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Sample records for affecting stress response

  1. Traumatic Experience in Infancy: How Responses to Stress Affect Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witten, Molly Romer

    2010-01-01

    Responses to traumatic stress during the earliest years of life can change quickly and can be difficult to identify because of the young child's rapid rate of development. The symptoms of traumatic stress will depend on the child's developmental level and individual coping styles, as well as the quality and nature of the child's most important…

  2. Gender affects sympathetic and hemodynamic response to postural stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, J. K.; Hogeman, C. S.; Khan, M.; Kimmerly, D. S.; Sinoway, L. I.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that differences in sympathetic reflex responses to head-up tilt (HUT) between males (n = 9) and females (n = 8) were associated with decrements in postural vasomotor responses in women. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography), heart rate, stroke volume (SV; Doppler), and blood pressure (Finapres) were measured during a progressive HUT protocol (5 min at each of supine, 20 degrees, 40 degrees, and 60 degrees ). MSNA and hemodynamic responses were also measured during the cold pressor test (CPT) to examine nonbaroreflex neurovascular control. SV was normalized to body surface area (SV(i)) to calculate the index of cardiac output (Q(i)), and total peripheral resistance (TPR). During HUT, heart rate increased more in females versus males (P < 0.001) and SV(i) and Q(i) decreased similarly in both groups. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased to a lesser extent in females versus males in the HUT (P < 0.01) but increases in TPR during HUT were similar. MSNA burst frequency was lower in females versus males in supine (P < 0.03) but increased similarly during HUT. Average amplitude/burst increased in 60 degrees HUT for males but not females. Both males and females demonstrated an increase in MAP as well as MSNA burst frequency, mean burst amplitude, and total MSNA during the CPT. However, compared with females, males demonstrated a greater neural response (DeltaTotal MSNA) due to a larger increase in mean burst amplitude (P < 0.05). Therefore, these data point to gender-specific autonomic responses to cardiovascular stress. The different MSNA response to postural stress between genders may contribute importantly to decrements in blood pressure control during HUT in females.

  3. Gender affects sympathetic and hemodynamic response to postural stress.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, J K; Hogeman, C S; Khan, M; Kimmerly, D S; Sinoway, L I

    2001-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that differences in sympathetic reflex responses to head-up tilt (HUT) between males (n = 9) and females (n = 8) were associated with decrements in postural vasomotor responses in women. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography), heart rate, stroke volume (SV; Doppler), and blood pressure (Finapres) were measured during a progressive HUT protocol (5 min at each of supine, 20 degrees, 40 degrees, and 60 degrees ). MSNA and hemodynamic responses were also measured during the cold pressor test (CPT) to examine nonbaroreflex neurovascular control. SV was normalized to body surface area (SV(i)) to calculate the index of cardiac output (Q(i)), and total peripheral resistance (TPR). During HUT, heart rate increased more in females versus males (P < 0.001) and SV(i) and Q(i) decreased similarly in both groups. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased to a lesser extent in females versus males in the HUT (P < 0.01) but increases in TPR during HUT were similar. MSNA burst frequency was lower in females versus males in supine (P < 0.03) but increased similarly during HUT. Average amplitude/burst increased in 60 degrees HUT for males but not females. Both males and females demonstrated an increase in MAP as well as MSNA burst frequency, mean burst amplitude, and total MSNA during the CPT. However, compared with females, males demonstrated a greater neural response (DeltaTotal MSNA) due to a larger increase in mean burst amplitude (P < 0.05). Therefore, these data point to gender-specific autonomic responses to cardiovascular stress. The different MSNA response to postural stress between genders may contribute importantly to decrements in blood pressure control during HUT in females. PMID:11668064

  4. Historical Temperature Variability Affects Coral Response to Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Carilli, Jessica; Donner, Simon D.; Hartmann, Aaron C.

    2012-01-01

    Coral bleaching is the breakdown of symbiosis between coral animal hosts and their dinoflagellate algae symbionts in response to environmental stress. On large spatial scales, heat stress is the most common factor causing bleaching, which is predicted to increase in frequency and severity as the climate warms. There is evidence that the temperature threshold at which bleaching occurs varies with local environmental conditions and background climate conditions. We investigated the influence of past temperature variability on coral susceptibility to bleaching, using the natural gradient in peak temperature variability in the Gilbert Islands, Republic of Kiribati. The spatial pattern in skeletal growth rates and partial mortality scars found in massive Porites sp. across the central and northern islands suggests that corals subject to larger year-to-year fluctuations in maximum ocean temperature were more resistant to a 2004 warm-water event. In addition, a subsequent 2009 warm event had a disproportionately larger impact on those corals from the island with lower historical heat stress, as indicated by lower concentrations of triacylglycerol, a lipid utilized for energy, as well as thinner tissue in those corals. This study indicates that coral reefs in locations with more frequent warm events may be more resilient to future warming, and protection measures may be more effective in these regions. PMID:22479626

  5. Maternal stress and plural breeding with communal care affect development of the endocrine stress response in a wild rodent.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Carolyn M; Hayes, Loren D; Ebensperger, Luis A; Ramírez-Estrada, Juan; León, Cecilia; Davis, Garrett T; Romero, L Michael

    2015-09-01

    Maternal stress can significantly affect offspring fitness. In laboratory rodents, chronically stressed mothers provide poor maternal care, resulting in pups with hyperactive stress responses. These hyperactive stress responses are characterized by high glucocorticoid levels in response to stressors plus poor negative feedback, which can ultimately lead to decreased fitness. In degus (Octodon degus) and other plural breeding rodents that exhibit communal care, however, maternal care from multiple females may buffer the negative impact on pups born to less parental mothers. We used wild, free-living degus to test this hypothesis. After parturition, we manipulated maternal stress by implanting cortisol pellets in 0%, 50-75%, or 100% of adult females within each social group. We then sampled pups for baseline and stress-induced cortisol, negative feedback efficacy, and adrenal sensitivity. From groups where all mothers were implanted with cortisol, pups had lower baseline cortisol levels and male pups additionally had weaker negative feedback compared to 0% or 50-75% implanted groups. Contrary to expectations, stress-induced cortisol did not differ between treatment groups. These data suggest that maternal stress impacts some aspects of the pup stress response, potentially through decreased maternal care, but that presence of unstressed mothers may mitigate some of these effects. Therefore, one benefit of plural breeding with communal care may be to buffer post-natal stress.

  6. Repeated forced swim stress differentially affects formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour and the endocannabinoid system in stress normo-responsive and stress hyper-responsive rat strains.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Elaine M; Okine, Bright N; Olango, Weredeselam M; Roche, Michelle; Finn, David P

    2016-01-01

    Repeated exposure to a homotypic stressor such as forced swimming enhances nociceptive responding in rats. However, the influence of genetic background on this stress-induced hyperalgesia is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of repeated forced swim stress on nociceptive responding in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats versus the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, a genetic background that is susceptible to stress, negative affect and hyperalgesia. Given the well-documented role of the endocannabinoid system in stress and pain, we investigated associated alterations in endocannabinoid signalling in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and amygdala. In SD rats, repeated forced swim stress for 10 days was associated with enhanced late phase formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour, compared with naive, non-stressed SD controls. In contrast, WKY rats exposed to 10 days of swim stress displayed reduced late phase formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour. Swim stress increased levels of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) mRNA in the ipsilateral side of the dorsal spinal cord of SD rats, an effect not observed in WKY rats. In the amygdala, swim stress reduced anandamide (AEA) levels in the contralateral amygdala of SD rats, but not WKY rats. Additional within-strain differences in levels of CB1 receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) mRNA and levels of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) were observed between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the dorsal horn and/or amygdala. These data indicate that the effects of repeated stress on inflammatory pain-related behaviour are different in two rat strains that differ with respect to stress responsivity and affective state and implicate the endocannabinoid system in the spinal cord and amygdala in these differences.

  7. Temperature stress affects the expression of immune response genes in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata) is affected by a fungal disease called chalkbrood. In several species of bees, chalkbrood is more likely to occur in larvae kept at 25-30 C than at 35 C. We found that both high and low temperature stress increased the expression of immune response g...

  8. Posttranslational arginylation enzyme Ate1 affects DNA mutagenesis by regulating stress response

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Akhilesh; Birnbaum, Michael D; Patel, Devang M; Morgan, William M; Singh, Jayanti; Barrientos, Antoni; Zhang, Fangliang

    2016-01-01

    Arginyltransferase 1 (Ate1) mediates protein arginylation, a poorly understood protein posttranslational modification (PTM) in eukaryotic cells. Previous evidence suggest a potential involvement of arginylation in stress response and this PTM was traditionally considered anti-apoptotic based on the studies of individual substrates. However, here we found that arginylation promotes cell death and/or growth arrest, depending on the nature and intensity of the stressing factor. Specifically, in yeast, mouse and human cells, deletion or downregulation of the ATE1 gene disrupts typical stress responses by bypassing growth arrest and suppressing cell death events in the presence of disease-related stressing factors, including oxidative, heat, and osmotic stresses, as well as the exposure to heavy metals or radiation. Conversely, in wild-type cells responding to stress, there is an increase of cellular Ate1 protein level and arginylation activity. Furthermore, the increase of Ate1 protein directly promotes cell death in a manner dependent on its arginylation activity. Finally, we found Ate1 to be required to suppress mutation frequency in yeast and mammalian cells during DNA-damaging conditions such as ultraviolet irradiation. Our study clarifies the role of Ate1/arginylation in stress response and provides a new mechanism to explain the link between Ate1 and a variety of diseases including cancer. This is also the first example that the modulation of the global level of a PTM is capable of affecting DNA mutagenesis. PMID:27685622

  9. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test: Validity and Relationship with Cardiovascular Stress-Responses.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, Melanie M; Brosschot, Jos F; Thayer, Julian F; Verkuil, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect

  10. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test: Validity and Relationship with Cardiovascular Stress-Responses.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, Melanie M; Brosschot, Jos F; Thayer, Julian F; Verkuil, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect

  11. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test: Validity and Relationship with Cardiovascular Stress-Responses

    PubMed Central

    van der Ploeg, Melanie M.; Brosschot, Jos F.; Thayer, Julian F.; Verkuil, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect

  12. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: Associations with future substance use

    PubMed Central

    CHAPLIN, TARA M.; VISCONTI, KARI JEANNE; MOLFESE, PETER J.; SUSMAN, ELIZABETH J.; KLEIN, LAURA COUSINO; SINHA, RAJITA; MAYES, LINDA C.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure may affect developing stress response systems in youth, potentially creating risk for substance use in adolescence. Further, pathways from prenatal risk to future substance use may differ for girls versus boys. The present longitudinal study examined multiple biobehavioral measures, including heart rate, blood pressure, emotion, and salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), in response to a stressor in 193 low-income 14- to 17-year-olds, half of whom were prenatally cocaine exposed (PCE). Youth’s lifetime substance use was assessed with self-report, interview, and urine toxicology/breathalyzer at Time 1 and at Time 2 (6–12 months later). PCExGender interactions were found predicting anxiety, anger, and sadness responses to the stressor, with PCE girls showing heightened responses as compared to PCE boys on these indicators. Stress Response × Gender interactions were found predicting Time 2 substance use in youth (controlling for Time 1 use) for sAA and sadness; for girls, heightened sadness responses predicted substance use, but for boys, dampened sAA responses predicted substance use. Findings suggest distinct biobehavioral stress response risk profiles for boys and girls, with heightened arousal for girls and blunted arousal for boys associated with prenatal risk and future substance use outcomes. PMID:25036298

  13. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: associations with future substance use.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Tara M; Visconti, Kari Jeanne; Molfese, Peter J; Susman, Elizabeth J; Klein, Laura Cousino; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure may affect developing stress response systems in youth, potentially creating risk for substance use in adolescence. Further, pathways from prenatal risk to future substance use may differ for girls versus boys. The present longitudinal study examined multiple biobehavioral measures, including heart rate, blood pressure, emotion, and salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), in response to a stressor in 193 low-income 14- to 17-year-olds, half of whom were prenatally cocaine exposed (PCE). Youth's lifetime substance use was assessed with self-report, interview, and urine toxicology/breathalyzer at Time 1 and at Time 2 (6-12 months later). PCE × Gender interactions were found predicting anxiety, anger, and sadness responses to the stressor, with PCE girls showing heightened responses as compared to PCE boys on these indicators. Stress Response × Gender interactions were found predicting Time 2 substance use in youth (controlling for Time 1 use) for sAA and sadness; for girls, heightened sadness responses predicted substance use, but for boys, dampened sAA responses predicted substance use. Findings suggest distinct biobehavioral stress response risk profiles for boys and girls, with heightened arousal for girls and blunted arousal for boys associated with prenatal risk and future substance use outcomes. PMID:25036298

  14. Can decision-making skills affect responses to psychological stress in healthy women?

    PubMed

    Santos-Ruiz, Ana; Garcia-Rios, M Carmen; Fernandez-Sanchez, José Carlos; Perez-Garcia, Miguel; Muñoz-García, Miguel Angel; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel

    2012-12-01

    In recent studies showing how stress can affect an individual's decision-making process, the cognitive component of decision-making could also be considered a coping resource available to individuals when faced with a stressful situation. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) constitutes the standard test for the assessment of decision-making skills under conditions of uncertainty. Responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to psychosocial stress, in turn, have been estimated by means of cortisol measurements. Our main objective in this study was to test if good and bad IGT performers show distinct HPA axis responses, when challenged in a classic psychosocial stress test. Because women have been shown to outperform men on the IGT under the influence of psychosocial stress, we chose a sample of 40 women to take the IGT before they were exposed to a public speaking task in a virtual environment. The activation of the HPA axis, involved in the stress response, was assessed by examining the levels of cortisol in the subjects' saliva at the following four stages: before the challenge, after the challenge, and 10 and 20 min after the task. Participants were divided into two groups according to their level of performance, good or poor, on the IGT. Results showed statistically significant differences between the groups for pre-exposure cortisol levels and for cortisol levels 20 min after exposure. Overall cortisol levels were significantly higher in the group with poor performance on the IGT. It appears that good decision-making, which may be an important resource for coping with stress, is associated with a lower HPA axis response to a psychosocial stressor.

  15. QTL affecting stress response to crowding in a rainbow trout broodstock population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic analyses have the potential to impact selective breeding programs by identifying markers that serve as proxies for traits which are expensive or difficult to measure. Also, identifying genes affecting traits of interest enhances our understanding of their underlying biochemical pathways. To this end we conducted genome scans of seven rainbow trout families from a single broodstock population to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) having an effect on stress response to crowding as measured by plasma cortisol concentration. Our goal was to estimate the number of major genes having large effects on this trait in our broodstock population through the identification of QTL. Results A genome scan including 380 microsatellite markers representing 29 chromosomes resulted in the de novo construction of genetic maps which were in good agreement with the NCCCWA genetic map. Unique sets of QTL were detected for two traits which were defined after observing a low correlation between repeated measurements of plasma cortisol concentration in response to stress. A highly significant QTL was detected in three independent analyses on Omy16, many additional suggestive and significant QTL were also identified. With linkage-based methods of QTL analysis such as half-sib regression interval mapping and a variance component method, we determined that the significant and suggestive QTL explain about 40-43% and 13-27% of the phenotypic trait variation, respectively. Conclusions The cortisol response to crowding stress is a complex trait controlled in a sub-sample of our broodstock population by multiple QTL on at least 8 chromosomes. These QTL are largely different from others previously identified for a similar trait, documenting that population specific genetic variants independently affect cortisol response in ways that may result in different impacts on growth. Also, mapping QTL for multiple traits associated with stress response detected trait specific QTL which

  16. Coordination of cortisol response to social evaluative threat with autonomic and inflammatory responses is moderated by stress appraisals and affect.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Lucas, Todd; Pierce, Jennifer; Goetz, Stefan; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-07-01

    Recent approaches to stress regulation have emphasized coordination among multiple biological systems. This study builds on evidence that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity should be considered in coordination with other stress-sensitive biological systems to characterize healthy responses. Healthy African-Americans (n=115) completed the Trier Social Stress Test, and biological responses were assessed through salivary cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), alpha amylase (sAA), and C-reactive protein (sCRP). Multilevel modeling demonstrated that cortisol responses typically aligned with changes in DHEA-S, sAA, and sCRP across the session. At the same time, the degree of cortisol coordination with sAA and sCRP varied by participants' subjective stress following the task; participants with higher secondary stress appraisals showed greater cortisol-sAA alignment, whereas those experiencing more negative affect showed greater cortisol-sCRP alignment. Results highlight the importance of a multisystem approach to stress and suggest that positive HPA axis coordination with the autonomic response, but not with the immune/inflammatory response, may be adaptive.

  17. KMT Set7/9 affects genotoxic stress response via the Mdm2 axis

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, Olga; Malikova, Daria; Shuvalov, Oleg; Antonov, Alexey V.; Tentler, Dmitri; Garabadgiu, Alexander V.; Melino, Gerry; Barlev, Nikolai A.

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxic stress inflicted by anti-cancer drugs causes DNA breaks and genome instability. DNA double strand breaks induced by irradiation or pharmacological inhibition of Topoisomerase II activate ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated) kinase signalling pathway that in turn triggers cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. ATM-dependent gamma-phosphorylation of histone H2Ax and other histone modifications, including ubiquitnylation, promote exchange of histones and recruitment of DNA damage response (DDR) and repair proteins. Signal transduction pathways, besides DDR itself, also control expression of genes whose products cause cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis thus ultimately affecting the sensitivity of cells to genotoxic stress. In this study, using a number of experimental approaches we provide evidence that lysine-specific methyltransferase (KMT) Set7/9 affects DDR and DNA repair, at least in part, by regulating the expression of an E3 ubiquitin ligase, Mdm2. Furthermore, we show that Set7/9 physically interacts with Mdm2. Several cancer cell lines with inverse expression of Set7/9 and Mdm2 displayed diminished survival in response to genotoxic stress. These findings are signified by our bioinformatics studies suggesting that the unleashed expression of Mdm2 in cancer patients with diminished expression of Set7/9 is associated with poor survival outcome. PMID:26317544

  18. Salicylic acid negatively affects the response to salt stress in pea plants.

    PubMed

    Barba-Espín, G; Clemente-Moreno, M J; Alvarez, S; García-Legaz, M F; Hernández, J A; Díaz-Vivancos, P

    2011-11-01

    We studied the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment on the response of pea plants to salinity. Sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced damage to leaves was increased by SA, which was correlated with a reduction in plant growth. The content of reduced ascorbate and glutathione in leaves of salt-treated plants increased in response to SA, although accumulation of the respective oxidised forms occurred. An increase in hydrogen peroxide also occurred in leaves of salt-exposed plants treated with SA. In the absence of NaCl, SA increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX; 100 μm) and glutathione-S transferase (GST; 50 μm) activities and increased catalase (CAT) activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Salinity decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity, but increased GST and CAT activity. In salt-stressed plants, SA also produced changes in antioxidative enzymes: 100 μm SA decreased APX but increased GST. Finally, a concentration-dependent increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was induced by SA treatment in salt-stressed plants. Induction of PR-1b was observed in NaCl-stressed plants treated with SA. The treatment with SA, as well as the interaction between salinity and SA treatment, had a significant effect on PsMAPK3 expression. The expression of PsMAPK3 was not altered by 70 mm NaCl, but was statistically higher in the absence than in the presence of SA. Overall, the results show that SA treatment negatively affected the response of pea plants to NaCl, and this response correlated with an imbalance in antioxidant metabolism. The data also show that SA treatment could enhance the resistance of salt-stressed plants to possible opportunistic pathogen attack, as suggested by increased PR-1b gene expression.

  19. Cerium oxide nanoparticle aggregates affect stress response and function in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Steven; Rice, Kevin M; Manne, Nandini DPK; Shokuhfar, Tolou; He, Kun; Selvaraj, Vellaisamy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The continual increase in production and disposal of nanomaterials raises concerns regarding the safety of nanoparticles on the environmental and human health. Recent studies suggest that cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles may possess both harmful and beneficial effects on biological processes. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate how exposure to different concentrations (0.17–17.21 µg/mL) of aggregated CeO2 nanoparticles affects indices of whole animal stress and survivability in Caenorhabditis elegans. Methods: Caenorhabditis elegans were exposed to different concentrations of CeO2 nanoparticles and evaluated. Results: Our findings demonstrate that chronic exposure of CeO2 nanoparticle aggregates is associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species and heat shock stress response (HSP-4) in Caenorhabditis elegans, but not mortality. Conversely, CeO2 aggregates promoted strain-dependent decreases in animal fertility, a decline in stress resistance as measured by thermotolerance, and shortened worm length. Conclusion: The data obtained from this study reveal the sublethal toxic effects of CeO2 nanoparticle aggregates in Caenorhabditis elegans and contribute to our understanding of how exposure to CeO2 may affect the environment. PMID:26770770

  20. Dysfunctional Attitudes and Affective Responses to Daily Stressors: Separating Cognitive, Genetic, and Clinical Influences on Stress Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Christopher C.; Slavich, George M.; Hammen, Constance

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of research examining diathesis-stress models of emotional disorders, it remains unclear whether dysfunctional attitudes interact with stressful experiences to shape affect on a daily basis and, if so, how clinical and genetic factors influence these associations. To address these issues, we conducted a multi-level daily diary study that examined how dysfunctional attitudes and stressful events relate to daily fluctuations in negative and positive affect in 104 young adults. Given evidence that clinical and genetic factors underlie stress sensitivity, we also examined how daily affect is influenced by internalizing and externalizing symptoms and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype, which have been shown to influence neural, endocrine, and affective responses to stress. In multivariate models, internalizing symptoms and BDNF Val66Met genotype independently predicted heightened negative affect on stressful days, but dysfunctional attitudes did not. Specifically, the BDNF Met allele and elevated baseline internalizing symptomatology predicted greater increases in negative affect in stressful circumstances. These data are the first to demonstrate that BDNF genotype and stress are jointly associated with daily fluctuations in negative affect, and they challenge the assumption that maladaptive beliefs play a strong independent role in determining affective responses to everyday stressors. The results may thus inform the development of new multi-level theories of psychopathology and guide future research on predictors of affective lability. PMID:27041782

  1. Quiescence does not affect p53 and stress response by irradiation in human lung fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Jiawen; Itahana, Koji; Baskar, Rajamanickam

    2015-02-27

    Cells in many organs exist in both proliferating and quiescent states. Proliferating cells are more radio-sensitive, DNA damage pathways including p53 pathway are activated to undergo either G{sub 1}/S or G{sub 2}/M arrest to avoid entering S and M phase with DNA damage. On the other hand, quiescent cells are already arrested in G{sub 0}, therefore there may be fundamental difference of irradiation response between proliferating and quiescent cells, and this difference may affect their radiosensitivity. To understand these differences, proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblasts were exposed to 0.10–1 Gy of γ-radiation. The response of key proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were examined. Interestingly, p53 and p53 phosphorylation (Ser-15), as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, were induced similarly in both proliferating and quiescent cells after irradiation. Furthermore, the p53 protein half-life, and expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, or cytochrome c expression as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were comparable after irradiation in both phases of cells. The effect of radioprotection by a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor on p53 pathway was also similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. Our results showed that quiescence does not affect irradiation response of key proteins involved in stress and DNA damage at least in normal fibroblasts, providing a better understanding of the radiation response in quiescent cells, which is crucial for tissue repair and regeneration. - Highlights: • p53 response by irradiation was similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. • Quiescent cells showed similar profiles of cell cycle proteins after irradiation. • Radioprotection of GSK-3β inhibitor caused similar effects between these cells. • Quiescence did not affect p53 response despite its

  2. Cardiovascular and Affective Responses to Social Stress in Adolescents with Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Paul D.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Usher, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral responses to stress and challenge are based in emotional and physiological arousal reactions. Adolescents with maladaptive or problematic behavior patterns, such as internalizing or externalizing problems, are likely to show atypical emotional and physiological reactions to stress. Relations between problems and reactions to stress were…

  3. Listeria monocytogenes DNA Glycosylase AdlP Affects Flagellar Motility, Biofilm Formation, Virulence, and Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Bae, Dongryeoul

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The temperature-dependent alteration of flagellar motility gene expression is critical for the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to respond to a changing environment. In this study, a genetic determinant, L. monocytogenes f2365_0220 (lmof2365_0220), encoding a putative protein that is structurally similar to the Bacillus cereus alkyl base DNA glycosylase (AlkD), was identified. This determinant was involved in the transcriptional repression of flagellar motility genes and was named adlP (encoding an AlkD-like protein [AdlP]). Deletion of adlP activated the expression of flagellar motility genes at 37°C and disrupted the temperature-dependent inhibition of L. monocytogenes motility. The adlP null strains demonstrated decreased survival in murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells and less virulence in mice. Furthermore, the deletion of adlP significantly decreased biofilm formation and impaired the survival of bacteria under several stress conditions, including the presence of a DNA alkylation compound (methyl methanesulfonate), an oxidative agent (H2O2), and aminoglycoside antibiotics. Our findings strongly suggest that adlP may encode a bifunctional protein that transcriptionally represses the expression of flagellar motility genes and influences stress responses through its DNA glycosylase activity. IMPORTANCE We discovered a novel protein that we named AlkD-like protein (AdlP). This protein affected flagellar motility, biofilm formation, and virulence. Our data suggest that AdlP may be a bifunctional protein that represses flagellar motility genes and influences stress responses through its DNA glycosylase activity. PMID:27316964

  4. Responses to Positive Affect Predict Mood Symptoms in Children under Conditions of Stress: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijttebier, Patricia; Raes, Filip; Vasey, Michael W.; Feldman, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    Rumination to negative affect has been linked to the onset and maintenance of mood disorders in adults as well as children. Responses to positive affect have received far less attention thus far. A few recent studies in adults suggest that responses to positive affect are involved in the development of both depressive and hypomanic symptoms, but…

  5. Shade affects responses to drought and flooding - acclimation to multiple stresses in bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara L.).

    PubMed

    Visser, E J W; Zhang, Q; De Gruyter, F; Martens, S; Huber, H

    2016-01-01

    Plants exposed to environmental stress often respond by a change in their phenotypic traits. These changes in trait expression may alleviate the negative effect of such stress factors. However, if multiple stresses are present, responses are likely to be less predictable and hence do not necessarily correlate to plant performance. This study tested if this expectation was true, by subjecting Solanum dulcamara plants to various simultaneous stress factors. Plants were grown in well-watered conditions, drought or flooding, and exposed to either full light or shade for 4 weeks. Shoot and root biomass, stem morphological parameters, such as height, number of nodes and length of stem internodes, and leaf traits like length, specific leaf area, chlorophyll content and stomatal conductance were determined. Both variation in light and in water availability typically caused slower growth, and resulted in distinct phenotypic changes in stem, leaf and root traits. However, effects of stresses on the expression of traits were not always additive. Instead, some combined stress responses (e.g. leaf size) appeared to be limited by physical or physiological constraints, whereas other responses were opposite to each other (e.g. root:shoot ratio), resulting in an intermediate phenotype in the combined stress treatment. These data suggest that in natural conditions, where combined stress factors are likely to be present, the optimal phenotype may not necessarily be expressed. Responses of plants to multiple stress factors may therefore not be associated with immediate advantages in terms of increased performance.

  6. Temperature stress affects the expression of immune response genes in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; James, Rosalind R

    2012-04-01

    Environmental stresses are thought to be associated with increases in disease suceptibility, attributable to evolutionary trade-offs between the energy demands required to deal with stress vs pathogens. We compared the effects of temperature stress and pathogen exposure on the immune response of a solitary bee, Megachile rotundata. Using an oligonucleotide microarray with 125 genes (375 probes), we determined that both high and low temperatures increased the expression of immune response genes in M. rotundata and reduced levels of a disease called chalkbrood. In the absence of the pathogen, trypsin-like serine and pathogen recognition proteases were most highly expressed at the lowest rearing temperature (20°C), while immune response signalling pathways and melanization were highly expressed at the warmest temperature tested (35°C). In pathogen-exposed bees, immune response genes tended to be most highly expressed at moderate temperatures, where we also saw the greatest infection levels. Temperature stress appears to have activated immunity before the pathogen elicited a response from the host, and this early activity prevented infection under stressful conditions. In this insect, the trade-off in energetic costs associated with stress and infection may be partially avoided by the use of conserved responses that reduce the effects of both. PMID:22356318

  7. Amphetamine withdrawal differentially affects hippocampal and peripheral corticosterone levels in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Bray, Brenna; Scholl, Jamie L; Tu, Wenyu; Watt, Michael J; Renner, Kenneth J; Forster, Gina L

    2016-08-01

    Amphetamine withdrawal is associated with heightened anxiety-like behavior, which is directly driven by blunted stress-induced glucocorticoid receptor-dependent serotonin release in the ventral hippocampus. This suggests that glucocorticoid availability in the ventral hippocampus during stress may be reduced during amphetamine withdrawal. Therefore, we tested whether amphetamine withdrawal alters either peripheral or hippocampal corticosterone stress responses. Adult male rats received amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, ip) or saline for 14 days followed by 2 weeks of withdrawal. Contrary to our prediction, microdialysis samples from freely-moving rats revealed that restraint stress-induced corticosterone levels in the ventral hippocampus are enhanced by amphetamine withdrawal relative to controls. In separate groups of rats, plasma corticosterone levels increased immediately after 20min of restraint and decreased to below stress-naïve levels after 1h, indicating negative feedback regulation of corticosterone following stress. However, plasma corticosterone responses were similar in amphetamine-withdrawn and control rats. Neither amphetamine nor stress exposure significantly altered protein expression or enzyme activity of the steroidogenic enzymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) or hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) in the ventral hippocampus. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that amphetamine withdrawal potentiates stress-induced corticosterone in the ventral hippocampus, which may contribute to increased behavioral stress sensitivity previously observed during amphetamine withdrawal. However, this is not mediated by either changes in plasma corticosterone or hippocampal steroidogenic enzymes. Establishing enhanced ventral hippocampal corticosterone as a direct cause of greater stress sensitivity may identify the glucocorticoid system as a novel target for treating behavioral symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal.

  8. Amphetamine withdrawal differentially affects hippocampal and peripheral corticosterone levels in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Bray, Brenna; Scholl, Jamie L; Tu, Wenyu; Watt, Michael J; Renner, Kenneth J; Forster, Gina L

    2016-08-01

    Amphetamine withdrawal is associated with heightened anxiety-like behavior, which is directly driven by blunted stress-induced glucocorticoid receptor-dependent serotonin release in the ventral hippocampus. This suggests that glucocorticoid availability in the ventral hippocampus during stress may be reduced during amphetamine withdrawal. Therefore, we tested whether amphetamine withdrawal alters either peripheral or hippocampal corticosterone stress responses. Adult male rats received amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, ip) or saline for 14 days followed by 2 weeks of withdrawal. Contrary to our prediction, microdialysis samples from freely-moving rats revealed that restraint stress-induced corticosterone levels in the ventral hippocampus are enhanced by amphetamine withdrawal relative to controls. In separate groups of rats, plasma corticosterone levels increased immediately after 20min of restraint and decreased to below stress-naïve levels after 1h, indicating negative feedback regulation of corticosterone following stress. However, plasma corticosterone responses were similar in amphetamine-withdrawn and control rats. Neither amphetamine nor stress exposure significantly altered protein expression or enzyme activity of the steroidogenic enzymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) or hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) in the ventral hippocampus. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that amphetamine withdrawal potentiates stress-induced corticosterone in the ventral hippocampus, which may contribute to increased behavioral stress sensitivity previously observed during amphetamine withdrawal. However, this is not mediated by either changes in plasma corticosterone or hippocampal steroidogenic enzymes. Establishing enhanced ventral hippocampal corticosterone as a direct cause of greater stress sensitivity may identify the glucocorticoid system as a novel target for treating behavioral symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal. PMID:27208490

  9. Flosequinan does not affect systemic and regional vascular responses to simulated orthostatic stress in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Duranteau, J; Pussard, E; Edouard, A; Samii, K; Berdeaux, A; Giudicelli, J F

    1992-01-01

    1. The effects of a single oral dose (100 mg) of flosequinan on systemic and regional (forearm, splanchnic and renal) vascular responses to simulated orthostatic stress (lower body negative pressure, LBNP) were investigated in nine healthy male volunteers, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. 2. Forty-five minutes after its administration and before LBNP, flosequinan induced a significant decrease in total peripheral and in forearm vascular resistances without any concomitant change in arterial pressure, in heart rate and in the investigated biological parameters (plasma catecholamines, arginine vasopressin and renin activity). 3. After flosequinan and placebo, LBNP induced similar decreases in central venous pressure at all levels of LBNP (-10, -20 and -40 mm Hg) and in pulse pressure at LBNP -40 mm Hg. LBNP-induced increase in forearm vascular resistance was significantly more marked after flosequinan than after placebo at all levels of LBNP, and this was also true for splanchnic vascular resistance but at LBNP -40 mm Hg only. However, inasmuch as the basal values of these two parameters before LBNP were lower after flosequinan than after placebo, their final values after LBNP -40 mm Hg were similar. Finally, LBNP-induced changes in renal vascular resistance, glomerular filtration rate and filtration fraction as well as in plasma catecholamines, arginine vasopressin and renin activity were similar after flosequinan and placebo at all levels of LBNP. 4. Flosequinan affected neither reflex control of heart rate (phenylephrine test) nor non-specific vasoconstrictor responses (cold pressor test). (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1389945

  10. Oxidative stress-related mechanisms affecting response to aspirin in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Santilli, Francesca; Lapenna, Domenico; La Barba, Sara; Davì, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major cardiovascular risk factor. Persistent platelet activation plays a key role in atherothrombosis in T2DM. However, current antiplatelet treatments appear less effective in T2DM patients vs nondiabetics at similar risk. A large body of evidence supports the contention that oxidative stress, which characterizes DM, may be responsible, at least in part, for less-than-expected response to aspirin, with multiple mechanisms acting at several levels. This review discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms related to oxidative stress and contributing to suboptimal aspirin action or responsiveness. These include: (1) mechanisms counteracting the antiplatelet effect of aspirin, such as reduced platelet sensitivity to the antiaggregating effects of NO, due to high-glucose-mediated oxidative stress; (2) mechanisms interfering with COX acetylation especially at the platelet level, e.g., lipid hydroperoxide-dependent impaired acetylating effects of aspirin; (3) mechanisms favoring platelet priming (lipid hydroperoxides) or activation (F2-isoprostanes, acting as partial agonists of thromboxane receptor), or aldose-reductase pathway-mediated oxidative stress, leading to enhanced platelet thromboxane A2 generation or thromboxane receptor activation; (4) mechanisms favoring platelet recruitment, such as aspirin-induced platelet isoprostane formation; (5) modulation of megakaryocyte generation and thrombopoiesis by oxidative HO-1 inhibition; and (6) aspirin-iron interactions, eventually resulting in impaired pharmacological activity of aspirin, lipoperoxide burden, and enhanced generation of hydroxyl radicals capable of promoting protein kinase C activation and platelet aggregation. Acknowledgment of oxidative stress as a major contributor, not only of vascular complications, but also of suboptimal response to antiplatelet agents in T2DM, may open the way to designing and testing novel antithrombotic strategies, specifically targeting

  11. Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting response to crowding stress in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture environmental stressors such as handling, overcrowding, sub-optimal water quality parameters and social interactions negatively impact growth, feed intake, feed efficiency, disease resistance, flesh quality and reproductive performance in rainbow trout. To identify QTL affecting response...

  12. NIMA-related kinase NEK6 affects plant growth and stress response in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, Hao-Wei; Mu, Rui-Ling; Zhang, Wang-Ke; Zhao, Ming-Yu; Wei, Wei; Wang, Fang; Yu, Hui; Lei, Gang; Zou, Hong-Feng; Ma, Biao; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2011-12-01

    The NIMA-related kinases (NEKs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases involved largely in cell cycle control in fungi, mammals and other eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, NEK6 is involved in the regulation of epidermal cell morphogenesis. However, other roles of NEK6 in plants are less well understood. Here we report functions of NEK6 in plant growth, development and stress responses in Arabidopsis. NEK6 transcripts and proteins are induced by ethylene precursor ACC and salt stress. Expression of other NEK genes except NEK5 is also responsive to the two treatments. Overexpression and mutant analysis disclose that the NEK6 gene increases rosette growth, seed yield and lateral root formation. However, NEK6 appears to play a negative role in the control of seed size. The gene also promotes plant tolerance to salt stress and osmotic stress in its overexpressing plants. The NEK6 gene may achieve its function through suppression of ethylene biosynthesis and activation of CYCB1;1 and CYCA3;1 expression. Our present study reveals new functions of the NEK6 gene in plant growth and stress tolerance, and manipulation of NEK6 may improve important agronomic traits in crop plants. PMID:21801253

  13. Prenatal stress programs neuroendocrine stress responses and affective behaviors in second generation rats in a sex-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Grundwald, Natalia J.; Brunton, Paula J.

    2015-01-01

    An adverse environment in early life is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and higher rates of mood disorders in adulthood. In rats, exposure to social stress during pregnancy results in hyperactive HPA axis responses to stress in the adult offspring and heightened anxiety behavior in the males, but not the females. Here we tested whether, without further intervention, the effects of prenatal stress (PNS) in the first filial generation (F1) are transmitted to the F2 generation via the maternal line. F1 control and PNS female rats were mated with control males and housed under non-stress conditions throughout pregnancy. HPA axis responses to acute stress, anxiety- and depressive-like behavior were assessed in the adult F2 offspring. ACTH and corticosterone responses to an acute stressor were markedly enhanced in F2 PNS females compared with controls. This was associated with greater corticotropin releasing hormone (Crh) mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus and reduced hippocampal glucocorticoid (Gr) and mineralocorticoid receptor (Mr) mRNA expression. Conversely, in the F2 PNS males, HPA axis responses to acute stress were attenuated and hippocampal Gr mRNA expression was greater compared with controls. F2 PNS males exhibited heightened anxiety-like behavior (light-dark box and elevated plus maze) compared with F2 control males. Anxiety-like behavior did not differ between F2 control and PNS females during metestrus/diestrus, however at proestrus/estrus, F2 control females displayed a reduction in anxiety-like behavior, but this effect was not observed in the F2 PNS females. Heightened anxiety in the F2 PNS males was associated with greater Crh mRNA expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala compared with controls. Moreover, Crh receptor-1 (Crhr1) mRNA expression was significantly increased, whereas Crhr2 mRNA was significantly decreased in discrete regions of the amygdala in F2 PNS males compared

  14. The association between affective psychopathic traits, time incarcerated, and cortisol response to psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Megan M; Mikolajewski, Amy; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Eckel, Lisa A; Taylor, Jeanette

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that psychopathic personality traits are significantly predictive of blunted cortisol reactivity to a performance-based stressor task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) in college students. However, the relationship between cortisol reactivity and psychopathy has not been explored in high risk samples such as incarcerated populations. Further, the role of imprisonment in relation to cortisol stress reactivity has not been previously explored, but could have practical and conceptual consequences in regard to rehabilitation and biological sensitivity to context, respectively. The current study tested the hypotheses that both psychopathic personality traits and amount of time incarcerated are related to cortisol blunting in response to stress among incarcerated young adults. A sample of 49 young adult male offenders was recruited to complete the TSST. Salivary hormone samples were taken just prior to and 20 min post-stressor, and participants were interviewed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version. Variables quantifying the amount of time at the present facility prior to the date of testing and number of commitments in juvenile facilities were also collected. Correlational analyses indicated that only number of incarcerations was related to blunted cortisol. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that time incarcerated and number of commitments were related to a blunted cortisol response among responders and declining cortisol reactivity among nonresponders, respectively. Controlling for time incarcerated, psychopathic traits were significantly related to cortisol decline in response to the stressor among nonresponders, but were not related to blunted cortisol among responders. Results of this project highlight the potential biological effects of prolonged and repeated incarcerations, and extend our understanding about the relationship between psychopathic traits and cortisol reactivity in an incarcerated sample. PMID:25921588

  15. Physical exercise affects the epigenetic programming of rat brain and modulates the adaptive response evoked by repeated restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Kashimoto, R K; Toffoli, L V; Manfredo, M H F; Volpini, V L; Martins-Pinge, M C; Pelosi, G G; Gomes, M V

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics has recently been linked to molecular adaptive responses evoked by physical exercise and stress. Herein we evaluated the effects of physical exercise on global DNA methylation and expression of the Dnmt1 gene in the rat brain and also verified its potential to modulate responses evoked by repeated restraint stress (RRS). Wistar rats were classified into the following experimental groups: (1) physically active (EX): animals submitted to swimming during postnatal days 53-78 (PND); (2) stress (ST): animals submitted to RRS during 75-79PND; (3) exercise-stress (EX-ST): animals submitted to swimming during 53-78PND and to RRS during 75-79PND, and (4) control (CTL): animals that were not submitted to intervention. Samples from the hippocampus, cortex and hypothalamus were obtained at 79PND. The global DNA methylation profile was assessed using an ELISA-based method and the expression of Dnmt1 was evaluated by real-time PCR. Significantly increased methylation was observed in the hypothalamus of animals from the EX group in comparison to CTL. Comparative analysis involving the EX-ST and ST groups revealed increased global DNA methylation in the hippocampus, cortex, and hypothalamus of EX-ST, indicating the potential of physical exercise in modulating the responses evoked by RRS. Furthermore, decreased expression of the Dnmt1 gene was observed in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of animals from the EX-ST group. In summary, our data indicate that physical exercise affects DNA methylation of the hypothalamus and might modulate epigenetic responses evoked by RRS in the hippocampus, cortex, and hypothalamus.

  16. Plant response and nutritional needs as affected by salinity and drought stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arid regions face increasing scarcity of fresh water, increasing salinization of water and soil resources and often increasing demand to minimize nutrient loading to drainage waters. Understanding the interaction of abiotic stress on crop production is essential for management and optimization of re...

  17. QTL affecting stress response to crowding in a rainbow trout broodstock population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Genomic analyses have the potential to impact selective breeding programs by identifying markers that serve as proxies for traits which are expensive or difficult to measure. Also, identifying genes affecting traits of interest enhances our understanding of their underlying biochemical ...

  18. Chronic exposure to simulated space conditions predominantly affects cytoskeleton remodeling and oxidative stress response in mouse fetal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Beck, Michaël; Moreels, Marjan; Quintens, Roel; Abou-El-Ardat, Khalil; El-Saghire, Hussein; Tabury, Kevin; Michaux, Arlette; Janssen, Ann; Neefs, Mieke; Van Oostveldt, Patrick; De Vos, Winnok H; Baatout, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    Microgravity and cosmic rays as found in space are difficult to recreate on earth. However, ground-based models exist to simulate space flight experiments. In the present study, an experimental model was utilized to monitor gene expression changes in fetal skin fibroblasts of murine origin. Cells were continuously subjected for 65 h to a low dose (55 mSv) of ionizing radiation (IR), comprising a mixture of high‑linear energy transfer (LET) neutrons and low-LET gamma-rays, and/or simulated microgravity using the random positioning machine (RPM), after which microarrays were performed. The data were analyzed both by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and single gene analysis (SGA). Simulated microgravity affected fetal murine fibroblasts by inducing oxidative stress responsive genes. Three of these genes are targets of the nuclear factor‑erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which may play a role in the cell response to simulated microgravity. In addition, simulated gravity decreased the expression of genes involved in cytoskeleton remodeling, which may have been caused by the downregulation of the serum response factor (SRF), possibly through the Rho signaling pathway. Similarly, chronic exposure to low-dose IR caused the downregulation of genes involved in cytoskeleton remodeling, as well as in cell cycle regulation and DNA damage response pathways. Many of the genes or gene sets that were altered in the individual treatments (RPM or IR) were not altered in the combined treatment (RPM and IR), indicating a complex interaction between RPM and IR.

  19. Protein acetylation affects acetate metabolism, motility and acid stress response in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Bernal, Vicente; Post, Harm; Fuhrer, Tobias; Cappadona, Salvatore; Sánchez-Díaz, Nerea C; Sauer, Uwe; Heck, Albert JR; Altelaar, AF Maarten; Cánovas, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Although protein acetylation is widely observed, it has been associated with few specific regulatory functions making it poorly understood. To interrogate its functionality, we analyzed the acetylome in Escherichia coli knockout mutants of cobB, the only known sirtuin-like deacetylase, and patZ, the best-known protein acetyltransferase. For four growth conditions, more than 2,000 unique acetylated peptides, belonging to 809 proteins, were identified and differentially quantified. Nearly 65% of these proteins are related to metabolism. The global activity of CobB contributes to the deacetylation of a large number of substrates and has a major impact on physiology. Apart from the regulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase, we found that CobB-controlled acetylation of isocitrate lyase contributes to the fine-tuning of the glyoxylate shunt. Acetylation of the transcription factor RcsB prevents DNA binding, activating flagella biosynthesis and motility, and increases acid stress susceptibility. Surprisingly, deletion of patZ increased acetylation in acetate cultures, which suggests that it regulates the levels of acetylating agents. The results presented offer new insights into functional roles of protein acetylation in metabolic fitness and global cell regulation. PMID:25518064

  20. Maternal deprivation in neonatal rats of different conditions affects growth rate, circadian clock, and stress responsiveness differentially.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Ayano; Ohtsuki, Yoshio; Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-Ichi

    2005-09-15

    Effects of periodic maternal deprivation (MD) were examined in rat pups on growth rate, circadian phase and period at weaning, and stress responsiveness in adulthood. MD was performed from postnatal day 1 to day 6 or day 7, with or without keeping ambient temperature at 37 degrees C and humidity at 70-80% during deprivation. Times of day and length of MD were also changed. Body weights were significantly reduced at weaning in MD12 (MD for 12 h) and MD6am (MD for 6 h in the morning) pups, whereas they were not changed in MD6pm (MD in the afternoon) and all MD3 groups. At 8 weeks old, body weight was still significantly lower in MD12 than the control, but not different from the control in other groups. Circadian phases of free-running locomotor rhythm at weaning were almost reversed in MD12, MD6am and MD6pm as compared with those in the control. Intermediate phase-shifts were observed in MD3Eam (3 h MD in the first quarter of the light phase; early am) and MD3Lam (late am; the second quarter), whereas no phase-shift was detected in MD3Epm (early pm; the third quarter) and MD3Lpm (late pm; the fourth quarter). Elevation of plasma corticosterone level after novelty exposure at 8 weeks old was more robustly in MD12 and MD3Lam than in the control, but the hormone response in MD3Lpm was not different from the control. Keeping ambient temperature at 37 degrees C during MD did not rescue the MD-induced body weight loss, but attenuated the phase-shifts of the circadian clock, and completely cancelled the stress-induced hormone response in MD12 rats. These findings indicate that MD in rat pups differentially affects growth rate, circadian clock, and stress responsiveness in adulthood, depending on time of day, length of MD and ambient temperature during MD. PMID:16126237

  1. Chronic exposure to simulated space conditions predominantly affects cytoskeleton remodeling and oxidative stress response in mouse fetal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Beck, Michaël; Moreels, Marjan; Quintens, Roel; Abou-El-Ardat, Khalil; El-Saghire, Hussein; Tabury, Kevin; Michaux, Arlette; Janssen, Ann; Neefs, Mieke; Van Oostveldt, Patrick; De Vos, Winnok H; Baatout, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    Microgravity and cosmic rays as found in space are difficult to recreate on earth. However, ground-based models exist to simulate space flight experiments. In the present study, an experimental model was utilized to monitor gene expression changes in fetal skin fibroblasts of murine origin. Cells were continuously subjected for 65 h to a low dose (55 mSv) of ionizing radiation (IR), comprising a mixture of high‑linear energy transfer (LET) neutrons and low-LET gamma-rays, and/or simulated microgravity using the random positioning machine (RPM), after which microarrays were performed. The data were analyzed both by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and single gene analysis (SGA). Simulated microgravity affected fetal murine fibroblasts by inducing oxidative stress responsive genes. Three of these genes are targets of the nuclear factor‑erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which may play a role in the cell response to simulated microgravity. In addition, simulated gravity decreased the expression of genes involved in cytoskeleton remodeling, which may have been caused by the downregulation of the serum response factor (SRF), possibly through the Rho signaling pathway. Similarly, chronic exposure to low-dose IR caused the downregulation of genes involved in cytoskeleton remodeling, as well as in cell cycle regulation and DNA damage response pathways. Many of the genes or gene sets that were altered in the individual treatments (RPM or IR) were not altered in the combined treatment (RPM and IR), indicating a complex interaction between RPM and IR. PMID:24859186

  2. Breeding status affects the hormonal and metabolic response to acute stress in a long-lived seabird, the king penguin.

    PubMed

    Viblanc, Vincent A; Gineste, Benoit; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Groscolas, René

    2016-09-15

    Stress responses are suggested to physiologically underlie parental decisions promoting the redirection of behaviour away from offspring care when survival is jeopardized (e.g., when facing a predator). Besides this classical view, the "brood-value hypothesis" suggests that parents' stress responses may be adaptively attenuated to increase fitness, ensuring continued breeding when the relative value of the brood is high. Here, we test the brood-value hypothesis in breeding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), long-lived seabirds for which the energy commitment to reproduction is high. We subjected birds at different breeding stages (courtship, incubation and chick brooding) to an acute 30-min capture stress and measured their hormonal (corticosterone, CORT) and metabolic (non-esterified fatty acid, NEFA) responses to stress. We found that CORT responses were markedly attenuated in chick-brooding birds when compared to earlier stages of breeding (courtship and incubation). In addition, NEFA responses appeared to be rapidly attenuated in incubating and brooding birds, but a progressive increase in NEFA plasma levels in courting birds suggested energy mobilization to deal with the threat. Our results support the idea that stress responses may constitute an important life-history mechanism mediating parental reproductive decisions in relation to their expected fitness outcome. PMID:27449343

  3. RpoS differentially affects the general stress response and biofilm formation in the endophytic Serratia plymuthica G3.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Xu, Fang; Halliday, Nigel; Gao, Kexiang; Chan, Kok Gan; Cámara, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The σ(S) subunit RpoS of RNA polymerase functions as a master regulator of the general stress response in Escherichia coli and related bacteria. RpoS has been reported to modulate biocontrol properties in the rhizobacterium Serratia plymuthica IC1270. However, the role of RpoS in the stress response and biofilm formation in S. plymuthica remains largely unknown. Here we studied the role of RpoS from an endophytic S. plymuthica G3 in regulating these phenotypes. Mutational analysis demonstrated that RpoS positively regulates the global stress response to acid or alkaline stresses, oxidative stress, hyperosmolarity, heat shock and carbon starvation, in addition to proteolytic and chitinolytic activities. Interestingly, rpoS mutations resulted in significantly enhanced swimming motility, biofilm formation and production of the plant auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which may contribute to competitive colonization and environmental fitness for survival. These findings provide further insight into the strain-specific role of RpoS in the endophytic strain G3 of S. plymuthica, where it confers resistance to general stresses encountered within the plant environment. The heterogeneous functionality of RpoS in rhizosphere and endophytic S. plymuthica populations may provide a selective advantage for better adaptation to various physiological and environmental stresses. PMID:26671319

  4. Stress factors in affective diseases.

    PubMed

    Bidzińska, E J

    1984-02-01

    An investigation carried out on 97 patients with affective disorders and on 100 healthy control subjects, revealed that acute and chronic stress factors occurred more in the group of patients with affective disorders than among healthy control over a similar time period. The frequency of stressful life situations was the same before the first affective episode in patients with unipolar and bipolar illness. The possible participation of such factors in triggering the first phase of illness is discussed. Similar factors appeared in both types of affective disorders. Significantly more frequent among patients than in the control group were: marital and family conflicts, health problems, emotional and ambitional failures, lack of success and work overload.

  5. SB202190 affects cell response to hydroxyurea-induced genotoxic stress in root meristems of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Winnicki, Konrad; Maszewski, Janusz

    2012-11-01

    Genotoxic stress caused by a variety of chemical and physical agents may lead to DNA breaks and genome instability. Response to DNA damage depends on ATM/ATR sensor kinases and their downstream proteins, which arrange cell cycle checkpoints. Activation of ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated)/ATR (ATM and Rad 3-related) signaling pathway triggers cell cycle arrest (by keeping cyclin-Cdk complexes inactive), combined with gamma-phosphorylation of histone H2A.X and induction of DNA repair processes. However, genotoxic stress activates also mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) which may control the functions of checkpoint proteins both directly, by post-translational modifications, or indirectly, by regulation of their expression. Our results indicate that in root meristem cells of Vicia faba, MAP kinase signaling pathway takes part in response to hydroxyurea-induced genotoxic stress. It is shown that SB202190, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, triggers PCC (premature chromosome condensation) more rapidly, but only if cell cycle checkpoints are alleviated by caffeine. Since SB202190 and, independently, caffeine reduces HU-mediated histone H4 Lys5 acetylation, it may be that there is a cooperation of MAP kinase signaling pathways and ATM/ATR-dependent checkpoints during response to genotoxic stress.

  6. Stress responses of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Marles-Wright, Jon; Lewis, Richard J

    2007-12-01

    Bacteria, irrespective of natural habitat, are exposed to constant fluctuations in their growth conditions. Consequently they have developed sophisticated responses, modulated by the re-modelling of protein complexes and by phosphorylation-dependent signal transduction systems, to adapt to and to survive a variety of insults. Ultimately these signalling systems affect transcriptional regulons either by activating an alternative sigma factor subunit of RNA polymerase, for example, sigma E (sigma(E)) of Escherichia coli and sigma B (sigma(B)) and sigma F (sigma(F)) in Bacillus subtilis or by activating DNA-binding two-component response regulators. Recent structure determinations, and systems biology analysis of key regulators in well-characterised stress-responsive pathways, illustrate conserved and novel mechanisms in these representative model bacteria.

  7. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience.

  8. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience. PMID:27235953

  9. Stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes.

    PubMed

    Campeau, Serge; Liberzon, Israel; Morilak, David; Ressler, Kerry

    2011-09-01

    This review summarizes the major discussion points of a symposium on stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes, which was held during the 2010 workshop on the neurobiology of stress (Boulder, CO, USA). The four discussants addressed a number of specific cognitive and affective factors that are modulated by exposure to acute or repeated stress. Dr David Morilak discussed the effects of various repeated stress situations on cognitive flexibility, as assessed with a rodent model of attentional set-shifting task, and how performance on slightly different aspects of this test is modulated by different prefrontal regions through monoaminergic neurotransmission. Dr Serge Campeau summarized the findings of several studies exploring a number of factors and brain regions that regulate habituation of various autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to repeated audiogenic stress exposures. Dr Kerry Ressler discussed a body of work exploring the modulation and extinction of fear memories in rodents and humans, especially focusing on the role of key neurotransmitter systems including excitatory amino acids and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dr Israel Liberzon presented recent results on human decision-making processes in response to exogenous glucocorticoid hormone administration. Overall, these discussions are casting a wider framework on the cognitive/affective processes that are distinctly regulated by the experience of stress and some of the brain regions and neurotransmitter systems associated with these effects.

  10. Stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes.

    PubMed

    Campeau, Serge; Liberzon, Israel; Morilak, David; Ressler, Kerry

    2011-09-01

    This review summarizes the major discussion points of a symposium on stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes, which was held during the 2010 workshop on the neurobiology of stress (Boulder, CO, USA). The four discussants addressed a number of specific cognitive and affective factors that are modulated by exposure to acute or repeated stress. Dr David Morilak discussed the effects of various repeated stress situations on cognitive flexibility, as assessed with a rodent model of attentional set-shifting task, and how performance on slightly different aspects of this test is modulated by different prefrontal regions through monoaminergic neurotransmission. Dr Serge Campeau summarized the findings of several studies exploring a number of factors and brain regions that regulate habituation of various autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to repeated audiogenic stress exposures. Dr Kerry Ressler discussed a body of work exploring the modulation and extinction of fear memories in rodents and humans, especially focusing on the role of key neurotransmitter systems including excitatory amino acids and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dr Israel Liberzon presented recent results on human decision-making processes in response to exogenous glucocorticoid hormone administration. Overall, these discussions are casting a wider framework on the cognitive/affective processes that are distinctly regulated by the experience of stress and some of the brain regions and neurotransmitter systems associated with these effects. PMID:21790481

  11. Estrogen deprivation does not affect vascular heat shock response in female rats: a comparison with oxidative stress markers.

    PubMed

    Miragem, Antônio Azambuja; Ludwig, Mirna Stela; Heck, Thiago Gomes; Baldissera, Fernanda Giesel; dos Santos, Analu Bender; Frizzo, Matias Nunes; Homem de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo

    2015-09-01

    Hot flashes, which involve a tiny rise in core temperature, are the most common complaint of peri- and post-menopausal women, being tightly related to decrease in estrogen levels. On the other hand, estradiol (E2) induces the expression of HSP72, a member of the 70 kDa family of heat shock proteins (HSP70), which are cytoprotective, cardioprotective, and heat inducible. Since HSP70 expression is compromised in age-related inflammatory diseases, we argued whether the capacity of triggering a robust heat shock (HS) response would be still present after E2 withdrawal. Hence, we studied the effects of HS treatment (hot tub) in female Wistar rats subjected to bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) after a 7-day washout period. Twelve h after HS, the animals were killed and aortic arches were surgically excised for molecular analyses. The results were compared with oxidative stress markers in the plasma (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and lipoperoxidation) because HSP70 expression is also sensitive to redox regulation. Extracellular (plasma) to intracellular HSP70 ratio, an index of systemic inflammatory status, was also investigated. The results showed that HS response was preserved in OVX animals, as inferred from HSP70 expression (up to 40% rise, p < 0.01) in the aortas, which was accompanied by no further alterations in oxidative stress, hematological parameters, and glycemic control either. This suggests that the lack of estrogen per se could not be solely ascribed as the unique source of low HSP70 expression as observed in long-term post-menopausal individuals. As a consequence, periodic evaluation of HSP70 status (iHSP70 vs. eHSP70) may be of clinical relevance because decreased HS response capacity is at the center of the onset of menopause-related dysfunctions.

  12. Neutron Radiation Affects the Expression of Genes Involved in the Response to Auxin, Senescence and Oxidative Stress in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunati, A.; Tassone, P.; Migliaccio, F.

    2008-06-01

    Researches were conducted on the effect of neutron radiation on the expression of genes auxin activated or connected with the process of senescence in Arabidopsis plants. The research was done by applying the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The results indicated that the auxin response factors (ARFs) genes are clearly downregulated, whereas the indolacetic acid-induced (Aux/IAAs) genes in some cases were upregulated. By contrast in the mutants for auxin transport aux1 and eir1 the ARFs genes were upregulated. In addition, both in the wildtype and mutants, some already known genes activated by stress and senescence were significantly upregulated. On the basis of these researches we conclude that the process of senescence induced by irradiation is, at least in part, controlled by the physiology of the hormone auxin.

  13. LOV Histidine Kinase Modulates the General Stress Response System and Affects the virB Operon Expression in Brucella abortus

    PubMed Central

    Sycz, Gabriela; Carrica, Mariela Carmen; Tseng, Tong-Seung; Bogomolni, Roberto A.; Briggs, Winslow R.; Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Paris, Gastón

    2015-01-01

    Brucella is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease brucellosis, and its success as an intracellular pathogen relies on its ability to adapt to the harsh environmental conditions that it encounters inside the host. The Brucella genome encodes a sensor histidine kinase containing a LOV domain upstream from the kinase, LOVHK, which plays an important role in light-regulated Brucella virulence. In this report we study the intracellular signaling pathway initiated by the light sensor LOVHK using an integrated biochemical and genetic approach. From results of bacterial two-hybrid assays and phosphotransfer experiments we demonstrate that LOVHK functionally interacts with two response regulators: PhyR and LovR, constituting a functional two-component signal-transduction system. LOVHK contributes to the activation of the General Stress Response (GSR) system in Brucella via PhyR, while LovR is proposed to be a phosphate-sink for LOVHK, decreasing its phosphorylation state. We also show that in the absence of LOVHK the expression of the virB operon is down-regulated. In conclusion, our results suggest that LOVHK positively regulates the GSR system in vivo, and has an effect on the expression of the virB operon. The proposed regulatory network suggests a similar role for LOVHK in other microorganisms. PMID:25993430

  14. LOV Histidine Kinase Modulates the General Stress Response System and Affects the virB Operon Expression in Brucella abortus.

