; Coronado, Edith; Johnson, David R.; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Mayer, Antonia P.; Heipieper, Hermann J.; Hofkens, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Members of the genus Sphingomonas are important catalysts for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, but their activity can be affected by various stress factors. This study examines the physiological and genome-wide transcription response of the phenanthrene-degrading Sphingomonas sp. strain LH128 in biofilms to solute stress (invoked by 450 mM NaCl solution), either as an acute (4-h) or a chronic (3-day) exposure. The degree of membrane fatty acid saturation was increased as a response to chronic stress. Oxygen consumption in the biofilms and phenanthrene mineralization activities of biofilm cells were, however, not significantly affected after imposing either acute or chronic stress. This finding was in agreement with the transcriptomic data, since genes involved in PAH degradation were not differentially expressed in stressed conditions compared to nonstressed conditions. The transcriptomic data suggest that LH128 adapts to NaCl stress by (i) increasing the expression of genes coping with osmolytic and ionic stress such as biosynthesis of compatible solutes and regulation of ion homeostasis, (ii) increasing the expression of genes involved in general stress response, (iii) changing the expression of general and specific regulatory functions, and (iv) decreasing the expression of protein synthesis such as proteins involved in motility. Differences in gene expression between cells under acute and chronic stress suggest that LH128 goes through changes in genome-wide expression to fully adapt to NaCl stress, without significantly changing phenanthrene degrading activity. PMID:23001650

  10. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress. PMID:27020850

  11. Personality Moderates the Interaction between Positive and Negative Daily Events Predicting Negative Affect and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Longua, Julie; DeHart, Tracy; Tennen, Howard; Armeli, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    A 30-day diary study examined personality moderators (neuroticism and extraversion) of the interaction between positive and negative daily events predicting daily negative affect and night-time stress. Multilevel analyses revealed positive daily events buffered the effect of negative daily events on negative affect for individuals low in neuroticism and individuals high in extraversion, but not for individuals high in neuroticism or individuals low in extraversion. Positive daily events also buffered the effect of negative daily events on that night’s stress, but only for participants low in neuroticism. As such, this research linked today’s events to tonight’s stressfulness. This study advances our understanding of how neuroticism and extraversion influence within-person associations between positive and negative events predicting negative affect and stress. PMID:20161239

  12. Recent Molecular Advances on Downstream Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Sávio Pinho; Lima, Aline Medeiros; de Souza, Cláudia Regina Batista

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as extremes of temperature and pH, high salinity and drought, comprise some of the major factors causing extensive losses to crop production worldwide. Understanding how plants respond and adapt at cellular and molecular levels to continuous environmental changes is a pre-requisite for the generation of resistant or tolerant plants to abiotic stresses. In this review we aimed to present the recent advances on mechanisms of downstream plant responses to abiotic stresses and the use of stress-related genes in the development of genetically engineered crops. PMID:22942725

  13. Thermodynamic Modeling and Analysis of Human Stress Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boregowda, S. C.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1999-01-01

    A novel approach based on the second law of thermodynamics is developed to investigate the psychophysiology and quantify human stress level. Two types of stresses (thermal and mental) are examined. A Unified Stress Response Theory (USRT) is developed under the new proposed field of study called Engineering Psychophysiology. The USRT is used to investigate both thermal and mental stresses from a holistic (human body as a whole) and thermodynamic viewpoint. The original concepts and definitions are established as postulates which form the basis for thermodynamic approach to quantify human stress level. An Objective Thermal Stress Index (OTSI) is developed by applying the second law of thermodynamics to the human thermal system to quantify thermal stress or dis- comfort in the human body. The human thermal model based on finite element method is implemented. It is utilized as a "Computational Environmental Chamber" to conduct series of simulations to examine the human thermal stress responses under different environmental conditions. An innovative hybrid technique is developed to analyze human thermal behavior based on series of human-environment interaction simulations. Continuous monitoring of thermal stress is demonstrated with the help of OTSI. It is well established that the human thermal system obeys the second law of thermodynamics. Further, the OTSI is validated against the experimental data. Regarding mental stress, an Objective Mental Stress Index (OMSI) is developed by applying the Maxwell relations of thermodynamics to the combined thermal and cardiovascular system in the human body. The OMSI is utilized to demonstrate the technique of monitoring mental stress continuously and is validated with the help of series of experimental studies. Although the OMSI indicates the level of mental stress, it provides a strong thermodynamic and mathematical relationship between activities of thermal and cardiovascular systems of the human body.

  14. Inhibition of the oxidative stress response by heat stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Crombie, Timothy A; Tang, Lanlan; Choe, Keith P; Julian, David

    2016-07-15

    It has long been recognized that simultaneous exposure to heat stress and oxidative stress shows a synergistic interaction that reduces organismal fitness, but relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying this interaction. We investigated the role of molecular stress responses in driving this synergistic interaction using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans To induce oxidative stress, we used the pro-oxidant compounds acrylamide, paraquat and juglone. As expected, we found that heat stress and oxidative stress interact synergistically to reduce survival. Compared with exposure to each stressor alone, during simultaneous sublethal exposure to heat stress and oxidative stress the normal induction of key oxidative-stress response (OxSR) genes was generally inhibited, whereas the induction of key heat-shock response (HSR) genes was not. Genetically activating the SKN-1-dependent OxSR increased a marker for protein aggregation and decreased whole-worm survival during heat stress alone, with the latter being independent of HSF-1. In contrast, compared with wild-type worms, inactivating the HSR by HSF-1 knockdown, which would be expected to decrease basal heat shock protein expression, increased survival during oxidative stress alone. Taken together, these data suggest that, in C. elegans, the HSR and OxSR cannot be simultaneously activated to the same extent that each can be activated during a single stressor exposure. We conclude that the observed synergistic reduction in survival during combined exposure to heat stress and oxidative stress is due, at least in part, to inhibition of the OxSR during activation of the HSR. PMID:27207646

  15. Modulation of immune responses in stress by Yoga

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sarika; Bhattacharjee, Jayashree

    2008-01-01

    Stress is a constant factor in today's fastpaced life that can jeopardize our health if left unchecked. It is only in the last half century that the role of stress in every ailment from the common cold to AIDS has been emphasized, and the mechanisms involved in this process have been studied. Stress influences the immune response presumably through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, hypothalamic pituitary-gonadal axis, and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. Various neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, hormones, and cytokines mediate these complex bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system. The effects of stress on the immune responses result in alterations in the number of immune cells and cytokine dysregulation. Various stress management strategies such as meditation, yoga, hypnosis, and muscle relaxation have been shown to reduce the psychological and physiological effects of stress in cancers and HIV infection. This review aims to discuss the effect of stress on the immune system and examine how relaxation techniques such as Yoga and meditation could regulate the cytokine levels and hence, the immune responses during stress. PMID:21829284

  16. ROS Regulation During Abiotic Stress Responses in Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    You, Jun; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, salt and heat cause reduction of plant growth and loss of crop yield worldwide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anions (O2•-), hydroxyl radical (OH•) and singlet oxygen (1O2) are by-products of physiological metabolisms, and are precisely controlled by enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. ROS are significantly accumulated under abiotic stress conditions, which cause oxidative damage and eventually resulting in cell death. Recently, ROS have been also recognized as key players in the complex signaling network of plants stress responses. The involvement of ROS in signal transduction implies that there must be coordinated function of regulation networks to maintain ROS at non-toxic levels in a delicate balancing act between ROS production, involving ROS generating enzymes and the unavoidable production of ROS during basic cellular metabolism, and ROS-scavenging pathways. Increasing evidence showed that ROS play crucial roles in abiotic stress responses of crop plants for the activation of stress-response and defense pathways. More importantly, manipulating ROS levels provides an opportunity to enhance stress tolerances of crop plants under a variety of unfavorable environmental conditions. This review presents an overview of current knowledge about homeostasis regulation of ROS in crop plants. In particular, we summarize the essential proteins that are involved in abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants through ROS regulation. Finally, the challenges toward the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance through ROS regulation in crops are discussed. PMID:26697045

  17. Reinforcement Sensitivity Underlying Treatment-Seeking Smokers’ Affect, Smoking Reinforcement Motives, and Affective Responses

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yong; Robinson, Jason D.; Engelmann, Jeffrey M.; Lam, Cho Y.; Minnix, Jennifer A.; Karam-Hage, Maher; Wetter, David W.; Dani, John A.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine dependence has been suggested to be related to reinforcement sensitivity, which encompasses behavioral predispositions either to avoid aversive (behavioral inhibition) or to approach appetitive (behavioral activation) stimuli. Reinforcement sensitivity may shape motives for nicotine use and offer potential targets for personalized smoking cessation therapy. However, little is known regarding how reinforcement sensitivity is related to motivational processes implicated in the maintenance of smoking. Additionally, women and men differ in reinforcement sensitivity, and such difference may cause distinct relationships between reinforcement sensitivity and motivational processes for female and male smokers. In this study, we characterized reinforcement sensitivity in relation to affect, smoking-related reinforcement motives, and affective responses, using self-report and psychophysiological measures, in over 200 smokers before treating them. The Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Scales (BIS/BAS; Carver & White, 1994) was used to measure reinforcement sensitivity. In female and male smokers, BIS was similarly associated with negative affect and negative reinforcement of smoking. But positive affect was positively associated with BAS Drive scores in male smokers, and this association was reversed in female smokers. BIS was positively associated with corrugator electromyographic reactivity towards negative stimuli and left frontal electroencephalogram alpha asymmetry. Female and male smokers showed similar relationships for these physiological measures. These findings suggest that reinforcement sensitivity underpins important motivational processes (e.g., affect), and gender is a moderating factor for these relationships. Future personalized smoking intervention, particularly among more dependent treatment-seeking smokers, may experiment to target individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity. PMID:25621416

  18. Stronger cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress is correlated with larger decrease in temporal sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhuxi; Jiang, Caihong; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental dimension of cognition and behavior, time perception has been found to be sensitive to stress. However, how one’s time perception changes with responses to stress is still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress-induced cortisol response and time perception. A group of 40 healthy young male adults performed a temporal bisection task before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for a stress condition. A control group of 27 male participants completed the same time perception task without stress induction. In the temporal bisection task, participants were first presented with short (400 ms) and long (1,600 ms) visual signals serving as anchor durations and then required to judge whether the intermediate probe durations were more similar to the short or the long anchor. The bisection point and Weber ratio were calculated and indicated the subjective duration and the temporal sensitivity, respectively. Data showed that participants in the stress group had significantly increased salivary cortisol levels, heart rates, and negative affects compared with those in the control group. The results did not show significant group differences for the subjective duration or the temporal sensitivity. However, the results showed a significant positive correlation between stress-induced cortisol responses and decreases in temporal sensitivity indexed by increases in the Weber ratio. This correlation was not observed for the control group. Changes in subjective duration indexed by temporal bisection points were not correlated with cortisol reactivity in both the groups. In conclusion, the present study found that although no significant change was observed in time perception after an acute stressor on the group-level comparison (i.e., stress vs. nonstress group), individuals with stronger cortisol responses to stress showed a larger decrease in temporal sensitivity. This finding may provide insight into the understanding of

  19. Dynamics of telomerase activity in response to acute psychological stress

    PubMed Central

    Epel, Elissa S.; Lin, Jue; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Puterman, E; Karan, Lori; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase activity plays an essential role in cel0l survival, by lengthening telomeres and promoting cell growth and longevity. It is now possible to quantify the low levels of telomerase activity in human leukocytes. Low basal telomerase activity has been related to chronic stress in people and to chronic glucocorticoid exposure in vitro. Here we test whether leukocyte telomerase activity changes under acute psychological stress. We exposed 44 elderly women, including 22 high stress dementia caregivers and 22 matched low stress controls, to a brief laboratory psychological stressor, while examining changes in telomerase activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). At baseline, caregivers had lower telomerase activity levels than controls, but during stress telomerase activity increased similarly in both groups. Across the entire sample, subsequent telomerase activity increased by 18% one hour after the end of the stressor (p<0.01). The increase in telomerase activity was independent of changes in numbers or percentages of monocytes, lymphocytes, and specific T cell types, although we cannot fully rule out some potential contribution from immune cell redistribution in the change in telomerase activity. Telomerase activity increases were associated with greater cortisol increases in response to the stressor. Lastly, psychological response to the tasks (greater threat perception) was also related to greater telomerase activity increases in controls. These findings uncover novel relationships of dynamic telomerase activity with exposure to an acute stressor, and with two classic aspects of the stress response -- perceived psychological stress and neuroendocrine (cortisol) responses to the stressor. PMID:20018236

  20. Proteolytic regulation of stress response pathways in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Micevski, Dimce; Dougan, David A

