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Sample records for affecting thyroid function

  1. Thyroid function and obesity.

    PubMed

    Longhi, Silvia; Radetti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, childhood obesity is one of the biggest health emergencies in the developed countries. Obesity leads to multiple metabolic alterations which increase the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Thyroid function has been often described as altered in obese children, however, it is not clear whether the altered thyroid function is the cause or the consequence of fat excess. On the other hand, thyroid structure seems also to be affected. Nevertheless, both functional and structural alterations seem to improve after weight loss and therefore no treatment is needed. PMID:23149391

  2. Thyroid function in pregnancy☆

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones. Normal thyroid function during pregnancy is important for both the mother and developing fetus. This review discusses the changes in thyroid physiology that occur during pregnancy, the significance of thyroid function tests and thyroid antibody titers assessed during pregnancy, and the potential obstetric complications associated with maternal hypothyroidism. PMID:22658718

  3. Thyroid Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... problem that is directly affecting the thyroid (primary hypothyroidism). The opposite situation, in which the TSH level ... making enough TSH to stimulate the thyroid (secondary hypothyroidism). In most healthy individuals, a normal TSH value ...

  4. Thyroid Function and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils; Andersen, Stig; Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Karmisholt, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Important interaction exists between thyroid function, weight control, and obesity. Several mechanisms seem to be involved, and in studies of groups of people the pattern of thyroid function tests depends on the balance of obesity and underlying thyroid disease in the cohort studied. Obese people with a normal thyroid gland tend to have activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis with higher serum TSH and thyroid hormones in serum. On the other hand, small differences in thyroid function are associated with up to 5 kg difference in body weight. The weight loss after therapy of overt hypothyroidism is caused by excretion of water bound in tissues (myxoedema). Many patients treated for hyperthyroidism experience a gain of more weight than they lost during the active phase of the disease. The mechanism for this excessive weight gain has not been fully elucidated. New studies on the relation between L-T3 therapy and weight control are discussed. The interaction between weight control and therapy of thyroid disease is important to many patients and it should be studied in more detail. PMID:24783015

  5. Thyroid function and obesity.

    PubMed

    Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils; Andersen, Stig; Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Karmisholt, Jesper

    2012-10-01

    Important interaction exists between thyroid function, weight control, and obesity. Several mechanisms seem to be involved, and in studies of groups of people the pattern of thyroid function tests depends on the balance of obesity and underlying thyroid disease in the cohort studied. Obese people with a normal thyroid gland tend to have activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis with higher serum TSH and thyroid hormones in serum. On the other hand, small differences in thyroid function are associated with up to 5 kg difference in body weight. The weight loss after therapy of overt hypothyroidism is caused by excretion of water bound in tissues (myxoedema). Many patients treated for hyperthyroidism experience a gain of more weight than they lost during the active phase of the disease. The mechanism for this excessive weight gain has not been fully elucidated. New studies on the relation between L-T3 therapy and weight control are discussed. The interaction between weight control and therapy of thyroid disease is important to many patients and it should be studied in more detail. PMID:24783015

  6. Thyroid function and postmenopause.

    PubMed

    Schindler, A E

    2003-02-01

    There is an increasing prevalence of high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with age - particularly in postmenopausal women - which are higher than in men. The incidence of thyroid disease in a population of postmenopausal women is as follows: clinical thyroid disease, about 2.4%; subclinical thyroid disease, about 23.2%. Among the group with subclinical thyroid disease, 73.8% are hypothyroid and 26.2% are hyperthyroid. The rate of thyroid cancer increases with age. The symptoms of thyroid disease can be similar to postmenopausal complaints and are clinically difficult to differentiate. There can also be an absence of clinical symptoms. It is of importance that even mild thyroid failure can have a number of clinical effects such as depression, memory loss, cognitive impairment and a variety of neuromuscular complaints. Myocardial function has been found to be subtly impaired. There is also an increased cardiovascular risk, caused by increased serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein. These adverse effects can be improved or corrected by L-thyroxine replacement therapy. Such treatment has been found to be cost-effective. With time, overt hypothyroidism can develop. Therefore, routine screening of thyroid function in the climacteric period to determine subclinical thyroid disease is recommended. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women with hypothyroidism treated with thyroxine causes changes in free thyroxine and TSH. Increased binding of thyroxine to elevated thyroxine-binding globulin causes an elevation of TSH by feedback. Since adaptation is insufficient, there is an increased need for thyroxine in these women taking HRT. TSH levels should be controlled at 12 weeks after the beginning of therapy. At higher age the need for iodine and thyroxine is decreased. Therefore, therapy has to be controlled. For bone metabolism thyroid hormones play a dominant role. While there are

  7. Affective cycling in thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tapp, A.

    1988-05-01

    Depression in an elderly man with primary recurrent unipolar depression responded to radioactive iodine treatment of a thyrotoxic nodule, without the addition of psychotropic medications. Two months later, manic symptoms developed concomitant with the termination of the hyperthyroid state secondary to the radioactive iodine treatment. Clinical implications of these findings in relation to the possible mechanism of action of thyroid hormones on affective cycling are discussed.

  8. Thyroid function tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... free T4 (the main thyroid hormone in your blood) TSH (the hormone from the pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid to produce T4) T3 (also included sometimes) Other thyroid tests include: T3 resin uptake Thyroid scan

  9. Thyroid Function in Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated the thyroid function of 181 patients (mean age 14 years) with Down's syndrome and found more thyroid dysfunctions than in the general population. Periodic thyroid hormone function tests are recommended for Down's syndrome individuals, especially as they get older. (Author/DB)

  10. Thermogenesis and thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Freake, H C; Oppenheimer, J H

    1995-01-01

    The past 10 years have seen tremendous progress in the definition of the nuclear mechanism of action of thyroid hormones. Although the way in which these nuclear mechanisms underlie the 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3)-dependent stimulation of metabolic rate remains to be clarified, evidence favoring non-nuclear pathways is limited. Clearly, T3 stimulates both the production and consumption of energy within cells. It also exerts a number of parallel effects that result in increased oxygen consumption, e.g. on mitochondrial structure and composition; on the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, and on cardiac function. Additionally, T3 may increase the proton permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane, which implies that it may decrease the efficiency of energy production. These metabolic effects of T3 appear to be restricted to homeothermic-animals, representing a coordinated response to the challenge of maintaining body temperature. PMID:8527221

  11. [Regulation of thyroid and pituitary functions by lipopolysaccharide].

    PubMed

    Iaglova, N V; Berezov, T T

    2010-01-01

    Activation of toll-like receptors-4 by bacterial lipopolysaccharide downregulates pituitary and thyroid function. Besides decrease of thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion lipopolysaccharide affects secretion in follicular thyroid cells directly. The endotoxin partially activates and inhibits different phases of follicular thyrocytes' secretion. Lipopolysaccharide enhances thyroglobulin synthesis and exocytosis into follicular lumen and suppresses its resorbtion. It results in sharp drop of blood thyroxine concentration without decrease of deiodinases-mediated thiroxine to triiodothyronine conversion. Stimulation of the lipopolysaccharide-pretreated thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone increases resorbtion of thyroglobulin and thyroid hormone production. Combined stimulation of the thyroid gland increases protein bound thyroxine and triiodothyronine serum concentration unlike only TSH stimulation resulting in increase of free thyroid hormone levels. It also proves that binding capacity of thyroid hormone serum transport proteins during nonthyroidal illness syndrome remains normal. PMID:21341506

  12. [AMIODARONE AND THE THYROID FUNCTION].

    PubMed

    Jukić, Tomislav; Punda, Marija; Franceschi, Maja; Staniĉić, Josip; Granić, Roko; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-01-01

    Amiodarone is a benzofuran derivative that contains up to 40% of iodine. Amiodarone is used for treatment and prevention of life threatening supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The effects on thyroid gland vary from abnormalities in thyroid function tests to overt amiodarone induced hypothyroidism (AIH) and thyrotoxicosis (AIT). Patients with AIH are treated with L-thyroxine and may continue treatment with amiodarone. Two different forms of AIT have to be distinguished: amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism (AIT I) and thyroiditis (AIT II). AIT I is treated with antithyroid drugs, while total thyroidectomy and iodine-131 are used for definitive treatment. AIT II is treated with glucocorticoids. Patients with AIT have to stop treatment with amiodarone. Dronedarone is a less potent antiarrhythmic agent with structural and pharmacological properties similar to amiodarone. Dronedarone is devoid of iodine with fewer adverse effects and therefore it may be used in high risk patients for development of AIT or AIH. PMID:26380478

  13. Thyroid function and ultrasonically determined thyroid size in patients receiving long-term lithium treatment.

    PubMed

    Perrild, H; Hegedüs, L; Baastrup, P C; Kayser, L; Kastberg, S

    1990-11-01

    Thyroid function was investigated in 100 manic-depressive patients. Goiter was more common in patients treated with lithium for 1-5 years (44%) or more than 10 years (50%) than in patients who never received lithium (16%). Smoking contributed significantly to thyroid size and goiter. In nonsmoking patients, ultrasonically determined thyroid volume was significantly related to treatment duration. The mechanism behind this increased thyroid volume is unclear, as most patients had normal serum thyrotropin levels and no thyroid autoimmunity. Subclinical or overt hypothyroidism was found in 4% and 21% of patients treated for 1-5 and more than 10 years, respectively. Since few hypothyroid patients had autoimmunity or goiter, lithium may affect the thyroid gland directly. PMID:2221166

  14. Low-Normal Thyroid Function and Novel Cardiometabolic Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J.N.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.

    2015-01-01

    The concept is emerging that low-normal thyroid function, i.e., either higher thyroid-stimulating hormone or lower free thyroxine levels within the euthyroid reference range, could contribute to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is possible that adverse effects of low-normal thyroid function on cardiovascular outcome may be particularly relevant for specific populations, such as younger people and subjects with high cardiovascular risk. Low-normal thyroid function probably relates to modest increases in plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance, but effects on high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are inconsistent. Low-normal thyroid function may enhance plasma cholesteryl ester transfer, and contribute to an impaired ability of HDL to inhibit oxidative modification of LDL, reflecting pro-atherogenic alterations in lipoprotein metabolism and HDL function, respectively. Low-normal thyroid function also confers lower levels of bilirubin, a strong natural anti-oxidant. Remarkably, all these effects of low-normal thyroid functional status appear to be more outspoken in the context of chronic hyperglycemia and/or insulin resistance. Collectively, these data support the concept that low-normal thyroid function may adversely affect several processes which conceivably contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, beyond effects on conventional lipoprotein measures. PMID:25690422

  15. Low-normal thyroid function and novel cardiometabolic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J N; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2015-01-01

    The concept is emerging that low-normal thyroid function, i.e., either higher thyroid-stimulating hormone or lower free thyroxine levels within the euthyroid reference range, could contribute to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is possible that adverse effects of low-normal thyroid function on cardiovascular outcome may be particularly relevant for specific populations, such as younger people and subjects with high cardiovascular risk. Low-normal thyroid function probably relates to modest increases in plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance, but effects on high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are inconsistent. Low-normal thyroid function may enhance plasma cholesteryl ester transfer, and contribute to an impaired ability of HDL to inhibit oxidative modification of LDL, reflecting pro-atherogenic alterations in lipoprotein metabolism and HDL function, respectively. Low-normal thyroid function also confers lower levels of bilirubin, a strong natural anti-oxidant. Remarkably, all these effects of low-normal thyroid functional status appear to be more outspoken in the context of chronic hyperglycemia and/or insulin resistance. Collectively, these data support the concept that low-normal thyroid function may adversely affect several processes which conceivably contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, beyond effects on conventional lipoprotein measures. PMID:25690422

  16. Thyroid function after thermal trauma.

    PubMed

    Smeds, S; Kågedal, B; Liedén, G; Liljedahl, S O

    1981-01-01

    The thyroid function was analyzed for 4-6 weeks in a prospective study of 12 thermally injured patients. The burn size range was 15-90%. Serum concentrations of 3,5,3'-triidothyronine (T3) was suppressed and 3,3',5'-triidothyronine (rT3) was increased. The ratio T3/rT3 was subnormal on the third day after the trauma and normalized after 3 weeks. Thyroxine and the free T4-index were within the normal range. The free T3-index were within the normal range. The TSH concentration was initially low but slowly increasing during the period of study. The concentration of the thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) varied within the normal range. The T3 resin uptake test varied inversely with the TBG concentration. The concentration of thyroxine-binding prealbumin (TBPA) was subnormal. A control experiment excluded possible interference on the hormone concentrations of administered donor blood and plasma. It is concluded that the thyroid hormones are not responsible for the posttraumatic hypermetabolism in burn injury. The present findings further indicate a depletion of metabolically active thyroid hormones at the cellular level after burn injury. PMID:6803354

  17. Etiopathogenetic factors, thyroid functions and thyroid autoimmunity in melasma patients

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Nimet; Kılıç, Arzu; Koparal, Suha; Artüz, Ferda; Çakmak, Atıl; Köse, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Melasma is a common chronic, acquired pigmentation disorder with a significant impact on the quality of life of patients. Aim To investigate the etiopathogenetic factors, thyroid functions and thyroid autoimmunity in patients with melasma. Material and methods Forty-five women with melasma and 45 age-matched healthy women were included in the study group. A detailed history was taken from the patients including triggering factors of melasma. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroglobulin (AbTG) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (Ab-TPO) were measured and thyroid ultrasonography was performed for each subject. Results In 26.7% of patients, pregnancy, in 17.8%, oral contraceptive use and in 13.3%, intense sunlight exposure were the triggering factors. 17.8% of patients had a family history of melasma. FT4, TSH and AbTG levels were significantly higher in the patient group. Conclusions The results suggest that a combination of factors including pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, sunlight and genetic factors often trigger melasma. Thyroid hormones and thyroid autoimmunity may also play a role in the pathogenesis which needs to be proven by further studies. PMID:26759539