    PubMed

    Sycz, Gabriela; Carrica, Mariela Carmen; Tseng, Tong-Seung; Bogomolni, Roberto A; Briggs, Winslow R; Goldbaum, Fernando A; Paris, Gastón

    2015-01-01

    Brucella is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease brucellosis, and its success as an intracellular pathogen relies on its ability to adapt to the harsh environmental conditions that it encounters inside the host. The Brucella genome encodes a sensor histidine kinase containing a LOV domain upstream from the kinase, LOVHK, which plays an important role in light-regulated Brucella virulence. In this report we study the intracellular signaling pathway initiated by the light sensor LOVHK using an integrated biochemical and genetic approach. From results of bacterial two-hybrid assays and phosphotransfer experiments we demonstrate that LOVHK functionally interacts with two response regulators: PhyR and LovR, constituting a functional two-component signal-transduction system. LOVHK contributes to the activation of the General Stress Response (GSR) system in Brucella via PhyR, while LovR is proposed to be a phosphate-sink for LOVHK, decreasing its phosphorylation state. We also show that in the absence of LOVHK the expression of the virB operon is down-regulated. In conclusion, our results suggest that LOVHK positively regulates the GSR system in vivo, and has an effect on the expression of the virB operon. The proposed regulatory network suggests a similar role for LOVHK in other microorganisms.

  15. LPS-induced neonatal stress in mice affects the response profile to an inflammatory stimulus in an age and sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Barth, Cristiane R; Luft, Carolina; Funchal, Giselle A; de Oliveira, Jarbas R; Porto, Bárbara N; Donadio, Márcio V F

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the response to an inflammatory stimulus in mice exposed to LPS-induced neonatal stress at different ages and sexes. Balb/c mice were submitted to intraperitoneal injections on postnatal days 3 and 10 with lipopolysaccharide (nLPS) or saline solution (nSal). At 21 or 60 days, either saline solution was injected or an inflammatory stimulus was induced by the injection of 1% carrageenan. Inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) production were measured in peritoneal fluid. LPS-induced neonatal stress can reduce inflammatory cytokines in males and females. An increase in NETs production was observed when 60 day nLPS animals were compared to 21 day mice in both sexes. The ROS production was not affected by neonatal stress. The results shown here indicate that LPS-induced neonatal stress can alter cytokine production in response to inflammatory stimuli at different ages, in a sex-dependent effect. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 600-613, 2016. PMID:26956468

  16. Severity and timing: How prenatal stress exposure affects glial developmental, emotional behavioural and plasma neurosteroid responses in guinea pig offspring.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Greer A; Palliser, Hannah K; Walker, David; Hirst, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of developmental changes in offspring, notably those associated with brain development and subsequent risk for neuropathologies later in life. Recently, the importance of the timing and the severity of the stressor during pregnancy has been emphasized with neurosteroids including allopregnanolone implicated in the regulation of stress and also for endogenous neuroprotection in offspring. Prenatal stress was induced using strobe light exposure in pregnant guinea pigs (term 71days) in three defined stress exposure groups (Gestational Age (GA)35-65, GA50-65 and GA60-65). Stress was induced for 2h (9-11am) every 5days via strobe light exposure. A fetal cohort were euthanased at term with fetal brains and plasma collected. Anxiety-like behaviour was evaluated at 18 days of age in a separate cohort of offspring with brains and plasma collected at 21days of age. Markers for mature oligodendrocytes and reactive astrocytes were measured in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and the subcortical white matter. The neurosteroid allopregnanolone was measured by radioimmunoassay in offspring plasma. In the CA1 region of the hippocampus, fetuses from all stress groups showed reduced expression of mature oligodendrocytes and reactive astrocytes. By juvenility, all male stress exposure groups had recovered to levels of unaffected controls with the exception of the GA35-65 stress group. In juvenile females, mature oligodendrocyte marker expression was reduced in all stress groups and reactive astrocyte expression was reduced in the GA35-65 and GA60-65 stress groups by juvenility. Increased reactive astrocyte expression was also apparent in the subcortical white matter in both sexes both at term and at juvenility. Prenatally stressed offspring spent less time exploring in the object exploration test and also entered the inner zone of the open field less than controls at 18days of age. Circulating allopregnanolone concentrations were

  17. Severity and timing: How prenatal stress exposure affects glial developmental, emotional behavioural and plasma neurosteroid responses in guinea pig offspring.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Greer A; Palliser, Hannah K; Walker, David; Hirst, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of developmental changes in offspring, notably those associated with brain development and subsequent risk for neuropathologies later in life. Recently, the importance of the timing and the severity of the stressor during pregnancy has been emphasized with neurosteroids including allopregnanolone implicated in the regulation of stress and also for endogenous neuroprotection in offspring. Prenatal stress was induced using strobe light exposure in pregnant guinea pigs (term 71days) in three defined stress exposure groups (Gestational Age (GA)35-65, GA50-65 and GA60-65). Stress was induced for 2h (9-11am) every 5days via strobe light exposure. A fetal cohort were euthanased at term with fetal brains and plasma collected. Anxiety-like behaviour was evaluated at 18 days of age in a separate cohort of offspring with brains and plasma collected at 21days of age. Markers for mature oligodendrocytes and reactive astrocytes were measured in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and the subcortical white matter. The neurosteroid allopregnanolone was measured by radioimmunoassay in offspring plasma. In the CA1 region of the hippocampus, fetuses from all stress groups showed reduced expression of mature oligodendrocytes and reactive astrocytes. By juvenility, all male stress exposure groups had recovered to levels of unaffected controls with the exception of the GA35-65 stress group. In juvenile females, mature oligodendrocyte marker expression was reduced in all stress groups and reactive astrocyte expression was reduced in the GA35-65 and GA60-65 stress groups by juvenility. Increased reactive astrocyte expression was also apparent in the subcortical white matter in both sexes both at term and at juvenility. Prenatally stressed offspring spent less time exploring in the object exploration test and also entered the inner zone of the open field less than controls at 18days of age. Circulating allopregnanolone concentrations were

  18. The Aging Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Haigis, Marcia C.; Yankner, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Aging is the outcome of a balance between damage and repair. The rate of aging and the appearance of age-related pathology are modulated by stress response and repair pathways that gradually decline, including the proteostasis and DNA damage repair networks and mitochondrial respiratory metabolism. Highly conserved insulin/IGF-1, TOR, and sirtuin signaling pathways in turn, control these critical cellular responses. The coordinated action of these signaling pathways maintains cellular and organismal homeostasis in the face of external perturbations, such as changes in nutrient availability, temperature and oxygen level, as well as internal perturbations, such as protein misfolding and DNA damage. Studies in model organisms suggest that changes in signaling can augment these critical stress response systems, increasing lifespan and reducing age-related pathology. The systems biology of stress response signaling thus provides a new approach to the understanding and potential treatment of age-related diseases. PMID:20965426

  19. Will Stress during Pregnancy Affect My Baby?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Will stress during pregnancy affect my baby? Skip sharing on ... health care provider during your prenatal visits. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Pregnancy PTSD is a more ...

  20. Chronic stress exposure may affect the brain's response to high calorie food cues and predispose to obesogenic eating habits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exaggerated reactivity to food cues involving calorically-dense foods may significantly contribute to food consumption beyond caloric need Exaggerated reactivity to food cues involving calorically-dense foods may significantly contribute to food consumption beyond caloric need. Chronic stress, whi...

  1. Auxin response under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Naser, Victoria; Shani, Eilon

    2016-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) is a small organic molecule that coordinates many of the key processes in plant development and adaptive growth. Plants regulate the auxin response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, transport and perception. One of the most striking aspects of plant plasticity is the modulation of development in response to changing growth environments. In this review, we explore recent findings correlating auxin response-dependent growth and development with osmotic stresses. Studies of water deficit, dehydration, salt, and other osmotic stresses point towards direct and indirect molecular perturbations in the auxin pathway. Osmotic stress stimuli modulate auxin responses by affecting auxin biosynthesis (YUC, TAA1), transport (PIN), perception (TIR/AFB, Aux/IAA), and inactivation/conjugation (GH3, miR167, IAR3) to coordinate growth and patterning. In turn, stress-modulated auxin gradients drive physiological and developmental mechanisms such as stomata aperture, aquaporin and lateral root positioning. We conclude by arguing that auxin-mediated growth inhibition under abiotic stress conditions is one of the developmental and physiological strategies to acclimate to the changing environment. PMID:27052306

  2. Auxin response under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Naser, Victoria; Shani, Eilon

    2016-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) is a small organic molecule that coordinates many of the key processes in plant development and adaptive growth. Plants regulate the auxin response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, transport and perception. One of the most striking aspects of plant plasticity is the modulation of development in response to changing growth environments. In this review, we explore recent findings correlating auxin response-dependent growth and development with osmotic stresses. Studies of water deficit, dehydration, salt, and other osmotic stresses point towards direct and indirect molecular perturbations in the auxin pathway. Osmotic stress stimuli modulate auxin responses by affecting auxin biosynthesis (YUC, TAA1), transport (PIN), perception (TIR/AFB, Aux/IAA), and inactivation/conjugation (GH3, miR167, IAR3) to coordinate growth and patterning. In turn, stress-modulated auxin gradients drive physiological and developmental mechanisms such as stomata aperture, aquaporin and lateral root positioning. We conclude by arguing that auxin-mediated growth inhibition under abiotic stress conditions is one of the developmental and physiological strategies to acclimate to the changing environment.

  3. Quantitative trait loci affecting response to crowding stress in an F2 generation of rainbow trout produced through phenotypic selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding programs for salmonids typically aim to improve traits associated with growth and disease resistance. It has been established that stressors common to production environments can adversely affect these and other traits which are important to producers and consumers. Previously,...

  4. Stress Responses of Shewanella

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jianhua; Gao, Haichun

    2011-01-01

    The shewanellae are ubiquitous in aquatic and sedimentary systems that are chemically stratified on a permanent or seasonal basis. In addition to their ability to utilize a diverse array of terminal electron acceptors, the microorganisms have evolved both common and unique responding mechanisms to cope with various stresses. This paper focuses on the response and adaptive mechanism of the shewanellae, largely based on transcriptional data. PMID:21912550

  5. How should environmental stress affect the population dynamics of disease?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Holt, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    We modelled how stress affects the population dynamics of infectious disease. We were specifically concerned with stress that increased susceptibility of uninfected hosts when exposed to infection. If such stresses also reduced resources, fecundity and/or survivorship, there was a reduction in the host carrying capacity. This lowered the contact between infected and uninfected hosts, thereby decreasing transmission. In addition, stress that increased parasite mortality decreased disease. The opposing effects of stress on disease dynamics made it difficult to predict the response of disease to environmental stress. We found analytical solutions with negative, positive, convex and concave associations between disease and stress. Numerical simulations with randomly generated parameter values suggested that the impact of host-specific diseases generally declined with stress while the impact of non-specific (or open) diseases increased with stress. These results help clarify predictions about the interaction between environmental stress and disease in natural populations.

  6. Stress-induced changes in the expression of monocytic beta2-integrins: the impact of arousal of negative affect and adrenergic responses to the Anger Recall Interview.

    PubMed

    Greeson, Jeffrey M; Lewis, James G; Achanzar, Karen; Zimmerman, Eugene; Young, Kenneth H; Suarez, Edward C

    2009-02-01

    Adhesion of circulating monocytes to the vascular endothelium is one of the earliest steps in the development of atherosclerosis. This leukocyte-to-endothelium interaction is mediated in part by beta2-integrins, a group of cell adhesion molecules that bind to endothelial ligands. Given the significance of this interaction to atherogenesis, we examined the effects of stress, operationalized as the arousal of negative affect (NA) and cardiovascular and catecholamine responses to the Anger Recall Interview (ARI), on the expression of LFA-1 (CD11a), Mac-1 (CD11b) and p150/95 (CD11c) on circulating monocytes (CD14+). Subjects were 173 healthy, nonsmoking men and women (60% men, 40% minorities, aged 18-49 year). Arousal of NA, cardiovascular responses (heart rate [HR], systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP]), circulating catecholamines (epinephrine [Epi], norepinephrine [Ne]) and beta2-integrin (CD11/CD18) expression were determined prior to and following the ARI. The principal findings were that the ARI, on average, induced a decrease in monocyte expression of beta2-integrins. However, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, exercise status, and baseline level of beta2-integrin expression, those individuals who showed the largest increases in NA, Ne and DBP during the ARI showed an increase in monocyte beta2-integrin expression. Thus, heightened psychological and physiological stress responses induced phenotypic changes in monocytic expression of beta2-integrins that are consistent with the role of monocytes/macrophages in vascular inflammation and increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  7. Impaired glycogen synthesis causes metabolic overflow reactions and affects stress responses in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Gründel, Marianne; Scheunemann, Ramon; Lockau, Wolfgang; Zilliges, Yvonne

    2012-12-01

    The biosynthesis of glycogen or starch is one of the main strategies developed by living organisms for the intracellular storage of carbon and energy. In phototrophic organisms, such polyglucans accumulate due to carbon fixation during photosynthesis and are used to provide maintenance energy for cell integrity, function and viability in dark periods. Moreover, it is assumed that glycogen enables cyanobacteria to cope with transient starvation conditions, as observed in most micro-organisms. Here, glycogen accumulates when an appropriate carbon source is available in sufficient amounts but growth is inhibited by lack of other nutrients. In this study, the role of glycogen in energy and carbon metabolism of phototrophic cyanobacteria was first analysed via a comparative physiological and metabolic characterization of knockout mutants defective in glycogen synthesis. We first proved the role of glycogen as a respiratory substrate in periods of darkness, the role of glycogen as a reserve to survive starvation periods such as nitrogen depletion and the role of glycogen synthesis as an ameliorator of carbon excess conditions in the model organism Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. We provide striking new insights into the complex carbon and nitrogen metabolism of non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria: a phenotype of sensitivity to photomixotrophic conditions and of reduced glucose uptake, a non-bleaching phenotype based on an impaired acclimation response to nitrogen depletion and furthermore a phenotype of energy spilling. This study shows that the analysis of deficiencies in glycogen metabolism is a valuable tool for the identification of metabolic regulatory principles and signals.

  8. RNA-Seq Analysis Identifies New Genes Regulated by the Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Protein (H-NS) Affecting Vibrio cholerae Virulence, Stress Response and Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongxia; Ayala, Julio C.; Benitez, Jorge A.; Silva, Anisia J.

    2015-01-01

    The histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) functions as a transcriptional silencer by binding to AT-rich sequences at bacterial promoters. However, H-NS repression can be counteracted by other transcription factors in response to environmental changes. The identification of potential toxic factors, the expression of which is prevented by H-NS could facilitate the discovery of new regulatory proteins that may contribute to the emergence of new pathogenic variants by anti-silencing. Vibrio cholerae hns mutants of the El Tor biotype exhibit altered virulence, motility and environmental stress response phenotypes compared to wild type. We used an RNA-seq analysis approach to determine the basis of the above hns phenotypes and identify new targets of H-NS transcriptional silencing. H-NS affected the expression of 18% of all predicted genes in a growth phase-dependent manner. Loss of H-NS resulted in diminished expression of numerous genes encoding methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins as well as chemotaxis toward the attractants glycine and serine. Deletion of hns also induced an endogenous envelope stress response resulting in elevated expression of rpoE encoding the extracytoplamic sigma factor E (σE). The RNA-seq analysis identified new genes directly repressed by H-NS that can affect virulence and biofilm development in the El Tor biotype cholera bacterium. We show that H-NS and the quorum sensing regulator HapR silence the transcription of the vieSAB three-component regulatory system in El Tor biotype V. cholerae. We also demonstrate that H-NS directly represses the transcription of hlyA (hemolysin), rtxCA (the repeat in toxin or RTX), rtxBDE (RTX transport) and the biosynthesis of indole. Of these genes, H-NS occupancy at the hlyA promoter was diminished by overexpression of the transcription activator HlyU. We discuss the role of H-NS transcriptional silencing in phenotypic differences exhibited by V. cholerae biotypes. PMID:25679988

  9. RNA-seq analysis identifies new genes regulated by the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) affecting Vibrio cholerae virulence, stress response and chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxia; Ayala, Julio C; Benitez, Jorge A; Silva, Anisia J

    2015-01-01

    The histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) functions as a transcriptional silencer by binding to AT-rich sequences at bacterial promoters. However, H-NS repression can be counteracted by other transcription factors in response to environmental changes. The identification of potential toxic factors, the expression of which is prevented by H-NS could facilitate the discovery of new regulatory proteins that may contribute to the emergence of new pathogenic variants by anti-silencing. Vibrio cholerae hns mutants of the El Tor biotype exhibit altered virulence, motility and environmental stress response phenotypes compared to wild type. We used an RNA-seq analysis approach to determine the basis of the above hns phenotypes and identify new targets of H-NS transcriptional silencing. H-NS affected the expression of 18% of all predicted genes in a growth phase-dependent manner. Loss of H-NS resulted in diminished expression of numerous genes encoding methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins as well as chemotaxis toward the attractants glycine and serine. Deletion of hns also induced an endogenous envelope stress response resulting in elevated expression of rpoE encoding the extracytoplamic sigma factor E (σE). The RNA-seq analysis identified new genes directly repressed by H-NS that can affect virulence and biofilm development in the El Tor biotype cholera bacterium. We show that H-NS and the quorum sensing regulator HapR silence the transcription of the vieSAB three-component regulatory system in El Tor biotype V. cholerae. We also demonstrate that H-NS directly represses the transcription of hlyA (hemolysin), rtxCA (the repeat in toxin or RTX), rtxBDE (RTX transport) and the biosynthesis of indole. Of these genes, H-NS occupancy at the hlyA promoter was diminished by overexpression of the transcription activator HlyU. We discuss the role of H-NS transcriptional silencing in phenotypic differences exhibited by V. cholerae biotypes.

  10. Stress affects articulatory planning in reading aloud.

    PubMed

    Sulpizio, Simone; Spinelli, Giacomo; Burani, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Three experiments of pseudoword reading assessed whether stress assignment affects reading aloud at the level of articulation planning. In Experiment 1 (immediate reading) both stimulus length (in syllables) and stress type affected reading latency and accuracy. Italian pseudowords were named faster and more accurately when they were assigned stress on the antepenultimate rather than on the penultimate syllable. In Experiment 2 (delayed reading) reading aloud of the same stimuli was not affected by length but was still affected by stress type, with shorter latencies for pseudowords stressed on the antepenultimate syllable. Experiment 3 replicated the results of the first two experiments with new materials and with a tightly controlled procedure. These results indicate that stress assignment exerts an effect in a processing component where articulation is planned since articulation cannot start until stress is assigned. Our results also suggest that, in reading aloud, the minimal planning unit for articulation is smaller than the whole stimulus, including the first syllable up to the stressed unit.

  11. Stress responses and pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Redman, C W G

    2013-04-01

    Biological stress may affect individual cells, tissues or whole organisms, arising from disturbed homoeostasis of any cause. Stress is rarely localised. Because biological systems are closely integrated, it spreads to involve other systems. Stress responses are highly integrated and work to restore homoeostasis. Different response pathways overlap and interlink. If the responses fail or decompensate, distress ensues, of which the end-stage is death. Pre-eclampsia results from a series of biological stresses, possibly from conception, which become established by abnormal placentation and affect the mother, her foetus and her placenta. The stresses involve dialogue between mother and placenta. Even a normal placenta imposes substantial stress on maternal systems. When placental growth and perfusion is abnormal (poor placentation) then the placenta, particularly its outer trophoblast layer, becomes stressed - loosely denoted hypoxic damage or oxidative stress. Signals from the placenta spread the stress to the mother, who develops signs of pre-eclampsia. Cellular stress sensors initiate stress responses. Different stresses may trigger similar responses in specific cell types. The first cell response is reduced protein synthesis. However some synthetic pathways are spared or activated to produce stress signals. In relation to pre-eclampsia and the placenta, an excessive release of sFlt-1 a soluble decoy receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a trophoblast related stress signal. SFlt1 perturbs the angiogenic balance in the maternal circulation and is considered to cause many of the specific features of the maternal syndrome in pre-eclampsia. Three key points will be emphasised. First, multiple stressors, not simply hypoxia, stimulate the release of sFlt-1 from trophoblast. Second, sFlt-1 is only one of the group of stress signals delivered by trophoblast to the mother. Third, sFlt-1 is not the only trophoblast derived factor to perturb the maternal

  12. Pre-pubertal stress exposure affects adult behavioral response in association with changes in circulating corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Bazak, Noam; Kozlovsky, Nitsan; Kaplan, Zeev; Matar, Michael; Golan, Hava; Zohar, Joseph; Richter-Levin, Gal; Cohen, Hagit

    2009-07-01

    Early-life stress produces a cascade of neurobiological events that cause enduring changes in neural plasticity and synaptic efficacy that appear to play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the neurobiological mechanisms of these changes, in interaction with components of the stress response, such as corticosterone. This study examined the consequences of juvenile stress for behavior during adulthood in association with circulating corticosterone levels and BDNF expression. The experiments examined single exposure to predator scent stress (soiled cat litter for 10 min) as compared to repeated exposure, early in life and later on. Behavioral responses were assessed in the elevated plus maze and the acoustic startle response paradigms at 28, 60 and 90 days of age. Plasma corticosterone was measured and brain areas analyzed for BDNF levels. The results show that juvenile stress exposure increased anxiety-like behavior and startle amplitude and decreased plasma corticosterone. This response was seen immediately after exposure and also long term. Adult stress exposure increased anxiety-like behavior, startle amplitude and plasma corticosterone. Exposure to both early and later life trauma elicited reduced levels of corticosterone following the initial exposure, which were not raised by re-exposure, and elicited significant downregulation of BDNF mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus CA1 subregion. The consequences of adult stress exposure were more severe in rats were exposed to the same stressor as juveniles, indicated increased vulnerability. The results suggest that juvenile stress has resounding effects in adulthood reflected in behavioral responses. The concomitant changes in BDNF and corticosterone levels may mediate the changes in neural plasticity and synaptic functioning underlying clinical manifestations of PTSD.

  13. Glutathione Deficiency of the Arabidopsis Mutant pad2-1 Affects Oxidative Stress-Related Events, Defense Gene Expression, and the Hypersensitive Response1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dubreuil-Maurizi, Carole; Vitecek, Jan; Marty, Laurent; Branciard, Lorelise; Frettinger, Patrick; Wendehenne, David; Meyer, Andreas J.; Mauch, Felix; Poinssot, Benoît

    2011-01-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) phytoalexin-deficient mutant pad2-1 displays enhanced susceptibility to a broad range of pathogens and herbivorous insects that correlates with deficiencies in the production of camalexin, indole glucosinolates, and salicylic acid (SA). The pad2-1 mutation is localized in the GLUTAMATE-CYSTEINE LIGASE (GCL) gene encoding the first enzyme of glutathione biosynthesis. While pad2-1 glutathione deficiency is not caused by a decrease in GCL transcripts, analysis of GCL protein level revealed that pad2-1 plants contained only 48% of the wild-type protein amount. In contrast to the wild type, the oxidized form of GCL was dominant in pad2-1, suggesting a distinct redox environment. This finding was corroborated by the expression of GRX1-roGFP2, showing that the cytosolic glutathione redox potential was significantly less negative in pad2-1. Analysis of oxidative stress-related gene expression showed a higher transcript accumulation in pad2-1 of GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE, GLUTATHIONE-S-TRANSFERASE, and RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG D in response to the oomycete Phytophthora brassicae. Interestingly, oligogalacturonide elicitation in pad2-1 revealed a lower plasma membrane depolarization that was found to act upstream of an impaired hydrogen peroxide production. This impaired hydrogen peroxide production was also observed during pathogen infection and correlated with a reduced hypersensitive response in pad2-1. In addition, a lack of pathogen-triggered expression of the ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE1 gene, coding for the SA-biosynthetic enzyme isochorismate synthase, was identified as the cause of the SA deficiency in pad2-1. Together, our results indicate that the pad2-1 mutation is related to a decrease in GCL protein and that the resulting glutathione deficiency negatively affects important processes of disease resistance. PMID:22007023

  14. Nutrigenomic profiling of transcriptional processes affected in liver and distal intestine in response to a soybean meal-induced nutritional stress in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    De Santis, Christian; Bartie, Kerry L; Olsen, Rolf E; Taggart, John B; Tocher, Douglas R

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to generate an experimental model to characterize the nutrigenomic profile of a plant-derived nutritional stress. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was used as the model species. The nutritional stress was induced by inclusion of dietary defatted soybean meal (SBM), as this ingredient had been previously demonstrated to induce enteropathy in the distal intestine and reduce growth in salmon. Triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon were fed concentrations of 0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg(-1) SBM for 12 weeks and reduced growth performance was used as the indicator of nutritional stress. The transcriptome was analyzed in two tissues, liver and distal intestine, with the hypothesis being that the liver transcriptome would be characterized by gene expression responses related to overall growth and health performance, whereas intestinal gene expression would be dominated by specific responses to SBM. A set of 133 genes was differentially expressed in liver including 44 genes in common with the intestinal response. The liver-specific response included up-regulation of genes involved in protein digestion, energy metabolism and immune functions, whereas genes in other metabolic pathways were generally anabolic and down-regulated. These responses may be more related to general nutritional stress than to SBM per se. The transcriptomic profile in the distal intestine was consistent with the enteritis response as described previously. This study provides a comprehensive report on the profiles of liver and distal intestine transcriptomes, specifically highlighting the role of the liver in fish undergoing SBM-induced nutritional stress.

  15. Staphylococcal response to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Gaupp, Rosmarie; Ledala, Nagender; Somerville, Greg A.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococci are a versatile genus of bacteria that are capable of causing acute and chronic infections in diverse host species. The success of staphylococci as pathogens is due in part to their ability to mitigate endogenous and exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress. Endogenous oxidative stress is a consequence of life in an aerobic environment; whereas, exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress are often due to the bacteria's interaction with host immune systems. To overcome the deleterious effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress, staphylococci have evolved protection, detoxification, and repair mechanisms that are controlled by a network of regulators. In this review, we summarize the cellular targets of oxidative stress, the mechanisms by which staphylococci sense oxidative stress and damage, oxidative stress protection and repair mechanisms, and regulation of the oxidative stress response. When possible, special attention is given to how the oxidative stress defense mechanisms help staphylococci control oxidative stress in the host. PMID:22919625

  16. Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Catherine J; Butawan, Matthew; Yordy, Jennifer; Ball, Ray; Flewelling, Leanne; de Wit, Martine; Bonde, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of Florida's southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (p<0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the wild impacts some immune function components, and thus, overall health, in the Florida manatee.

  17. Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Catherine J; Butawan, Matthew; Yordy, Jennifer; Ball, Ray; Flewelling, Leanne; de Wit, Martine; Bonde, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of Florida's southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (p<0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the wild impacts some immune function components, and thus, overall health, in the Florida manatee. PMID:25678466

  18. Unconscious Affective Responses to Food

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Wataru; Sawada, Reiko; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi; Fushiki, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Affective or hedonic responses to food are crucial for humans, both advantageously (e.g., enhancing survival) and disadvantageously (e.g., promoting overeating and lifestyle-related disease). Although previous psychological studies have reported evidence of unconscious cognitive and behavioral processing related to food, it remains unknown whether affective reactions to food can be triggered unconsciously and its relationship with daily eating behaviors. We investigated these issues by using the subliminal affective priming paradigm. Photographs of food or corresponding mosaic images were presented in the peripheral visual field for 33 ms. Target photos of faces with emotionally neutral expressions were then presented, and participants rated their preferences for the faces. Eating behaviors were also assessed using questionnaires. The food images, relative to the mosaics, increased participants’ preference for subsequent target faces. Furthermore, the difference in the preference induced by food versus mosaic images was positively correlated with the tendency to engage in external eating. These results suggest that unconscious affective reactions are elicited by the sight of food and that these responses contribute to daily eating behaviors related to overeating. PMID:27501443

  19. Acute effects of brisk walking on sugary snack cravings in overweight people, affect and responses to a manipulated stress situation and to a sugary snack cue: a crossover study.

    PubMed

    Ledochowski, Larissa; Ruedl, Gerhard; Taylor, Adrian H; Kopp, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that acute exercise reduces urges for chocolate in normal weight people. This study aimed to examine the effects of an acute exercise bout on urges to consume sugary snacks, affect as well as 'psychological and physiological responses' to stress and a 'sugary snack cue', in overweight individuals. Following 3 days of chocolate-abstinence, 47 overweight, sugary snack consumers were assessed, in 2 randomly ordered conditions, in a within-subject design: 15-min brisk walk or passive control. Following each, participants completed 2 tasks: Stroop color-word interference task, and handling sugary snacks. Urges for sugary snacks, affective activation and valence were assessed. ANOVAs revealed significant condition x time interaction effects for: urges to consume sugary snacks, affective valence and activation. Obtained data show that exercise reduces urges for sugary snacks and attenuates urges in response to the stress situation and the cue in overweight people.

  20. Acute effects of brisk walking on sugary snack cravings in overweight people, affect and responses to a manipulated stress situation and to a sugary snack cue: a crossover study.

    PubMed

    Ledochowski, Larissa; Ruedl, Gerhard; Taylor, Adrian H; Kopp, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that acute exercise reduces urges for chocolate in normal weight people. This study aimed to examine the effects of an acute exercise bout on urges to consume sugary snacks, affect as well as 'psychological and physiological responses' to stress and a 'sugary snack cue', in overweight individuals. Following 3 days of chocolate-abstinence, 47 overweight, sugary snack consumers were assessed, in 2 randomly ordered conditions, in a within-subject design: 15-min brisk walk or passive control. Following each, participants completed 2 tasks: Stroop color-word interference task, and handling sugary snacks. Urges for sugary snacks, affective activation and valence were assessed. ANOVAs revealed significant condition x time interaction effects for: urges to consume sugary snacks, affective valence and activation. Obtained data show that exercise reduces urges for sugary snacks and attenuates urges in response to the stress situation and the cue in overweight people. PMID:25760042

  1. Ecological factors affecting the adrenocortical response to stress in chestnut-collared and McCown's longspurs (Calcarius ornatus, Calcarius mccownii).

    PubMed

    Lynn, Sharon E; Hunt, Kathleen E; Wingfield, John C

    2003-01-01

    Secretion of the steroid hormone corticosterone (CORT) in response to perturbations results in behavior patterns that can maximize survival. Three commonly cited hypotheses suggest that during breeding, there are advantages associated with suppressed (CORT) secretion in (1) the sex that is most important for parental care, (2) individuals in good body condition, and (3) species with a short breeding season and limited renesting opportunities. We addressed these hypotheses in two midlatitude breeders, chestnut-collared and McCown's longspurs, by assessing CORT secretion over a 1-h period of handling. These species have congeners that are exclusively arctic breeders, and this provides a unique opportunity to assess adrenocortical responsiveness both within a phylogenetic framework and across environmental variables. In both species, males and females showed similar CORT secretion patterns in response to handling, and body condition was unrelated to CORT secretion. Additionally, although these midlatitude breeders have more opportunities to attempt a renest than their arctic congeners, their hormonal response to stress was similar to that reported for their arctic congeners. We suggest that an attenuated stress response may relate to the severity of the breeding environment and a low likelihood of successful renesting, since these variables are common to both arctic and grassland habitats.

  2. Assessing Behavioral Responses to Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Louis A.; Shermis, Mark D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper advocates the use of a stress paradigm in the assessment of children with behavior disorders. The Stress Response Scale, designed to assess such behavioral patterns, is presented and discussed. Data are presented which describe the most frequently found patterns among a population of school-aged children. (Author/LMO)

  3. Protein Degradation and the Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Flick, Karin; Kaiser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Environmental stresses are manifold and so are the responses they elicit. This is particularly true for higher eukaryotes where various tissues and cell types are differentially affected by the insult. Type and scope of the stress response can therefore differ greatly among cell types. Given the importance of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) for most cellular processes, it comes as no surprise that the UPR plays a pivotal role in counteracting the effects of stressors. Here we outline contributions of the UPS to stress sensing, signaling, and response pathways. We make no claim to comprehensiveness but choose selected examples to illustrate concepts and mechanisms by which protein modification with ubiquitin and proteasomal degradation of key regulators ensures cellular integrity during stress situations. PMID:22414377

  4. Neuronal Responses to Physiological Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner chemistry during normal development. For example, conditions such as intrinsic hypoxia and oxidative stress, due to an increase in tissue mass, have to be confronted by developing embryos in order to complete their development. Finally, organisms face the challenge of stochastic accumulation of molecular damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses include changes in the expression of molecules such as transcription factors and microRNAs that regulate stress resistance and adaptation. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic stresses have a tremendous impact on neuronal development and maintenance with implications in many diseases. Here, we review the responses of neurons to various physiological stressors at the molecular and cellular level. PMID:23112806

  5. Subtoxic and toxic concentrations of benzene and toluene induce Nrf2-mediated antioxidative stress response and affect the central carbon metabolism in lung epithelial cells A549.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Kalaimathi; Baumann, Sven; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Kliemt, Stefanie; Kalkhof, Stefan; Otto, Wolfgang; Mögel, Iljana; Kohajda, Tibor; von Bergen, Martin; Tomm, Janina M

    2013-11-01

    Since people in industrialized countries spend most of their time indoors, the effects of indoor contaminants such as volatile organic compounds become more and more relevant. Benzene and toluene are among the most abundant compounds in the highly heterogeneous group of indoor volatile organic compounds. In order to understand their effects on lung epithelial cells (A549) representing lung's first line of defense, we chose a global proteome and a targeted metabolome approach in order to detect adverse outcome pathways caused by exposure to benzene and toluene. Using a DIGE approach, 93 of 469 detected protein spots were found to be differentially expressed after exposure to benzene, and 79 of these spots were identified by MS. Pathway analysis revealed an enrichment of proteins involved in Nrf2-mediated and oxidative stress response glycolysis/gluconeogenesis. The occurrence of oxidative stress at nonacute toxic concentrations of benzene and toluene was confirmed by the upregulation of the stress related proteins NQO1 and SOD1. The changes in metabolism were validated by ion chromatography MS/MS analysis revealing significant changes of glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, 3-phosphoglycerate, and NADPH. The molecular alterations identified as a result of benzene and toluene exposure demonstrate the detrimental effect of nonacute toxic concentrations on lung epithelial cells. The data provided here will allow for a targeted validation in in vivo models.

  6. Trait and state positive affect and cardiovascular recovery from experimental academic stress.

    PubMed

    Papousek, Ilona; Nauschnegg, Karin; Paechter, Manuela; Lackner, Helmut K; Goswami, Nandu; Schulter, Günter

    2010-02-01

    As compared to negative affect, only a small number of studies have examined influences of positive affect on cardiovascular stress responses, of which only a few were concerned with cardiovascular recovery. In this study, heart rate, low- and high-frequency heart rate variability, blood pressure, and levels of subjectively experienced stress were obtained in 65 students before, during and after exposure to academic stress in an ecologically valid setting. Higher trait positive affect was associated with more complete cardiovascular and subjective post-stress recovery. This effect was independent of negative affect and of affective state during anticipation of the stressor. In contrast, a more positive affective state during anticipation of the challenge was related to poor post-stress recovery. The findings suggest that a temporally stable positive affect disposition may be related to adaptive responses, whereas positive emotional states in the context of stressful events can also contribute to prolonged post-stress recovery.

  7. The Chlamydomonas heat stress response.

    PubMed

    Schroda, Michael; Hemme, Dorothea; Mühlhaus, Timo

    2015-05-01

    Heat waves occurring at increased frequency as a consequence of global warming jeopardize crop yield safety. One way to encounter this problem is to genetically engineer crop plants toward increased thermotolerance. To identify entry points for genetic engineering, a thorough understanding of how plant cells perceive heat stress and respond to it is required. Using the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model system to study the fundamental mechanisms of the plant heat stress response has several advantages. Most prominent among them is the suitability of Chlamydomonas for studying stress responses system-wide and in a time-resolved manner under controlled conditions. Here we review current knowledge on how heat is sensed and signaled to trigger temporally and functionally grouped sub-responses termed response elements to prevent damage and to maintain cellular homeostasis in plant cells.

  8. Glutathione reductase from Brassica rapa affects tolerance and the redox state but not fermentation ability in response to oxidative stress in genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ho-Sung; Shin, Sun-Young; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Il-Sup

    2012-05-01

    To determine whether the exogenous expression of glutathione reductase (GR) from Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (BrGR) can reduce the deleterious effects of unfavorable conditions, we constructed a transgenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain bearing the GR gene cloned into the yeast expression vector, pVTU260. BrGR expression was confirmed by semi reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, immunoblotting analysis and an enzyme assay. Ectopic BrGR-expression improved cellular glutathione (GSH) homeostasis after higher GSH accumulation in the transgenic yeast than in the wild-type yeast under H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress. The BrGR-expressing yeast strain induced the activation of metabolic enzymes (Hxt, G6PDH, GAPDH and Ald), antioxidant systems (Gpx, Trx2, Trx3, Trr1, Tsa1 and porin) and molecular chaperones (Hsp104, Hsp90, Hsp70, Hsp42, Hsp26, Grp, Sti1 and Zpr1), which led to lower oxidative protein damage after a reduction in the level of cellular ROS in the BrGR-expressing yeast strain exposed to H(2)O(2) than in the wild-type yeast strain. BrGR-expression increased the ability to adapt and recover from H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress and various stressors, including heat shock, menadione, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, heavy metals, sodium dodecyl sulfate, ethanol and NaCl, but did not affect fermentation capacity. These results suggest that ectopic BrGR expression confers acquired tolerance by improving proteostasis and redox homeostasis through co-activation of various cell rescue proteins against ROS-induced oxidative stress in yeast cells.

  9. EATING BEHAVIOR IN RESPONSE TO ACUTE STRESS.

    PubMed

    Mocanu, Veronica; Bontea, Amalia; Anton-Păduraru, Dana-teodora

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a medical and social problem with a dramatically increasing prevalence. It is important to take action since childhood to prevent and treat obesity and metabolic syndrome. Infantile obesity affects all body systems starting in childhood and continuing to adulthood. Understanding the impact of stressors on weight status may be especially important for preventing obesity. The relationship between stress, eating behavior and obesity is not fully understood. However, there is evidence that stress causes disorders in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, system that regulates both stress and feeding responses. Also, the response is different depending on the type of stressors. Chronic stress, especially when people live in a palatable food environment, induces HPA stimulation, excess glucocorticoids, insulin resistance, which lead to inhibition of lipid mobilization, accumulation of triglyceride and retention of abdominal fat. PMID:27483696

  10. Recovery from water stress affects grape leaf petiole transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Irene; Pagliarani, Chiara; Lovisolo, Claudio; Chitarra, Walter; Roman, Federica; Schubert, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Fast and efficient recovery from water stress is a key determinant of plant adaptation to changing meteorological conditions modulating transpiration, i.e. air temperature and humidity. We analysed transcriptomic responses during rehydration after water stress in grapevine leaf petioles, where embolism formation and repair commonly take place, and where metabolic changes related to embolism recovery are expected to be particularly important. We compared gene expression of recovering plants with irrigated controls, upon high and low transpiration conditions, using cDNA microarrays. In parallel, we assessed the daily dynamics of water relations, embolism formation and repair, and leaf abscisic acid concentration. In recovering plants, the most affected gene categories were secondary metabolism, including genes linked to flavonoid biosynthesis; sugar metabolism and transport, and several aquaporin genes. The physiological dynamics of recovery were lower and the number of differentially expressed probes was much lower upon low transpiration than found in actively transpiring grapevines, suggesting the existence of a more intense metabolic reorganization upon high transpiration conditions and of a signal eliciting these responses. In plants recovering under high transpiration, abscisic acid concentrations significantly increased, and, in parallel, transcripts linked to abscisic acid metabolism and signalling (ABA-8'-hydroxylase, serine-threonine kinases, RD22 proteins) were upregulated; a trend that was not observed upon low transpiration. Our results show that recovery from water stress elicits complex transcriptomic responses in grapevine. The increase observed in abscisic acid cellular levels could represent a signal triggering the activation of responses to rehydration after stress. PMID:22241135

  11. Osmotic stress at the barley root affects expression of circadian clock genes in the shoot.

    PubMed

    Habte, Ermias; Müller, Lukas M; Shtaya, Munqez; Davis, Seth J; von Korff, Maria

    2014-06-01

    The circadian clock is an important timing system that controls physiological responses to abiotic stresses in plants. However, there is little information on the effects of the clock on stress adaptation in important crops, like barley. In addition, we do not know how osmotic stress perceived at the roots affect the shoot circadian clock. Barley genotypes, carrying natural variation at the photoperiod response and clock genes Ppd-H1 and HvELF3, were grown under control and osmotic stress conditions to record changes in the diurnal expression of clock and stress-response genes and in physiological traits. Variation at HvELF3 affected the expression phase and shape of clock and stress-response genes, while variation at Ppd-H1 only affected the expression levels of stress genes. Osmotic stress up-regulated expression of clock and stress-response genes and advanced their expression peaks. Clock genes controlled the expression of stress-response genes, but had minor effects on gas exchange and leaf transpiration. This study demonstrated that osmotic stress at the barley root altered clock gene expression in the shoot and acted as a spatial input signal into the clock. Unlike in Arabidopsis, barley primary assimilation was less controlled by the clock and more responsive to environmental perturbations, such as osmotic stress. PMID:24895755

  12. Plant Responses to Nanoparticle Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Zahed; Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed substantially in understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against various stresses by providing a link between gene expression and cell metabolism. As the coding regions of genome are responsible for plant adaptation to adverse conditions, protein signatures provide insights into the phytotoxicity of NPs at proteome level. This review summarizes the recent contributions of plant proteomic research to elaborate the complex molecular pathways of plant response to NPs stress. PMID:26561803

  13. Chronic restraint or variable stresses differently affect the behavior, corticosterone secretion and body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Marin, Marcelo T; Cruz, Fabio C; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2007-01-30

    Organisms are constantly subjected to stressful stimuli that affect numerous physiological processes and activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, increasing the release of glucocorticoids. Exposure to chronic stress is known to alter basic mechanisms of the stress response. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of two different stress paradigms (chronic restraint or variable stress) on behavioral and corticosterone release to a subsequent exposure to stressors. Considering that the HPA axis might respond differently when it is challenged with a novel or a familiar stressor we investigated the changes in the corticosterone levels following the exposure to two stressors: restraint (familiar stress) or forced novelty (novel stress). The changes in the behavioral response were evaluated by measuring the locomotor response to a novel environment. In addition, we examined changes in body, adrenals, and thymus weights in response to the chronic paradigms. Our results showed that exposure to chronic variable stress increased basal plasma corticosterone levels and that both, chronic restraint and variable stresses, promote higher corticosterone levels in response to a novel environment, but not to a challenge restraint stress, as compared to the control (non-stressed) group. Exposure to chronic restraint leads to increased novelty-induced locomotor activity. Furthermore, only the exposure to variable stress reduced body weights. In conclusion, the present results provide additional evidence on how chronic stress affects the organism physiology and point to the importance of the chronic paradigm and challenge stress on the behavioral and hormonal adaptations induced by chronic stress.

  14. Ralstonia solanacearum ΔPGI-1 strain KZR-5 is affected in growth, response to cold stress and invasion of tomato.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Patricia; van Overbeek, Leonard Simon; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The survival and persistence of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 in temperate climates is still poorly understood. To assess whether genomic variants of the organism show adaptation to local conditions, we compared the behaviour of environmental strain KZR-5, which underwent a deletion of the 17.6 kb genomic island PGI-1, with that of environmental strain KZR-1 and potato-derived strains 1609 and 715. PGI-1 harbours two genes of potential ecological relevance, i.e. one encoding a hypothetical protein with a RelA/SpoT domain and one a putative cellobiohydrolase. We thus assessed bacterial fate under conditions of amino acid starvation, during growth, upon incubation at low temperature and invasion of tomato plants. In contrast to the other strains, environmental strain KZR-5 did not grow on media that induce amino acid starvation. In addition, its maximum growth rate at 28°C in rich medium was significantly reduced. On the other hand, long-term survival at 4°C was significantly enhanced as compared to that of strains 1609, 715 and KZR-1. Although strain KZR-5 showed growth rates (at 28°C) in two different media, which were similar to those of strains 1609 and 715, its ability to compete with these strains under these conditions was reduced. In singly inoculated tomato plants, no significant differences in invasiveness were observed among strains KZR-5, KZR-1, 1609 and 715. However, reduced competitiveness of strain KZR-5 was found in experiments on tomato plant colonisation and wilting when using 1:1 or 5:1 mixtures of strains. The potential role of PGI-1 in plant invasion, response to stress and growth in competition at high and moderate temperatures is discussed.

  15. The Stress Response Regulator AflSkn7 Influences Morphological Development, Stress Response, and Pathogenicity in the Fungus Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Xu, Gaopo; Geng, Longpo; Lu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Kunlong; Yuan, Jun; Nie, Xinyi; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on AflSkn7, which is a stress response regulator in the aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. The ΔAflSkn7 mutants exhibited partially defective conidial formation and a complete inability to generate sclerotia, indicating AflSkn7 affects A. flavus asexual and sexual development. The mutants tolerated osmotic stress but were partially susceptible to the effects of cell wall stress. Additionally, the ΔAflSkn7 mutants were especially sensitive to oxidative stress. These observations confirmed that AflSkn7 influences oxidative stress responses rather than osmotic stress responses. Additionally, AflSkn7 was observed to increase aflatoxin biosynthesis and seed infection rates. These results indicate AflSkn7 affects A. flavus morphological development, stress response, aflatoxin production, and pathogenicity. The results of this study may facilitate the development of new methods to manage A. flavus infections. PMID:27399770

  16. The Stress Response Regulator AflSkn7 Influences Morphological Development, Stress Response, and Pathogenicity in the Fungus Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Xu, Gaopo; Geng, Longpo; Lu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Kunlong; Yuan, Jun; Nie, Xinyi; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on AflSkn7, which is a stress response regulator in the aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. The ΔAflSkn7 mutants exhibited partially defective conidial formation and a complete inability to generate sclerotia, indicating AflSkn7 affects A. flavus asexual and sexual development. The mutants tolerated osmotic stress but were partially susceptible to the effects of cell wall stress. Additionally, the ΔAflSkn7 mutants were especially sensitive to oxidative stress. These observations confirmed that AflSkn7 influences oxidative stress responses rather than osmotic stress responses. Additionally, AflSkn7 was observed to increase aflatoxin biosynthesis and seed infection rates. These results indicate AflSkn7 affects A. flavus morphological development, stress response, aflatoxin production, and pathogenicity. The results of this study may facilitate the development of new methods to manage A. flavus infections. PMID:27399770

  17. The Plant Heat Stress Transcription Factors (HSFs): Structure, Regulation, and Function in Response to Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Meng; Liu, Jin-Hong; Ma, Xiao; Luo, De-Xu; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Lu, Ming-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as high temperature, salinity, and drought adversely affect the survival, growth, and reproduction of plants. Plants respond to such unfavorable changes through developmental, physiological, and biochemical ways, and these responses require expression of stress-responsive genes, which are regulated by a network of transcription factors (TFs), including heat stress transcription factors (HSFs). HSFs play a crucial role in plants response to several abiotic stresses by regulating the expression of stress-responsive genes, such as heat shock proteins (Hsps). In this review, we describe the conserved structure of plant HSFs, the identification of HSF gene families from various plant species, their expression profiling under abiotic stress conditions, regulation at different levels and function in abiotic stresses. Despite plant HSFs share highly conserved structure, their remarkable diversification across plants reflects their numerous functions as well as their integration into the complex stress signaling and response networks, which can be employed in crop improvement strategies via biotechnological intervention. PMID:26904076

  18. The Plant Heat Stress Transcription Factors (HSFs): Structure, Regulation, and Function in Response to Abiotic Stresses.

    PubMed

    Guo, Meng; Liu, Jin-Hong; Ma, Xiao; Luo, De-Xu; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Lu, Ming-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as high temperature, salinity, and drought adversely affect the survival, growth, and reproduction of plants. Plants respond to such unfavorable changes through developmental, physiological, and biochemical ways, and these responses require expression of stress-responsive genes, which are regulated by a network of transcription factors (TFs), including heat stress transcription factors (HSFs). HSFs play a crucial role in plants response to several abiotic stresses by regulating the expression of stress-responsive genes, such as heat shock proteins (Hsps). In this review, we describe the conserved structure of plant HSFs, the identification of HSF gene families from various plant species, their expression profiling under abiotic stress conditions, regulation at different levels and function in abiotic stresses. Despite plant HSFs share highly conserved structure, their remarkable diversification across plants reflects their numerous functions as well as their integration into the complex stress signaling and response networks, which can be employed in crop improvement strategies via biotechnological intervention.

  19. Work stress and innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Boscolo, P; Di Gioacchino, M; Reale, M; Muraro, R; Di Giampaolo, L

    2011-01-01

    Several reports highlight the relationship between blood NK cytotoxic activity and life style. Easy life style, including physical activity, healthy dietary habits as well as good mental health are characterized by an efficient immune response. Life style is related to the type of occupational activity since work has a central part in life either as source of income or contributing to represent the social identity. Not only occupational stress, but also job loss or insecurity are thus considered serious stressful situations, inducing emotional disorders which may affect both neuroendocrine and immune systems; reduced reactivity to mitogens and/or decreased blood NK cytotoxic activity was reported in unemployed workers or in those with a high perception of job insecurity and/or job stress. Although genetic factors have a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders, occupational stress (as in night shifts) was reported associated to an increased incidence of autoimmune disorders. Monitoring blood NK response may thus be included in the health programs as an indirect index of stressful job and/or poor lifestyle.

  20. Positive Affect and Stress Reactivity in Alcohol-Dependent Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Kaufman, Julia S.; Frost, Katherine H.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Reactivity to stress is a common feature of alcohol dependence and is associated with poorer treatment outcome among alcohol-dependent patients. Despite the importance of stress reactivity in alcohol dependence, little is known about markers of resilience to stress in this population. The current study examined whether positive affect buffered the effect of stress on negative affect and alcohol craving in an alcohol-dependent sample. Method: Outpatients (N = 1,375) enrolled in a large, randomized controlled trial for alcohol dependence (the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence [COMBINE] Study) completed measures of stress, positive affect, negative affect, and alcohol craving. In this secondary analysis, we hypothesized that positive affect would moderate the association between stress and negative affect and that positive affect would be negatively associated with craving. Results: Results supported these hypotheses, such that patients with higher levels of positive affect exhibited a weaker relationship between stress and negative affect relative to those with low positive affect. Positive affect was negatively associated with craving but did not moderate the association between stress and craving. Conclusions: These results replicate studies suggesting a protective effect of positive affect on stress reactivity and extend this effect to an alcohol-dependent sample. If positive affect can aid in resilience to stress, the utilization of interventions that enhance positive affect may be of particular utility for alcohol-dependent patients. Future experimental studies testing the causality of this association as well as studies examining the effect of interventions to enhance positive affect are needed. PMID:23200161

  1. Sex differences in how stress affects brain activity during face viewing.

    PubMed

    Mather, Mara; Lighthall, Nichole R; Nga, Lin; Gorlick, Marissa A

    2010-10-01

    Under stress, men tend to withdraw socially whereas women seek social support. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study indicates that stress also affects brain activity while viewing emotional faces differently for men and women. Fusiform face area response to faces was diminished by acute stress in men but increased by stress in women. Furthermore, among stressed men viewing angry faces, brain regions involved in interpreting and understanding others' emotions (the insula, temporal pole, and inferior frontal gyrus) showed reduced coordination with the fusiform face area and the amygdala, whereas the functional connectivity among these regions increased with stress for women. These findings suggest that stress influences emotional perception differently for men and women.

  2. Gender Differences in Craving and Cue Reactivity to Smoking and Negative Affect/Stress Cues

    PubMed Central

    Saladin, Michael E.; Gray, Kevin M.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; LaRowe, Steven D.; DeSantis, Stacia M.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that women may be less successful when attempting to quit smoking than men. One potential contributory cause of this gender difference is differential craving and stress reactivity to smoking-and negative affect/stress-related cues. The present human laboratory study investigated the effects of gender on reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues by exposing nicotine dependent women (n=37) and men (n=53) smokers to two active cue types, each with an associated control cue: 1) in vivo smoking cues and in vivo neutral control cues, and 2) imagery-based negative affect/stress script and a neutral/relaxing control script. Both before and after each cue/script, participants provided subjective reports of smoking-related craving and affective reactions. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) responses were also measured. Results indicated that participants reported greater craving and SC in response to smoking vs. neutral cues and greater subjective stress in response to the negative affect/stress vs. neutral/relaxing script. With respect to gender differences, women evidenced greater craving, stress and arousal ratings and lower valence ratings (greater negative emotion) in response to the negative affect/stressful script. While there were no gender differences in responses to smoking cues, women trended towards higher arousal ratings. Implications of the findings for treatment and tobacco-related morbidity and mortality are discussed. PMID:22494223

  3. Gender differences in craving and cue reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; Carpenter, Matthew J; LaRowe, Steven D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women may be less successful when attempting to quit smoking than men. One potential contributory cause of this gender difference is differential craving and stress reactivity to smoking- and negative affect/stress-related cues. The present human laboratory study investigated the effects of gender on reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues by exposing nicotine dependent women (n = 37) and men (n = 53) smokers to two active cue types, each with an associated control cue: (1) in vivo smoking cues and in vivo neutral control cues, and (2) imagery-based negative affect/stress script and a neutral/relaxing control script. Both before and after each cue/script, participants provided subjective reports of smoking-related craving and affective reactions. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) responses were also measured. Results indicated that participants reported greater craving and SC in response to smoking versus neutral cues and greater subjective stress in response to the negative affect/stress versus neutral/relaxing script. With respect to gender differences, women evidenced greater craving, stress and arousal ratings and lower valence ratings (greater negative emotion) in response to the negative affect/stressful script. While there were no gender differences in responses to smoking cues, women trended towards higher arousal ratings. Implications of the findings for treatment and tobacco-related morbidity and mortality are discussed.

  4. Responses to Fiscal Stress in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robert A., Ed.

    Proceedings of the 1981 University of Arizona conference on responses to fiscal stress in higher education are presented. Topics include the impact of the federal government on higher education, state and institutional responses to new federal policies, developing responses to fiscal stress, alternate perspectives on fiscal stress, and tactical…

  5. Effects of cold pressor stress on the human startle response.

    PubMed

    Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schulz, André; Oitzl, Melly S; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Both emotion and attention are known to influence the startle response. Stress influences emotion and attention, but the impact of stress on the human startle response remains unclear. We used an established physiological stressor, the Cold Pressor Test (CPT), to induce stress in a non-clinical human sample (24 student participants) in a within-subjects design. Autonomic (heart rate and skin conductance) and somatic (eye blink) responses to acoustic startle probes were measured during a pre-stress baseline, during a three minutes stress intervention, and during the subsequent recovery period. Startle skin conductance and heart rate responses were facilitated during stress. Compared to baseline, startle eye blink responses were not affected during the intervention but were diminished afterwards. These data describe a new and unique startle response pattern during stress: facilitation of autonomic stress responses but no such facilitation of somatic startle eye blink responses. The absence of an effect of stress on startle eye blink responsiveness may illustrate the importance of guaranteeing uninterrupted visual input during periods of stress. PMID:23166784

  6. Effects of cold pressor stress on the human startle response.

    PubMed

    Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schulz, André; Oitzl, Melly S; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Both emotion and attention are known to influence the startle response. Stress influences emotion and attention, but the impact of stress on the human startle response remains unclear. We used an established physiological stressor, the Cold Pressor Test (CPT), to induce stress in a non-clinical human sample (24 student participants) in a within-subjects design. Autonomic (heart rate and skin conductance) and somatic (eye blink) responses to acoustic startle probes were measured during a pre-stress baseline, during a three minutes stress intervention, and during the subsequent recovery period. Startle skin conductance and heart rate responses were facilitated during stress. Compared to baseline, startle eye blink responses were not affected during the intervention but were diminished afterwards. These data describe a new and unique startle response pattern during stress: facilitation of autonomic stress responses but no such facilitation of somatic startle eye blink responses. The absence of an effect of stress on startle eye blink responsiveness may illustrate the importance of guaranteeing uninterrupted visual input during periods of stress.

  7. [Oxidative stress in bipolar affective disorder].

    PubMed

    Reininghaus, E Z; Zelzer, S; Reininghaus, B; Lackner, N; Birner, A; Bengesser, S A; Fellendorf, F T; Kapfhammer, H-P; Mangge, H

    2014-09-01

    The results of mortality studies have indicated that medical conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes are the most important causes of mortality among patients with bipolar disorder. The reasons for the increased incidence and mortality are not fully understood. Oxidative stress and an inadequate antioxidative system might be one missing link and could also help to further elucidate the pathophysiological basis of bipolar disorder. This article provides a comprehensive review of oxidative stress in general and about the existing data for bipolar disorder. In addition information is given about possible therapeutic strategies to reduce oxidative stress and the use in bipolar disorder. PMID:24441847

  8. [Endoplasmic reticulum stress response in osteogenesis].

    PubMed

    Saito, Atsushi; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2013-11-01

    Various cellular conditions such as synthesis of abundant proteins, expressions of mutant proteins and oxidative stress lead to accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. This type of stress is called ER stress. The excessive ER stress causes cellular damages followed by apoptosis. When ER stress occurs, cells are activated ER stress response (unfolded protein response) to avoid cellular damages. Recently, it has been clear that ER stress response plays crucial roles not only in cell survival after ER stress but also in regulating various cellular functions and tissue formations. In particular, ER stress and ER stress response regulate protein quality control, secretory protein production, and smooth secretion of proteins in the cells such as osteoblasts which synthesize and secrete enormous matrix proteins.

  9. Large-Scale Glycomics of Livestock: Discovery of Highly Sensitive Serum Biomarkers Indicating an Environmental Stress Affecting Immune Responses and Productivity of Holstein Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Ibrahim F; Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Amano, Maho; Hinou, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Tetsu; Kondo, Seiji; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Because various stresses strongly influence the food productivity of livestock, biomarkers to indicate unmeasurable environmental stress in domestic animals are of increasing importance. Thermal comfort is one of the basic principles of dairy cow welfare that enhances productivity. To discover sensitive biomarkers that monitor such environmental stresses in dairy cows, we herein performed, for the first time, large-scale glycomics on 336 lactating Holstein cow serum samples over 9 months between February and October. Glycoblotting combined with MALDI-TOF/MS and DMB/HPLC allowed for comprehensive glycomics of whole serum glycoproteins. The results obtained revealed seasonal alterations in serum N-glycan levels and their structural characteristics, such as an increase in high-mannose type N-glycans in spring, the occurrence of di/triantennary complex type N-glycans terminating with two or three Neu5Gc residues in summer and autumn, and N-glycans in winter dominantly displaying Neu5Ac. A multivariate analysis revealed a correlation between the serum expression levels of these season-specific glycoforms and productivity.