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining correct cellular function is a fundamental biological process for all forms of life. A critical aspect of this process is the maintenance of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) in the cell, which is largely performed by a group of proteins, referred to as the protein quality control (PQC) network. This network of proteins, comprised of chaperones and proteases, is critical for maintaining proteostasis not only during favourable growth conditions, but also in response to stress. Indeed proteases play a crucial role in the clearance of unwanted proteins that accumulate during stress, but more importantly, in the activation of various different stress response pathways. In bacteria, the cells response to stress is usually orchestrated by a specific transcription factor (sigma factor). In Escherichia coli there are seven different sigma factors, each of which responds to a particular stress, resulting in the rapid expression of a specific set of genes. The cellular concentration of each transcription factor is tightly controlled, at the level of transcription, translation and protein stability. Here we will focus on the proteolytic regulation of two sigma factors (σ(32) and σ(S)), which control the heat and general stress response pathways, respectively. This review will also briefly discuss the role proteolytic systems play in the clearance of unwanted proteins that accumulate during stress. PMID:23479439

  1. Facial EMG as an Index of Affective Response to Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jason D.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Carter, Brian L.; Lam, Cho Y.; Wetter, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Negative affect reduction has been postulated to be a key feature of cigarette smoking. In the present study, facial electromyography (EMG), heart rate (HR), and skin conductance (SCR) were used to evaluate the affective significance of acute nicotine administration and overnight withdrawal. Smokers (n=115) attended four 90-min laboratory assessment sessions scheduled approximately three days apart. The four sessions provided a complete crossing of two pre-laboratory deprivation conditions (12-hour deprived vs. nondeprived) with two drug conditions (nicotine vs. placebo nasal spray). During each session, smokers viewed affective slides while facial EMG, HR, and SCR were recorded. Results indicated that for women, nicotine nasal spray resulted in lower corrugator EMG activity during both smoking-deprived and nondeprived sessions, compared to placebo. However, nondeprived women also showed an increase in zygomaticus EMG when given nicotine compared to placebo spray, while smoking-deprived women demonstrated a decrease in the zygomaticus response to nicotine compared to placebo. With men, nicotine also appeared to lower corrugator during deprivation, but not nondeprivation, compared to placebo spray, though the contrast only approached significance. With zygomaticus EMG, nicotine spray decreased men’s zygomaticus responding during nondeprivation but not during deprivation, compared to placebo spray. The HR results reflected the stimulatory properties of the drug rather than nicotine’s affective properties, while SCR was unresponsive to our experimental manipulations. The corrugator EMG results support negative reinforcement models of smoking that postulate that acute nicotine use reduces withdrawal-driven negative affect. PMID:17696686

  2. Non-invasive cortisol measurements as indicators of physiological stress responses in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Matthias; Pschernig, Elisabeth; Wallner, Bernard; Millesi, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive measurements of glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations, including cortisol and corticosterone, serve as reliable indicators of adrenocortical activities and physiological stress loads in a variety of species. As an alternative to invasive analyses based on plasma, GC concentrations in saliva still represent single-point-of-time measurements, suitable for studying short-term or acute stress responses, whereas fecal GC metabolites (FGMs) reflect overall stress loads and stress responses after a species-specific time frame in the long-term. In our study species, the domestic guinea pig, GC measurements are commonly used to indicate stress responses to different environmental conditions, but the biological relevance of non-invasive measurements is widely unknown. We therefore established an experimental protocol based on the animals' natural stress responses to different environmental conditions and compared GC levels in plasma, saliva, and fecal samples during non-stressful social isolations and stressful two-hour social confrontations with unfamiliar individuals. Plasma and saliva cortisol concentrations were significantly increased directly after the social confrontations, and plasma and saliva cortisol levels were strongly correlated. This demonstrates a high biological relevance of GC measurements in saliva. FGM levels measured 20 h afterwards, representing the reported mean gut passage time based on physiological validations, revealed that the overall stress load was not affected by the confrontations, but also no relations to plasma cortisol levels were detected. We therefore measured FGMs in two-hour intervals for 24 h after another social confrontation and detected significantly increased levels after four to twelve hours, reaching peak concentrations already after six hours. Our findings confirm that non-invasive GC measurements in guinea pigs are highly biologically relevant in indicating physiological stress responses compared to circulating levels

  3. Non-invasive cortisol measurements as indicators of physiological stress responses in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Pschernig, Elisabeth; Wallner, Bernard; Millesi, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive measurements of glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations, including cortisol and corticosterone, serve as reliable indicators of adrenocortical activities and physiological stress loads in a variety of species. As an alternative to invasive analyses based on plasma, GC concentrations in saliva still represent single-point-of-time measurements, suitable for studying short-term or acute stress responses, whereas fecal GC metabolites (FGMs) reflect overall stress loads and stress responses after a species-specific time frame in the long-term. In our study species, the domestic guinea pig, GC measurements are commonly used to indicate stress responses to different environmental conditions, but the biological relevance of non-invasive measurements is widely unknown. We therefore established an experimental protocol based on the animals’ natural stress responses to different environmental conditions and compared GC levels in plasma, saliva, and fecal samples during non-stressful social isolations and stressful two-hour social confrontations with unfamiliar individuals. Plasma and saliva cortisol concentrations were significantly increased directly after the social confrontations, and plasma and saliva cortisol levels were strongly correlated. This demonstrates a high biological relevance of GC measurements in saliva. FGM levels measured 20 h afterwards, representing the reported mean gut passage time based on physiological validations, revealed that the overall stress load was not affected by the confrontations, but also no relations to plasma cortisol levels were detected. We therefore measured FGMs in two-hour intervals for 24 h after another social confrontation and detected significantly increased levels after four to twelve hours, reaching peak concentrations already after six hours. Our findings confirm that non-invasive GC measurements in guinea pigs are highly biologically relevant in indicating physiological stress responses compared to circulating

  4. [Metabolic response to trauma and stress].

    PubMed

    Omerbegović, Meldijana; Durić, Amira; Muratović, Nusreta; Mulalić, Lejla; Hamzanija, Emina

    2003-01-01

    Trauma, surgery, burns and infection are accompanied with catabolic response which is characterized by enhanced protelysis, enhanced excretion of nitrogen, neoglucogenesis and resistance of peripheral tissues to insulin. This catabolic response is mediated through neural pathways and neuroendocrine axis. The purpose of this response is restoration of adequate perfusion and oxygenation and releasing of energy and substrates for the tissues, organs and systems which functions are essential for the survival. Metabolic response to injury and severe infection leads to decomposition of skeletal muscle proteins to amino acids, intensive liver gluconcogenesis from lactate, glycerol and alanin with enhanced oxidation of aminoacids. These substrates are necessary for synthesis of various mediators of protein or lipid nature, which are important for the defense and tissue regeneration. The changes result in negative balance of nitrogen, loss of body weight, and lower plasma concentration of all aminoacids. Patients who were unable to develop this hypercatabolic response have poor prognosis, and the patients with hypercatabolic response rapidly lose their body cell mass and without metabolic and nutritive support have more complications and higher mortality. Although neoglucogenesis, proteolysis and lipolysis are resistant to exogenous nutrients, metabolic support in critical illness improves the chances for survival until the healing of the disease. Casual therapy in such conditions is elimination of "stressors" which maintain abnormal endocrine and metabolic response. Adequate oxygenation, hemostasis, infection control and control of extracellular compartment expansion and low flows, are essential for the efficacy of nutritive support and that is the only way to convalescence and wound healing. PMID:15017867

  5. Crop and medicinal plants proteomics in response to salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Aghaei, Keyvan; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2013-01-01

    Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal role in their ability to cope with it and have become the main center of notification. Many physiological responses are detectable in terms of protein increase and decrease even before physiological responses take place. Thus proteomic approach makes a short cut in the way of inferring how crops response to salt stress. Nowadays many salt-responsive proteins such as heat shock proteins, pathogen-related proteins, protein kinases, ascorbate peroxidase, osmotin, ornithine decarboxylase, and some transcription factors, have been detected in some major crops which are thought to give them the ability of withstanding against salt stress. Proteomic analysis of medicinal plants also revealed that alkaloid biosynthesis related proteins such as tryptophan synthase, codeinone reductase, strictosidine synthase, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase might have major role in production of secondary metabolites. In this review we are comparing some different or similar proteomic responses of several crops and medicinal plants to salt stress and discuss about the future prospects. PMID:23386857

  6. Crop and medicinal plants proteomics in response to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, Keyvan; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2013-01-01

    Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal role in their ability to cope with it and have become the main center of notification. Many physiological responses are detectable in terms of protein increase and decrease even before physiological responses take place. Thus proteomic approach makes a short cut in the way of inferring how crops response to salt stress. Nowadays many salt-responsive proteins such as heat shock proteins, pathogen-related proteins, protein kinases, ascorbate peroxidase, osmotin, ornithine decarboxylase, and some transcription factors, have been detected in some major crops which are thought to give them the ability of withstanding against salt stress. Proteomic analysis of medicinal plants also revealed that alkaloid biosynthesis related proteins such as tryptophan synthase, codeinone reductase, strictosidine synthase, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase might have major role in production of secondary metabolites. In this review we are comparing some different or similar proteomic responses of several crops and medicinal plants to salt stress and discuss about the future prospects. PMID:23386857

  7. Pre-spawning parental stress affects channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus reproduction and subsequent progeny performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Routine fish handling procedures associated with seining, selecting, transportation, crowding, weighing, and stripping have shown to cause negative physiological responses to hatchery performance. In teleosts, cortisol is the main corticosteroid released during stress, and hence, plasma cortisol co...

  8. Transcript changes in Vibrio cholerae in response to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiuping; Liang, Weili; Du, Pengcheng; Yan, Meiying; Kan, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, which is a serious human intestinal pathogen, often resides and thrives in estuaries but requires major self-regulation to overcome intestinal hyperosmotic stress or high salt stress in water and food. In the present study, we selected multiple O1 and O139 group V. cholerae strains that were isolated from different regions and during different years to study their salt tolerance. Based on the mechanisms that other bacteria use to respond to high salt stress, we selected salt stress-response related genes to study the mechanisms which V. cholerae responds to high salt stress. V. cholerae strains showed salt-resistance characteristics that varied in salt concentrations from 4% to 6%. However, group O1 and group O139 showed no significant difference in the degree of salt tolerance. The primary responses of bacteria to salt stress, including Na(+) exclusion, K(+) uptake and glutamate biosynthesis, were observed in V. cholerae strains. In addition, some sigma factors were up-regulated in V. cholerae strains, suggesting that V. cholerae may recruit common sigma factors to achieve an active salt stress response. However, some changes in gene transcript levels in response to salt stress in V. cholerae were strain-specific. In particular, hierarchical clustering of differentially expressed genes indicated that transcript levels of these genes were correlated with the degree of salt tolerance. Therefore, elevated transcript levels of some genes, including sigma factors and genes involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, may be due to the salt tolerance of strains. In addition, high salt-tolerant strains may recruit common as well as additional sigma factors to activate the salt stress response. PMID:25589902

  9. Qualitative Development of the PROMIS® Pediatric Stress Response Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, William; Pajer, Kathleen; Riley, Anne W.; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the qualitative development of the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Pediatric Stress Response item banks. Methods Stress response concepts were specified through a literature review and interviews with content experts, children, and parents. A library comprising 2,677 items derived from 71 instruments was developed. Items were classified into conceptual categories; new items were written and redundant items were removed. Items were then revised based on cognitive interviews (n = 39 children), readability analyses, and translatability reviews. Results 2 pediatric Stress Response sub-domains were identified: somatic experiences (43 items) and psychological experiences (64 items). Final item pools cover the full range of children’s stress experiences. Items are comprehensible among children aged ≥8 years and ready for translation. Conclusions Child- and parent-report versions of the item banks assess children’s somatic and psychological states when demands tax their adaptive capabilities. PMID:23124904

  10. Plant transcriptomics and responses to environmental stress: an overview.

    PubMed

    Imadi, Sameen Ruqia; Kazi, Alvina Gul; Ahanger, Mohammad Abass; Gucel, Salih; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2015-09-01

    Different stresses include nutrient deficiency, pathogen attack, exposure to toxic chemicals etc. Transcriptomic studies have been mainly applied to only a few plant species including the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. These studies have provided valuable insights into the genetic networks of plant stress responses. Transcriptomics applied to cash crops including barley, rice, sugarcane, wheat and maize have further helped in understanding physiological and molecular responses in terms of genome sequence, gene regulation, gene differentiation, posttranscriptional modifications and gene splicing. On the other hand, comparative transcriptomics has provided more information about plant's response to diverse stresses. Thus, transcriptomics, together with other biotechnological approaches helps in development of stress tolerance in crops against the climate change. PMID:26440096

  11. Stress interactions and mycorrhizal plant response: Understanding carbon allocation priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, C.P.; Rygiewicz, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents a framework for studying responses of mycorrhizal roots to external stresses, including possible feedback effects, which are likely to occur. A conceptual model is presented to discuss how carbon may be involved in singular and multiple stress interactions of mycorrhizal seedlings. Recent literature linking carbon allocation and host/fungal response under natural and anthropogenic stresses is reviewed. Due to its integral role in metabolic processes, characterizing carbon and carbon allocation in controlled laboratory environments could be useful for understanding host/fungal responses to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stresses. Carbon allocation at the whole plant level reflects an integrated response which links photosynthesis to growth and maintenance processes. A root-mycocosm system is described which permits spatial separation of a portion of extramatrical hyphae growing in association with seedling roots. The results are presented in a fashion to illustrate the nature of information which can be obtained using this system. Current projects using the mycocosms include characterizing the dynamics of carbon allocation under ozone stress, and following the fate of organic pollutants. The authors believe that the system could be used to differentiate fungal and host mediated responses to a large number of other stresses, and to study a variety of physiological processes in mycorrhizal plants.