  18. Progress in standardizing and harmonizing thyroid function tests.

    PubMed

    Faix, James D; Miller, W Greg

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormone. Because thyroid hormone synthesis is affected by iodine deficiency on the one hand and by excess iodine intake on the other, thyroid function biomarkers may be useful for assessing iodine status and studying the effects of iodine supplementation. However, reference intervals for some of the most useful thyroid function biomarkers, including serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroglobulin, vary widely due to variability in the commercially available immunoassays for these tests. Recognizing the need for standardization of thyroid function testing, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine established a working group, later restructured as the Committee for Standardization of Thyroid Function Tests, to examine its feasibility. The committee has established a conventional reference measurement procedure for FT4 and an approach to harmonization of results for TSH. Panels of single-donation human blood specimens that span the measuring interval of the immunoassays were used to assess the performance of commercially available immunoassays and form the basis for their recalibration. Recalibration of the manufacturers' methods for both FT4 and TSH has shown that the variability among immunoassays can be successfully eliminated for euthyroid individuals as well as for patients with thyroid disease. The committee is not investigating the standardization of thyroglobulin at the present time. PMID:27534642

  19. The Role of Thyroid Hormone in Testicular Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Márcia Santos; Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is a critical regulator of growth, development and metabolism in virtually all tissues, and altered thyroid status affects many organs and systems. Although for many years testis has been regarded as a thyroid hormone unresponsive organ, it is now evident that thyroid hormone plays an important role in testicular development and function. A considerable amount of data shows that thyroid hormone influences steroidogenesis as well as spermatogenesis. The involvement of triiodothyronine (T3) in the control of Sertoli cell proliferation and functional maturation is widely accepted, as well as its role in postnatal Leydig cell differentiation and steroidogenesis. The presence of thyroid hormone receptors in testicular cells throughout development and in adulthood implies that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects. Several recent studies have employed different methodologies and techniques in an attempt to understand the mechanisms underlying thyroid hormone effects on testicular cells. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of the recent advances made regarding the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function. PMID:18728126

  20. Thyroid Function and Cognition during Aging.

    PubMed

    Bégin, M E; Langlois, M F; Lorrain, D; Cunnane, S C

    2008-01-01

    We summarize here the studies examining the association between thyroid function and cognitive performance from an aging perspective. The available data suggest that there may be a continuum in which cognitive dysfunction can result from increased or decreased concentrations of thyroid hormones. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism in middle-aged and elderly adults are both associated with decreased cognitive functioning, especially memory, visuospatial organization, attention, and reaction time. Mild variations of thyroid function, even within normal limits, can have significant consequences for cognitive function in the elderly. Different cognitive deficits possibly related to thyroid failure do not necessarily follow a consistent pattern, and L-thyroxine treatment may not always completely restore normal functioning in patients with hypothyroidism. There is little or no consensus in the literature regarding how thyroid function is associated with cognitive performance in the elderly. PMID:19415145

  1. Thyroid function in patients with mycetoma.

    PubMed

    Fahal, A H; Omer, S M; el Razig, S A; Ali, A B; Mahdi, E M; Mahgoub, E S

    1995-07-01

    Thyroid function was assessed in seventy two patients with various types of mycetoma. There was no evidence of clinical or biochemical thyroid dysfunction in these patients. The symptoms encountered in some of the mycetoma patients mimic those of hypothyroidism should be attributed to other factors possibly mental depression and apathy. PMID:7498029

  2. Thyroid Function Testing in Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease: Trimester-specific Reference Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.

    2013-01-01

    During pregnancy the thyroid is hyperstimulated, resulting in changes in thyroid hormone concentrations. Accurate assessment of thyroid function during pregnancy is critical, for both the initiation of thyroid hormone therapy, and for the adjustment of thyroid hormone dose in those already receiving thyroid hormone. Trimester-specific intervals are especially important during pregnancy when thyroid insufficiency may be associated with adverse obstetric outcome and fetal neurodevelopmental deficits. Gestational age-specific reference intervals are now available for thyroid function tests. Knowing the expected normal changes in hormone concentrations throughout pregnancy allows individualized supplementation when necessary. PMID:16418685

  3. Thyroid function in Danish greenhouse workers

    PubMed Central

    Toft, Gunnar; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background From animal studies it is known that currently used pesticides can disturb thyroid function. Methods In the present study we investigated the thyroid function in 122 Danish greenhouse workers, to evaluate if greenhouse workers classified as highly exposed to pesticides experiences altered thyroid levels compared to greenhouse workers with lower exposure. Serum samples from the greenhouse workers were sampled both in the spring and the fall to evaluate if differences in pesticide use between seasons resulted in altered thyroid hormone levels. Results We found a moderate reduction of free thyroxine (FT4) (10–16%) among the persons working in greenhouses with a high spraying load both in samples collected in the spring and the fall, but none of the other measured thyroid hormones differed significantly between exposure groups in the cross-sectional comparisons. However, in longitudinal analysis of the individual thyroid hormone level between the spring and the fall, more pronounced differences where found with on average 32% higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level in the spring compared to the fall and at the same time a 5–9% lower total triiodthyroxin (TT3), free triiodthyroxine (FT3) and FT4. The difference between seasons was not consistently more pronounced in the group classified as high exposure compared to the low exposure groups. Conclusion The present study indicates that pesticide exposure among Danish greenhouse workers results in only minor disturbances of thyroid hormone levels. PMID:17147831

  4. Maternal Thyroid Dysfunction During Pregnancy and Thyroid Function of Her Child in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Päkkilä, Fanni; Männistö, Tuija; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Ruokonen, Aimo; Bloigu, Aini; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2013-01-01

    Context: Normal maternal thyroid function is important for fetal development. No knowledge exists on how maternal thyroid function and thyroid antibodies during early pregnancy affect thyroid function of the offspring. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between maternal and adolescent thyroid function parameters. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 3673 mother-child pairs from the prospective, population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 participated in the study. Maternal serum samples were drawn in early pregnancy (<20th gestational week), and children's samples were drawn at the age of 16 years and analyzed for TSH, free T4 (fT4), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Abs). Main Outcome Measures: TSH, fT4, and TPO-Ab concentrations were measured at the age of 16 years. Children of mothers with thyroid dysfunction (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or hypothyroxinemia) or TPO-Ab positivity were compared to those of euthyroid or TPO-Ab-negative mothers. The distributions are expressed as medians with 5th to 95th percentiles. Results: Boys of hypothyroid mothers had higher TSH concentrations than those of euthyroid mothers: 2.0 (0.9–4.0) vs 1.7 (0.8–3.3) mU/L; P = .001. Children of hyperthyroid mothers had lower TSH concentrations than those of euthyroid mothers: 1.3 (0.6–4.2) vs 1.7 (0.8–3.3) mU/L, P = .013, for boys; and 1.3 (0.5–3.5) vs 1.6 (0.7–3.4) mU/L, P = .034, for girls. There were no differences in TSH or fT4 concentrations between children of hypothyroxinemic and euthyroid mothers. TPO-Ab-positive mothers more often had TPO-Ab-positive children (prevalence, 9.0 vs 3.7% among boys, and 22.7 vs 7.5% among girls). Conclusions: Maternal thyroid dysfunction and TPO-Ab positivity during pregnancy seem to modify thyroid function parameters of offspring even in adolescence. Whether this increases the thyroid disease risk of the children is still unknown. PMID:23408571

  5. Metals in blood and urine, and thyroid function among adults in the United States 2007-2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Background: The thyroid is integral to regulation of development and metabolism. Certain metals have been shown to affect thyroid function in occupationally exposed persons, but few studies have been conducted in the general population. Objective: To evaluate the as...

  6. Thyroid organotypic rat and human cultures used to investigate drug effects on thyroid function, hormone synthesis and release pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Vickers, Alison E.M.; Heale, Jason; Sinclair, John R.; Morris, Stephen; Rowe, Josh M.; Fisher, Robyn L.

    2012-04-01

    Drug induced thyroid effects were evaluated in organotypic models utilizing either a rat thyroid lobe or human thyroid slices to compare rodent and human response. An inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) function led to a perturbation in the expression of key genes in thyroid hormone synthesis and release pathways. The clinically used thiourea drugs, methimazole (MMI) and 6-n-propyl-2-thioruacil (PTU), were used to evaluate thyroid drug response in these models. Inhibition of TPO occurred early as shown in rat thyroid lobes (2 h) and was sustained in both rat (24–48 h) and human (24 h) with ≥ 10 μM MMI. Thyroid from rats treated with single doses of MMI (30–1000 mg/kg) exhibited sustained TPO inhibition at 48 h. The MMI in vivo thyroid concentrations were comparable to the culture concentrations (∼ 15–84 μM), thus demonstrating a close correlation between in vivo and ex vivo thyroid effects. A compensatory response to TPO inhibition was demonstrated in the rat thyroid lobe with significant up-regulation of genes involved in the pathway of thyroid hormone synthesis (Tpo, Dio1, Slc5a5, Tg, Tshr) and the megalin release pathway (Lrp2) by 24 h with MMI (≥ 10 μM) and PTU (100 μM). Similarly, thyroid from the rat in vivo study exhibited an up-regulation of Dio1, Slc5a5, Lrp2, and Tshr. In human thyroid slices, there were few gene expression changes (Slc5a5, ∼ 2-fold) and only at higher MMI concentrations (≥ 1500 μM, 24 h). Extended exposure (48 h) resulted in up-regulation of Tpo, Dio1 and Lrp2, along with Slc5a5 and Tshr. In summary, TPO was inhibited by similar MMI concentrations in rat and human tissue, however an increased sensitivity to drug treatment in rat is indicated by the up-regulation of thyroid hormone synthesis and release gene pathways at concentrations found not to affect human tissue. -- Highlights: ► Novel model of rat thyroid or human thyroid slices to evaluate pathways of injury. ► TPO inhibition by MMI or PTU altered

  7. Thyroid function and neuropsychological status in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Rej, Robert; McCaffrey, Robert J; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2016-10-01

    Overt thyroid dysfunction is recognized as a risk factor for neuropsychological deficits in aging populations, yet evidence for how changes in levels of circulatory thyroid hormones impact specific neuropsychological domains is limited. Here we report cross-sectional associations between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and several neuropsychological function domains among men and women aged 55-74years. We administered neuropsychological tests to assess memory, learning, executive function, measures of attention, visuospatial function, affective state, and motor function. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking. Effects were reported as differences in test scores per one interquartile range (IQR) increase in hormone concentration. Higher total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) were associated with improved visuospatial function, as measured by Block Design Subtest total scores; associated increments per IQR differences in T4 and fT4 were 15% and 19%, respectively (false discovery rate q-values <0.05). We also detected statistical interactions between age and fT4 for effects in tasks of memory and learning. Concurrent increases in age and fT4 were associated with deficits in memory and learning as measured by California Verbal Learning Test subtests (10% and 16% deficits in t-score and short delay free recall score, respectively). Our findings suggest that changes in thyroid hormones may have important implications for neuropsychological function in aging populations. Further large-scale studies with comprehensive thyroid function and neuropsychological outcome assessments are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:27221367

  8. Biological Functions of Thyroid Hormone in Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Chie-Pein; Lin, Kwang-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormone, 3,3,5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), modulates several physiological processes, including cellular growth, differentiation, metabolism, inflammation and proliferation, via interactions with thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) in the regulatory regions of target genes. Infection and inflammation are critical processes in placental development and pregnancy-related diseases. In particular, infection is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. However, to date, no successful approach has been developed for the effective diagnosis of infection in preterm infants. Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a serious disorder that adversely affects ~5% of human pregnancies. Recent studies identified a multiprotein complex, the inflammasome, including the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family of cytosolic pattern recognition receptors, the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and caspase-1, which plays a vital role in the placenta. The thyroid hormone modulates inflammation processes and is additionally implicated in placental development and disease. Therefore, elucidation of thyroid hormone receptor-regulated inflammation-related molecules, and their underlying mechanisms in placenta, should facilitate the identification of novel predictive and therapeutic targets for placental disorders. This review provides a detailed summary of current knowledge with respect to identification of useful biomarkers and their physiological significance in placenta. PMID:25690032

  9. Thyroid function after mantle irradiation in Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.E. Jr.; Adler, R.A.; Clark, P.; Brinck-Johnsen, T.; Tulloh, M.E.; Colten, T.

    1981-01-02

    The thyroid function of 64 patients with Hodgkin's disease who received mantle irradiation during the period 1966 to 1976 was studied. More than two-thirds (44 to 64) had some thyroid dysfunction. Twenty had mild dysfunction manifested by an abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Twenty had what could be termed compensated hypothyroidism while four were overtly hypothyroid. The severity of dysfunction was not related to age, sex, or chemotherapy. We found, however, that decreased thyroid function was inversely proportional to the length of time between a diagnostic lymphangiogram and the radiation therapy. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the iodine load of the lymphangiogram renders the thyroid gland more radiosensitive. Thyroxine suppression of the thyroid gland during the period from the lymphangiogram through the termination of radiation therapy is suggested as a means of avoiding thyroid injury.