  10. Large-Scale Glycomics of Livestock: Discovery of Highly Sensitive Serum Biomarkers Indicating an Environmental Stress Affecting Immune Responses and Productivity of Holstein Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Ibrahim F; Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Amano, Maho; Hinou, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Tetsu; Kondo, Seiji; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Because various stresses strongly influence the food productivity of livestock, biomarkers to indicate unmeasurable environmental stress in domestic animals are of increasing importance. Thermal comfort is one of the basic principles of dairy cow welfare that enhances productivity. To discover sensitive biomarkers that monitor such environmental stresses in dairy cows, we herein performed, for the first time, large-scale glycomics on 336 lactating Holstein cow serum samples over 9 months between February and October. Glycoblotting combined with MALDI-TOF/MS and DMB/HPLC allowed for comprehensive glycomics of whole serum glycoproteins. The results obtained revealed seasonal alterations in serum N-glycan levels and their structural characteristics, such as an increase in high-mannose type N-glycans in spring, the occurrence of di/triantennary complex type N-glycans terminating with two or three Neu5Gc residues in summer and autumn, and N-glycans in winter dominantly displaying Neu5Ac. A multivariate analysis revealed a correlation between the serum expression levels of these season-specific glycoforms and productivity. PMID:26595672

  11. Bifactor Item Response Theory Model of Acute Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Yuan; Tang, Jingjing; Zhu, Xia; Miao, Danmin

    2013-01-01

    Background Better understanding of acute stress responses is important for revision of DSM-5. However, the latent structure and relationship between different aspects of acute stress responses haven’t been clarified comprehensively. Bifactor item response model may help resolve this problem. Objective The purpose of this study is to develop a statistical model of acute stress responses, based on data from earthquake rescuers using Acute Stress Response Scale (ASRS). Through this model, we could better understand acute stress responses comprehensively, and provide preliminary information for computerized adaptive testing of stress responses. Methods Acute stress responses of earthquake rescuers were evaluated using ASRS, and state/trait anxiety were assessed using State-trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). A hierarchical item response model (bifactor model) was used to analyze the data. Additionally, we tested this hierarchical model with model fit comparisons with one-dimensional and five-dimensional models. The correlations among acute stress responses and state/trait anxiety were compared, based on both the five-dimensional and bifactor models. Results Model fit comparisons showed bifactor model fit the data best. Item loadings on general and specific factors varied greatly between different aspects of stress responses. Many symptoms (40%) of physiological responses had positive loadings on general factor, and negative loadings on specific factor of physiological responses, while other stress responses had positive loadings on both general and specific factors. After extracting general factor of stress responses using bifactor analysis, significant positive correlations between physiological responses and state/trait anxiety (r = 0.185/0.112, p<0.01) changed into negative ones (r = −0.177/−0.38, p<0.01). Conclusion Our results demonstrated bifactor structure of acute stress responses, and positive and negative correlations between physiological responses

  12. Hormonal modulation of the heat shock response: insights from fish with divergent cortisol stress responses.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Sacha; Höglund, Erik; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Currie, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Acute temperature stress in animals results in increases in heat shock proteins (HSPs) and stress hormones. There is evidence that stress hormones influence the magnitude of the heat shock response; however, their role is equivocal. To determine whether and how stress hormones may affect the heat shock response, we capitalized on two lines of rainbow trout specifically bred for their high (HR) and low (LR) cortisol response to stress. We predicted that LR fish, with a low cortisol but high catecholamine response to stress, would induce higher levels of HSPs after acute heat stress than HR trout. We found that HR fish have significantly higher increases in both catecholamines and cortisol compared with LR fish, and LR fish had no appreciable stress hormone response to heat shock. This unexpected finding prevented further interpretation of the hormonal modulation of the heat shock response but provided insight into stress-coping styles and environmental stress. HR fish also had a significantly greater and faster heat shock response and less oxidative protein damage than LR fish. Despite these clear differences in the physiological and cellular responses to heat shock, there were no differences in the thermal tolerance of HR and LR fish. Our results support the hypothesis that responsiveness to environmental change underpins the physiological differences in stress-coping styles. Here, we demonstrate that the heat shock response is a distinguishing feature of the HR and LR lines and suggest that it may have been coselected with the hormonal responses to stress.

  13. Physiological Responses to Thermal Stress and Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyota, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Akira; Yamagata, Junko; Suzuki, Takashi; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Kawabata, Takashi

    The simple and noninvasive measuring methods of bioinstrumentation in humans is required for optimization of air conditioning and management of thermal environments, taking into consideration the individual specificity of the human body as well as the stress conditions affecting each. Changes in human blood circulation were induced with environmental factors such as heat, cold, exercise, mental stress, and so on. In this study, the physiological responses of human body to heat stress and exercise were investigated in the initial phase of the developmental research. We measured the body core and skin temperatures, skin blood flow, and pulse wave as the indices of the adaptation of the cardiovascular system. A laser Doppler skin blood flowmetry using an optical-sensor with a small portable data logger was employed for the measurement. These results reveal the heat-stress and exercise-induced circulatory responses, which are under the control of the sympathetic nerve system. Furthermore, it was suggested that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system could be evaluated from the signals of the pulse wave included in the signals derived from skin blood flow by means of heart rate variability assessments and detecting peak heights of velocity-plethysmogram.

  14. Undrained poroelastic response of sandstones to deviatoric stress change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.A.; Stanchits, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Deformation of porous crustal rock through diagenesis, tectonic loading, or other processes can change pore volume and affect fluid pressure. The largest stress-induced pore pressure changes occur when fluid is trapped in pores in an "undrained" condition. We have measured the undrained poroelastic response of two sandstones to changes in mean and deviatoric stress. Pore pressure was found to respond to mean stress ??m in the usual manner: ??p = B ?? ??m (B ranging from 0.4 to 0.7), nearly independent of the ambient deviatoric stress state. However, variations in deviatoric stress (??d = (??1 - ??3)/2) at constant mean stress were also found to induce a reversible (elastic) pore pressure response to stress levels up to and exceeding 80% failure stress (i.e., ??p = ??????d/??m = const.). The coefficient ?? became more negative with increasing deviatoric stress level in sandstone and Ottawa sand samples. That is, ?? represents a dilatant response where increased deviatoric stress causes a decrease in pore pressure. The poroelastic response to deviatoric stress is explained in terms of anisotropic matrix stiffening due to closure of crack-like pore space or flattening of grain contacts at high ambient stress levels and can be important in calculations of earthquake stress transfer.

  15. Cyclophilin D Is Involved in the Regulation of Autophagy and Affects the Lifespan of P. anserina in Response to Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Piet; Jung, Alexander T; Hamann, Andrea; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial permeability transition pore plays a key role in programmed cell death and the induction of autophagy. Opening of the pore is regulated by the mitochondrial peptidyl prolyl-cis, trans-isomerase cyclophilin D (CYPD). Previously it was shown in the aging model organism Podospora anserina that PaCYPD abundance increases during aging and that PaCypD overexpressors are characterized by accelerated aging. Here, we describe a role of PaCYPD in the regulation of autophagy. We found that the accelerated aging phenotype observed in a strain overexpressing PaCypD is not metacaspase-dependent but is accompanied by an increase of general autophagy and mitophagy, the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria. It thus is linked to what has been defined as "autophagic cell death" or "type II" programmed cell death. Moreover, we found that the previously demonstrated age-related induction of autophagy in wild-type aging depends on the presence of PaCYPD. Deletion of PaCypD leads to a decrease in autophagy in later stages of age and under paraquat-mediated oxidative stress. Finally, we report that PaCYPD is also required for mitohormesis, the beneficial effect of mild mitochondrial stress. Thus, PaCYPD plays a key role in the context-dependent regulation of pathways leading to pro-survival and pro-death effects of autophagy. PMID:27683587

  16. Cyclophilin D Is Involved in the Regulation of Autophagy and Affects the Lifespan of P. anserina in Response to Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Piet; Jung, Alexander T.; Hamann, Andrea; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial permeability transition pore plays a key role in programmed cell death and the induction of autophagy. Opening of the pore is regulated by the mitochondrial peptidyl prolyl-cis, trans-isomerase cyclophilin D (CYPD). Previously it was shown in the aging model organism Podospora anserina that PaCYPD abundance increases during aging and that PaCypD overexpressors are characterized by accelerated aging. Here, we describe a role of PaCYPD in the regulation of autophagy. We found that the accelerated aging phenotype observed in a strain overexpressing PaCypD is not metacaspase-dependent but is accompanied by an increase of general autophagy and mitophagy, the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria. It thus is linked to what has been defined as “autophagic cell death” or “type II” programmed cell death. Moreover, we found that the previously demonstrated age-related induction of autophagy in wild-type aging depends on the presence of PaCYPD. Deletion of PaCypD leads to a decrease in autophagy in later stages of age and under paraquat-mediated oxidative stress. Finally, we report that PaCYPD is also required for mitohormesis, the beneficial effect of mild mitochondrial stress. Thus, PaCYPD plays a key role in the context-dependent regulation of pathways leading to pro-survival and pro-death effects of autophagy. PMID:27683587

  17. Cyclophilin D Is Involved in the Regulation of Autophagy and Affects the Lifespan of P. anserina in Response to Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Piet; Jung, Alexander T.; Hamann, Andrea; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial permeability transition pore plays a key role in programmed cell death and the induction of autophagy. Opening of the pore is regulated by the mitochondrial peptidyl prolyl-cis, trans-isomerase cyclophilin D (CYPD). Previously it was shown in the aging model organism Podospora anserina that PaCYPD abundance increases during aging and that PaCypD overexpressors are characterized by accelerated aging. Here, we describe a role of PaCYPD in the regulation of autophagy. We found that the accelerated aging phenotype observed in a strain overexpressing PaCypD is not metacaspase-dependent but is accompanied by an increase of general autophagy and mitophagy, the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria. It thus is linked to what has been defined as “autophagic cell death” or “type II” programmed cell death. Moreover, we found that the previously demonstrated age-related induction of autophagy in wild-type aging depends on the presence of PaCYPD. Deletion of PaCypD leads to a decrease in autophagy in later stages of age and under paraquat-mediated oxidative stress. Finally, we report that PaCYPD is also required for mitohormesis, the beneficial effect of mild mitochondrial stress. Thus, PaCYPD plays a key role in the context-dependent regulation of pathways leading to pro-survival and pro-death effects of autophagy.

  18. The stress response system of proteins: Implications for bioreactor scaleup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goochee, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    Animal cells face a variety of environmental stresses in large scale bioreactors, including periodic variations in shear stress and dissolved oxygen concentration. Diagnostic techniques were developed for identifying the particular sources of environmental stresses for animal cells in a given bioreactor configuration. The mechanisms by which cells cope with such stresses was examined. The individual concentrations and synthesis rates of hundreds of intracellular proteins are affected by the extracellular environment (medium composition, dissolved oxygen concentration, ph, and level of surface shear stress). Techniques are currently being developed for quantifying the synthesis rates and concentrations of the intracellular proteins which are most sensitive to environmental stress. Previous research has demonstrated that a particular set of stress response proteins are synthesized by mammalian cells in response to temperature fluctuations, dissolved oxygen deprivation, and glucose deprivation. Recently, it was demonstrated that exposure of human kidney cells to high shear stress results in expression of a completely distinct set of intracellular proteins.

  19. Adulthood stress responses in rats are variably altered as a factor of adolescent stress exposure.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicole L T; Altman, Daniel E; Gauchan, Sangeeta; Genovese, Raymond F

    2016-05-01

    Stress exposure during development may influence adulthood stress response severity. The present study investigates persisting effects of two adolescent stressors upon adulthood response to predator exposure (PE). Rats were exposed to underwater trauma (UWT) or PE during adolescence, then to PE after reaching adulthood. Rats were then exposed to predator odor (PO) to test responses to predator cues alone. Behavioral and neuroendocrine assessments were conducted to determine acute effects of each stress experience. Adolescent stress altered behavioral response to adulthood PE. Acoustic startle response was blunted. Bidirectional changes in plus maze exploration were revealed as a factor of adolescent stress type. Neuroendocrine response magnitude did not predict severity of adolescent or adult stress response, suggesting that different adolescent stress events may differentially alter developmental outcomes regardless of acute behavioral or neuroendocrine response. We report that exposure to two different stressors in adolescence may differentially affect stress response outcomes in adulthood. Acute response to an adolescent stressor may not be consistent across all stressors or all dependent measures, and may not predict alterations in developmental outcomes pertaining to adulthood stress exposure. Further studies are needed to characterize factors underlying long-term effects of a developmental stressor.

  20. The influence of neuroticism, extraversion and openness on stress responses.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Tamera R; Rench, Tara A; Lyons, Joseph B; Riffle, Rebecca R

    2012-04-01

    The present research moved beyond focusing on negative dispositions to investigate the influence of positive aspects of personality, namely extraversion and openness, on stress responses including appraisals, affect and task performance. Challenge appraisals occur when stressor demands are deemed commensurate with coping resources, whereas threat appraisals occur when demands are believed to outweigh coping resources. We examined the unique influence of personality on stress responses and the mediating role of appraisals. Personality was assessed, and then participants (N = 152) were exposed to a validated math stressor. We found unique effects on stress responses for neuroticism (high threat and negative affect and low positive affect), extraversion (high positive and low negative affect) and openness (high positive and low negative effect and better performance). Mediation analyses revealed that neuroticism indirectly worsened performance, through threat appraisals, and that openness indirectly increased positive affect through lower threat. These findings highlight the importance of investigating multiple aspects of personality on stress responses and provide an avenue through which stress responses can be changed-appraisals. Only by more broad investigations can interventions be tailored appropriately for different individuals to foster stress resilience. PMID:22281953

  1. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J; Bachmann, Kenneth A; Bailer, A John; Bolger, P Michael; Borak, Jonathan; Cai, Lu; Cedergreen, Nina; Cherian, M George; Chiueh, Chuang C; Clarkson, Thomas W; Cook, Ralph R; Diamond, David M; Doolittle, David J; Dorato, Michael A; Duke, Stephen O; Feinendegen, Ludwig; Gardner, Donald E; Hart, Ronald W; Hastings, Kenneth L; Hayes, A Wallace; Hoffmann, George R; Ives, John A; Jaworowski, Zbigniew; Johnson, Thomas E; Jonas, Wayne B; Kaminski, Norbert E; Keller, John G; Klaunig, James E; Knudsen, Thomas B; Kozumbo, Walter J; Lettieri, Teresa; Liu, Shu-Zheng; Maisseu, Andre; Maynard, Kenneth I; Masoro, Edward J; McClellan, Roger O; Mehendale, Harihara M; Mothersill, Carmel; Newlin, David B; Nigg, Herbert N; Oehme, Frederick W; Phalen, Robert F; Philbert, Martin A; Rattan, Suresh I S; Riviere, Jim E; Rodricks, Joseph; Sapolsky, Robert M; Scott, Bobby R; Seymour, Colin; Sinclair, David A; Smith-Sonneborn, Joan; Snow, Elizabeth T; Spear, Linda; Stevenson, Donald E; Thomas, Yolene; Tubiana, Maurice; Williams, Gary M; Mattson, Mark P

    2007-07-01

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines.

  2. Bacterial responses to photo-oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Ziegelhoffer, Eva C.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    Singlet oxygen is one of several reactive oxygen species that can destroy biomolecules, microorganisms and other cells. Traditionally, the response to singlet oxygen has been termed photo-oxidative stress, as light-dependent processes in photosynthetic cells are major biological sources of singlet oxygen. Recent work identifying a core set of singlet oxygen stress response genes across various bacterial species highlights the importance of this response for survival by both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic cells. Here, we review how bacterial cells mount a transcriptional response to photo-oxidative stress in the context of what is known about bacterial stress responses to other reactive oxygen species. PMID:19881522

  3. Soil seed banks and their germination responses to cadmium and salinity stresses in coastal wetlands affected by reclamation and urbanization based on indoor and outdoor experiments.

    PubMed

    Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Gao, Zhaoqin; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing; Zhao, Qingqing

    2014-09-15

    Indoor and outdoor seedling emergence experiments were conducted to thoroughly investigate germination patterns as affected by reclamation and urbanization, the ecological characteristics of soil seed banks, and their relationships with environmental factors in both urbanized and reclaimed regions of the Pearl River Delta in coastal wetlands. The germination rate of the soil seed bank was higher in the indoor experiment compared with that in the outdoor experiment, whereas the number and destiny of the germinated seedlings were greater in the outdoor experiment. The species diversity and number, as well as the richness and evenness indices, were higher in the urbanized region compared with the reclaimed region. However, the dominance and Sørensen similarity indices were greater in the reclaimed region compared with those indices in the urbanized region. Higher salinity and Cadmium (Cd) levels could inhibit seed germination; however, their suitable ranges (i.e. [0-2,000 mg kg(-1)] for salinity and [0-4.0 mg kg(-1)] for available Cd) can activate seedling emergence, and more seedlings germinated under the intersectional levels at 0.34 mg kg(-1) available Cd and 778.6 mg kg(-1) salinity. Seawater intrusion caused by the sea level rise will possibly result in the salt-tolerant community in this area due to increasing salinity.

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Howell, Stephen H

    2013-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is of considerable interest to plant biologists because it occurs in plants subjected to adverse environmental conditions. ER stress responses mitigate the damage caused by stress and confer levels of stress tolerance to plants. ER stress is activated by misfolded proteins that accumulate in the ER under adverse environmental conditions. Under these conditions, the demand for protein folding exceeds the capacity of the system, which sets off the unfolded protein response (UPR). Two arms of the UPR signaling pathway have been described in plants: one that involves two ER membrane-associated transcription factors (bZIP17 and bZIP28) and another that involves a dual protein kinase (RNA-splicing factor IRE1) and its target RNA (bZIP60). Under mild or short-term stress conditions, signaling from IRE1 activates autophagy, a cell survival response. But under severe or chronic stress conditions, ER stress can lead to cell death.

  5. Seismic stress responses of soybean to different photosynthetic photon flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. S.; Coe, L. L.; Montgomery, L.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    Physical agitation applied as periodic seismic stress (shaking) reduced stem elongation, leaf expansion, and biomass accumulation by vegetative soybeans. Level of photon flux (PPF) influenced the type and extent of plant response to mechanical stress. Plant parts responded differently as PPF varied between 135 and 592 micromoles m-2 s-1. Stem length was significantly reduced by seismic stress at 135 micromoles m-2 s-1 but this effect was insignificant at higher PPFs. Reduced stem length resulted from an inhibition of internode elongation. Stem diameter was unaffected by stress at the PPFs tested. In contrast to effects on stem elongation, leaf area was insensitive to stress treatments at 135 micromoles m-2 s-1 but was progressively inhibited by stress as PPF increased. Statistically significant reductions in shoot f. wt and d. wt by seismic stress occurred only at 295 micromoles m-2 s-1. Root biomass accumulation was not affected by seismic stress at any PPF used in this study.

  6. Relation between stress-precipitated seizures and the stress response in childhood epilepsy.

    PubMed

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Pet, Milou A; Otte, Willem M; Hillegers, Manon H J; Joels, Marian; Braun, Kees P J

    2015-08-01

    The majority of patients with epilepsy report that seizures are sometimes triggered or provoked. Stress is the most frequently self-reported seizure-precipitant. The mechanisms underlying stress-sensitivity of seizures are currently unresolved. We hypothesized that stress-sensitivity of seizures relates to alteration of the stress response, which could affect neuronal excitability and hence trigger seizures. To study this, children with epilepsy between 6 and 17 years of age and healthy controls, with similar age, sex and intelligence, were exposed to a standardized acute psychosocial stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test for Children), during which salivary cortisol and sympathetic parameters were measured. Beforehand, the relation between stress and seizures in children with epilepsy was assessed by (i) a retrospective questionnaire; and (ii) a prospective 6-week diary on stress and seizure occurrence. Sixty-four children with epilepsy and 40 control subjects were included in the study. Of all children with epilepsy, 49% reported that seizures were precipitated by acute stress. Diary analysis showed a positive association between acute stress and seizures in 62% of children who experienced at least one seizure during the diary period. The acute social stress test was completed by 56 children with epilepsy and 37 control subjects. Children with sensitivity of seizures for acute stress, either determined by the questionnaire or by the prospective diary, showed a blunted cortisol response to stress compared with patients without acute stress-precipitated seizures and healthy controls (questionnaire-based F = 2.74, P = 0.018; diary-based F = 4.40, P = 0.007). No baseline differences in cortisol were observed, nor differences in sympathetic stress response. The relation between acute stress-sensitivity of seizures and the cortisol response to stress remained significant in multivariable analysis (β = -0.30, P = 0.03). Other variables associated with the acute stress

  7. Stress Generation and Adolescent Depression: Contribution of Interpersonal Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the proposal that ineffective responses to common interpersonal problems disrupt youths’ relationships, which, in turn, contributes to depression during adolescence. Youth (86 girls, 81 boys; M age = 12.41, SD = 1.19) and their primary female caregivers participated in a three-wave longitudinal study. Youth completed a measure assessing interpersonal stress responses; youth and caregivers completed semi-structured interviews assessing youths’ life stress and psychopathology. Consistent with the hypothesized model, ineffective stress responses (low levels of effortful engagement, high levels of involuntary engagement and disengagement) predicted the generation of subsequent interpersonal stress, which partially accounted for the association between stress responses and depression over time. Moreover, results revealed that self-generated interpersonal, but not noninterpersonal stress, predicted depression, and that this explanatory model was specific to the prediction of depression but not anxiety. This research builds on interpersonal stress generation models of depression, and highlights the importance of implementing depression-focused intervention programs that promote effective stress responses and adaptive interpersonal relationships during adolescence. PMID:21647600

  8. NAC transcription factors in plant abiotic stress responses.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kazuo; Takasaki, Hironori; Mizoi, Junya; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2012-02-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought and high salinity adversely affect the growth and productivity of plants, including crops. The development of stress-tolerant crops will be greatly advantageous for modern agriculture in areas that are prone to such stresses. In recent years, several advances have been made towards identifying potential stress related genes which are capable of increasing the tolerance of plants to abiotic stress. NAC proteins are plant-specific transcription factors and more than 100 NAC genes have been identified in Arabidopsis and rice to date. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the six major groups were already established at least in an ancient moss lineage. NAC transcription factors have a variety of important functions not only in plant development but also in abiotic stress responses. Stress-inducible NAC genes have been shown to be involved in abiotic stress tolerance. Transgenic Arabidopsis and rice plants overexpressing stress-responsive NAC (SNAC) genes have exhibited improved drought tolerance. These studies indicate that SNAC factors have important roles for the control of abiotic stress tolerance and that their overexpression can improve stress tolerance via biotechnological approaches. Although these transcription factors can bind to the same core NAC recognition sequence, recent studies have demonstrated that the effects of NAC factors for growth are different. Moreover, the NAC proteins are capable of functioning as homo- or hetero-dimer forms. Thus, SNAC factors can be useful for improving stress tolerance in transgenic plants, although the mechanism for mediating the stress tolerance of these homologous factors is complex in plants. Recent studies also suggest that crosstalk may exist between stress responses and plant growth. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant gene regulation in response to abiotic stress.

  9. Molecular mechanisms of the plant heat stress response

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Ai-Li; Ding, Yan-Fei; Jiang, Qiong; Zhu, Cheng

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► This review elaborates the response networks of heat stress in plants. ► It elaborates proteins responding to heat stress in special physiological period. ► The proteins and pathways have formed a basic network of the heat stress response. ► Achievements of the various technologies are also combined. -- Abstract: High temperature has become a global concern, which seriously affects the growth and production of plants, particularly crops. Thus, the molecular mechanism of the heat stress response and breeding of heat-tolerant plants is necessary to protect food production and ensure crop safety. This review elaborates on the response networks of heat stress in plants, including the Hsf and Hsp response pathways, the response of ROS and the network of the hormones. In addition, the production of heat stress response elements during particular physiological periods of the plant is described. We also discuss the existing problems and future prospects concerning the molecular mechanisms of the heat stress response in plants.

  10. How plants handle multiple stresses: hormonal interactions underlying responses to abiotic stress and insect herbivory.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duy; Rieu, Ivo; Mariani, Celestina; van Dam, Nicole M

    2016-08-01

    Adaptive plant responses to specific abiotic stresses or biotic agents are fine-tuned by a network of hormonal signaling cascades, including abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid. Moreover, hormonal cross-talk modulates plant responses to abiotic stresses and defenses against insect herbivores when they occur simultaneously. How such interactions affect plant responses under multiple stresses, however, is less understood, even though this may frequently occur in natural environments. Here, we review our current knowledge on how hormonal signaling regulates abiotic stress responses and defenses against insects, and discuss the few recent studies that attempted to dissect hormonal interactions occurring under simultaneous abiotic stress and herbivory. Based on this we hypothesize that drought stress enhances insect resistance due to synergistic interactions between JA and ABA signaling. Responses to flooding or waterlogging involve ethylene signaling, which likely reduces plant resistance to chewing herbivores due to its negative cross-talk with JA. However, the outcome of interactions between biotic and abiotic stress signaling is often plant and/or insect species-dependent and cannot simply be predicted based on general knowledge on the involvement of signaling pathways in single stress responses. More experimental data on non-model plant and insect species are needed to reveal general patterns and better understand the molecular mechanisms allowing plants to optimize their responses in complex environments. PMID:27095445

  11. General Stress Responses in the Honey Bee

    PubMed Central

    Even, Naïla; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Barron, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a “General Adaptation Syndrome” describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One of the main elements of the stress response pathway is the endocrine hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which underlies the “fight-or-flight” response via a hormonal cascade of catecholamines and corticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stress have been studied more recently in insects: they involve biogenic amines (octopamine, dopamine), neuropeptides (allatostatin, corazonin) and metabolic hormones (adipokinetic hormone, diuretic hormone). Here, we review elements of the physiological stress response that are or may be specific to honey bees, given the economical and ecological impact of this species. This review proposes a hypothetical integrated honey bee stress pathway somewhat analogous to the mammalian HPA, involving the brain and, particularly, the neurohemal organ corpora cardiaca and peripheral targets, including energy storage organs (fat body and crop). We discuss how this system can organize rapid coordinated changes in metabolic activity and arousal, in response to adverse environmental stimuli. We highlight physiological elements of the general stress responses that are specific to honey bees, and the areas in which we lack information to stimulate more research into how this fascinating and vital insect responds to stress. PMID:26466739

  12. Acute Stress Reduces Reward Responsiveness: Implications for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Ryan; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Stress, one of the strongest risk factors for depression, has been linked to “anhedonic” behavior and dysfunctional reward-related neural circuitry in preclinical models. Methods To test if acute stress reduces reward responsiveness (i.e., the ability to modulate behavior as a function of past reward), a signal-detection task coupled with a differential reinforcement schedule was utilized. Eighty female participants completed the task under both a stress condition, either threat-of-shock (n = 38) or negative performance feedback (n = 42), and a no-stress condition. Results Stress increased negative affect and anxiety. As hypothesized based on preclinical findings, stress, particularly the threat-of-shock condition, impaired reward responsiveness. Regression analyses indicate that self-report measures of anhedonia predicted stress-induced hedonic deficits even after controlling for anxiety symptoms. Conclusions These findings indicate that acute stress reduces reward responsiveness, particularly in individuals with anhedonic symptoms. Stress-induced hedonic deficit is a promising candidate mechanism linking stressful experiences to depression. PMID:16806107

  13. Stress differentially affects fear conditioning in men and women.

    PubMed

    Merz, Christian Josef; Wolf, Oliver Tobias; Schweckendiek, Jan; Klucken, Tim; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2013-11-01

    Stress and fear conditioning processes are both important vulnerability factors in the development of psychiatric disorders. In behavioral studies considerable sex differences in fear learning have been observed after increases of the stress hormone cortisol. But neuroimaging experiments, which give insights into the neurobiological correlates of stress × sex interactions in fear conditioning, are lacking so far. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we tested whether a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) compared to a control condition influenced subsequent fear conditioning in 48 men and 48 women taking oral contraceptives (OCs). One of two pictures of a geometrical figure was always paired (conditioned stimulus, CS+) or never paired (CS-) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus). BOLD responses as well as skin conductance responses were assessed. Sex-independently, stress enhanced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the hippocampus in early acquisition but attenuated conditioned responses in the medial frontal cortex in late acquisition. In early acquisition, stress reduced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the nucleus accumbens in men, but enhanced it in OC women. In late acquisition, the same pattern (reduction in men, enhancement in OC women) was found in the amygdala as well as in the anterior cingulate. Thus, psychosocial stress impaired the neuronal correlates of fear learning and expression in men, but facilitated them in OC women. A sex-specific modulation of fear conditioning after stress might contribute to the divergent prevalence of men and women in developing psychiatric disorders.

  14. Response of plants to water stress.

    PubMed

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Osakabe, Keishi; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tran, Lam-Son P

    2014-01-01

    Water stress adversely impacts many aspects of the physiology of plants, especially photosynthetic capacity. If the stress is prolonged, plant growth, and productivity are severely diminished. Plants have evolved complex physiological and biochemical adaptations to adjust and adapt to a variety of environmental stresses. The molecular and physiological mechanisms associated with water-stress tolerance and water-use efficiency have been extensively studied. The systems that regulate plant adaptation to water stress through a sophisticated regulatory network are the subject of the current review. Molecular mechanisms that plants use to increase stress tolerance, maintain appropriate hormone homeostasis and responses and prevent excess light damage, are also discussed. An understanding of how these systems are regulated and ameliorate the impact of water stress on plant productivity will provide the information needed to improve plant stress tolerance using biotechnology, while maintaining the yield and quality of crops.

  15. Affective and inflammatory responses among orchestra musicians in performance situation.

    PubMed

    Pilger, Alexander; Haslacher, Helmuth; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Perkmann, Thomas; Böhm, Karl; Budinsky, Alexandra; Girard, Angelika; Klien, Katharina; Jordakieva, Galateja; Pezawas, Lukas; Wagner, Oswald; Godnic-Cvar, Jasminka; Winker, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that mental challenge under controlled experimental conditions is associated with elevations in inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). However, relatively little work has been done on the effects of 'naturalistic' stressors on acute changes in inflammatory markers. The present study examined whether perceived arousal, valence and dominance in musicians are associated with pro-inflammatory and oxidative responses to a concert situation. Blood and salivary samples obtained from 48 members of a symphony orchestra on the day of rehearsal (i.e., control situation) and on the following day of premiere concert (i.e., test situation) were used to determine changes in salivary cortisol, pro-inflammatory markers (plasma myeloperoxidase, serum CRP, plasma IL-6), oxidative stress markers (paraoxonase1 activity and malondialdehyde), and homocysteine, a risk factor for vascular disease. Results of regression analyses showed a significant trend to increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) response in individuals with low valence score. Both affective states, valence and arousal, were identified as significant predictors of cortisol response during concert. In addition, control levels of plasma malondialdehyde were positively correlated with differences in IL-6 levels between premiere and rehearsal (r=.38, p=.012), pointing to higher oxidative stress in individuals with pronounced IL-6 response. Our results indicate that stress of public performance leads to increased concentrations of plasma MPO (20%), IL-6 (27%) and salivary cortisol (44%) in musicians. The decreasing effect of pleasantness on the MPO response was highly pronounced in non-smokers (r=-.60, p<.001), suggesting a significant role of emotional valence in stress-induced secretion of MPO. Additional studies are needed to assess the generalizability of these findings to other 'naturalistic' stress situations. PMID:24513877

  16. Affective and inflammatory responses among orchestra musicians in performance situation.

    PubMed

    Pilger, Alexander; Haslacher, Helmuth; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Perkmann, Thomas; Böhm, Karl; Budinsky, Alexandra; Girard, Angelika; Klien, Katharina; Jordakieva, Galateja; Pezawas, Lukas; Wagner, Oswald; Godnic-Cvar, Jasminka; Winker, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that mental challenge under controlled experimental conditions is associated with elevations in inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). However, relatively little work has been done on the effects of 'naturalistic' stressors on acute changes in inflammatory markers. The present study examined whether perceived arousal, valence and dominance in musicians are associated with pro-inflammatory and oxidative responses to a concert situation. Blood and salivary samples obtained from 48 members of a symphony orchestra on the day of rehearsal (i.e., control situation) and on the following day of premiere concert (i.e., test situation) were used to determine changes in salivary cortisol, pro-inflammatory markers (plasma myeloperoxidase, serum CRP, plasma IL-6), oxidative stress markers (paraoxonase1 activity and malondialdehyde), and homocysteine, a risk factor for vascular disease. Results of regression analyses showed a significant trend to increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) response in individuals with low valence score. Both affective states, valence and arousal, were identified as significant predictors of cortisol response during concert. In addition, control levels of plasma malondialdehyde were positively correlated with differences in IL-6 levels between premiere and rehearsal (r=.38, p=.012), pointing to higher oxidative stress in individuals with pronounced IL-6 response. Our results indicate that stress of public performance leads to increased concentrations of plasma MPO (20%), IL-6 (27%) and salivary cortisol (44%) in musicians. The decreasing effect of pleasantness on the MPO response was highly pronounced in non-smokers (r=-.60, p<.001), suggesting a significant role of emotional valence in stress-induced secretion of MPO. Additional studies are needed to assess the generalizability of these findings to other 'naturalistic' stress situations.

  17. Thinking of attachments reduces noradrenergic stress response.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A; Chan, Lilian

    2015-10-01

    Although there is much evidence that activating mental representations of attachments figure is beneficial for psychological health and can reduce stress response, no research has directly investigated whether attachment activation can ameliorate hormonal stress response. This study investigated whether activating an attachment figure or a non-attachment figure following administration of a socially evaluated cold pressor test to elicit stress impacted on glucocorticoid and noradrenergic response. Participants (N = 61) provided baseline salivary samples, underwent a cold pressor test, then imagined an attachment or non-attachment figure, and finally provided subsequent saliva samples. Participants who imagined a non-attachment figure had greater noradrenergic response following the stressor than those who imagined an attachment figure. These findings highlight that activating attachment representations can ameliorate the immediate noradrenergic stress response.

  18. The role of transcriptional coactivator ADA2b in Arabidopsis abiotic stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Kaldis, Athanasios; Nikoloudi, Adriana; Tsementzi, Despoina

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth and crop production can be greatly affected by common environmental stresses such as drought, high salinity and low temperatures. Gene expression is affected by several abiotic stresses. Stress-inducible genes are regulated by transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms such as histone modifications. In this mini-review, we have explored the role of transcriptional adaptor ADA2b in Arabidopsis responses to abiotic stress. ADA2b is required for the expression of genes involved in abiotic stress either by controlling H3 and H4 acetylation in the case of salt stress or affecting nucleosome occupancy in low temperatures response. PMID:21897124

  19. The role of transcriptional coactivator ADA2b in Arabidopsis abiotic stress responses.

    PubMed

    Vlachonasios, Konstantinos E; Kaldis, Athanasios; Nikoloudi, Adriana; Tsementzi, Despoina

    2011-10-01

    Plant growth and crop production can be greatly affected by common environmental stresses such as drought, high salinity and low temperatures. Gene expression is affected by several abiotic stresses. Stress-inducible genes are regulated by transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms such as histone modifications. In this Mini-Review, we have explored the role of transcriptional adaptor ADA2b in Arabidopsis responses to abiotic stress. ADA2b is required for the expression of genes involved in abiotic stress either by controlling H3 and H4 acetylation in the case of salt stress or affecting nucleosome occupancy in low temperatures response.

  20. Process Control Minitoring by Stress Response

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.; Stahl, David A.

    2006-04-17

    Environmental contamination with a variety of pollutants hasprompted the development of effective bioremediation strategies. But howcan these processes be best monitored and controlled? One avenue underinvestigation is the development of stress response systems as tools foreffective and general process control. Although the microbial stressresponse has been the subject of intensive laboratory investigation, theenvironmental reflection of the laboratory response to specific stresseshas been little explored. However, it is only within an environmentalcontext, in which microorganisms are constantly exposed to multiplechanging environmental stresses, that there will be full understanding ofmicrobial adaptive resiliency. Knowledge of the stress response in theenvironment will facilitate the control of bioremediation and otherprocesses mediated by complex microbial communities.

  1. The effects of mind-body training on stress reduction, positive affect, and plasma catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Kang, Do-Hyung; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye Yoon; Byun, Min Soo; Kwon, Soo Jin; Jang, Go-Eun; Lee, Ul Soon; An, Seung Chan; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-07-26

    This study was designed to assess the association between stress, positive affect and catecholamine levels in meditation and control groups. The meditation group consisted of 67 subjects who regularly engaged in mind-body training of "Brain-Wave Vibration" and the control group consisted of 57 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)) levels were measured, and a modified form of the Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were administered. The meditation group showed higher scores on positive affect (p=.019) and lower scores on stress (p<.001) compared with the control group. Plasma DA levels were also higher in the meditation (p=.031) than in the control group. The control group demonstrated a negative correlation between stress and positive affects (r=-.408, p=.002), whereas this correlation was not observed in the meditation group. The control group showed positive correlations between somatization and NE/E (r=.267, p=.045) and DA/E (r=.271, p=.042) ratios, whereas these correlations did not emerge in the meditation group. In conclusion, these results suggest that meditation as mind-body training is associated with lower stress, higher positive affect and higher plasma DA levels when comparing the meditation group with the control group. Thus, mind-body training may influence stress, positive affect and the sympathetic nervous system including DA activity.

  2. Stress responses in probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Nezhad, Marzieh; Hussain, Malik Altaf; Britz, Margaret Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Survival in harsh environments is critical to both the industrial performance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their competitiveness in complex microbial ecologies. Among the LAB, members of the Lactobacillus casei group have industrial applications as acid-producing starter cultures for milk fermentations and as specialty cultures for the intensification and acceleration of flavor development in certain bacterial-ripened cheese varieties. They are amongst the most common organisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and other animals, and have the potential to function as probiotics. Whether used in industrial or probiotic applications, environmental stresses will affect the physiological status and properties of cells, including altering their functionality and biochemistry. Understanding the mechanisms of how LAB cope with different environments is of great biotechnological importance, from both a fundamental and applied perspective: hence, interaction between these strains and their environment has gained increased interest in recent years. This paper presents an overview of the important features of stress responses in Lb. casei, and related proteomic or gene expression patterns that may improve their use as starter cultures and probiotics.

  3. Rett syndrome: a preliminary analysis of stereotypy, stress, and negative affect.

    PubMed

    Quest, Kelsey M; Byiers, Breanne J; Payen, Ameante; Symons, Frank J

    2014-05-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting females. It is characterized by apparently normative development of motor and communicative abilities followed by deterioration in these domains. Stereotypic hand movements are one of the core diagnostic criteria for RTT. There is some anecdotal but limited scientific evidence that changes in hand stereotypy may be a sign of increased anxiety or arousal (i.e., a 'stress response') in RTT. Understanding stress responsivity is difficult in RTT because almost all individuals are nonverbal or otherwise severely communicatively impaired. This study used direct behavioral observation to quantify and compare the frequency of hand stereotypy and signs of negative affect during presumed periods of high and low stress associated with functional analysis conditions (negative reinforcement ['escape'] and control ['free play'], respectively) for 5 females with RTT (mean age=17.8; range 4-47). Negative affect was more likely to occur during negative reinforcement ('stress') conditions for each participant whereas hand stereotypies did not differ across conditions for any of the participants. Although preliminary, the results suggest that hand stereotypy may not be a valid behavioral 'stress-response' indicator in females with RTT. Alternatively, the approach we used may have been limited and not sufficient to evoke a stress response. Either way, more work with direct relevance to improving our understanding of hand stereotypy and anxiety in RTT in relation to social context appears warranted.

  4. The hyperosmotic stress response of Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hyperosmotic stress response of Campylobacter jejuni: The diarrheal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and other gastrointestinal bacteria encounter changes in osmolarity in the environment, through exposure to food processing, or upon entering host organisms, where osmotic adaptation can be associa...

  5. Stress, stress-induced cortisol responses, and eyewitness identification performance.

    PubMed

    Sauerland, Melanie; Raymaekers, Linsey H C; Otgaar, Henry; Memon, Amina; Waltjen, Thijs T; Nivo, Maud; Slegers, Chiel; Broers, Nick J; Smeets, Tom

    2016-07-01

    In the eyewitness identification literature, stress and arousal at the time of encoding are considered to adversely influence identification performance. This assumption is in contrast with findings from the neurobiology field of learning and memory, showing that stress and stress hormones are critically involved in forming enduring memories. This discrepancy may be related to methodological differences between the two fields of research, such as the tendency for immediate testing or the use of very short (1-2 hours) retention intervals in eyewitness research, while neurobiology studies insert at least 24 hours. Other differences refer to the extent to which stress-responsive systems (i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) are stimulated effectively under laboratory conditions. The aim of the current study was to conduct an experiment that accounts for the contemporary state of knowledge in both fields. In all, 123 participants witnessed a live staged theft while being exposed to a laboratory stressor that reliably elicits autonomic and glucocorticoid stress responses or while performing a control task. Salivary cortisol levels were measured to control for the effectiveness of the stress induction. One week later, participants attempted to identify the thief from target-present and target-absent line-ups. According to regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses, stress did not have robust detrimental effects on identification performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 The Authors Behavioral Sciences & the Law Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27417874

  6. Maternal Stress and Affect Influence Fetal Neurobehavioral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Hilton, Sterling C.; Hawkins, Melissa; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Pressman, Eva K.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated associations between maternal psychological and fetal neurobehavioral functioning with data provided at 24, 30, and 36 weeks gestation. Found that fetuses of women who were more affectively intense, appraised their lives as more stressful, and reported more pregnancy-specific hassles were more active across gestation. Fetuses of women…

  7. Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  8. Exposure to stressful environments - Strategy of adaptive responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhi, Leon E.

    1991-01-01

    Stresses such as hypoxia, water lack, and heat exposure can produce strains in more than a single organ system, in turn stimulating the body to adapt in multiple ways. Nevertheless, a general strategy of the various adaptive responses emerges when the challenges are divided into three groups: (1) conditions that affect the supply of essential molecules, (2) stresses that prevent the body from regulating properly the output of waste products such as CO2 and heat, and (3) environments that disrupt body transport systems. Problems may arise when there is a conflict between two stresses requiring conflicting adaptive changes. An alternative to adaptation, creation of microenvironment, is often favored by the animal.

  9. Juvenile stress impairs body temperature regulation and augments anticipatory stress-induced hyperthermia responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Yee, Nicole; Plassmann, Kerstin; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2011-09-01

    Clinical studies have implicated adolescence as an important and vulnerable period during which traumatic experiences can predispose individuals to anxiety and mood disorders. As such, a stress model in juvenile rats (age 27-29 d) was previously developed to investigate the long-term effects of stress exposure during adolescence on behavior and physiology. This paradigm involves exposing rats to different stressors on consecutive days over a 3-day period. Here, we studied the effects of juvenile stress on long-term core body temperature regulation and acute stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) responses using telemetry. We found no differences between control and juvenile stress rats in anxiety-related behavior on the elevated plus maze, which we attribute to stress associated with surgical implantation of telemetry devices. This highlights the severe impact of surgical stress on the results of subsequent behavioral measurements. Nonetheless, juvenile stress disrupted the circadian rhythmicity of body temperature and decreased circadian amplitude. It also induced chronic hypothermia during the dark phase of the day, when rats are most active. When subjected to acute social defeat stress as adults, juvenile stress had no impact on the SIH response relative to controls. However, 24 h later, juvenile stress rats displayed an elevated SIH response in anticipation of social defeat when re-exposed to the social defeat environment. Taken together, our findings indicate that juvenile stress can induce long-term alterations in body temperature regulation and heighten the increase in temperature associated with anticipation of social defeat. The outcomes of behavioral measurements in these experiments, however, are severely affected by surgical stress. PMID:21557956

  10. Stress and Bronchodilator Response in Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, John M.; Ramratnam, Sima K.; Tse, Sze Man; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Raby, Benjamin A.; Boutaoui, Nadia; Han, Yueh-Ying; Chen, Wei; Forno, Erick; Marsland, Anna L.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Eng, Celeste; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Alvarez, María; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Spear, Melissa L.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Avila, Lydiana; Weiss, Scott T.; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan L.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Strunk, Robert C.; Liu, Andrew; London, Stephanie J.; Gilliland, Frank; Sleiman, Patrick; March, Michael; Hakonarson, Hakon; Duan, Qing Ling; Kolls, Jay K.; Fritz, Gregory K.; Hu, Donglei; Fani, Negar; Stevens, Jennifer S.; Almli, Lynn M.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Shin, Jaemin; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Ressler, Kerry; Canino, Glorisa

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Stress is associated with asthma morbidity in Puerto Ricans (PRs), who have reduced bronchodilator response (BDR). Objectives: To examine whether stress and/or a gene regulating anxiety (ADCYAP1R1) is associated with BDR in PR and non-PR children with asthma. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of stress and BDR (percent change in FEV1 after BD) in 234 PRs ages 9–14 years with asthma. We assessed child stress using the Checklist of Children’s Distress Symptoms, and maternal stress using the Perceived Stress Scale. Replication analyses were conducted in two cohorts. Polymorphisms in ADCYAP1R1 were genotyped in our study and six replication studies. Multivariable models of stress and BDR were adjusted for age, sex, income, environmental tobacco smoke, and use of inhaled corticosteroids. Measurements and Main Results: High child stress was associated with reduced BDR in three cohorts. PR children who were highly stressed (upper quartile, Checklist of Children’s Distress Symptoms) and whose mothers had high stress (upper quartile, Perceived Stress Scale) had a BDR that was 10.2% (95% confidence interval, 6.1–14.2%) lower than children who had neither high stress nor a highly stressed mother. A polymorphism in ADCYAP1R1 (rs34548976) was associated with reduced BDR. This single-nucleotide polymorphism is associated with reduced expression of the gene for the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) in CD4+ lymphocytes of subjects with asthma, and it affects brain connectivity of the amygdala and the insula (a biomarker of anxiety). Conclusions: High child stress and an ADCYAP1R1 single-nucleotide polymorphism are associated with reduced BDR in children with asthma. This is likely caused by down-regulation of ADRB2 in highly stressed children. PMID:25918834

  11. Stress response and virulence of heat-stressed Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Klančnik, Anja; Vučković, Darinka; Jamnik, Polona; Abram, Maja; Možina, Sonja Smole

    2014-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. frequently cause bacterial gastroenteritis in humans commonly infected through the consumption of undercooked poultry meat. We examined Campylobacter jejuni heat-stress responses in vitro after exposure to 48°C and 55°C. The in vivo modulation of its pathogenicity was also investigated using BALB/c mice intravenously infected with stressed C. jejuni. Regardless of the bacterial growth phase, the culturability and viability of C. jejuni in vitro was reduced after exposure to 55°C. This correlated with the altered protein profile and decreased virulence properties observed in vivo. Heat stress at 48°C elicited the transition to more resistant bacterial forms, independent of morphological changes or the appearance of shorter spiral and coccoid cells. This treatment did not cause marked changes in bacterial virulence properties in vivo. These results indicated that the characteristics and pathogenicity of C. jejuni in response to heat stress are temperature dependent. Further studies on the responses of C. jejuni to stresses used during food processing, as well as the modulation of its virulence, are important for a better understanding of its contamination and infective cycle, and will, thus, contribute to improved safety in the food production chain.

  12. Stress for invasion success? Temperature stress of preceding generations modifies the response to insecticide stress in an invasive pest insect.

    PubMed

    Piiroinen, Saija; Lyytinen, Anne; Lindström, Leena

    2013-02-01

    Adaptation to stressful environments is one important factor influencing species invasion success. Tolerance to one stress may be complicated by exposure to other stressors experienced by the preceding generations. We studied whether parental temperature stress affects tolerance to insecticide in the invasive Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Field-collected pyrethroid-resistant beetles were reared under either stressful (17°C) or favourable (23°C) insecticide-free environments for three generations. Then, larvae were exposed to pyrethroid insecticides in common garden conditions (23°C). Beetles were in general tolerant to stress. The parental temperature stress alone affected beetles positively (increased adult weight) but it impaired their tolerance to insecticide exposure. In contrast, offspring from the favourable temperature regime showed compensatory weight gain in response to insecticide exposure. Our study emphasizes the potential of cross-generational effects modifying species stress tolerance. When resistant pest populations invade benign environments, a re-application of insecticides may enhance their performance via hormetic effects. In turn, opposite effects may arise if parental generations have been exposed to temperature stress. Thus, the outcome of management practices of invasive pest species is difficult to predict unless we also incorporate knowledge of the evolutionary and recent (preceding generations) stress history of the given populations into pest management. PMID:23467574

  13. Gpx3-dependent responses against oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kho, Chang Won; Lee, Phil Young; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Kang, Sunghyun; Cho, Sayeon; Lee, Do Hee; Sun, Choong-Hyun; Yi, Gwan-Su; Park, Byoung Chul; Park, Sung Goo

    2008-02-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has defense mechanisms identical to higher eukaryotes. It offers the potential for genome-wide experimental approaches owing to its smaller genome size and the availability of the complete sequence. It therefore represents an ideal eukaryotic model for studying cellular redox control and oxidative stress responses. S. cerevisiae Yap1 is a well-known transcription factor that is required for H2O2-dependent stress responses. Yap1 is involved in various signaling pathways in an oxidative stress response. The Gpx3 (Orp1/PHGpx3) protein is one of the factors related to these signaling pathways. It plays the role of a transducer that transfers the hydroperoxide signal to Yap1. In this study, using extensive proteomic and bioinformatics analyses, the function of the Gpx3 protein in an adaptive response against oxidative stress was investigated in wild-type, gpx3-deletion mutant, and gpx3-deletion mutant overexpressing Gpx3 protein strains. We identified 30 proteins that are related to the Gpx3- dependent oxidative stress responses and 17 proteins that are changed in a Gpx3-dependent manner regardless of oxidative stress. As expected, H2O2-responsive Gpx3-dependent proteins include a number of antioxidants related with cell rescue and defense. In addition, they contain a variety of proteins related to energy and carbohydrate metabolism, transcription, and protein fate. Based upon the experimental results, it is suggested that Gpx3-dependent stress adaptive response includes the regulation of genes related to the capacity to detoxify oxidants and repair oxidative stress-induced damages affected by Yap1 as well as metabolism and protein fate independent from Yap1. PMID:18309271

  14. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  15. Stress factors affecting academic physicians at a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Sara; Eintrei, Christina; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Research is limited regarding occupational stress in academic physicians; professionals whose work situation includes the three areas of clinical practice, research, and teaching. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of factors experienced as stressful by academic physicians employed by a university hospital. A questionnaire assessing the frequency and intensity of 36 potentially stressful factors was sent to all 157 academic physicians who were employed at the Linköping University Hospital, Sweden. The response rate was 77%. Both a high frequency and intensity of stress was experienced by 66% of the academic physicians in relation to "time pressure" and by almost 50% in connection with both "find time for research" and having "conflict of interest between different work assignments". Moreover, physicians in the higher age group and those who had attained a higher academic position experienced less stress. The female participants experienced more stress than the males due to gender-related problems and to variables associated with relationships at work. More knowledge is needed to determine the consequences of this finding and to identify coping strategies used for handling such stress.

  16. Exogenous abscisic acid significantly affects proteome in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) exposed to drought stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important economic crop, and drought is the most important abiotic stress affecting yield and quality. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone responsible for activating drought resistance. Increased understanding of ABA effects on tea plant unde...

  17. Proteomics Analysis of Alfalfa Response to Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weimin; Wei, Zhenwu; Qiao, Zhihong; Wu, Zinian; Cheng, Lixiang; Wang, Yuyang

    2013-01-01

    The proteome responses to heat stress have not been well understood. In this study, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Huaiyin) seedlings were exposed to 25°C (control) and 40°C (heat stress) in growth chambers, and leaves were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. The morphological, physiological and proteomic processes were negatively affected under heat stress. Proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and differentially expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Totally, 81 differentially expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF. These proteins were categorized into nine classes: including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis, protein destination/storage, transporters, intracellular traffic, cell structure, signal transduction and disease/defence. Five proteins were further analyzed for mRNA levels. The results of the proteomics analyses provide a better understanding of the molecular basis of heat-stress responses in alfalfa. PMID:24324825

  18. How are neuroticism and depression related to the psychophysiological stress response to acute stress in healthy older people?

    PubMed

    Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-03-15

    Neuroticism and depressive symptomatology have been related to a heightened and diminished physiological stress response, which may partly explain their negative relationship with health and wellbeing. Identifying factors that may increase disease vulnerability is especially relevant in older people, whose physiological systems decline. With this in mind, we investigated the influence of neuroticism and depression on the psychophysiological stress response in healthy older people (from 55 to 76years old). A total of 36 volunteers were exposed to a stressful task (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST), while 35 volunteers performed a control non-stressful task. The physiological stress response was assessed through measures of cortisol, alpha-amylase, heart rate (HR). Our results showed that, neuroticism was not related to physiological stress response. However, depression was related to higher cortisol response and lower HR reactivity in the stress condition. In summary, emotional states such as depressive mood seem to amplify the cortisol stress response and reduce the cardiovascular response, whereas more stable dispositions such as neuroticism did not affect stress response in older people. These findings confirm, in healthy older people, the adverse effects of depression, acting on different subsystems of the stress response. PMID:26780150

  19. How are neuroticism and depression related to the psychophysiological stress response to acute stress in healthy older people?

    PubMed

    Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-03-15

    Neuroticism and depressive symptomatology have been related to a heightened and diminished physiological stress response, which may partly explain their negative relationship with health and wellbeing. Identifying factors that may increase disease vulnerability is especially relevant in older people, whose physiological systems decline. With this in mind, we investigated the influence of neuroticism and depression on the psychophysiological stress response in healthy older people (from 55 to 76years old). A total of 36 volunteers were exposed to a stressful task (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST), while 35 volunteers performed a control non-stressful task. The physiological stress response was assessed through measures of cortisol, alpha-amylase, heart rate (HR). Our results showed that, neuroticism was not related to physiological stress response. However, depression was related to higher cortisol response and lower HR reactivity in the stress condition. In summary, emotional states such as depressive mood seem to amplify the cortisol stress response and reduce the cardiovascular response, whereas more stable dispositions such as neuroticism did not affect stress response in older people. These findings confirm, in healthy older people, the adverse effects of depression, acting on different subsystems of the stress response.

  20. Chronic Cocaine Exposure During Pregnancy Increases Postpartum Neuroendocrine Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sarah K.; Barber, John S.; Jamieson-Drake, Abigail W.; Enns, Jordan A.; Townsend, Leah B.; Walker, Cheryl H.; Johns, Josephine M.

    2012-01-01

    The cycle of chronic cocaine (CC) use and withdrawal results in increased anxiety, depression and disrupted stress-responsiveness. Oxytocin and corticosterone (CORT) interact to mediate hormonal stress responses and can be altered by cocaine use. These neuroendocrine signals play important regulatory roles in a variety of social behaviours, specifically during the postpartum period, and are sensitive to disruption by CC exposure in both clinical settings and preclinical models. To determine whether CC exposure during pregnancy affected behavioural and hormonal stress response in the early postpartum period in a rodent model, Sprague-Dawley rats were administered cocaine daily (30 mg/kg) throughout gestation (days 1–20). Open field test (OFT) and forced swim test (FST) behaviours were measured on postpartum day 5. Plasma CORT concentrations were measured prior to and following testing throughout the test day, while plasma and brain oxytocin concentrations were measured post-testing only. Results indicated increased CORT response following the OFT in CC-treated dams (p≤ 0.05). CC-treated dams also exhibited altered FST behaviour (p≤ 0.05), suggesting abnormal stress responsiveness. Peripheral, but not central, oxytocin levels were increased by cocaine treatment (p≤ 0.05). Peripheral oxytocin and CORT increased following the FST regardless of treatment condition (p≤ 0.05). Changes in stress-responsiveness, both behaviourally and hormonally may underlie some deficits in maternal behaviour, thus a clearer understanding of CC’s effect on the stress response system may potentially lead to treatment interventions which could be relevant to clinical populations. Additionally, these results indicate that CC treatment can have long-lasting effects on peripheral oxytocin regulation in rats, similar to changes observed in persistent social behaviour and stress-response deficits in clinical populations. PMID:22309318

  1. Diet of racing sled dogs affects erythrocyte depression by stress.

    PubMed

    Adkins, T O; Kronfeld, D S

    1982-09-01

    Fourteen racing huskies were matched into pairs then assigned to two diets, a commercial stress diet and an experimental diet. Proportions of protein: fat:carbohydrate on an available energy basis were 23:57:20 in a commercial stress diet and 28:69:3 in an experimental diet. The team participated in the 1979 Iditarod Trail race and was overtaken by an episode of diarrhea. Clinical signs were suggestive of parvovirus infection; high serum titers of parvo antibodies were found after the race. Blood examination showed normal levels of metabolites, electrolytes and enzymes after the race. Erythrocyte counts were depressed significantly during the race, by 15% in dogs fed an experimental diet and by 27% in those fed a commercial stress diet. Erythrocyte parameters have also become depressed during the racing season in middle distance sled dogs fed 28% protein (energy basis) but not 32 or 39%. Depressed red blood cell production has been demonstrated previously in dogs subjected to stress induced experimentally in several ways, and its restoration has been affected by dietary protein. Erythrocyte parameters may be useful indicies of the degree of stress in a dog as well as the adequacy of its protein intake during stress. PMID:17422178

  2. Global Metabolic Responses to Salt Stress in Fifteen Species

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Georg R.; Kuehne, Andreas; Sauer, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Cells constantly adapt to unpredictably changing extracellular solute concentrations. A cornerstone of the cellular osmotic stress response is the metabolic supply of energy and building blocks to mount appropriate defenses. Yet, the extent to which osmotic stress impinges on the metabolic network remains largely unknown. Moreover, it is mostly unclear which, if any, of the metabolic responses to osmotic stress are conserved among diverse organisms or confined to particular groups of species. Here we investigate the global metabolic responses of twelve bacteria, two yeasts and two human cell lines exposed to sustained hyperosmotic salt stress by measuring semiquantitative levels of hundreds of cellular metabolites using nontargeted metabolomics. Beyond the accumulation of osmoprotectants, we observed significant changes of numerous metabolites in all species. Global metabolic responses were predominantly species-specific, yet individual metabolites were characteristically affected depending on species’ taxonomy, natural habitat, envelope structure or salt tolerance. Exploiting the breadth of our dataset, the correlation of individual metabolite response magnitudes across all species implicated lower glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, branched-chain amino acid metabolism and heme biosynthesis to be generally important for salt tolerance. Thus, our findings place the global metabolic salt stress response into a phylogenetic context and provide insights into the cellular phenotype associated with salt tolerance. PMID:26848578

  3. Sympathoneural and adrenomedullary responses to mental stress.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jason R; Goldstein, David S

    2015-01-01

    This concept-based review provides historical perspectives and updates about sympathetic noradrenergic and sympathetic adrenergic responses to mental stress. The topic of this review has incited perennial debate, because of disagreements over definitions, controversial inferences, and limited availability of relevant measurement tools. The discussion begins appropriately with Cannon's "homeostasis" and his pioneering work in the area. This is followed by mental stress as a scientific idea and the relatively new notions of allostasis and allostatic load. Experimental models of mental stress in rodents and humans are discussed, with particular attention to ethical constraints in humans. Sections follow on sympathoneural responses to mental stress, reactivity of catecholamine systems, clinical pathophysiologic states, and the cardiovascular reactivity hypothesis. Future advancement of the field will require integrative approaches and coordinated efforts between physiologists and psychologists on this interdisciplinary topic.

  4. Trait Mindfulness Modulates Neuroendocrine and Affective Responses to Social Evaluative Threat

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kirk Warren; Weinstein, Netta; Creswell, J. David

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual differences in mindfulness have been associated with numerous self-report indicators of stress, but research has not examined how mindfulness may buffer neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses under controlled laboratory conditions. The present study investigated the role of trait mindfulness in buffering cortisol and affective responses to a social evaluative stress challenge versus a control task. Methods Participants completed measures of trait mindfulness, perceived stress, anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation before being randomized to complete the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum et al., 1993) or a control task. At points throughout the session, participants provided five saliva samples to assess cortisol response patterns, and completed four self-report measures of anxiety and negative affect to assess psychological responses. Results In accord with hypotheses, higher trait mindfulness predicted lower cortisol responses to the TSST, relative to the control task, as well as lower anxiety and negative affect. These relations remained significant when controlling for the role of other variables that predicted cortisol and affective responses. Conclusions The findings suggest that trait mindfulness modulates cortisol and affective responses to an acute social stressor. Further research is needed to understand the neural pathways through which mindfulness impacts these responses. PMID:22626868

  5. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition reduces stress-induced affective pathology.

    PubMed

    Gamble-George, Joyonna Carrie; Baldi, Rita; Halladay, Lindsay; Kocharian, Adrina; Hartley, Nolan; Silva, Carolyn Grace; Roberts, Holly; Haymer, Andre; Marnett, Lawrence J; Holmes, Andrew; Patel, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Mood and anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric conditions and are exacerbated by stress. Recent studies have suggested cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition could represent a novel treatment approach or augmentation strategy for affective disorders including anxiety disorders and major depression. We show that traditional COX-2 inhibitors and a newly developed substrate-selective COX-2 inhibitor (SSCI) reduce a variety of stress-induced behavioral pathologies in mice. We found that these behavioral effects were associated with a dampening of neuronal excitability in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) ex vivo and in vivo, and were mediated by small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel and CB1 cannabinoid receptor activation. Taken together, these data provide further support for the potential utility of SSCIs, as well as traditional COX-2 inhibitors, as novel treatment approaches for stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:27162170

  6. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition reduces stress-induced affective pathology

    PubMed Central

    Gamble-George, Joyonna Carrie; Baldi, Rita; Halladay, Lindsay; Kocharian, Adrina; Hartley, Nolan; Silva, Carolyn Grace; Roberts, Holly; Haymer, Andre; Marnett, Lawrence J; Holmes, Andrew; Patel, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Mood and anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric conditions and are exacerbated by stress. Recent studies have suggested cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition could represent a novel treatment approach or augmentation strategy for affective disorders including anxiety disorders and major depression. We show that traditional COX-2 inhibitors and a newly developed substrate-selective COX-2 inhibitor (SSCI) reduce a variety of stress-induced behavioral pathologies in mice. We found that these behavioral effects were associated with a dampening of neuronal excitability in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) ex vivo and in vivo, and were mediated by small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel and CB1 cannabinoid receptor activation. Taken together, these data provide further support for the potential utility of SSCIs, as well as traditional COX-2 inhibitors, as novel treatment approaches for stress-related psychiatric disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14137.001 PMID:27162170

  7. Regulated cell death and adaptive stress responses.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Kepp, Oliver; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic cells react to potentially dangerous perturbations of the intracellular or extracellular microenvironment by activating rapid (transcription-independent) mechanisms that attempt to restore homeostasis. If such perturbations persist, cells may still try to cope with stress by activating delayed and robust (transcription-dependent) adaptive systems, or they may actively engage in cellular suicide. This regulated form of cell death can manifest with various morphological, biochemical and immunological correlates, and constitutes an ultimate attempt of stressed cells to maintain organismal homeostasis. Here, we dissect the general organization of adaptive cellular responses to stress, their intimate connection with regulated cell death, and how the latter operates for the preservation of organismal homeostasis.