  12. Chloroplast Retrograde Regulation of Heat Stress Responses in Plants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ai-Zhen; Guo, Fang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that intracellular signaling from chloroplast to nucleus plays a vital role in stress responses to survive environmental perturbations. The chloroplasts were proposed as sensors to heat stress since components of the photosynthetic apparatus housed in the chloroplast are the major targets of thermal damage in plants. Thus, communicating subcellular perturbations to the nucleus is critical during exposure to extreme environmental conditions such as heat stress. By coordinating expression of stress specific nuclear genes essential for adaptive responses to hostile environment, plants optimize different cell functions and activate acclimation responses through retrograde signaling pathways. The efficient communication between plastids and the nucleus is highly required for such diverse metabolic and biosynthetic functions during adaptation processes to environmental stresses. In recent years, several putative retrograde signals released from plastids that regulate nuclear genes have been identified and signaling pathways have been proposed. In this review, we provide an update on retrograde signals derived from tetrapyrroles, carotenoids, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and organellar gene expression (OGE) in the context of heat stress responses and address their roles in retrograde regulation of heat-responsive gene expression, systemic acquired acclimation, and cellular coordination in plants. PMID:27066042

  13. Involvement of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Orofacial Inflammatory Pain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun Sun; Bae, Jin Young; Kim, Tae Heon; Kim, Yun Sook; Suk, Kyoungho

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in many neurological diseases and inflammatory responses. Inflammatory mediators induce neuronal damage and trigger the neuropathic or inflammatory pain. But there is very little data on the role of the ER stress response in pain mechanisms. In this study, we explored whether the ER stress response is involved in orofacial inflammatory pain by using a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-injected rat model. The thermal pain hypersensitivity increased significantly after CFA injection. We found that the protein and mRNA levels of ER stress response genes, GRP78/Bip and p-eIF2α, increased significantly in trigeminal ganglion (TG) of CFA-injected rats compared to control animals. In immunofluorescence analysis, a significant increase of GRP78 and p-eIF2α immunopositive neurons was observed in CFA-injected TG compared to control TG. When we administered an ER stress modulator, salubrinal, CFA-induced thermal pain hypersensitivity was temporally reduced. Thus, our study suggests that ER stress responses in TG neurons contribute to CFA-induced inflammatory pain, and may comprise an important molecular mechanism underlying the orofacial inflammatory pain pathway. PMID:25548537

  14. Chloroplast Retrograde Regulation of Heat Stress Responses in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ai-Zhen; Guo, Fang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that intracellular signaling from chloroplast to nucleus plays a vital role in stress responses to survive environmental perturbations. The chloroplasts were proposed as sensors to heat stress since components of the photosynthetic apparatus housed in the chloroplast are the major targets of thermal damage in plants. Thus, communicating subcellular perturbations to the nucleus is critical during exposure to extreme environmental conditions such as heat stress. By coordinating expression of stress specific nuclear genes essential for adaptive responses to hostile environment, plants optimize different cell functions and activate acclimation responses through retrograde signaling pathways. The efficient communication between plastids and the nucleus is highly required for such diverse metabolic and biosynthetic functions during adaptation processes to environmental stresses. In recent years, several putative retrograde signals released from plastids that regulate nuclear genes have been identified and signaling pathways have been proposed. In this review, we provide an update on retrograde signals derived from tetrapyrroles, carotenoids, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and organellar gene expression (OGE) in the context of heat stress responses and address their roles in retrograde regulation of heat-responsive gene expression, systemic acquired acclimation, and cellular coordination in plants. PMID:27066042

  15. Alpha oscillations and their impairment in affective and post-traumatic stress disorders.

    PubMed

    Eidelman-Rothman, Moranne; Levy, Jonathan; Feldman, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    Affective and anxiety disorders are debilitating conditions characterized by impairments in cognitive and social functioning. Elucidating their neural underpinnings may assist in improving diagnosis and developing targeted interventions. Neural oscillations are fundamental for brain functioning. Specifically, oscillations in the alpha frequency range (alpha rhythms) are prevalent in the awake, conscious brain and play an important role in supporting perceptual, cognitive, and social processes. We review studies utilizing various alpha power measurements to assess abnormalities in brain functioning in affective and anxiety disorders as well as obsessive compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders. Despite some inconsistencies, studies demonstrate associations between aberrant alpha patterns and these disorders both in response to specific cognitive and emotional tasks and during a resting state. We conclude by discussing methodological considerations and future directions, and underscore the need for much further research on the role of alpha functionality in social contexts. As social dysfunction accompanies most psychiatric conditions, research on alpha's involvement in social processes may provide a unique window into the neural mechanisms underlying these disorders. PMID:27435239

  16. Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 Deficiency Compromises the Functional Response of the Serotonergic System to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Leah R.; Pals, Heide L.; Enix, Courtney L.; Woolaver, Rachel A.; Paul, Evan D.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Tsai, Pei-San

    2014-01-01

    Functionally heterogeneous populations of serotonergic neurons, located within the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), play a role in stress-related behaviors and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as anxiety and depression. Abnormal development of these neurons may permanently alter their structure and connections, making the organism more susceptible to anxiety-related disorders. A factor that critically regulates the development of serotonergic neurons is fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8). In this study, we used acute restraint stress followed by behavioral testing to examine whether Fgf8 signaling during development is important for establishing functional stress- and anxiety-related DR neurocircuits in adulthood. Wild-type and heterozygous male mice globally hypomorphic for Fgf8 were exposed to acute restraint stress and then tested for anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus-maze. Further, we measured c-Fos immunostaining as a marker of serotonergic neuronal activation and tissue 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations as a marker of serotonin functional output. Results showed that Fgf8 hypomorphs exhibited 1) an exaggerated response of DR anxiety-promoting circuits and 2) a blunted response of a DR panic-inhibiting circuit to stress, effects that together were associated with increased baseline anxiety-like behavior. Overall, our results provide a neural substrate upon which Fgf8 deficiency could affect stress response and support the hypothesis that developmental disruptions of serotonergic neurons affect their postnatal functional integrity. PMID:24992493

  17. The cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis factor AtCOX17 modulates stress responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lucila; Welchen, Elina; Gey, Uta; Arce, Agustín L; Steinebrunner, Iris; Gonzalez, Daniel H

    2016-03-01

    COX17 is a soluble protein from the mitochondrial intermembrane space that participates in the transfer of copper for cytochrome c oxidase (COX) assembly in eukaryotic organisms. In this work, we studied the function of both Arabidopsis thaliana AtCOX17 genes using plants with altered expression levels of these genes. Silencing of AtCOX17-1 in a cox17-2 knockout background generates plants with smaller rosettes and decreased expression of genes involved in the response of plants to different stress conditions, including several genes that are induced by mitochondrial dysfunctions. Silencing of either of the AtCOX17 genes does not affect plant development or COX activity but causes a decrease in the response of genes to salt stress. In addition, these plants contain higher reactive oxygen and lipid peroxidation levels after irrigation with high NaCl concentrations and are less sensitive to abscisic acid. In agreement with a role of AtCOX17 in stress and abscisic acid responses, both AtCOX17 genes are induced by several stress conditions, abscisic acid and mutation of the transcription factor ABI4. The results indicate that AtCOX17 is required for optimal expression of a group of stress-responsive genes, probably as a component of signalling pathways that link stress conditions to gene expression responses. PMID:26436309

  18. Molecular biology of the stress response in the early embryo and its stem cells.

    PubMed

    Puscheck, Elizabeth E; Awonuga, Awoniyi O; Yang, Yu; Jiang, Zhongliang; Rappolee, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Stress is normal during early embryogenesis and transient, elevated stress is commonplace. Stress in the milieu of the peri-implantation embryo is a summation of maternal hormones, and other elements of the maternal milieu, that signal preparedness for development and implantation. Examples discussed here are leptin, adrenaline, cortisol, and progesterone. These hormones signal maternal nutritional status and provide energy, but also signal stress that diverts maternal and embryonic energy from an optimal embryonic developmental trajectory. These hormones communicate endocrine maternal effects and local embryonic effects although signaling mechanisms are not well understood. Other in vivo stresses affect the embryo such as local infection and inflammation, hypoxia, environmental toxins such as benzopyrene, dioxin, or metals, heat shock, and hyperosmotic stress due to dehydration or diabetes. In vitro, stresses include shear during handling, improper culture media and oxygen levels, cryopreservation, and manipulations of the embryo to introduce sperm or mitochondria. We define stress as any stimulus that slows stem cell accumulation or diminishes the ability of cells to produce normal and sufficient parenchymal products upon differentiation. Thus stress deflects downwards the normal trajectories of development, growth and differentiation. Typically stress is inversely proportional to embryonic developmental and proliferative rates, but can be proportional to induction of differentiation of stem cells in the peri-implantation embryo. When modeling stress it is most interesting to produce a 'runting model' where stress exposures slow accumulation but do not create excessive apoptosis or morbidity. Windows of stress sensitivity may occur when major new embryonic developmental programs require large amounts of energy and are exacerbated if nutritional flow decreases and removes energy from the normal developmental programs and stress responses. These windows correspond

  19. Does Chronic Unpredictable Stress during Adolescence Affect Spatial Cognition in Adulthood?

    PubMed Central

    Chaby, Lauren E.; Sheriff, Michael J.; Hirrlinger, Amy M.; Lim, James; Fetherston, Thomas B.; Braithwaite, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities allow animals to retain and cognitively manipulate information about their spatial environment and are dependent upon neural structures that mature during adolescence. Exposure to stress in adolescence is thought to disrupt neural maturation, possibly compromising cognitive processes later in life. We examined whether exposure to chronic unpredictable stress in adolescence affects spatial ability in late adulthood. We evaluated spatial learning, reference and working memory, as well as long-term retention of visuospatial cues using a radial arm water maze. We found that stress in adolescence decreased the rate of improvement in spatial learning in adulthood. However, we found no overall performance impairments in adult reference memory, working memory, or retention caused by adolescent-stress. Together, these findings suggest that adolescent-stress may alter the strategy used to solve spatial challenges, resulting in performance that is more consistent but is not refined by incorporating available spatial information. Interestingly, we also found that adolescent-stressed rats showed a shorter latency to begin the water maze task when re-exposed to the maze after an overnight delay compared with control rats. This suggests that adolescent exposure to reoccurring stressors may prepare animals for subsequent reoccurring challenges. Overall, our results show that stress in adolescence does not affect all cognitive processes, but may affect cognition in a context-dependent manner. PMID:26580066

  20. Growing Out of Stress: The Role of Cell- and Organ-Scale Growth Control in Plant Water-Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Lindner, Heike; Robbins, Neil E; Dinneny, José R

    2016-08-01

    Water is the most limiting resource on land for plant growth, and its uptake by plants is affected by many abiotic stresses, such as salinity, cold, heat, and drought. While much research has focused on exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular signaling events governing water-stress responses, it is also important to consider the role organismal structure plays as a context for such responses. The regulation of growth in plants occurs at two spatial scales: the cell and the organ. In this review, we focus on how the regulation of growth at these different spatial scales enables plants to acclimate to water-deficit stress. The cell wall is discussed with respect to how the physical properties of this structure affect water loss and how regulatory mechanisms that affect wall extensibility maintain growth under water deficit. At a higher spatial scale, the architecture of the root system represents a highly dynamic physical network that facilitates access of the plant to a heterogeneous distribution of water in soil. We discuss the role differential growth plays in shaping the structure of this system and the physiological implications of such changes. PMID:27503468

  1. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M.