  10. Interactions between thyroid and kidney function in pathological conditions of these organ systems: a review.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, Ingrid; Daminet, Sylvie

    2009-02-01

    Thyroidal status affects kidney function already in the embryonic stage. Thyroid hormones influence general tissue growth as well as tubular functions, electrolyte handling and neural input. Hyper- and hypo-functioning of the thyroid influences mature kidney function indirectly by affecting the cardiovascular system and the renal blood flow, and directly by affecting glomerular filtration, electrolyte pumps, the secretory and absorptive capacity of the tubuli, and the structure of the kidney. Hyperthyroidism accelerates several physiologic processes, a fact which is reflected in the decreased systemic vascular resistance, increased cardiac output (CO), increased renal blood flow (RBF), hypertrophic and hyperplastic tubuli, and increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Renal failure can progress due to glomerulosclerosis, proteinuria and oxidative stress. Hypothyroidism has a more negative influence on kidney function. Peripheral vascular resistance is increased with intrarenal vasoconstriction, and CO is decreased, causing decreased RBF. The influence on the different tubular functions is modest, although the transport capacity is below normal. The GFR is decreased up to 40% in hypothyroid humans. Despite the negative influences on glomerular and tubular kidney function, a hypothyroid state has been described as beneficial in kidney disease. Kidney disease is associated with decreased thyroid hormone concentrations caused by central effects and by changes in peripheral hormone metabolism and thyroid hormone binding proteins. Geriatric cats form an animal model of disease because both hyperthyroidism and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high prevalence among them, and the link between thyroid and kidney affects the evaluation of clinical wellbeing and the possible treatment options. PMID:19133263

  11. Thyroid function tests during first-trimester of pregnancy: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Mansourian, Azad R

    2010-07-15

    This literature review was conducted to summarize the main points of maternal thyroid function tests, with particular attention in the first trimester of pregnancy which accompanied with significant biochemical and metabolic alteration. The evaluation of thyroid function of either hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism should be assessed by determination of serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3), Iodine and Thyroid Autoantibodies. Glomerular filtration rate is increased during pregnancy; therefor iodine deficiency should be evaluated during the pregnancy to prevent hypothyroidism. The role which can be played by Human Chronic Gonadotropin (hCG) on stimulating the thyroid gland to become over-active was investigated. Serum level ofthyroglobulin (Tg) and Thyroxin Binding Globulin (TBG) should be assessed for proper assessments of thyroid gland during pregnancy. Thyroid function tests during first-trimester of pregnancy and particularly the reference interval for thyroid function tests for pregnant women in each region has to be established, to prevent mis-diagnosis and irreversible mental and physical adverse affect for growing fetus. PMID:21848058

  12. Thyroid function during the spontaneous course of subacute thyroiditis

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, V.L.; Romaldini, J.H.; Rodrigues, H.F.; Tanaka, L.M.; Farah, C.S.

    1985-05-01

    A study of changes in serum T/sub 4/, T/sub 3/, and Tg as well as of serum TSH response to TRH was done in ten patients with subacute thyroiditis, from the acute phase up to 56 mo. All patients had symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. The mean serum T/sub 4/, T/sub 3/, and Tg concentration were significantly higher than in normal subjects. The basal TSH concentrations failed to increase in response to TRH. Mean serum T/sub 3/ and serum Tg levels remained higher than in normal subjects until 4 to 5 mo after the acute phase. Thyroid autoantibodies were absent during the whole period of study. An exaggerated response of TSH to TRH in six out of seven patients was observed from a 2 to 3 mo period until the end of follow-up. All patients with T/sub 3/ to T/sub 4/ ratio above the normal range (7-24 ng/..mu..g) showed also an exaggerated response of TSH to TRH. These data suggest that the spontaneous course of subacute thyroiditis may lead to a low thyroid reserve detectable even 5 yr following the acute phase of the disease.

  13. [Structural and functional status of the hypophyseal-thyroid system in prenatally irradiated children].

    PubMed

    Makiienko, T S; Pavliuk, V P; Pavliuk, I V; Mosiienko, A P

    2001-01-01

    In order to evaluate the morphologic-and-functional state of the hypophysis-thyroid system long after the Chernobyl accident we examined 1491 children from the northern territories of the Zhitomir region. Of these, 261 had not been in utero exposed to radioiodine, 1230 pediatric subjects proved to be postconception-exposed. In utero radioiodine has not been found to affect the thyroid size in any noticeable way. The degree of structural-and-functional indices for the thyreostat system in prenatally irradiated children depends on the stage of the thyroid development just when there happened to be an exposure to radioiodine. PMID:11881349

  14. Functional Status of Thyroid and Cognitive Functions after Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Bojar, Iwona; Owoc, Alfred; Gujski, Mariusz; Witczak, Mariusz; Gnatowski, Maciej; Walecka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid activity plays a role in cognition. However, the relation between the functional state of thyroid and neuropsychiatric changes proceeding with age among people without clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction is still unknown. The aim of this study was analysis of cognitive function levels in reference to thyroid examination: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxin (TT4), triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPO-AB), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-AB), TSH receptor antibodies (AB-TSHR) in women after menopause. Material/Methods A group of 383 women was recruited for the study. The inclusion criteria were: minimum two years after the last menstruation and no dementia signs on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Computerized battery of Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS VS) test was used to diagnostic cognitive functions. The blood plasma values were determined: TSH, FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, TPO-AB, Tg-AB, and AB-TSHR. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and analysis of variance in STATISTICA software. Results In women after menopause, TSH was negatively correlated with NCI results, executive functions, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. FT4 was positively correlated with results of psychomotor speed. TT3 and TT4 were negatively correlated with results of memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, TT4 was negatively correlated with NCI, executive functions, and cognitive flexibility. TPO-AB was negatively correlated with results of memory, verbal memory, and psychomotor speed. Tg-AB was positively correlated with results of reaction time. AB-TSHR was negatively correlated with NCI results, memory, executive functions, psychomotor speed, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions Our study supports the importance of thyroid functionality in cognitive functioning in a group of women after menopause. The values

  15. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ((99)mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and (99)mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland. PMID:27385899

  16. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate (99mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland. PMID:27385899

  17. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Page Content On this page: ... responds by decreasing TSH production. [ Top ] How does pregnancy normally affect thyroid function? Two pregnancy-related hormones— ...

  18. Thyroid function after treatment of brain tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Ogilvy-Stuart, A L; Shalet, S M; Gattamaneni, H R

    1991-11-01

    In 134 children who had been treated for a brain tumor not involving the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid function was assessed up to 24 years after treatment with cranial or craniospinal irradiation. In addition, 78 children received up to 2 years of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Of 85 children who received craniospinal irradiation, 30 (35%) had abnormalities of thyroid function, and 10 (20%) of 49 who received cranial irradiation had such abnormalities. Frank hypothyroidism developed in three children and thyrotoxicosis in one. Thirty-six children had an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level in the presence of a normal thyroxine level; in 16 of them the thyroid-stimulating hormone level subsequently returned to normal. Twenty-eight children who were treated between 1960 and 1970 were excluded from the analysis. Of 34 children who received cranial irradiation, five had thyroid dysfunction and 24 of 72 who received craniospinal irradiation had such dysfunction (p = 0.013). Thyroid dysfunction was present in 4 of 35 children who received no chemotherapy and in 25 of 71 who received chemotherapy (p = 0.014). Direct irradiation plus chemotherapy was more damaging than irradiation alone. These data confirm the high incidence of thyroid dysfunction when the thyroid gland is included in the radiation field. However, in a high proportion, the thyroid abnormalities are minor and revert to normal with time; life-long replacement therapy with thyroxine may be unnecessary. PMID:1941379

  19. Thyroid Diseases Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... of thyroiditis and identify autoimmune thyroid conditions Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody—a marker for autoimmune thyroid disease; ... for thyroid gland abnormalities and to evaluate thyroid function (for iodine) in different areas of the thyroid ...

  20. Expression and function of CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, XIAOLI; BAI, QIANMING; LU, YONGMING; LU, YIQIONG; ZHU, LINLIN; ZHOU, XIAOYAN; WU, LIJING

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis to cancer progression has been increasingly recognized. However, its role in thyroid cancer development remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine the expression and function of CXCL12 and its receptors in thyroid cancer. The expression of CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 in human tissue specimens of papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, follicular adenoma, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and nodular goiter were examined by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray. CXCR4 and CXCR7 were over-expressed in human thyroid cancer cells K1 by transduction of recombinant lentivirus. The effect of overexpression of CXCR4 and CXCR7 on K1 cell proliferation and invasion and the molecular mechanism underlying the effect were investigated. CXCL12 was exclusively expressed in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue but absent in other types of thyroid malignancies and benign lesions. CXCR7 was widely expressed in the endothelial cells of all types of malignancy but only occasionally detected in benign lesions. CXCR4 was expressed in 62.5% of papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue specimens and in 30–40% of other types of malignancy, and it was either absent or weakly expressed in benign lesions. CXCL12 stimulated the invasion and migration of K1 cells overexpressing CXCR4, but did not affect K1 cells overexpressing CXCR7. K1 cell proliferation was not affected by overexpression of CXCR4 or CXCR7. Overexpression of CXCR4 in K1 cells significantly increased AKT and ERK phosphorylation and markedly induced the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Thus, CXCL12 may be an effective diagnostic marker for papillary thyroid carcinoma, and CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis may contribute to thyroid cancer development by regulating cancer cell migration and invasion via AKT and ERK signaling and MMP-2 activation. PMID:27082011

  1. Expression and function of CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Bai, Qianming; Lu, Yongming; Lu, Yiqiong; Zhu, Linlin; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Wu, Lijing

    2016-06-01

    The contribution of CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis to cancer progression has been increasingly recognized. However, its role in thyroid cancer development remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine the expression and function of CXCL12 and its receptors in thyroid cancer. The expression of CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 in human tissue specimens of papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, follicular adenoma, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and nodular goiter were examined by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray. CXCR4 and CXCR7 were over-expressed in human thyroid cancer cells K1 by transduction of recombinant lentivirus. The effect of overexpression of CXCR4 and CXCR7 on K1 cell proliferation and invasion and the molecular mechanism underlying the effect were investigated. CXCL12 was exclusively expressed in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue but absent in other types of thyroid malignancies and benign lesions. CXCR7 was widely expressed in the endothelial cells of all types of malignancy but only occasionally detected in benign lesions. CXCR4 was expressed in 62.5% of papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue specimens and in 30-40% of other types of malignancy, and it was either absent or weakly expressed in benign lesions. CXCL12 stimulated the invasion and migration of K1 cells overexpressing CXCR4, but did not affect K1 cells overexpressing CXCR7. K1 cell proliferation was not affected by overexpression of CXCR4 or CXCR7. Overexpression of CXCR4 in K1 cells significantly increased AKT and ERK phosphorylation and markedly induced the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP‑2). Thus, CXCL12 may be an effective diagnostic marker for papillary thyroid carcinoma, and CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis may contribute to thyroid cancer development by regulating cancer cell migration and invasion via AKT and ERK signaling and MMP-2 activation. PMID:27082011

  2. Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid is used to treat the symptoms of hypothyroidism (a condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone). Symptoms of hypothyroidism include lack of energy, depression, constipation, weight gain, ...

  3. Thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States. Postpartum thyroiditis, which causes ... hormone levels in the blood) followed by temporary hypothyroidism, is a common cause of thyroid problems after ...

  4. Thyroid functional disease: an under-recognized cardiovascular risk factor in kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Connie M; Brent, Gregory A; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Soldin, Offie P; Nguyen, Danh; Budoff, Matthew J; Brunelli, Steven M; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2015-05-01

    Thyroid functional disease, and in particular hypothyroidism, is highly prevalent among chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. In the general population, hypothyroidism is associated with impaired cardiac contractility, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and possibly higher cardiovascular mortality. It has been hypothesized that hypothyroidism is an under-recognized, modifiable risk factor for the enormous burden of cardiovascular disease and death in CKD and ESRD, but this has been difficult to test due to the challenge of accurate thyroid functional assessment in uremia. Low thyroid hormone levels (i.e. triiodothyronine) have been associated with adverse cardiovascular sequelae in CKD and ESRD patients, but these metrics are confounded by malnutrition, inflammation and comorbid states, and hence may signify nonthyroidal illness (i.e. thyroid functional test derangements associated with underlying ill health in the absence of thyroid pathology). Thyrotropin is considered a sensitive and specific thyroid function measure that may more accurately classify hypothyroidism, but few studies have examined the clinical significance of thyrotropin-defined hypothyroidism in CKD and ESRD. Of even greater uncertainty are the risks and benefits of thyroid hormone replacement, which bear a narrow therapeutic-to-toxic window and are frequently prescribed to CKD and ESRD patients. In this review, we discuss mechanisms by which hypothyroidism adversely affects cardiovascular health; examine the prognostic implications of hypothyroidism, thyroid hormone alterations and exogenous thyroid hormone replacement in CKD and ESRD; and identify areas of uncertainty related to the interplay between hypothyroidism, cardiovascular disease and kidney disease requiring further investigation. PMID:24574542

  5. Thyroid functional disease: an under-recognized cardiovascular risk factor in kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Connie M.; Brent, Gregory A.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Soldin, Offie P.; Nguyen, Danh; Budoff, Matthew J.; Brunelli, Steven M.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid functional disease, and in particular hypothyroidism, is highly prevalent among chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. In the general population, hypothyroidism is associated with impaired cardiac contractility, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and possibly higher cardiovascular mortality. It has been hypothesized that hypothyroidism is an under-recognized, modifiable risk factor for the enormous burden of cardiovascular disease and death in CKD and ESRD, but this has been difficult to test due to the challenge of accurate thyroid functional assessment in uremia. Low thyroid hormone levels (i.e. triiodothyronine) have been associated with adverse cardiovascular sequelae in CKD and ESRD patients, but these metrics are confounded by malnutrition, inflammation and comorbid states, and hence may signify nonthyroidal illness (i.e. thyroid functional test derangements associated with underlying ill health in the absence of thyroid pathology). Thyrotropin is considered a sensitive and specific thyroid function measure that may more accurately classify hypothyroidism, but few studies have examined the clinical significance of thyrotropin-defined hypothyroidism in CKD and ESRD. Of even greater uncertainty are the risks and benefits of thyroid hormone replacement, which bear a narrow therapeutic-to-toxic window and are frequently prescribed to CKD and ESRD patients. In this review, we discuss mechanisms by which hypothyroidism adversely affects cardiovascular health; examine the prognostic implications of hypothyroidism, thyroid hormone alterations and exogenous thyroid hormone replacement in CKD and ESRD; and identify areas of uncertainty related to the interplay between hypothyroidism, cardiovascular disease and kidney disease requiring further investigation. PMID:24574542

  6. [Adaptation of thyroid function to excess iodine].