  8. Gel-free proteomic analysis of soybean root proteins affected by calcium under flooding stress

    PubMed Central

    Oh, MyeongWon; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Soybean is sensitive to flooding stress and exhibits reduced growth under flooding conditions. To better understand the flooding-responsive mechanisms of soybean, the effect of exogenous calcium on flooding-stressed soybeans was analyzed using proteomic technique. An increase in exogenous calcium levels enhanced soybean root elongation and suppressed the cell death of root tip under flooding stress. Proteins were extracted from the roots of 4-day-old soybean seedlings exposed to flooding stress without or with calcium for 2 days and analyzed using gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins involved in protein degradation/synthesis/posttranslational modification, hormone/cell wall metabolisms, and DNA synthesis were decreased by flooding stress; however, their reductions were recovered by calcium treatment. Development, lipid metabolism, and signaling-related proteins were increased in soybean roots when calcium was supplied under flooding stress. Fermentation and glycolysis-related proteins were increased in response to flooding; however, these proteins were not affected by calcium supplementation. Furthermore, urease and copper chaperone proteins exhibited similar profiles in 4-day-old untreated soybeans and 4-day-old soybeans exposed to flooding for 2 days in the presence of calcium. These results suggest that calcium might affect the cell wall/hormone metabolisms, protein degradation/synthesis, and DNA synthesis in soybean roots under flooding stress. PMID:25368623

  9. The peroxide stress response of Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Rebecca; Voigt, Birgit; Jürgen, Britta; Methling, Karen; Pöther, Dierk-Christoph; Schäfer, Heinrich; Albrecht, Dirk; Mostertz, Jörg; Mäder, Ulrike; Evers, Stefan; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Lalk, Michael; Mascher, Thorsten; Hecker, Michael; Schweder, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    The oxidative stress response of Bacillus licheniformis after treatment with hydrogen peroxide was investigated at the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome levels. In this comprehensive study, 84 proteins and 467 transcripts were found to be up or downregulated in response to the stressor. Among the upregulated genes were many that are known to have important functions in the oxidative stress response of other organisms, such as catalase, alkylhydroperoxide reductase or the thioredoxin system. Many of these genes could be grouped into putative regulons by genomic mining. The occurrence of oxidative damage to proteins was analyzed by a 2-DE-based approach. In addition, we report the induction of genes with hitherto unknown functions, which may be important for the specific oxidative stress response of B. licheniformis. The genes BLi04114 and BLi04115, that are located adjacent to the catalase gene, were massively induced during peroxide stress. Furthermore, the genes BLi04207 and BLi04208, which encode proteins homologous to glyoxylate cycle enzymes, were also induced by peroxide. Metabolomic analyses support the induction of the glyoxylate cycle during oxidative stress in B. licheniformis.

  10. Human cardiovascular responses to passive heat stress.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Craig G; Wilson, Thad E

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress increases human morbidity and mortality compared to normothermic conditions. Many occupations, disease states, as well as stages of life are especially vulnerable to the stress imposed on the cardiovascular system during exposure to hot ambient conditions. This review focuses on the cardiovascular responses to heat stress that are necessary for heat dissipation. To accomplish this regulatory feat requires complex autonomic nervous system control of the heart and various vascular beds. For example, during heat stress cardiac output increases up to twofold, by increases in heart rate and an active maintenance of stroke volume via increases in inotropy in the presence of decreases in cardiac preload. Baroreflexes retain the ability to regulate blood pressure in many, but not all, heat stress conditions. Central hypovolemia is another cardiovascular challenge brought about by heat stress, which if added to a subsequent central volumetric stress, such as hemorrhage, can be problematic and potentially dangerous, as syncope and cardiovascular collapse may ensue. These combined stresses can compromise blood flow and oxygenation to important tissues such as the brain. It is notable that this compromised condition can occur at cardiac outputs that are adequate during normothermic conditions but are inadequate in heat because of the increased systemic vascular conductance associated with cutaneous vasodilation. Understanding the mechanisms within this complex regulatory system will allow for the development of treatment recommendations and countermeasures to reduce risks during the ever-increasing frequency of severe heat events that are predicted to occur.

  11. Human Cardiovascular Responses to Passive Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, Craig G.; Wilson, Thad E.

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress increases human morbidity and mortality compared to normothermic conditions. Many occupations, disease states, as well as stages of life are especially vulnerable to the stress imposed on the cardiovascular system during exposure to hot ambient conditions. This review focuses on the cardiovascular responses to heat stress that are necessary for heat dissipation. To accomplish this regulatory feat requires complex autonomic nervous system control of the heart and various vascular beds. For example, during heat stress cardiac output increases up to twofold, by increases in heart rate and an active maintenance of stroke volume via increases in inotropy in the presence of decreases in cardiac preload. Baroreflexes retain the ability to regulate blood pressure in many, but not all, heat stress conditions. Central hypovolemia is another cardiovascular challenge brought about by heat stress, which if added to a subsequent central volumetric stress, such as hemorrhage, can be problematic and potentially dangerous, as syncope and cardiovascular collapse may ensue. These combined stresses can compromise blood flow and oxygenation to important tissues such as the brain. It is notable that this compromised condition can occur at cardiac outputs that are adequate during normothermic conditions but are inadequate in heat because of the increased systemic vascular conductance associated with cutaneous vasodilation. Understanding the mechanisms within this complex regulatory system will allow for the development of treatment recommendations and countermeasures to reduce risks during the ever-increasing frequency of severe heat events that are predicted to occur. PMID:25589263

  12. The Effect of Music on the Human Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Myriam V.; La Marca, Roberto; Brönnimann, Rebecca; Finkel, Linda; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Music listening has been suggested to beneficially impact health via stress-reducing effects. However, the existing literature presents itself with a limited number of investigations and with discrepancies in reported findings that may result from methodological shortcomings (e.g. small sample size, no valid stressor). It was the aim of the current study to address this gap in knowledge and overcome previous shortcomings by thoroughly examining music effects across endocrine, autonomic, cognitive, and emotional domains of the human stress response. Methods Sixty healthy female volunteers (mean age = 25 years) were exposed to a standardized psychosocial stress test after having been randomly assigned to one of three different conditions prior to the stress test: 1) relaxing music (‘Miserere’, Allegri) (RM), 2) sound of rippling water (SW), and 3) rest without acoustic stimulation (R). Salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), subjective stress perception and anxiety were repeatedly assessed in all subjects. We hypothesized that listening to RM prior to the stress test, compared to SW or R would result in a decreased stress response across all measured parameters. Results The three conditions significantly differed regarding cortisol response (p = 0.025) to the stressor, with highest concentrations in the RM and lowest in the SW condition. After the stressor, sAA (p=0.026) baseline values were reached considerably faster in the RM group than in the R group. HR and psychological measures did not significantly differ between groups. Conclusion Our findings indicate that music listening impacted the psychobiological stress system. Listening to music prior to a standardized stressor predominantly affected the autonomic nervous system (in terms of a faster recovery), and to a lesser degree the endocrine and psychological stress response. These findings may help better understanding the

  13. Stress in Context: Morpho-Syntactic Properties Affect Lexical Stress Assignment in Reading Aloud.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Giacomo; Sulpizio, Simone; Primativo, Silvia; Burani, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings from English and Russian have shown that grammatical category plays a key role in stress assignment. In these languages, some grammatical categories have a typical stress pattern and this information is used by readers. However, whether readers are sensitive to smaller distributional differences and other morpho-syntactic properties (e.g., gender, number, person) remains unclear. We addressed this issue in word and non-word reading in Italian, a language in which: (1) nouns and verbs differ in the proportion of words with a dominant stress pattern; (2) information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties may contrast with other sources of information, such as stress neighborhood. Both aspects were addressed in two experiments in which context words were used to induce the desired morpho-syntactic properties. Experiment 1 showed that the relatively different proportions of stress patterns between grammatical categories do not affect stress processing in word reading. In contrast, Experiment 2 showed that information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties outweighs stress neighborhood in non-word reading. Thus, while general information specified by grammatical categories may not be used by Italian readers, stress neighbors with morpho-syntactic properties congruent with those of the target stimulus have a primary role in stress assignment. These results underscore the importance of expanding investigations of stress assignment beyond single words, as current models of single-word reading seem unable to account for our results. PMID:27445910

  14. Stress in Context: Morpho-Syntactic Properties Affect Lexical Stress Assignment in Reading Aloud

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, Giacomo; Sulpizio, Simone; Primativo, Silvia; Burani, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings from English and Russian have shown that grammatical category plays a key role in stress assignment. In these languages, some grammatical categories have a typical stress pattern and this information is used by readers. However, whether readers are sensitive to smaller distributional differences and other morpho-syntactic properties (e.g., gender, number, person) remains unclear. We addressed this issue in word and non-word reading in Italian, a language in which: (1) nouns and verbs differ in the proportion of words with a dominant stress pattern; (2) information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties may contrast with other sources of information, such as stress neighborhood. Both aspects were addressed in two experiments in which context words were used to induce the desired morpho-syntactic properties. Experiment 1 showed that the relatively different proportions of stress patterns between grammatical categories do not affect stress processing in word reading. In contrast, Experiment 2 showed that information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties outweighs stress neighborhood in non-word reading. Thus, while general information specified by grammatical categories may not be used by Italian readers, stress neighbors with morpho-syntactic properties congruent with those of the target stimulus have a primary role in stress assignment. These results underscore the importance of expanding investigations of stress assignment beyond single words, as current models of single-word reading seem unable to account for our results. PMID:27445910

  15. Plant molecular stress responses face climate change.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Ishita; de Vos, Ric C H; Bones, Atle M; Hall, Robert D

    2010-12-01

    Environmental stress factors such as drought, elevated temperature, salinity and rising CO₂ affect plant growth and pose a growing threat to sustainable agriculture. This has become a hot issue due to concerns about the effects of climate change on plant resources, biodiversity and global food security. Plant adaptation to stress involves key changes in the '-omic' architecture. Here, we present an overview of the physiological and molecular programs in stress adaptation focusing on how genes, proteins and metabolites change after individual and multiple environmental stresses. We address the role which '-omics' research, coupled to systems biology approaches, can play in future research on plants seemingly unable to adapt as well as those which can tolerate climatic change.

  16. Reproduction elevates the corticosterone stress response in common fruit bats.

    PubMed

    Klose, Stefan M; Smith, Carolynn L; Denzel, Andrea J; Kalko, Elisabeth K V

    2006-04-01

    Changes in reproductive state or the environment may affect the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-andrenal (HPA) axis. However, little is known about the dynamics of the resulting corticosteroid stress response, in particular in tropical mammals. In this study, we address the modulation of corticosterone release in response to different reproductive conditions and seasonality in 326 free-living common fruit-eating bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) on Barro Colorado Island in Panama during dry and wet seasons. We present strong evidence that stress sensitivity is primarily modulated by reproductive condition. In reproductively active females, corticosterone increases were more rapid and reached higher levels, but also decreased significantly faster than in inactive females. The corticosterone response was weaker in reproducing males than in females and delayed compared to non-reproductive males. Testes volume in reproductively active males was negatively correlated with corticosterone concentrations. Our findings suggest differentiated dynamics in the corticosterone stress response between sexes, potentially reflecting conflicting ecological demands. In females, a strong acute corticosterone response may represent high stress- and risk-sensitivity that facilitates escape and thus helps to protect reproduction. In males, suppression during reproductive activity could reflect lowered stress sensitivity to avoid chronically elevated corticosterone levels in times of frequent aggressive and therefore costly inter-male encounters.

  17. Effects of d-amphetamine upon psychosocial stress responses.

    PubMed

    Childs, Emma; Bershad, Anya K; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    Psychostimulant drugs alter the salience of stimuli in both laboratory animals and humans. In animals, stimulants increase rates of responding to conditioned incentive stimuli, and in humans, amphetamine increases positive ratings of emotional images. However, the effects of stimulants on real-life emotional events have not been studied in humans. In this study, we examined the effect of d-amphetamine on responses to acute psychosocial stress using a public speaking task. Healthy volunteers (N=56) participated in two experimental sessions, one with a psychosocial stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test) and one with a non-stressful control task. They were randomly assigned to receive d-amphetamine (5 mg n=18, 10 mg n=20) or placebo (n=18) on both sessions under double blind conditions. Salivary cortisol, subjective mood, and vital signs were measured at regular intervals during the session. Subjects also provided cognitive appraisals of the tasks before and after their performances. Amphetamine produced its expected mood and physiological effects, and the Trier Social Stress Test produced its expected effects on cortisol and mood. Although neither dose of amphetamine altered cardiovascular or hormonal responses to stress, amphetamine (10 mg) increased participants' pre-task appraisals of how challenging the task would be, and it increased post-task ratings of self-efficacy. Paradoxically, it also increased ratings of how stressful the task was, and prolonged aversive emotional responses. These findings suggest that amphetamine differentially affects stress response components: it may increase participants' appraisals of self-efficacy without dampening the direct emotional or physiological responses to the stress. PMID:27235381

  18. Effects of d-amphetamine upon psychosocial stress responses.

    PubMed

    Childs, Emma; Bershad, Anya K; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    Psychostimulant drugs alter the salience of stimuli in both laboratory animals and humans. In animals, stimulants increase rates of responding to conditioned incentive stimuli, and in humans, amphetamine increases positive ratings of emotional images. However, the effects of stimulants on real-life emotional events have not been studied in humans. In this study, we examined the effect of d-amphetamine on responses to acute psychosocial stress using a public speaking task. Healthy volunteers (N=56) participated in two experimental sessions, one with a psychosocial stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test) and one with a non-stressful control task. They were randomly assigned to receive d-amphetamine (5 mg n=18, 10 mg n=20) or placebo (n=18) on both sessions under double blind conditions. Salivary cortisol, subjective mood, and vital signs were measured at regular intervals during the session. Subjects also provided cognitive appraisals of the tasks before and after their performances. Amphetamine produced its expected mood and physiological effects, and the Trier Social Stress Test produced its expected effects on cortisol and mood. Although neither dose of amphetamine altered cardiovascular or hormonal responses to stress, amphetamine (10 mg) increased participants' pre-task appraisals of how challenging the task would be, and it increased post-task ratings of self-efficacy. Paradoxically, it also increased ratings of how stressful the task was, and prolonged aversive emotional responses. These findings suggest that amphetamine differentially affects stress response components: it may increase participants' appraisals of self-efficacy without dampening the direct emotional or physiological responses to the stress.

  19. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Quaedflieg, Conny W. E. M.; Merckelbach, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT) known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34) to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol) activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area. PMID:23671762

  20. Stress in Atlantic salmon: response to unpredictable chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Madaro, Angelico; Olsen, Rolf E; Kristiansen, Tore S; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Nilsen, Tom O; Flik, Gert; Gorissen, Marnix

    2015-08-01

    Combinations of stressors occur regularly throughout an animal's life, especially in agriculture and aquaculture settings. If an animal fails to acclimate to these stressors, stress becomes chronic, and a condition of allostatic overload arises with negative results for animal welfare. In the current study, we describe effects of exposing Atlantic salmon parr to an unpredictable chronic stressor (UCS) paradigm for 3 weeks. The paradigm involves exposure of fish to seven unpredictable stressors three times a day. At the end of the trial, experimental and control fish were challenged with yet another novel stressor and sampled before and 1 h after that challenge. Plasma cortisol decreased steadily over time in stressed fish, indicative of exhaustion of the endocrine stress axis. This was confirmed by a lower cortisol response to the novel stressor at the end of the stress period in chronically stressed fish compared with the control group. In the preoptic area (POA) and pituitary gland, chronic stress resulted in decreased gene expression of 11βhsd2, gr1 and gr2 in the POA and increased expression of those genes in the pituitary gland. POA crf expression and pituitary expression of pomcs and mr increased, whereas interrenal gene expression was unaffected. Exposure to the novel stressor had no effect on POA and interrenal gene expression. In the pituitary, crfr1, pomcs, 11βhsd2, grs and mr were down-regulated. In summary, our results provide a novel overview of the dynamic changes that occur at every level of the hypothalamic-pituitary gland-interrenal gland (HPI) axis as a result of chronic stress in Atlantic salmon. PMID:26056242

  1. Endocannabinoids and the cardiovascular response to stress.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Saoirse E; Kendall, Patrick J; Kendall, David A

    2012-01-01

    Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), resulting in cardiovascular responses. The endocannabinoid system (ECS), a ubiquitously expressed lipid signalling system, modulates both HPA and SNS activity. The purpose of this review is to explore the possible involvement/role of the ECS in the cardiovascular response to stress. The ECS has numerous cardiovascular effects including modulation of blood pressure, heart rate, the baroreflex, and direct vascular actions. It is also involved in a protective manner in response to stressors in cardiac preconditioning, and various stressors (for example, pain, orthostasis and social stress) increase plasma levels of endocannabinoids. Given the multitude of vascular effects of endocannabinoids, this is bound to have consequences. Beneficial effects of ECS upregulation could include cardioprotection, vasodilatation, CB(2)-mediated anti-inflammatory effects and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Negative effects of endocannabinoids could include mediation of the effects of glucocorticoids, CB(1)-mediated metabolic changes, and metabolism to vasoconstrictor products. It is also likely that there is a central role for the ECS in modulating cardiovascular activity via the HPA and SNS. However, much more work is required to fully integrate the role of the ECS in mediating many of the physiological responses to stress, including cardiovascular responses.

  2. Dysfunctional stress responses in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Woda, Alain; Picard, Pascale; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Many dysfunctional and chronic pain conditions overlap. This review describes the different modes of chronic deregulation of the adaptive response to stress which may be a common factor for these conditions. Several types of dysfunction can be identified within the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis: basal hypercortisolism, hyper-reactivity, basal hypocortisolism and hypo-reactivity. Neuroactive steroid synthesis is another component of the adaptive response to stress. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form DHEA-S, and progesterone and its derivatives are synthetized in cutaneous, nervous, and adipose cells. They are neuroactive factors that act locally. They may have a role in the localization of the symptoms and their levels can vary both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Persistent changes in neuroactive steroid levels or precursors can induce localized neurodegeneration. The autonomic nervous system is another component of the stress response. Its dysfunction in chronic stress responses can be expressed by decreased basal parasympathethic activity, increased basal sympathetic activity or sympathetic hyporeactivity to a stressful stimulus. The immune and genetic systems also participate. The helper-T cells Th1 secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1-β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, whereas Th2 secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-10, IGF-10, IL-13. Chronic deregulation of the Th1/Th2 balance can occur in favor of anti- or pro-inflammatory direction, locally or systemically. Individual vulnerability to stress can be due to environmental factors but can also be genetically influenced. Genetic polymorphisms and epigenetics are the main keys to understanding the influence of genetics on the response of individuals to constraints. PMID:27262345

  3. Dynamics of active cellular response under stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Rumi; Zemel, Assaf; Safran, Samuel

    2008-03-01

    Forces exerted by and on adherent cells are important for many physiological processes such as wound healing and tissue formation. In addition, recent experiments have shown that stem cell differentiation is controlled, at least in part, by the elasticity of the surrounding matrix. Using a simple theoretical model that includes the forces due to both the mechanosensitive nature of cells and the elastic response of the matrix, we predict the dynamics of orientation of cells. The model predicts many features observed in measurements of cellular forces and orientation including the increase with time of the forces generated by cells in the absence of applied stress and the consequent decrease of the force in the presence of quasi-static stresses. We also explain the puzzling observation of parallel alignment of cells for static and quasi-static stresses and of nearly perpendicular alignment for dynamically varying stresses. In addition, we predict the response of the cellular orientation to a sinusoidally varying applied stress as a function of frequency. The dependence of the cell orientation angle on the Poisson ratio of the surrounding material can be used to distinguish systems in which cell activity is controlled by stress from those where cell activity is controlled by strain. Reference: Nature Physics, vol. 3, pp 655 (2007).

  4. Stress response in medically important Mucorales.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pankaj; Paul, Saikat; Shivaprakash, M Rudramurthy; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Ghosh, Anup K

    2016-10-01

    Mucorales are saprobes, ubiquitously distributed and able to infect a heterogeneous population of human hosts. The fungi require robust stress responses to survive in human host. We tested the growth of Mucorales in the presence of different abiotic stress. Eight pathogenic species of Mucorales, including Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Apophysomyces elegans, Licthemia corymbifera, Cunninghamella bertholletiae, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Mucor racemosus, were exposed to different stress inducers: osmotic (sodium chloride and d-sorbitol), oxidative (hydrogen peroxide and menadione), pH, cell wall and metal ions (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mg). Wide variation in stress responses was noted: R. arrhizus showed maximum resistance to both osmotic and oxidative stresses, whereas R. pusillus and M. indicus were relatively sensitive. Rhizopus arrhizus and R. microsporus showed maximum resistance to alkaline pH, whereas C. bertholletiae, L. corymbifera, M. racemosus and A. elegans were resistant to acidic pH. Maximum tolerance was noted in R. microsporus to Cu, R. microsporus and R. arrhizus to Fe and C. bertholletiae to Zn. In contrast, L. corymbifera, A. elegans and M. indicus were sensitive to Cu, Zn and Fe respectively. In conclusion, R. arrhizus showed high stress tolerance in comparison to other species of Mucorales, and this could be the possible reason for high pathogenic potential of this fungi. PMID:27292160

  5. Learning under stress in the adult rat is differentially affected by 'juvenile' or 'adolescent' stress.

    PubMed

    Tsoory, Michael; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2006-12-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that childhood trauma is associated with a predisposition to develop both mood and anxiety disorders, while trauma during adolescence is associated mainly with anxiety disorders. We studied in the rat the long-term consequences of 'juvenile' stress, namely stress experienced in a period in which substantial remodelling occurs across species in stress-sensitive brain areas involved in emotional and learning processing. In adulthood, 'juvenile' stressed rats exhibited reduced exploration in a novel setting, and poor avoidance learning, with 41% learning mainly to escape while 28% exhibited learned helplessness-like behaviours. In adult rats that underwent 'adolescent' stress, learned helplessness-like behaviours were not evident, although decreased exploration and poor avoidance learning were observed. This suggests that in the prepubertal phase juvenility may constitute a stress-sensitive period. The results suggest that juvenile stress induces lasting impairments in stress-coping responses. The 'juvenile' stress model presented here may be of relevance to individuals' reported predisposition to anxiety and depression following childhood trauma, and their increased susceptibility only to anxiety disorders following adolescent stress. PMID:16321169

  6. Mental Imagery Affects Subsequent Automatic Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hagenaars, Muriel A.; Mesbah, Rahele; Cremers, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing) during subsequent analog trauma (affective picture viewing). Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1, 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome) or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast) than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (n = 51), again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative-related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations. PMID:26089801

  7. The leukocyte response to fluid stress

    PubMed Central

    Moazzam, Fariborz; DeLano, Frank A.; Zweifach, Benjamin W.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    1997-01-01

    Leukocyte migration from a hemopoietic pool across marrow endothelium requires active pseudopod formation and adhesion. Leukocytes rarely show pseudopod formation while in circulation. At question then is the mechanism that serves to minimize leukocyte pseudopod formation in the circulation. We tested the hypothesis that fluid shear stress acts to prevent pseudopod formation. When individual human leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes) spreading on glass surfaces in vitro were subjected to fluid shear stress (≈1 dyn/cm2), an instantaneous retraction of pseudopods was observed. Removal of the fluid shear stress in turn led to the return of pseudopod projection and cell spreading. When steady shear stress was prolonged over several minutes, leukocyte swelling occurs together with an enhanced random motion of cytoplasmic granules and a reduction of cytoplasmic stiffness. The response to shear stress could be suppressed by K+ channel blockers and chelation of external Ca2+. In rat mesentery microvessels after occlusion, circulating leukocytes project pseudopods in free suspension or when attached to the endothelium, even though immediately after occlusion only few pseudopods were present. When flow was restored, pseudopods on adhering leukocytes were retracted and then the cells began to roll and detach from the endothelium. In conclusion, plasma shear stress in the circulation serves to reduce pseudopod projection and adhesion of circulating leukocytes and vice versa reduction of shear stress leads to pseudopod projection and spreading of leukocytes on the endothelium. PMID:9144238

  8. Hyperosmotic Stress Response of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Andrew; Frirdich, Emilisa; Huynh, Steven; Parker, Craig T.

    2012-01-01

    The diarrheal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and other gastrointestinal bacteria encounter changes in osmolarity in the environment, through exposure to food processing, and upon entering host organisms, where osmotic adaptation can be associated with virulence. In this study, growth profiles, transcriptomics, and phenotypic, mutant, and single-cell analyses were used to explore the effects of hyperosmotic stress exposure on C. jejuni. Increased growth inhibition correlated with increased osmotic concentration, with both ionic and nonionic stressors inhibiting growth at 0.620 total osmol liter−1. C. jejuni adaptation to a range of osmotic stressors and concentrations was accompanied by severe filamentation in subpopulations, with microscopy indicating septum formation and phenotypic diversity between individual cells in a filament. Population heterogeneity was also exemplified by the bifurcation of colony morphology into small and large variants on salt stress plates. Flow cytometry of C. jejuni harboring green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the ATP synthase promoter likewise revealed bimodal subpopulations under hyperosmotic stress. We also identified frequent hyperosmotic stress-sensitive variants within the clonal wild-type population propagated on standard laboratory medium. Microarray analysis following hyperosmotic upshift revealed enhanced expression of heat shock genes and genes encoding enzymes for synthesis of potential osmoprotectants and cross-protective induction of oxidative stress genes. The capsule export gene kpsM was also upregulated, and an acapsular mutant was defective for growth under hyperosmotic stress. For C. jejuni, an organism lacking most conventional osmotic response factors, these data suggest an unusual hyperosmotic stress response, including likely “bet-hedging” survival strategies relying on the presence of stress-fit individuals in a heterogeneous population. PMID:22961853

  9. Erythropoietin action in stress response, tissue maintenance and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Li; Dey, Soumyadeep; Alnaeeli, Mawadda; Suresh, Sukanya; Rogers, Heather; Teng, Ruifeng; Noguchi, Constance Tom

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) regulation of red blood cell production and its induction at reduced oxygen tension provides for the important erythropoietic response to ischemic stress. The cloning and production of recombinant human EPO has led to its clinical use in patients with anemia for two and half decades and has facilitated studies of EPO action. Reports of animal and cell models of ischemic stress in vitro and injury suggest potential EPO benefit beyond red blood cell production including vascular endothelial response to increase nitric oxide production, which facilitates oxygen delivery to brain, heart and other non-hematopoietic tissues. This review discusses these and other reports of EPO action beyond red blood cell production, including EPO response affecting metabolism and obesity in animal models. Observations of EPO activity in cell and animal model systems, including mice with tissue specific deletion of EPO receptor (EpoR), suggest the potential for EPO response in metabolism and disease. PMID:24918289

  10. Response to stress in Drosophila is mediated by gender, age and stress paradigm.

    PubMed

    Neckameyer, Wendi S; Nieto-Romero, Andres R

    2015-01-01

    All living organisms must maintain equilibrium in response to internal and external challenges within their environment. Changes in neural plasticity (alterations in neuronal populations, dendritic remodeling, and synaptic turnover) are critical components of the homeostatic response to stress, which has been strongly implicated in the onset of affective disorders. However, stress is differentially perceived depending on the type of stress and its context, as well as genetic background, age and sex; therefore, an individual's maintenance of neuronal homeostasis must differ depending upon these variables. We established Drosophila as a model to analyze homeostatic responses to stress. Sexually immature and mature females and males from an isogenic wild-type strain raised under controlled environmental conditions were exposed to four reproducible and high-throughput translatable stressors to facilitate the analysis of a large number of animals for direct comparisons. These animals were assessed in an open-field arena, in a light-dark box, and in a forced swim test, as well as for sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol. These studies establish that immature and mature females and males represent behaviorally distinct populations under control conditions as well as after exposure to different stressors. Therefore, the neural substrates mediating the stress response must be differentially expressed depending upon the hormonal status of the brain. In addition, an adaptive response to a given stressor in one paradigm was not predictive for outcomes in other paradigms. PMID:25783197

  11. Response to stress in Drosophila is mediated by gender, age and stress paradigm.

    PubMed

    Neckameyer, Wendi S; Nieto-Romero, Andres R

    2015-01-01

    All living organisms must maintain equilibrium in response to internal and external challenges within their environment. Changes in neural plasticity (alterations in neuronal populations, dendritic remodeling, and synaptic turnover) are critical components of the homeostatic response to stress, which has been strongly implicated in the onset of affective disorders. However, stress is differentially perceived depending on the type of stress and its context, as well as genetic background, age and sex; therefore, an individual's maintenance of neuronal homeostasis must differ depending upon these variables. We established Drosophila as a model to analyze homeostatic responses to stress. Sexually immature and mature females and males from an isogenic wild-type strain raised under controlled environmental conditions were exposed to four reproducible and high-throughput translatable stressors to facilitate the analysis of a large number of animals for direct comparisons. These animals were assessed in an open-field arena, in a light-dark box, and in a forced swim test, as well as for sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol. These studies establish that immature and mature females and males represent behaviorally distinct populations under control conditions as well as after exposure to different stressors. Therefore, the neural substrates mediating the stress response must be differentially expressed depending upon the hormonal status of the brain. In addition, an adaptive response to a given stressor in one paradigm was not predictive for outcomes in other paradigms.

  12. Response to stress in Drosophila is mediated by gender, age and stress paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Neckameyer, Wendi S.; Nieto, Andres

    2016-01-01

    All living organisms must maintain equilibrium in response to internal and external challenges within their environment. Changes in neural plasticity (alterations in neuronal populations, dendritic remodeling, and synaptic turnover) are critical components of the homeostatic response to stress, which has been strongly implicated in the onset of affective disorders. However, stress is differentially perceived depending on the type of stress and its context, as well as genetic background, age and sex; therefore, an individual’s maintenance of neuronal homeostasis must differ depending upon these variables. We established Drosophila as a model to analyze homeostatic responses to stress. Sexually immature and mature females and males from an isogenic wild-type strain raised under controlled environmental conditions were exposed to four reproducible and high-throughput translatable stressors to facilitate the analysis of a large number of animals for direct comparisons. These animals were assessed in an open-field arena, in a Light-Dark Box, and in a Forced Swim Test, as well as for sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol. These studies establish that immature and mature females and males represent behaviorally distinct populations under control conditions as well as after exposure to different stressors. Therefore, the neural substrates mediating the stress response must be differentially expressed depending upon the hormonal status of the brain. In addition, an adaptive response to a given stressor in one paradigm was not predictive for outcomes in other paradigms. PMID:25783197

  13. Multiple abiotic stress responsive rice cyclophilin

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Dipesh Kumar; Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophilins (CYP), a member of immunophillin group of proteins, are more often conserved in all genera including plants. Here, we report on the identification of a new cyclophilin gene OsCYP-25 (LOC_Os09 g39780) from rice which found to be upregulated in response to various abiotic stresses viz., salinity, cold, heat and drought. It has an ORF of 540 bp, encoding a protein of 179 amino acids, consisting of PPIase domain, which is highly conserved. The OsCYP-25 promoter analysis revealed that different cis-regulatory elements (e.g., MYBCORE, MYC, CBFHV, GT1GMSCAM4, DRECRTCOREAT, CCAATBOX1, WRKY71OS and WBOXATNPR1) are involved to mediate OsCYP-25 response under stress. We have also predicted interacting partners by STRING software. In interactome, protein partners includes WD domain containing protein, the 60S ribosome subunit biogenesis protein, the ribosomal protein L10, the DEAD-box helicase, the EIF-2α, YT521-B protein, the 60S ribosomal protein and the PPR repeat domain containing protein. The in silico analysis showed that OsCYP-25 interacts with different proteins involved in cell growth, differentiation, ribosome biogenesis, RNA metabolism, RNA editing, gene expression, signal transduction or stress response. These findings suggest that OsCYP-25 might perform an important function in mediating wide range of cellular response under multiple abiotic stresses. PMID:24265852

  14. The Adaptive Calibration Model of stress responsivity

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Adaptive Calibration Model (ACM), an evolutionary-developmental theory of individual differences in the functioning of the stress response system. The stress response system has three main biological functions: (1) to coordinate the organism’s allostatic response to physical and psychosocial challenges; (2) to encode and filter information about the organism’s social and physical environment, mediating the organism’s openness to environmental inputs; and (3) to regulate the organism’s physiology and behavior in a broad range of fitness-relevant areas including defensive behaviors, competitive risk-taking, learning, attachment, affiliation and reproductive functioning. The information encoded by the system during development feeds back on the long-term calibration of the system itself, resulting in adaptive patterns of responsivity and individual differences in behavior. Drawing on evolutionary life history theory, we build a model of the development of stress responsivity across life stages, describe four prototypical responsivity patterns, and discuss the emergence and meaning of sex differences. The ACM extends the theory of biological sensitivity to context (BSC) and provides an integrative framework for future research in the field. PMID:21145350

  15. Acute stress differentially affects aromatase activity in specific brain nuclei of adult male and female quail.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Molly J; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, stress-induced changes in behavior. We investigated the effects of acute stress on AA in both sexes by measuring enzyme activity in all aromatase-expressing brain nuclei before, during, and after 30 min of acute restraint stress. We show here that acute stress rapidly alters AA in the male and female brain and that these changes are specific to the brain nuclei and sex of the individual. Specifically, acute stress rapidly (5 min) increased AA in the male medial preoptic nucleus, a region controlling male reproductive behavior; in females, a similar increase was also observed, but it appeared delayed (15 min) and had smaller amplitude. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, regions associated with female reproductive behavior, stress induced a quick and sustained decrease in AA in females, but in males, only a slight increase (ventromedial) or no change (tuberal) in AA was observed. Effects of acute stress on brain estrogen production, therefore, represent one potential way through which stress affects reproduction.

  16. Analysis of soybean root proteins affected by gibberellic acid treatment under flooding stress.

    PubMed

    Oh, Myeong Won; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is a serious abiotic stress for soybean because it restricts growth and reduces grain yields. To investigate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on soybean under flooding stress, root proteins were analyzed using a gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins were extracted from the roots of 4-days-old soybean seedlings exposed to flooding stress in the presence and absence of exogenous GA3 for 2 days. A total of 307, 324, and 250 proteins were identified from untreated, and flooding-treated soybean seedlings without or with GA3, respectively. Secondary metabolism- and cell-related proteins, and proteins involved in protein degradation/synthesis were decreased by flooding stress; however, the levels of these proteins were restored by GA3 supplementation under flooding. Fermentation- and cell wall-related proteins were not affected by GA3 supplementation. Furthermore, putative GA-responsive proteins, which were identified by the presence of a GA-responsive element in the promoter region, were less abundant by flooding stress; however, these proteins were more abundant by GA3 supplementation under flooding. Taken together, these results suggest that GA3 affects the abundance of proteins involved in secondary metabolism, cell cycle, and protein degradation/synthesis in soybeans under flooding stress. PMID:24702262

  17. Exposure to Stressful Environments: Strategy of Adaptive Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhi, Leon E.

    1991-01-01

    Any new natural environment may generate a number of stresses (such as hypoxia, water lack, and heat exposure), each of which can produce strains in more than a single organ system. Every strain may in turn stimulate the body to adapt in multiple ways. Nevertheless, a general strategy of the various adaptive responses emerges when the challenges are divided into three groups. The first category includes conditions that affect the supply of essential molecules, while the second is made up by those stresses that prevent the body from regulating properly the output of waste products, such as CO2 and heat. In both classes, there is a small number of responses, similar in principle, regardless of the specific situation. The third unit is created by environments that disrupt body transport systems. Problems may arise when there is a conflict between two stresses requiring conflicting adaptive changes. An alternative to adaptation, creation of micro-environment, is often favored by the animal.

  18. Stretching the stress boundary: Linking air pollution health effects to a neurohormonal stress response.

    PubMed

    Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2016-12-01

    Inhaled pollutants produce effects in virtually all organ systems in our body and have been linked to chronic diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's and diabetes. A neurohormonal stress response (referred to here as a systemic response produced by activation of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis) has been implicated in a variety of psychological and physical stresses, which involves immune and metabolic homeostatic mechanisms affecting all organs in the body. In this review, we provide new evidence for the involvement of this well-characterized neurohormonal stress response in mediating systemic and pulmonary effects of a prototypic air pollutant - ozone. A plethora of systemic metabolic and immune effects are induced in animals exposed to inhaled pollutants, which could result from increased circulating stress hormones. The release of adrenal-derived stress hormones in response to ozone exposure not only mediates systemic immune and metabolic responses, but by doing so, also modulates pulmonary injury and inflammation. With recurring pollutant exposures, these effects can contribute to multi-organ chronic conditions associated with air pollution. This review will cover, 1) the potential mechanisms by which air pollutants can initiate the relay of signals from respiratory tract to brain through trigeminal and vagus nerves, and activate stress responsive regions including hypothalamus; and 2) the contribution of sympathetic and HPA-axis activation in mediating systemic homeostatic metabolic and immune effects of ozone in various organs. The potential contribution of chronic environmental stress in cardiovascular, neurological, reproductive and metabolic diseases, and the knowledge gaps are also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Air Pollution, edited by Wenjun Ding, Andrew J. Ghio and Weidong Wu.

  19. Responses of succulents to plant water stress.

    PubMed

    Hanscom, Z; Ting, I P

    1978-03-01

    Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that succulents "shift" their method of photosynthetic metabolism in response to environmental change. Our data showed that there were at least three different responses of succulents to plant water status. When plant water status of Portulacaria afra (L.) Jacq. was lowered either by withholding water or by irrigating with 2% NaCl, a change from C(3)-photosynthesis to Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) occurred. Fluctuation of titratable acidity and nocturnal CO(2) uptake was induced in the stressed plants. Stressed Peperomia obtusifolia A. Dietr. plants showed a change from C(3)-photosynthesis to internal cycling of CO(2). Acid fluctuation commenced in response to stress but exogenous CO(2) uptake did not occur. Zygocactus truncatus Haworth plants showed a pattern of acid fluctuation and nocturnal CO(2) uptake typical of CAM even when well irrigated. The cacti converted from CAM to an internal CO(2) cycle similar to Peperomia when plants were water-stressed. Reverse phase gas exchange in succulents results in low water loss to carbon gain. Water is conserved and low levels of metabolic activity are maintained during drought periods by complete stomatal closure and continual fluctuation of organic acids.

  20. A sucrose transporter-interacting protein disulphide isomerase affects redox homeostasis and links sucrose partitioning with abiotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Erik; Obata, Toshihiro; Gerstenberger, Anne; Gier, Konstanze; Brandt, Tobias; Fernie, Alisdair R; Schulze, Waltraud; Kühn, Christina

    2016-06-01

    Sucrose accumulation in leaves in response to various abiotic stresses suggests a specific role of this disaccharide for stress tolerance and adaptation. The high-affinity transporter StSUT1 undergoes substrate-induced endocytosis presenting the question as to whether altered sucrose accumulation in leaves in response to stresses is also related to enhanced endocytosis or altered activity of the sucrose transporter. StSUT1 is known to interact with several stress-inducible proteins; here we investigated whether one of the interacting candidates, StPDI1, affects its subcellular localization in response to stress: StPDI1 expression is induced by ER-stress and salt. Both proteins, StSUT1 and StPDI1, were found in the detergent resistant membrane (DRM) fraction, and this might affect internalization. Knockdown of StPDI1 expression severely affects abiotic stress tolerance of transgenic potato plants. Analysis of these plants does not reveal modified subcellular localization or endocytosis of StSUT1, but rather a disturbed redox homeostasis, reduced detoxification of reactive oxygen species and effects on primary metabolism. Parallel observations with other StSUT1-interacting proteins are discussed. The redox status in leaves seems to be linked to the sugar status in response to various stress stimuli and to play a role in stress tolerance. PMID:26670204

  1. Early life stress dampens stress responsiveness in adolescence: Evaluation of neuroendocrine reactivity and coping behavior.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Young-Ming; Tsai, Tsung-Chih; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chien-Chung; Huang, Chiung-Chun; Hsu, Kuei-Sen

    2016-05-01

    Stressful experiences during early life (ELS) can affect brain development, thereby exerting a profound and long-lasting influence on mental development and psychological health. The stress inoculation hypothesis presupposes that individuals who have early experienced an attenuated form of stressors may gain immunity to its more virulent forms later in life. Increasing evidence demonstrates that ELS may promote the development of subsequent stress resistance, but the mechanisms underlying such adaptive changes are not fully understood. The present study evaluated the impact of fragmented dam-pup interactions by limiting the bedding and nesting material in the cage during postnatal days 2-9, a naturalistic animal model of chronic ELS, on the physiological and behavioral responses to different stressors in adolescent mice and characterized the possible underlying mechanisms. We found that ELS mice showed less social interaction deficits after chronic social defeat stress and acute restraint-tailshock stress-induced impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) and enhanced long-term depression (LTD) in hippocampal CA1 region compared with control mice. The effects of ELS on LTP and LTD were rescued by adrenalectomy. While ELS did not cause alterations in basal emotional behaviors, it significantly enhanced stress coping behaviors in both the tail suspension and the forced swimming tests. ELS mice exhibited a significant decrease in corticosterone response and trafficking of glucocorticoid receptors to the nucleus in response to acute restraint stress. Altogether, our data support the hypothesis that stress inoculation training, via early exposure to manageable stress, may enhance resistance to other unrelated extreme stressors in adolescence. PMID:26881834

  2. Comparative transcriptome analysis of grapevine in response to copper stress.

    PubMed

    Leng, Xiangpeng; Jia, Haifeng; Sun, Xin; Shangguan, Lingfei; Mu, Qian; Wang, Baoju; Fang, Jinggui

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most economically important and widely cultivated fruit crop worldwide. With the industrialization and the popular application of cupric fungicides in grape industry, copper stress and copper pollution are also the factors affecting grape production and berry and wine quality. Here, 3,843 transcripts were significantly differently expressed genes in response to Cu stress by RNA-seq, which included 1,892 up-regulated and 1,951 down-regulated transcripts. During this study we found many known and novel Cu-induced and -repressed genes. Biological analysis of grape samples were indicated that exogenous Cu can influence chlorophylls metabolism and photosynthetic activities of grapevine. Most ROS detoxification systems, including antioxidant enzyme, stress-related proteins and secondary metabolites were strongly induced. Concomitantly, abscisic acid functioned as a negative regulator in Cu stress, in opposite action to ethylene, auxin, jasmonic acid, and brassinolide. This study also identified a set of Cu stress specifically activated genes coding copper transporter, P1B-type ATPase, multidrug transporters. Overall, this work was carried out to gain insights into the copper-regulated and stress-responsive mechanisms in grapevine at transcriptome level. This research can also provide some genetic information that can help us in better vinery management and breeding Cu-resistant grape cultivars. PMID:26673527

  3. Comparative transcriptome analysis of grapevine in response to copper stress

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Xiangpeng; Jia, Haifeng; Sun, Xin; Shangguan, Lingfei; Mu, Qian; Wang, Baoju; Fang, Jinggui

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most economically important and widely cultivated fruit crop worldwide. With the industrialization and the popular application of cupric fungicides in grape industry, copper stress and copper pollution are also the factors affecting grape production and berry and wine quality. Here, 3,843 transcripts were significantly differently expressed genes in response to Cu stress by RNA-seq, which included 1,892 up-regulated and 1,951 down-regulated transcripts. During this study we found many known and novel Cu-induced and -repressed genes. Biological analysis of grape samples were indicated that exogenous Cu can influence chlorophylls metabolism and photosynthetic activities of grapevine. Most ROS detoxification systems, including antioxidant enzyme, stress-related proteins and secondary metabolites were strongly induced. Concomitantly, abscisic acid functioned as a negative regulator in Cu stress, in opposite action to ethylene, auxin, jasmonic acid, and brassinolide. This study also identified a set of Cu stress specifically activated genes coding copper transporter, P1B-type ATPase, multidrug transporters. Overall, this work was carried out to gain insights into the copper-regulated and stress-responsive mechanisms in grapevine at transcriptome level. This research can also provide some genetic information that can help us in better vinery management and breeding Cu-resistant grape cultivars. PMID:26673527

  4. TORC2 mediates the heat stress response in Drosophila by promoting the formation of stress granules

    PubMed Central

    Jevtov, Irena; Zacharogianni, Margarita; van Oorschot, Marinke M.; van Zadelhoff, Guus; Aguilera-Gomez, Angelica; Vuillez, Igor; Braakman, Ineke; Hafen, Ernst; Stocker, Hugo; Rabouille, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The kinase TOR is found in two complexes, TORC1, which is involved in growth control, and TORC2, whose roles are less well defined. Here, we asked whether TORC2 has a role in sustaining cellular stress. We show that TORC2 inhibition in Drosophila melanogaster leads to a reduced tolerance to heat stress, whereas sensitivity to other stresses is not affected. Accordingly, we show that upon heat stress, both in the animal and Drosophila cultured S2 cells, TORC2 is activated and is required for maintaining the level of its known target, Akt1 (also known as PKB). We show that the phosphorylation of the stress-activated protein kinases is not modulated by TORC2 nor is the heat-induced upregulation of heat-shock proteins. Instead, we show, both in vivo and in cultured cells, that TORC2 is required for the assembly of heat-induced cytoprotective ribonucleoprotein particles, the pro-survival stress granules. These granules are formed in response to protein translation inhibition imposed by heat stress that appears to be less efficient in the absence of TORC2 function. We propose that TORC2 mediates heat resistance in Drosophila by promoting the cell autonomous formation of stress granules. PMID:26054799

  5. Fear of contagion: a stress response to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, J B; LaCharite, C L

    1989-01-01

    The threat of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has triggered an affective stress response to illness: fear of contagion, an anxious response to the perceived threat of catching a disease. Three behaviors characterize this fear: avoidance, extreme precautions, and verbal expressions of fear regarding the disease. Despite the scientific evidence for the low risk of occupational exposure to this infection, many health care workers appear to demonstrate highly fearful behavior. Social and cultural values, which attach a deep symbolic meaning to AIDS, combine with misperceptions about transmission to create this stress response. This article suggests education on cross-cultural, sexual, and death-related issues, as well as factural information on AIDS to decrease this fear. Implications for nursing research are included.

  6. Relationship between obesity, negative affect and basal heart rate in predicting heart rate reactivity to psychological stress among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Park, Andres E.; Huynh, Pauline; Schell, Anne M.; Baker, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced cardiovascular responses to psychological stressors have been found to be associated with both obesity and negative affect in adults, but have been less well studied in children and adolescent populations. These findings have most often been interpreted as reflecting reduced sympathetic nervous system response, perhaps associated with heightened baseline sympathetic activation among the obese and those manifesting negative affect. However, obesity and negative affect may themselves be correlated, raising the question of whether they both independently affect cardiovascular reactivity. The present study thus examined the separate effects of obesity and negative affect on both cardiovascular and skin conductance responses to stress (e.g., during a serial subtraction math task) in adolescents, while controlling for baseline levels of autonomic activity during rest. Both obesity and negative affect had independent and negative associations with cardiovascular reactivity, such that reduced stress responses were apparent for obese adolescents and those with high levels of negative affect. In contrast, neither obesity nor negative affect was related to skin conductance responses to stress, implicating specifically noradrenergic mechanisms rather than sympathetic mechanisms generally as being deficient. Moreover, baseline heart rate was unrelated to obesity in this sample, which suggests that heightened baseline of sympathetic activity is not necessary for the reduced cardiovascular reactivity to stress. PMID:26049136

  7. Relationship between obesity, negative affect and basal heart rate in predicting heart rate reactivity to psychological stress among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Park, Andres E; Huynh, Pauline; Schell, Anne M; Baker, Laura A

    2015-08-01

    Reduced cardiovascular responses to psychological stressors have been found to be associated with both obesity and negative affect in adults, but have been less well studied in children and adolescent populations. These findings have most often been interpreted as reflecting reduced sympathetic nervous system response, perhaps associated with heightened baseline sympathetic activation among the obese and those manifesting negative affect. However, obesity and negative affect may themselves be correlated, raising the question of whether they both independently affect cardiovascular reactivity. The present study thus examined the separate effects of obesity and negative affect on both cardiovascular and skin conductance responses to stress (e.g., during a serial subtraction math task) in adolescents, while controlling for baseline levels of autonomic activity during rest. Both obesity and negative affect had independent and negative associations with cardiovascular reactivity, such that reduced stress responses were apparent for obese adolescents and those with high levels of negative affect. In contrast, neither obesity nor negative affect was related to skin conductance responses to stress, implicating specifically noradrenergic mechanisms rather than sympathetic mechanisms generally as being deficient. Moreover, baseline heart rate was unrelated to obesity in this sample, which suggests that heightened baseline of sympathetic activity is not necessary for the reduced cardiovascular reactivity to stress.

  8. Paternal Experience and Stress Responses in California Mice (Peromyscus californicus)

    PubMed Central

    Bardi, Massimo; Franssen, Catherine L; Hampton, Joseph E; Shea, Eleanor A; Fanean, Amanda P; Lambert, Kelly G

    2011-01-01

    Paternal behavior greatly affects the survival, social development, and cognitive development of infants. Nevertheless, little research has been done to assess how paternal experience modifies the behavioral characteristics of fathers, including fear and stress responses to a novel environment. We investigated long-term behavioral and physiologic effects of parental experience in mice (Peromyscus californicus) and how this response activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (as measured by corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA] levels) and interacts with anxiety-related behaviors. Three groups of adult males were tested—fathers exposed to pups, virgins exposed to pups, and virgins never exposed to pups—in 2 environments designed to elicit anxiety response: an open field with a novel object placed in the center and a closed cage containing a sample of a component of fox feces. Behavioral responses were measured by using traditional methods (duration and frequency) and behavioral-chain sequences. Results indicated that paternal experience significantly modifies a male mouse's behavioral and physiologic responses to stress-provoking stimuli. Compared with inexperienced male mice, experienced male mice had a significant decrease in the occurrence of incomplete behavioral chains during the exposure to the novel object, an index of reduced stress. Further, even moderate pup exposure induced behavioral modifications in virgin male mice. These behavioral responses were correlated with changes in corticosterone and DHEA levels. Together, these data provide evidence that interactions between male mice and offspring may have mutually beneficial long-term behavioral and physiologic effects. PMID:21819678

  9. The stress protein response: A potential indicator of general stress

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, B.M. )

    1988-09-01

    Organisms have evolved a carefully regulated system at the cellular level that increases their tolerance to sub-optimal conditions in their environment. This highly conserved system involves the coordinated synthesis of a suite of stress proteins and is referred to as the heat-shock or stress protein response (SPR). The SPR can be elicited by a wide variety of stressors and correlates with subsequent thermotolerance and tolerance to other environmental stressors. They are conducting a series of experiments in collaboration with the US EPA to determine if the SPR may provide a basis for a biomonitoring tool to diagnose the extent to which an organism is stressed. Thus their experiments are designed to determine if the SPR: (1) could be induced by a wide variety of stressors at environmentally relevant concentrations, (2) was correlated with important organismic and population parameters, and (3) could be demonstrated in organisms exposed to contaminants in the field. They will present an overview of the data sets generated from both in vitro and in vivo experiments to examine the kinetics of SPR induction and recovery upon exposure to heat-shock, trace metal and xenobiotic stressors and discuss the feasibility of this approach.

  10. Oxytocin in the cardiovascular responses to stress.

    PubMed

    Wsol, A; Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, A; Szczepanska-Sadowska, E; Kowalewski, S; Puchalska, L

    2008-12-01

    The present study was designed to determine the role of central oxytocin (OXY) in regulation of the cardiovascular responses to the alarming stress. Three groups of male, normotensive Sprague Dawley rats, received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of one of the following: 1) vehicle, 2) OXY or 3) OXY antagonist (OXANT). Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded at rest, during and after application of the alarming stressor (air jet). Under resting conditions the i.c.v. infusions of vehicle, OXY or OXYANT did not influence the cardiovascular parameters. The alarming stressor evoked significant increases in MABP and HR that were significantly greater in the rats receiving i.c.v. infusion of oxytocin antagonist than in those receiving vehicle or OXY. The study provides evidence that stimulation of the brain oxytocin receptors by endogenous oxytocin plays significant role in inhibition of cardiovascular responses to stress.

  11. Chronic variable stress prevents amphetamine-elicited 50-kHz calls in rats with low positive affectivity.

    PubMed

    Kõiv, Kadri; Metelitsa, Mait; Vares, Marten; Tiitsaar, Kai; Raudkivi, Karita; Jaako, Külli; Vulla, Kaspar; Shimmo, Ruth; Harro, Jaanus

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between stress response and positive affective states is thought to be bidirectional: whilst stress can lead to a blunted hedonic response, positive affect reduces the negative effects of stress. We have previously shown that persistently high positive affectivity as measured by 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) is protective against chronic variable stress (CVS). The present study examined the effect of CVS on 50-kHz USVs elicited by amphetamine administration, simultaneously considering the stable inter-individual differences in positive affectivity. Forty juvenile male Wistar rats were categorised as of high (HC) or low (LC) positive affectivity based on their 50-kHz USV response to imitation of rough-and-tumble play ('tickling'). As adults, the rats were subjected to four weeks of CVS, after which D-amphetamine was administered in five daily doses followed by a challenge dose (all 1mg/kg IP) nine days later. CVS reduced sucrose preference in LC-rats only. After CVS, amphetamine-elicited 50-kHz USVs were significantly reduced in LC-rats, the effect of stress in HC-rats being smaller and less consistent. In previously stressed and amphetamine-treated LC-rats, locomotor response to amphetamine was attenuated. In stressed LC-rats, DOPAC levels and dopamine turnover were increased in striatum after amphetamine treatment, and dopamine D1 receptor levels were upregulated in nucleus accumbens. LC-rats had lower isoleucine levels in frontal cortex. These results show that stress-related changes in response to amphetamine are dependent on inter-individual differences in positive affectivity both at neurochemical and behavioural levels, and further support the notion of higher vulnerability of animals with low positive affect.

  12. Chronic Heat Stress Induces Immune Response, Oxidative Stress Response, and Apoptosis of Finishing Pig Liver: A Proteomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yanjun; Hao, Yue; Li, Jielei; Bao, Weiguang; Li, Gan; Gao, Yanli; Gu, Xianhong

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) negatively affects human health, animal welfare, and livestock production. We analyzed the hepatic proteomes of finishing pigs subjected to chronic heat stress (HS), thermal neutral (TN), and restricted feed intake conditions, identifying differences between direct and indirect (via reduced feed intake) HS. Twenty-four castrated male pigs were randomly allocated to three treatments for three weeks: (1) thermal neutral (TN) (22 °C) with ad libitum feeding; (2) chronic HS (30 °C) with ad libitum feeding; and (3) TN, pair-fed to HS intake (PF). Hepatic proteome analysis was conducted using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Both HS and PF significantly reduced liver weight (p < 0.05). Forty-five hepatic proteins were differentially abundant when comparing HS with TN (37), PF with TN (29), and HS with PF (16). These proteins are involved in heat shock response and immune defense, oxidative stress response, cellular apoptosis, metabolism, signal transduction, and cytoskeleton. We also observed increased abundance of proteins and enzymes associated with heat shock response and immune defense, reduced the redox state, enhanced multiple antioxidant abilities, and increased apoptosis in HS liver. Heat-load, independent of reduced feed intake, induced an innate immune response, while food restriction caused stress and cellular apoptosis. Our results provide novel insights into the effects of chronic HS on liver. PMID:27187351

  13. Silver nanoparticles induce endoplasmatic reticulum stress response in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Verena; Capelle, Martinus; Fent, Karl

    2013-10-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) find increasing applications, and therefore humans and the environment are increasingly exposed to them. However, potential toxicological implications are not sufficiently known. Here we investigate effects of AgNPs (average size 120 nm) on zebrafish in vitro and in vivo, and compare them to human hepatoma cells (Huh7). AgNPs are incorporated in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) and Huh7, and in zebrafish embryos. In ZFL cells AgNPs lead to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress response, and TNF-α. Transcriptional alterations also occur in pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. The transcriptional profile differed in ZFL and Huh7 cells. In ZFL cells, the ER stress marker BiP is induced, concomitant with the ER stress marker ATF-6 and spliced XBP-1 after 6 h and 24 h exposure to 0.5 g/L and 0.05 g/L AgNPs, respectively. This indicates the induction of different pathways of the ER stress response. Moreover, AgNPs induce TNF-α. In zebrafish embryos exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs hatching was affected and morphological defects occurred at high concentrations. ER stress related gene transcripts BiP and Synv are significantly up-regulated after 24 h at 0.1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs. Furthermore, transcriptional alterations occurred in the pro-apoptotic genes Noxa and p21. The ER stress response was strong in ZFL cells and occurred in zebrafish embryos as well. Our data demonstrate for the first time that AgNPs lead to induction of ER stress in zebrafish. The induction of ER stress can have several consequences including the activation of apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. - Highlights: • Effects of silver nanoparticles (120 nm AgNPs) are investigated in zebrafish. • AgNPs induce all ER stress reponses in vitro in zebrafish liver cells. • AgNPs induce weak ER stress in zebrafish embryos. • AgNPs induce oxidative stress and transcripts of pro-apoptosis genes.

  14. Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and DNA Damage Responses Elicited by Silver, Titanium Dioxide, and Cerium Oxide Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous literature on the biological effects of engineered nanomaterials has focused largely on oxidative stress and inflammation endpoints without further investigating potential pathways. Here we examine time-sensitive biological response pathways affected by engineered nanoma...

  15. Responses of yeast biocontrol agents to environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Sui, Yuan; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir; Liu, Jia

    2015-05-01

    Biological control of postharvest diseases, utilizing wild species and strains of antagonistic yeast species, is a research topic that has received considerable attention in the literature over the past 30 years. In principle, it represents a promising alternative to chemical fungicides for the management of postharvest decay of fruits, vegetables, and grains. A yeast-based biocontrol system is composed of a tritrophic interaction between a host (commodity), a pathogen, and a yeast species, all of which are affected by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and UV light as well as osmotic and oxidative stresses. Additionally, during the production process, biocontrol agents encounter various severe abiotic stresses that also impact their viability. Therefore, understanding the ecological fitness of the potential yeast biocontrol agents and developing strategies to enhance their stress tolerance are essential to their efficacy and commercial application. The current review provides an overview of the responses of antagonistic yeast species to various environmental stresses, the methods that can be used to improve stress tolerance and efficacy, and the related mechanisms associated with improved stress tolerance.

  16. Responses of Yeast Biocontrol Agents to Environmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Yuan; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Biological control of postharvest diseases, utilizing wild species and strains of antagonistic yeast species, is a research topic that has received considerable attention in the literature over the past 30 years. In principle, it represents a promising alternative to chemical fungicides for the management of postharvest decay of fruits, vegetables, and grains. A yeast-based biocontrol system is composed of a tritrophic interaction between a host (commodity), a pathogen, and a yeast species, all of which are affected by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and UV light as well as osmotic and oxidative stresses. Additionally, during the production process, biocontrol agents encounter various severe abiotic stresses that also impact their viability. Therefore, understanding the ecological fitness of the potential yeast biocontrol agents and developing strategies to enhance their stress tolerance are essential to their efficacy and commercial application. The current review provides an overview of the responses of antagonistic yeast species to various environmental stresses, the methods that can be used to improve stress tolerance and efficacy, and the related mechanisms associated with improved stress tolerance. PMID:25710368

  17. Stress response and apoptosis in pro- and antiinflammatory macrophages.

    PubMed

    Malyshev, I Yu; Kruglov, S V; Bakhtina, L Yu; Malysheva, E V; Zubin, M; Norkin, M

    2004-08-01

    We showed that stress response and apoptosis in macrophages depend on the phenotype of their secretory activity and specific biological and physical characteristics of the factor inducing stress-response or apoptosis.