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual’s fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0–11 years) and late (12–18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life

  2. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M; Collip, Dina; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual's fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0-11 years) and late (12-18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life stress

  3. Boolean modeling and fault diagnosis in oxidative stress response

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress is a consequence of normal and abnormal cellular metabolism and is linked to the development of human diseases. The effective functioning of the pathway responding to oxidative stress protects the cellular DNA against oxidative damage; conversely the failure of the oxidative stress response mechanism can induce aberrant cellular behavior leading to diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. Thus, understanding the normal signaling present in oxidative stress response pathways and determining possible signaling alterations leading to disease could provide us with useful pointers for therapeutic purposes. Using knowledge of oxidative stress response pathways from the literature, we developed a Boolean network model whose simulated behavior is consistent with earlier experimental observations from the literature. Concatenating the oxidative stress response pathways with the PI3-Kinase-Akt pathway, the oxidative stress is linked to the phenotype of apoptosis, once again through a Boolean network model. Furthermore, we present an approach for pinpointing possible fault locations by using temporal variations in the oxidative stress input and observing the resulting deviations in the apoptotic signature from the normally predicted pathway. Such an approach could potentially form the basis for designing more effective combination therapies against complex diseases such as cancer. Results In this paper, we have developed a Boolean network model for the oxidative stress response. This model was developed based on pathway information from the current literature pertaining to oxidative stress. Where applicable, the behaviour predicted by the model is in agreement with experimental observations from the published literature. We have also linked the oxidative stress response to the phenomenon of apoptosis via the PI3k/Akt pathway. Conclusions It is our hope that some of the additional predictions here, such as those pertaining to the

  4. The Stress Response of Escherichia coli under Microgravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, S.; Matin, A.

    At the onset of adverse environmental conditions, bacteria induce a controlled stress response to enable survival. Escherichia coli induces stress-specific reactions in response to a variety of environmental strains. A family of proteins termed sigma (s) factors is pivotal to the regulation of stress responses in bacteria. In particular Sigma S (ss) regulates several stress responses in E. coli and serves as an important global stress regulatory protein. Under optimal growth conditions, levels of ss are maintained at low cellular concentrations primarily via a proteolytic regulatory mechanism. At the onset of stress, ss levels increase due to increased stability of the molecule, facilitating transcriptional initiation and up regulation of specific stress related proteins. Concentrations of ss can therefore be indicative of cellular stress levels. Recent work by Kendrick et al demonstrated that Salmonella species grown under conditions of simulated microgravity display increased virulence - a stress-related phenotype. Using E. coli as a model system we aim to investigate the stress response elicited by the organism under conditions of simulated microgravity (SMG). SMG is generated in specially constructed rotary cell culture systems termed HARVs (High Aspect Ratio Vessels- Synthecon Inc.). By rotating at constant velocity around a vertical axis an environment is produced in which the gravitational vectors are randomized over the surface of the cell, resulting in an overall-time-averaged gravitational vector of 10-2 x g (4). E. coli cultures grown in HARVs under conditions of normal gravity (NG) and SMG repeatedly display slower growth kinetics under SMG. Western analysis of cells at exponential and stationary phase of growth from both cultures reveal similar levels of ss exist in exponential phase under both SMG and NG conditions. However, during stationary phase, levels of ss are at least 2-fold higher under conditions of SMG as compared to NG. Translational fusion

  5. Early Sensory Over-Responsivity in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders as a Predictor of Family Impairment and Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Sasson, A.; Soto, T. W.; Martinez-Pedraza, F.; Carter, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sensory over-responsivity (SOR) affects many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), often leading to stressful encounters during daily routines. Methods: This study describes the associations between early SOR symptoms and the longitudinal course of restrictions in family life activities and parenting stress across three…

  6. Thigmomorphogenetic responses of an aquatic macrophyte to hydrodynamic stress

    PubMed Central

    Schoelynck, Jonas; Puijalon, Sara; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The response of aquatic plants to abiotic factors is a crucial study topic, because the diversity of aquatic vegetation is strongly related to specific adaptations to a variety of environments. This biodiversity ensures resilience of aquatic communities to new and changing ecological conditions. In running water, hydrodynamic disturbance is one of the key factors in this context. While plant adaptations to resource stress (nutrients, light…) are well documented, adaptations to mechanical stress, particularly flow, are largely unknown. The submerged species Egeria densa was used in an experiment to detect whether the presence or absence of hydrodynamic stress causes plant thigmomorphogenetic responses (i) in terms of plant biogenic silica (BSi), cellulose and lignin concentrations, and (ii) in terms of plant strength. Plant silica concentrations, as well as lignin concentrations were significantly higher in presence of hydrodynamic stress. These physiological changes are accompanied by some significant changes in stem biomechanical traits: stem resistance to tensile forces (breaking force and breaking strength) and stiffness were higher for plants exposed to hydrodynamic stress. We conclude that the response of this aquatic plant species to mechanical stress is likely the explaining factor for a higher capacity to tolerate stress through the production of mechanically hardened shoots. PMID:25699070

  7. Ontogeny of the stress response in chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feist, G.; Schreck, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Whole body concentrations of cortisol were determined via radioimmunoassay in chinook salmon, Onchorynchus tshawytscha, during early development in both stressed and non-stressed fish to determine when the corticosteroidogenic stress response first appeared. Progeny from both pooled and individual females were examined to determine if differences existed in offspring from different females. Levels of cortisol were low in eyed eggs, increased at hatch, decreased 2 weeks later and then remained constant thereafter. Differences in cortisol between stressed and control fish were found 1 week after hatch and persisted for the remainder of the study. The magnitude of the stress response, or relative amount of cortisol produced, generally increased from the time when it was first detected, but a decrease in the ability to elicit cortisol was seen 4 weeks after hatching. Cortisol content of separate progeny from two individual females showed a similar pattern to that seen in pooled eggs. Our results indicate that chinook salmon are capable of producing cortisol following a stressful event approximately 1 week after the time of hatching. The decrease in endogenous cortisol content seen 2 weeks after hatching, and the decrease in the magnitude of the stress response seen 4 weeks after hatching may be comparable to developmental events documented in mammals where corticosteroid synthesis is inhibited to neutralize possible detrimental effects of these hormones during critical periods of development.

  8. Molecular and biochemical responses of Volvox carteri to oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingappa, U.; Rankin-Gee, E. K.; Lera, M.; Bebour, B.; Marcu, O.

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the intracellular response to environmental stresses is a key aspect to understanding the limits of habitability for life as we know it. A wide range of relevant stressors, from heat shock to radiation, result in the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are used physiologically as signaling molecules to cause changes in gene expression and metabolism. However, ROS, including superoxide (O2-) and peroxides, are also highly reactive molecules that cause oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. Here we studied stress response in the multicellular, eukaryotic green alga Volvox carteri, after exposure to heat shock conditions. We show that the ROS response to heat stress is paralleled by changes in photosynthetic metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression, and fluctuations in the elemental composition of cells. Metabolism, as measured by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry over two hours of heat stress, showed a linear decrease in the photosynthetic efficiency of Volvox. ROS quantification uncovered an increase in ROS in the culture medium, paralleled by a decrease in ROS within the Volvox colonies, suggesting an export mechanism is utilized to mitigate stress. Enzyme kinetics indicated an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity over the heat stress timecourse. Using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, we show that these changes coincide with cell-specific import/export and intracellular redistribution of transition elements and halides, suggesting that the cellular metallome is also engaged in mediating oxidative stress in Volvox.

  9. Models and Methods to Investigate Acute Stress Responses in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Arsenault, Ryan; Napper, Scott; Griebel, Philip

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation within the livestock industry and throughout society that animal stress is an important issue that must be addressed. With implications for animal health, well-being, and productivity, minimizing animal stress through improved animal management procedures and/or selective breeding is becoming a priority. Effective management of stress, however, depends on the ability to identify and quantify the effects of various stressors and determine if individual or combined stressors have distinct biological effects. Furthermore, it is critical to determine the duration of stress-induced biological effects if we are to understand how stress alters animal production and disease susceptibility. Common stress models used to evaluate both psychological and physical stressors in cattle are reviewed. We identify some of the major gaps in our knowledge regarding responses to specific stressors and propose more integrated methodologies and approaches to measuring these responses. These approaches are based on an increased knowledge of both the metabolic and immune effects of stress. Finally, we speculate on how these findings may impact animal agriculture, as well as the potential application of large animal models to understanding human stress. PMID:26633525

  10. Autophagy: An Integral Component of the Mammalian Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Ryter, Stefan W.; Choi, Augustine M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian cells and tissues respond to chemical and physical stress by inducing adaptive or protective mechanisms that prolong survival. Among these, the major stress inducible proteins (heat shock proteins, glucose regulated proteins, heme oxygenase-1) provide cellular protection through protein chaperone and/or anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory functions. In recent years it has become clear that autophagy, a genetically-programmed and evolutionarily-conserved cellular process represents another adaptive response to cellular stress. During autophagy cytosolic material, including organelles, proteins, and foreign pathogens, are sequestered into membrane-bound vesicles termed autophagosomes, and then delivered to the lysosome for degradation. Through recycling of cellular biochemicals, autophagy provides a mechanism for adaptation to starvation. Recent research has uncovered selective autophagic pathways that target distinct cargoes to autophagosomes, including mechanisms for the clearance of aggregated protein, and for the removal of dysfunctional mitochondria (mitophagy). Autophagy can be induced by multiple forms of chemical and physical stress, including endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress, and plays an integral role in the mammalian stress response. Understanding of the interaction and co-regulation of autophagy with other stress-inducible systems will be useful in the design and implementation of therapeutics targeting this pathway. PMID:24358454

  11. Mutation as a Stress Response and the Regulation of Evolvability

    PubMed Central

    Galhardo, Rodrigo S.; Hastings, P. J.; Rosenberg, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Our concept of a stable genome is evolving to one in which genomes are plastic and responsive to environmental changes. Growing evidence shows that a variety of environmental stresses induce genomic instability in bacteria, yeast, and human cancer cells, generating occasional fitter mutants and potentially accelerating adaptive evolution. The emerging molecular mechanisms of stress-induced mutagenesis vary but share telling common components that underscore two common themes. The first is the regulation of mutagenesis in time by cellular stress responses, which promote random mutations specifically when cells are poorly adapted to their environments, i.e., when they are stressed. A second theme is the possible restriction of random mutagenesis in genomic space, achieved via coupling of mutation-generating machinery to local events such as DNA-break repair or transcription. Such localization may minimize accumulation of deleterious mutations in the genomes of rare fitter mutants, and promote local concerted evolution. Although mutagenesis induced by stresses other than direct damage to DNA was previously controversial, evidence for the existence of various stress-induced mutagenesis programs is now overwhelming and widespread. Such mechanisms probably fuel evolution of microbial pathogenesis and antibiotic-resistance, and tumor progression and chemotherapy resistance, all of which occur under stress, driven by mutations. The emerging commonalities in stress-induced-mutation mechanisms provide hope for new therapeutic interventions for all of these processes. PMID:17917874

  12. Systems Responses to Progressive Water Stress in Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Habash, Dimah Z.; Baudo, Marcela; Hindle, Matthew; Powers, Stephen J.; Defoin-Platel, Michael; Mitchell, Rowan; Saqi, Mansoor; Rawlings, Chris; Latiri, Kawther; Araus, Jose L.; Abdulkader, Ahmad; Tuberosa, Roberto; Lawlor, David W.; Nachit, Miloudi M.