    PubMed

    Aurengo, Andre; Leenhardt, Laurence; Aurengo, Helyett

    2002-10-26

    NORMALLY: The production of thyroid hormones is normally stable, despite iodine supplies that may vary widely and even on sudden excess iodine. The metabolism of iodine is characterised by adapted thyroid uptake, the requirements varying on the age and physiological status of the individual (pregnancy, breastfeeding) and by insufficient supplies in several areas in France. IN THE CASE OF EXCESS: The mechanisms that permit the thyroid to adapt to a sudden or chronic excess of iodine are immature in the newborn and sometimes deficient in adults, and may lead to iodine-induced dysthyroidism. Thanks to the recent progress made in thyroid physiology, these mechanisms are now better known. PATHOLOGICAL IMPACT: Iodine-induced hyperthyroidisms in a healthy or pathological thyroid are frequent. They are predominantly related to amiodarone. Iodine-related hypothyroidism frequently appears in cases of pre-existing thyroid diseases (asymptomatic autoimmune thyroiditis, for example). They are frequent in the newborn, notably in the premature. The iodine prophylaxis organised in Poland following the Tchernobyl accident led to very few pathological consequences in adults or children. PMID:12448332

  7. Thyroid tumors and thyroid function in women exposed to internal and external radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Polednak, A.P.

    1986-09-01

    The frequency of tumors and other conditions of the thyroid gland were examined in 686 female radium dial workers first employed before 1930, who had a radium body-burden measurement while living (1958-76). If one assumed that the two thyroid cancers ascertained were radiation-induced and that a linear dose-response relationship existed, the estimated thyroid cancer risk was 69 (4-124, 95% confidence range) per 10(6) person-rem thyroid dose equivalent from internal and external radiation. Using data from the Connecticut tumor registry to obtain expected numbers of thyroid cancer, the estimated risk (2 observed vs. 0.67 expected cases) was 46 (95% confidence interval = -19 to 101) excess cases per 10(6) person-rem. Risk estimates were based on crude estimates of external radiation exposure and uncertain quality factors for internal radiation from alpha particles ingested. The frequencies of benign tumor (adenoma), nodules, and goiters were not significantly higher in the higher thyroid-dose groups (5-19, greater than or equal to 20 or greater than or equal to 50 rem) than in the lowest dose group (less than 5 rem). In 1237 female dial workers first employed before 1930, with or without a radium body-burden measurement, no deaths due to thyroid cancer (underlying cause of death on death certificates) were observed during 1950-76, when 0.4 deaths were expected. In a subgroup of 84 Illinois female dial workers who were long-term survivors, means for thyroid function test (T3 resin uptake and free thyroxine index) results did not differ among the thyroid-dose groups.

  8. T3-release from autonomously functioning thyroid nodules in vitro.

    PubMed

    Poertl, S; Kirner, J; Saller, B; Mann, K; Hoermann, R

    1998-01-01

    Toxic thyroid nodules have been shown to be of clonal origin. In a portion of them, point mutations affecting either the gene of the TSH receptor (TSHr) or the alpha-subunit of stimulating G-protein, consecutively leading to enhanced cAMP levels, which may enhance growth or functional activity of the thyrocyte or both, were recently found. To complement these studies, we evaluated hormone response (i.e. T3 release) in vitro from tissues derived from toxic thyroid nodules as compared directly to the surrounding paranodular tissues as well as tissues derived from euthyroid goiter and from patients with Graves' disease. Experiments were conducted in the presence and absence of bTSH or Graves' immunoglobulines. Tissues obtained during surgery were incubated over 5 h, followed by equilibrium dialysis for 24 h, and determination of free T3 in an aliquot by RIA. Basal T3 release in nodular tissues (n = 10) was significantly higher (median: 7.3 ng/l) compared to paranodular tissues (3.2 ng/l; P < 0.01), tissues derived from euthyroid goiter (1.3 ng/l; n = 12; P < 0.001) and thyroid tissues derived from patients with Graves' disease (2.5 ng/l; n = 6; P < 0.001). Upon stimulation with bTSH (1 IU/l), median T3 concentrations markedly increased to 11.5 ng/l (P < 0.05), 7.3 ng/l (P < 0.05), 4.2 ng/l (P < 0.01) and 3.2 ng/l (P = N.S.), respectively. Stimulation over basal values was 1.6-fold in nodular tissues, 2.3-fold in paranodular tissues, 3.2-fold in euthyroid goiter and 1.3-fold in Graves' disease. In toxic thyroid nodules basal hormone-releasing activities were stimulated by fifteen out of twenty (75%) Graves' sera tested. For comparison, stimulation in other tissues occurred in 45% (paranodular), 80% (euthyroid goiter) and 35% (Graves' disease), respectively. In conclusion, tissue derived from toxic thyroid nodules exhibits enhanced basal hormone release as compared to both, the surrounding paranodular tissues and tissues from euthyroid goiter in vitro, which may reflect

  9. Reporting Thyroid Function Tests in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Alan R; Stanford, Phoebe E

    2015-01-01

    While there is agreement that overt maternal hypothyroidism (serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) >10 mIU/L) should be treated immediately, the evidence is mixed regarding the harm associated with subclinical hypothyroidism and the benefits of thyroxine replacement. The diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism rests on the recognition of an increased serum concentration of TSH which may be affected by many factors including gestational age, analytical method, the antibody status of the mother, ethnicity, iodine nutrition and even the time of day when the blood is collected. The 97.5th percentile of TSH at the end of the first trimester is commonly used as the upper boundary of normal in early pregnancy with a default value of 2.5 mIU/L specified in a number of recent clinical guidelines. There have now been numerous papers showing that a more realistic figure is between 3.0 and 4.0 mIU/L depending on the analytical method that is used. There are suggestions that ethnicity may also have a significant effect on TSH and FT4 reference limits in pregnancy. PMID:26900190

  10. Tumour suppressive function of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Weiyuan; Zhao, Pengxin; Zang, Leilei; Zhang, Kaili; Liao, Haiying; Hu, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    HUWE1 (the HECT, UBA, and WWE domain-containing protein 1) is an ubiquitin E3 ligase which plays an important role in coordinating diverse cellular processes. It has been found to be dysregulated in various cancer type and its functions in tumorigenesis remain controversial. The potential tumour suppressive role of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer development was investigated by knocking down HUWE1 in three authentic thyroid cancer cell lines, WRO, FTC133 and BCPAP, followed by various functional assays, including cell proliferation, scratch wound healing and invasion assays. Xenograft experiment was performed to examine in vivo tumour suppressive properties of HUWE1. Small-interfering RNA mediated knockdown of HUWE1 promoted cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion in thyroid cancer cells. Overexpression of HUWE1 conferred partial sensitivity to chemo drugs interfering with DNA replication in these cells. Moreover, HUWE1 was found to be down-regulated in human thyroid cancer tissues compared with matched normal thyroid tissues. In addition, overexpression of HUWE1 significantly inhibited tumour growth in vivo using xenograft mouse models. Mechanistic investigation revealed that HUWE1 can regulate p53 protein level through its stabilization. HUWE1 functions as a tumour suppressor in thyroid cancer progression, which may represent a novel therapeutic target for prevention or intervention of thyroid cancer. PMID:27581931

  11. h-prune affects anaplastic thyroid cancer invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Nambu, Junko; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Sugino, Keizo; Shimamoto, Fumio; Kikuchi, Akira; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-06-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer is one of the most aggressive human malignancies and is resistant to multimodal treatments. The expression of h-prune, the human homologue of Drosophila prune, has been reported to be correlated with progression and aggressiveness in various cancers including breast, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. We examined the role of h-prune in anaplastic thyroid cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Immunohistochemical analysis of h-prune was performed with 15 surgically resected specimens of anaplastic thyroid cancers. To investigate cell motility, Boyden chamber, wound healing and matrigel invasion assays were performed using cells from anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines. A murine orthotopic thyroid cancer model was used to investigate metastatic ability. In the immunohistochemical analysis, only weak focal or no staining of h-prune was observed in non-tumor tissue. In contrast, diffuse staining of h-prune was observed in anaplastic thyroid cancer and lymph node metastasis samples. Both inhibition of h-prune phosphodiesterase activity with dipyridamole and small interfering RNA for h-prune suppressed 8505C and KTC-3 cell motility. In addition, treatment with dipyridamole and decreased expression of h-prune suppressed tumor invasion and pulmonary metastasis in a NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγnull (NOG) mouse orthotopic thyroid cancer model. In conclusion, h-prune is frequently expressed in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells and lymph nodes metastasis, and promotes migration and invasion of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells and metastasis in an anaplastic thyroid cancer model. Thus, h-prune shows promise as a targeting candidate against anaplastic thyroid cancer. PMID:27109060

  12. The correct renal function evaluation in patients with thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Simeoni, Mariadelina; Cerantonio, Annamaria; Pastore, Ida; Liguori, Rossella; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Gulletta, Elio; Brunetti, Antonio; Fuiano, Giorgio

    2016-05-01

    Thyroid dysfunction induces several renal derangements involving all nephron portions. Furthermore, dysthyroidism is a recognized risk factor associated with the development of chronic kidney disease. Current data, in fact, demonstrate that either subclinical or overt thyroid disease is associated with significant changes in creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, measured glomerular filtration rate and Cystatin C. Herein, we systematically reviewed several relevant studies aiming at the identification of the most sensitive and specific parameter for the correct renal function evaluation in patients with thyroid dysfunction, that are usually treated as outpatients. Our systematic review indicates that estimated glomerular filtration rate, preferably with CKD-EPI equation, appears to be the most reliable and wieldy renal function parameter. Instead, Cystatin C should be better used in the grading of thyroid dysfunction severity. PMID:26511999

  13. Prenatal Thyroxine Treatment Disparately Affects Peripheral and Amygdala Thyroid Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Pradeep K.; Sittig, Laura J.; Andrus, Brian M.; Schaffer, Daniel J.; Batra, Kanchi K.; Redei, Eva E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary A prenatal hypothyroid state is associated with behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats exhibit hypothyroidism and increased depressive and anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, the WKY could illuminate the mechanisms by which the reversal of developmental hypothyroidism in humans and animals results in adult behavioral improvement. We examined the outcome of maternal thyroxine (T4) treatment on thyroid hormone-regulated functions and adult behavior of the WKY offspring. Pregnant WKY dams completed gestation with and without T4 administration and their adult male offspring were tested. Measures included depressive and anxiety-like behaviors, and thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in both plasma and specific brain regions. In addition, the expression of two proteins affecting thyroid hormone trafficking and metabolism, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT-8) and iodothyronine deiodinase type III (Dio3), and of several behavior-altering molecules, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), prepro-thyrotropin releasing hormone (prepro-TRH) and corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), were determined in the hippocampus and amygdala of the offspring. Prenatal T4 treatment of WKYs did not affect adult depressive behavior but increased anxiety-like behavior and decreased plasma levels of THs. In the hippocampus of males treated with T4 in utero, Dio3 and MCT-8 protein levels were increased, while in the amygdala, there were increases of free T4, MCT-8, GR, prepro-TRH protein and CRH mRNA levels. These results show that T4 administration in utero programs adult peripheral and amygdalar thyroid hormone levels divergently, and that the resulting upregulation of anxiety-related genes in the amygdala could be responsible for the exacerbated anxiety-like behavior seen in WKYs after prenatal T4 treatment. PMID:20005050

  14. The role of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons on thyroid hormone disruption and cognitive function: a review.