  18. Dopamine signaling promotes the xenobiotic stress response and protein homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Kishore K; Matlack, Tarmie L; Rongo, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    Multicellular organisms encounter environmental conditions that adversely affect protein homeostasis (proteostasis), including extreme temperatures, toxins, and pathogens. It is unclear how they use sensory signaling to detect adverse conditions and then activate stress response pathways so as to offset potential damage. Here, we show that dopaminergic mechanosensory neurons in C. elegans release the neurohormone dopamine to promote proteostasis in epithelia. Signaling through the DA receptor DOP-1 activates the expression of xenobiotic stress response genes involved in pathogenic resistance and toxin removal, and these genes are required for the removal of unstable proteins in epithelia. Exposure to a bacterial pathogen (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) results in elevated removal of unstable proteins in epithelia, and this enhancement requires DA signaling. In the absence of DA signaling, nematodes show increased sensitivity to pathogenic bacteria and heat-shock stress. Our results suggest that dopaminergic sensory neurons, in addition to slowing down locomotion upon sensing a potential bacterial feeding source, also signal to frontline epithelia to activate the xenobiotic stress response so as to maintain proteostasis and prepare for possible infection. PMID:27261197

  19. Serotonin regulation of the human stress response.

    PubMed

    Hood, Sean D; Hince, Dana A; Robinson, Hayley; Cirillo, Melita; Christmas, David; Kaye, Joey M

    2006-10-01

    Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) is a technique that has been used to evaluate the effects on humans of acutely reducing serotonin neurotransmission. We have developed a model using a single breath of 35% CO(2) that activates the hormonal axis and produces autonomic and behavioural arousal, thus modelling a stress response. This study combines ATD and single breath 35% CO(2) inhalation to study stress responses in volunteers. A randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial involving 14 healthy adult volunteers aged between 18 and 65 years was undertaken. Subjects underwent double-blind tryptophan depletion over 2 days and were then crossed over 1 week later. During each study day, at the time of peak depletion, participants were single blinded to receive a single breath of 35% CO(2) or air. This was followed 40 min later by the other gas. Psychological outcomes were assessed with the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (SSAI), Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), Panic Inventory (PI), Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PSI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Physiological outcome was measured by serial plasma cortisol, prolactin and tryptophan levels, pulse and blood pressure. Tryptophan depletion did not exacerbate 35% CO(2) inhalation effects on anxiety symptoms. Single breath CO(2) robustly increased plasma cortisol levels in comparison to an air inhalation; this was less certain for prolactin levels. ATD influenced the HPA axis (associated with higher cortisol levels), apparently independent of CO(2) or air inhalation stressors. ATD and 35% CO(2) inhalation both induced a pressor response and bradycardia in these normal volunteers. Thirty-five percent CO(2) inhalation and ATD independently activate the human stress response, but do not appear to produce synergistic effects when combined, at least for the conditions produced in this study.

  20. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bergsma, Alexis L.; Senchuk, Megan M.; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response, and the DAF-16-mediated stress response. We find that the decline in stress resistance with age is at least partially due to a decreased ability to activate protective mechanisms in response to stress. In contrast, we find that any baseline increase in stress caused by the advancing age is too mild to detectably upregulate any of the stress response pathways. Further exploration of how worms respond to stress with increasing age revealed that the ability to mount a hormetic response to heat stress is also lost with increasing age. Overall, this work demonstrates that resistance to all types of stress declines with age. Based on our data, we speculate that the decrease in stress resistance with advancing age results from a genetically-programmed inactivation of stress response pathways, not accumulation of damage. PMID:27053445

  1. Severe Injury Is Associated With Insulin Resistance, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response, and Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.; Song, Juquan; Boehning, Darren; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Baker, Henry V.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We determined whether postburn hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) activation leading to impaired insulin receptor signaling. Background Inflammation and cellular stress, hallmarks of severely burned and critically ill patients, have been causally linked to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes via induction of ER stress and the UPR. Methods Twenty severely burned pediatric patients were compared with 36 nonburned children. Clinical markers, protein, and GeneChip analysis were used to identify transcriptional changes in ER stress and UPR and insulin resistance–related signaling cascades in peripheral blood leukocytes, fat, and muscle at admission and up to 466 days postburn. Results Burn-induced inflammatory and stress responses are accompanied by profound insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Genomic and protein analysis revealed that burn injury was associated with alterations in the signaling pathways that affect insulin resistance, ER/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and cell growth/apoptosis up to 466 days postburn. Conclusion Burn-induced insulin resistance is associated with persistent ER/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress/UPR and subsequent suppressed insulin receptor signaling over a prolonged period of time. PMID:22241293

  2. Cannibalism stress response in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Höfler, Carolin; Heckmann, Judith; Fritsch, Anne; Popp, Philipp; Gebhard, Susanne; Fritz, Georg; Mascher, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    When faced with carbon source limitation, the Gram-positive soil organism Bacillus subtilis initiates a survival strategy called sporulation, which leads to the formation of highly resistant endospores that allow B. subtilis to survive even long periods of starvation. In order to avoid commitment to this energy-demanding and irreversible process, B. subtilis employs another strategy called 'cannibalism' to delay sporulation as long as possible. Cannibalism involves the production and secretion of two cannibalism toxins, sporulation delaying protein (SDP) and sporulation killing factor (SKF), which are able to lyse sensitive siblings. The lysed cells are thought to then provide nutrients for the cannibals to slow down or even prevent them from entering sporulation. In this study, we uncovered the role of the cell envelope stress response (CESR), especially the Bce-like antimicrobial peptide detoxification modules, in the cannibalism stress response during the stationary phase. SDP and SKF specifically induce Bce-like systems and some extracytoplasmic function σ factors in stationary-phase cultures, but only the latter provide some degree of protection. A full Bce response is only triggered by mature toxins, and not by toxin precursors. Our study provides insights into the close relationship between stationary-phase survival and the CESR of B. subtilis. PMID:26364265

  3. Acute stress eliminates female advantage in detection of ambiguous negative affect.

    PubMed

    DeDora, Daniel J; Carlson, Joshua M; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R

    2011-11-15

    The human stress response evolved to maximize an individual's probability of survival when threatened. The present study addressed whether physical danger modulates perception of an unrelated ambiguous threat and, if so, to what extent this response is sex- specific. The authors utilized a first-time tandem skydive as a stressor, which had been previously validated as producing a highly-controlled, genuinely stressful environment. In a counter-balanced within-subjects design, participants wore a virtual reality helmet to complete an emotion-identification task during the plane's ascent (stress condition) and in the laboratory (control condition). Participants were presented static male faces morphed between 20-80% aggression, which gradually emerged from degraded images. Using a binary forced-choice design, participants identified each ambiguous face as aggressive or neutral. Results showed that participants characterized emotion more rapidly under stress versus control conditions. Unexpectedly, the results also show that while women were more sensitive to affect ambiguity than men under control conditions, they exhibited a marked decrease in sensitivity equivalent to men while under stress.

  4. Disruption of insulin signalling affects the neuroendocrine stress reaction in Drosophila females.

    PubMed

    Rauschenbach, Inga Y; Karpova, Evgenia K; Adonyeva, Natalya V; Andreenkova, Olga V; Faddeeva, Natalya V; Burdina, Elena V; Alekseev, Alexander A; Menshanov, Petr N; Gruntenko, Nataly E

    2014-10-15

    Juvenile hormone (JH) and dopamine are involved in the stress response in insects. The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling pathway has also recently been found to be involved in the regulation of various processes, including stress tolerance. However, the relationships between the JH, dopamine and insulin signalling pathways remain unclear. Here, we study the role of insulin signalling in the regulation of JH and dopamine metabolism under normal and heat stress conditions in Drosophila melanogaster females. We show that suppression of the insulin-like receptor (InR) in the corpus allatum, a specialised endocrine gland that synthesises JH, causes an increase in dopamine level and JH-hydrolysing activity and alters the activities of enzymes that produce as well as those that degrade dopamine [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-dependent arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (DAT)]. We also found that InR suppression in the corpus allatum modulates dopamine, ALP, TH and JH-hydrolysing activity in response to heat stress and that it decreases the fecundity of the flies. JH application restores dopamine metabolism and fecundity in females with decreased InR expression in the corpus allatum. Our data provide evidence that the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling pathway regulates dopamine metabolism in females of D. melanogaster via the system of JH metabolism and that it affects the development of the neuroendocrine stress reaction and interacts with JH in the control of reproduction in this species.

  5. Waterborne Risperidone Decreases Stress Response in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kalichak, Fabiana; Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; de Oliveira, Tiago Acosta; Koakoski, Gessi; Gusso, Darlan; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Giacomini, Ana Cristina Varrone; Barcellos, Heloísa Helena de Alcântara

    2015-01-01

    The presence of drugs and their metabolites in surface waters and municipal effluents has been reported in several studies, but its impacts on aquatic organisms are not yet well understood. This study investigated the effects of acute exposure to the antipsychotic risperidone on the stress and behavioral responses in zebrafish. It became clear that intermediate concentration of risperidone inhibited the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis and displayed anxiolytic-like effects in zebrafish. The data presented here suggest that the presence of this antipsychotic in aquatic environments can alter neuroendocrine and behavior profiles in zebrafish. PMID:26473477

  6. Cancer Microenvironment and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Giampietri, Claudia; Petrungaro, Simonetta; Conti, Silvia; Facchiano, Antonio; Filippini, Antonio; Ziparo, Elio

    2015-01-01

    Different stressful conditions such as hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, pH changes, or reduced vascularization, potentially able to act as growth-limiting factors for tumor cells, activate the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR is therefore involved in tumor growth and adaptation to severe environments and is generally cytoprotective in cancer. The present review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying UPR and able to promote survival and proliferation in cancer. The critical role of UPR activation in tumor growth promotion is discussed in detail for a few paradigmatic tumors such as prostate cancer and melanoma. PMID:26491226

  7. Vascular response to stress in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Plante, Gérard E

    2002-06-01

    The body's vasculature plays a critical role in the development of functional and structural alterations responsible for tissue and organ damage in laboratory animals and human subjects during illness and senescence, and in response to stress. Components of the vasculature, namely, major arteries such as the aorta, smaller arteries, arterioles, capillaries, post-capillary venules, and collecting central veins, all serve as conduits through which vital substrates are delivered to cellular masses and/or waste products are removed. A number of physical and neurohumoral agents known to be responsive to stress stimuli exert functional control over the vasculature. Both physical and emotional stress have been found to cause significant hemodynamic alterations. Large artery rigidity, for instance, develops rapidly following stress-induced activation of the autonomic nervous system. Associated with this process is increased release into the circulation of catecholamines and angiotensin-II. At the same time, insulin resistance develops, accompanied by nitric oxide release and changes in the immune system. The response of large arterial conduits to stress is characterized by increased pulse pressure, which in turn affects the endothelium of the arterial vessels responsible for determining total peripheral resistance. Microcirculation networks, where a large fraction of the blood volume is contained, are affected as well, and the blood in them is subject to redistribution into adjacent interstitial fluid compartments. Changes in endothelial permeability, secondary to variations in pulse pressure, can lead to interstitial edema and changes in the physicochemical properties of interstitial compartments. These changes give rise to alterations in the traffic of substrates and waste products between blood and cells. This sequence of events also takes place in the vasa vasorum microcirculation that nourishes large arteries, and likely contributes to remodeling of the vascular wall

  8. A single subunit MCM6 from pea promotes salinity stress tolerance without affecting yield.

    PubMed

    Dang, Hung Quang; Tran, Ngoc Quang; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2011-05-01

    The eukaryotic pre-replicative complex (Pre-RC), including heterohexameric minichromosome maintenance (MCM2-7) proteins, ensures that the DNA in genome is replicated only once per cell division cycle. The MCMs provide DNA unwinding function during the DNA replication. Since MCM proteins play essential role in cell division and most likely are affected during stress conditions therefore their overexpression in plants may help in stress tolerance. But the role of MCMs in abiotic stress tolerance in plants has not been reported so far. In this study we report that: a) the MCM6 transcript is upregulated in pea plant in response to high salinity and cold stress and not with ABA, drought and heat stress; b) MCM6 overexpression driven by a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco plants confers salinity tolerance. The T(1) transgenics plants were able to grow to maturity and set normal viable seeds under continuous salinity stress, without yield penalty. It was observed that in salt-grown T(1) transgenic plants the Na(+) ions is mostly accumulated in mature leaves and not in seeds of T(1) transgenic lines as compared with the wild-type (WT) plants. T(1) transgenic plants exhibited better growth status under salinity stress conditions in comparison to WT plants. Furthermore, the T(1) transgenic plants maintained significantly higher levels of leaf chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate and therefore higher dry matter accumulation and yield with 200 mM NaCl as compared to the WT plants. Tolerance index data showed better salt tolerance potential of T(1) transgenic plants in comparison to WT. These findings provide first direct evidence that overexpression of single subunit MCM6 confers salinity stress tolerance without yield loss. The possible mechanism of salinity tolerance is discussed. These findings suggest that DNA replication machinery can be exploited for promoting stress tolerance in crop plants.

  9. Stress and other environmental factors affecting fertility in men and women: overview.

    PubMed Central

    Negro-Vilar, A

    1993-01-01

    To understand how environmental factors contribute to fertility or infertility in humans, it is first necessary to define environment. A view that will guide this review is that environment represents the "external milieu," analogous to the well-defined concept of "internal milieu" first introduced by Claude Bernard. Within this context, the environment provides both positive and adverse influences on reproductive health and development. Environmental factors can then be classified into categories such as physical, chemical, biological, behavioral, and socioeconomic. In many circumstances, multiple environmental factors may contribute to adversely modify human health. It has been suspected and in some cases demonstrated that stress can adversely affect reproductive function. Both animal and human data support this contention; however, the human data are clear in extreme situations (e.g., inmates of concentration camps) but less so under less drastic conditions. In recent years many advances have been made concerning the neurochemical mechanisms that mediate the effects of stress on reproductive functions and on the identification of "stress hormones" that may not only be involved in the stress response but also serve as biochemical markers to identify and correlate stress with different fertility parameters. Nutrition also plays an important role in infertility, and undernutrition or nutrition disorders are associated with stress in infertility. Environmental factors are often invoked as contributing to many cases of unexplained infertility. However, the direct causal relationship between those factors and the ensuing infertility of the couple are seldom well established and remain largely anecdotal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8243408

  10. Cofilin nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling affects cofilin-actin rod formation during stress.

    PubMed

    Munsie, Lise Nicole; Desmond, Carly R; Truant, Ray

    2012-09-01

    Cofilin protein is involved in regulating the actin cytoskeleton during typical steady state conditions, as well as during cell stress conditions where cofilin saturates F-actin, forming cofilin-actin rods. Cofilin can enter the nucleus through an active nuclear localization signal (NLS), accumulating in nuclear actin rods during stress. Here, we characterize the active nuclear export of cofilin through a leptomycin-B-sensitive, CRM1-dependent, nuclear export signal (NES). We also redefine the NLS of cofilin as a bipartite NLS, with an additional basic epitope required for nuclear localization. Using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) between cofilin moieties and actin, as well as automated image analysis in live cells, we have defined subtle mutations in the cofilin NLS that allow cofilin to bind actin in vivo and affect cofilin dynamics during stress. We further define the requirement of cofilin-actin rod formation in a system of cell stress by temporal live-cell imaging. We propose that cofilin nuclear shuttling is critical for the cofilin-actin rod stress response with cofilin dynamically communicating between the nucleus and cytoplasm during cell stress.

  11. Gene Expression Dynamics Accompanying the Sponge Thermal Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Christine; Conaco, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponges are important members of coral reef ecosystems. Thus, their responses to changes in ocean chemistry and environmental conditions, particularly to higher seawater temperatures, will have potential impacts on the future of these reefs. To better understand the sponge thermal stress response, we investigated gene expression dynamics in the shallow water sponge, Haliclona tubifera (order Haplosclerida, class Demospongiae), subjected to elevated temperature. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we show that these conditions result in the activation of various processes that interact to maintain cellular homeostasis. Short-term thermal stress resulted in the induction of heat shock proteins, antioxidants, and genes involved in signal transduction and innate immunity pathways. Prolonged exposure to thermal stress affected the expression of genes involved in cellular damage repair, apoptosis, signaling and transcription. Interestingly, exposure to sublethal temperatures may improve the ability of the sponge to mitigate cellular damage under more extreme stress conditions. These insights into the potential mechanisms of adaptation and resilience of sponges contribute to a better understanding of sponge conservation status and the prediction of ecosystem trajectories under future climate conditions. PMID:27788197

  12. Tolerant and Susceptible Sesame Genotypes Reveal Waterlogging Stress Response Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linhai; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Yanxin; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Jingyin; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Waterlogging is a common adverse environmental condition that limits plant growth. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is considered a drought-tolerant oil crop but is typically susceptible to harmful effects from waterlogging. The present study used comparative analysis to explore the waterlogging stress response associated with two sesame genotypes. The RNA-seq dataset generated during a time course of 0, 3, 9 and 15 h of waterlogging as well as 20 h post-drainage indicated that stress gradually suppressed the expression of sesame genes, with 9 h as the critical time point for the response of sesame to waterlogging stress. Of the 19,316 genes expressed during waterlogging, 72.1% were affected significantly. Sesame of both tolerant and susceptible genotypes showed decreased numbers of upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) but increased numbers of downregulated DEGs at the onset of waterlogging. However, the tolerant-genotype sesame exhibited 25.5% more upregulated DEGs and 29.7% fewer downregulated DEGs than those of the susceptible-genotype strain between 3 and 15 h. The results indicated that the tolerant sesame displayed a more positive gene response to waterlogging. A total of 1,379 genes were significantly induced and commonly expressed in sesame under waterlogging conditions from 3 to 15 h regardless of tolerance level; of these genes, 98 are known homologous stress responsive genes, while the remaining 1,281 are newly reported here. This gene set may represent the core genes that function in response to waterlogging, including those related mainly to energy metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, a set of 3,016 genes functioning in energy supply and cell repair or formation was activated in sesame recovery from waterlogging stress. A comparative analysis between sesame of the tolerant and susceptible genotypes revealed 66 genes that may be candidates for improving sesame tolerance to waterlogging. This study provided a comprehensive

  13. The importance of physical activity and sleep for affect on stressful days: Two intensive longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the potential stress-buffering effect of 3 health behaviors-physical activity, sleep quality, and snacking-on affect in the context of everyday life in young adults. In 2 intensive longitudinal studies with up to 65 assessment days over an entire academic year, students (Study 1, N = 292; Study 2, N = 304) reported stress intensity, sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, and positive and negative affect. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Stress and positive affect were negatively associated; stress and negative affect were positively associated. The more physically active than usual a person was on a given day, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Study 1) and negative affect (Studies 1 and 2). The better than usual a person's sleep quality had been during the previous night, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and negative affect (Study 2). The association between daily stress and positive or negative affect did not differ as a function of daily snacking (Studies 1 and 2). On stressful days, increasing physical activity or ensuring high sleep quality may buffer adverse effects of stress on affect in young adults. These findings suggest potential targets for health-promotion and stress-prevention programs, which could help reduce the negative impact of stress in young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Stress, Nutrition, and Intestinal Immune Responses in Pigs - A Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Kyu; Kye, Yoon Chul; Kim, Girak; Kim, Han Wool; Gu, Min Jeong; Umboh, Johnny; Maaruf, Kartini; Kim, Sung Woo; Yun, Cheol-Heui

    2016-08-01

    Modern livestock production became highly intensive and large scaled to increase production efficiency. This production environment could add stressors affecting the health and growth of animals. Major stressors can include environment (air quality and temperature), nutrition, and infection. These stressors can reduce growth performance and alter immune systems at systemic and local levels including the gastrointestinal tract. Heat stress increases the permeability, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses in the gut. Nutritional stress from fasting, antinutritional compounds, and toxins induces the leakage and destruction of the tight junction proteins in the gut. Fasting is shown to suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas deoxynivalenol increases the recruitment of intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines and the level of lymphocytes in the gut. Pathogenic and viral infections such as Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus can lead to loosening the intestinal epithelial barrier. On the other hand, supplementation of Lactobacillus or Saccharaomyces reduced infectious stress by ETEC. It was noted that major stressors altered the permeability of intestinal barriers and profiles of genes and proteins of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in mucosal system in pigs. However, it is not sufficient to fully explain the mechanism of the gut immune system in pigs under stress conditions. Correlation and interaction of gut and systemic immune system under major stressors should be better defined to overcome aforementioned obstacles.

  15. Stress, Nutrition, and Intestinal Immune Responses in Pigs - A Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Kyu; Kye, Yoon Chul; Kim, Girak; Kim, Han Wool; Gu, Min Jeong; Umboh, Johnny; Maaruf, Kartini; Kim, Sung Woo; Yun, Cheol-Heui

    2016-08-01

    Modern livestock production became highly intensive and large scaled to increase production efficiency. This production environment could add stressors affecting the health and growth of animals. Major stressors can include environment (air quality and temperature), nutrition, and infection. These stressors can reduce growth performance and alter immune systems at systemic and local levels including the gastrointestinal tract. Heat stress increases the permeability, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses in the gut. Nutritional stress from fasting, antinutritional compounds, and toxins induces the leakage and destruction of the tight junction proteins in the gut. Fasting is shown to suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas deoxynivalenol increases the recruitment of intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines and the level of lymphocytes in the gut. Pathogenic and viral infections such as Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus can lead to loosening the intestinal epithelial barrier. On the other hand, supplementation of Lactobacillus or Saccharaomyces reduced infectious stress by ETEC. It was noted that major stressors altered the permeability of intestinal barriers and profiles of genes and proteins of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in mucosal system in pigs. However, it is not sufficient to fully explain the mechanism of the gut immune system in pigs under stress conditions. Correlation and interaction of gut and systemic immune system under major stressors should be better defined to overcome aforementioned obstacles. PMID:27189643

  16. The response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to sudden vs. gradual changes in environmental stress monitored by expression of the stress response protein Hsp12p.

    PubMed

    Nisamedtinov, Ildar; Lindsey, George G; Karreman, Robert; Orumets, Kerti; Koplimaa, Mariane; Kevvai, Kaspar; Paalme, Toomas

    2008-09-01

    The response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to sudden vs. gradual changes in different environmental stress conditions during both respiratory growth and aerobic fermentative growth in the presence of excess glucose was investigated by monitoring the level and rate of expression of the stress response protein Hsp12p using the fluorescent fusion construct Hsp12p-Gfp2p. The initial expression level and the rate of Hsp12p synthesis was significantly greater under glucose-limited conditions in the chemostat (D<0.14 h(-1)) compared with when excess glucose was present in the auxostat. Decreasing the dilution rate and the glucose concentration further in the A-stat resulted in increased Hsp12p expression, which was more marked when a rapid rather than a gradual change was affected. Common stress factors such as NaCl, ethanol and elevated temperature caused stress responses in both D-stat and auxo-accelerostat culture. The magnitude of the stress response depended on the stress factor, cultivation conditions as well as the rate of change of the stress factor. The rate of Hsp12p synthesis increased due to all applied stresses, with the observed increase between 2 and 20 times lower when the stress was applied gradually rather than rapidly. The results suggested that the Hsp12p expression rate is a good indicator of applied stress in S. cerevisiae.

  17. Affect, Reason, and Persuasion: Advertising Strategies That Predict Affective and Analytic-Cognitive Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhuri, Arjun; Buck, Ross

    1995-01-01

    Develops and tests hypotheses concerning the relationship of specific advertising strategies to affective and analytic cognitive responses of the audience. Analyses undergraduate students' responses to 240 advertisements. Demonstrates that advertising strategy variables accounted substantially for the variance in affective and analytic cognition.…

  18. A stress-coping model of mental illness stigma: II. Emotional stress responses, coping behavior and outcome.

    PubMed

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina; Rajah, Anita; Olschewski, Manfred; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen

    2009-05-01

    Stigma can be a major stressor for people with schizophrenia and other mental illnesses, leading to emotional stress reactions and cognitive coping responses. Stigma is appraised as a stressor if perceived stigma-related harm exceeds an individual's perceived coping resources. It is unclear, however, how people with mental illness react to stigma stress and how that affects outcomes such as self-esteem, hopelessness and social performance. The cognitive appraisal of stigma stress as well as emotional stress reactions (social anxiety, shame) and cognitive coping responses were assessed by self-report among 85 people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective or affective disorders. In addition to self-directed outcomes (self-esteem, hopelessness), social interaction with majority outgroup members was assessed by a standardized role-play test and a seating distance measure. High stigma stress was associated with increased social anxiety and shame, but not with cognitive coping responses. Social anxiety and shame predicted lower self-esteem and more hopelessness, but not social performance or seating distance. Hopelessness was associated with the coping mechanisms of devaluing work/education and of blaming discrimination for failures. The coping mechanism of ingroup comparisons predicted poorer social performance and increased seating distance. The cognitive appraisal of stigma-related stress, emotional stress reactions and coping responses may add to our understanding of how stigma affects people with mental illness. Trade-offs between different stress reactions can explain why stress reactions predicted largely negative outcomes. Emotional stress reactions and dysfunctional coping could be useful targets for interventions aiming to reduce the negative impact of stigma on people with mental illness.

  19. High positive affect shortly after missile attacks and the heightened risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among Israeli adolescents.

    PubMed

    Israel-Cohen, Yael; Kashy-Rosenbaum, Gabriela; Kaplan, Oren

    2014-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that positive emotions help build psychological resources and facilitate adaptation to stress, yet few studies have considered the possible negative effects of positive emotions on stress. This study examined the relationship between high arousal, positive and negative affect, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among 503 Israeli adolescents following a period of escalated missile attacks on their city. Our findings revealed that not only negative affect, but also positive affect at very high levels exhibited 2 weeks following missile attacks were independently associated with PTSD symptoms 2½ months later (η(2) = .09, η(2) = .02, respectively). Although the literature recognizes the risk factor of negative affect on the development of PTSD, we suggest that also positive affect at high levels immediately after such experiences may be a case of emotion context insensitivity and thus a maladaptive response to trauma. Further research should examine the mechanisms associated with positive emotions and PTSD.

  20. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  1. WRKY Transcription Factors: Molecular Regulation and Stress Responses in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Phukan, Ujjal J.; Jeena, Gajendra S.; Shukla, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Plants in their natural habitat have to face multiple stresses simultaneously. Evolutionary adaptation of developmental, physiological, and biochemical parameters give advantage over a single window of stress but not multiple. On the other hand transcription factors like WRKY can regulate diverse responses through a complicated network of genes. So molecular orchestration of WRKYs in plant may provide the most anticipated outcome of simultaneous multiple responses. Activation or repression through W-box and W-box like sequences is regulated at transcriptional, translational, and domain level. Because of the tight regulation involved in specific recognition and binding of WRKYs to downstream promoters, they have become promising candidate for crop improvement. Epigenetic, retrograde and proteasome mediated regulation enable WRKYs to attain the dynamic cellular homeostatic reprograming. Overexpression of several WRKYs face the paradox of having several beneficial affects but with some unwanted traits. These overexpression-associated undesirable phenotypes need to be identified and removed for proper growth, development and yeild. Taken together, we have highlighted the diverse regulation and multiple stress response of WRKYs in plants along with the future prospects in this field of research. PMID:27375634

  2. Fragile self-esteem and affective instability in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Kashdan, Todd B; Uswatte, Gitendra; Steger, Michael F; Julian, Terri

    2006-11-01

    Temporal fluctuations in self-esteem and affect are prominent features of several clinical conditions (e.g., depression), but there is an absence of empirical work examining their role in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Individuals who experience large fluctuations in self-evaluations and affect are considered more vulnerable to psychopathology than individuals able to adequately modulate their self-image and emotional responses. We examined the relevance of self-esteem and affective instability to PTSD. Veterans with and without PTSD completed 14 daily ratings of self-esteem, positive affect, negative affect, and gratitude. Compared to veterans without PTSD, veterans with PTSD exhibited more temporal fluctuations in self-esteem, negative affect, and gratitude, with a smaller effect for positive affect. For all veterans, self-esteem and negative affective instability was associated with diminished well-being. Except for self-esteem instability, most findings were substantially reduced after accounting for variance attributable to PTSD diagnoses and mean intensity levels over the 14-day monitoring period. These data suggest self-esteem instability is important in understanding the lives of veterans with and without PTSD.

  3. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  4. The weight gain response to stress during adulthood is conditioned by both sex and prenatal stress exposure.

    PubMed

    García-Cáceres, Cristina; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda; Lagunas, Natalia; Calmarza-Font, Isabel; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis M; Frago, Laura M; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2010-04-01

    Food intake and weight gain are known to be affected by stress. However, the type and duration of the stress may have variable effects, with males and females responding differently. We report the short-term and long-term effects of prenatal and adult immobilization stress, as well as the combination of these two stresses, on weight gain and food intake in male and female rats and the role of post-pubertal gonadal hormones in this process. No long-term effect of prenatal stress on food intake or weight gain was found in either sex. However, during the period of adult stress [at postnatal day (P) 90; 10 days duration] stressed male rats gained significantly less weight than controls and previous exposure to prenatal stress attenuated this effect (control: 31.2+/-2.1g; prenatal stress: 24.6+/-3.8g; adult stress: 8.1+/-3.4g; prenatal and adult stress: 18.2+/-3.3g; p<0.0001). There was no change in food intake in response to either prenatal or adult stress. Adult stress increased circulating corticosterone levels during the initial part of the stress period, in both male and female rats with this rise being greater in male rats. No effect on corticosterone levels was observed on the last day of stress in either sex. No effect on weight gain or food intake was observed in female rats. Following adult stress, male rats increased their weight gain, with no change in food intake, such that 1 month later they reached control levels. At the time of sacrifice (P180), there were no differences in weight or circulating metabolic hormone levels between any of the male groups. Although castration alone modulated body weight in both male and female rats, it did not affect their weight gain response to adult stress. These results indicate that the weight gain response to adult stress is sexually dimorphic and that this is not dependent on post-pubertal gonadal steroids. Furthermore, the outcome of this response closely depends on the time at which the change in weight is analyzed

  5. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress.

    PubMed

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-09-01

    An individual's susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure, for example, cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined the relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardized laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease.

  6. Does Leisure Time as a Stress Coping Resource Increase Affective Complexity? Applying the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA).

    PubMed

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M; Almeida, David M

    2013-01-01

    Affective complexity, a manifestation of psychological well-being, refers to the relative independence between positive and negative affect (PA, NA). According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful situations lead to highly inverse PA-NA relationship, reducing affective complexity. Meanwhile, positive events can sustain affective complexity by restoring PA-NA independence. Leisure, a type of positive events, has been identified as a coping resource. This study used the DMA to assess whether leisure time helps restore affective complexity on stressful days. We found that on days with more leisure time than usual, an individual experienced less negative PA-NA relationship after daily stressful events. The finding demonstrates the value of leisure time as a coping resource and the DMA's contribution to coping research. PMID:24659826

  7. Does Leisure Time as a Stress Coping Resource Increase Affective Complexity? Applying the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA)

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xinyi (Lisa); Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Affective complexity, a manifestation of psychological well-being, refers to the relative independence between positive and negative affect (PA, NA). According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful situations lead to highly inverse PA-NA relationship, reducing affective complexity. Meanwhile, positive events can sustain affective complexity by restoring PA-NA independence. Leisure, a type of positive events, has been identified as a coping resource. This study used the DMA to assess whether leisure time helps restore affective complexity on stressful days. We found that on days with more leisure time than usual, an individual experienced less negative PA-NA relationship after daily stressful events. The finding demonstrates the value of leisure time as a coping resource and the DMA’s contribution to coping research. PMID:24659826

  8. Drought stress affects plant metabolites and herbivore preference but not host location by its parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Weldegergis, Berhane T; Zhu, Feng; Poelman, Erik H; Dicke, Marcel

    2015-03-01

    One of the main abiotic stresses that strongly affects plant survival and the primary cause of crop loss around the world is drought. Drought stress leads to sequential morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes that can have severe effects on plant growth, development and productivity. As a consequence of these changes, the interaction between plants and insects can be altered. Using cultivated Brassica oleracea plants, the parasitoid Microplitis mediator and its herbivorous host Mamestra brassicae, we studied the effect of drought stress on (1) the emission of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs), (2) plant hormone titres, (3) preference and performance of the herbivore, and (4) preference of the parasitoid. Higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were recorded in response to herbivory, but no significant differences were observed for salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Drought significantly impacted SA level and showed a significant interactive effect with herbivory for IAA levels. A total of 55 VOCs were recorded and the difference among the treatments was influenced largely by herbivory, where the emission rate of fatty acid-derived volatiles, nitriles and (E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene [(E)-DMNT] was enhanced. Mamestra brassicae moths preferred to lay eggs on drought-stressed over control plants; their offspring performed similarly on plants of both treatments. VOCs due to drought did not affect the choice of M. mediator parasitoids. Overall, our study reveals an influence of drought on plant chemistry and insect-plant interactions. PMID:25370387

  9. Coping behaviours and post-traumatic stress in war-affected eastern Congolese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mels, Cindy; Derluyn, Ilse; Broekaert, Eric; García-Pérez, Coral

    2015-02-01

    This study explores coping strategies used by war-affected eastern Congolese adolescents across age and sex, and the association between post-traumatic stress symptoms and engagement and disengagement coping. Cross-sectional data were collected in 11 secondary schools across four areas in the Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo. A total of 952 pupils (45.3% girls, 54.7% boys) aged 13-21 years (M = 15.83, standard deviation = 1.81) participated in self-report assessment, using instruments that were either specifically developed (Adolescent Complex Emergency Exposure Scale, assessing traumatic exposure), validated (Impact of Event Scale Revised, assessing post-traumatic stress symptoms) or reviewed (Kidcope, assessing coping strategies) for the study population. Reported coping strategies varied with age, and boys more frequently reported problem solving and resignation as compared with girls. Disengagement coping was associated with lower symptom scores in younger adolescent girls, as was the interaction effect between engagement and disengagement coping. We conclude that disengagement coping is not necessarily a maladaptive reaction to stressful events in war-affected situations and that future research should aim to better understand the heterogeneous patterns of stress and coping responses, including the role of factors such as the nature and appraisal of stressors, available resources for coping and cultural preferences.

  10. Staufen Recruitment into Stress Granules Does Not Affect Early mRNA Transport in Oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, María G.; Tosar, Leandro J. Martinez; Loschi, Mariela; Pasquini, Juana M.; Correale, Jorge; Kindler, Stefan; Boccaccio, Graciela L.

    2005-01-01

    Staufen is a conserved double-stranded RNA-binding protein required for mRNA localization in Drosophila oocytes and embryos. The mammalian homologues Staufen 1 and Staufen 2 have been implicated in dendritic RNA targeting in neurons. Here we show that in rodent oligodendrocytes, these two proteins are present in two independent sets of RNA granules located at the distal myelinating processes. A third kind of RNA granules lacks Staufen and contains major myelin mRNAs. Myelin Staufen granules associate with microfilaments and microtubules, and their subcellular distribution is affected by polysome-disrupting drugs. Under oxidative stress, both Staufen 1 and Staufen 2 are recruited into stress granules (SGs), which are stress-induced organelles containing transiently silenced messengers. Staufen SGs contain the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), the RNA-binding proteins HuR and TIAR, and small but not large ribosomal subunits. Staufen recruitment into perinuclear SGs is paralleled by a similar change in the overall localization of polyadenylated RNA. Under the same conditions, the distribution of recently transcribed and exported mRNAs is not affected. Our results indicate that Staufen 1 and Staufen 2 are novel and ubiquitous SG components and suggest that Staufen RNPs are involved in repositioning of most polysomal mRNAs, but not of recently synthesized transcripts, during the stress response. PMID:15525674

  11. Coping behaviours and post-traumatic stress in war-affected eastern Congolese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mels, Cindy; Derluyn, Ilse; Broekaert, Eric; García-Pérez, Coral

    2015-02-01

    This study explores coping strategies used by war-affected eastern Congolese adolescents across age and sex, and the association between post-traumatic stress symptoms and engagement and disengagement coping. Cross-sectional data were collected in 11 secondary schools across four areas in the Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo. A total of 952 pupils (45.3% girls, 54.7% boys) aged 13-21 years (M = 15.83, standard deviation = 1.81) participated in self-report assessment, using instruments that were either specifically developed (Adolescent Complex Emergency Exposure Scale, assessing traumatic exposure), validated (Impact of Event Scale Revised, assessing post-traumatic stress symptoms) or reviewed (Kidcope, assessing coping strategies) for the study population. Reported coping strategies varied with age, and boys more frequently reported problem solving and resignation as compared with girls. Disengagement coping was associated with lower symptom scores in younger adolescent girls, as was the interaction effect between engagement and disengagement coping. We conclude that disengagement coping is not necessarily a maladaptive reaction to stressful events in war-affected situations and that future research should aim to better understand the heterogeneous patterns of stress and coping responses, including the role of factors such as the nature and appraisal of stressors, available resources for coping and cultural preferences. PMID:24130163

  12. Age differences in emotional responses to daily stress: The role of timing, severity, and global perceived stress

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Stacey B.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Blanchard Fields, Fredda

    2013-01-01

    Research on age differences in emotional responses to daily stress has produced inconsistent findings. Guided by recent theoretical advances in aging theory (Charles, 2010) that emphasize the importance of context for predicting when and how age is related to affective well-being, the current study examined age differences in emotional responses to everyday stressors. The present study examines how three contextual features (e.g., timing of exposure, stressor severity, global perceived stress [GPS]) moderate age differences in emotional experience in an ecological momentary assessment study of adults aged 18–81 (N=190). Results indicated older adults’ negative affect (NA) was less affected by exposure to recent stressors than younger adults, but that there were no age differences in the effects of stressor exposure three to six hours afterward. Higher levels of GPS predicted amplified NA responses to daily stress, and controlling for GPS eliminated age differences in NA responses to stressors. No age differences in NA responses as a function of stressor severity were observed. In contrast, older age was associated with less of a decrease in PA when exposed to recent stressors or with more severe recent stressors. There were no age differences in the effect of previous stressor exposure or severity on PA, nor any interactions between momentary or previous stress and GPS on PA. Together, these results support the notion that chronic stress plays a central role in emotional experience in daily life. Implications of these results for emotion theories of aging are discussed. PMID:24364410

  13. Effect of Paroxetine on Physiological Response to Stress and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Kotlyar, Michael; a’Absi, Mustafa; Thuras, Paul; Vuchetich, John P.; Adson, David E.; Nowack, April L.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Smokers often smoke during stressful events, which leads to large increases in cardiovascular measures such as blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Since exaggerated cardiovascular response to stress is associated with cardiovascular disease risk, this study examined paroxetine’s effect on the physiological response to combining stress and smoking. Methods Sixty-two participants completed this randomized, double blind, cross-over study in which BP, HR, plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine (NE) and cortisol concentrations were measured at rest, while smoking and during a speech and math task. Laboratory sessions occurred after one month of paroxetine and after one month of placebo. Results Significant increases occurred for all measures (except cortisol) during smoking with further increases occurring during the speech task (time effect p values <0.001). After one month of paroxetine, NE and HR values were lower and cortisol values higher (vs. placebo) throughout the lab session (treatment effect p values < 0.001). Treatment × time effects were observed for blood pressure and heart rate (all p<0.01). For systolic and diastolic BP, a smaller increase (from baseline to measures during speech) was observed after paroxetine compared to placebo (both p <0.006). In both measures, the increase in response to smoking was similar for both treatments, however the further increase during the speech was smaller when taking paroxetine (vs. placebo). Conclusions This study suggests that paroxetine affects physiological response to stress in smokers. Further research is needed to determine the impact of these results on cardiovascular health. PMID:23504241

  14. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jérémie; Nachury, Maxence V.; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Microtubules--which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport--can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of more extensive damage, which further decreases microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses.

  15. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress

    PubMed Central

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jérémie; Nachury, Maxence V.; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules - which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport - can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of larger damages, which further decrease microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses. PMID:26343914

  16. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jérémie; Nachury, Maxence V; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Microtubules--which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport--can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of more extensive damage, which further decreases microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses. PMID:26343914

  17. Considering Affective Responses towards Environments for Enhancing Location Based Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Gartner, G.; Klettner, S.; Schmidt, M.

    2014-04-01

    A number of studies in the field of environmental psychology show that humans perceive and evaluate their surroundings affectively. Some places are experienced as unsafe, while some others as attractive and interesting. Experiences from daily life show that many of our daily behaviours and decision-making are often influenced by this kind of affective responses towards environments. Location based services (LBS) are often designed to assist and support people's behaviours and decision-making in space. In order to provide services with high usefulness (usability and utility), LBS should consider these kinds of affective responses towards environments. This paper reports on the results of a research project, which studies how people's affective responses towards environments can be modelled and acquired, as well as how LBS can benefit by considering these affective responses. As one of the most popular LBS applications, mobile pedestrian navigation systems are used as an example for illustration.

  18. Specificity of infants' response to mothers' affective behavior.

    PubMed

    Cohn, J F; Tronick, E

    1989-03-01

    Mother-infant face-to-face interaction is central to infant socioemotional development. Little has been known about the mechanisms that mediate the mother's influence. Findings are reviewed from a series of laboratory studies that suggest the major functional components of a mother's behavior are its affective quality and its contingent relationship to her baby's behavior. Quality of mother's affective expression accounted for individual differences in the behavior of thirteen 7-month-old infants living in multiproblem families. Infants' response was specific to the type of affective expression mothers displayed. Flat, withdrawn maternal affective expression was associated with infant distress. Intrusive maternal expression was associated with increased gaze aversion. Lack of contingent responsiveness was common to all but four mothers. Findings suggest that withdrawn or intrusive maternal affective expression, together with lack of contingent responsiveness, may in part be responsible for the risk-status of infants in multiproblem families.

  19. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L.; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    An individual’s susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure e.g., cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardised laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the TSST. Individuals with high Agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high Communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease. PMID:25036730

  20. RNA-seq analysis of stress response in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish under intensive rearing conditions experience various stress conditions, which have negative impacts on survival, growth and fillet quality. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying stress responses will facilitate improvement of animal welfare and production efficiency. Our objective ...

  1. A NAP-Family Histone Chaperone Functions in Abiotic Stress Response and Adaptation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Ashwani; Singla-Pareek, Sneh Lata

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of gene expression is one of the most significant molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress response in plants. Via altering DNA accessibility, histone chaperones affect the transcriptional competence of genomic loci. However, in contrast to other factors affecting chromatin dynamics, the role of plant histone chaperones in abiotic stress response and adaptation remains elusive. Here, we studied the physiological function of a stress-responsive putative rice (Oryza sativa) histone chaperone of the NAP superfamily: OsNAPL6. We show that OsNAPL6 is a nuclear-localized H3/H4 histone chaperone capable of assembling a nucleosome-like structure. Utilizing overexpression and knockdown approaches, we found a positive correlation between OsNAPL6 expression levels and adaptation to multiple abiotic stresses. Results of comparative transcriptome profiling and promoter-recruitment studies indicate that OsNAPL6 functions during stress response via modulation of expression of various genes involved in diverse functions. For instance, we show that OsNAPL6 is recruited to OsRad51 promoter, activating its expression and leading to more efficient DNA repair and abrogation of programmed cell death under salinity and genotoxic stress conditions. These results suggest that the histone chaperone OsNAPL6 may serve a regulatory role in abiotic stress physiology possibly via modulating nucleosome dynamics at various stress-associated genomic loci. Taken together, our findings establish a hitherto unknown link between histone chaperones and abiotic stress response in plants. PMID:27342307

  2. Response of Bauer piezoelectric polymer stress gauges (PVDF) (polyvinylidene fluoride) to shock loading

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.A.; Lee, L.M.; Bauer, F.

    1987-01-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) stress gauges fabricated from high quality, biaxially stretched film, and electrically poled to high values of remanent polarization are the basis for revolutionary new gauging capabilities. In the present work, a number of PVDF films have been studied under controlled impact loading to maximum impact stresses of 35 GPa. Gauges with various degrees of polarization were studied. In the impact studies, electrical response with good fidelity was obtained to stress of 20 GPa. At 35 GPa the observed response is highly distorted. Remanent polarization is found to have a significant influence on nonlinearity and probably affects the maximum useful stress for shock gauge applications.

  3. Transcriptome Response Mediated by Cold Stress in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Calzadilla, Pablo I.; Maiale, Santiago J.; Ruiz, Oscar A.; Escaray, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Lotus genus are important as agricultural forage sources under marginal environmental conditions given their high nutritional value and tolerance of various abiotic stresses. However, their dry matter production is drastically reduced in cooler seasons, while their response to such conditions is not well studied. This paper analyzes cold acclimation of the genus by studying Lotus japonicus over a stress period of 24 h. High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to identify and classify 1077 differentially expressed genes, of which 713 were up-regulated and 364 were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes were principally related to lipid, cell wall, phenylpropanoid, sugar, and proline regulation, while down-regulated genes affected the photosynthetic process and chloroplast development. Together, a total of 41 cold-inducible transcription factors were identified, including members of the AP2/ERF, NAC, MYB, and WRKY families; two of them were described as putative novel transcription factors. Finally, DREB1/CBFs were described with respect to their cold stress expression profiles. This is the first transcriptome profiling of the model legume L. japonicus under cold stress. Data obtained may be useful in identifying candidate genes for breeding modified species of forage legumes that more readily acclimate to low temperatures. PMID:27066029

  4. The unfolded protein response regulates an angiogenic response by the kidney epithelium during ischemic stress.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Nicolas; Fougeray, Sophie; Beaune, Philippe; Thervet, Eric; Pallet, Nicolas

    2012-04-27

    Ischemic injuries permanently affect kidney tissue and challenge cell viability, promoting inflammation and fibrogenesis. Ischemia results in nutrient deprivation, which triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress, ultimately resulting in the unfolded protein response (UPR). The aim of this study was to test whether the UPR could promote an angiogenic response independently of the HIF-1α pathway during ischemic stress in the human kidney epithelium. Glucose deprivation induced the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and angiogenin (ANG) in human kidney epithelial cells independently of HIF-1α. Glucose deprivation, but not hypoxia, triggered endoplasmic reticulum stress and activated the UPR. RNA interference-mediated inhibition of the gene encoding the kinase PERK decreased VEGFA and bFGF expression, but neither gene was affected by the inhibition of IRE1α or ATF6. Furthermore, we show that the expression of angiogenin, which inhibits protein synthesis, is regulated by both IRE1α and PERK, which could constitute a complementary function of the UPR in the repression of translation. In a rat model of acute ischemic stress, we show that the UPR is activated in parallel with VEGFA, bFGF, and ANG expression and independently of HIF-1α. PMID:22403402

  5. Parenting stress and affective symptoms in parents of autistic children.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yun; Du, YaSong; Li, HuiLin; Zhang, XiYan; An, Yu; Wu, Bai-Lin

    2015-10-01

    We examined parenting stress and mental health status in parents of autistic children and assessed factors associated with such stress. Participants were parents of 188 autistic children diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria and parents of 144 normally developing children. Parents of autistic children reported higher levels of stress, depression, and anxiety than parents of normally developing children. Mothers of autistic children had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than that did parents of normally developing children. Mothers compared to fathers of autistic children were more vulnerable to depression. Age, behavior problems of autistic children, and mothers' anxiety were significantly associated with parenting stress.

  6. Cortisol modulates men's affiliative responses to acute social stress.

    PubMed

    Berger, Justus; Heinrichs, Markus; von Dawans, Bernadette; Way, Baldwin M; Chen, Frances S

    2016-01-01

    The dominant characterization of the physiological and behavioral human stress reaction is the fight-or-flight response. On the other hand, it has been suggested that social affiliation during stressful times ("tend-and-befriend") also represents a common adaptive response to stress, particularly for women. In the current study, we investigate the extent to which men may also show affiliative responses following acute stress. In addition, we examine a potential neuroendocrine modulator of the hypothesized affiliative response. Eighty male students (forty dyads) were recruited to undergo either the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) or a non-stressful control situation. Subsequently, participants completed a dyadic interaction task and were then asked to report their feelings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner. Although participants assigned to the stress condition did not differ overall on psychological closeness from participants assigned to the control condition, participants with high cortisol responses to the stressor showed significantly higher ratings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner than participants with low cortisol responses. Our findings suggest that men may form closer temporary bonds following stressful situations that are accompanied by a significant cortisol response. We suggest that the traditional characterization of the male stress response in terms of "fight-or-flight" may be incomplete, and that social affiliation may in fact represent a common, adaptive response to stress in men.

  7. Transcriptomic Characterization of Temperature Stress Responses in Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yong; Li, Linchun; Li, Qing; He, Xiaozhen; Cui, Zongbin

    2012-01-01

    Temperature influences nearly all biochemical, physiological and life history activities of fish, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the temperature acclimation remains largely unknown. Previous studies have identified many temperature-regulated genes in adult tissues; however, the transcriptional responses of fish larvae to temperature stress are not well understood. In this study, we characterized the transcriptional responses in larval zebrafish exposed to cold or heat stress using microarray analysis. In comparison with genes expressed in the control at 28°C, a total of 2680 genes were found to be affected in 96 hpf larvae exposed to cold (16°C) or heat (34°C) for 2 and 48h and most of these genes were expressed in a temperature-specific and temporally regulated manner. Bioinformatic analysis identified multiple temperature-regulated biological processes and pathways. Biological processes overrepresented among the earliest genes induced by temperature stress include regulation of transcription, nucleosome assembly, chromatin organization and protein folding. However, processes such as RNA processing, cellular metal ion homeostasis and protein transport and were enriched in genes up-regulated under cold exposure for 48 h. Pathways such as mTOR signalling, p53 signalling and circadian rhythm were enriched among cold-induced genes, while adipocytokine signalling, protein export and arginine and praline metabolism were enriched among heat-induced genes. Although most of these biological processes and pathways were specifically regulated by cold or heat, common responses to both cold and heat stresses were also found. Thus, these findings provide new interesting clues for elucidation of mechanisms underlying the temperature acclimation in fish. PMID:22666345

  8. Ecological momentary assessment of stressful events and negative affect in bulimia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Lavender, Jason M.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Cao, Li; Mitchell, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Negative affect precedes binge eating and purging in bulimia nervosa (BN), but little is known about factors that precipitate negative affect in relation to these behaviors. We aimed to assess the temporal relation among stressful events, negative affect, and bulimic events in the natural environment using ecological momentary assessment. Method A total of 133 women with current BN recorded their mood, eating behavior, and the occurrence of stressful events every day for two weeks. Multi-level structural equation mediation models evaluated the relations among Time 1 stress measures (i.e., interpersonal stressors, work/environment stressors, general daily hassles, and stress appraisal), Time 2 negative affect, and Time 2 binge eating and purging, controlling for Time 1 negative affect. Results Increases in negative affect from Time 1 to Time 2 significantly mediated the relations between Time 1 interpersonal stressors, work/environment stressors, general daily hassles, and stress appraisal, and Time 2 binge eating and purging. When modeled simultaneously, confidence intervals for interpersonal stressors, general daily hassles, and stress appraisal did not overlap, suggesting that each had a distinct impact on negative affect in relation to binge eating or purging. Conclusions Our findings indicate that stress precedes the occurrence of bulimic behaviors and that increases in negative affect following stressful events mediate this relation. Results suggest that stress and subsequent negative affect may function as maintenance factors for bulimic behaviors and should be targeted in treatment. PMID:24219182

  9. Autonomic responses to stress: the effects of progressive relaxation, the relaxation response, and expectancy of relief.

    PubMed

    Bradley, B W; McCanne, T R

    1981-06-01

    Forty-eight male subjects with no previous meditative experience engaged in either progressive relaxation (PR), a meditative treatment designed to induce the relaxation response (RR), or a no-treatment control experience (C) during four sessions on consecutive days. Negative expectations regarding the effectiveness of each technique for reducing physiological responses to stress were induced for half of the subjects in each treatment condition, and positive expectations were induced for the other half. Subjects viewed a stressful film following practice of their technique during the first and fourth sessions. Heart rate and electrodermal responding were recorded continuously during practice of the techniques and during the stressful film throughout the first and fourth sessions. Results indicated lowered heart rate levels prior to the film for subjects in the PR-positive expectancy condition and during the film for subjects in the RR-positive expectancy condition. It is suggested that subjects' expectancies concerning meditation may affect cardiovascular responding during stress, although meditative treatments in general do not appear to reduce stress responding as effectively as previously suggested.

  10. Rethinking stress: the role of mindsets in determining the stress response.

    PubMed

    Crum, Alia J; Salovey, Peter; Achor, Shawn

    2013-04-01

    This article describes 3 studies that explore the role of mindsets in the context of stress. In Study 1, we present data supporting the reliability and validity of an 8-item instrument, the Stress Mindset Measure (SMM), designed to assess the extent to which an individual believes that the effects of stress are either enhancing or debilitating. In Study 2, we demonstrate that stress mindsets can be altered by watching short, multimedia film clips presenting factual information biased toward defining the nature of stress in 1 of 2 ways (stress-is-enhancing vs. stress-is-debilitating). In Study 3, we demonstrate the effect of stress mindset on physiological and behavioral outcomes, showing that a stress-is-enhancing mindset is associated with moderate cortisol reactivity and high desire for feedback under stress. Together, these 3 studies suggest that stress mindset is a distinct and meaningful variable in determining the stress response.

  11. Global transcriptomic profiling of Schizosaccharomyces pombe in response to nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Pranjal; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2015-03-10

    Excess production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs) cause nitrosative stress on cells. Schizosaccharomyces pombe was used as a model to study nitrosative stress response. This is the first report on the global gene expression profile in response to NO in S. pombe using microarray. Among the 4824 genes reported for S. pombe, 818 were differentially expressed by at least 2-fold upon NO donor treatment. We previously showed that Pap1, the Activator Protein 1 transcription factor is required to combat nitrosative stress. In this study, the transcriptional response to NO in a null mutant for pap1 identified 45 genes that seem to be controlled by Pap1. Surprisingly, Pap1 regulated genes in S. pombe were distinctly different under nitrosative stress than those reported under oxidative stress. Genes of the pathway meiosis, cell cycle, spliceosome and oxidative phosphorylation were mostly affected under nitrosative stress in the fission yeast.

  12. What Factors Affect Response to Ads? A Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotzoll, Kim B.

    The concept of "frame of reference" offers a perspective from which to examine the many factors which affect advertising response. The advertiser is interested in affecting two types of overt behavior. First, the individual is induced to select a particular stimulus (the advertisement) from competing stimuli (such as other people, noise, and other…

  13. Assessing Affective Learning Using a Student Response System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimland, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Affective learning relates to students' attitudes, emotions, and feelings. This study focuses on measuring affective learning during library instruction by using a student response system. Participants were undergraduate students who received course-related library instruction for a research assignment. Students rated their confidence levels…

  14. Involvement of plant C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger transcription factors in stress responses.

    PubMed

    Kiełbowicz-Matuk, Agnieszka

    2012-04-01

    Abiotic and biotic stresses frequently impose constraints on plant distribution and affect agricultural productivity. Various aspects of the multiplicity and the complexity of stress responsive gene networks have been previously studied. Many of individual transcription factors in plants and their family classes that regulate the expression of several genes in responses to environmental stresses have been identified. One such class of transcription regulators is the C(2)H(2) class of zinc finger proteins. Numerous members of the C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger family have been shown to play diverse roles in the plant stress response and the hormone signal transduction. Transcription profiling analyses have demonstrated that the transcript level of many C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger proteins is elevated under different abiotic stress conditions such as low temperature, salt, drought, osmotic stress and oxidative stress. Some C(2)H(2)-type proteins are additionally involved in the biotic stress signaling pathway. Moreover, it has been reported that overexpression of some C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger protein genes resulted in both the activation of some stress-related genes and enhanced tolerance to various stresses. Current genetic studies have focused on possible interactions between different zinc finger transcription factors during stresses to regulate transcription. This review highlights the role of the C(2)H(2) class of the zinc finger proteins in regulating abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in the plants.

  15. Lasting anxiogenic effects of feline predator stress in mice: sex differences in vulnerability to stress and predicting severity of anxiogenic response from the stress experience.

    PubMed

    Adamec, Robert; Head, David; Blundell, Jacqueline; Burton, Paul; Berton, Olivier

    2006-06-15

    Previous work in male Swiss Webster (CFW) mice demonstrated a long lasting effect of predator stress on risk assessment in the elevated plus maze (EPM). Most severe effects (increases in risk assessment) were seen following a brief unprotected exposure to a cat. Lesser effects were produced by a brief exposure of mice to the cat exposure room without a cat in the room (room stress). This graded response is analogous to the covariation of symptom severity and severity of the precipitating stressor in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study extended these findings to another strain of mice, C57/BL6, and a broader range of tests of anxiety-like behavior, including EPM, acoustic startle response and light/dark box test. Sex was introduced as a variable to investigate if females might be more susceptible to the effects of stressors than males, as has been suggested in human PTSD. Graded and lasting (7 days) effects of a 10 min exposure to a cat (predator stress) or to the cat exposure room only (room stress) were observed on lighted chamber avoidance in the light/dark box. Room stress was without effect on startle responses, but predator stress enhanced peak startle amplitudes measured in the light or in the dark. There was no evidence of light-enhancement of startle in C57 mice. Female mice were more susceptible to the effects of predator and room stress, depending on the measure. Females only responded to cat exposure with a lasting increase in average startle amplitude. This was due to an increased and more prolonged multipeak response to startle after the first and maximal peak startle response. In addition, in females, room and predator stress were equally anxiogenic in measures of open arm avoidance in the EPM. In contrast, room stress was without effect on open arm avoidance in males, but cat exposure was as anxiogenic in males as it was in females. These findings suggest EPM anxiety in females is affected more by the milder stress of room

  16. The Mind-Body Connection - Can Prolonged Stress Affect Whether Breast Cancer Returns?

    MedlinePlus

    ... life events," says Dr. Spiegel." A history of traumatic events early in life can have many physical and emotional effects, including changing the hormonal stress response ... in the aftermath of traumatic stress if they deal with it directly. Facing, ...

  17. Gardening promotes neuroendocrine and affective restoration from stress.

    PubMed

    Van Den Berg, Agnes E; Custers, Mariëtte H G

    2011-01-01

    Stress-relieving effects of gardening were hypothesized and tested in a field experiment. Thirty allotment gardeners performed a stressful Stroop task and were then randomly assigned to 30 minutes of outdoor gardening or indoor reading on their own allotment plot. Salivary cortisol levels and self-reported mood were repeatedly measured. Gardening and reading each led to decreases in cortisol during the recovery period, but decreases were significantly stronger in the gardening group. Positive mood was fully restored after gardening, but further deteriorated during reading. These findings provide the first experimental evidence that gardening can promote relief from acute stress. PMID:20522508

  18. Gardening promotes neuroendocrine and affective restoration from stress.

    PubMed

    Van Den Berg, Agnes E; Custers, Mariëtte H G

    2011-01-01

    Stress-relieving effects of gardening were hypothesized and tested in a field experiment. Thirty allotment gardeners performed a stressful Stroop task and were then randomly assigned to 30 minutes of outdoor gardening or indoor reading on their own allotment plot. Salivary cortisol levels and self-reported mood were repeatedly measured. Gardening and reading each led to decreases in cortisol during the recovery period, but decreases were significantly stronger in the gardening group. Positive mood was fully restored after gardening, but further deteriorated during reading. These findings provide the first experimental evidence that gardening can promote relief from acute stress.

  19. Molecular response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine and laboratory strains to high sugar stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Martí, E; Zuzuarregui, A; Gomar-Alba, M; Gutiérrez, D; Gil, C; del Olmo, M

    2011-01-31

    One of the stress conditions that can affect Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells during their growth is osmotic stress. Under particular environments (for instance, during the production of alcoholic beverages) yeasts have to cope with osmotic stress caused by high sugar concentrations. Although the molecular changes and pathways involved in the response to saline or sorbitol stress are widely understood, less is known about how cells respond to high sugar concentrations. In this work we present a comprehensive study of the response to this form of stress which indicates important transcriptomic changes, especially in terms of the genes involved in both stress response and respiration, and the implication of the HOG pathway. We also describe several genes of an unknown function which are more highly expressed under 20% (w/v) glucose than under 2% (w/v) glucose. In this work we focus on the YHR087w (RTC3) gene and its encoded protein. Proteomic analysis of the mutant deletion strain reveals lower levels of several yeast Hsp proteins, which establishes a link between this protein and the response to several forms of stress. The relevance of YHR087W for the response to high sugar and other stress conditions and the relationship of the encoded protein with several Hsp proteins suggest applications of this gene in biotechnological processes in which response to stress is important.