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is susceptible to terminal drought which can greatly decrease grain yield. Breeding to improve crop yield is hampered by inadequate knowledge of how the physiological and metabolic changes caused by drought are related to gene expression. To gain better insight into mechanisms defining resistance to water stress we studied the physiological and transcriptome responses of three durum breeding lines varying for yield stability under drought. Parents of a mapping population (Lahn x Cham1) and a recombinant inbred line (RIL2219) showed lowered flag leaf relative water content, water potential and photosynthesis when subjected to controlled water stress time transient experiments over a six-day period. RIL2219 lost less water and showed constitutively higher stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration, abscisic acid content and enhanced osmotic adjustment at equivalent leaf water compared to parents, thus defining a physiological strategy for high yield stability under water stress. Parallel analysis of the flag leaf transcriptome under stress uncovered global trends of early changes in regulatory pathways, reconfiguration of primary and secondary metabolism and lowered expression of transcripts in photosynthesis in all three lines. Differences in the number of genes, magnitude and profile of their expression response were also established amongst the lines with a high number belonging to regulatory pathways. In addition, we documented a large number of genes showing constitutive differences in leaf transcript expression between the genotypes at control non-stress conditions. Principal Coordinates Analysis uncovered a high level of structure in the transcriptome response to water stress in each wheat line suggesting genome-wide co-ordination of transcription. Utilising a systems-based approach of analysing the integrated wheat’s response to water stress, in terms of biological robustness theory, the findings suggest that each durum line

  13. Biology and therapy of fibromyalgia. Stress, the stress response system, and fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Lavin, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Stress is a state of disharmony, or threatened homeostasis. A stressor could have a psychological origin or a biological origin. Societies have become more intricate with industrialization, and modern individuals try to adapt to the new defiance by forcing their stress response system. The main component of the stress response network is the autonomic nervous system. The present article reviews current knowledge on autonomic dysfunction in fibromyalgia. Sympathetic hyperactivity has been consistently described by diverse groups of investigators. Fibromyalgia is proposed to be a sympathetically maintained neuropathic pain syndrome, and genomic data support this contention. Autonomic dysfunction may also explain other fibromyalgia features not related to pain. PMID:17626613

  14. The unfolded protein response affects readthrough of premature termination codons

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Yifat S; McClure, Michelle L; Rowe, Steven M; Sorscher, Eric J; Bester, Assaf C; Manor, Miriam; Kerem, Eitan; Rivlin, Joseph; Zahdeh, Fouad; Mann, Matthias; Geiger, Tamar; Kerem, Batsheva

    2014-01-01

    One-third of monogenic inherited diseases result from premature termination codons (PTCs). Readthrough of in-frame PTCs enables synthesis of full-length functional proteins. However, extended variability in the response to readthrough treatment is found among patients, which correlates with the level of nonsense transcripts. Here, we aimed to reveal cellular pathways affecting this inter-patient variability. We show that activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) governs the response to readthrough treatment by regulating the levels of transcripts carrying PTCs. Quantitative proteomic analyses showed substantial differences in UPR activation between patients carrying PTCs, correlating with their response. We further found a significant inverse correlation between the UPR and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), suggesting a feedback loop between these homeostatic pathways. We uncovered and characterized the mechanism underlying this NMD-UPR feedback loop, which augments both UPR activation and NMD attenuation. Importantly, this feedback loop enhances the response to readthrough treatment, highlighting its clinical importance. Altogether, our study demonstrates the importance of the UPR and its regulatory network for genetic diseases caused by PTCs and for cell homeostasis under normal conditions. PMID:24705877

  15. Phytochrome B affects responsiveness to gibberellins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, J W; Foster, K R; Morgan, P W; Chory, J

    1996-01-01

    Plant responses to red and far-red light are mediated by a family of photoreceptors called phytochromes. Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings lacking one of the phytochromes, phyB, have elongated hypocotyls and other tissues, suggesting that they may have an alteration in hormone physiology. We have studied the possibility that phyB mutations affect seedling gibberellin (GA) perception and metabolism by testing the responsiveness of wild-type and phyB seedlings to exogenous GAs. The phyB mutant elongates more than the wild type in response to the same exogenous concentrations of GA3 or GA4, showing that the mutation causes an increase in responsiveness to GAs. Among GAs that we were able to detect, we found no significant difference in endogenous levels between wild-type and phyB mutant seedlings. However, GA4 levels were below our limit of detectability, and the concentration of that active GA could have varied between wild-type and phyB mutant seedlings. These results suggest that, although GAs are required for hypocotyl cell elongation, phyB does not act primarily by changing total seedling GA levels but rather by decreasing seedling responsiveness to GAs. PMID:8819329

  16. Bacillus cereus responses to acid stress.

    PubMed

    Mols, Maarten; Abee, Tjakko

    2011-11-01

    Coping with acid environments is one of the prerequisites for the soil saprophytic and human pathogenic lifestyle of Bacillus cereus. This minireview highlights novel insights in the responses displayed by vegetative cells and germinating spores of B. cereus upon exposure to low pH as well as organic acids, including acetic acid, lactic acid and sorbic acid. Insights regarding the possible acid-inflicted damage, physiological responses and protective mechanisms have been compiled based on single cell fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and transcriptome analyses. PMID:21554514

  17. The sRNA SorY confers resistance during photooxidative stress by affecting a metabolite transporter in Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, Fazal; Weber, Lennart; Klug, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to oxygen and light generates photooxidative stress by the bacteriochlorophyll a mediated formation of singlet oxygen (1O2) in the facultative photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. We have identified SorY as an sRNA, which is induced under several stress conditions and confers increased resistance against 1O2. SorY by direct interaction affects the takP mRNA, encoding a TRAP-T transporter. We present a model in which SorY reduces the metabolite flux into the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) by reducing malate import through TakP. It was previously shown that oxidative stress in bacteria leads to switch from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway and to reduced activity of the TCA cycle. As a consequence the production of the prooxidant NADH is reduced and production of the protective NADPH is enhanced. In R. sphaeroides enzymes for glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, Entner–Doudoroff pathway and gluconeogenesis are induced in response to 1O2 by the alternative sigma factor RpoHII. The same is true for the sRNA SorY. By limiting malate import SorY thus contributes to the balance of the metabolic fluxes under photooxidative stress conditions. This assigns a so far unknown function to an sRNA in oxidative stress response. PMID:25833751

  18. Stress Responses from the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hironori; Nishitoh, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a dynamic organelle that is essential for multiple cellular functions. During cellular stress conditions, including nutrient deprivation and dysregulation of protein synthesis, unfolded/misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER lumen, resulting in activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR also contributes to the regulation of various intracellular signaling pathways such as calcium signaling and lipid signaling. More recently, the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM), which is a site of close contact between the ER and mitochondria, has been shown to function as a platform for various intracellular stress responses including apoptotic signaling, inflammatory signaling, the autophagic response, and the UPR. Interestingly, in cancer, these signaling pathways from the ER are often dysregulated, contributing to cancer cell metabolism. Thus, the signaling pathway from the ER may be a novel therapeutic target for various cancers. In this review, we discuss recent research on the roles of stress responses from the ER, including the MAM. PMID:25941664

  19. Towards Establishment of a Rice Stress Response Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young-Su; Chern, Mawsheng; Bartley, Laura E.; Han, Muho; Jung, Ki-Hong; Lee, Insuk; Walia, Harkamal; Richter, Todd; Xu, Xia; Cao, Peijian; Bai, Wei; Ramanan, Rajeshwari; Amonpant, Fawn; Arul, Loganathan; Canlas, Patrick E.; Ruan, Randy; Park, Chang-Jin; Chen, Xuewei; Hwang, Sohyun; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2011-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple food for more than half the world and a model for studies of monocotyledonous species, which include cereal crops and candidate bioenergy grasses. A major limitation of crop production is imposed by a suite of abiotic and biotic stresses resulting in 30%–60% yield losses globally each year. To elucidate stress response signaling networks, we constructed an interactome of 100 proteins by yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assays around key regulators of the rice biotic and abiotic stress responses. We validated the interactome using protein–protein interaction (PPI) assays, co-expression of transcripts, and phenotypic analyses. Using this interactome-guided prediction and phenotype validation, we identified ten novel regulators of stress tolerance, including two from protein classes not previously known to function in stress responses. Several lines of evidence support cross-talk between biotic and abiotic stress responses. The combination of focused interactome and systems analyses described here represents significant progress toward elucidating the molecular basis of traits of agronomic importance. PMID:21533176

  20. Keratins Are Altered in Intestinal Disease-Related Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Helenius, Terhi O; Antman, Cecilia A; Asghar, Muhammad Nadeem; Nyström, Joel H; Toivola, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Keratin (K) intermediate filaments can be divided into type I/type II proteins, which form obligate heteropolymers. Epithelial cells express type I-type II keratin pairs, and K7, K8 (type II) and K18, K19 and K20 (type I) are the primary keratins found in the single-layered intestinal epithelium. Keratins are upregulated during stress in liver, pancreas, lung, kidney and skin, however, little is known about their dynamics in the intestinal stress response. Here, keratin mRNA, protein and phosphorylation levels were studied in response to murine colonic stresses modeling human conditions, and in colorectal cancer HT29 cells. Dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-colitis was used as a model for intestinal inflammatory stress, which elicited a strong upregulation and widened crypt distribution of K7 and K20. K8 levels were slightly downregulated in acute DSS, while stress-responsive K8 serine-74 phosphorylation (K8 pS74) was increased. By eliminating colonic microflora using antibiotics, K8 pS74 in proliferating cells was significantly increased, together with an upregulation of K8 and K19. In the aging mouse colon, most colonic keratins were upregulated. In vitro, K8, K19 and K8 pS74 levels were increased in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in HT29 cells. In conclusion, intestinal keratins are differentially and dynamically upregulated and post-translationally modified during stress and recovery. PMID:27626448

  1. Interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism, the generation of oxidative stress and the mitigative oxidative stress response.

    PubMed

    Busch, Andrea W U; Montgomery, Beronda L

    2015-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles are involved in light harvesting and light perception, electron-transfer reactions, and as co-factors for key enzymes and sensory proteins. Under conditions in which cells exhibit stress-induced imbalances of photosynthetic reactions, or light absorption exceeds the ability of the cell to use photoexcitation energy in synthesis reactions, redox imbalance can occur in photosynthetic cells. Such conditions can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with alterations in tetrapyrrole homeostasis. ROS accumulation can result in cellular damage and detrimental effects on organismal fitness, or ROS molecules can serve as signals to induce a protective or damage-mitigating oxidative stress signaling response in cells. Induced oxidative stress responses include tetrapyrrole-dependent and -independent mechanisms for mitigating ROS generation and/or accumulation. Thus, tetrapyrroles can be contributors to oxidative stress, but are also essential in the oxidative stress response to protect cells by contributing to detoxification of ROS. In this review, we highlight the interconnection and interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism with the occurrence of oxidative stress and protective oxidative stress signaling responses in photosynthetic organisms. PMID:25618582

  2. Interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism, the generation of oxidative stress and the mitigative oxidative stress response

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Andrea W.U.; Montgomery, Beronda L.

    2015-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles are involved in light harvesting and light perception, electron-transfer reactions, and as co-factors for key enzymes and sensory proteins. Under conditions in which cells exhibit stress-induced imbalances of photosynthetic reactions, or light absorption exceeds the ability of the cell to use photoexcitation energy in synthesis reactions, redox imbalance can occur in photosynthetic cells. Such conditions can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with alterations in tetrapyrrole homeostasis. ROS accumulation can result in cellular damage and detrimental effects on organismal fitness, or ROS molecules can serve as signals to induce a protective or damage-mitigating oxidative stress signaling response in cells. Induced oxidative stress responses include tetrapyrrole-dependent and -independent mechanisms for mitigating ROS generation and/or accumulation. Thus, tetrapyrroles can be contributors to oxidative stress, but are also essential in the oxidative stress response to protect cells by contributing to detoxification of ROS. In this review, we highlight the interconnection and interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism with the occurrence of oxidative stress and protective oxidative stress signaling responses in photosynthetic organisms. PMID:25618582

  3. Metabolomic analysis of wild and transgenic Nicotiana langsdorffii plants exposed to abiotic stresses: unraveling metabolic responses.