    PubMed

    Builee, T L; Hatherill, J R

    2004-11-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential to normal brain development, influencing behavior and cognitive function in both adult and children. It is suggested that conditions found in TH abnormalities such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and generalized resistance to thyroid hormone (GRTH) share symptomatic behavioral impulses found in cases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other cognitive disorders. Disrupters of TH are various and prevalent in the environment. This paper reviews the mechanisms of TH disruption caused by the general class of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAH)'s acting as thyroid disrupters (TD). PHAHs influence the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, as mimicry agents affecting synthesis and secretion of TH. Exposure to PHAH induces liver microsomal enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) resulting in accelerated clearance of TH. PHAHs can compromise function of transport and receptor binding proteins such as transthyretin and aryl hydrocarbon receptors (Ahr). Glucose metabolism and catecholamine synthesis are disrupted in the brain by the presence of PHAH. Further, PHAH can alter brain growth and development by perturbing cytoskeletal formation, thereby affecting neuronal migration, elongation and branching. The complex relationships between PHAH and cognitive function are examined in regard to the disruption of T4 regulation in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, blood, brain, neurons, liver and pre and postnatal development. PMID:15573475

  15. Graves' disease: thyroid function and immunologic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gossage, A.A.; Crawley, J.C.; Copping, S.; Hinge, D.; Himsworth, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    Patients with Graves' disease were studied for two years during and after a twelve-month course of treatment. Disease activity was determined by repeated measurements of thyroidal uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)pertechnetate during tri-iodothyronine administration. These in-vivo measurements of thyroid stimulation were compared with the results of in-vitro assays of Graves, immunoglobulin (TSH binding inhibitory activity--TBIA). There was no correlation between the thyroid uptake and TBIA on diagnosis. Pertechnetate uptake and TBIA both declined during the twelve months of antithyroid therapy. TBIA was detectable in sera from 19 of the 27 patients at diagnosis; in 11 of these 19 patients there was a good correlation (p less than 0.05) throughout the course of their disease between the laboratory assay of the Graves, immunoglobulin and the thyroid uptake. Probability of recurrence can be assessed but sustained remission of Graves' disease after treatment cannot be predicted from either measurement alone or in combination.

  16. Graves' disease: thyroid function and immunologic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gossage, A.A.R.; Crawley, J.C.W.; Copping, S.; Hinge, D.; Himsworth, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    Patients with Graves' disease were studied for two years during and after a twelve-month course of treatment. Disease activity was determined by repeated measurements of thyroidal uptake of (/sup 9/-9..mu..Tc)pertechnetate during tri-iodothyronine administration. These in-vivo measurements of thyroid stimulation were compared with the results of in-vitro assays of Graves, immunoglobulin (TSH binding inhibitory activity - TBIA). There was no correlation between the thyroid uptake and TBIA on diagnosis. Pertechnetate uptake and TBIA both declined during the twelve months of antithyroid therapy. TBIA was detectable in sera from 19 of the 27 patients at diagnosis; in 11 of these 19 patients there was a good correlation (p<0.05) throughout the course of their disease between the laboratory assay of the Graves, immunoglobulin and the thyroid uptake. Probability of recurrence can be assessed but sustained remission of Graves' disease after treatment cannot be predicted from either measurement alone or in combination.

  17. Clinical implications of altered thyroid status in male testicular function.

    PubMed

    Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Wagner, Márcia Santos; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2009-11-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in the development and maintenance of virtually all tissues. Although for many years the testis was thought to be a thyroid-hormone unresponsive organ, studies of the last decades have demonstrated that thyroid dysfunction is associated not only with abnormalities in morphology and function of testes, but also with decreased fertility and alterations of sexual activity in men. Nowadays, the participation of triiodothyronine (T3) in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation, testicular maturation, and steroidogenesis is widely accepted, as well as the presence of thyroid hormone transporters and receptors in testicular cells throughout the development process and in adulthood. But even with data suggesting that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects, there is still controversy regarding the impact of thyroid diseases on human spermatogenesis and fertility, which can be in part due to the lack of well-controlled clinical studies. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of recent clinical data about the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function. PMID:20126850

  18. Correlation of Thyroid Functions with Severity and Outcome of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kharb, S; Sardana, D; Nanda, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: During normal pregnancy, changes in thyroid function are well documented; however, information regarding thyroid function in preeclampsia is scanty. Aim: The present study was planned to study thyroid hormones in mild and severe preeclamptic women and normotensive women and correlate them with outcome of pregnancy. Subject and Methods: Thyroid hormones were analyzed in mild (n = 50) and severe (n = 50) cases of preeclamptic women and normotensive women (n = 100). Results: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and TT4 levels were higher in mild preeclampsia as compared with severe preeclampsia (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). TT3 levels were lower in preeclampsia (more so in severe preeclamptics as compared with normotensive pregnant and non-pregnant women). Preeclamptic with raised TSH levels had significantly higher mean arterial blood pressure and low birth weight (BW). A negative correlation was observed between BW and TSH levels (r = 0.296, P < 0.001) and BW and TT4 levels. A positive correlation was observed between BW and TT3 levels. Conclusion: These findings indicate that there is a state of biochemical hypothyroidism that correlates with severity of preeclampsia and influences obstetric outcome in these women. Identification of thyroid hormone in pregnancy might be of help in predicting occurrence of preeclampsia. PMID:23634328

  19. Prevalence and Determinants of True Thyroid Dysfunction Among Pediatric Referrals for Abnormal Thyroid Function Tests

    PubMed Central

    Lahoti, Amit; Klein, Jason; Schumaker, Tiffany; Vuguin, Patricia; Frank, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. Abnormalities in thyroid function tests (TFTs) are a common referral reason for pediatric endocrine evaluation. However, a sizable proportion of these laboratory abnormalities do not warrant therapy or endocrine follow-up. The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the prevalence of true thyroid dysfunction among pediatric endocrinology referrals for abnormal TFTs; (b) to identify the historical, clinical, and laboratory characteristics that predict decision to treat. Methods. This was a retrospective chart review of patients evaluated in pediatric endocrinology office during a weekly clinic designated for new referrals for abnormal TFTs in 2010. Results. A total of 230 patients were included in the study. Median age at referral was 12 years (range = 2-18); 56% were females. Routine screening was cited as the reason for performing TFTs by 33% patients. Majority was evaluated for hypothyroidism (n = 206). Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone was the most common referral reason (n = 140). A total of 41 out of 206 patients were treated for hypothyroidism. Conclusions. Prevalence of hypothyroidism was 20%. Thyroid follow-up was not recommended for nearly one third of the patients. Among all the factors analyzed, an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level and antithyroglobulin antibodies strongly correlated with the decision to treat (P < .005). PMID:27336020

  20. Papillary thyroid cancer in a young woman affected by giant congenital melanocytic nevus, ultrasound diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Manganaro, L; Onesti, M G; Sergi, M E; Vinci, V; Maruccia, M; Soda, G; Marini, M

    2011-01-01

    Data literatures report numerous association between giant congenital nevus and development alteration; only two cases describe its coexistence with thyroid disorders. However, we report the association of papillary thyroid cancer and giant congenital nevus. Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common differentiated thyroid cancer and has high prevalence in young women. In this paper we report: the case of a 18 years-old woman, affected by giant congenital melanocytic nevus on her back, who came to our observation because of one month of fever and increased volume of latero-cervical lymph nodes. Negative serologic tests allowed us to exclude lymphoma and mononucleosis. Because of the high risk (6%) that giant congenital melanocytic nevi could transform into malignant melanoma, we performed an ultrasound examination (US) of the cervical lymph nodes. The examination extended to the thyroid gland enabled us to visualize the same parenchyma alteration in both thyroid gland and lymph nodes. At last, fine-needle percoutaneus aspiration on thyroid lesion confirmed the presence of papillary carcinoma. In our case, thank to the optimal visualization of the parenchyma structure, US was diriment allowing a diagnosis of primitive thyroid lesion with an involvement of all lymph nodes in the neck. This findings legitimate the role of US as an accurate, noninvasive, radiation free and low-cost imaging technique in detecting differential diagnosis in the cervical lymphadenopathy, as well in preoperative staging thyroid carcinoma. PMID:22041799

  1. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules in childhood and adolescence

    SciTech Connect

    Croom, R.D. III; Thomas, C.G. Jr.; Reddick, R.L.; Tawil, M.T.

    1987-12-01

    Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) in children and adolescents (under age 18) are unusual but are not as rare as earlier reports suggested. These lesions have a significantly different biologic potential than similar lesions in older patients. In the younger age group there is a more rapid progression toward toxicity and a higher incidence of thyroid carcinoma. Our experience with 12 patients is combined with those previously reported for identification of a total of 61 children and adolescents with AFTNs, of whom 53 have undergone operation. Hyperthyroidism was present in 15 patients (24.6%), and in six patients (11.3%) the AFTN was due to a well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Surgical treatment is advisable for all children and adolescents with AFTNs because of the risks of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma. Surgical excision (lobectomy is preferred) results in rapid restoration of a euthyroid state for the toxic AFTN and allows histopathologic diagnosis. Therapy with radioiodine is not advisable for treatment of AFTNs in this age group. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression should be used for all patients with a diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma.

  2. Toxicity of palmitoyl glycerol to mice: depression of thyroid function

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbo, P.R.; Meuten, D.J.; King, M.W.; Tove, S.B.

    1987-10-01

    Mice given propylthiouracil, a thyroid inhibitor, and fed a diet containing a nontoxic level of rac-1(3)-palmitoyl glycerol showed the hypothermia and mortality expected for a toxic dose, but did not show these signs when linoleate or oleate was added to the diet. Loss of radioiodine from the whole animal and thyroid gland was slower when mice were fed the toxic palmitoyl glycerol diet than when fed the same diet containing 4% safflower oil. However, mice fed the two diets did not differ in the extent of the incorporation of radioiodine, and essentially all was bound to protein in each case. Follicular thyroid cells from mice fed the potentially toxic diet that contained unsaturated fat were normal in appearance. Conversely, cells from mice fed the toxic diet were smaller and more densely stained, showing evidence of glycoprotein inside the cell. These findings show that the thyroid gland is affected by the palmitoyl glycerol diet. However, the thyroid is not the only organ affected, because giving either thyroxine or triiodothyronine had no effect on the toxicity of palmitoyl glycerol.

  3. Human Embryonic Stem Cells Form Functional Thyroid Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Rauf; Davies, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The molecular events that lead to human thyroid cell speciation remain incompletely characterized. It has been shown that overexpression of the regulatory transcription factors Pax8 and Nkx2-1 (ttf-1) directs murine embryonic stem (mES) cells to differentiate into thyroid follicular cells by initiating a transcriptional regulatory network. Such cells subsequently organized into three-dimensional follicular structures in the presence of extracellular matrix. In the current study, human embryonic stem (hES) cells were studied with the aim of recapitulating this scenario and producing functional human thyroid cell lines. Methods: Reporter gene tagged pEZ-lentiviral vectors were used to express human PAX8-eGFP and NKX2-1-mCherry in the H9 hES cell line followed by differentiation into thyroid cells directed by Activin A and thyrotropin (TSH). Results: Both transcription factors were expressed efficiently in hES cells expressing either PAX8, NKX2-1, or in combination in the hES cells, which had low endogenous expression of these transcription factors. Further differentiation of the double transfected cells showed the expression of thyroid-specific genes, including thyroglobulin (TG), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), and the TSH receptor (TSHR) as assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. Most notably, the Activin/TSH-induced differentiation approach resulted in thyroid follicle formation and abundant TG protein expression within the follicular lumens. On stimulation with TSH, these hES-derived follicles were also capable of dose-dependent cAMP generation and radioiodine uptake, indicating functional thyroid epithelial cells. Conclusion: The induced expression of PAX8 and NKX2-1 in hES cells was followed by differentiation into thyroid epithelial cells and their commitment to form functional three-dimensional neo-follicular structures. The data provide proof of principal that hES cells can be

  4. Thyroid function and cold acclimation in the hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, T.E.; Horwitz, B.A.

    1987-02-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR), thyroxine utilization rate (T4U), and triiodothyronine utilization rate (T3U) were measured in cold-acclimated (CA) and room temperature-acclimated (RA) male golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus. Hormone utilization rates were calculated via the plasma disappearance technique using SVI-labeled hormones and measuring serum hormone levels via radioimmunoassay. BMR showed a significant 28% increase with cold acclimation. The same cold exposure also produced a 32% increase in T4U, and a 204% increase in T3U. The much greater increase in T3U implies that previous assessments of the relationship between cold acclimation and thyroid function may have been underestimated and that cold exposure induces both quantitative and qualitative changes in thyroid function. It is concluded that in the cold-acclimated state, T3U more accurately reflects thyroid function than does T4U. A mechanism for the cold-induced change in BMR is proposed.

  5. Serum polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations and thyroid function in young children.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Melanie H; Barr, Dana B; Marcus, Michele; Muir, Andrew B; Lyles, Robert H; Howards, Penelope P; Pardo, Larissa; Darrow, Lyndsey A

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for proper neurodevelopment in early life. There is evidence that exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) affects thyroid function, but previous studies have been inconsistent, and no studies among children have been conducted in the United States where PBDE levels are particularly high. Serum levels of seven PBDE congeners and thyroid hormones and other thyroid parameters were measured in 80 children aged 1-5 years from the southeastern United States between 2011 and 2012. Parents of the children completed questionnaires with details on demographics and behaviors. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate the associations between serum PBDE levels, expressed as quartiles and as log-transformed continuous variables, and markers of thyroid function. BDE-47, 99, 100 and 153 were detected in >60% of samples, and were summed (∑PBDE). PBDE congeners and ∑PBDE were positively associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A log-unit increase in ∑PBDE was associated with a 22.1% increase in TSH (95% CI: 2.0%, 47.7%). Compared with children in the lowest quartile of ∑PBDE exposure, children in higher quartiles had greater TSH concentrations as modeled on the log-scale (second quartile: β=0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.09, 0.74; third quartile: β=0.44, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.85; and fourth quartile: β=0.49, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.89). There was also a tendency toward lower total T4 and higher free T3 with increasing PBDE exposure. Results suggest that exposure to PBDEs during childhood subclinically disrupts thyroid hormone function, with impacts in the direction of hypothyroidism. PMID:27228485

  6. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes.