  20. Leaf Responses to Mild Drought Stress in Natural Variants of Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Clauw, Pieter; Coppens, Frederik; De Beuf, Kristof; Dhondt, Stijn; Van Daele, Twiggy; Maleux, Katrien; Storme, Veronique; Clement, Lieven; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Inzé, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Although the response of plants exposed to severe drought stress has been studied extensively, little is known about how plants adapt their growth under mild drought stress conditions. Here, we analyzed the leaf and rosette growth response of six Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions originating from different geographic regions when exposed to mild drought stress. The automated phenotyping platform WIWAM was used to impose stress early during leaf development, when the third leaf emerges from the shoot apical meristem. Analysis of growth-related phenotypes showed differences in leaf development between the accessions. In all six accessions, mild drought stress reduced both leaf pavement cell area and number without affecting the stomatal index. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis (using RNA sequencing) of early developing leaf tissue identified 354 genes differentially expressed under mild drought stress in the six accessions. Our results indicate the existence of a robust response over different genetic backgrounds to mild drought stress in developing leaves. The processes involved in the overall mild drought stress response comprised abscisic acid signaling, proline metabolism, and cell wall adjustments. In addition to these known severe drought-related responses, 87 genes were found to be specific for the response of young developing leaves to mild drought stress. PMID:25604532

  1. The Hippo pathway promotes cell survival in response to chemical stress.

    PubMed

    Di Cara, F; Maile, T M; Parsons, B D; Magico, A; Basu, S; Tapon, N; King-Jones, K

    2015-09-01

    Cellular stress defense mechanisms have evolved to maintain homeostasis in response to a broad variety of environmental challenges. Stress signaling pathways activate multiple cellular programs that range from the activation of survival pathways to the initiation of cell death when cells are damaged beyond repair. To identify novel players acting in stress response pathways, we conducted a cell culture RNA interference (RNAi) screen using caffeine as a xenobiotic stress-inducing agent, as this compound is a well-established inducer of detoxification response pathways. Specifically, we examined how caffeine affects cell survival when Drosophila kinases and phosphatases were depleted via RNAi. Using this approach, we identified and validated 10 kinases and 4 phosphatases that are essential for cell survival under caffeine-induced stress both in cell culture and living flies. Remarkably, our screen yielded an enrichment of Hippo pathway components, indicating that this pathway regulates cellular stress responses. Indeed, we show that the Hippo pathway acts as a potent repressor of stress-induced cell death. Further, we demonstrate that Hippo activation is necessary to inhibit a pro-apoptotic program triggered by the interaction of the transcriptional co-activator Yki with the transcription factor p53 in response to a range of stress stimuli. Our in vitro and in vivo loss-of-function data therefore implicate Hippo signaling in the transduction of cellular survival signals in response to chemical stress.

  2. Glucocorticoids mediate stress-induced impairment of retrieval of stimulus-response memory.

    PubMed

    Atsak, Piray; Guenzel, Friederike M; Kantar-Gok, Deniz; Zalachoras, Ioannis; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Meijer, Onno C; Quirarte, Gina L; Wolf, Oliver T; Schwabe, Lars; Roozendaal, Benno

    2016-05-01

    Acute stress and elevated glucocorticoid hormone levels are well known to impair the retrieval of hippocampus-dependent 'declarative' memory. Recent findings suggest that stress might also impair the retrieval of non-hippocampal memories. In particular, stress shortly before retention testing was shown to impair the retrieval of striatal stimulus-response associations in humans. However, the mechanism underlying this stress-induced retrieval impairment of non-hippocampal stimulus-response memory remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated whether an acute elevation in glucocorticoid levels mediates the impairing effects of stress on retrieval of stimulus-response memory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on a stimulus-response task in an eight-arm radial maze until they learned to associate a stimulus, i.e., cue, with a food reward in one of the arms. Twenty-four hours after successful acquisition, they received a systemic injection of vehicle, corticosterone (1mg/kg), the corticosterone-synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (35mg/kg) or were left untreated 1h before retention testing. We found that the corticosterone injection impaired the retrieval of stimulus-response memory. We further found that the systemic injection procedure per se was stressful as the vehicle administration also increased plasma corticosterone levels and impaired the retrieval of stimulus-response memory. However, memory retrieval was not impaired when rats were tested 2min after the systemic vehicle injection, before any stress-induced elevation in corticosterone levels had occurred. Moreover, metyrapone treatment blocked the effect of injection stress on both plasma corticosterone levels and memory retrieval impairment, indicating that the endogenous corticosterone response mediates the stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. None of the treatments affected rats' locomotor activity or motivation to search for the food reward within the maze. These findings show that stress

  3. Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Autonomic and Endocrine Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; King, Lucy; Schreier, Hannah; Howard, Jamie M.; Rosenfield, David; Ritz, Thomas; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early environmental exposures may help shape the development of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, influencing vulnerability for health problems across the lifespan. Little is known about the role of maternal sensitivity in influencing the development of the ANS in early life. Aims To examine associations among maternal sensitivity and infant behavioral distress and ANS and HPA axis reactivity to the Repeated Still-Face Paradigm (SFP-R), a dyadic stress task. Study Design Observational repeated measures study. Subjects Thirty-five urban, sociodemographically diverse mothers and their 6-month-old infants. Outcome Measures Changes in infant affective distress, heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and T-wave amplitude (TWA) across episodes of the SFP-R were assessed. A measure of cortisol output (area under the curve) in the hour following cessation of the SFP-R was also obtained. Results Greater maternal insensitivity was associated with greater infant sympathetic activation (TWA) during periods of stress and tended to be associated with greater cortisol output following the SFP-R. There was also evidence for greater affective distress and less parasympathetic activation (RSA) during the SFP-R among infants of predominantly insensitive mothers. Conclusions Caregiving quality in early life may influence the responsiveness of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the ANS as well as the HPA axis. Consideration of the ANS and HPA axis systems together provides a fuller representation of adaptive versus maladaptive stress responses. The findings highlight the importance of supporting high quality caregiving in the early years of life, which is likely to promote later health. PMID:24794304

  4. Chronic maternal stress affects growth, behaviour and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function in juvenile offspring.

    PubMed

    Emack, Jeff; Kostaki, Alice; Walker, Claire-Dominique; Matthews, Stephen G

    2008-09-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy, particularly that combined with low socioeconomic status (SES), has been linked to an increased risk for impaired behavioural and emotional development and affective disorders in children. In animal models, acute periods of prenatal stress have profound effects on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function and behaviour. However, few studies have determined the impact of chronic exposure to stress in animal models. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of chronic maternal stress (CMS) during the 2nd half of pregnancy and nursing on growth, locomotor behaviour and HPA axis function in juvenile guinea pig offspring. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a random combination of variable stressors every other day over the 2nd half of gestation and from postnatal day (pnd) 1 until weaning (pnd25). CMS mothers displayed increased basal salivary cortisol levels in the later stages of pregnancy compared to control mothers (p<0.05). The male offspring of CMS mothers had a lower bodyweight, which was maintained to weaning (p<0.01). In open-field testing, CMS male offspring showed a decrease in activity compared to controls (p<0.05). There was no effect of CMS on bodyweight or activity in female offspring. In contrast, both male and female offspring born to CMS mothers displayed increased (p<0.05) basal salivary cortisol at pnd25, but a blunted adrenocortical response to exposure to the novel open-field enclosure. In conclusion, CMS leads to modification of growth trajectory, locomotor activity and adrenocortical responses to stress in juvenile offspring. Further, males appear considerably more vulnerable to these effects than females. PMID:18674758

  5. Transcriptional variation in response to salt stress in commonly used Arabidopsis thaliana accessions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Zhulong; Loescher, Wayne; Grumet, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    Transcriptional variation is increasingly recognized as a component of genetic diversity and environmental adaptation. It can also provide insights into stress responsive determinants and underlying adaptive mechanisms. Prior studies showed phenotypic differences in response to salinity stress for two widely used Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, Wassilewskija-2 (Ws) and Columbia-0 (Col). This study examined changes in global gene expression in relation to differences in response to salt stress among Ws, Col, and the glabrous mutant of Col [Col(gl)]. Transcripts most highly affected by accession and salt stress were related to abiotic or biotic stress responses. Approximately 60% of salt-induced changes in Ws overlapped with changes in Col, suggesting common salt stress responses. However, a markedly greater number of genes was altered in the highly salt sensitive Col, likely reflecting both adaptive responses and salt injury. The Col(gl) transcriptome was least affected by salt. Many salt-responsive transcripts observed in Col were altered in Col(gl) prior to salt stress, indicating that even without salt, the gl1-1 mutation induced a suite of stress responsive genes. Regardless of salt stress, there were greater transcriptomic differences between Col and Col(gl) than between Col and Ws. The transcript expression differences between [Ws vs. Col] and [Col(gl) vs. Col] formed largely non-overlapping sets. Thus, although Ws, Col and Col(gl) are commonly and sometimes interchangeably used, here they displayed distinct responses. Collectively, their observed expression differences likely reflect a combination of adaptive traits, response to injury, or phenotypic buffering of mutational effects.

  6. How Do Observer's Responses Affect Visual Long-Term Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makovski, Tal; Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

    2013-01-01

    How does responding to an object affect explicit memory for visual information? The close theoretical relationship between action and perception suggests that items that require a response should be better remembered than items that require no response. However, conclusive evidence for this claim is lacking, as semantic coherence, category size,…

  7. Origins of asymmetric stress-strain response in phase transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Sehitoglu, H.; Gall, K.

    1997-12-31

    It has been determined that the transformation stress-strain behavior of CuZnAl and NiTi shape memory alloys is dependent on the applied stress state. The uniaxial compressive stress necessary to macroscopically trigger the transformation is approximately 34% (CuZnAl) and 26% (NiTi) larger than the required uniaxial tensile stress. For three dimensional stress states, the response of either alloy system is dependent on the directions of the dominant principal stresses along with the hydrostatic stress component of the stress state. The stress state effects are dominated by the favored growth and nucleation of more martensite plates in tension versus compression. The effect of different hydrostatic pressure levels between stress states on martensite plates volume change is considered small.

  8. Husbandry of zebrafish, Danio rerio, and the cortisol stress response.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, Michail; Digka, Nikoletta; Theodoridi, Antonia; Campo, Aurora; Barsakis, Konstantinos; Skouradakis, Gregoris; Samaras, Athanasios; Tsalafouta, Alexandra

    2013-12-01

    The effect of common husbandry conditions (crowding, social environment, water quality, handling, and background color) on the cortisol stress response in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, was investigated to check the usefulness of zebrafish as a model organism in aquaculture research. In addition, a noninvasive methodology for assessing stress was evaluated. Zebrafish showed a fast cortisol response with high values at 30 min that returned to basal levels within 2 h of poststress. There was a significant positive correlation between trunk cortisol concentrations and the free water cortisol rate (r(2)=0.829-0.850, p<0.001), indicating that measurement of the water-borne cortisol release rate may serve as a noninvasive and reliable stress indicator at the population level. Crowding resulted in 13- to 21-fold greater mean trunk cortisol concentrations compared with controls. However, even at low stocking density (2-5 fish/L), the maintenance cost was higher than the one at higher densities (10 fish/L) due to the formation of dominance hierarchies. The background color affected trunk cortisol concentrations, with fish exposed to brighter backgrounds (green and white) showing 3- to 8-fold greater mean trunk cortisol concentrations than fish exposed to a black background or transparent aquaria. Fish exposed to high stocking densities for 2 h or 5 days had similar high mean trunk cortisol levels, indicating that exposure of fish for the period of 2 h to a specific stressor may represent a chronic situation in zebrafish. It is concluded that adult laboratory zebrafish had a preference for a transparent or black background aquarium, at a number of 10 individuals per 2 L of available water volume, to express their normal behavior and avoid increased cortisol stress reaction.

  9. Sexually Dimorphic Responses to Early Adversity: Implications for Affective Problems and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-01-01

    During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the lifecycle. For these reason the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorder (greater male prevalence). Recent prospective studies illustrating the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposure to stress and stress hormones for males and females are considered here. Plausible biological mechanisms including the role of the sexually differentiated placenta are discussed. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two sets of developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorders (greater male prevalence). PMID:25038479

  10. Factors affecting response to biologic treatment in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Karczewski, Jacek; Poniedziałek, Barbara; Rzymski, Piotr; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease, affecting approximately 2-4% of the population in western countries. Patients with a more severe form of the disease are typically considered for systemic therapy, including biologics. In spite of the overall superiority of biologic agents, the treatment response may differ substantially among individual patients. As with other medical conditions, a range of factors contribute to response heterogeneity observed in psoriasis. Proper identification of these factors can significantly improve the therapeutic decisions. This review focuses on potential genetic and nongenetic factors that may affect the treatment response and outcomes in patients with psoriasis.

  11. Plant cell organelle proteomics in response to abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Zahed; Nouri, Mohammad-Zaman; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-01-01

    Proteomics is one of the finest molecular techniques extensively being used for the study of protein profiling of a given plant species experiencing stressed conditions. Plants respond to a stress by alteration in the pattern of protein expression, either by up-regulating of the existing protein pool or by the synthesizing novel proteins primarily associated with plants antioxidative defense mechanism. Improved protein extraction protocols and advance techniques for identification of novel proteins have been standardized in different plant species at both cellular and whole plant level for better understanding of abiotic stress sensing and intracellular stress signal transduction mechanisms. In contrast, an in-depth proteome study of subcellular organelles could generate much detail information about the intrinsic mechanism of stress response as it correlates the possible relationship between the protein abundance and plant stress tolerance. Although a wealth of reviews devoted to plant proteomics are available, review articles dedicated to plant cell organelle proteins response under abiotic stress are very scanty. In the present review, an attempt has been made to summarize all significant contributions related to abiotic stresses and their impacts on organelle proteomes for better understanding of plants abiotic stress tolerance mechanism at protein level. This review will not only provide new insights into the plants stress response mechanisms, which are necessary for future development of genetically engineered stress tolerant crop plants for the benefit of humankind, but will also highlight the importance of studying changes in protein abundance within the cell organelles in response to abiotic stress.

  12. Maternal Influences on Youth Responses to Peer Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abaied, Jamie L.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how youths develop particular styles of responding to stress is critical for promoting effective coping. This research examined the prospective, interactive contribution of maternal socialization of coping and peer stress to youth responses to peer stress. A sample of 144 early adolescents (mean age = 12.44 years, SD = 1.22) and…

  13. Regulation of Stress Responses and Translational Control by Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Fung, To Sing; Liao, Ying; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other viruses, coronavirus infection triggers cellular stress responses in infected host cells. The close association of coronavirus replication with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in the ER stress responses, which impose a challenge to the viruses. Viruses, in turn, have come up with various mechanisms to block or subvert these responses. One of the ER stress responses is inhibition of the global protein synthesis to reduce the amount of unfolded proteins inside the ER lumen. Viruses have evolved the capacity to overcome the protein translation shutoff to ensure viral protein production. Here, we review the strategies exploited by coronavirus to modulate cellular stress response pathways. The involvement of coronavirus-induced stress responses and translational control in viral pathogenesis will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27384577

  14. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans.

    PubMed

    de Berker, Archy O; Rutledge, Robb B; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-03-29

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function.

  15. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans.

    PubMed

    de Berker, Archy O; Rutledge, Robb B; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function. PMID:27020312

  16. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans

    PubMed Central

    de Berker, Archy O.; Rutledge, Robb B.; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function. PMID:27020312

  17. A Nervous Tumor Microenvironment: The Impact of Adrenergic Stress on Cancer Cells, Immunosuppression, and Immunotherapeutic Response

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Jason W.-L.; Kokolus, Kathleen M.; Reed, Chelsey B.; Hylander, Bonnie L.; Ma, Wen W.; Repasky, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Long conserved mechanisms maintain homeostasis in living creatures in response to a variety of stresses. However, continuous exposure to stress can result in unabated production of stress hormones, especially catecholamines, which can have detrimental health effects. While the long-term effects of chronic stress have well known physiological consequences, recent discoveries have revealed that stress may affect therapeutic efficacy in cancer. Growing epidemiological evidence reveals strong correlations between long term survival and cancer progression and β-blocker usage in patients. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of how the catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine, affect cancer cell survival and tumor progression. We also highlight new data exploring the potential contributions of stress on immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment and the implications of these findings for the efficacy of immunotherapies. PMID:25307152

  18. Increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant response in Lafora disease.

    PubMed

    Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Aguado, Carmen; García-Giménez, José Luis; Ibáñez-Cabellos, José Santiago; Seco-Cervera, Marta; Pallardó, Federico V; Knecht, Erwin; Sanz, Pascual

    2014-10-01

    Lafora Disease (LD, OMIM 254780, ORPHA501) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of glycogen-like intracellular inclusions called Lafora bodies and caused, in the vast majority of cases, by mutations in either EPM2A or EPM2B genes, encoding respectively laforin and malin. In the last years, several reports have revealed molecular details of these two proteins and have identified several processes affected in LD, but the pathophysiology of the disease still remains largely unknown. Since autophagy impairment has been reported as a characteristic treat in both Lafora disease cell and animal models, and as there is a link between autophagy and mitochondrial performance, we sought to determine if mitochondrial function could be altered in those models. Using fibroblasts from LD patients, deficient in laforin or malin, we found mitochondrial alterations, oxidative stress and a deficiency in antioxidant enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Similar results were obtained in brain tissue samples from transgenic mice deficient in either the EPM2A or EPM2B genes. Furthermore, in a proteomic analysis of brain tissue obtained from Epm2b-/- mice, we observed an increase in a modified form of peroxirredoxin-6, an antioxidant enzyme involved in other neurological pathologies, thus corroborating an alteration of the redox condition. These data support that oxidative stress produced by an increase in ROS production and an impairment of the antioxidant enzyme response to this stress play an important role in development of LD. PMID:26461389

  19. Induction of the cellular stress response in Chironomus (Diptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Pardalis, G.; Hudson, L.A.; Ciborowski, J.J.H.; Day, K.E.; Robinson, R.D.; Solomon, K.R.

    1995-12-31

    The accumulation of stress or heat shock proteins is involved in the protection and defense of a cell from environmentally induced damage. Under stressful conditions, cytoplasmic stress protein 70 migrates to the nucleus where it assists in the restoration of the nucleolar function. The authors have demonstrated a dose-response relationship between incidence of decreased nucleolar size in chironomid salivary glands and degree of sediment contamination. Reduced nucleolar size is indicative of reduced nucleolar function. The relationship between nucleolus size and stress protein accumulation is being explored. They are conducting experiments on chironomids to characterize the response elicited by heat shock and PAH exposure in the laboratory to determine if the simultaneous action of more than one stressor can significantly alter the stress response. Simultaneous studies are being conducted to validate these biomarkers in mesocosm caging experiments. Aspects of the response will be useful as biomarkers of general stress.

  20. Optimism and pessimism are related to different components of the stress response in healthy older people.

    PubMed

    Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Pulopulos, Matias M; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-11-01

    Some personality traits have key importance for health because they can affect the maintenance and evolution of different disorders with a high prevalence in older people, including stress pathologies and diseases. In this study we investigated how two relevant personality traits, optimism and pessimism, affect the psychophysiological response of 72 healthy participants (55 to 76 years old) exposed to either a psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a control task; salivary cortisol, heart rate (HR) and situational appraisal were measured. Our results showed that optimism was related to faster cortisol recovery after exposure to stress. Pessimism was not related to the physiological stress response, but it was associated with the perception of the stress task as more difficult. Thus, higher optimism was associated with better physiological adjustment to a stressful situation, while higher pessimism was associated with worse psychological adjustment to stress. These results highlight different patterns of relationships, with optimism playing a more important role in the physiological component of the stress response, and pessimism having a greater effect on situational appraisal.

  1. Optimism and pessimism are related to different components of the stress response in healthy older people.

    PubMed

    Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Pulopulos, Matias M; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-11-01

    Some personality traits have key importance for health because they can affect the maintenance and evolution of different disorders with a high prevalence in older people, including stress pathologies and diseases. In this study we investigated how two relevant personality traits, optimism and pessimism, affect the psychophysiological response of 72 healthy participants (55 to 76 years old) exposed to either a psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a control task; salivary cortisol, heart rate (HR) and situational appraisal were measured. Our results showed that optimism was related to faster cortisol recovery after exposure to stress. Pessimism was not related to the physiological stress response, but it was associated with the perception of the stress task as more difficult. Thus, higher optimism was associated with better physiological adjustment to a stressful situation, while higher pessimism was associated with worse psychological adjustment to stress. These results highlight different patterns of relationships, with optimism playing a more important role in the physiological component of the stress response, and pessimism having a greater effect on situational appraisal. PMID:26348260

  2. Divergent responses of the amygdala and ventral striatum predict stress-related problem drinking in young adults: Possible differential markers of affective and impulsive pathways of risk for alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Yuliya S.; Knodt, Annchen R.; Radtke, Spenser R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    Prior work suggests there may be two distinct pathways of alcohol use disorder (AUD) risk: one associated with positive emotion enhancement and behavioral impulsivity, and one associated with negative emotion relief and coping. We sought to map these two pathways onto individual differences in neural reward and threat processing assessed using BOLD fMRI in a sample of 759 undergraduate students (426 women, mean age 19.65±1.24) participating in the Duke Neurogenetics Study. We demonstrate that problem drinking is highest in the context of stress and in those with one of two distinct neural phenotypes: 1) a combination of relatively low reward-related activity of the ventral striatum (VS) and high threat-related reactivity of the amygdala; or 2) a combination of relatively high VS activity and low amygdala reactivity. In addition, we demonstrate that the relationship between stress and problem alcohol use is mediated by impulsivity, as reflected in monetary delay discounting rates, for those with high VS-low amygdala reactivity, and by anxious/depressive symptomatology for those with the opposite neural risk phenotype. Across both neural phenotypes, we found that greater divergence between VS and amygdala reactivity predicted greater risk for problem drinking. Finally, for those individuals with the low VS-high amygdala risk phenotype we found that stress not only predicted the presence of a DSM-IV diagnosed AUD at the time of neuroimaging, but also subsequent problem drinking reported three months following study completion. These results offer new insight into the neural basis of AUD risk and suggest novel biological targets for early individualized treatment or prevention. PMID:26122584

  3. Mitochondria, Energetics, Epigenetics, and Cellular Responses to Stress

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Kimberly; Worth, Leroy; Haugen, Astrid C.; Meyer, Joel N.; Domann, Frederick E.; Van Houten, Bennett; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Bultman, Scott J.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Begley, Thomas J.; Sobol, Robert W.; Hirschey, Matthew D.; Ideker, Trey; Santos, Janine H.; Copeland, William C.; Tice, Raymond R.; Balshaw, David M.; Tyson, Frederick L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cells respond to environmental stressors through several key pathways, including response to reactive oxygen species (ROS), nutrient and ATP sensing, DNA damage response (DDR), and epigenetic alterations. Mitochondria play a central role in these pathways not only through energetics and ATP production but also through metabolites generated in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, as well as mitochondria–nuclear signaling related to mitochondria morphology, biogenesis, fission/fusion, mitophagy, apoptosis, and epigenetic regulation. Objectives: We investigated the concept of bidirectional interactions between mitochondria and cellular pathways in response to environmental stress with a focus on epigenetic regulation, and we examined DNA repair and DDR pathways as examples of biological processes that respond to exogenous insults through changes in homeostasis and altered mitochondrial function. Methods: The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences sponsored the Workshop on Mitochondria, Energetics, Epigenetics, Environment, and DNA Damage Response on 25–26 March 2013. Here, we summarize key points and ideas emerging from this meeting. Discussion: A more comprehensive understanding of signaling mechanisms (cross-talk) between the mitochondria and nucleus is central to elucidating the integration of mitochondrial functions with other cellular response pathways in modulating the effects of environmental agents. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of mitochondrial functions in epigenetic regulation and DDR with environmental stress. Development and application of novel technologies, enhanced experimental models, and a systems-type research approach will help to discern how environmentally induced mitochondrial dysfunction affects key mechanistic pathways. Conclusions: Understanding mitochondria–cell signaling will provide insight into individual responses to environmental hazards, improving prediction of hazard and susceptibility to

  4. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Snagg, Arielle; Heerey, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer’s general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation. PMID:27149106

  5. Responses to combined abiotic and biotic stress in tomato are governed by stress intensity and resistance mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kissoudis, Christos; Sunarti, Sri; van de Wiel, Clemens; Visser, Richard G.F.; van der Linden, C. Gerard; Bai, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    Stress conditions in agricultural ecosystems can occur at variable intensities. Different resistance mechanisms against abiotic stress and pathogens are deployed by plants. Thus, it is important to examine plant responses to stress combinations under different scenarios. Here, we evaluated the effect of different levels of salt stress ranging from mild to severe (50, 100, and 150mM NaCl) on powdery mildew resistance and overall performance of tomato introgression lines with contrasting levels of partial resistance, as well as near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying the resistance gene Ol-1 (associated with a slow hypersensitivity response; HR), ol-2 (an mlo mutant associated with papilla formation), and Ol-4 (an R gene associated with a fast HR). Powdery mildew resistance was affected by salt stress in a genotype- and stress intensity-dependent manner. In susceptible and partial resistant lines, increased susceptibility was observed under mild salt stress (50mM) which was accompanied by accelerated cell death-like senescence. In contrast, severe salt stress (150mM) reduced disease symptoms. Na+ and Cl− accumulation in the leaves was linearly related to the decreased pathogen symptoms under severe stress. In contrast, complete resistance mediated by ol-2 and Ol-4 was unaffected under all treatment combinations, and was associated with a decreased growth penalty. Increased susceptibility and senescence under combined stress in NIL-Ol-1 was associated with the induction of ethylene and jasmonic acid pathway genes and the cell wall invertase gene LIN6. These results highlight the significance of stress severity and resistance type on the plant’s performance under the combination of abiotic and biotic stress. PMID:27436279

  6. Responses to combined abiotic and biotic stress in tomato are governed by stress intensity and resistance mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kissoudis, Christos; Sunarti, Sri; van de Wiel, Clemens; Visser, Richard G F; van der Linden, C Gerard; Bai, Yuling

    2016-09-01

    Stress conditions in agricultural ecosystems can occur at variable intensities. Different resistance mechanisms against abiotic stress and pathogens are deployed by plants. Thus, it is important to examine plant responses to stress combinations under different scenarios. Here, we evaluated the effect of different levels of salt stress ranging from mild to severe (50, 100, and 150mM NaCl) on powdery mildew resistance and overall performance of tomato introgression lines with contrasting levels of partial resistance, as well as near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying the resistance gene Ol-1 (associated with a slow hypersensitivity response; HR), ol-2 (an mlo mutant associated with papilla formation), and Ol-4 (an R gene associated with a fast HR). Powdery mildew resistance was affected by salt stress in a genotype- and stress intensity-dependent manner. In susceptible and partial resistant lines, increased susceptibility was observed under mild salt stress (50mM) which was accompanied by accelerated cell death-like senescence. In contrast, severe salt stress (150mM) reduced disease symptoms. Na(+) and Cl(-) accumulation in the leaves was linearly related to the decreased pathogen symptoms under severe stress. In contrast, complete resistance mediated by ol-2 and Ol-4 was unaffected under all treatment combinations, and was associated with a decreased growth penalty. Increased susceptibility and senescence under combined stress in NIL-Ol-1 was associated with the induction of ethylene and jasmonic acid pathway genes and the cell wall invertase gene LIN6. These results highlight the significance of stress severity and resistance type on the plant's performance under the combination of abiotic and biotic stress.

  7. Responses to combined abiotic and biotic stress in tomato are governed by stress intensity and resistance mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kissoudis, Christos; Sunarti, Sri; van de Wiel, Clemens; Visser, Richard G F; van der Linden, C Gerard; Bai, Yuling

    2016-09-01

    Stress conditions in agricultural ecosystems can occur at variable intensities. Different resistance mechanisms against abiotic stress and pathogens are deployed by plants. Thus, it is important to examine plant responses to stress combinations under different scenarios. Here, we evaluated the effect of different levels of salt stress ranging from mild to severe (50, 100, and 150mM NaCl) on powdery mildew resistance and overall performance of tomato introgression lines with contrasting levels of partial resistance, as well as near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying the resistance gene Ol-1 (associated with a slow hypersensitivity response; HR), ol-2 (an mlo mutant associated with papilla formation), and Ol-4 (an R gene associated with a fast HR). Powdery mildew resistance was affected by salt stress in a genotype- and stress intensity-dependent manner. In susceptible and partial resistant lines, increased susceptibility was observed under mild salt stress (50mM) which was accompanied by accelerated cell death-like senescence. In contrast, severe salt stress (150mM) reduced disease symptoms. Na(+) and Cl(-) accumulation in the leaves was linearly related to the decreased pathogen symptoms under severe stress. In contrast, complete resistance mediated by ol-2 and Ol-4 was unaffected under all treatment combinations, and was associated with a decreased growth penalty. Increased susceptibility and senescence under combined stress in NIL-Ol-1 was associated with the induction of ethylene and jasmonic acid pathway genes and the cell wall invertase gene LIN6. These results highlight the significance of stress severity and resistance type on the plant's performance under the combination of abiotic and biotic stress. PMID:27436279

  8. Stress tolerances of nullmutants of function-unknown genes encoding menadione stress-responsive proteins in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Éva; Bálint, Mihály; Miskei, Márton; Orosz, Erzsébet; Szabó, Zsuzsa; Pócsi, István

    2016-07-01

    A group of menadione stress-responsive function-unkown genes of Aspergillus nidulans (Locus IDs ANID_03987.1, ANID_06058.1, ANID_10219.1, and ANID_10260.1) was deleted and phenotypically characterized. Importantly, comparative and phylogenetic analyses of the tested A. nidulans genes and their orthologs shed light only on the presence of a TANGO2 domain with NRDE protein motif in the translated ANID_06058.1 gene but did not reveal any recognizable protein-encoding domains in other protein sequences. The gene deletion strains were subjected to oxidative, osmotic, and metal ion stress and, surprisingly, only the ΔANID_10219.1 mutant showed an increased sensitivity to 0.12 mmol l(-1) menadione sodium bisulfite. The gene deletions affected the stress sensitivities (tolerances) irregularly, for example, some strains grew more slowly when exposed to various oxidants and/or osmotic stress generating agents, meanwhile the ΔANID_10260.1 mutant possessed a wild-type tolerance to all stressors tested. Our results are in line with earlier studies demonstrating that the deletions of stress-responsive genes do not confer necessarily any stress-sensitivity phenotypes, which can be attributed to compensatory mechanisms based on other elements of the stress response system with overlapping functions.

  9. Measuring Physiological Stress Responses in Children: Lessons from a Novice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quas, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author describes challenges associated with integrating physiological measures of stress into developmental research, especially in the domains of memory and cognition. An initial critical challenge concerns how to define stress, which can refer to one or a series of events, a response, the consequence of that response, an…

  10. Children's affective responses, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies in response to the negative affect of parents and peers.

    PubMed

    Creasey, G; Ottlinger, K; Devico, K; Murray, T; Harvey, A; Hesson-McInnis, M

    1997-10-01

    Although research has linked difficulties in parent mood functioning to developmental problems in children, little work has examined why such a link occurs. Following current social-cognitive perspectives on children's cognitive appraisals to negative parent affect, it was hypothesized that children would show more intense affective responses, less confidence, and less active coping strategies in response to parent, as opposed to peer, negative affect. In the current study, young children (N = 39) were read experimental vignettes portraying peers and parents in either happy, sad, or angry emotional states. Children were then interviewed about their affective responses, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies to each vignette. Beyond experiencing more negative affective responses to parent, compared to peer negative affect, children felt they could do little to help themselves when faced with paternal distress and frequently indicated they would engage in avoidant coping strategies (e.g., hiding) to make themselves feel better when confronted with parent sadness. This study has implications for more industrious future research, as well as intervention projects that involve assisting children who live in households marked by high levels of negative adult affect. PMID:9344486

  11. Natural variation in timing of stress-responsive gene expression predicts heterosis in intraspecific hybrids of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Marisa; Song, Qingxin; Shi, Xiaoli; Juenger, Thomas E; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The genetic distance between hybridizing parents affects heterosis; however, the mechanisms for this remain unclear. Here we report that this genetic distance correlates with natural variation and epigenetic regulation of circadian clock-mediated stress responses. In intraspecific hybrids of Arabidopsis thaliana, genome-wide expression of many biotic and abiotic stress-responsive genes is diurnally repressed and this correlates with biomass heterosis and biomass quantitative trait loci. Expression differences of selected stress-responsive genes among diverse ecotypes are predictive of heterosis in their hybrids. Stress-responsive genes are repressed in the hybrids under normal conditions but are induced to mid-parent or higher levels under stress at certain times of the day, potentially balancing the tradeoff between stress responses and growth. Consistent with this hypothesis, repression of two candidate stress-responsive genes increases growth vigour. Our findings may therefore provide new criteria for effectively selecting parents to produce high- or low-yield hybrids. PMID:26154604

  12. Linking physiological and cellular responses to thermal stress: β-adrenergic blockade reduces the heat shock response in fish.

    PubMed

    Templeman, Nicole M; LeBlanc, Sacha; Perry, Steve F; Currie, Suzanne

    2014-08-01

    When faced with stress, animals use physiological and cellular strategies to preserve homeostasis. We were interested in how these high-level stress responses are integrated at the level of the whole animal. Here, we investigated the capacity of the physiological stress response, and specifically the β-adrenergic response, to affect the induction of the cellular heat shock proteins, HSPs, following a thermal stress in vivo. We predicted that blocking β-adrenergic stimulation during an acute heat stress in the whole animal would result in reduced levels of HSPs in red blood cells (RBCs) of rainbow trout compared to animals where adrenergic signaling remained intact. We first determined that a 1 h heat shock at 25 °C in trout acclimated to 13 °C resulted in RBC adrenergic stimulation as determined by a significant increase in cell swelling, a hallmark of the β-adrenergic response. A whole animal injection with the β2-adrenergic antagonist, ICI-118,551, successfully reduced this heat-induced RBC swelling. The acute heat shock caused a significant induction of HSP70 in RBCs of 13 °C-acclimated trout as well as a significant increase in plasma catecholamines. When heat-shocked fish were treated with ICI-118,551, we observed a significant attenuation of the HSP70 response. We conclude that circulating catecholamines influence the cellular heat shock response in rainbow trout RBCs, demonstrating physiological/hormonal control of the cellular stress response.

  13. Involvement of lignin and hormones in the response of woody poplar taproots to mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Trupiano, Dalila; Di Iorio, Antonino; Montagnoli, Antonio; Lasserre, Bruno; Rocco, Mariapina; Grosso, Alessandro; Scaloni, Andrea; Marra, Mauro; Chiatante, Donato; Scippa, Gabriella S

    2012-09-01

    Mechanical stress is a widespread condition caused by numerous environmental factors that severely affect plant stability. In response to mechanical stress, plants have evolved complex response pathways able to detect mechanical perturbations and inducing a suite of modifications in order to improve anchorage. The response of woody roots to mechanical stresses has been studied mainly at the morphological and biomechanical level, whereas investigations on the factors triggering these important alterations are still at the initial stage. Populus has been widely used to study the response of stem to different mechanical stresses and, since it has the first forest tree genome to be decoded, represents a model woody plant for addressing questions on the mechanisms controlling adaptation of woody roots to changing environments. In this study, a morphological and physiological analysis was used to investigate factors controlling modifications in Populus nigra woody taproots subjected to mechanical stress. An experimental model analyzing spatial and temporal mechanical force distribution along the woody taproot axis enabled us to compare the events occurring in its above-, central- and below-bending sectors. Different morphogenetic responses and local variations of lignin and plant hormones content have been observed, and a relation with the distribution of the mechanical forces along the stressed woody taproots is hypothesized. We investigated the differences of the response to mechanical stress induction during the time; in this regard, we present data referring to the effect of mechanical stress on plant transition from its condition of winter dormancy to that of full vegetative activity.

  14. Transposable Elements Contribute to Activation of Maize Genes in Response to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Makarevitch, Irina; Waters, Amanda J.; West, Patrick T.; Stitzer, Michelle; Hirsch, Candice N.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Springer, Nathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) account for a large portion of the genome in many eukaryotic species. Despite their reputation as “junk” DNA or genomic parasites deleterious for the host, TEs have complex interactions with host genes and the potential to contribute to regulatory variation in gene expression. It has been hypothesized that TEs and genes they insert near may be transcriptionally activated in response to stress conditions. The maize genome, with many different types of TEs interspersed with genes, provides an ideal system to study the genome-wide influence of TEs on gene regulation. To analyze the magnitude of the TE effect on gene expression response to environmental changes, we profiled gene and TE transcript levels in maize seedlings exposed to a number of abiotic stresses. Many genes exhibit up- or down-regulation in response to these stress conditions. The analysis of TE families inserted within upstream regions of up-regulated genes revealed that between four and nine different TE families are associated with up-regulated gene expression in each of these stress conditions, affecting up to 20% of the genes up-regulated in response to abiotic stress, and as many as 33% of genes that are only expressed in response to stress. Expression of many of these same TE families also responds to the same stress conditions. The analysis of the stress-induced transcripts and proximity of the transposon to the gene suggests that these TEs may provide local enhancer activities that stimulate stress-responsive gene expression. Our data on allelic variation for insertions of several of these TEs show strong correlation between the presence of TE insertions and stress-responsive up-regulation of gene expression. Our findings suggest that TEs provide an important source of allelic regulatory variation in gene response to abiotic stress in maize. PMID:25569788

  15. Turbidity and salinity affect feeding performance and physiological stress in the endangered delta smelt.

    PubMed

    Hasenbein, Matthias; Komoroske, Lisa M; Connon, Richard E; Geist, Juergen; Fangue, Nann A

    2013-10-01

    Coastal estuaries are among the most heavily impacted ecosystems worldwide with many keystone fauna critically endangered. The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endangered pelagic fish species endemic to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary in northern California, and is considered as an indicator species for ecosystem health. This ecosystem is characterized by tidal and seasonal gradients in water parameters (e.g., salinity, temperature, and turbidity), but is also subject to altered water-flow regimes due to water extraction. In this study, we evaluated the effects of turbidity and salinity on feeding performance and the stress response of delta smelt because both of these parameters are influenced by water flows through the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) and are known to be of critical importance to the completion of the delta smelt's life cycle. Juvenile delta smelt were exposed to a matrix of turbidities and salinities ranging from 5 to 250 nephelometric turbidity units (NTUs) and 0.2 to 15 parts per thousand (ppt), respectively, for 2 h. Best statistical models using Akaike's Information Criterion supported that increasing turbidities resulted in reduced feeding rates, especially at 250 NTU. In contrast, best explanatory models for gene transcription of sodium-potassium-ATPase (Na/K-ATPase)-an indicator of osmoregulatory stress, hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin-a precursor protein to adrenocorticotropic hormone (expressed in response to biological stress), and whole-body cortisol were affected by salinity alone. Only transcription of glutathione-S-transferase, a phase II detoxification enzyme that protects cells against reactive oxygen species, was affected by both salinity and turbidity. Taken together, these data suggest that turbidity is an important determinant of feeding, whereas salinity is an important abiotic factor influencing the cellular stress response in delta smelt. Our data support habitat association studies that have shown greater

  16. Does orthostatic stress influence the neuroendocrine response to subsequent hypoglycemia in humans?

    PubMed

    Radikova, Z; Penesova, A; Koska, J; Kvetnansky, R; Jezova, D; Huckova, M; Vigas, M; Macho, L

    2004-06-01

    Neuroendocrine response to stress stimuli is influenced by previous stimuli of different nature. The aim of the study was to test whether antecedent orthostatic stress may affect the neuroendocrine response to subsequent hypoglycemia. A group of 12 (6 men, 6 women) nonobese, healthy volunteers aged 19 to 27 y (mean 24 +/- 0.8) participated in the study in two sessions: controlled insulin-induced hypoglycemia to 2.7 mmol/L for 15 min either with or without antecedent orthostatic stress (30 min of 60 degrees head-up tilt before insulin administration). Orthostatic stress caused a significant decrease in plasma volume (-9.6%; P < 0.001) and a significant increase in plasma renin activity, aldosterone, norepinephrine (P < 0.01), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations (P < 0.05) in all subjects. Growth hormone response to hypoglycemia was diminished in women (P < 0.01). The epinephrine response to hypoglycemia was diminished in women in comparison to men (P < 0.001), but was unaffected by antecedent orthostatic stress. Hypoglycemia failed to induce the ACTH release after its elevation during orthostatic stress. ACTH response to moderate hypoglycemia without previous orthostatic stress was evident only in men in comparison to women (P < 0.05). We conclude that the epinephrine, growth hormone, and ACTH responses to hypoglycemia were diminished in women. Except ACTH, the neuroendocrine response to mild hypoglycemia was not affected by previous orthostatic stress in healthy subjects. In the case of ACTH, the first stress stimulus is consequential for the subsequent response of this hormone, probably due to short-loop negative feedback effects. PMID:15240417

  17. Mechanical Stress Induces Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses via a Novel cis-Element

    PubMed Central

    Walley, Justin W; Coughlan, Sean; Hudson, Matthew E; Covington, Michael F; Kaspi, Roy; Banu, Gopalan; Harmer, Stacey L; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2007-01-01

    Plants are continuously exposed to a myriad of abiotic and biotic stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these stress signals are perceived and transduced are poorly understood. To begin to identify primary stress signal transduction components, we have focused on genes that respond rapidly (within 5 min) to stress signals. Because it has been hypothesized that detection of physical stress is a mechanism common to mounting a response against a broad range of environmental stresses, we have utilized mechanical wounding as the stress stimulus and performed whole genome microarray analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissue. This led to the identification of a number of rapid wound responsive (RWR) genes. Comparison of RWR genes with published abiotic and biotic stress microarray datasets demonstrates a large overlap across a wide range of environmental stresses. Interestingly, RWR genes also exhibit a striking level and pattern of circadian regulation, with induced and repressed genes displaying antiphasic rhythms. Using bioinformatic analysis, we identified a novel motif overrepresented in the promoters of RWR genes, herein designated as the Rapid Stress Response Element (RSRE). We demonstrate in transgenic plants that multimerized RSREs are sufficient to confer a rapid response to both biotic and abiotic stresses in vivo, thereby establishing the functional involvement of this motif in primary transcriptional stress responses. Collectively, our data provide evidence for a novel cis-element that is distributed across the promoters of an array of diverse stress-responsive genes, poised to respond immediately and coordinately to stress signals. This structure suggests that plants may have a transcriptional network resembling the general stress signaling pathway in yeast and that the RSRE element may provide the key to this coordinate regulation. PMID:17953483

  18. Effects of orthostasis on endocrine responses to psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Nater, Urs M; Ditzen, Beate; Strahler, Jana; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-12-01

    Standardized psychological procedures have been designed to induce physiological stress responses. However, the impact of standing (orthostasis) on the physiological reaction after psychological stress remains unclear. The purpose of the current analysis was to examine and quantify the relative contribution of orthostasis to the physiological stress response by comparing a "standing with stress" to a "standing without stress" condition. We investigated the effect of standing with and without stress on responses of the sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis using a standardized psychosocial stress protocol (Trier Social Stress Test) and a non-stress condition in a repeated measures design. Subjects (N=30) were exposed to both conditions in randomized order and had to maintain a standing, upright position for 10minutes. In the "standing with stress" condition, significant increases in repeatedly assessed plasma norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EP), as well as in saliva cortisol were found, while in the "standing without stress" condition, no significant changes in plasma epinephrine and saliva cortisol were observed. Calculations of the relative contribution of orthostasis to physiological stress responses revealed that 25.61% of the NE increase, 82.94% of the EP increase, and 68.91% of the cortisol increase, could be attributed to psychosocial stress adjusted for the effects of orthostasis and basal endocrine output. Although these results are indicative for a marked endocrine reaction that is caused by psychosocial stress alone, our findings show that the contribution of orthostasis must be taken into account when interpreting endocrine data collected in a psychosocial stress test.

  19. Image-Word Pairing-Congruity Effect on Affective Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Sambai, Ami; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

    The present study explores the effects of familiarity on affective responses (pleasure and arousal) to Japanese ad elements, based on the schema incongruity theory. Print ads showing natural scenes (landscapes) were used to create the stimuli (images and words). An empirical study was conducted to measure subjects' affective responses to image-word combinations that varied in terms of incongruity. The level of incongruity was based on familiarity levels, and was statistically determined by a variable called ‘pairing-congruity status’. The tested hypothesis proposed that even highly familiar image-word combinations, when combined incongruously, would elicit strong affective responses. Subjects assessed the stimuli using bipolar scales. The study was effective in tracing interactions between familiarity, pleasure and arousal, although the incongruous image-word combinations did not elicit the predicted strong effects on pleasure and arousal. The results suggest a need for further research incorporating kansei (i.e., creativity) into the process of stimuli selection.

  20. Phosphate-Dependent Root System Architecture Responses to Salt Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfeld, Hector Montero; ter Horst, Anneliek; Haring, Michel A.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect the growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how inorganic phosphate (Pi) availability affects the root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and how Pi levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Pi starvation reduced main root length and increased the number of lateral roots of Arabidopsis Columbia-0 seedlings. In combination with salt, low Pi dampened the inhibiting effect of mild salt stress (75 mm) on all measured RSA components. At higher salt concentrations, the Pi deprivation response prevailed over the salt stress only for lateral root elongation. The Pi deprivation response of lateral roots appeared to be oppositely affected by abscisic acid signaling compared with the salt stress response. Natural variation in the response to the combination treatment of salt and Pi starvation within 330 Arabidopsis accessions could be grouped into four response patterns. When exposed to double stress, in general, lateral roots prioritized responses to salt, while the effect on main root traits was additive. Interestingly, these patterns were not identical for all accessions studied, and multiple strategies to integrate the signals from Pi deprivation and salinity were identified. By genome-wide association mapping, 12 genomic loci were identified as putative factors integrating responses to salt stress and Pi starvation. From our experiments, we conclude that Pi starvation interferes with salt responses mainly at the level of lateral roots and that large natural variation exists in the available genetic repertoire of accessions to handle the combination of stresses. PMID:27208277

  1. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress. PMID:27635201

  2. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress.

  3. Affect-Laden Imagery and Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Stress and Risk Perception

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how affect-laden imagery that evokes emotional stress influences risk perception and risk taking in real-life scenarios. In a series of three studies, we instructed participants to imagine the consequences of risky scenarios and then rate the intensity of the experienced stress, perceived risk and their willingness to engage in risky behavior. Study 1 showed that people spontaneously imagine negative rather than positive risk consequences, which are directly related to their lower willingness to take risk. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by feelings of stress and risk perception. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by showing that imagining negative risk consequences evokes psychophysiological stress responses observed in elevated blood pressure. Finally, in Study 3, we once again demonstrated that a higher intensity of mental images of negative risk consequences, as measured by enhanced brain activity in the parieto-occipital lobes, leads to a lower propensity to take risk. Furthermore, individual differences in creating vivid and intense negative images of risk consequences moderated the strength of the relationship between risk perception and risk taking. Participants who created more vivid and intense images of negative risk consequences paid less attention to the assessments of riskiness in rating their likelihood to take risk. To summarize, we showed that feelings of emotional stress and perceived riskiness mediate the relationship between mental imagery and risk taking, whereas individual differences in abilities to create vivid mental images may influence the degree to which more cognitive risk assessments are used in the risk-taking process. PMID:25816238

  4. Affect-laden imagery and risk taking: the mediating role of stress and risk perception.

    PubMed

    Traczyk, Jakub; Sobkow, Agata; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how affect-laden imagery that evokes emotional stress influences risk perception and risk taking in real-life scenarios. In a series of three studies, we instructed participants to imagine the consequences of risky scenarios and then rate the intensity of the experienced stress, perceived risk and their willingness to engage in risky behavior. Study 1 showed that people spontaneously imagine negative rather than positive risk consequences, which are directly related to their lower willingness to take risk. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by feelings of stress and risk perception. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by showing that imagining negative risk consequences evokes psychophysiological stress responses observed in elevated blood pressure. Finally, in Study 3, we once again demonstrated that a higher intensity of mental images of negative risk consequences, as measured by enhanced brain activity in the parieto-occipital lobes, leads to a lower propensity to take risk. Furthermore, individual differences in creating vivid and intense negative images of risk consequences moderated the strength of the relationship between risk perception and risk taking. Participants who created more vivid and intense images of negative risk consequences paid less attention to the assessments of riskiness in rating their likelihood to take risk. To summarize, we showed that feelings of emotional stress and perceived riskiness mediate the relationship between mental imagery and risk taking, whereas individual differences in abilities to create vivid mental images may influence the degree to which more cognitive risk assessments are used in the risk-taking process. PMID:25816238

  5. Domestication and ontogeny effects on the stress response in young chickens (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Ericsson, Maria; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Domestication is thought to increase stress tolerance. The connection between stressor exposure, glucocorticoids and behavioural responses has been studied in adults, where domestication effects are evident. Early stress exposure may induce detrimental effects both in short-and long term. Previous research has reported a lack of glucocorticoid response in newly hatched chickens (Gallus gallus), whereas others have found opposite results. Hence it remains unclear whether the HPA-axis is functional from hatch, and if domestication has affected the early post-hatch ontogeny of the stress response. Our aims were to investigate the early ontogeny of the HPA-axis and characterize behavioural and hormonal stress responses in ancestral Red Junglefowl and in two domestic layer strains. Plasma corticosteone and behavioural responses before and after physical restraint was measured on day one, nine, 16 and 23 post hatch. The results showed significant increases of corticosterone after stress in all three breeds at all the different ages. The HPA-response decreased with age and was lower in Red Junglefowl. Behavioural responses also decreased with age, and tended to be stronger in Red Junglefowl. In summary, the HPA-axis is reactive from day one, and domestication may have affected its development and reactivity, alongside with related behaviour responses. PMID:27782164

  6. Stress-induced flowering: the third category of flowering response.

    PubMed

    Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2016-09-01

    The switch from vegetative growth to reproductive growth, i.e. flowering, is the critical event in a plant's life. Flowering is regulated either autonomously or by environmental factors; photoperiodic flowering, which is regulated by the duration of the day and night periods, and vernalization, which is regulated by low temperature, have been well studied. Additionally, it has become clear that stress also regulates flowering. Diverse stress factors can induce or accelerate flowering, or inhibit or delay it, in a wide range of plant species. This article focuses on the positive regulation of flowering via stress, i.e. the induction or acceleration of flowering in response to stress that is known as stress-induced flowering - a new category of flowering response. This review aims to clarify the concept of stress-induced flowering and to summarize the full range of characteristics of stress-induced flowering from a predominately physiological perspective. PMID:27382113

  7. Stress Response and Perinatal Reprogramming: Unraveling (Mal)adaptive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Musazzi, Laura; Marrocco, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stressors induce coping strategies in the majority of individuals. The stress response, involving the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and the consequent release of corticosteroid hormones, is indeed aimed at promoting metabolic, functional, and behavioral adaptations. However, behavioral stress is also associated with fast and long-lasting neurochemical, structural, and behavioral changes, leading to long-term remodeling of glutamate transmission, and increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. Of note, early-life events, both in utero and during the early postnatal life, trigger reprogramming of the stress response, which is often associated with loss of stress resilience and ensuing neurobehavioral (mal)adaptations. Indeed, adverse experiences in early life are known to induce long-term stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals. Here, we discuss recent findings about stress remodeling of excitatory neurotransmission and brain morphology in animal models of behavioral stress. These changes are likely driven by epigenetic factors that lie at the core of the stress-response reprogramming in individuals with a history of perinatal stress. We propose that reprogramming mechanisms may underlie the reorganization of excitatory neurotransmission in the short- and long-term response to stressful stimuli. PMID:27057367

  8. Cellular Stress Responses: Cell Survival and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Fulda, Simone; Gorman, Adrienne M.; Hori, Osamu; Samali, Afshin

    2010-01-01

    Cells can respond to stress in various ways ranging from the activation of survival pathways to the initiation of cell death that eventually eliminates damaged cells. Whether cells mount a protective or destructive stress response depends to a large extent on the nature and duration of the stress as well as the cell type. Also, there is often the interplay between these responses that ultimately determines the fate of the stressed cell. The mechanism by which a cell dies (i.e., apoptosis, necrosis, pyroptosis, or autophagic cell death) depends on various exogenous factors as well as the cell's ability to handle the stress to which it is exposed. The implications of cellular stress responses to human physiology and diseases are manifold and will be discussed in this review in the context of some major world health issues such as diabetes, Parkinson's disease, myocardial infarction, and cancer. PMID:20182529

  9. Soy and social stress affect serotonin neurotransmission in primates.

    PubMed

    Shively, C A; Mirkes, S J; Lu, N Z; Henderson, J A; Bethea, C L

    2003-01-01

    Stress and sex steroidal milieu can each influence mood in women. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of long-term conjugated equine estrogen (CEE), soy phytoestrogen (SPE), and social subordination stress on dorsal raphe serotonin neurotransmission of ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) protein content were determined, and the in vitro degradation of macaque SERT protein was examined in the presence and absence of protease inhibitors, serotonin (5-HT), and citalopram. Like CEE, SPE increased TPH protein levels. Social subordinates had markedly lower TPH protein levels than dominants regardless of hormone replacement. Therefore, these two variables had independent and additive effects. CEE and SPE increased SERT, and social status had no effect. Thus, the hormone-induced increase in SERT was accompanied by increased 5-HT synthesis and neuronal firing, which appears biologically reasonable as 5-HT prevented SERT degradation in vitro. PMID:12746737

  10. Brain vasopressin V(1) receptors contribute to enhanced cardiovascular responses to acute stress in chronically stressed rats and rats with myocardial infarcton.

    PubMed

    Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Agnieszka; Szczepanska-Sadowska, Ewa; Dobruch, Jakub; Gomolka, Ryszard; Puchalska, Liana

    2010-03-01

    The present study was designed to determine the role of central vasopressin 1 receptors (V(1)R) in the regulation of cardiovascular parameters in chronically stressed infarcted rats and sham-operated rats under resting conditions and during exposure to acute alarming stress. The experiments were performed on four groups of conscious sham-operated and four groups of infarcted rats subjected to intraventricular infusion of either vehicle or a V(1)R antagonist (V(1)RANT). Two groups of infarcted and two groups of sham-operated rats were subjected to mild chronic stressing. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and heart rate (HR) were determined under resting conditions and after exposure to acute stress (air jet). During vehicle infusion, MABP and HR increases in response to acute stress in the infarcted rats not subjected to chronic stress, and in the infarcted and sham-operated chronically stressed rats, were significantly greater than in the sham-operated rats not exposed to chronic stress. However, MABP and HR responses to acute stress in the chronically stressed infarcted rats and chronically stressed sham-operated rats did not differ. V(1)RANT abolished differences in cardiovascular responses to acute stress between the experimental groups. Resting cardiovascular parameters were not affected by any of the experimental treatments. It is concluded that chronic stressing enhances the pressor and tachycardic responses to acute stress in the sham-operated rats but does not further intensify these responses in infarcted rats.The results provide evidence that central V(1)Rs are involved in potentiation of cardiovascular responses to acute stress in chronically stressed rats, infarcted rats, and chronically stressed infarcted rats.

  11. Importance of the glucocorticoid stress response in a changing world: theory, hypotheses and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Angelier, Frédéric; Wingfield, John C

    2013-09-01

    In this perspective paper, we emphasize the importance that integrative mechanisms, and especially the GC (glucocorticoid) stress response, can play in the ability of vertebrates to cope with ongoing global change. The GC stress response is an essential mediator of allostasis (i.e., the responses of an organism to a perturbation) that aims at maintaining stability (homeostasis) despite changing conditions. The GC stress response is a complex mechanism that depends on several physiological components and aims at promoting immediate survival at the expense of other life-history components (e.g., reproduction) when a labile perturbation factor (LPF) occurs. Importantly, this mechanism is somewhat flexible and its degree of activation can be adjusted to the fitness costs and benefits that result from the GC stress response. Therefore, this GC stress response mediates life-history decisions and is involved in the regulation of important life-history trade-offs. By inducing abrupt and rapid changes in the regime of LPFs, we believe that global change can affect the efficiency of the GC stress response to maintain homeostasis and to appropriately regulate these trades-offs. This dysfunction may result in an important mismatch between new LPFs and the associated GC stress response and, thus, in the inability of vertebrates to cope with a changing world. In that context, it is essential to better understand how the GC stress response can be adjusted to new LPFs through micro-evolution, phenotypic plasticity and phenotypic flexibility (habituation and sensitization). This paper sets up a theoretical framework, hypotheses and new perspectives that will allow testing and better understanding how the GC stress response can help or constrain individuals, populations and species to adjust to ongoing global change.

  12. Developmental and evolutionary history affect survival in stressful environments.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Gareth R; Brodie, Edmund D; French, Susannah S

    2014-01-01

    The world is increasingly impacted by a variety of stressors that have the potential to differentially influence life history stages of organisms. Organisms have evolved to cope with some stressors, while with others they have little capacity. It is thus important to understand the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival in stressful environments. We present evidence of the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival of a freshwater vertebrate, the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa) in an osmotically stressful environment. We compared the survival of larvae in either NaCl or MgCl2 that were exposed to salinity either as larvae only or as embryos as well. Embryonic exposure to salinity led to greater mortality of newt larvae than larval exposure alone, and this reduced survival probability was strongly linked to the carry-over effect of stunted embryonic growth in salts. Larval survival was also dependent on the type of salt (NaCl or MgCl2) the larvae were exposed to, and was lowest in MgCl2, a widely-used chemical deicer that, unlike NaCl, amphibian larvae do not have an evolutionary history of regulating at high levels. Both developmental and evolutionary history are critical factors in determining survival in this stressful environment, a pattern that may have widespread implications for the survival of animals increasingly impacted by substances with which they have little evolutionary history.

  13. Developmental and Evolutionary History Affect Survival in Stressful Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Gareth R.; Brodie, Edmund D.; French, Susannah S.

    2014-01-01

    The world is increasingly impacted by a variety of stressors that have the potential to differentially influence life history stages of organisms. Organisms have evolved to cope with some stressors, while with others they have little capacity. It is thus important to understand the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival in stressful environments. We present evidence of the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival of a freshwater vertebrate, the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa) in an osmotically stressful environment. We compared the survival of larvae in either NaCl or MgCl2 that were exposed to salinity either as larvae only or as embryos as well. Embryonic exposure to salinity led to greater mortality of newt larvae than larval exposure alone, and this reduced survival probability was strongly linked to the carry-over effect of stunted embryonic growth in salts. Larval survival was also dependent on the type of salt (NaCl or MgCl2) the larvae were exposed to, and was lowest in MgCl2, a widely-used chemical deicer that, unlike NaCl, amphibian larvae do not have an evolutionary history of regulating at high levels. Both developmental and evolutionary history are critical factors in determining survival in this stressful environment, a pattern that may have widespread implications for the survival of animals increasingly impacted by substances with which they have little evolutionary history. PMID:24748021

  14. The physiological importance of glucosinolates on plant response to abiotic stress in Brassica.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, María; Moreno, Diego A; Carvajal, Micaela

    2013-01-01

    Glucosinolates, a class of secondary metabolites, mainly found in Brassicaceae, are affected by the changing environment. This review is focusing on the physiological significance of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products in the plant response to different abiotic stresses. Special attention is paid to the crosstalk between some of the physiological processes involved in stress response and glucosinolate metabolism, with the resulting connection between both pathways in which signaling mechanisms glucosinolate may act as signals themselves. The function of glucosinolates, further than in defense switching, is discussed in terms of alleviating pathogen attack under abiotic stress. The fact that the exogenous addition of glucosinolate hydrolysis products may alleviate certain stress conditions through its effect on specific proteins is described in light of the recent reports, but the molecular mechanisms involved in this response merit further research. Finally, the transient allocation and re-distribution of glucosinolates as a response to environmental changes is summarized.