    PubMed

    Scalabrin, Elisa; Radaelli, Marta; Rizzato, Giovanni; Bogani, Patrizia; Buiatti, Marcello; Gambaro, Andrea; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2015-08-01

    Nicotiana langsdorffii plants, wild and transgenic for the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rol C gene and the rat glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, were exposed to different abiotic stresses (high temperature, water deficit, and high chromium concentrations). An untargeted metabolomic analysis was carried out in order to investigate the metabolic effects of the inserted genes in response to the applied stresses and to obtain a comprehensive profiling of metabolites induced during abiotic stresses. High-performance liquid chromatography separation (HPLC) coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) enabled the identification of more than 200 metabolites, and statistical analysis highlighted the most relevant compounds for each plant treatment. The plants exposed to heat stress showed a unique set of induced secondary metabolites, some of which were known while others were not previously reported for this kind of stress; significant changes were observed especially in lipid composition. The role of trichome, as a protection against heat stress, is here suggested by the induction of both acylsugars and glykoalkaloids. Water deficit and Cr(VI) stresses resulted mainly in enhanced antioxidant (HCAs, polyamine) levels and in the damage of lipids, probably as a consequence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, the ability of rol C expression to prevent oxidative burst was confirmed. The results highlighted a clear influence of GR modification on plant stress response, especially to water deficiency-a phenomenon whose applications should be further investigated. This study provides new insights into the field of system biology and demonstrates the importance of metabolomics in the study of plant functioning. Graphical Abstract Untargeted metabolomic analysis was applied to wild type, GR and RolC modified Nicotiana Langsdorffii plants exposed to heat, water and Cr(VI) stresses. The key metabolites, highly affected by stress application, were identified

  4. Differential interactions of promoter elements in stress responses of the Arabidopsis Adh gene.

    PubMed Central

    Dolferus, R; Jacobs, M; Peacock, W J; Dennis, E S

    1994-01-01

    The Adh (alcohol dehydrogenase, EC 1.1.1.1.) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. can be induced by dehydration and cold, as well as by hypoxia. A 1-kb promoter fragment (CADH: -964 to +53) is sufficient to confer the stress induction and tissue-specific developmental expression characteristics of the Adh gene to a beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Deletion mapping of the 5' end and site-specific mutagenesis identified four regions of the promoter essential for expression under the three stress conditions. Some sequence elements are important for response to all three stress treatments, whereas others are stress specific. The most critical region essential for expression of the Arabidopsis Adh promoter under all three environmental stresses (region IV: -172 to -141) contains sequences homologous to the GT motif (-160 to -152) and the GC motif (-147 to -144) of the maize Adh1 anaerobic responsive element. Region III (-235 to -172) contains two regions shown by R.J. Ferl and B.H. Laughner ([1989] Plant Mol Biol 12: 357-366) to bind regulatory proteins; mutation of the G-box-1 region (5'-CCACGTGG-3', -216 to -209) does not affect expression under uninduced or hypoxic conditions, but significantly reduces induction by cold stress and, to a lesser extent, by dehydration stress. Mutation of the other G-box-like sequence (G-box-2: 5'-CCAAGTGG-3', -193 to -182) does not change hypoxic response and affects cold and dehydration stress only slightly. G-box-2 mutations also promote high levels of expression under uninduced conditions. Deletion of region I (-964 to -510) results in increased expression under uninduced and all stress conditions, suggesting that this region contains a repressor binding site. Region II (-510 to -384) contains a positive regulatory element and is necessary for high expression levels under all treatments. PMID:7972489

  5. Threat and challenge: cognitive appraisal and stress responses in simulated trauma resuscitations.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Adrian; Nathens, Avery B; Bandiera, Glen; Leblanc, Vicki R

    2010-06-01

    OBJECTIVES Training and practice in medicine are inherently stressful. Research into the effects of acute stressors has revealed significant variability in individual responses to stressors, with performance impairments occurring in those who demonstrate elevated subjective and physiological responses. Cognitive appraisals (subjective assessment of situational demands and available resources) of a stressor have been proposed as a predictor variable in stress responses. However, the relationship between cognitive appraisal and stress responses has not been tested empirically in complex realistic situations. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which cognitive appraisal affects a medical trainee's subjective and physiological stress responses to high-acuity simulated clinical situations. METHODS Thirteen emergency medicine and general surgery residents participated in high (HS) and low (LS) stress trauma resuscitation simulations. Subjective (cognitive appraisal and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI]) and physiological (salivary cortisol) measures were collected at baseline and in response to participation in each scenario. RESULTS Post-scenario STAI scores, cognitive appraisal and cortisol levels were higher in the HS scenario compared with the LS scenario. For the participants who appraised the scenarios as 'threats' (in which the demands outweighed the resources), the ratio of perceived demands to resources was positively correlated with cortisol levels (r = 0.59, p < 0.05) and STAI responses (r = 0.64, p < 0.05). By contrast, for the participants who appraised the scenarios as 'challenges' (in which resources were sufficient to meet the demands), the perceived ratio of demands to resources was not correlated with either the STAI scores or cortisol levels. CONCLUSIONS Subjective appraisals of a situation appear to play an important role in stress responses, which have previously been shown to impair performance. As such, training for high

  6. Individual differences in cortisol stress response predict increases in voice pitch during exam stress.

    PubMed

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Nowak, Judyta; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Despite a long history of empirical research, the potential vocal markers of stress remain unclear. Previous studies examining speech under stress most consistently report an increase in voice pitch (the acoustic correlate of fundamental frequency, F0), however numerous studies have failed to replicate this finding. In the present study we tested the prediction that these inconsistencies are tied to variation in the severity of the stress response, wherein voice changes may be observed predominantly among individuals who show a cortisol stress response (i.e., an increase in free cortisol levels) above a critical threshold. Voice recordings and saliva samples were collected from university psychology students at baseline and again immediately prior to an oral examination. Voice recordings included both read and spontaneous speech, from which we measured mean, minimum, maximum, and the standard deviation in F0. We observed an increase in mean and minimum F0 under stress in both read and spontaneous speech, whereas maximum F0 and its standard deviation showed no systematic changes under stress. Our results confirmed that free cortisol levels increased by an average of 74% (ranging from 0 to 270%) under stress. Critically, increases in cortisol concentrations significantly predicted increases in mean F0 under stress for both speech types, but did not predict variation in F0 at baseline. On average, stress-induced increases in voice pitch occurred only when free cortisol levels more than doubled their baseline concentrations. Our results suggest that researchers examining speech under stress should control for individual differences in the magnitude of the stress response. PMID:27188981

  7. The Development of an Emotional Response to Literature Measure: The Affective Response to Literature Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ronald G.; Fischer, Jerome M.

    2006-01-01

    Based on theories of emotional intelligence, adult education, psychology of reading, and emotions and literature, this study was designed to develop and validate the Affective Response to Literature Survey (ARLS), a psychological instrument used to measure an emotional response to literature. Initially, 27 items were generated by a review of…

  8. Fractalkine receptor deficiency impairs microglial and neuronal responsiveness to chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Milior, Giampaolo; Lecours, Cynthia; Samson, Louis; Bisht, Kanchan; Poggini, Silvia; Pagani, Francesca; Deflorio, Cristina; Lauro, Clotilde; Alboni, Silvia; Limatola, Cristina; Branchi, Igor; Tremblay, Marie-Eve; Maggi, Laura

    2016-07-01

    Chronic stress is one of the most relevant triggering factors for major depression. Microglial cells are highly sensitive to stress and, more generally, to environmental challenges. However, the role of these brain immune cells in mediating the effects of stress is still unclear. Fractalkine signaling - which comprises the chemokine CX3CL1, mainly expressed by neurons, and its receptor CX3CR1, almost exclusively present on microglia in the healthy brain - has been reported to critically regulate microglial activity. Here, we investigated whether interfering with microglial function by deleting the Cx3cr1 gene affects the brain's response to chronic stress. To this purpose, we housed Cx3cr1 knockout and wild-type adult mice in either control or stressful environments for 2weeks, and investigated the consequences on microglial phenotype and interactions with synapses, synaptic transmission, behavioral response and corticosterone levels. Our results show that hampering neuron-microglia communication via the CX3CR1-CX3CL1 pathway prevents the effects of chronic unpredictable stress on microglial function, short- and long-term neuronal plasticity and depressive-like behavior. Overall, the present findings suggest that microglia-regulated mechanisms may underlie the differential susceptibility to stress and consequently the vulnerability to diseases triggered by the experience of stressful events, such as major depression. PMID:26231972

  9. GABAA receptor-acting neurosteroids: A role in the development and regulation of the stress response

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Benjamin G.; Cunningham, Linda; Mitchell, Scott G.; Swinny, Jerome D.; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Belelli, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity by stress is a fundamental survival mechanism and HPA-dysfunction is implicated in psychiatric disorders. Adverse early life experiences, e.g. poor maternal care, negatively influence brain development and programs an abnormal stress response by encoding long-lasting molecular changes, which may extend to the next generation. How HPA-dysfunction leads to the development of affective disorders is complex, but may involve GABAA receptors (GABAARs), as they curtail stress-induced HPA axis activation. Of particular interest are endogenous neurosteroids that potently modulate the function of GABAARs and exhibit stress-protective properties. Importantly, neurosteroid levels rise rapidly during acute stress, are perturbed in chronic stress and are implicated in the behavioural changes associated with early-life adversity. We will appraise how GABAAR-active neurosteroids may impact on HPA axis development and the orchestration of the stress-evoked response. The significance of these actions will be discussed in the context of stress-associated mood disorders. PMID:24929099

  10. miR408 is involved in abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Burd, Shaul; Lers, Amnon

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes post-transcriptionally; they are known to play major roles in development and responses to abiotic stress. miR408 is a highly conserved miRNA in plants that responds to the availability of copper and targets genes encoding copper-containing proteins. It was recently recognized to be an important component of the HY5-SPL7 gene network that mediates a coordinated response to light and copper, illustrating its central role in the response of plants to the environment. Expression of miR408 is significantly affected by a variety of developmental and ‏environmental conditions; however, its biological function is ‏unknown. Involvement of miR408 in the abiotic stress response was investigated in Arabidopsis. Expression of miR408, as well as its target genes, was investigated in response to salinity, cold, oxidative stress, drought and osmotic stress. Analyses of transgenic plants with modulated miR408 expression revealed that higher miR408 expression leads to improved tolerance to salinity, cold and oxidative stress, but enhanced sensitivity to drought and osmotic stress. Cellular antioxidant capacity was enhanced in plants with elevated miR408 expression, as manifested by reduced levels of reactive oxygen species and induced expression of genes associated with antioxidative functions, including Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (CSD1 and CSD2) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST-U25), as well as auxiliary genes: the copper chaperone CCS1 and the redox stress-associated gene SAP12. Overall, the results demonstrate significant involvement of miR408 in abiotic stress responses, emphasizing the central function of miR408 in plant survival. PMID:26312768

  11. Stress Reorganization and Response in Active Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Rhoda J.; Liverpool, Tanniemola B.

    2014-07-01

    We present a microscopic model of a disordered viscoelastic active solid, i.e., an active material whose long time behavior is elastic as opposed to viscous. It is composed of filaments, passive cross-links, and molecular motors powered by stored chemical energy, e.g., actomyosin powered by adenosine triphosphate. Our model allows us to study the collective behavior of contractile active elements and how their interaction with each other and the passive elastic elements determines the macroscopic mechanical properties of the active material. As a result of the (un)binding dynamics of the active elements, we find that this system provides a highly responsive material with a dynamic mechanical response strongly dependent on the amount of deformation.

  12. Expressive suppression and neural responsiveness to nonverbal affective cues.

    PubMed

    Petrican, Raluca; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Grady, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Optimal social functioning occasionally requires concealment of one's emotions in order to meet one's immediate goals and environmental demands. However, because emotions serve an important communicative function, their habitual suppression disrupts the flow of social exchanges and, thus, incurs significant interpersonal costs. Evidence is accruing that the disruption in social interactions, linked to habitual expressive suppression use, stems not only from intrapersonal, but also from interpersonal causes, since the suppressors' restricted affective displays reportedly inhibit their interlocutors' emotionally expressive behaviors. However, expressive suppression use is not known to lead to clinically significant social impairments. One explanation may be that over the lifespan, individuals who habitually suppress their emotions come to compensate for their interlocutors' restrained expressive behaviors by developing an increased sensitivity to nonverbal affective cues. To probe this issue, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan healthy older women while they viewed silent videos of a male social target displaying nonverbal emotional behavior, together with a brief verbal description of the accompanying context, and then judged the target's affect. As predicted, perceivers who reported greater habitual use of expressive suppression showed increased neural processing of nonverbal affective cues. This effect appeared to be coordinated in a top-down manner via cognitive control. Greater neural processing of nonverbal cues among perceivers who habitually suppress their emotions was linked to increased ventral striatum activity, suggestive of increased reward value/personal relevance ascribed to emotionally expressive nonverbal behaviors. These findings thus provide neural evidence broadly consistent with the hypothesized link between habitual use of expressive suppression and compensatory development of increased responsiveness to

  13. Plant Heat Adaptation: priming in response to heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Bäurle, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stress is a major threat to crop yield stability. Plants can be primed by heat stress, which enables them to subsequently survive temperatures that are lethal to a plant in the naïve state. This is a rapid response that has been known for many years and that is highly conserved across kingdoms. Interestingly, recent studies in Arabidopsis and rice show that this thermo-priming lasts for several days at normal growth temperatures and that it is an active process that is genetically separable from the priming itself. This is referred to as maintenance of acquired thermotolerance or heat stress memory. Such a memory conceivably has adaptive advantages under natural conditions, where heat stress often is chronic or recurring. In this review, I will focus on recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of heat stress memory. PMID:27134736

  14. Effects of two dominance manipulations on the stress response: Cognitive and embodied influences.

    PubMed

    Deuter, Christian Eric; Schächinger, Hartmut; Best, Daniel; Neumann, Roland

    2016-09-01

    In response to stress, physiological and mental resources are allocated towards those systems that are needed for rapid responding in terms of fight or flight. On the other hand, long term regenerative processes such as growth, digestion and reproduction are attenuated. Levels of the sex steroid testosterone are reduced in participants that suffer from chronic stress. However, beyond its role for reproductive functions, testosterone plays an important role in the regulation of social status and dominance, testosterone levels increase during competition or when the social status is challenged. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a laboratory stressor with a substantial social-evaluative component, can provoke an increase in salivary testosterone levels. Still, so far the reported findings regarding acute stress effects on testosterone are equivocal, possibly due to moderating effects. In this study we experimentally manipulated social dominance in 56 healthy participants (28m) by two independent manipulations (body posture and cognitive role taking) and subjected them to the TSST. We analyzed salivary testosterone and cortisol levels as dependent measures for the endocrine stress response. The role taking manipulation interacted with the testosterone response: we found the strongest increase when participants had to put themselves in a dominant (vs. submissive) role. Our results suggest that transient changes in testosterone levels during stress reflect a response to status threat that is affected by social dominance. PMID:27381928

  15. Interparental Aggression and Infant Patterns of Adrenocortical and Behavioral Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R.; Stifter, Cynthia A.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on emotional security theory, this study examined linkages between interparental aggression, infant self-regulatory behaviors, and patterns of physiological and behavioral stress responses in a diverse sample of 735 infants residing in predominately low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. Latent profile analysis revealed four classes of adrenocortical and behavioral stress response patterns at 7-months of age, using assessments of behavioral and cortisol reactivity to an emotion eliciting challenge, as well as global ratings of the child’s negative affect and basal cortisol levels. The addition of covariates within the latent profile model suggested that children with more violence in the home and who used less caregiver-oriented regulation strategies were more likely to exhibit a pattern of high cortisol reactivity with moderate signs of distress rather than the average stress response, suggesting possible patterns of adaptation in violent households. PMID:22127795

  16. The effects of different sources of occupational stress on affective, motivational, and psychosomatic outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ovalle, N.K. II.