    PubMed

    Aakre, Inger; Strand, Tor A; Bjøro, Trine; Norheim, Ingrid; Barikmo, Ingrid; Ares, Susana; Alcorta, Marta Duque; Henjum, Sigrun

    2016-01-01

    Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0-6 months was performed (baseline study). In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study) was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L), respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight. PMID:27367720

  7. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Aakre, Inger; Strand, Tor A.; Bjøro, Trine; Norheim, Ingrid; Barikmo, Ingrid; Ares, Susana; Alcorta, Marta Duque; Henjum, Sigrun

    2016-01-01

    Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0–6 months was performed (baseline study). In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study) was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L), respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight. PMID:27367720

  8. Increased serum inhibin B levels in postmenopausal women with altered thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, N; Luisi, S; Nardo, S; Gargano, L; Franchi, A; Sibilla, R; Canettieri, G; Petraglia, F; Centanni, M

    2003-08-01

    Hyper- and hypothyroidism have significant effects on the female reproductive system. However, little in the way of data is available on the relationship between ovarian paracrine control and thyroid function. This study was aimed at characterising the serum levels of inhibin B in relation to altered thyroid function. Serum inhibin B and FSH levels were measured in 91 women (51 regularly cycling and 40 postmenopausal). The mean serum concentration of inhibin B in euthyroid cycling women (0.025 +/- 0.018 microg/l) was similar to that observed in hyper- and hypothyroid patients (0.022 +/- 0.015 and 0.018 +/- 0.014 microg/l, respectively, p=ns). Inhibin B levels were obviously reduced (-72%) in euthyroid postmenopausal women. In contrast, in hyper- and hypothyroid postmenopausal women, inhibin B levels remained substantially at the premenopausal level. So far, serum inhibin B appeared to be significantly increased in both hyperthyroid patients (0.025 +/- 0.014 microg/l; p<0.0001) and in hypothyroid patients (0.016 +/- 0.006 microg/l; p=0.0006). Altered thyroid function did not affect FSH levels at fertile age. However, a significant decrease of FSH levels was observed in hyper- and hypothyroid (-52% and -43%, respectively) postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, these FSH levels remained in the postmenopausal range. These results indicate that an altered thyroid function affects serum inhibin B levels in postmenopausal women. PMID:12953168

  9. Thyroid and menopause.

    PubMed

    del Ghianda, S; Tonacchera, M; Vitti, P

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is common in the general population especially in women. All thyroid diseases are in fact more common in women than in men and may interfere with the reproductive system. Thyroid function and the gonadal axes are related throughout the woman's fertile period. The relationship between the two glands is mutual. In particular, thyroid hormones affect the reproductive function both directly and indirectly through several actions. Studies on the relationship between menopause and thyroid function are few and do not allow to clarify whether menopause has an effect on the thyroid regardless of aging. With aging, the main changes regarding thyroid physiology and function are: a reduction of thyroid iodine uptake, free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine synthesis and catabolism of free thyroxine while reverse triiodothyronine increases; the level of thyroid stimulating hormone remains normal with sometimes a tendency to higher limits. These changes are present in both sexes without distinction between males and females. The complexity of the relationships can be summarized in three aspects: thyroid status does not influence significantly the climacteric syndrome; menopause may modify the clinical expression of some thyroid diseases, particularly the autoimmune ones; thyroid function is not directly involved in the pathogenesis of the complications of menopause. However, coronary atherosclerosis and osteoporosis may be aggravated in the presence of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. The effects of postmenopausal estrogen replacement on thyroxine requirements in women with hypothyroidism should be considered. PMID:23998691

  10. Thyroid hormone transporters--functions and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Juan; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana; Morte, Beatriz

    2015-07-01

    The cellular influx and efflux of thyroid hormones are facilitated by transmembrane protein transporters. Of these transporters, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is the only one specific for the transport of thyroid hormones and some of their derivatives. Mutations in SLC16A2, the gene that encodes MCT8, lead to an X-linked syndrome with severe neurological impairment and altered concentrations of thyroid hormones. Histopathological analysis of brain tissue from patients who have impaired MCT8 function indicates that brain lesions start prenatally, and are most probably the result of cerebral hypothyroidism. A Slc16a2 knockout mouse model has revealed that Mct8 is an important mediator of thyroid hormone transport, especially T3, through the blood-brain barrier. However, unlike humans with an MCT8 deficiency, these mice do not have neurological impairment. One explanation for this discrepancy could be differences in expression of the T4 transporter OATP1C1 in the blood-brain barrier; OATP1C1 is more abundant in rodents than in primates and permits the passage of T4 in the absence of T3 transport, thus preventing full cerebral hypothyroidism. In this Review, we discuss the relevance of thyroid hormone transporters in health and disease, with a particular focus on the pathophysiology of MCT8 mutations. PMID:25942657

  11. Pitfalls in the measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests.

    PubMed

    Koulouri, Olympia; Moran, Carla; Halsall, David; Chatterjee, Krishna; Gurnell, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Thyroid function tests (TFTs) are amongst the most commonly requested laboratory investigations in both primary and secondary care. Fortunately, most TFTs are straightforward to interpret and confirm the clinical impression of euthyroidism, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. However, in an important subgroup of patients the results of TFTs can seem confusing, either by virtue of being discordant with the clinical picture or because they appear incongruent with each other [e.g. raised thyroid hormones (TH), but with non-suppressed thyrotropin (TSH); raised TSH, but with normal TH]. In such cases, it is important first to revisit the clinical context, and to consider potential confounding factors, including alterations in normal physiology (e.g. pregnancy), intercurrent (non-thyroidal) illness, and medication usage (e.g. thyroxine, amiodarone, heparin). Once these have been excluded, laboratory artefacts in commonly used TSH or TH immunoassays should be screened for, thus avoiding unnecessary further investigation and/or treatment in cases where there is assay interference. In the remainder, consideration should be given to screening for rare genetic and acquired disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis [e.g. resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), thyrotropinoma (TSHoma)]. Here, we discuss the main pitfalls in the measurement and interpretation of TFTs, and propose a structured algorithm for the investigation and management of patients with anomalous/discordant TFTs. PMID:24275187

  12. Thyroid function following neck irraidation for malignant lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.H.; Fayos, J.V.; Sisson, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Thyroid function tests for T/sub 3/ resin (T/sub 3/-r), serum thyroxine (T/sub 4/), and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in 70 consecutive patients who had previously undergone lymphangiography and neck irradiation for malignant lymphoma. All were in remission and clinically euthyroid. The abnormalities found were: 23 (33%) patients hypothyroid by TSH, 14 (20%) with subnormal T/sub 4/, and 21 (30%) with subnormal T/sub 3/-r values. None of the patients were biochemically hyperthyroid. The prevalence and magnitude of abnormalities were highest during the third year after irradiation, thereafter decreasing with time.

  13. Thyroid gland function during the systemic graft versus host reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlova, T.D.; Fedorov, G.N.; Molotkov, O.V.

    1986-04-01

    The aims of the present investigation were as follows: to determine the level of thyroid hormones and thyrotrophin (TSH) at various times after induction of graft versus host reaction (GVHR); to study the degree of /sup 125/ I uptake by thyroid gland tissue at the same times of the GVHR, and to determine correlation between the hormone levels and weight of the gland in the animals and also the body weight of the recipients. Serum levels of tri-iodothyronine (T/sub 3/), thyroxine (T/sub 4/), and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay. /sup 125/ /SUB I/ was injected intraperitoneally in a dose of 3-4 microCi/100 g body weight. During the development of a systemic GVHR marked inhibition of thyroid function was discovered.

  14. Environmental factors altering thyroid function and their assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Barsano, C P

    1981-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of modest doses of dietary iodine, radiation, and polyhalogenated biphenyls (PCB's and PBB's) are environmental factors with known or suspected adverse effects on the human thyroid. Iodine consumption in the United States is approaching 1 mg daily for a large segment of the population. Data are reviewed which support the need for concern regarding the long-term adverse effects of dietary iodine on thyroid function, particularly in certain susceptible individuals. Environmental sources of radiation pose a significant risk of thyroid cancer and hypothyroidism under certain circumstances which may be intentional, inadvertent, or accidental. Exposure to polyhalogenated biphenyls during manufacture or as industrial pollutants are hazardous to man and to wildlife in moderate or large quantities and perhaps also in small amounts. The need to investigate the potential harm posed by these factors in the quantities commonly encountered is emphasized. PMID:6263611

  15. Development of a Novel Thyroid Function Fluctuated Animal Model for Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yunhai; Wang, Yilong; Ding, Luna; Zhang, Jiao; Wu, Wencan

    2016-01-01

    Background The establishment of a suitable and stable animal model is critical for research on thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). In clinical practice, we found that patients treated with I-131 often exhibit TAO; therefore, we aimed to establish a novel thyroid function fluctuated animal model of TAO by simulating the clinical treatment process. Methods We treated SD rats with I-131 to damage the thyroid and then used sodium levothyroxine (L-T4) to supplement the thyroid hormone (TH) levels every seven days, leading to a fluctuating level of thyroid hormones that simulated the status of clinical TAO patients. Rats administered normal saline were considered as a control. The weight, intraocular pressure, and serum T3, T4, TSH and TRAb levels of the rats were measured, and the pathological changes were analyzed by H&E staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results The experimental rats (TAO group) exhibited significantly reduced weight and elevated intraocular pressure compared with the control rats. Meanwhile, the serum levels of T3 and T4 were up-regulated in the TAO group, but the TSH level decreased during the 10-week study. Moreover, increased numbers of blood vessels and inflammatory cell infiltrations were observed in the orbital tissues of the TAO rats, while no abnormal changes occurred in the control rats. The orbital myofibrils in the TAO rats appeared fractured and dissolved, with twisted structures. Mitochondrial swelling and vacuoles within the endoplasmic reticulum, swelling nerve fibers, shedding nerve myelin, and macrophages were found in the TAO group. Conclusion Rats treated with I-131 and sodium levothyroxine exhibited characteristics similar to those of TAO patients in the clinic, providing an effective and simple method for the establishment of a stable animal model for research on the pathogenesis and treatment of TAO. PMID:26872324

  16. Effect of lithium maintenance therapy on thyroid and parathyroid function.

    PubMed Central

    Kusalic, M; Engelsmann, F

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess changes induced by lithium maintenance therapy on the incidence of thyroid, parathyroid and ion alterations. These were evaluated with respect to the duration of lithium therapy, age, sex, and family history (whether or not the patient had a first-degree relative with thyroid disease). DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Affective Disorders Clinic at St. Mary's Hospital, Montreal. PATIENTS: One hundred and one patients (28 men and 73 women) with bipolar disorder receiving lithium maintenance therapy ranging from 1 year's to 32 years' duration. The control group consisted of 82 patients with no psychiatric or endocrinological diagnoses from the hospital's out-patient clinics. OUTCOME MEASURES: Laboratory analyses of calcium, magnesium and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels performed before beginning lithium therapy and at biannual follow-up. RESULTS: Hypothyroidism developed in 40 patients, excluding 8 patients who were hypothyroid at baseline. All patients having first-degree relatives affected by thyroid illness had accelerated onset of hypothyroidism (3.7 years after onset of lithium therapy) compared with patients without a family history (8.6 years after onset of lithium therapy). Women over 60 years of age were more often affected by hypothyroidism than women under 60 years of age (34.6% versus 31.9%). Magnesium levels in patients on lithium treatment were unchanged from baseline levels. After lithium treatment, calcium levels were higher than either baseline levels or control levels. Thus, lithium treatment counteracted the decrease in plasma calcium levels associated with aging. CONCLUSIONS: Familial thyroid illness is a risk factor for hypothyroidism and hypercalcemia during lithium therapy. PMID:10354657

  17. The Oncogenic Activity of RET Point Mutants for Follicular Thyroid Cells May Account for the Occurrence of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Patients Affected by Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Melillo, Rosa Marina; Cirafici, Anna Maria; De Falco, Valentina; Bellantoni, Marie; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Fusco, Alfredo; Carlomagno, Francesca; Picascia, Antonella; Tramontano, Donatella; Tallini, Giovanni; Santoro, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    Activating germ-line point mutations in the RET receptor are responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2-associated medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), whereas somatic RET rearrangements are prevalent in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). Some rare kindreds, carrying point mutations in RET, are affected by both cancer types, suggesting that, under specific circumstances, point mutations in RET can drive the generation of PTC. Here we describe a family whose siblings, affected by both PTC and MTC, carried a germ-line point mutation in the RET extracellular domain, converting cysteine 634 into serine. We tested on thyroid follicular cells the transforming activity of RET(C634S), RET(K603Q), another mutant identified in a kindred with both PTC and MTC, RET(C634R) a commonly isolated allele in MEN2A, RET(M918T) responsible for MEN2B and also identified in kindreds with both PTC and MTC, and RET/PTC1 the rearranged oncogene that characterizes bona fide PTC in patients without MTC. We show that the various RET point mutants, but not wild-type RET, scored constitutive kinase activity and exerted mitogenic effects for thyroid PC Cl 3 cells, albeit at significantly lower levels compared to RET/PTC1. The low mitogenic activity of RET point mutants paralleled their reduced kinase activity compared to RET/PTC. Furthermore, RET point mutants maintained a protein domain, the intracellular juxtamembrane domain, that exerted negative effects on the mitogenic activity. In conclusion, RET point mutants can behave as dominant oncogenes for thyroid follicular cells. Their transforming activity, however, is rather modest, providing a possible explanation for the rare association of MTC with PTC. PMID:15277225