  15. Emotional stress-reactivity and positive affect among college students: the role of depression history.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Boynton, Marcella H; Tennen, Howard

    2014-02-01

    Multiple theories posit that people with a history of depression are at higher risk for a depressive episode than people who have never experienced depression, which may be partly due to differences in stress-reactivity. In addition, both the dynamic model of affect and the broaden-and-build theory suggest that stress and positive affect interact to predict negative affect, but this moderation has never been tested in the context of depression history. The current study used multilevel modeling to examine these issues among 1,549 college students with or without a history of depression. Students completed a 30-day online diary study in which they reported daily their perceived stress, positive affect, and negative affect (including depression, anxiety, and hostility). On days characterized by higher than usual stress, students with a history of depression reported greater decreases in positive affect and greater increases in depressed affect than students with no history. Furthermore, the relations between daily stress and both depressed and anxious affect were moderated by daily positive affect among students with remitted depression. These results indicate that students with a history of depression show greater stress-reactivity even when in remission, which may place them at greater risk for recurrence. These individuals may also benefit more from positive affect on higher stress days despite being less likely to experience positive affect on such days. The current findings have various implications both clinically and for research on stress, mood, and depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Testosterone negatively regulates right ventricular load stress responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Hemnes, Anna R; Maynard, Karen B; Champion, Hunter C; Gleaves, Linda; Penner, Niki; West, James; Newman, John H

    2012-07-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function is the major determinant of mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension and male sex is a strong predictor of mortality in this disease. The effects of testosterone on RV structure and function in load stress are presently unknown. We tested whether testosterone levels affect RV hypertrophic responses, fibrosis, and function. Male C57BL/6 mice underwent castration or sham followed by pulmonary artery banding (PAB) or sham. After recovery, testosterone pellets were placed in a subset of the castrated mice and mice were maintained for at least two weeks, when they underwent hemodynamic measurements and tissues were harvested. Plasma levels of testosterone were reduced by castration and repleted by testosterone administration. In PAB, castration resulted in lower right ventricle/left ventricle + septum (RV/LV+S), and myocyte diameter (P < 0.05). Replacement of testosterone normalized these parameters and increased RV fibrosis (P < 0.05). Two weeks of PAB resulted in increased RV systolic pressure in all groups with decreased markers of RV systolic and diastolic function, specifically reduced ejection fraction and increased time constant, and dPdt minimum (P < 0.05), though there was minimal effect of testosterone on hemodynamic parameters. Survival was improved in mice that underwent castration with PAB compared with PAB alone (P < 0.05). Testosterone affects RV hypertrophic response to load stress through increased myocyte size and increased fibrosis in mice. Castration and testosterone replacement are not accompanied by significant alterations in RV in vivo hemodynamics, but testosterone deprivation appears to improve survival in PAB. Further study of the role of testosterone in RV dysfunction is warranted to better understand these findings in the context of human disease.

  17. RESEARCH: Conceptualizing Environmental Stress: A Stress-Response Model of Coastal Sandy Barriers.

    PubMed

    Gabriel; Kreutzwiser

    2000-01-01

    / The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply a conceptual framework of environmental stress-response for a geomorphic system. Constructs and methods generated from the literature were applied in the development of an integrative stress-response framework using existing environmental assessment techniques: interaction matrices and a systems diagram. Emphasis is on the interaction between environmental stress and the geomorphic environment of a sandy barrier system. The model illustrates a number of stress concepts pertinent to modeling environmental stress-response, including those related to stress-dependency, frequency-recovery relationships, environmental heterogeneity, spatial hierarchies and linkages, and temporal change. Sandy barrier stress-response and recovery are greatly impacted by fluctuating water levels, stress intensity and frequency, as well as environmental gradients such as differences in sediment storage and supply. Aspects of these stress-response variables are articulated in terms of three main challenges to management: dynamic stability, spatial integrity, and temporal variability. These in turn form the framework for evaluative principles that may be applied to assess how policies and management practices reflect key biophysical processes and human stresses identified by the model.

  18. Drought stress and leaf herbivory affect root terpenoid concentrations and growth of Tanacetum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Sandra; Müller, Caroline

    2014-10-01

    Plant responses of both shoots and roots to combined abiotic and biotic stress have been rarely investigated. However, stresses such as drought and aboveground herbivory might lead to conflicting resource allocation patterns and pronounced shifts in shoot vs. root defenses. In the present study, the effects of water availability and leaf herbivory by caterpillars of a generalist on various shoot and root traits of the aromatic plant Tanacetum vulgare L. were investigated. This species contains terpenoids in leaves and roots, which can differ in composition among individuals, forming so-called chemotypes. To test for intraspecific variation, responses were investigated in two chemotypes, the thujone and the carvyl acetate chemotype. Furthermore, effects of differences in plant quality on the herbivores were studied. Shoot biomass significantly decreased due to drought and herbivory, whereas the root/shoot ratio increased following drought but was unaffected by herbivory. No shifts in C/N ratios were found. In contrast to our expectation, leaf terpenoid concentrations decreased only slightly due to drought, whereas root terpenoids were significantly induced by both drought and herbivory. Chemotypes showed distinct responses to drought at least in the root/shoot ratio, with a higher drought sensitivity of the carvyl acetate chemotype. The body mass of the caterpillars was unaffected by the irrigation treatment but depended on chemotype and terpenoid concentration of the plants. Thus, both qualitative and quantitative defenses strongly affect herbivore development. The present results offer new insights into the above- and belowground organ-specific responses of plants. They highlight the importance of roots in response to various environmental challenges.

  19. Metabolic response to the stress of critical illness.

    PubMed

    Preiser, J-C; Ichai, C; Orban, J-C; Groeneveld, A B J

    2014-12-01

    The metabolic response to stress is part of the adaptive response to survive critical illness. Several mechanisms are well preserved during evolution, including the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, the release of pituitary hormones, a peripheral resistance to the effects of these and other anabolic factors, triggered to increase the provision of energy substrates to the vital tissues. The pathways of energy production are altered and alternative substrates are used as a result of the loss of control of energy substrate utilization by their availability. The clinical consequences of the metabolic response to stress include sequential changes in energy expenditure, stress hyperglycaemia, changes in body composition, and psychological and behavioural problems. The loss of muscle proteins and function is a major long-term consequence of stress metabolism. Specific therapeutic interventions, including hormone supplementation, enhanced protein intake, and early mobilization, are investigated. This review aims to summarize the pathophysiological mechanisms, the clinical consequences, and therapeutic implications of the metabolic response to stress.

  20. Cellular Stress Responses Elicited by Engineered Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanomaterials are being incorporated continuously into consumer products, resulting in increased human exposures. The study of engineered nanomaterials has focused largely on oxidative stress and inflammation endpoints without further investigation of underlying pathwa...

  1. Age differences in emotional responses to daily stress: the role of timing, severity, and global perceived stress.

    PubMed

    Scott, Stacey B; Sliwinski, Martin J; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2013-12-01

    Research on age differences in emotional responses to daily stress has produced inconsistent findings. Guided by recent theoretical advances in aging theory (S. T. Charles, 2010, Strength and vulnerability integration: A model of emotional well-being across adulthood, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 136, pp. 1068-1091) that emphasize the importance of context for predicting when and how age is related to affective well-being, the current study examined age differences in emotional responses to everyday stressors. The present study examined how three contextual features (e.g., timing of exposure, stressor severity, global perceived stress [GPS]) moderate age differences in emotional experience in an ecological momentary assessment study of adults (N = 190) aged 18-81 years. Results indicated that older adults' negative affect (NA) was less affected by exposure to recent stressors than younger adults, but that there were no age differences in the effects of stressor exposure 3-6 hr afterward. Higher levels of GPS predicted amplified NA responses to daily stress, and controlling for GPS eliminated age differences in NA responses to stressors. No age differences in NA responses as a function of stressor severity were observed. In contrast, older age was associated with less of a decrease in PA when exposed to recent stressors or with more severe recent stressors. There were no age differences in the effect of previous stressor exposure or severity on PA, or any interactions between momentary or previous stress and GPS on PA. Together, these results support the notion that chronic stress plays a central role in emotional experience in daily life. We discuss the implications of these results for emotion theories of aging.

  2. Proteomics of stress responses in wheat and barley—search for potential protein markers of stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Prášil, Ilja T.

    2014-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum; T. durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) agricultural production is severely limited by various abiotic and biotic stress factors. Proteins are directly involved in plant stress response so it is important to study proteome changes under various stress conditions. Generally, both abiotic and biotic stress factors induce profound alterations in protein network covering signaling, energy metabolism (glycolysis, Krebs cycle, ATP biosynthesis, photosynthesis), storage proteins, protein metabolism, several other biosynthetic pathways (e.g., S-adenosylmethionine metabolism, lignin metabolism), transport proteins, proteins involved in protein folding and chaperone activities, other protective proteins (LEA, PR proteins), ROS scavenging enzymes as well as proteins affecting regulation of plant growth and development. Proteins which have been reported to reveal significant differences in their relative abundance or posttranslational modifications between wheat, barley or related species genotypes under stress conditions are listed and their potential role in underlying the differential stress response is discussed. In conclusion, potential future roles of the results of proteomic studies in practical applications such as breeding for an enhanced stress tolerance and the possibilities to test and use protein markers in the breeding are suggested. PMID:25566285

  3. Plant core environmental stress response genes are systemically coordinated during abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Achim; Kilian, Joachim; Mohrholz, Anne; Ladwig, Friederike; Peschke, Florian; Dautel, Rebecca; Harter, Klaus; Berendzen, Kenneth W; Wanke, Dierk

    2013-01-01

    Studying plant stress responses is an important issue in a world threatened by global warming. Unfortunately, comparative analyses are hampered by varying experimental setups. In contrast, the AtGenExpress abiotic stress experiment displays intercomparability. Importantly, six of the nine stresses (wounding, genotoxic, oxidative, UV-B light, osmotic and salt) can be examined for their capacity to generate systemic signals between the shoot and root, which might be essential to regain homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We classified the systemic responses into two groups: genes that are regulated in the non-treated tissue only are defined as type I responsive and, accordingly, genes that react in both tissues are termed type II responsive. Analysis of type I and II systemic responses suggest distinct functionalities, but also significant overlap between different stresses. Comparison with salicylic acid (SA) and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) responsive genes implies that MeJA is involved in the systemic stress response. Certain genes are predominantly responding in only one of the categories, e.g., WRKY genes respond mainly non-systemically. Instead, genes of the plant core environmental stress response (PCESR), e.g., ZAT10, ZAT12, ERD9 or MES9, are part of different response types. Moreover, several PCESR genes switch between the categories in a stress-specific manner.

  4. Genomic analysis of stress response against arsenic in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Surasri N; Lewis, Jada; Patel, Isha; Bozdag, Serdar; Lee, Jeong H; Sprando, Robert; Cinar, Hediye Nese

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, a known human carcinogen, is widely distributed around the world and found in particularly high concentrations in certain regions including Southwestern US, Eastern Europe, India, China, Taiwan and Mexico. Chronic arsenic poisoning affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with increased risk of many diseases including arthrosclerosis, diabetes and cancer. In this study, we explored genome level global responses to high and low levels of arsenic exposure in Caenorhabditis elegans using Affymetrix expression microarrays. This experimental design allows us to do microarray analysis of dose-response relationships of global gene expression patterns. High dose (0.03%) exposure caused stronger global gene expression changes in comparison with low dose (0.003%) exposure, suggesting a positive dose-response correlation. Biological processes such as oxidative stress, and iron metabolism, which were previously reported to be involved in arsenic toxicity studies using cultured cells, experimental animals, and humans, were found to be affected in C. elegans. We performed genome-wide gene expression comparisons between our microarray data and publicly available C. elegans microarray datasets of cadmium, and sediment exposure samples of German rivers Rhine and Elbe. Bioinformatics analysis of arsenic-responsive regulatory networks were done using FastMEDUSA program. FastMEDUSA analysis identified cancer-related genes, particularly genes associated with leukemia, such as dnj-11, which encodes a protein orthologous to the mammalian ZRF1/MIDA1/MPP11/DNAJC2 family of ribosome-associated molecular chaperones. We analyzed the protective functions of several of the identified genes using RNAi. Our study indicates that C. elegans could be a substitute model to study the mechanism of metal toxicity using high-throughput expression data and bioinformatics tools such as FastMEDUSA.

  5. Genomic analysis of stress response against arsenic in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Surasri N; Lewis, Jada; Patel, Isha; Bozdag, Serdar; Lee, Jeong H; Sprando, Robert; Cinar, Hediye Nese

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, a known human carcinogen, is widely distributed around the world and found in particularly high concentrations in certain regions including Southwestern US, Eastern Europe, India, China, Taiwan and Mexico. Chronic arsenic poisoning affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with increased risk of many diseases including arthrosclerosis, diabetes and cancer. In this study, we explored genome level global responses to high and low levels of arsenic exposure in Caenorhabditis elegans using Affymetrix expression microarrays. This experimental design allows us to do microarray analysis of dose-response relationships of global gene expression patterns. High dose (0.03%) exposure caused stronger global gene expression changes in comparison with low dose (0.003%) exposure, suggesting a positive dose-response correlation. Biological processes such as oxidative stress, and iron metabolism, which were previously reported to be involved in arsenic toxicity studies using cultured cells, experimental animals, and humans, were found to be affected in C. elegans. We performed genome-wide gene expression comparisons between our microarray data and publicly available C. elegans microarray datasets of cadmium, and sediment exposure samples of German rivers Rhine and Elbe. Bioinformatics analysis of arsenic-responsive regulatory networks were done using FastMEDUSA program. FastMEDUSA analysis identified cancer-related genes, particularly genes associated with leukemia, such as dnj-11, which encodes a protein orthologous to the mammalian ZRF1/MIDA1/MPP11/DNAJC2 family of ribosome-associated molecular chaperones. We analyzed the protective functions of several of the identified genes using RNAi. Our study indicates that C. elegans could be a substitute model to study the mechanism of metal toxicity using high-throughput expression data and bioinformatics tools such as FastMEDUSA. PMID:23894281

  6. Genomic Analysis of Stress Response against Arsenic in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Surasri N.; Lewis, Jada; Patel, Isha; Bozdag, Serdar; Lee, Jeong H.; Sprando, Robert; Cinar, Hediye Nese

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, a known human carcinogen, is widely distributed around the world and found in particularly high concentrations in certain regions including Southwestern US, Eastern Europe, India, China, Taiwan and Mexico. Chronic arsenic poisoning affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with increased risk of many diseases including arthrosclerosis, diabetes and cancer. In this study, we explored genome level global responses to high and low levels of arsenic exposure in Caenorhabditis elegans using Affymetrix expression microarrays. This experimental design allows us to do microarray analysis of dose-response relationships of global gene expression patterns. High dose (0.03%) exposure caused stronger global gene expression changes in comparison with low dose (0.003%) exposure, suggesting a positive dose-response correlation. Biological processes such as oxidative stress, and iron metabolism, which were previously reported to be involved in arsenic toxicity studies using cultured cells, experimental animals, and humans, were found to be affected in C. elegans. We performed genome-wide gene expression comparisons between our microarray data and publicly available C. elegans microarray datasets of cadmium, and sediment exposure samples of German rivers Rhine and Elbe. Bioinformatics analysis of arsenic-responsive regulatory networks were done using FastMEDUSA program. FastMEDUSA analysis identified cancer-related genes, particularly genes associated with leukemia, such as dnj-11, which encodes a protein orthologous to the mammalian ZRF1/MIDA1/MPP11/DNAJC2 family of ribosome-associated molecular chaperones. We analyzed the protective functions of several of the identified genes using RNAi. Our study indicates that C. elegans could be a substitute model to study the mechanism of metal toxicity using high-throughput expression data and bioinformatics tools such as FastMEDUSA. PMID:23894281

  7. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Sexual Coercion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…

  8. Estradiol levels modulate brain activity and negative responses to psychosocial stress across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Albert, Kimberly; Pruessner, Jens; Newhouse, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Although ovarian hormones are thought to have a potential role in the well-known sex difference in mood and anxiety disorders, the mechanisms through which ovarian hormone changes contribute to stress regulation are not well understood. One mechanism by which ovarian hormones might impact mood regulation is by mediating the effect of psychosocial stress, which often precedes depressive episodes and may have mood consequences that are particularly relevant in women. In the current study, brain activity and mood response to psychosocial stress was examined in healthy, normally cycling women at either the high or low estradiol phase of the menstrual cycle. Twenty eight women were exposed to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with brain activity determined through functional magnetic resonance imaging, and behavioral response assessed with subjective mood and stress measures. Brain activity responses to psychosocial stress differed between women in the low versus high estrogen phase of the menstrual cycle: women with high estradiol levels showed significantly less deactivation in limbic regions during psychosocial stress compared to women with low estradiol levels. Additionally, women with higher estradiol levels also had less subjective distress in response to the MIST than women with lower estradiol levels. The results of this study suggest that, in normally cycling premenopausal women, high estradiol levels attenuate the brain activation changes and negative mood response to psychosocial stress. Normal ovarian hormone fluctuations may alter the impact of psychosocially stressful events by presenting periods of increased vulnerability to psychosocial stress during low estradiol phases of the menstrual cycle. This menstrual cycle-related fluctuation in stress vulnerability may be relevant to the greater risk for affective disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder in women.

  9. Phosphoproteomic analysis of the response of maize leaves to drought, heat and their combination stress

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiuli; Wu, Liuji; Zhao, Feiyun; Zhang, Dayong; Li, Nana; Zhu, Guohui; Li, Chaohao; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Drought and heat stress, especially their combination, greatly affect crop production. Many studies have described transcriptome, proteome and phosphoproteome changes in response of plants to drought or heat stress. However, the study about the phosphoproteomic changes in response of crops to the combination stress is scare. To understand the mechanism of maize responses to the drought and heat combination stress, phosphoproteomic analysis was performed on maize leaves by using multiplex iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic and LC-MS/MS methods. Five-leaf-stage maize was subjected to drought, heat or their combination, and the leaves were collected. Globally, heat, drought and the combined stress significantly changed the phosphorylation levels of 172, 149, and 144 phosphopeptides, respectively. These phosphopeptides corresponded to 282 proteins. Among them, 23 only responded to the combined stress and could not be predicted from their responses to single stressors; 30 and 75 only responded to drought and heat, respectively. Notably, 19 proteins were phosphorylated on different sites in response to the single and combination stresses. Of the seven significantly enriched phosphorylation motifs identified, two were common for all stresses, two were common for heat and the combined stress, and one was specific to the combined stress. The signaling pathways in which the phosphoproteins were involved clearly differed among the three stresses. Functional characterization of the phosphoproteins and the pathways identified here could lead to new targets for the enhancement of crop stress tolerance, which will be particularly important in the face of climate change and the increasing prevalence of abiotic stressors. PMID:25999967

  10. Effects of beacon on the rat pituitary-adrenocortical axis response to stress.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Spinazzi, Raffaella; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2005-08-01

    Beacon is a peptide expressed in the rat hypothalamus and adrenal cortex, which is involved in the central regulation of feeding and inhibits basal and agonist-stimulated glucocorticoid secretion from adrenocortical cells. In vivo studies on beacon have not yet been carried out, and therefore we investigated the effects of a subcutaneous (sc) injection of beacon on the response of rat hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress. Handling and sc injection per se elicited a moderate increase in the plasma concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone, which was counteracted by beacon. Similarly, beacon dampened ACTH and corticosterone responses to ether stress. In contrast, beacon did not affect ACTH response to cold stress, although it was able to induce a moderate lowering in the corticosterone response. Taken together, these findings allow us to draw the following conclusions: i) beacon inhibits handling/injection- and ether stress-activated, but not cold stress-activated, neural mechanism(s) responsible for stimulation of ACTH secretion and the ensuing increase in corticosterone production; and ii) the beacon-induced dampening in corticosterone response to stress also involves a direct inhibitory effect on the adrenal-cortex secretory activity. The physiological relevance of beacon as endogenous anti-stress agent remains to be evaluated.

  11. Dynamical theory of active cellular response to external stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Rumi; Safran, Samuel A.

    2008-09-01

    We present a comprehensive, theoretical treatment of the orientational response to external stress of active, contractile cells embedded in a gel-like elastic medium. The theory includes both the forces that arise from the deformation of the matrix as well as forces due to the internal regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions of the cell. We calculate the time-dependent response of both the magnitude and the direction of the elastic dipole that characterizes the active forces exerted by the cell, for various situations. For static or quasistatic external stress, cells orient parallel to the stress while for high frequency dynamic external stress, cells orient nearly perpendicular. Both numerical and analytical calculations of these effects are presented. In addition we predict the relaxation time for the cellular response for both slowly and rapidly varying external stresses; several characteristic scaling regimes for the relaxation time as a function of applied frequency are predicted. We also treat the case of cells for which the regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions is controlled by strain (instead of stress) and show that the predicted dependence of the cellular orientation on the Poisson ratio of the matrix can differentiate strain vs stress regulation of cellular response.

  12. Dynamical theory of active cellular response to external stress.

    PubMed

    De, Rumi; Safran, Samuel A

    2008-09-01

    We present a comprehensive, theoretical treatment of the orientational response to external stress of active, contractile cells embedded in a gel-like elastic medium. The theory includes both the forces that arise from the deformation of the matrix as well as forces due to the internal regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions of the cell. We calculate the time-dependent response of both the magnitude and the direction of the elastic dipole that characterizes the active forces exerted by the cell, for various situations. For static or quasistatic external stress, cells orient parallel to the stress while for high frequency dynamic external stress, cells orient nearly perpendicular. Both numerical and analytical calculations of these effects are presented. In addition we predict the relaxation time for the cellular response for both slowly and rapidly varying external stresses; several characteristic scaling regimes for the relaxation time as a function of applied frequency are predicted. We also treat the case of cells for which the regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions is controlled by strain (instead of stress) and show that the predicted dependence of the cellular orientation on the Poisson ratio of the matrix can differentiate strain vs stress regulation of cellular response.

  13. Dealing with feeling: Specific emotion regulation skills predict responses to stress in psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Tania M; Hartmann, Maike; Köther, Ulf; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-08-15

    Elevated negative affect is an established link between minor stressors and psychotic symptoms. Less clear is why people with psychosis fail to regulate distressing emotions effectively. This study tests whether subjective, psychophysiological and symptomatic responses to stress can be predicted by specific emotion regulation (ER) difficulties. Participants with psychotic disorders (n=35) and healthy controls (n=28) were assessed for ER-skills at baseline. They were then exposed to a noise versus no stressor on different days, during which self-reported stress responses, state paranoia and skin conductance levels (SCL) were assessed. Participants with psychosis showed a stronger increase in self-reported stress and SCL in response to the stressor than healthy controls. Stronger increases in self-reported stress were predicted by a reduced ability to be aware of and tolerate distressing emotions, whereas increases in SCL were predicted by a reduced ability to be aware of, tolerate, accept and modify them. Although paranoid symptoms were not significantly affected by the stressors, individual variation in paranoid responses was also predicted by a reduced ability to be aware of and tolerate emotions. Differences in stress responses in the samples were no longer significant after controlling for ER skills. Thus, interventions that improve ER-skills could reduce stress-sensitivity in psychosis.

  14. Detection of early plant stress responses in hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmann, Jan; Steinrücken, Jörg; Plümer, Lutz

    2014-07-01

    Early stress detection in crop plants is highly relevant, but hard to achieve. We hypothesize that close range hyperspectral imaging is able to uncover stress related processes non-destructively in the early stages which are invisible to the human eye. We propose an approach which combines unsupervised and supervised methods in order to identify several stages of progressive stress development from series of hyperspectral images. Stress of an entire plant is detected by stress response levels at pixel scale. The focus is on drought stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Unsupervised learning is used to separate hyperspectral signatures into clusters related to different stages of stress response and progressive senescence. Whereas all such signatures may be found in both, well watered and drought stressed plants, their respective distributions differ. Ordinal classification with Support Vector Machines (SVM) is used to quantify and visualize the distribution of progressive stages of senescence and to separate well watered from drought stressed plants. For each senescence stage a distinctive set of most relevant Vegetation Indices (VIs) is identified. The method has been applied on two experiments involving potted barley plants under well watered and drought stress conditions in a greenhouse. Drought stress is detected up to ten days earlier than using NDVI. Furthermore, it is shown that some VIs have overall relevance, while others are specific to particular senescence stages. The transferability of the method to the field is illustrated by an experiment on maize (Zea mays).

  15. Stress-induced endocrine response and anxiety: the effects of comfort food in rats.

    PubMed

    Ortolani, Daniela; Garcia, Márcia Carvalho; Melo-Thomas, Liana; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Celia

    2014-05-01

    The long-term effects of comfort food in an anxiogenic model of stress have yet to be analyzed. Here, we evaluated behavioral, endocrine and metabolic parameters in rats submitted or not to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), with access to commercial chow alone or to commercial chow and comfort food. Stress did not alter the preference for comfort food but decreased food intake. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, stressed rats were less likely to enter/remain in the open arms, as well as being more likely to enter/remain in the closed arms, than were control rats, both conditions being more pronounced in the rats given access to comfort food. In the open field test, stress decreased the time spent in the centre, independent of diet; neither stress nor diet affected the number of crossing, rearing or grooming episodes. The stress-induced increase in serum corticosterone was attenuated in rats given access to comfort food. Serum concentration of triglycerides were unaffected by stress or diet, although access to comfort food increased total cholesterol and glucose. It is concluded that CUMS has an anorexigenic effect. Chronic stress and comfort food ingestion induced an anxiogenic profile although comfort food attenuated the endocrine stress response. The present data indicate that the combination of stress and access to comfort food, common aspects of modern life, may constitute a link among stress, feeding behavior and anxiety.

  16. Ethylene responsive factors in the orchestration of stress responses in monocotyledonous plants

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Sanjukta; Corina Vlot, A.

    2015-01-01

    The APETALA2/Ethylene-Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) superfamily of transcription factors (TFs) regulates physiological, developmental and stress responses. Most of the AP2/ERF TFs belong to the ERF family in both dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants. ERFs are implicated in the responses to both biotic and abiotic stress and occasionally impart multiple stress tolerance. Studies have revealed that ERF gene function is conserved in dicots and monocots. Moreover, successful stress tolerance phenotypes are observed on expression in heterologous systems, making ERFs promising candidates for engineering stress tolerance in plants. In this review, we summarize the role of ERFs in general stress tolerance, including responses to biotic and abiotic stress factors, and endeavor to understand the cascade of ERF regulation resulting in successful signal-to-response translation in monocotyledonous plants. PMID:26379679

  17. Stress Response and Translation Control in Rotavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    López, Susana; Oceguera, Alfonso; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The general stress and innate immune responses are closely linked and overlap at many levels. The outcomes of these responses serve to reprogram host expression patterns to prevent viral invasions. In turn, viruses counter attack these cell responses to ensure their replication. The mechanisms by which viruses attempt to control host cell responses are as varied as the number of different virus families. One of the most recurrent strategies used by viruses to control the antiviral response of the cell is to hijack the translation machinery of the host, such that viral proteins are preferentially synthesized, while the expression of the stress and antiviral responses of the cell are blocked at the translation level. Here, we will review how rotaviruses, an important agent of acute severe gastroenteritis in children, overcome the stress responses of the cell to establish a productive infectious cycle. PMID:27338442

  18. Response of restraint stress-selected lines of Japanese quail to heat stress and Escherichia coli challenge.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Wesley, I V; Anthony, N B; Satterlee, D G

    2013-03-01

    Japanese quail selected for divergent corticosterone response to restraint stress were evaluated for their susceptibility to heat stress and challenge with Escherichia coli. These quail lines are designated as high stress (HS), low stress (LS), and the random-bred control (CS) lines. Heat stress (35°C, 8 h/d) began at 24 d until the end of the study at 39 d. Birds were challenged with an aerosol spray containing 2 × 10(9) cfu of E. coli at 25 and 32 d. At 38 d, the surviving birds were necropsied and the intestinal tract was screened for both Salmonella and Campylobacter. Body weights of the CS birds were higher than both HS and LS at 17, 25, and 32 d. At 32 d, there was no difference in mortality between males and females and the CS line had higher mortality compared with the LS line with the HS line being intermediate. At 38 d, females of the CS line that were both heat stressed and challenged had a mortality incidence of 25%, which was significantly higher than male birds of the same line and treatment (5.3%). There was an increased incidence in Salmonella enterica serotype Agona isolation after heat stress, with the LS birds having less isolation than the HS birds. Mean corticosterone levels of male birds were not significantly affected by line, heat stress, or E. coli challenge; however, the LS line subjected to heat stress had one-third the level of the HS line, a difference identical to that seen in the original selection for response to restraint stress.

  19. Stress Generation and Adolescent Depression: Contribution of Interpersonal Stress Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the proposal that ineffective responses to common interpersonal problems disrupt youths' relationships, which, in turn, contributes to depression during adolescence. Youth (86 girls, 81 boys; M age = 12.41, SD = 1.19) and their primary female caregivers participated in a three-wave longitudinal study. Youth completed a…

  20. Antioxidant responses of wheat plants under stress

    PubMed Central

    Caverzan, Andréia; Casassola, Alice; Brammer, Sandra Patussi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, food security depends on the increased production of cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which is an important source of calories and protein for humans. However, cells of the crop have suffered from the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause severe oxidative damage to the plants, due to environmental stresses. ROS are toxic molecules found in various subcellular compartments. The equilibrium between the production and detoxification of ROS is sustained by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. In the present review, we offer a brief summary of antioxidant defense and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) signaling in wheat plants. Wheat plants increase antioxidant defense mechanisms under abiotic stresses, such as drought, cold, heat, salinity and UV-B radiation, to alleviate oxidative damage. Moreover, H2O2 signaling is an important factor contributing to stress tolerance in cereals. PMID:27007891

  1. Primary stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Horemans, Nele; Wannijn, Jean; Nauts, Robin; Van Hees, May; Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2014-03-01

    As the environment is inevitably exposed to ionizing radiation from natural and anthropogenic sources, it is important to evaluate gamma radiation induced stress responses in plants. The objective of this research is therefore to investigate radiation effects in Arabidopsis thaliana on individual and subcellular level by exposing 2-weeks-old seedlings for 7 days to total doses of 3.9 Gy, 6.7 Gy, 14.8 Gy and 58.8 Gy and evaluating growth, photosynthesis, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid concentrations and antioxidative enzyme capacities. While the capacity of photosystem II (PSII measured as Fv/Fm) remained intact, plants started optimizing their photosynthetic process at the lower radiation doses by increasing the PSII efficiency (φPSII) and the maximal electron transport rate (ETRmax) and by decreasing the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). At the highest radiation dose, photosynthetic parameters resembled those of control conditions. On subcellular level, roots showed increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) capacities under gamma irradiation but catalase (CAT), syringaldazine peroxidase (SPX) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activities, on the other hand, decreased. In the leaves no alterations were observed in SOD, CAT and SPX capacities, but GPX was highly affected. Based on these results it seems that roots are more sensitive for oxidative stress under gamma radiation exposure than leaves.

  2. NAC transcription factors in plant multiple abiotic stress responses: progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Hongyan; Tang, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses adversely affect plant growth and agricultural productivity. According to the current climate prediction models, crop plants will face a greater number of environmental stresses, which are likely to occur simultaneously in the future. So it is very urgent to breed broad-spectrum tolerant crops in order to meet an increasing demand for food productivity due to global population increase. As one of the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in plants, NAC TFs play vital roles in regulating plant growth and development processes including abiotic stress responses. Lots of studies indicated that many stress-responsive NAC TFs had been used to improve stress tolerance in crop plants by genetic engineering. In this review, the recent progress in NAC TFs was summarized, and the potential utilization of NAC TFs in breeding abiotic stress tolerant transgenic crops was also be discussed. In view of the complexity of field conditions and the specificity in multiple stress responses, we suggest that the NAC TFs commonly induced by multiple stresses should be promising candidates to produce plants with enhanced multiple stress tolerance. Furthermore, the field evaluation of transgenic crops harboring NAC genes, as well as the suitable promoters for minimizing the negative effects caused by over-expressing some NAC genes, should be considered. PMID:26579152

  3. Regulation of Non-coding RNAs in Heat Stress Responses of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianguo; He, Qingsong; Chen, Gang; Wang, Li; Jin, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is an important factor limiting plant growth, development, and productivity; thus, plants have evolved special adaptive mechanisms to cope with high-temperature stress. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a class of regulatory RNAs that play an important role in many biological processes. Recently developed advanced technologies, such as genome-wide transcriptomic analysis, have revealed that abundant ncRNAs are expressed under heat stress. Although this area of research is still in its infancy, an increasing number of several classes of regulatory ncRNA (i.e., miRNA, siRNA, and lncRNA) related to heat stress responses have been reported. In this mini-review, we discuss our current understanding of the role of ncRNAs in heat stress responses in plants, especially miRNAs, siRNAs, and their targets. For example, the miR398-CSD/CCS-HSF, miR396-WRKY6, miR159-GAMYB, and TAS1-HTT-HSF pathways regulate plant heat tolerance. We highlight the hormone/development-related miRNAs involved in heat stress, and discuss the regulatory networks of miRNA-targets. We also note that DNA methylation and alternative splicing could affect miRNA expression under heat stress, and some lncRNAs could respond to heat stress. Finally, we briefly discuss future prospects concerning the ncRNA-related mechanisms of heat stress responses in plants. PMID:27588021

  4. Regulation of Non-coding RNAs in Heat Stress Responses of Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianguo; He, Qingsong; Chen, Gang; Wang, Li; Jin, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is an important factor limiting plant growth, development, and productivity; thus, plants have evolved special adaptive mechanisms to cope with high-temperature stress. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a class of regulatory RNAs that play an important role in many biological processes. Recently developed advanced technologies, such as genome-wide transcriptomic analysis, have revealed that abundant ncRNAs are expressed under heat stress. Although this area of research is still in its infancy, an increasing number of several classes of regulatory ncRNA (i.e., miRNA, siRNA, and lncRNA) related to heat stress responses have been reported. In this mini-review, we discuss our current understanding of the role of ncRNAs in heat stress responses in plants, especially miRNAs, siRNAs, and their targets. For example, the miR398-CSD/CCS-HSF, miR396-WRKY6, miR159-GAMYB, and TAS1-HTT-HSF pathways regulate plant heat tolerance. We highlight the hormone/development-related miRNAs involved in heat stress, and discuss the regulatory networks of miRNA-targets. We also note that DNA methylation and alternative splicing could affect miRNA expression under heat stress, and some lncRNAs could respond to heat stress. Finally, we briefly discuss future prospects concerning the ncRNA-related mechanisms of heat stress responses in plants. PMID:27588021

  5. Regulation of Non-coding RNAs in Heat Stress Responses of Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianguo; He, Qingsong; Chen, Gang; Wang, Li; Jin, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is an important factor limiting plant growth, development, and productivity; thus, plants have evolved special adaptive mechanisms to cope with high-temperature stress. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a class of regulatory RNAs that play an important role in many biological processes. Recently developed advanced technologies, such as genome-wide transcriptomic analysis, have revealed that abundant ncRNAs are expressed under heat stress. Although this area of research is still in its infancy, an increasing number of several classes of regulatory ncRNA (i.e., miRNA, siRNA, and lncRNA) related to heat stress responses have been reported. In this mini-review, we discuss our current understanding of the role of ncRNAs in heat stress responses in plants, especially miRNAs, siRNAs, and their targets. For example, the miR398-CSD/CCS-HSF, miR396-WRKY6, miR159-GAMYB, and TAS1-HTT-HSF pathways regulate plant heat tolerance. We highlight the hormone/development-related miRNAs involved in heat stress, and discuss the regulatory networks of miRNA-targets. We also note that DNA methylation and alternative splicing could affect miRNA expression under heat stress, and some lncRNAs could respond to heat stress. Finally, we briefly discuss future prospects concerning the ncRNA-related mechanisms of heat stress responses in plants.

  6. Post-stress rumination predicts HPA axis responses to repeated acute stress.

    PubMed

    Gianferante, Danielle; Thoma, Myriam V; Hanlin, Luke; Chen, Xuejie; Breines, Juliana G; Zoccola, Peggy M; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    Failure of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to habituate to repeated stress exposure is related with adverse health outcomes, but our knowledge of predictors of non-habituation is limited. Rumination, defined as repetitive and unwanted past-centered negative thinking, is related with exaggerated HPA axis stress responses and poor health outcomes. The aim of this study was to test whether post-stress rumination was related with non-habituation of cortisol to repeated stress exposure. Twenty-seven participants (n=13 females) were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) twice on consecutive afternoons. Post-stress rumination was measured after the first TSST, and HPA axis responses were assessed by measuring salivary cortisol 1 min before, and 1, 10, 20, 60, and 120 min after both TSSTs. Stress exposure induced HPA axis activation on both days, and this activation showed habituation indicated by lower responses to the second TSST (F=3.7, p=0.015). Post-stress rumination after the first TSST was associated with greater cortisol reactivity after the initial stress test (r=0.45, p<0.05) and with increased cortisol responses to the second TSST (r=0.51, p<0.01), indicating non-habituation, independently of age, sex, depressive symptoms, perceived life stress, and trait rumination. In summary, results showed that rumination after stress predicted non-habituation of HPA axis responses. This finding implicates rumination as one possible mechanism mediating maladaptive stress response patterns, and it might also offer a pathway through which rumination might lead to negative health outcomes.

  7. Algal symbiont type affects gene expression in juveniles of the coral Acropora tenuis exposed to thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Yuyama, Ikuko; Harii, Saki; Hidaka, Michio

    2012-05-01

    Reef-building corals harbor symbiotic dinoflagellates, Symbiodinium spp., which are currently divided into several clades. The responses of corals associated with different Symbiodinium clades to thermal stress are not well understood, especially at a gene expression level. Juveniles of the coral Acropora tenuis inoculated with different algal types (clade A or D) were exposed to thermal stress and the expression levels of four putative stress-responsive genes, including genes coding green and red fluorescent proteins, an oxidative stress-responsive protein, and an ascorbic acid transporter, were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The expression levels of the four genes decreased at high temperatures if juveniles were associated with clade A symbionts but increased if the symbionts were in clade D. The intensity of green fluorescence increased with temperature in clade D symbionts harboring juveniles, but not in juveniles associated with clade A symbionts. The present results suggest that genotypes of endosymbiotic algae affect the thermal stress responses of the coral juveniles.

  8. Natural variation in abiotic stress responsive gene expression and local adaptation to climate in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Jesse R; Des Marais, David L; Lowry, David B; Povolotskaya, Inna; McKay, John K; Richards, James H; Keitt, Timothy H; Juenger, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    Gene expression varies widely in natural populations, yet the proximate and ultimate causes of this variation are poorly known. Understanding how variation in gene expression affects abiotic stress tolerance, fitness, and adaptation is central to the field of evolutionary genetics. We tested the hypothesis that genes with natural genetic variation in their expression responses to abiotic stress are likely to be involved in local adaptation to climate in Arabidopsis thaliana. Specifically, we compared genes with consistent expression responses to environmental stress (expression stress responsive, "eSR") to genes with genetically variable responses to abiotic stress (expression genotype-by-environment interaction, "eGEI"). We found that on average genes that exhibited eGEI in response to drought or cold had greater polymorphism in promoter regions and stronger associations with climate than those of eSR genes or genomic controls. We also found that transcription factor binding sites known to respond to environmental stressors, especially abscisic acid responsive elements, showed significantly higher polymorphism in drought eGEI genes in comparison to eSR genes. By contrast, eSR genes tended to exhibit relatively greater pairwise haplotype sharing, lower promoter diversity, and fewer nonsynonymous polymorphisms, suggesting purifying selection or selective sweeps. Our results indicate that cis-regulatory evolution and genetic variation in stress responsive gene expression may be important mechanisms of local adaptation to climatic selective gradients.

  9. Natural Variation in Abiotic Stress Responsive Gene Expression and Local Adaptation to Climate in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Lasky, Jesse R.; Des Marais, David L.; Lowry, David B.; Povolotskaya, Inna; McKay, John K.; Richards, James H.; Keitt, Timothy H.; Juenger, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression varies widely in natural populations, yet the proximate and ultimate causes of this variation are poorly known. Understanding how variation in gene expression affects abiotic stress tolerance, fitness, and adaptation is central to the field of evolutionary genetics. We tested the hypothesis that genes with natural genetic variation in their expression responses to abiotic stress are likely to be involved in local adaptation to climate in Arabidopsis thaliana. Specifically, we compared genes with consistent expression responses to environmental stress (expression stress responsive, “eSR”) to genes with genetically variable responses to abiotic stress (expression genotype-by-environment interaction, “eGEI”). We found that on average genes that exhibited eGEI in response to drought or cold had greater polymorphism in promoter regions and stronger associations with climate than those of eSR genes or genomic controls. We also found that transcription factor binding sites known to respond to environmental stressors, especially abscisic acid responsive elements, showed significantly higher polymorphism in drought eGEI genes in comparison to eSR genes. By contrast, eSR genes tended to exhibit relatively greater pairwise haplotype sharing, lower promoter diversity, and fewer nonsynonymous polymorphisms, suggesting purifying selection or selective sweeps. Our results indicate that cis-regulatory evolution and genetic variation in stress responsive gene expression may be important mechanisms of local adaptation to climatic selective gradients. PMID:24850899

  10. Transcriptome analysis in different rice cultivars provides novel insights into desiccation and salinity stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Rama; Bhattacharjee, Annapurna; Jain, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Drought and salinity are the major environmental factors that affect rice productivity. Comparative transcriptome analysis between tolerant and sensitive rice cultivars can provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in these stress responses. In this study, the comparison of transcriptomes of a drought-tolerant [Nagina 22 (N22)] and a salinity-tolerant (Pokkali) rice cultivar with IR64 (susceptible cultivar) revealed variable transcriptional responses under control and stress conditions. A total of 801 and 507 transcripts were exclusively differentially expressed in N22 and Pokkali rice cultivars, respectively, under stress conditions. Gene ontology analysis suggested the enrichment of transcripts involved in response to abiotic stress and regulation of gene expression in stress-tolerant rice cultivars. A larger number of transcripts encoding for members of NAC and DBP transcription factor (TF) families in N22 and members of bHLH and C2H2 TF families in Pokkali exhibited differential regulation under desiccation and salinity stresses, respectively. Transcripts encoding for thioredoxin and involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism were up-regulated in N22, whereas transcripts involved in wax and terpenoid metabolism were up-regulated in Pokkali. Overall, common and cultivar-specific stress-responsive transcripts identified in this study can serve as a helpful resource to explore novel candidate genes for abiotic stress tolerance in rice. PMID:27029818

  11. Negative affect predicts posttraumatic stress symptoms in Brazilian volunteer United Nations peacekeepers in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Souza, Wanderson F; Figueira, Ivan; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Volchan, Eliane; Mendonça-de-Souza, Ana C; Duarte, Antônio F A; Monteiro da Silva, Angela M; Marques-Portella, Carla; Mari, Jair J; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2008-11-01

    Our study evaluated the relationship between positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) traits on the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among peacekeepers. A longitudinal study with 138 army personnel deployed to a peacekeeping mission in Haiti was conducted. An instrument for measuring PA and NA traits was used before deployment. PTSS, indexed by posttraumatic stress disorder Checklist--Military Version (PCL-M) and frequency of stressful situations were measured after return. Regression analysis showed that both NA and number of stressful situations contributed toward increasing PCL-M scores (Adjusted R = 0.25; p < 0.001). We also found that NA traits interact with intensively stressful situations enhancing the occurrence of PTSS (Adjusted R = 0.32; p < 0.001). These findings suggest that NA traits are an important predictor for PTSS among peacekeepers and also worsen the consequences of being exposed to stressful situations. PMID:19008738

  12. Chronic non-social stress affects depressive behaviors but not anxiety in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sang Ho; Kim, Byung-Hak; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Myoung-Hwan

    2014-06-01

    The etiology of most psychiatric disorders is still incompletely understood. However, growing evidence suggests that stress is a potent environmental risk factor for depression and anxiety. In rodents, various stress paradigms have been developed, but psychosocial stress paradigms have received more attention than non-social stress paradigms because psychosocial stress is more prevalent in humans. Interestingly, some recent studies suggest that chronic psychosocial stress and social isolation affects mainly anxiety-related behaviors in mice. However, it is unclear whether chronic non-social stress induces both depression- and anxiety-related phenotypes or induces one specific phenotype in mice. In the present study, we examined the behavioral consequences of three chronic non-social stress paradigms: chronic predictable (restraint) stress (CPS), chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), and repeated corticosterone-HBC complex injection (RCI). Each of the three paradigms induced mild to severe depression/despair-like behaviors in mice and resulted in increased immobility in a tail suspension test. However, anxiety-related phenotypes, thigmotaxis and explorative behaviors, were not changed by the three paradigms. These results suggest that depression- and anxiety-related phenotypes can be dissociated in mouse stress models and that social and non-social stressors might affect brain circuits and behaviors differently.

  13. Habitual Response to Stress in Recovering Adolescent Anorexic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Samantha P.; Erickson, Sarah J.; Branom, Christina; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Although previous research has investigated the stress response in acutely anorexic patients, there is currently little research addressing this response in recovering adolescent anorexic girls. Therefore, this study investigated partially and fully weight-restored anorexic adolescent girls' psychological and physiological response to a…

  14. Relationship between Microtubule Network Structure and Intracellular Transport in Cultured Endothelial Cells Affected by Shear Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Susumu; Ikezawa, Kenji; Ikeda, Mariko; Tanishita, Kazuo

    Endothelial cells (ECs) that line the inner surface of blood vessels are barriers to the transport of various substances into or from vessel walls, and are continuously exposed to shear stress induced by blood flow in vivo. Shear stress affects the cytoskeleton (e.g., microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments), and affects the transport of macromolecules. Here, the relationship between the microtubule network structure and this transport process for albumin uptake within cultured aortic endothelial cells affected by shear stress was studied. Based on fluorescent images of albumin uptake obtained by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), both the microtubule network and albumin uptake in ECs were disrupted by colchicine and were affected by shear stress loading.

  15. Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical stress response

    PubMed Central

    Herman, James P.; McKlveen, Jessica M.; Ghosal, Sriparna; Kopp, Brittany; Wulsin, Aynara; Makinson, Ryan; Scheimann, Jessie; Myers, Brent

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis) is required for stress adaptation. Activation of the HPA axis causes secretion of glucocorticoids, which act on multiple organ systems to redirect energy resources to meet real or anticipated demand. The HPA stress response is driven primarily by neural mechanisms, invoking corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) release from hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons. Pathways activating CRH release are stressor dependent: reactive responses to homeostatic disruption frequently involve direct noradrenergic or peptidergic drive of PVN neurons by sensory relays, whereas anticipatory responses use oligosynaptic pathways originating in upstream limbic structures. Anticipatory responses are driven largely by disinhibition, mediated by trans-synaptic silencing of tonic PVN inhibition via GABAergic neurons in the amygdala. Stress responses are inhibited by negative feedback mechanisms, whereby glucocorticoids act to diminish drive (brainstem), promote trans-synaptic inhibition by limbic structures (e.g, hippocampus). Glucocorticoids also act at the PVN to rapidly inhibit CRH neuronal activity via membrane glucocorticoid receptors. Chronic stress-induced activation of the HPA axis takes many forms (chronic basal hypersecretion, sensitized stress responses, even adrenal exhaustion), with manifestation dependent upon factors such as stressor chronicity, intensity, frequency and modality. Neural mechanisms driving chronic stress responses can be distinct from those controlling acute reactions, including recruitment of novel limbic, hypothalamic and brainstem circuits. Importantly, an individual’s response to acute or chronic stress is determined by numerous factors, including genetics, early life experience, environmental conditions, sex and age. The context in which stressors occur will determine whether an individual’s acute or chronic stress responses are adaptive or maladaptive (pathological). PMID:27065163

  16. Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of altered stress responses.

    PubMed

    Crews, David; Gillette, Ross; Scarpino, Samuel V; Manikkam, Mohan; Savenkova, Marina I; Skinner, Michael K

    2012-06-01

    Ancestral environmental exposures have previously been shown to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance and influence all aspects of an individual's life history. In addition, proximate life events such as chronic stress have documented effects on the development of physiological, neural, and behavioral phenotypes in adulthood. We used a systems biology approach to investigate in male rats the interaction of the ancestral modifications carried transgenerationally in the germ line and the proximate modifications involving chronic restraint stress during adolescence. We find that a single exposure to a common-use fungicide (vinclozolin) three generations removed alters the physiology, behavior, metabolic activity, and transcriptome in discrete brain nuclei in descendant males, causing them to respond differently to chronic restraint stress. This alteration of baseline brain development promotes a change in neural genomic activity that correlates with changes in physiology and behavior, revealing the interaction of genetics, environment, and epigenetic transgenerational inheritance in the shaping of the adult phenotype. This is an important demonstration in an animal that ancestral exposure to an environmental compound modifies how descendants of these progenitor individuals perceive and respond to a stress challenge experienced during their own life history.

  17. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Hyacinthe; Philippe, Florian; Domon, Jean-Marc; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic), transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i) an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii) an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions. PMID:27135320

  18. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Hyacinthe Le; Philippe, Florian; Domon, Jean-Marc; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic), transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i) an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii) an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions. PMID:27135320

  19. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Hyacinthe; Philippe, Florian; Domon, Jean-Marc; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine

    2015-02-16

    This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic), transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i) an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii) an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions.

  20. Molecular biology of the stress response in the early embryo and its stem cells.

    PubMed

    Puscheck, Elizabeth E; Awonuga, Awoniyi O; Yang, Yu; Jiang, Zhongliang; Rappolee, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Stress is normal during early embryogenesis and transient, elevated stress is commonplace. Stress in the milieu of the peri-implantation embryo is a summation of maternal hormones, and other elements of the maternal milieu, that signal preparedness for development and implantation. Examples discussed here are leptin, adrenaline, cortisol, and progesterone. These hormones signal maternal nutritional status and provide energy, but also signal stress that diverts maternal and embryonic energy from an optimal embryonic developmental trajectory. These hormones communicate endocrine maternal effects and local embryonic effects although signaling mechanisms are not well understood. Other in vivo stresses affect the embryo such as local infection and inflammation, hypoxia, environmental toxins such as benzopyrene, dioxin, or metals, heat shock, and hyperosmotic stress due to dehydration or diabetes. In vitro, stresses include shear during handling, improper culture media and oxygen levels, cryopreservation, and manipulations of the embryo to introduce sperm or mitochondria. We define stress as any stimulus that slows stem cell accumulation or diminishes the ability of cells to produce normal and sufficient parenchymal products upon differentiation. Thus stress deflects downwards the normal trajectories of development, growth and differentiation. Typically stress is inversely proportional to embryonic developmental and proliferative rates, but can be proportional to induction of differentiation of stem cells in the peri-implantation embryo. When modeling stress it is most interesting to produce a 'runting model' where stress exposures slow accumulation but do not create excessive apoptosis or morbidity. Windows of stress sensitivity may occur when major new embryonic developmental programs require large amounts of energy and are exacerbated if nutritional flow decreases and removes energy from the normal developmental programs and stress responses. These windows correspond

  1. Personality, Stressful Life Events, and Treatment Response in Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulmash, Eric; Harkness, Kate L.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism or dependency moderated the effect of stressful life events on treatment response. Depressed outpatients (N = 113) were randomized to 16 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, or antidepressant medication (ADM). Stressful life events were…

  2. AMPK-independent inhibition of human macrophage ER stress response by AICAR

    PubMed Central

    Boß, Marcel; Newbatt, Yvette; Gupta, Sahil; Collins, Ian; Brüne, Bernhard; Namgaladze, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-associated insulin resistance is driven by inflammatory processes in response to metabolic overload. Obesity-associated inflammation can be recapitulated in cell culture by exposing macrophages to saturated fatty acids (SFA), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses essentially contribute to pro-inflammatory signalling. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central metabolic regulator with established anti-inflammatory actions. Whether pharmacological AMPK activation suppresses SFA-induced inflammation in a human system is unclear. In a setting of hypoxia-potentiated inflammation induced by SFA palmitate, we found that the AMP-mimetic AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) potently suppressed upregulation of ER stress marker mRNAs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, AICAR inhibited macrophage ER stress responses triggered by ER-stressors thapsigargin or tunicamycin. Surprisingly, AICAR acted independent of AMPK or AICAR conversion to 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl monophosphate (ZMP) while requiring intracellular uptake via the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) ENT1 or the concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) CNT3. AICAR did not affect the initiation of the ER stress response, but inhibited the expression of major ER stress transcriptional effectors. Furthermore, AICAR inhibited autophosphorylation of the ER stress sensor inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), while activating its endoribonuclease activity in vitro. Our results suggest that AMPK-independent inhibition of ER stress responses contributes to anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects of AICAR. PMID:27562249

  3. AMPK-independent inhibition of human macrophage ER stress response by AICAR.

    PubMed

    Boß, Marcel; Newbatt, Yvette; Gupta, Sahil; Collins, Ian; Brüne, Bernhard; Namgaladze, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-associated insulin resistance is driven by inflammatory processes in response to metabolic overload. Obesity-associated inflammation can be recapitulated in cell culture by exposing macrophages to saturated fatty acids (SFA), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses essentially contribute to pro-inflammatory signalling. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central metabolic regulator with established anti-inflammatory actions. Whether pharmacological AMPK activation suppresses SFA-induced inflammation in a human system is unclear. In a setting of hypoxia-potentiated inflammation induced by SFA palmitate, we found that the AMP-mimetic AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) potently suppressed upregulation of ER stress marker mRNAs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, AICAR inhibited macrophage ER stress responses triggered by ER-stressors thapsigargin or tunicamycin. Surprisingly, AICAR acted independent of AMPK or AICAR conversion to 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl monophosphate (ZMP) while requiring intracellular uptake via the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) ENT1 or the concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) CNT3. AICAR did not affect the initiation of the ER stress response, but inhibited the expression of major ER stress transcriptional effectors. Furthermore, AICAR inhibited autophosphorylation of the ER stress sensor inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), while activating its endoribonuclease activity in vitro. Our results suggest that AMPK-independent inhibition of ER stress responses contributes to anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects of AICAR. PMID:27562249

  4. Feedbacks and tipping points in organismal response to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Klanjscek, Tin; Muller, Erik B; Nisbet, Roger M

    2016-09-01

    Biological feedbacks play a crucial role in determining effects of toxicants, radiation, and other environmental stressors on organisms. Focusing on reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are increasingly recognized as a crucial mediator of many stressor effects, we investigate how feedback strength affects the ability of organisms to control negative effects of exposure. We do this by developing a general theoretical framework for describing effects of a wide range of stressors and species. The framework accounts for positive and negative feedbacks representing cellular processes: (i) production of ROS due to metabolism and the stressor, (ii) ROS reactions with cellular compounds that cause damage, and (iii) cellular control of both ROS and damage. We suggest functional forms that capture generic properties of cellular control mechanisms constituting the feedbacks, assess stability of equilibrium states in the resulting models, and investigate tipping points at which cellular control breaks down causing unregulated increase of ROS and damage. Depending on the chosen functional forms, the models can have zero, one, or two positive steady states; except in one singular case, the steady state with lowest values of ROS and damage is locally stable. We found two types of tipping points: those induced by changes in the parameters (including the stressor intensity), and those induced by the history of exposure, i.e. ROS and damage levels. The relatively simple models effectively describe several patterns of cellular responses to stress, such as the covariation of ROS and damage, the break-down of cellular control leading to explosion of ROS and/or damage, increase in damage even when ROS is (near)-constant, and the effects of exposure history on the ability of the cell to handle additional stress. The models quantify dynamics of cellular control, and could therefore be used to estimate the metabolic costs of stress and help integrate them into models that use energetic

  5. Plant responsiveness to root–root communication of stress cues

    PubMed Central

    Falik, Omer; Mordoch, Yonat; Ben-Natan, Daniel; Vanunu, Miriam; Goldstein, Oron; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Phenotypic plasticity is based on the organism's ability to perceive, integrate and respond to multiple signals and cues informative of environmental opportunities and perils. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that plants are able to adapt to imminent threats by perceiving cues emitted from their damaged neighbours. Here, the hypothesis was tested that unstressed plants are able to perceive and respond to stress cues emitted from their drought- and osmotically stressed neighbours and to induce stress responses in additional unstressed plants. Methods Split-root Pisum sativum, Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stenotaphrum secundatum plants were subjected to osmotic stress or drought while sharing one of their rooting volumes with an unstressed neighbour, which in turn shared its other rooting volume with additional unstressed neighbours. Following the kinetics of stomatal aperture allowed testing for stress responses in both the stressed plants and their unstressed neighbours. Key Results In both P. sativum plants and the three wild clonal grasses, infliction of osmotic stress or drought caused stomatal closure in both the stressed plants and in their unstressed neighbours. While both continuous osmotic stress and drought induced prolonged stomatal closure and limited acclimation in stressed plants, their unstressed neighbours habituated to the stress cues and opened their stomata 3–24 h after the beginning of stress induction. Conclusions The results demonstrate a novel type of plant communication, by which plants might be able to increase their readiness to probable future osmotic and drought stresses. Further work is underway to decipher the identity and mode of operation of the involved communication vectors and to assess the potential ecological costs and benefits of emitting and perceiving drought and osmotic stress cues under various ecological scenarios. PMID:22408186

  6. Disrupted glucocorticoid--Immune interactions during stress response in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chiappelli, Joshua; Shi, Qiaoyun; Kodi, Priyadurga; Savransky, Anya; Kochunov, Peter; Rowland, Laura M; Nugent, Katie L; Hong, L Elliot

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid and immune pathways typically interact dynamically to optimize adaptation to stressful environmental challenges. We tested the hypothesis that a dysfunctional glucocorticoid-immune relationship contributes to abnormal stress response in schizophrenia. Saliva samples from 34 individuals with schizophrenia (20 male, 14 female) and 40 healthy controls (20 male, 20 female) were collected prior to and at 3 time points following completion of a computerized psychological challenge meant to be frustrating. Salivary concentrations of cortisol and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and their response to the challenge were examined. Both cortisol and IL-6 significantly increased in response to stress in the combined sample (both p<.05). In controls, the rise in cortisol following the challenge was negatively correlated to the subsequent changes in IL-6 (r=-.461, p=.003), such that rise of cortisol immediately after stress predicts subsequently lower IL-6 levels. In contrast, this relationship was positive in schizophrenia patients (r=.379, p=.027). The trends were significantly different (Z=3.7, p=.0002). This stress paradigm induces a rise in both cortisol and IL-6. In healthy controls, a more robust acute cortisol response was associated with a steeper decline of IL-6 levels following stress, corresponding to the expected anti-inflammatory effects of cortisol. Patients exhibited the opposite relationship, suggesting an inability to down-regulate inflammatory responses to psychological stress in schizophrenia; or even a paradoxical increase of IL-6 response. This finding may partially underlie abnormalities in inflammatory and stress pathways previously found in the illness, implicating dysregulated stress response in the chronic inflammatory state in schizophrenia.

  7. Oxidative stress contributes to autophagy induction in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Marta; Pérez-Pérez, María Esther; Lemaire, Stéphane D; Crespo, José L

    2014-10-01

    The accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in the activation of stress responses, such as the unfolded protein response or the catabolic process of autophagy to ultimately recover cellular homeostasis. ER stress also promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, which play an important role in autophagy regulation. However, it remains unknown whether reactive oxygen species are involved in ER stress-induced autophagy. In this study, we provide evidence connecting redox imbalance caused by ER stress and autophagy activation in the model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Treatment of C. reinhardtii cells with the ER stressors tunicamycin or dithiothreitol resulted in up-regulation of the expression of genes encoding ER resident endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin1 oxidoreductase and protein disulfide isomerases. ER stress also triggered autophagy in C. reinhardtii based on the protein abundance, lipidation, cellular distribution, and mRNA levels of the autophagy marker ATG8. Moreover, increases in the oxidation of the glutathione pool and the expression of oxidative stress-related genes were detected in tunicamycin-treated cells. Our results revealed that the antioxidant glutathione partially suppressed ER stress-induced autophagy and decreased the toxicity of tunicamycin, suggesting that oxidative stress participates in the control of autophagy in response to ER stress in C. reinhardtii In close agreement, we also found that autophagy activation by tunicamycin was more pronounced in the C. reinhardtii sor1 mutant, which shows increased expression of oxidative stress-related genes.