    1991-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of role conflict, role ambiguity, and five additional potential sources of occupational stress on an affective outcome (job satisfaction), a motivational outcome (intent to quit), and two psychosomatic outcomes (mental and physical anxiety). In addition to role conflict and role ambiguity, the five additional sources of occupational stress centered on job characteristics, work pressures, rewards and opportunities, interaction of the job and home life, and lack of job challenge. Data were collected from 85 technicians and managers in a service organization. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that each of the sources of stress have significant yet different effects on the outcomes. Moreover, role conflict and ambiguity did not have as much of an effect across all outcomes as the other five sources of stress. These findings could be used to improve the measurement, understanding, and treatment of occupational stress. Other implications are discussed. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Motor/autonomic stress responses in a competitive piano performance.

    PubMed

    Yoshie, Michiko; Kudo, Kazutoshi; Ohtsuki, Tatsuyuki

    2009-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of psychological stress on performance quality, autonomic responses, and upper extremity muscle activity in skilled pianists through comparisons between stressful (competition) and nonstressful (rehearsal) conditions. We observed increased levels of subjective anxiety, autonomic arousal, and electromyographic activity in the competition condition, which could contribute to the impairment of performance quality. The results provide important practical implications for enhancing performance quality as well as preventing playing-related musculoskeletal disorders in musicians. PMID:19673810

  18. COMT Val158Met Genotype Selectively Alters Prefrontal [18F]Fallypride Displacement and Subjective Feelings of Stress in Response to a Psychosocial Stress Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Lataster, Johan; Ceccarini, Jenny; Kenis, Gunther; Booij, Linda; Pruessner, Jens; Van Laere, Koen; van Winkel, Ruud; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2013-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays an essential role in degradation of extracellular dopamine in prefrontal regions of the brain. Although a polymorphism in this gene, COMT Val158Met, affects human behavior in response to stress little is known about its effect on dopaminergic activity associated with the human stress response, which may be of interest for stress-related psychiatric disorders such as psychosis. We aimed to investigate the effect of variations in COMT genotype on in vivo measures of stress-induced prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopaminergic processing and subjective stress responses. A combined sample of healthy controls and healthy first-degree relatives of psychosis patients (n = 26) were subjected to an [18F]fallypride Positron Emission Tomography scan. Psychosocial stress during the scan was induced using the Montreal Imaging Stress Task and subjective stress was assessed every 12 minutes. Parametric t-maps, generated using the linear extension of the simplified reference region model, revealed an effect of COMT genotype on the spatial extent of [18F]fallypride displacement. Detected effects of exposure to psychosocial stress were unilateral and remained restricted to the left superior and right inferior frontal gyrus, with Met-hetero- and homozygotes showing less [18F]fallypride displacement than Val-homozygotes. Additionally, Met-hetero- and homozygotes experienced larger subjective stress responses than Val-homozygotes. The direction of the effects remained the same when the data was analyzed separately for controls and first-degree relatives. The human stress response may be mediated in part by COMT-dependent dopaminergic PFC activity, providing speculation for the neurobiology underlying COMT-dependent differences in human behaviour following stress. Implications of these results for stress-related psychopathology and models of dopaminergic functioning are discussed. PMID:23799032

  19. Affective Neural Responses Modulated by Serotonin Transporter Genotype in Clinical Anxiety and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Oathes, Desmond J.; Hilt, Lori M.; Nitschke, Jack B.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin transporter gene variants are known to interact with stressful life experiences to increase chances of developing affective symptoms, and these same variants have been shown to influence amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli in non-psychiatric populations. The impact of these gene variants on affective neurocircuitry in anxiety and mood disorders has been studied less extensively. Utilizing a triallelic assay (5-HTTLPR and rs25531) to assess genetic variation linked with altered serotonin signaling, this fMRI study investigated genetic influences on amygdala and anterior insula activity in 50 generalized anxiety disorder patients, 26 of whom also met DSM-IV criteria for social anxiety disorder and/or major depressive disorder, and 39 healthy comparison subjects. A Group x Genotype interaction was observed for both the amygdala and anterior insula in a paradigm designed to elicit responses in these brain areas during the anticipation of and response to aversive pictures. Patients who are S/LG carriers showed less activity than their LA/LA counterparts in both regions and less activity than S/LG healthy comparison subjects in the amygdala. Moreover, patients with greater insula responses reported higher levels of intolerance of uncertainty, an association that was particularly pronounced for patients with two LA alleles. A genotype effect was not established in healthy controls. These findings link the serotonin transporter gene to affective circuitry findings in anxiety and depression psychopathology and further suggest that its impact on patients may be different from effects typically observed in healthy populations. PMID:25675343

  20. The behavioural effects of predator-induced stress responses in the cricket (Gryllus texensis): the upside of the stress response.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A; Kovalko, Ilya; Mosher, Brianna

    2013-12-15

    Predator-induced stress responses are thought to reduce an animal's risk of being eaten. Therefore, these stress responses should enhance anti-predator behaviour. We found that individual insects (the cricket Gryllus texensis) show reliable behavioural responses (i.e. behavioural types) in a plus-shaped maze. An individual's behaviour in the plus maze remained consistent for at least 1/2 of its adult life. However, after exposure to a model predator, both male and female crickets showed a reduced period of immobility and an increased amount of time spent under shelter compared with controls. These changes could be mimicked by injections of the insect stress neurohormone octopamine. These behavioural changes probably aid crickets in evading predators. Exposure to a model predator increased the ability of crickets to escape a live predator (a bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps). An injection of octopamine had the same effect, showing that stress hormones can reduce predation. Using crickets to study the fitness consequences of predator-induced stress responses will help integrate ecological and biomedical concepts of 'stress'. PMID:24307711

  1. Embryonic exposure to corticosterone modifies the juvenile stress response, oxidative stress and telomere length

    PubMed Central

    Haussmann, Mark F.; Longenecker, Andrew S.; Marchetto, Nicole M.; Juliano, Steven A.; Bowden, Rachel M.

    2012-01-01

    Early embryonic exposure to maternal glucocorticoids can broadly impact physiology and behaviour across phylogenetically diverse taxa. The transfer of maternal glucocorticoids to offspring may be an inevitable cost associated with poor environmental conditions, or serve as a maternal effect that alters offspring phenotype in preparation for a stressful environment. Regardless, maternal glucocorticoids are likely to have both costs and benefits that are paid and collected over different developmental time periods. We manipulated yolk corticosterone (cort) in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus) to examine the potential impacts of embryonic exposure to maternal stress on the juvenile stress response and cellular ageing. Here, we report that juveniles exposed to experimentally increased cort in ovo had a protracted decline in cort during the recovery phase of the stress response. All birds, regardless of treatment group, shifted to oxidative stress during an acute stress response. In addition, embryonic exposure to cort resulted in higher levels of reactive oxygen metabolites and an over-representation of short telomeres compared with the control birds. In many species, individuals with higher levels of oxidative stress and shorter telomeres have the poorest survival prospects. Given this, long-term costs of glucocorticoid-induced phenotypes may include accelerated ageing and increased mortality. PMID:22072607

  2. Electrophysiological Responses to Affective Stimuli in Neglectful Mothers

    PubMed Central

    León, Inmaculada; Rodrigo, María José; Quiñones, Ileana; Hernández, Juan Andrés; Lage, Agustín; Padrón, Iván; Bobes, María Antonieta

    2014-01-01

    Results illustrating an atypical neural processing in the early and late differentiation of infant faces have been obtained with neglectful mothers. The present study explores whether a different pattern of response is observed when using non-infant affective pictures. We examined the event-related evoked potentials and induced delta, theta and alpha activity in 14 neglectful mothers and 14 control mothers elicited while categorizing positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also recorded. Early posterior negativity, P200 and late positive potential components were modulated by the emotional content of pictures in both groups. However, the LPP waveform had a more delayed and more attenuated maximum in neglectful mothers than in control mothers. Oscillatory responses indicated lower power increases for neglectful mothers than for control mothers in delta (1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz) and lower alpha (8–10 Hz) bands at frontal sites, and a more consistent increase for neglectful mothers in theta and lower alpha bands at occipital sites, especially for negative pictures. These findings help us to better understand the limits of emotional insensitivity in neglectful mothers. PMID:24498200

  3. Affective responsiveness is influenced by intake of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Radke, Sina; Derntl, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    Despite the widespread use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs), little is known about their impact on psychological processes and emotional competencies. Recent data indicate impaired emotion recognition in OC users compared to naturally cycling females. Building upon these findings, the current study investigated the influence of OC use on three components of empathy, i.e., emotion recognition, perspective-taking, and affective responsiveness. We compared naturally cycling women to two groups of OC users, one being tested in their pill-free week and one in the phase of active intake. Whereas groups did not differ in emotion recognition and perspective-taking, an effect of pill phase was evident for affective responsiveness: Females currently taking the pill showed better performance than those in their pill-free week. These processing advantages complement previous findings on menstrual cycle effects and thereby suggest an association with changes in endogenous and exogenous reproductive hormones. The current study highlights the need for future research to shed more light on the neuroendocrine alterations accompanying OC intake. PMID:27039036

  4. Psychogenic fever: how psychological stress affects body temperature in the clinical population

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Takakazu

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic fever is a stress-related, psychosomatic disease especially seen in young women. Some patients develop extremely high core body temperature (Tc) (up to 41°C) when they are exposed to emotional events, whereas others show persistent low-grade high Tc (37–38°C) during situations of chronic stress. The mechanism for psychogenic fever is not yet fully understood. However, clinical case reports demonstrate that psychogenic fever is not attenuated by antipyretic drugs, but by psychotropic drugs that display anxiolytic and sedative properties, or by resolving patients' difficulties via natural means or psychotherapy. Animal studies have demonstrated that psychological stress increases Tc via mechanisms distinct from infectious fever (which requires proinflammatory mediators) and that the sympathetic nervous system, particularly β3-adrenoceptor-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, plays an important role in the development of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia. Acute psychological stress induces a transient, monophasic increase in Tc. In contrast, repeated stress induces anticipatory hyperthermia, reduces diurnal changes in Tc, or slightly increases Tc throughout the day. Chronically stressed animals also display an enhanced hyperthermic response to a novel stress, while past fearful experiences induce conditioned hyperthermia to the fear context. The high Tc that psychogenic fever patients develop may be a complex of these diverse kinds of hyperthermic responses. PMID:27227051

  5. Psychogenic fever: how psychological stress affects body temperature in the clinical population.

    PubMed

    Oka, Takakazu

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic fever is a stress-related, psychosomatic disease especially seen in young women. Some patients develop extremely high core body temperature (Tc) (up to 41°C) when they are exposed to emotional events, whereas others show persistent low-grade high Tc (37-38°C) during situations of chronic stress. The mechanism for psychogenic fever is not yet fully understood. However, clinical case reports demonstrate that psychogenic fever is not attenuated by antipyretic drugs, but by psychotropic drugs that display anxiolytic and sedative properties, or by resolving patients' difficulties via natural means or psychotherapy. Animal studies have demonstrated that psychological stress increases Tc via mechanisms distinct from infectious fever (which requires proinflammatory mediators) and that the sympathetic nervous system, particularly β3-adrenoceptor-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, plays an important role in the development of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia. Acute psychological stress induces a transient, monophasic increase in Tc. In contrast, repeated stress induces anticipatory hyperthermia, reduces diurnal changes in Tc, or slightly increases Tc throughout the day. Chronically stressed animals also display an enhanced hyperthermic response to a novel stress, while past fearful experiences induce conditioned hyperthermia to the fear context. The high Tc that psychogenic fever patients develop may be a complex of these diverse kinds of hyperthermic responses. PMID:27227051

  6. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role. PMID:26149415

  7. Reduced stress-sensitivity or increased reward experience: the psychological mechanism of response to antidepressant medication.