  18. Role of iodine, selenium and other micronutrients in thyroid function and disorders.

    PubMed

    Triggiani, Vincenzo; Tafaro, Emilio; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Sabbà, Carlo; Resta, Francesco; Licchelli, Brunella; Guastamacchia, Edoardo

    2009-09-01

    Micronutrients, mostly iodine and selenium, are required for thyroid hormone synthesis and function. Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones and its deficiency is considered as the most common cause of preventable brain damage in the world. Nowadays about 800 million people are affected by iodine deficiency disorders that include goiter, hypothyroidism, mental retardation, and a wide spectrum of other growth and developmental abnormalities. Iodine supplementation, under form of iodized salt and iodized vegetable oil, produced dramatic improvements in many areas, even though iodine deficiency is still a problem not only for developing countries. In fact, certain subpopulations like vegetarians may not reach an adequate iodine intake even in countries considered iodine-sufficient. A reduction in dietary iodine content could also be related to increased adherence to dietary recommendations to reduce salt intake for preventing hypertension. Furthermore, iodine intakes are declining in many countries where, after endemic goiter eradication, the lack of monitoring of iodine nutrition can lead to a reappearance of goiter and other iodine deficiency disorders. Three different selenium-dependent iodothyronine deiodinases (types I, II, and III) can both activate and inactivate thyroid hormones, making selenium an essential micronutrient for normal development, growth, and metabolism. Furthermore, selenium is found as selenocysteine in the catalytic center of enzymes protecting the thyroid from free radicals damage. In this way, selenium deficiency can exacerbate the effects of iodine deficiency and the same is true for vitamin A or iron deficiency. Substances introduced with food, such as thiocyanate and isoflavones or certain herbal preparations, can interfere with micronutrients and influence thyroid function. Aim of this paper is to review the role of micronutrients in thyroid function and diseases. PMID:19594417

  19. Perfluoroalkyl substances and thyroid function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Rej, Robert; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2015-02-01

    Current understanding of the thyroid disruptive properties of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), particularly in aging populations, is limited. The objectives of this study were to (i) assess associations between thyroid function, as measured by serum thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), total thyroxine (T4), and total triiodothyronine (T3), and serum perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in an aging population and (ii) determine if other persistent organic pollutants with thyroid disruptive properties including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) modify such associations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 87 men and women 55 to 74years of age, without clinically-diagnosed thyroid disease, who resided in upper Hudson River communities in New York. Geometric means (standard deviations) of serum PFOS and PFOA were 31.6 (1.7) ng/mL and 9.17 (1.72) ng/mL, respectively. Multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that one interquartile range difference in PFOS corresponded to 4% and 9% increases in fT4 and T4 respectively. We detected statistical interactions between PFOA and age for effects on fT4 and T4; joint increases in PFOA and age were associated with increases in fT4 and T4, of 3% and 7%, respectively. We also detected statistical interactions between PFOS and total PCBs for the effect on T3 and between PFOA and total PBDEs for the effect on TSH. Our results suggest that PFASs are associated with subtle alterations in thyroid hormone levels in this population, and that these associations are likely to vary by age, and levels of PCBs and PBDEs. PMID:25483837

  20. Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Thyroid Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S.; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F.; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Rej, Robert; Fitzgerald, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    Current understanding of the thyroid disruptive properties of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), particularly in aging populations, is limited. The objectives of this study were to (i) assess associations between thyroid function, as measured by serum thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), total thyroxine (T4), and total triiodothyronine (T3), and serum perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in an aging population and (ii) determine if other persistent organic pollutants with thyroid disruptive properties including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) modify such associations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 87 men and women 55 to 74 years of age, without clinically-diagnosed thyroid disease, who resided in upper Hudson River communities in New York. Geometric means (standard deviations) of serum PFOS and PFOA were 31.6 (1.7) ng/mL and 9.17 (1.72) ng/mL, respectively. Multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that one interquartile range difference in PFOS corresponded to 4% and 9% increases in fT4 and T4 respectively. We detected statistical interactions between PFOA and age for effects on fT4 and T4; joint increases in PFOA and age were associated with increases in fT4 and T4, of 3% and 7%, respectively. We also detected statistical interactions between PFOS and total PCBs for the effect on T3 and between PFOA and total PBDEs for the effect on TSH. Our results suggest that PFASs are associated with subtle alterations in thyroid hormone levels in this population, and that these associations are likely to vary by age, and levels of PCBs and PBDEs. PMID:25483837

  1. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  2. μ-Crystallin controls muscle function through thyroid hormone action.

    PubMed

    Seko, Daiki; Ogawa, Shizuka; Li, Tao-Sheng; Taimura, Akihiro; Ono, Yusuke

    2016-05-01

    μ-Crystallin (Crym), a thyroid hormone-binding protein, is abnormally up-regulated in the muscles of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, a dominantly inherited progressive myopathy. However, the physiologic function of Crym in skeletal muscle remains to be elucidated. In this study, Crym was preferentially expressed in skeletal muscle throughout the body. Crym-knockout mice exhibited a significant hypertrophy of fast-twitch glycolytic type IIb fibers, causing an increase in grip strength and high intensity running ability in Crym-null mice. Genetic inactivation of Crym or blockade of Crym by siRNA-mediated knockdown up-regulated the gene expression of fast-glycolytic contractile fibers in satellite cell-derived myotubes in vitro These alterations in Crym-inactivated muscle were rescued by inhibition of thyroid hormone, even though Crym is a positive regulator of thyroid hormone action in nonmuscle cells. The results demonstrated that Crym is a crucial regulator of muscle plasticity, controlling metabolic and contractile properties of myofibers, and thus the selective inactivation of Crym may be a potential therapeutic target for muscle-wasting diseases, such as muscular dystrophies and age-related sarcopenia.-Seko, D., Ogawa, S., Li, T.-S., Taimura, A., Ono, Y. μ-Crystallin controls muscle function through thyroid hormone action. PMID:26718889

  3. Thyroid dysfunction and subfertility

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones act on nearly every cell in the body. Moreover, the thyroid gland continuously interacts with the ovaries, and the thyroid hormones are involved in almost all phases of reproduction. Thyroid dysfunctions are relatively common among women of reproductive age, and can affect fertility in various ways, resulting in anovulatory cycles, high prolactin levels, and sex hormone imbalances. Undiagnosed and untreated thyroid disease can be a cause of subfertility. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), also known as mild thyroid failure, is diagnosed when peripheral thyroid hormone levels are within the normal reference laboratory range, but serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are mildly elevated. Thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) is characterized by the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies, which include anti-thyroperoxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. SCH and TAI may remain latent, asymptomatic, or even undiagnosed for an extended period. It has also been demonstrated that controlled ovarian hyperstimulation has a significant impact on thyroid function, particularly in women with TAI. In the current review, we describe the interactions between thyroid dysfunctions and subfertility, as well as the proper work-up and management of thyroid dysfunctions in subfertile women. PMID:26816871

  4. Effect of steroid replacement on thyroid function and thyroid autoimmunity in Addison's disease with primary hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Selviambigapathy, Jayakumar; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Nagarajan, K.; Vivekanandan, Muthupillai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Steroid replacement without thyroxine supplementation normalizes thyroid function test (TFT) in some but not all Addison's disease patients with primary hypothyroidism. Both autoimmune and nonautoimmune mechanisms contribute to this improvement in TFT. However, the documentation of the change in thyroid autoimmunity after cortisol replacement is very limited in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of steroid replacement on TFT and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab) titer in Addison's disease with primary hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted in a tertiary care center in South India. Six Addison's disease patients with primary hypothyroidism, who were only on steroid replacement, were included in the study. Low serum cortisol (<83 nmol/L) with high plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (>22 pmol/L) and/or hyperpigmentation of skin/mucous membranes was considered as the diagnostic criteria for Addison's disease. Primary hypothyroidism (both overt and subclinical) was defined as high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with/without low free thyroxine (fT4). TFT and anti-TPO-Ab were performed before and after steroid replacement in all of them. Results: Poststeroid replacement, there was a normalization of TSH in all but one subjects. In overt hypothyroidism patients, fT4 also normalized. The improvement in TFT was not associated with decreasing titer of the anti-TPO-Ab in all six patients. However, there was a significant difference in TSH after steroid replacement compared to the baseline status. Conclusions: The concept of normalization of primary hypothyroidism with cortisol replacement in patients with Addison's disease should be recognized to avoid iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis caused by thyroxine replacement. Both autoimmune and nonautoimmune mechanisms contribute to these alterations. PMID:27042409

  5. Prenatal exposure to perfluorinated compounds affects thyroid hormone levels in newborn girls.

    PubMed

    Shah-Kulkarni, Surabhi; Kim, Byung-Mi; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Hae Soon; Kwon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Young Ju; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-09-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are ubiquitous in the environment and have been detected in humans and wildlife. Exposure to PFCs has decreased in the United States recently, while exposure to PFCs continues in Asian countries, which represents a public health concern. Various mechanisms by which PFCs affect fetal growth have been proposed, such as activation of peroxisome proliferators, disruption of thyroid hormones and changes in lipid metabolism. However, the overall evidence for an association with thyroid hormones is not strong. Therefore, we examined the effect of various prenatal PFCs on cord blood thyroid hormones: triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, and explored the endocrine disrupting effect of these PFCs on thyroid hormone levels in children according to gender. Two hundred and seventy-nine study participants were selected from among the enrolled participants in the Ewha Birth & Growth Retrospective Cohort, a retrospective birth cohort study conducted at Ewha Womans University Hospital, Seoul, Korea between 2006 and 2010. A generalized linear model was constructed to explore the association of PFCs and thyroid hormones. Further, an analysis stratified by gender was conducted. Our study shows that cord blood perfluoro n-pentanoic acid (PFPeA) was positively associated with cord blood T4 (p=0.01) level. Gender-specific analysis showed that prenatal PFCs: PFPeA and Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) exposure significantly increased T4 (p<0.01) and T3 (p=0.03), respectively, while perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) decreased TSH (p=0.04) concentration in newborn girls. Thus, prenatal PFC exposure may disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. Thyroid hormones play a crucial role in fetal development and may have gender specific action. Hence, these results are of utmost importance in high-risk groups, such as pregnant women and children. PMID:27395336

  6. Thyroid Hormone Disruption by Water-Accommodated Fractions of Crude Oil and Sediments Affected by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill in Zebrafish and GH3 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sujin; Sohn, Ju Hae; Ha, Sung Yong; Kang, Habyeong; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Khim, Jong Seong; Jung, Dawoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2016-06-01

    A crude oil and the coastal sediments that were affected by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill (HSOS) of Taean, Korea were investigated for thyroid hormone disruption potentials. Water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of Iranian Heavy crude oil, the major oil type of HSOS, and the porewater or leachate of sediment samples collected along the coast line of Taean were tested for thyroid disruption using developing zebrafish and/or rat pituitary GH3 cells. Major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated forms were also measured from the test samples. In zebrafish larvae, significant decreases in whole-body thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, along with transcriptional changes of thyroid regulating genes, were observed following 5 day exposure to WAFs. In GH3 cells, transcriptions of thyroid regulating genes were influenced following the exposure to the sediment samples, but the pattern of the regulatory change was different from those observed from the WAFs. Composition of PAHs and their alkylated homologues in the WAFs could partly explain this difference. Our results clearly demonstrate that WAFs of crude oil can disrupt thyroid function of larval zebrafish. Sediment samples also showed thyroid disrupting potentials in the GH3 cell, even several years after the oil spill. Long-term ecosystem consequences of thyroid hormone disruption due to oil spill deserve further investigation. PMID:27144452

  7. Phthalates Are Metabolised by Primary Thyroid Cell Cultures but Have Limited Influence on Selected Thyroid Cell Functions In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Brorson, Marianne Møller; Boas, Malene; Frederiksen, Hanne; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Lindström, Emma Sofie; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Frisch, Thomas; Main, Katharina M.; Bendtzen, Klaus; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are plasticisers added to a wide variety of products, resulting in measurable exposure of humans. They are suspected to disrupt the thyroid axis as epidemiological studies suggest an influence on the peripheral thyroid hormone concentration. The mechanism is still unknown as only few in vitro studies within this area exist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of three phthalate diesters (di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) and two monoesters (mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP)) on the differentiated function of primary human thyroid cell cultures. Also, the kinetics of phthalate metabolism were investigated. DEHP and its monoester, MEHP, both had an inhibitory influence on 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate secretion from the cells, and MEHP also on thyroglobulin (Tg) secretion from the cells. Results of the lactate dehydrogenase-measurements indicated that the MEHP-mediated influence was caused by cell death. No influence on gene expression of thyroid specific genes (Tg, thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodine symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor) by any of the investigated diesters could be demonstrated. All phthalate diesters were metabolised to the respective monoester, however with a fall in efficiency for high concentrations of the larger diesters DnBP and DEHP. In conclusion, human thyroid cells were able to metabolise phthalates but this phthalate-exposure did not appear to substantially influence selected functions of these cells. PMID:26985823