  8. Oxidative stress contributes to autophagy induction in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Marta; Pérez-Pérez, María Esther; Lemaire, Stéphane D; Crespo, José L

    2014-10-01

    The accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in the activation of stress responses, such as the unfolded protein response or the catabolic process of autophagy to ultimately recover cellular homeostasis. ER stress also promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, which play an important role in autophagy regulation. However, it remains unknown whether reactive oxygen species are involved in ER stress-induced autophagy. In this study, we provide evidence connecting redox imbalance caused by ER stress and autophagy activation in the model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Treatment of C. reinhardtii cells with the ER stressors tunicamycin or dithiothreitol resulted in up-regulation of the expression of genes encoding ER resident endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin1 oxidoreductase and protein disulfide isomerases. ER stress also triggered autophagy in C. reinhardtii based on the protein abundance, lipidation, cellular distribution, and mRNA levels of the autophagy marker ATG8. Moreover, increases in the oxidation of the glutathione pool and the expression of oxidative stress-related genes were detected in tunicamycin-treated cells. Our results revealed that the antioxidant glutathione partially suppressed ER stress-induced autophagy and decreased the toxicity of tunicamycin, suggesting that oxidative stress participates in the control of autophagy in response to ER stress in C. reinhardtii In close agreement, we also found that autophagy activation by tunicamycin was more pronounced in the C. reinhardtii sor1 mutant, which shows increased expression of oxidative stress-related genes. PMID:25143584

  9. Oxidative stress responses in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Farr, S B; Kogoma, T

    1991-01-01

    Oxidative stress is strongly implicated in a number of diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disorders, and atherosclerosis, and its emerging as one of the most important causative agents of mutagenesis, tumorigenesis, and aging. Recent progress on the genetics and molecular biology of the cellular responses to oxidative stress, primarily in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, is summarized. Bacteria respond to oxidative stress by invoking two distinct stress responses, the peroxide stimulon and the superoxide stimulon, depending on whether the stress is mediated by peroxides or the superoxide anion. The two stimulons each contain a set of more than 30 genes. The expression of a subset of genes in each stimulon is under the control of a positive regulatory element; these genes constitute the OxyR and SoxRS regulons. The schemes of regulation of the two regulons by their respective regulators are reviewed in detail, and the overlaps of these regulons with other stress responses such as the heat shock and SOS responses are discussed. The products of Oxy-R- and SoxRS-regulated genes, such as catalases and superoxide dismutases, are involved in the prevention of oxidative damage, whereas others, such as endonuclease IV, play a role in the repair of oxidative damage. The potential roles of these and other gene products in the defense against oxidative damage in DNA, proteins, and membranes are discussed in detail. A brief discussion of the similarities and differences between oxidative stress responses in bacteria and eukaryotic organisms concludes this review. PMID:1779927

  10. Astaxanthin affects oxidative stress and hyposalivation in aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuraji, Manatsu; Matsuno, Tomonori; Satoh, Tazuko

    2016-01-01

    Oral dryness, a serious problem for the aging Japanese society, is induced by aging-related hyposalivation and causes dysphagia, dysgeusia, inadaptation of dentures, and growth of oral Candida albicans. Oxidative stress clearly plays a role in decreasing saliva secretion and treatment with antioxidants such astaxanthin supplements may be beneficial. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of astaxanthin on the oral saliva secretory function of aging mice. The saliva flow increased in astaxanthin-treated mice 72 weeks after administration while that of the control decreased by half. The plasma d-ROMs values of the control but not astaxanthin-treated group measured before and 72 weeks after treatment increased. The diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) value of astaxanthin-treated mice 72 weeks after treatment was significantly lower than that of the control group was. The plasma biological antioxidative potential (BAP) values of the control but not astaxanthin-treated mice before and 72 weeks after treatment decreased. Moreover, the BAP value of the astaxanthin-treated group 72 weeks after treatment was significantly higher than that of the control was. Furthermore, the submandibular glands of astaxanthin-treated mice had fewer inflammatory cells than the control did. Specifically, immunofluorescence revealed a significantly large aquaporin-5 positive cells in astaxanthin-treated mice. Our results suggest that astaxanthin treatment may prevent age-related decreased saliva secretion. PMID:27698533

  11. Astaxanthin affects oxidative stress and hyposalivation in aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuraji, Manatsu; Matsuno, Tomonori; Satoh, Tazuko

    2016-01-01

    Oral dryness, a serious problem for the aging Japanese society, is induced by aging-related hyposalivation and causes dysphagia, dysgeusia, inadaptation of dentures, and growth of oral Candida albicans. Oxidative stress clearly plays a role in decreasing saliva secretion and treatment with antioxidants such astaxanthin supplements may be beneficial. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of astaxanthin on the oral saliva secretory function of aging mice. The saliva flow increased in astaxanthin-treated mice 72 weeks after administration while that of the control decreased by half. The plasma d-ROMs values of the control but not astaxanthin-treated group measured before and 72 weeks after treatment increased. The diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) value of astaxanthin-treated mice 72 weeks after treatment was significantly lower than that of the control group was. The plasma biological antioxidative potential (BAP) values of the control but not astaxanthin-treated mice before and 72 weeks after treatment decreased. Moreover, the BAP value of the astaxanthin-treated group 72 weeks after treatment was significantly higher than that of the control was. Furthermore, the submandibular glands of astaxanthin-treated mice had fewer inflammatory cells than the control did. Specifically, immunofluorescence revealed a significantly large aquaporin-5 positive cells in astaxanthin-treated mice. Our results suggest that astaxanthin treatment may prevent age-related decreased saliva secretion.

  12. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression.

    PubMed

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-05-03

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients.

  13. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  14. Running away from stress: How regulatory modes prospectively affect athletes' stress through passion.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, F; Pica, G; Mallia, L; Castrucci, E; Manganelli, S; Bélanger, J J; Pierro, A

    2016-06-01

    A prospective field study conducted with runners training for an upcoming marathon (Marathon of Rome 2013) examined the relation between regulatory modes, locomotion and assessment, and stress. Integrating regulatory mode theory and the dualistic model of passion, we hypothesized that the relation between regulatory modes (evaluated 3 months before the race) and the experience of stress approaching the marathon, is mediated by the type of passion (harmonious vs obsessive) athletes experience with regard to marathoning. Results revealed that (a) locomotion positively predicted harmonious passion, which in turn reduced athletes' experience of stress; and (b) assessment positively predicted obsessive passion, which in turn enhanced athletes' experience of stress. Overall, the present results suggest that proximal psychological mechanisms such as basic regulatory mode orientations can predict distal outcomes such as stress indirectly through their relation with motivational phenomena such as passion.

  15. Stability analysis of Reynolds stress response functional candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafinger, M.; Hallatschek, K.; Itoh, K.

    2013-04-01

    Complete information on the behavior of zonal flows in turbulence systems is coded in the turbulent stress response to the respective flow pattern. We show that turbulence stress response functionals containing only the linear first order wavenumber dependence on the flow pattern result in unstable structures up to the system size. A minimal augmentation to reproduce the flow patterns observed in turbulence simulations is discussed.

  16. Anger responses to psychosocial stress predict heart rate and cortisol stress responses in men but not women.

    PubMed

    Lupis, Sarah B; Lerman, Michelle; Wolf, Jutta M

    2014-11-01

    While previous research has suggested that anger and fear responses to stress are linked to distinct sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stress responses, little is known about how these emotions predict hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. Further, earlier research primarily relied on retrospective self-report of emotion. The current study aimed at addressing both issues in male and female individuals by assessing the role of anger and fear in predicting heart rate and cortisol stress responses using both self-report and facial coding analysis to assess emotion responses. We exposed 32 healthy students (18 female; 19.6±1.7 yr) to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (TSST) and measured heart rate and salivary cortisol levels throughout the protocol. Anger and fear before and after stress exposure was assessed by self-report, and video recordings of the TSST were assessed by a certified facial coder to determine emotion expression (FACS). Self-reported emotions and emotion expressions did not correlate (all p>.23). Increases in self-reported fear predicted blunted cortisol responses in men (β=0.41, p=.04). Also for men, longer durations of anger expression predicted exaggerated cortisol responses (β=0.67 p=.004), and more anger incidences predicted exaggerated cortisol and heart rate responses (β=0.51, p=.033; β=0.46, p=.066, resp.). Anger and fear did not predict SNS or HPA activity for females (all p>.23). The current differential self-report and facial coding findings support the use of multiple modes of emotion assessment. Particularly, FACS but not self-report revealed a robust anger-stress association that could have important downstream health effects for men. For women, future research may clarify the role of other emotions, such as self-conscious expressions of shame, for physiological stress responses. A better understanding of the emotion-stress link may contribute to behavioral interventions targeting health-promoting ways of

  17. The prosodic property of lexical stress affects eye movements during silent reading.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Jane; Clifton, Charles

    2005-07-01

    The present study examined lexical stress in the context of silent reading by measuring eye movements. We asked whether lexical stress registers in the eye movement record and, if so, why. The study also tested the implicit prosody hypothesis, or the idea that readers construct a prosodic contour during silent reading. Participants read high and low frequency target words with one or two stressed syllables embedded in sentences. Lexical stress affected eye movements, such that words with two stressed syllables took longer to read and received more fixations than words with one stressed syllable. Findings offer empirical support for the implicit prosody hypothesis and suggest that stress assignment may be the completing phase of lexical access, at least in terms of eye movement control.

  18. “Omics” of Maize Stress Response for Sustainable Food Production: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Fangping; Yang, Le; Tai, Fuju; Hu, Xiuli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Maize originated in the highlands of Mexico approximately 8700 years ago and is one of the most commonly grown cereal crops worldwide, followed by wheat and rice. Abiotic stresses (primarily drought, salinity, and high and low temperatures), together with biotic stresses (primarily fungi, viruses, and pests), negatively affect maize growth, development, and eventually production. To understand the response of maize to abiotic and biotic stresses and its mechanism of stress tolerance, high-throughput omics approaches have been used in maize stress studies. Integrated omics approaches are crucial for dissecting the temporal and spatial system-level changes that occur in maize under various stresses. In this comprehensive analysis, we review the primary types of stresses that threaten sustainable maize production; underscore the recent advances in maize stress omics, especially proteomics; and discuss the opportunities, challenges, and future directions of maize stress omics, with a view to sustainable food production. The knowledge gained from studying maize stress omics is instrumental for improving maize to cope with various stresses and to meet the food demands of the exponentially growing global population. Omics systems science offers actionable potential solutions for sustainable food production, and we present maize as a notable case study. PMID:25401749

  19. "Omics" of maize stress response for sustainable food production: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Gong, Fangping; Yang, Le; Tai, Fuju; Hu, Xiuli; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Maize originated in the highlands of Mexico approximately 8700 years ago and is one of the most commonly grown cereal crops worldwide, followed by wheat and rice. Abiotic stresses (primarily drought, salinity, and high and low temperatures), together with biotic stresses (primarily fungi, viruses, and pests), negatively affect maize growth, development, and eventually production. To understand the response of maize to abiotic and biotic stresses and its mechanism of stress tolerance, high-throughput omics approaches have been used in maize stress studies. Integrated omics approaches are crucial for dissecting the temporal and spatial system-level changes that occur in maize under various stresses. In this comprehensive analysis, we review the primary types of stresses that threaten sustainable maize production; underscore the recent advances in maize stress omics, especially proteomics; and discuss the opportunities, challenges, and future directions of maize stress omics, with a view to sustainable food production. The knowledge gained from studying maize stress omics is instrumental for improving maize to cope with various stresses and to meet the food demands of the exponentially growing global population. Omics systems science offers actionable potential solutions for sustainable food production, and we present maize as a notable case study.

  20. Acoustic stress responses in juvenile sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax induced by offshore pile driving.

    PubMed

    Debusschere, Elisabeth; Hostens, Kris; Adriaens, Dominique; Ampe, Bart; Botteldooren, Dick; De Boeck, Gudrun; De Muynck, Amelie; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Underwater sound generated by pile driving during construction of offshore wind farms is a major concern in many countries. This paper reports on the acoustic stress responses in young European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (68 and 115 days old), based on four in situ experiments as close as 45 m from a pile driving activity. As a primary stress response, whole-body cortisol seemed to be too sensitive to 'handling' bias. On the other hand, measured secondary stress responses to pile driving showed significant reductions in oxygen consumption rate and low whole-body lactate concentrations. Furthermore, repeated exposure to impulsive sound significantly affected both primary and secondary stress responses. Under laboratory conditions, no tertiary stress responses (no changes in specific growth rate or Fulton's condition factor) were noted in young sea bass 30 days after the treatment. Still, the demonstrated acute stress responses and potentially repeated exposure to impulsive sound in the field will inevitably lead to less fit fish in the wild. PMID:26561450

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tti2 Regulates PIKK Proteins and Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kyle S.; Duennwald, Martin L.; Karagiannis, Jim; Genereaux, Julie; McCarton, Alexander S.; Brandl, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The TTT complex is composed of the three essential proteins Tel2, Tti1, and Tti2. The complex is required to maintain steady state levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) proteins, including mTOR, ATM/Tel1, ATR/Mec1, and TRRAP/Tra1, all of which serve as regulators of critical cell signaling pathways. Due to their association with heat shock proteins, and with newly synthesized PIKK peptides, components of the TTT complex may act as cochaperones. Here, we analyze the consequences of depleting the cellular level of Tti2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that yeast expressing low levels of Tti2 are viable under optimal growth conditions, but the cells are sensitive to a number of stress conditions that involve PIKK pathways. In agreement with this, depleting Tti2 levels decreased expression of Tra1, Mec1, and Tor1, affected their localization and inhibited the stress responses in which these molecules are involved. Tti2 expression was not increased during heat shock, implying that it does not play a general role in the heat shock response. However, steady state levels of Hsp42 increase when Tti2 is depleted, and tti2L187P has a synthetic interaction with exon 1 of the human Huntingtin gene containing a 103 residue polyQ sequence, suggesting a general role in protein quality control. We also find that overexpressing Hsp90 or its cochaperones is synthetic lethal when Tti2 is depleted, an effect possibly due to imbalanced stoichiometry of a complex required for PIKK assembly. These results indicate that Tti2 does not act as a general chaperone, but may have a specialized function in PIKK folding and/or complex assembly. PMID:27172216

  2. Recent Molecular Advances on Downstream Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Sávio Pinho; Lima, Aline Medeiros; de Souza, Cláudia Regina Batista

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as extremes of temperature and pH, high salinity and drought, comprise some of the major factors causing extensive losses to crop production worldwide. Understanding how plants respond and adapt at cellular and molecular levels to continuous environmental changes is a pre-requisite for the generation of resistant or tolerant plants to abiotic stresses. In this review we aimed to present the recent advances on mechanisms of downstream plant responses to abiotic stresses and the use of stress-related genes in the development of genetically engineered crops. PMID:22942725

  3. Trehalose and plant stress responses: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Olivier; Béthencourt, Linda; Quero, Anthony; Sangwan, Rajbir S; Clément, Christophe

    2010-07-01

    The disaccharide trehalose is involved in stress response in many organisms. However, in plants, its precise role remains unclear, although some data indicate that trehalose has a protective role during abiotic stresses. By contrast, some trehalose metabolism mutants exhibit growth aberrations, revealing potential negative effects on plant physiology. Contradictory effects also appear under biotic stress conditions. Specifically, trehalose is essential for the infectivity of several pathogens but at the same time elicits plant defense. Here, we argue that trehalose should not be regarded only as a protective sugar but rather like a double-faced molecule and that further investigation is required to elucidate its exact role in stress tolerance in plants.

  4. Thermodynamic Modeling and Analysis of Human Stress Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boregowda, S. C.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1999-01-01

    A novel approach based on the second law of thermodynamics is developed to investigate the psychophysiology and quantify human stress level. Two types of stresses (thermal and mental) are examined. A Unified Stress Response Theory (USRT) is developed under the new proposed field of study called Engineering Psychophysiology. The USRT is used to investigate both thermal and mental stresses from a holistic (human body as a whole) and thermodynamic viewpoint. The original concepts and definitions are established as postulates which form the basis for thermodynamic approach to quantify human stress level. An Objective Thermal Stress Index (OTSI) is developed by applying the second law of thermodynamics to the human thermal system to quantify thermal stress or dis- comfort in the human body. The human thermal model based on finite element method is implemented. It is utilized as a "Computational Environmental Chamber" to conduct series of simulations to examine the human thermal stress responses under different environmental conditions. An innovative hybrid technique is developed to analyze human thermal behavior based on series of human-environment interaction simulations. Continuous monitoring of thermal stress is demonstrated with the help of OTSI. It is well established that the human thermal system obeys the second law of thermodynamics. Further, the OTSI is validated against the experimental data. Regarding mental stress, an Objective Mental Stress Index (OMSI) is developed by applying the Maxwell relations of thermodynamics to the combined thermal and cardiovascular system in the human body. The OMSI is utilized to demonstrate the technique of monitoring mental stress continuously and is validated with the help of series of experimental studies. Although the OMSI indicates the level of mental stress, it provides a strong thermodynamic and mathematical relationship between activities of thermal and cardiovascular systems of the human body.

  5. Implicit and Explicit Measurements of Affective Responses to Food Odors.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; de Wijk, René A; de Graaf, Cees; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2016-10-01

    One of the main functions of olfaction is to activate approach/avoidance behavior, toward or away from people, foods, or other odor sources. These behaviors are partly automated and therefore poorly accessible via introspection. Explicit tests need therefore be complemented by implicit tests to provide additional insights into the underlying processes of these behaviors. Affective responses to seven food odors plus one control nonodor were assessed in 28 female participants (18-30 years) using explicit tests [pleasantness, intensity, and non-verbal emotional ratings (PrEmo)] as well as implicit tests that reflect dynamic expressive emotional reactions (facial expressions) as well as behavioral-preparation responses (autonomic nervous system responses: heart rate, skin conductance, and skin temperature). Explicit tests showed significant differences in pleasantness (P < 0.05), and all PrEmo emotions (P < 0.05) except shame. Explicit emotional responses were summarized by valence (explaining 83% of the responses variance) and arousal (14%) as principal components. Early implicit facial and ANS responses (after 1s) seem to reflect the odors' arousal, whereas later ANS responses (after 3-4s) reflected the odors' valence. The results suggest that explicit measures primarily reflect the odors' valence, as result of from relatively long (conscious) processing, which may be less relevant for odor acceptance in the real world where fast and automated processes based on arousal may play a larger role. PMID:27340136

  6. Diazepam and Fluoxetine Decrease the Stress Response in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Koakoski, Gessi; Ferreira, Daiane; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Gusso, Darlan; Giacomini, Ana Cristina Varrone; Piato, Angelo Luis; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2014-01-01

    The presence of pharmaceutical products in the aquatic environment has been reported in several studies. However, the impact of these drugs on living organisms is still uncharacterized. Here, we investigated the effects of acute exposure to either diazepam or fluoxetine on the stress response in Danio rerio. We showed that diazepam and fluoxetine inhibited the stress axis in zebrafish. Intermediate concentrations of diazepam suppressed the stress response as measured by cortisol levels, whereas fluoxetine inhibited cortisol increase at concentrations similar to those found in the environment. These data suggest that the presence of psychoactive drugs in aquatic ecosystems could cause neuroendocrine dysfunction in fish. PMID:25054216

  7. Diazepam and fluoxetine decrease the stress response in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Murilo Sander de; Koakoski, Gessi; Ferreira, Daiane; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; Rosa, João Gabriel Santos da; Gusso, Darlan; Giacomini, Ana Cristina Varrone; Piato, Angelo Luis; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2014-01-01

    The presence of pharmaceutical products in the aquatic environment has been reported in several studies. However, the impact of these drugs on living organisms is still uncharacterized. Here, we investigated the effects of acute exposure to either diazepam or fluoxetine on the stress response in Danio rerio. We showed that diazepam and fluoxetine inhibited the stress axis in zebrafish. Intermediate concentrations of diazepam suppressed the stress response as measured by cortisol levels, whereas fluoxetine inhibited cortisol increase at concentrations similar to those found in the environment. These data suggest that the presence of psychoactive drugs in aquatic ecosystems could cause neuroendocrine dysfunction in fish. PMID:25054216

  8. Modulation of immune responses in stress by Yoga.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sarika; Bhattacharjee, Jayashree

    2008-07-01

    Stress is a constant factor in today's fastpaced life that can jeopardize our health if left unchecked. It is only in the last half century that the role of stress in every ailment from the common cold to AIDS has been emphasized, and the mechanisms involved in this process have been studied. Stress influences the immune response presumably through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, hypothalamic pituitary-gonadal axis, and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. Various neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, hormones, and cytokines mediate these complex bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system. The effects of stress on the immune responses result in alterations in the number of immune cells and cytokine dysregulation. Various stress management strategies such as meditation, yoga, hypnosis, and muscle relaxation have been shown to reduce the psychological and physiological effects of stress in cancers and HIV infection. This review aims to discuss the effect of stress on the immune system and examine how relaxation techniques such as Yoga and meditation could regulate the cytokine levels and hence, the immune responses during stress.

  9. ASRDb: A comprehensive resource for archaeal stress response genes.

    PubMed

    Labala, Rajendra Kumar; Das, Santasabuj; Basak, Surajit

    2013-01-01

    An organism's survival strategy under the constantly changing environment depends on its ability to sense and respond to changes in its environment. Archaea, being capable to grow under various extreme environmental conditions, provide valuable model for exploring how single-celled organisms respond to environmental stresses. However, no such approach has ever been made to make an integrated classification of various archaeal stress responses. Archaeal Stress Response Database (ASRDb) is a web accessible (http://121.241.218.70/ASRDb) database that represents the first online available resource providing a comprehensive overview of stress response genes of 66 archaeal genomes. This database currently contains almost 6000 stress specific genes of 66 archaeal genomes. All the stress specific genes are grouped into 17 different stress categories. A user-friendly interface has been designed to examine data using query tools. This database provides an efficient search engine for random and advanced database search operations. We have incorporated BLAST search options to the resulting sequences retrieved from database search operations. A site map page representing the schematic diagram will enable user to understand the logic behind the construction of the database. We have also provided a very rich and informative help page to make user familiar with the database. We sincerely believe that ASRDb will be of particular interest to the life science community and facilitates the biologists to unravel the role of stress specific genes in the adaptation of microorganisms under various extreme environmental conditions.

  10. ROS Regulation During Abiotic Stress Responses in Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    You, Jun; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, salt and heat cause reduction of plant growth and loss of crop yield worldwide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anions (O2•-), hydroxyl radical (OH•) and singlet oxygen (1O2) are by-products of physiological metabolisms, and are precisely controlled by enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. ROS are significantly accumulated under abiotic stress conditions, which cause oxidative damage and eventually resulting in cell death. Recently, ROS have been also recognized as key players in the complex signaling network of plants stress responses. The involvement of ROS in signal transduction implies that there must be coordinated function of regulation networks to maintain ROS at non-toxic levels in a delicate balancing act between ROS production, involving ROS generating enzymes and the unavoidable production of ROS during basic cellular metabolism, and ROS-scavenging pathways. Increasing evidence showed that ROS play crucial roles in abiotic stress responses of crop plants for the activation of stress-response and defense pathways. More importantly, manipulating ROS levels provides an opportunity to enhance stress tolerances of crop plants under a variety of unfavorable environmental conditions. This review presents an overview of current knowledge about homeostasis regulation of ROS in crop plants. In particular, we summarize the essential proteins that are involved in abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants through ROS regulation. Finally, the challenges toward the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance through ROS regulation in crops are discussed. PMID:26697045

  11. Ozone exposure activates oxidative stress responses in murine skin.

    PubMed

    Valacchi, Giuseppe; van der Vliet, Albert; Schock, Bettina C; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Obermuller-Jevic, Ute; Cross, Carroll E; Packer, Lester

    2002-09-30

    Ozone (O(3)) is among the most reactive environmental oxidant to which skin is exposed. O(3) exposure has previously been shown to induce antioxidant depletion as well as lipid and protein oxidation in the outermost skin layer, the stratum corneum (SC), but little is known regarding the potential effects of O(3) on the skin epidermis and dermis. To evaluate such skin responses to O(3), SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed for 2 h to 8.0 ppm O(3) or to ambient air. O(3) exposure caused a significant increase in skin carbonyls (28%) compared to the skin of air exposed control animals. An evident increase in 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts was detected after O(3) exposure. O(3) exposure caused a rapid up-regulation of HSP27 (20-fold), and more delayed induction of HSP70 (2.8-fold) and heme oxygenase-1 (5-fold). O(3) exposure also led to the induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) 6-12 h following O(3) exposure. We conclude that skin exposure to high levels of O(3) not only affects antioxidant levels and oxidation markers in the SC, but also induces stress responses in the active layers of the skin, most likely by indirect mechanisms, since it is unlikely that O(3) itself penetrates the protective SC layers.

  12. Inhibition of the oxidative stress response by heat stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Crombie, Timothy A; Tang, Lanlan; Choe, Keith P; Julian, David

    2016-07-15

    It has long been recognized that simultaneous exposure to heat stress and oxidative stress shows a synergistic interaction that reduces organismal fitness, but relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying this interaction. We investigated the role of molecular stress responses in driving this synergistic interaction using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans To induce oxidative stress, we used the pro-oxidant compounds acrylamide, paraquat and juglone. As expected, we found that heat stress and oxidative stress interact synergistically to reduce survival. Compared with exposure to each stressor alone, during simultaneous sublethal exposure to heat stress and oxidative stress the normal induction of key oxidative-stress response (OxSR) genes was generally inhibited, whereas the induction of key heat-shock response (HSR) genes was not. Genetically activating the SKN-1-dependent OxSR increased a marker for protein aggregation and decreased whole-worm survival during heat stress alone, with the latter being independent of HSF-1. In contrast, compared with wild-type worms, inactivating the HSR by HSF-1 knockdown, which would be expected to decrease basal heat shock protein expression, increased survival during oxidative stress alone. Taken together, these data suggest that, in C. elegans, the HSR and OxSR cannot be simultaneously activated to the same extent that each can be activated during a single stressor exposure. We conclude that the observed synergistic reduction in survival during combined exposure to heat stress and oxidative stress is due, at least in part, to inhibition of the OxSR during activation of the HSR.

  13. Dynamics of telomerase activity in response to acute psychological stress

    PubMed Central

    Epel, Elissa S.; Lin, Jue; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Puterman, E; Karan, Lori; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase activity plays an essential role in cel0l survival, by lengthening telomeres and promoting cell growth and longevity. It is now possible to quantify the low levels of telomerase activity in human leukocytes. Low basal telomerase activity has been related to chronic stress in people and to chronic glucocorticoid exposure in vitro. Here we test whether leukocyte telomerase activity changes under acute psychological stress. We exposed 44 elderly women, including 22 high stress dementia caregivers and 22 matched low stress controls, to a brief laboratory psychological stressor, while examining changes in telomerase activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). At baseline, caregivers had lower telomerase activity levels than controls, but during stress telomerase activity increased similarly in both groups. Across the entire sample, subsequent telomerase activity increased by 18% one hour after the end of the stressor (p<0.01). The increase in telomerase activity was independent of changes in numbers or percentages of monocytes, lymphocytes, and specific T cell types, although we cannot fully rule out some potential contribution from immune cell redistribution in the change in telomerase activity. Telomerase activity increases were associated with greater cortisol increases in response to the stressor. Lastly, psychological response to the tasks (greater threat perception) was also related to greater telomerase activity increases in controls. These findings uncover novel relationships of dynamic telomerase activity with exposure to an acute stressor, and with two classic aspects of the stress response -- perceived psychological stress and neuroendocrine (cortisol) responses to the stressor. PMID:20018236

  14. Stronger cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress is correlated with larger decrease in temporal sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhuxi; Jiang, Caihong; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental dimension of cognition and behavior, time perception has been found to be sensitive to stress. However, how one’s time perception changes with responses to stress is still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress-induced cortisol response and time perception. A group of 40 healthy young male adults performed a temporal bisection task before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for a stress condition. A control group of 27 male participants completed the same time perception task without stress induction. In the temporal bisection task, participants were first presented with short (400 ms) and long (1,600 ms) visual signals serving as anchor durations and then required to judge whether the intermediate probe durations were more similar to the short or the long anchor. The bisection point and Weber ratio were calculated and indicated the subjective duration and the temporal sensitivity, respectively. Data showed that participants in the stress group had significantly increased salivary cortisol levels, heart rates, and negative affects compared with those in the control group. The results did not show significant group differences for the subjective duration or the temporal sensitivity. However, the results showed a significant positive correlation between stress-induced cortisol responses and decreases in temporal sensitivity indexed by increases in the Weber ratio. This correlation was not observed for the control group. Changes in subjective duration indexed by temporal bisection points were not correlated with cortisol reactivity in both the groups. In conclusion, the present study found that although no significant change was observed in time perception after an acute stressor on the group-level comparison (i.e., stress vs. nonstress group), individuals with stronger cortisol responses to stress showed a larger decrease in temporal sensitivity. This finding may provide insight into the understanding of

  15. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood

    PubMed Central

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress. PMID:27020850

  16. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-03-29

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress.

  17. [Metabolic response to trauma and stress].

    PubMed

    Omerbegović, Meldijana; Durić, Amira; Muratović, Nusreta; Mulalić, Lejla; Hamzanija, Emina

    2003-01-01

    Trauma, surgery, burns and infection are accompanied with catabolic response which is characterized by enhanced protelysis, enhanced excretion of nitrogen, neoglucogenesis and resistance of peripheral tissues to insulin. This catabolic response is mediated through neural pathways and neuroendocrine axis. The purpose of this response is restoration of adequate perfusion and oxygenation and releasing of energy and substrates for the tissues, organs and systems which functions are essential for the survival. Metabolic response to injury and severe infection leads to decomposition of skeletal muscle proteins to amino acids, intensive liver gluconcogenesis from lactate, glycerol and alanin with enhanced oxidation of aminoacids. These substrates are necessary for synthesis of various mediators of protein or lipid nature, which are important for the defense and tissue regeneration. The changes result in negative balance of nitrogen, loss of body weight, and lower plasma concentration of all aminoacids. Patients who were unable to develop this hypercatabolic response have poor prognosis, and the patients with hypercatabolic response rapidly lose their body cell mass and without metabolic and nutritive support have more complications and higher mortality. Although neoglucogenesis, proteolysis and lipolysis are resistant to exogenous nutrients, metabolic support in critical illness improves the chances for survival until the healing of the disease. Casual therapy in such conditions is elimination of "stressors" which maintain abnormal endocrine and metabolic response. Adequate oxygenation, hemostasis, infection control and control of extracellular compartment expansion and low flows, are essential for the efficacy of nutritive support and that is the only way to convalescence and wound healing. PMID:15017867

  18. Non-invasive cortisol measurements as indicators of physiological stress responses in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Pschernig, Elisabeth; Wallner, Bernard; Millesi, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive measurements of glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations, including cortisol and corticosterone, serve as reliable indicators of adrenocortical activities and physiological stress loads in a variety of species. As an alternative to invasive analyses based on plasma, GC concentrations in saliva still represent single-point-of-time measurements, suitable for studying short-term or acute stress responses, whereas fecal GC metabolites (FGMs) reflect overall stress loads and stress responses after a species-specific time frame in the long-term. In our study species, the domestic guinea pig, GC measurements are commonly used to indicate stress responses to different environmental conditions, but the biological relevance of non-invasive measurements is widely unknown. We therefore established an experimental protocol based on the animals’ natural stress responses to different environmental conditions and compared GC levels in plasma, saliva, and fecal samples during non-stressful social isolations and stressful two-hour social confrontations with unfamiliar individuals. Plasma and saliva cortisol concentrations were significantly increased directly after the social confrontations, and plasma and saliva cortisol levels were strongly correlated. This demonstrates a high biological relevance of GC measurements in saliva. FGM levels measured 20 h afterwards, representing the reported mean gut passage time based on physiological validations, revealed that the overall stress load was not affected by the confrontations, but also no relations to plasma cortisol levels were detected. We therefore measured FGMs in two-hour intervals for 24 h after another social confrontation and detected significantly increased levels after four to twelve hours, reaching peak concentrations already after six hours. Our findings confirm that non-invasive GC measurements in guinea pigs are highly biologically relevant in indicating physiological stress responses compared to circulating

  19. Non-invasive cortisol measurements as indicators of physiological stress responses in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Matthias; Pschernig, Elisabeth; Wallner, Bernard; Millesi, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive measurements of glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations, including cortisol and corticosterone, serve as reliable indicators of adrenocortical activities and physiological stress loads in a variety of species. As an alternative to invasive analyses based on plasma, GC concentrations in saliva still represent single-point-of-time measurements, suitable for studying short-term or acute stress responses, whereas fecal GC metabolites (FGMs) reflect overall stress loads and stress responses after a species-specific time frame in the long-term. In our study species, the domestic guinea pig, GC measurements are commonly used to indicate stress responses to different environmental conditions, but the biological relevance of non-invasive measurements is widely unknown. We therefore established an experimental protocol based on the animals' natural stress responses to different environmental conditions and compared GC levels in plasma, saliva, and fecal samples during non-stressful social isolations and stressful two-hour social confrontations with unfamiliar individuals. Plasma and saliva cortisol concentrations were significantly increased directly after the social confrontations, and plasma and saliva cortisol levels were strongly correlated. This demonstrates a high biological relevance of GC measurements in saliva. FGM levels measured 20 h afterwards, representing the reported mean gut passage time based on physiological validations, revealed that the overall stress load was not affected by the confrontations, but also no relations to plasma cortisol levels were detected. We therefore measured FGMs in two-hour intervals for 24 h after another social confrontation and detected significantly increased levels after four to twelve hours, reaching peak concentrations already after six hours. Our findings confirm that non-invasive GC measurements in guinea pigs are highly biologically relevant in indicating physiological stress responses compared to circulating levels

  20. Plant proteome changes under abiotic stress--contribution of proteomics studies to understanding plant stress response.

    PubMed

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Prášil, Ilja Tom; Renaut, Jenny

    2011-08-12

    Plant acclimation to stress is associated with profound changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. In this review, proteomics studies dealing with plant response to a broad range of abiotic stress factors--cold, heat, drought, waterlogging, salinity, ozone treatment, hypoxia and anoxia, herbicide treatments, inadequate or excessive light conditions, disbalances in mineral nutrition, enhanced concentrations of heavy metals, radioactivity and mechanical wounding are discussed. Most studies have been carried out on model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and rice due to large protein sequence databases available; however, the variety of plant species used for proteomics analyses is rapidly increasing. Protein response pathways shared by different plant species under various stress conditions (glycolytic pathway, enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione cycle, accumulation of LEA proteins) as well as pathways unique to a given stress are discussed. Results from proteomics studies are interpreted with respect to physiological factors determining plant stress response. In conclusion, examples of application of proteomics studies in search for protein markers underlying phenotypic variation in physiological parameters associated with plant stress tolerance are given.

  1. Role of the autonomic nervous system and baroreflex in stress-evoked cardiovascular responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Daniel Gustavo; Fortaleza, Eduardo Albino Trindade; Tavares, Rodrigo Fiacadori; Corrêa, Fernando Morgan Aguiar

    2014-07-01

    Restraint stress (RS) is an experimental model to study stress-related cardiovascular responses, characterized by sustained pressor and tachycardiac responses. We used pharmacologic and surgical procedures to investigate the role played by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) in the mediation of stress-evoked cardiovascular responses. Ganglionic blockade with pentolinium significantly reduced RS-evoked pressor and tachycardiac responses. Intravenous treatment with homatropine methyl bromide did not affect the pressor response but increased tachycardia. Pretreatment with prazosin reduced the pressor and increased the tachycardiac response. Pretreatment with atenolol did not affect the pressor response but reduced tachycardia. The combined treatment with atenolol and prazosin reduced both pressor and tachycardiac responses. Adrenal demedullation reduced the pressor response without affecting tachycardia. Sinoaortic denervation increased pressor and tachycardiac responses. The results indicate that: (1) the RS-evoked cardiovascular response is mediated by the autonomic nervous system without an important involvement of humoral factors; (2) hypertension results primarily from sympathovascular and sympathoadrenal activation, without a significant involvement of the cardiac sympathetic component (CSNS); (3) the abrupt initial peak in the hypertensive response to restraint is sympathovascular-mediated, whereas the less intense but sustained hypertensive response observed throughout the remaining restraint session is mainly mediated by sympathoadrenal activation and epinephrine release; (4) tachycardia results from CSNS activation, and not from PSNS inhibition; (5) RS evokes simultaneous CSNS and PSNS activation, and heart rate changes are a vector of both influences; (6) the baroreflex is functional during restraint, and modulates both the vascular and cardiac responses to restraint.

  2. Endocrine stress responses and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Azaz; Madhu, S V; Sharma, S B; Desai, N G

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried to ascertain whether stress responses are associated with abnormalities in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta cell function and risk of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Salivary cortisol, a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and salivary α-amylase, a marker of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) were compared in 125 subjects of newly detected diabetes mellitus (NDDM) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects who were diagnosed on the basis of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Assessment of stress in them was done through stress scales - presumptive stressful life events scale (PSLES), perceived stress scale (PSS) and sense of coherence (SOC) and correlated with these and other stress response markers. Significantly higher 10 pm salivary cortisol and post dexamethasone salivary cortisol were found in NDDM subjects as compared to NGT. 10 pm salivary cortisol correlated significantly with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h plasma glucose (2h PG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) while post dex salivary cortisol correlated with 2h PG, HbA1c and salivary α-amylase with 2h PG. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that body mass index (OR: 1.840), SOC (OR: 0.688) and 10 pm salivary cortisol (OR: 1.427) were the strongest predictors of NDDM. The results of the present study indicate that NDDM subjects display significantly higher chronic stress and stress responses when compared to subjects with NGT. Chronic stress and endocrine stress responses are significantly associated with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26303379

  3. Endocrine stress responses and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Azaz; Madhu, S V; Sharma, S B; Desai, N G

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried to ascertain whether stress responses are associated with abnormalities in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta cell function and risk of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Salivary cortisol, a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and salivary α-amylase, a marker of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) were compared in 125 subjects of newly detected diabetes mellitus (NDDM) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects who were diagnosed on the basis of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Assessment of stress in them was done through stress scales - presumptive stressful life events scale (PSLES), perceived stress scale (PSS) and sense of coherence (SOC) and correlated with these and other stress response markers. Significantly higher 10 pm salivary cortisol and post dexamethasone salivary cortisol were found in NDDM subjects as compared to NGT. 10 pm salivary cortisol correlated significantly with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h plasma glucose (2h PG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) while post dex salivary cortisol correlated with 2h PG, HbA1c and salivary α-amylase with 2h PG. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that body mass index (OR: 1.840), SOC (OR: 0.688) and 10 pm salivary cortisol (OR: 1.427) were the strongest predictors of NDDM. The results of the present study indicate that NDDM subjects display significantly higher chronic stress and stress responses when compared to subjects with NGT. Chronic stress and endocrine stress responses are significantly associated with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus.

  4. Personality Moderates the Interaction between Positive and Negative Daily Events Predicting Negative Affect and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Longua, Julie; DeHart, Tracy; Tennen, Howard; Armeli, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    A 30-day diary study examined personality moderators (neuroticism and extraversion) of the interaction between positive and negative daily events predicting daily negative affect and night-time stress. Multilevel analyses revealed positive daily events buffered the effect of negative daily events on negative affect for individuals low in neuroticism and individuals high in extraversion, but not for individuals high in neuroticism or individuals low in extraversion. Positive daily events also buffered the effect of negative daily events on that night’s stress, but only for participants low in neuroticism. As such, this research linked today’s events to tonight’s stressfulness. This study advances our understanding of how neuroticism and extraversion influence within-person associations between positive and negative events predicting negative affect and stress. PMID:20161239

  5. Transcript changes in Vibrio cholerae in response to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiuping; Liang, Weili; Du, Pengcheng; Yan, Meiying; Kan, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, which is a serious human intestinal pathogen, often resides and thrives in estuaries but requires major self-regulation to overcome intestinal hyperosmotic stress or high salt stress in water and food. In the present study, we selected multiple O1 and O139 group V. cholerae strains that were isolated from different regions and during different years to study their salt tolerance. Based on the mechanisms that other bacteria use to respond to high salt stress, we selected salt stress-response related genes to study the mechanisms which V. cholerae responds to high salt stress. V. cholerae strains showed salt-resistance characteristics that varied in salt concentrations from 4% to 6%. However, group O1 and group O139 showed no significant difference in the degree of salt tolerance. The primary responses of bacteria to salt stress, including Na(+) exclusion, K(+) uptake and glutamate biosynthesis, were observed in V. cholerae strains. In addition, some sigma factors were up-regulated in V. cholerae strains, suggesting that V. cholerae may recruit common sigma factors to achieve an active salt stress response. However, some changes in gene transcript levels in response to salt stress in V. cholerae were strain-specific. In particular, hierarchical clustering of differentially expressed genes indicated that transcript levels of these genes were correlated with the degree of salt tolerance. Therefore, elevated transcript levels of some genes, including sigma factors and genes involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, may be due to the salt tolerance of strains. In addition, high salt-tolerant strains may recruit common as well as additional sigma factors to activate the salt stress response. PMID:25589902

  6. Exercise-induced stress response as an adaptive tolerance strategy.

    PubMed Central

    Sonneborn, J S; Barbee, S A

    1998-01-01

    Interaction between the quality of the environment and the health of the exposed population determines the survival response of living organisms. The phenomenon of induced tolerance by exposure to threshold levels of stressors to stimulate natural defense mechanisms has potential therapeutic value. The paucity of information on predictability of individual response and information on the operative fundamental mechanisms limit applicability of the adaptive tolerance strategy. A potential biomarker of the stress response includes members of the stress-inducible ubiquitin gene family. Transcript sizes detected with Northern blot analysis identify different classes of ubiquitin gene family members and the intensity of the radioactive signal allows abundance determinations. Using moderate exercise as the stressor, significant increase (p < 0.028) in abundance of inducible polyubiquitin genes was found in human blood. Both the potential of exercise as a model system of a natural stress inducer and polyubiquitin as a biomarker of stress were established in these studies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9539026

  7. Qualitative Development of the PROMIS® Pediatric Stress Response Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, William; Pajer, Kathleen; Riley, Anne W.; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the qualitative development of the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Pediatric Stress Response item banks. Methods Stress response concepts were specified through a literature review and interviews with content experts, children, and parents. A library comprising 2,677 items derived from 71 instruments was developed. Items were classified into conceptual categories; new items were written and redundant items were removed. Items were then revised based on cognitive interviews (n = 39 children), readability analyses, and translatability reviews. Results 2 pediatric Stress Response sub-domains were identified: somatic experiences (43 items) and psychological experiences (64 items). Final item pools cover the full range of children’s stress experiences. Items are comprehensible among children aged ≥8 years and ready for translation. Conclusions Child- and parent-report versions of the item banks assess children’s somatic and psychological states when demands tax their adaptive capabilities. PMID:23124904

  8. Hormonal control of cold stress responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Eremina, Marina; Rozhon, Wilfried; Poppenberger, Brigitte

    2016-02-01

    Cold stress responses in plants are highly sophisticated events that alter the biochemical composition of cells for protection from damage caused by low temperatures. In addition, cold stress has a profound impact on plant morphologies, causing growth repression and reduced yields. Complex signalling cascades are utilised to induce changes in cold-responsive gene expression that enable plants to withstand chilling or even freezing temperatures. These cascades are governed by the activity of plant hormones, and recent research has provided a better understanding of how cold stress responses are integrated with developmental pathways that modulate growth and initiate other events that increase cold tolerance. Information on the hormonal control of cold stress signalling is summarised to highlight the significant progress that has been made and indicate gaps that still exist in our understanding.

  9. Female Clerical Workers' Occupational Stress: The Role of Person and Social Resources, Negative Affectivity, and Stress Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jodi E.; Long, Bonita C.

    2002-01-01

    Relations among person and social resources, work-stress appraisals, and depression were examined with data from 2 longitudinal studies of female clerical workers. Results were consistent with predictions that primary appraisals contribute to change in depression beyond the effects of person and social resources and negative affectivity. There was…

  10. Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress response in orofacial inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Sun; Bae, Jin Young; Kim, Tae Heon; Kim, Yun Sook; Suk, Kyoungho; Bae, Yong Chul

    2014-12-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in many neurological diseases and inflammatory responses. Inflammatory mediators induce neuronal damage and trigger the neuropathic or inflammatory pain. But there is very little data on the role of the ER stress response in pain mechanisms. In this study, we explored whether the ER stress response is involved in orofacial inflammatory pain by using a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-injected rat model. The thermal pain hypersensitivity increased significantly after CFA injection. We found that the protein and mRNA levels of ER stress response genes, GRP78/Bip and p-eIF2α, increased significantly in trigeminal ganglion (TG) of CFA-injected rats compared to control animals. In immunofluorescence analysis, a significant increase of GRP78 and p-eIF2α immunopositive neurons was observed in CFA-injected TG compared to control TG. When we administered an ER stress modulator, salubrinal, CFA-induced thermal pain hypersensitivity was temporally reduced. Thus, our study suggests that ER stress responses in TG neurons contribute to CFA-induced inflammatory pain, and may comprise an important molecular mechanism underlying the orofacial inflammatory pain pathway. PMID:25548537

  11. Chloroplast Retrograde Regulation of Heat Stress Responses in Plants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ai-Zhen; Guo, Fang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that intracellular signaling from chloroplast to nucleus plays a vital role in stress responses to survive environmental perturbations. The chloroplasts were proposed as sensors to heat stress since components of the photosynthetic apparatus housed in the chloroplast are the major targets of thermal damage in plants. Thus, communicating subcellular perturbations to the nucleus is critical during exposure to extreme environmental conditions such as heat stress. By coordinating expression of stress specific nuclear genes essential for adaptive responses to hostile environment, plants optimize different cell functions and activate acclimation responses through retrograde signaling pathways. The efficient communication between plastids and the nucleus is highly required for such diverse metabolic and biosynthetic functions during adaptation processes to environmental stresses. In recent years, several putative retrograde signals released from plastids that regulate nuclear genes have been identified and signaling pathways have been proposed. In this review, we provide an update on retrograde signals derived from tetrapyrroles, carotenoids, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and organellar gene expression (OGE) in the context of heat stress responses and address their roles in retrograde regulation of heat-responsive gene expression, systemic acquired acclimation, and cellular coordination in plants. PMID:27066042

  12. Involvement of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Orofacial Inflammatory Pain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun Sun; Bae, Jin Young; Kim, Tae Heon; Kim, Yun Sook; Suk, Kyoungho

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in many neurological diseases and inflammatory responses. Inflammatory mediators induce neuronal damage and trigger the neuropathic or inflammatory pain. But there is very little data on the role of the ER stress response in pain mechanisms. In this study, we explored whether the ER stress response is involved in orofacial inflammatory pain by using a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-injected rat model. The thermal pain hypersensitivity increased significantly after CFA injection. We found that the protein and mRNA levels of ER stress response genes, GRP78/Bip and p-eIF2α, increased significantly in trigeminal ganglion (TG) of CFA-injected rats compared to control animals. In immunofluorescence analysis, a significant increase of GRP78 and p-eIF2α immunopositive neurons was observed in CFA-injected TG compared to control TG. When we administered an ER stress modulator, salubrinal, CFA-induced thermal pain hypersensitivity was temporally reduced. Thus, our study suggests that ER stress responses in TG neurons contribute to CFA-induced inflammatory pain, and may comprise an important molecular mechanism underlying the orofacial inflammatory pain pathway. PMID:25548537

  13. Chloroplast Retrograde Regulation of Heat Stress Responses in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ai-Zhen; Guo, Fang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that intracellular signaling from chloroplast to nucleus plays a vital role in stress responses to survive environmental perturbations. The chloroplasts were proposed as sensors to heat stress since components of the photosynthetic apparatus housed in the chloroplast are the major targets of thermal damage in plants. Thus, communicating subcellular perturbations to the nucleus is critical during exposure to extreme environmental conditions such as heat stress. By coordinating expression of stress specific nuclear genes essential for adaptive responses to hostile environment, plants optimize different cell functions and activate acclimation responses through retrograde signaling pathways. The efficient communication between plastids and the nucleus is highly required for such diverse metabolic and biosynthetic functions during adaptation processes to environmental stresses. In recent years, several putative retrograde signals released from plastids that regulate nuclear genes have been identified and signaling pathways have been proposed. In this review, we provide an update on retrograde signals derived from tetrapyrroles, carotenoids, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and organellar gene expression (OGE) in the context of heat stress responses and address their roles in retrograde regulation of heat-responsive gene expression, systemic acquired acclimation, and cellular coordination in plants. PMID:27066042

  14. Postweaning isolation affects responses to incentive contrast in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Cuenya, Lucas; Mustaca, Alba; Kamenetzky, Giselle

    2015-03-01

    Adolescence is a time involving a series of changes in the use of appetitive reinforcers like food, as well as neuroendocrine changes like those taking place in the mesolimbic dopamine function. Social isolation from postnatal day 21 to 36 in rats leads to behavioral and neurophysiological alterations such as increased consumption of appetitive reinforcers. The work is focused on studying how exposure to chronic stress induced by social isolation during adolescence can have a long-lasting effect on responses to reinforcement shifts in adulthood. Two experiments were performed in rats in order to analyze the effect of adolescent isolation on the responses to unanticipated shifts in reinforcement during adulthood, in reinforcement devaluation (32-4% of sucrose solution), increase (4-32% of sucrose solution), and extinction (32-0% of sucrose solution) procedures. Adolescent isolation intensified the intake response resulting from a reinforcement increase (i.e., greater positive contrast), but had no effect on the response to reinforcement devaluation and omission. The implications of this procedure are discussed, along with the underlying behavioral and neurochemical mechanisms.

  15. Contrasting urban and rural heat stress responses to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. M.; Oleson, K. W.; Lawrence, D. M.

    2012-02-01

    Hot temperatures in combination with high humidity cause human discomfort and may increase morbidity and mortality. A global climate model with an embedded urban model is used to explore the urban-rural contrast in the wet-bulb globe temperature, a heat stress index accounting for temperature and humidity. Wet-bulb globe temperatures are calculated at each model time step to resolve the heat stress diurnal cycle. The model simulates substantially higher heat stress in urban areas compared to neighbouring rural areas. Urban humidity deficit only weakly offsets the enhanced heat stress due to the large night-time urban heat island. The urban-rural contrast in heat stress is most pronounced at night and over mid-latitudes and subtropics. During heatwaves, the urban heat stress amplification is particularly pronounced. Heat stress strongly increases with doubled CO2 concentrations over both urban and rural surfaces. The tropics experience the greatest increase in number of high-heat-stress nights, despite a relatively weak ˜2°C warming. Given the lack of a distinct annual cycle and high relative humidity, the modest tropical warming leads to exceedance of the present-day record levels during more than half of the year in tropical regions, where adaptive capacity is often low. While the absolute urban and rural heat stress response to 2 × CO2 is similar, the occurrence of nights with extremely high heat stress increases more in cities than surrounding rural areas.

  16. Perceived occupational stress, affective, and physical well-being among telecommunication employees in Greece.

    PubMed

    Lazuras, Lambros; Rodafinos, Angelos; Matsiggos, Georgios; Stamatoulakis, Alexander

    2009-03-01

    The present study examined four potential roles of work-related negative affectivity on the associations between self-reported occupational stress and physical well-being among telecommunication employees in Greece. Participants (764, predominantly male) completed a battery of self-report measures on perceived occupational stress, negative affectivity, and illness symptoms. In line with previous research, negative affectivity exerted a nuisance effect, by inflating the association between reported stressors and illness symptoms, and significantly predicted illness symptoms, over and above the effects of stressors. In addition, negative affectivity influenced reported illness symptom indirectly, through the effects of stressors, and moderated the relationship between interpersonal conflict at work and illness symptoms. The findings suggest that negative affectivity can largely explain and influence in different ways the associations between self-reported stress and physical strain. It is recommended that future studies of occupational stress should control for the effects of negative affectivity, and that health professionals should be cautious of its effects when interpreting relationships between self-reported occupational stress and physical well-being. PMID:19185405

  17. Stress affects theta activity in limbic networks and impairs novelty-induced exploration and familiarization

    PubMed Central

    Jacinto, Luis R.; Reis, Joana S.; Dias, Nuno S.; Cerqueira, João J.; Correia, José H.; Sousa, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to a novel environment triggers the response of several brain areas that regulate emotional behaviors. Here, we studied theta oscillations within the hippocampus (HPC)-amygdala (AMY)-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) network in exploration of a novel environment and subsequent familiarization through repeated exposures to that same environment; in addition, we assessed how concomitant stress exposure could disrupt this activity and impair both behavioral processes. Local field potentials (LFP) were simultaneously recorded from dorsal and ventral hippocampus (dHPC and vHPC, respectively), basolateral amygdala (BLA) and mPFC in freely behaving rats while they were exposed to a novel environment, then repeatedly re-exposed over the course of 3 weeks to that same environment and, finally, on re-exposure to a novel unfamiliar environment. A longitudinal analysis of theta activity within this circuit revealed a reduction of vHPC and BLA theta power and vHPC-BLA theta coherence through familiarization which was correlated with a return to normal exploratory behavior in control rats. In contrast, a persistent over-activation of the same brain regions was observed in stressed rats that displayed impairments in novel exploration and familiarization processes. Importantly, we show that stress also affected intra-hippocampal synchrony and heightened the coherence between vHPC and BLA. In summary, we demonstrate that modulatory theta activity in the aforementioned circuit, namely in the vHPC and BLA, is correlated with the expression of anxiety in novelty-induced exploration and familiarization in both normal and pathological conditions. PMID:24137113

  18. Organizational and activational effects of testosterone on masculinization of female physiological and behavioral stress responses.

    PubMed

    Goel, Nirupa; Bale, Tracy L

    2008-12-01

    The prevalence of affective disorders is two times greater in women than in men. The onset of anxiety and depression occurs at different ages that may correspond to key developmental periods when the brain is more vulnerable to hormonal and exogenous influences. Because stressful life events can precipitate disease onset, the development of greater stress sensitivity in females may contribute to their increased vulnerability. Gonadal hormone exposure in males during early development and again from puberty onward plays a prominent role in sexually dimorphic brain formation, possibly contributing to sex differences in stress responsivity. Therefore, organizational effects of testosterone propionate (TP) administered postnatally and activational effects of TP administered beginning at puberty on adult female physiological and behavioral stress responses were examined in mice. Although the activational effects of TP in females ameliorated the sex difference in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response, there was no effect of postnatal TP. Similarly, higher immobile time in intact females in the tail suspension test was blunted by activational TP in the absence of postnatal TP. However, in the marble-burying test of anxiety-like behaviors, organizational and activational TP independently resulted in increased burying behaviors. These results show that TP administration has distinct effects on reducing physiological and behavioral stress responsivity in rodent models and suggest that sex differences in these responses may partially result from the absence of testosterone in females.

  19. Pre-spawning parental stress affects channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus reproduction and subsequent progeny performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Routine fish handling procedures associated with seining, selecting, transportation, crowding, weighing, and stripping have shown to cause negative physiological responses to hatchery performance. In teleosts, cortisol is the main corticosteroid released during stress, and hence, plasma cortisol co...

  20. Stresses on grandparents and other relatives caring for children affected by HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Linsk, Nathan L; Mason, Sally

    2004-05-01

    This study investigated the needs of relative caregivers of children in the child welfare system whose parents had HIV. Families of children supported by the state child welfare agency were invited to participate in the study; 17 families reported that HIV affected them and 11 families did not identify HIV as an issue. The findings indicate that complex emotional and behavioral issues stressed the HIV-affected kin caregivers; these issues included the children's behavioral problems, HIV-related concerns, adolescent issues, emotional difficulties, and sexual abuse, HIV-affected caregivers had more concern about their health and multiple roles. Nonaffected caregivers were less likely to report severe parenting stress and more likely to report financial stress. HIV-affected caregivers require attention and intervention by social workers, child welfare workers, and case managers.

  1. The Stress Response of Escherichia coli under Microgravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, S.; Matin, A.

    At the onset of adverse environmental conditions, bacteria induce a controlled stress response to enable survival. Escherichia coli induces stress-specific reactions in response to a variety of environmental strains. A family of proteins termed sigma (s) factors is pivotal to the regulation of stress responses in bacteria. In particular Sigma S (ss) regulates several stress responses in E. coli and serves as an important global stress regulatory protein. Under optimal growth conditions, levels of ss are maintained at low cellular concentrations primarily via a proteolytic regulatory mechanism. At the onset of stress, ss levels increase due to increased stability of the molecule, facilitating transcriptional initiation and up regulation of specific stress related proteins. Concentrations of ss can therefore be indicative of cellular stress levels. Recent work by Kendrick et al demonstrated that Salmonella species grown under conditions of simulated microgravity display increased virulence - a stress-related phenotype. Using E. coli as a model system we aim to investigate the stress response elicited by the organism under conditions of simulated microgravity (SMG). SMG is generated in specially constructed rotary cell culture systems termed HARVs (High Aspect Ratio Vessels- Synthecon Inc.). By rotating at constant velocity around a vertical axis an environment is produced in which the gravitational vectors are randomized over the surface of the cell, resulting in an overall-time-averaged gravitational vector of 10-2 x g (4). E. coli cultures grown in HARVs under conditions of normal gravity (NG) and SMG repeatedly display slower growth kinetics under SMG. Western analysis of cells at exponential and stationary phase of growth from both cultures reveal similar levels of ss exist in exponential phase under both SMG and NG conditions. However, during stationary phase, levels of ss are at least 2-fold higher under conditions of SMG as compared to NG. Translational fusion

  2. Molecular and biochemical responses of Volvox carteri to oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingappa, U.; Rankin-Gee, E. K.; Lera, M.; Bebour, B.; Marcu, O.

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the intracellular response to environmental stresses is a key aspect to understanding the limits of habitability for life as we know it. A wide range of relevant stressors, from heat shock to radiation, result in the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are used physiologically as signaling molecules to cause changes in gene expression and metabolism. However, ROS, including superoxide (O2-) and peroxides, are also highly reactive molecules that cause oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. Here we studied stress response in the multicellular, eukaryotic green alga Volvox carteri, after exposure to heat shock conditions. We show that the ROS response to heat stress is paralleled by changes in photosynthetic metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression, and fluctuations in the elemental composition of cells. Metabolism, as measured by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry over two hours of heat stress, showed a linear decrease in the photosynthetic efficiency of Volvox. ROS quantification uncovered an increase in ROS in the culture medium, paralleled by a decrease in ROS within the Volvox colonies, suggesting an export mechanism is utilized to mitigate stress. Enzyme kinetics indicated an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity over the heat stress timecourse. Using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, we show that these changes coincide with cell-specific import/export and intracellular redistribution of transition elements and halides, suggesting that the cellular metallome is also engaged in mediating oxidative stress in Volvox.

  3. Role of chromatin in water stress responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Han, Soon-Ki; Wagner, Doris

    2014-06-01

    As sessile organisms, plants are exposed to environmental stresses throughout their life. They have developed survival strategies such as developmental and morphological adaptations, as well as physiological responses, to protect themselves from adverse environments. In addition, stress sensing triggers large-scale transcriptional reprogramming directed at minimizing the deleterious effect of water stress on plant cells. Here, we review recent findings that reveal a role of chromatin in water stress responses. In addition, we discuss data in support of the idea that chromatin remodelling and modifying enzymes may be direct targets of stress signalling pathways. Modulation of chromatin regulator activity by these signaling pathways may be critical in minimizing potential trade-offs between growth and stress responses. Alterations in the chromatin organization and/or in the activity of chromatin remodelling and modifying enzymes may furthermore contribute to stress memory. Mechanistic insight into these phenomena derived from studies in model plant systems should allow future engineering of broadly drought-tolerant crop plants that do not incur unnecessary losses in yield or growth.

  4. Ontogeny of the stress response in chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feist, G.; Schreck, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Whole body concentrations of cortisol were determined via radioimmunoassay in chinook salmon, Onchorynchus tshawytscha, during early development in both stressed and non-stressed fish to determine when the corticosteroidogenic stress response first appeared. Progeny from both pooled and individual females were examined to determine if differences existed in offspring from different females. Levels of cortisol were low in eyed eggs, increased at hatch, decreased 2 weeks later and then remained constant thereafter. Differences in cortisol between stressed and control fish were found 1 week after hatch and persisted for the remainder of the study. The magnitude of the stress response, or relative amount of cortisol produced, generally increased from the time when it was first detected, but a decrease in the ability to elicit cortisol was seen 4 weeks after hatching. Cortisol content of separate progeny from two individual females showed a similar pattern to that seen in pooled eggs. Our results indicate that chinook salmon are capable of producing cortisol following a stressful event approximately 1 week after the time of hatching. The decrease in endogenous cortisol content seen 2 weeks after hatching, and the decrease in the magnitude of the stress response seen 4 weeks after hatching may be comparable to developmental events documented in mammals where corticosteroid synthesis is i