    PubMed

    Wichers, M C; Barge-Schaapveld, D Q C M; Nicolson, N A; Peeters, F; de Vries, M; Mengelers, R; van Os, J

    2009-03-01

    Depression has often been associated with increased negative affect reactivity to stress (Stress-Sensitivity) and reduced capacity to experience pleasure or positive affect (Reward Experience). To date, no studies have prospectively examined changes in Stress-Sensitivity and Reward Experience following antidepressant treatment. The sample included 83 depressed patients and 22 healthy controls. A randomized controlled trial was carried out with patients receiving either imipramine or placebo for 6 weeks. At baseline and 6 weeks, patients and controls participated in an Experience Sampling procedure, prospectively measuring ecologically valid daily life appraisals of activities and mood states. The course of depression was assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Multilevel linear regression analyses showed that patients had higher negative and lower positive appraisals of activities than controls. In addition, patients showed increased Stress-Sensitivity (negative affect reactivity to negatively appraised activities). Treatment with imipramine decreased Stress-Sensitivity and increased Reward Experience (positive affect reactivity to positively appraised activities). Changes in Stress-Sensitivity and Reward Experience were in part reducible to changes in the process of activity appraisal itself. However, increase in Reward Experience, but not decrease in Stress-Sensitivity, discriminated between patients who responded and those who did not, independent of changes in the process of activity appraisal itself. Response to treatment in depression may be conditional on restoration of hedonic capacity, the cerebral substrate of which requires further study in relation to antidepressant response. A search for (synergistic) antidepressant therapies specifically targeting ability to experience reward may be warranted. PMID:18496519

  8. Analysis of alfalfa root transcriptome in response to salinity stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Illumina RNA-sequencing was performed in two alfalfa genotypes, AZ-88NDC and AZ-GERM SALT-II in order to estimate a broad spectrum of genes affected by and/or involved in adaptation to salt stress. Both accessions were considered susceptible due to the stage at which samples were collected. A total ...

  9. Testing Whether and When Abstract Symmetric Patterns Produce Affective Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bertamini, Marco; Makin, Alexis; Pecchinenda, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Symmetry has a central role in visual art, it is often linked to beauty, and observers can detect it efficiently in the lab. We studied what kind of fast and automatic responses are generated by visual presentation of symmetrical patterns. Specifically, we tested whether a brief presentation of novel symmetrical patterns engenders positive affect using a priming paradigm. The abstract patterns were used as primes in a pattern-word interference task. To ensure that familiarity was not a factor, no pattern and no word was ever repeated within each experiment. The task was to classify words that were selected to have either positive or negative valence. We tested irregular patterns, patterns containing vertical and horizontal reflectional symmetry, and patterns containing a 90 deg rotation. In a series of 7 experiments we found that the effect of affective congruence was present for both types of regularity but only when observers had to classify the regularity of the pattern after responding to the word. The findings show that processing abstract symmetrical shapes or random pattern can engender positive or negative affect as long as the regularity of the pattern is a feature that observers have to attend to and classify. PMID:23840892

  10. Metabolomic and transcriptomic stress response of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Jozefczuk, Szymon; Klie, Sebastian; Catchpole, Gareth; Szymanski, Jedrzej; Cuadros-Inostroza, Alvaro; Steinhauser, Dirk; Selbig, Joachim; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2010-01-01

    Environmental fluctuations lead to a rapid adjustment of the physiology of Escherichia coli, necessitating changes on every level of the underlying cellular and molecular network. Thus far, the majority of global analyses of E. coli stress responses have been limited to just one level, gene expression. Here, we incorporate the metabolite composition together with gene expression data to provide a more comprehensive insight on system level stress adjustments by describing detailed time-resolved E. coli response to five different perturbations (cold, heat, oxidative stress, lactose diauxie, and stationary phase). The metabolite response is more specific as compared with the general response observed on the transcript level and is reflected by much higher specificity during the early stress adaptation phase and when comparing the stationary phase response to other perturbations. Despite these differences, the response on both levels still follows the same dynamics and general strategy of energy conservation as reflected by rapid decrease of central carbon metabolism intermediates coinciding with downregulation of genes related to cell growth. Application of co-clustering and canonical correlation analysis on combined metabolite and transcript data identified a number of significant condition-dependent associations between metabolites and transcripts. The results confirm and extend existing models about co-regulation between gene expression and metabolites demonstrating the power of integrated systems oriented analysis. PMID:20461071

  11. Lipid Biosynthesis Coordinates a Mitochondrial-to-Cytosolic Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Eui; Grant, Ana Rodrigues; Simic, Milos S; Kohnz, Rebecca A; Nomura, Daniel K; Durieux, Jenni; Riera, Celine E; Sanchez, Melissa; Kapernick, Erik; Wolff, Suzanne; Dillin, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Defects in mitochondrial metabolism have been increasingly linked with age-onset protein-misfolding diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's. In response to protein-folding stress, compartment-specific unfolded protein responses (UPRs) within the ER, mitochondria, and cytosol work in parallel to ensure cellular protein homeostasis. While perturbation of individual compartments can make other compartments more susceptible to protein stress, the cellular conditions that trigger cross-communication between the individual UPRs remain poorly understood. We have uncovered a conserved, robust mechanism linking mitochondrial protein homeostasis and the cytosolic folding environment through changes in lipid homeostasis. Metabolic restructuring caused by mitochondrial stress or small-molecule activators trigger changes in gene expression coordinated uniquely by both the mitochondrial and cytosolic UPRs, protecting the cell from disease-associated proteins. Our data suggest an intricate and unique system of communication between UPRs in response to metabolic changes that could unveil new targets for diseases of protein misfolding. PMID:27610574

  12. Stress Response Mechanisms: From Single Cells to Multinational Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Pech, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    Can a literal comparison be made between biological phenomena in organisms and phenomena in human organizations? The evidence provided by simplified but useful examples appears to suggest that a phenomenon simulating hormesis can and does occur in organizational contexts. Similarities between stress response behaviors of organisms and stress response behaviors in organizations are discussed. Cellular stress response mechanisms stimulate and repair, as well as defend the organism against further attacks. Organizational hormesis describes actions that stimulate the organization by increasing its focus and protecting it against future attacks. The common aim for the organism as well as the organization is to increase the probability of survival. The following describes examples of organizational survival that demonstrate a number of hormetic parallels between organisms and organisations. PMID:18648597

  13. Orientational Polarizability and Stress Response of Biological Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safran, S. A.; de, R.; Zemel, A.

    We present a theoretical treatment of the orientational response to external stress of active, contractile cells embedded in a gel-like elastic medium. The theory includes random forces as well as forces that arise from the deformation of the matrix and those due to the internal regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions of the cell. We calculate both the static and high frequency limits of the orientational response in terms of the cellular polarizability. For systems in which the forces due to regulation and activity dominate the mechanical forces, we show that there is a non-linear dynamical response which, in the high frequency limit, causes the cell to orient nearly perpendicular to the direction of the applied stress.

  14. ESTROGEN RECEPTORS AND THE REGULATION OF NEURAL STRESS RESPONSES

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Robert J.; Mani, Shaila K.; Uht, Rosalie M.

    2012-01-01

    It is now well established that estrogens can influence a panoply of physiological and behavioral functions. In many instances, the effects of estrogens are mediated by the ‘classical’ actions of two different estrogen receptors (ER), alpha or beta. Estrogen receptor alpha and beta appear to have opposing actions in the control of stress responses and modulate different neurotransmitter or neuropeptide systems. Studies elucidating the molecular mechanisms for such regulatory processes are currently in progress. Furthermore, the use of ERalpha and ERbeta knockout mouse lines has allowed the exploration of the importance of these receptors in behavioral responses such as anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors. This review examines some of the recent advances in our knowledge of hormonal control of neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress and underscore the importance of these receptors as future therapeutic targets for control of stress-related signaling pathways. PMID:22538291

  15. Adaptive Patterns of Stress Responsivity: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, Marco; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Ellis, Bruce J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary–developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern taxonomy of the ACM via finite mixture modeling. Moreover, the 4 patterns of responsivity showed the predicted associations with family stress levels but no association with measures of ecological stress. Our hypotheses concerning sex differences in responsivity were only partly confirmed. This preliminary study provides initial support for the key predictions of the ACM and highlights some of the methodological challenges that will need to be considered in future research on this topic. PMID:22148947

  16. Proteomic responses of fruits to environmental stresses

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Zhulong

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are extremely susceptible to decay and easily lose commercial value after harvest. Different strategies have been developed to control postharvest decay and prevent quality deterioration during postharvest storage, including cold storage, controlled atmosphere (CA), and application of biotic and abiotic stimulus. In this review, mechanisms related to protein level responses of host side and pathogen side were characterized. Protein extraction protocols have been successfully developed for recalcitrant, low protein content fruit tissues. Comparative proteome profiling and functional analysis revealed that defense related proteins, energy metabolism, and antioxidant pathway played important roles in fruits in response to storage conditions and exogenous elicitor treatments. Secretome of pathogenic fungi has been well-investigated and the results indicated that hydrolytic enzymes were the key virulent factors for the pathogen infection. These protein level changes shed new light on interaction among fruits, pathogens, and environmental conditions. Potential postharvest strategies to reduce risk of fruit decay were further proposed based on currently available proteomic data. PMID:23335934

  17. Mitochondrial DNA Stress Primes the Antiviral Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    West, A. Phillip; Khoury-Hanold, William; Staron, Matthew; Tal, Michal C.; Pineda, Cristiana M.; Lang, Sabine M.; Bestwick, Megan; Duguay, Brett A.; Raimundo, Nuno; MacDuff, Donna A.; Kaech, Susan M.; Smiley, James R.; Means, Robert E.; Iwasaki, Akiko; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is normally present at thousands of copies per cell and is packaged into several hundred higher-order structures termed nucleoids1. The abundant mtDNA-binding protein, transcription factor A mitochondrial (TFAM), regulates nucleoid architecture, abundance, and segregation2. Complete mtDNA depletion profoundly impairs oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), triggering calcium-dependent stress signaling and adaptive metabolic responses3. However, the cellular responses to mtDNA instability, a physiologically relevant stress observed in many human diseases and aging, remain ill-defined4. Here we show that moderate mtDNA stress elicited by TFAM deficiency engages cytosolic antiviral signaling to enhance the expression of a subset of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG). Mechanistically, we have found that aberrant mtDNA packaging promotes escape of mtDNA into the cytosol, where it engages the DNA sensor cGAS and promotes STING-IRF3-dependent signaling to elevate ISG expression, potentiate type I interferon responses, and confer broad viral resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrate that herpesviruses induce mtDNA stress, which potentiates antiviral signaling and type I interferon responses during infection. Our results further demonstrate that mitochondria are central participants in innate immunity, identify mtDNA stress as a cell-intrinsic trigger of antiviral signaling, and suggest that cellular monitoring of mtDNA homeostasis cooperates with canonical virus sensing mechanisms to fully license antiviral innate immunity. PMID:25642965

  18. Mitochondrial DNA stress primes the antiviral innate immune response.

    PubMed

    West, A Phillip; Khoury-Hanold, William; Staron, Matthew; Tal, Michal C; Pineda, Cristiana M; Lang, Sabine M; Bestwick, Megan; Duguay, Brett A; Raimundo, Nuno; MacDuff, Donna A; Kaech, Susan M; Smiley, James R; Means, Robert E; Iwasaki, Akiko; Shadel, Gerald S

    2015-04-23

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is normally present at thousands of copies per cell and is packaged into several hundred higher-order structures termed nucleoids. The abundant mtDNA-binding protein TFAM (transcription factor A, mitochondrial) regulates nucleoid architecture, abundance and segregation. Complete mtDNA depletion profoundly impairs oxidative phosphorylation, triggering calcium-dependent stress signalling and adaptive metabolic responses. However, the cellular responses to mtDNA instability, a physiologically relevant