  8. Abnormal thyroid function tests in children on ethionamide treatment.

    PubMed

    Thee, S; Zöllner, E W; Willemse, M; Hesseling, A C; Magdorf, K; Schaaf, H S

    2011-09-01

    Ethionamide (ETH) treatment may cause hypothyroidism. Clinical data, serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels were retrospectively assessed in 137 children receiving anti-tuberculosis treatment including ETH. Abnormal thyroid function tests (TFTs) were recorded in 79 (58%) children: elevated serum TSH and suppressed fT4 (n = 30), isolated elevated serum TSH (n = 20), isolated low serum fT4 (n = 28) and isolated low TSH (n = 1). The risk for biochemical hypothyroidism was higher for children on regimens including para-aminosalicylic acid and in human immunodeficiency virus infected children. TFT abnormalities are frequent in children on ETH and are mainly due to primary hypothyroidism or euthyroid sick syndrome. PMID:21943844

  9. Whole-genome sequence-based analysis of thyroid function

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Peter N.; Porcu, Eleonora; Chew, Shelby; Campbell, Purdey J.; Traglia, Michela; Brown, Suzanne J.; Mullin, Benjamin H.; Shihab, Hashem A.; Min, Josine; Walter, Klaudia; Memari, Yasin; Huang, Jie; Barnes, Michael R.; Beilby, John P.; Charoen, Pimphen; Danecek, Petr; Dudbridge, Frank; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Greenwood, Celia; Grundberg, Elin; Johnson, Andrew D.; Hui, Jennie; Lim, Ee M.; McCarthy, Shane; Muddyman, Dawn; Panicker, Vijay; Perry, John R.B.; Bell, Jordana T.; Yuan, Wei; Relton, Caroline; Gaunt, Tom; Schlessinger, David; Abecasis, Goncalo; Cucca, Francesco; Surdulescu, Gabriela L.; Woltersdorf, Wolfram; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Toniolo, Daniela; Dayan, Colin M.; Naitza, Silvia; Walsh, John P.; Spector, Tim; Davey Smith, George; Durbin, Richard; Brent Richards, J.; Sanna, Serena; Soranzo, Nicole; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Wilson, Scott G.; Turki, Saeed Al; Anderson, Carl; Anney, Richard; Antony, Dinu; Artigas, Maria Soler; Ayub, Muhammad; Balasubramaniam, Senduran; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Barroso, Inês; Beales, Phil; Bentham, Jamie; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Birney, Ewan; Blackwood, Douglas; Bobrow, Martin; Bochukova, Elena; Bolton, Patrick; Bounds, Rebecca; Boustred, Chris; Breen, Gerome; Calissano, Mattia; Carss, Keren; Chatterjee, Krishna; Chen, Lu; Ciampi, Antonio; Cirak, Sebhattin; Clapham, Peter; Clement, Gail; Coates, Guy; Collier, David; Cosgrove, Catherine; Cox, Tony; Craddock, Nick; Crooks, Lucy; Curran, Sarah; Curtis, David; Daly, Allan; Day-Williams, Aaron; Day, Ian N.M.; Down, Thomas; Du, Yuanping; Dunham, Ian; Edkins, Sarah; Ellis, Peter; Evans, David; Faroogi, Sadaf; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fitzpatrick, David R.; Flicek, Paul; Flyod, James; Foley, A. Reghan; Franklin, Christopher S.; Futema, Marta; Gallagher, Louise; Geihs, Matthias; Geschwind, Daniel; Griffin, Heather; Grozeva, Detelina; Guo, Xueqin; Guo, Xiaosen; Gurling, Hugh; Hart, Deborah; Hendricks, Audrey; Holmans, Peter; Howie, Bryan; Huang, Liren; Hubbard, Tim; Humphries, Steve E.; Hurles, Matthew E.; Hysi, Pirro; Jackson, David K.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Jing, Tian; Joyce, Chris; Kaye, Jane; Keane, Thomas; Keogh, Julia; Kemp, John; Kennedy, Karen; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Lachance, Genevieve; Langford, Cordelia; Lawson, Daniel; Lee, Irene; Lek, Monkol; Liang, Jieqin; Lin, Hong; Li, Rui; Li, Yingrui; Liu, Ryan; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Lopes, Margarida; Lotchkova, Valentina; MacArthur, Daniel; Marchini, Jonathan; Maslen, John; Massimo, Mangino; Mathieson, Iain; Marenne, Gaëlle; McGuffin, Peter; McIntosh, Andrew; McKechanie, Andrew G.; McQuillin, Andrew; Metrustry, Sarah; Mitchison, Hannah; Moayyeri, Alireza; Morris, James; Muntoni, Francesco; Northstone, Kate; O'Donnovan, Michael; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Oualkacha, Karim; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Parker, Victoria; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Paunio, Tiina; Payne, Felicity; Pietilainen, Olli; Plagnol, Vincent; Quaye, Lydia; Quai, Michael A.; Raymond, Lucy; Rehnström, Karola; Richards, Brent; Ring, Susan; Ritchie, Graham R.S.; Roberts, Nicola; Savage, David B.; Scambler, Peter; Schiffels, Stephen; Schmidts, Miriam; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Semple, Robert K.; Serra, Eva; Sharp, Sally I.; Shin, So-Youn; Skuse, David; Small, Kerrin; Southam, Lorraine; Spasic-Boskovic, Olivera; Clair, David St; Stalker, Jim; Stevens, Elizabeth; Pourcian, Beate St; Sun, Jianping; Suvisaari, Jaana; Tachmazidou, Ionna; Tobin, Martin D.; Valdes, Ana; Kogelenberg, Margriet Van; Vijayarangakannan, Parthiban; Visscher, Peter M.; Wain, Louise V.; Walters, James T.R.; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yu; Ward, Kirsten; Wheeler, Elanor; Whyte, Tamieka; Williams, Hywel; Williamson, Kathleen A.; Wilson, Crispian; Wong, Kim; Xu, ChangJiang; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Fend; Zhang, Pingbo

    2015-01-01

    Normal thyroid function is essential for health, but its genetic architecture remains poorly understood. Here, for the heritable thyroid traits thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4), we analyse whole-genome sequence data from the UK10K project (N=2,287). Using additional whole-genome sequence and deeply imputed data sets, we report meta-analysis results for common variants (MAF≥1%) associated with TSH and FT4 (N=16,335). For TSH, we identify a novel variant in SYN2 (MAF=23.5%, P=6.15 × 10−9) and a new independent variant in PDE8B (MAF=10.4%, P=5.94 × 10−14). For FT4, we report a low-frequency variant near B4GALT6/SLC25A52 (MAF=3.2%, P=1.27 × 10−9) tagging a rare TTR variant (MAF=0.4%, P=2.14 × 10−11). All common variants explain ≥20% of the variance in TSH and FT4. Analysis of rare variants (MAF<1%) using sequence kernel association testing reveals a novel association with FT4 in NRG1. Our results demonstrate that increased coverage in whole-genome sequence association studies identifies novel variants associated with thyroid function. PMID:25743335

  10. Thyroid hormone is required for hypothalamic neurons regulating cardiovascular functions

    PubMed Central

    Mittag, Jens; Lyons, David J.; Sällström, Johan; Vujovic, Milica; Dudazy-Gralla, Susi; Warner, Amy; Wallis, Karin; Alkemade, Anneke; Nordström, Kristina; Monyer, Hannah; Broberger, Christian; Arner, Anders; Vennström, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is well known for its profound direct effects on cardiovascular function and metabolism. Recent evidence, however, suggests that the hormone also regulates these systems indirectly through the central nervous system. While some of the molecular mechanisms underlying the hormone’s central control of metabolism have been identified, its actions in the central cardiovascular control have remained enigmatic. Here, we describe a previously unknown population of parvalbuminergic neurons in the anterior hypothalamus that requires thyroid hormone receptor signaling for proper development. Specific stereotaxic ablation of these cells in the mouse resulted in hypertension and temperature-dependent tachycardia, indicating a role in the central autonomic control of blood pressure and heart rate. Moreover, the neurons exhibited intrinsic temperature sensitivity in patch-clamping experiments, providing a new connection between cardiovascular function and core temperature. Thus, the data identify what we believe to be a novel hypothalamic cell population potentially important for understanding hypertension and indicate developmental hypothyroidism as an epigenetic risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Furthermore, the findings may be beneficial for treatment of the recently identified patients that have a mutation in thyroid hormone receptor α1. PMID:23257356

  11. Whole-genome sequence-based analysis of thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter N; Porcu, Eleonora; Chew, Shelby; Campbell, Purdey J; Traglia, Michela; Brown, Suzanne J; Mullin, Benjamin H; Shihab, Hashem A; Min, Josine; Walter, Klaudia; Memari, Yasin; Huang, Jie; Barnes, Michael R; Beilby, John P; Charoen, Pimphen; Danecek, Petr; Dudbridge, Frank; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Greenwood, Celia; Grundberg, Elin; Johnson, Andrew D; Hui, Jennie; Lim, Ee M; McCarthy, Shane; Muddyman, Dawn; Panicker, Vijay; Perry, John R B; Bell, Jordana T; Yuan, Wei; Relton, Caroline; Gaunt, Tom; Schlessinger, David; Abecasis, Goncalo; Cucca, Francesco; Surdulescu, Gabriela L; Woltersdorf, Wolfram; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Toniolo, Daniela; Dayan, Colin M; Naitza, Silvia; Walsh, John P; Spector, Tim; Davey Smith, George; Durbin, Richard; Richards, J Brent; Sanna, Serena; Soranzo, Nicole; Timpson, Nicholas J; Wilson, Scott G

    2015-01-01

    Normal thyroid function is essential for health, but its genetic architecture remains poorly understood. Here, for the heritable thyroid traits thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4), we analyse whole-genome sequence data from the UK10K project (N=2,287). Using additional whole-genome sequence and deeply imputed data sets, we report meta-analysis results for common variants (MAF≥1%) associated with TSH and FT4 (N=16,335). For TSH, we identify a novel variant in SYN2 (MAF=23.5%, P=6.15 × 10(-9)) and a new independent variant in PDE8B (MAF=10.4%, P=5.94 × 10(-14)). For FT4, we report a low-frequency variant near B4GALT6/SLC25A52 (MAF=3.2%, P=1.27 × 10(-9)) tagging a rare TTR variant (MAF=0.4%, P=2.14 × 10(-11)). All common variants explain ≥20% of the variance in TSH and FT4. Analysis of rare variants (MAF<1%) using sequence kernel association testing reveals a novel association with FT4 in NRG1. Our results demonstrate that increased coverage in whole-genome sequence association studies identifies novel variants associated with thyroid function. PMID:25743335

  12. Thyroid function in Yusho patients exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)

    SciTech Connect

    Murai, K.; Okamura, K.; Tsuji, H.; Kajiwara, E.; Watanabe, H.; Akagi, K.; Fujishima, M.

    1987-12-01

    Thyroid function was investigated in 123 Yusho patients who were exposed to toxic levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 16 years ago. In Yusho patients, compared with the patients without evidence of Yusho or normal controls, the serum triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) and thyroxine (T/sub 4/) levels were significantly higher, while thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured by sensitive assay were normal. There was no difference in serum levels of albumin, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) between the two groups and the prevalence of positive antithyroid autoantibodies was almost the same, suggesting that hyperthyroxinemia in Yusho patients was not due to increased TBG binding or abnormal autoimmune mechanism. Serum free T/sub 4/ levels, however, were not elevated, although T/sub 4//TBG ratio was significantly higher. The thyroid hormone levels were higher than normal value in 4 of 123 Yusho patients but only 1 case had clinical symptoms such as excessive perspiration. Despite higher serum PCBs in Yusho patients, there was no correlation between PCB levels and levels of T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/, or TSH. The present results suggest hyperthyroxinemia without obvious clinical symptoms in Yusho patients long after exposure to PCBs.

  13. The effect of magnesium depletion on thyroid function in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.M.; Root, A.W.; Duckett, G.E.; Smith, J.C. Jr.; Yunice, A.A.; Kepford, G.

    1984-08-01

    The effects of dietary magnesium (Mg) depletion on thyroid function were studied in young male rats. The rats were fed a semipurified diet containing either 12 ppm Mg (deficient rats) or 662 ppm Mg (control rats) for 14 to 28 days. Results showed that the Mg-deficient rats had decreased body weight gain, lowered concentrations of plasma thyroxine (T4) and Mg, but increased weight of the thyroid gland when expressed in proportion to the body weight (milligrams/100 g). There was no difference in the accumulation (uptake) of 131I, 24 hours after Na131I injection, between the Mg-deficient and Mg-supplemented rats. The protein-bound 131I (PB131I) level and the ratio of PB131I to total 131I in plasma was significantly reduced in Mg-deficient rats. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels after thyrotropin-releasing hormone injection (TRH, 50 ng/100 g body weight) increased fivefold at 30 minutes, but declined to near the basal level at 2 hours in both groups. No consistent difference in TSH response was observed between the two treatments. Serum T4 response to TRH challenge was significantly reduced in Mg-deficient as compared to Mg-adequate rats at all time intervals. The reduction of T4 level could be due to an impaired T4 synthesis or release in Mg-deficient rats.

  14. Regeneration of Thyroid Function by Transplantation of Differentiated Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kurmann, Anita A; Serra, Maria; Hawkins, Finn; Rankin, Scott A; Mori, Munemasa; Astapova, Inna; Ullas, Soumya; Lin, Sui; Bilodeau, Melanie; Rossant, Janet; Jean, Jyh C; Ikonomou, Laertis; Deterding, Robin R; Shannon, John M; Zorn, Aaron M; Hollenberg, Anthony N; Kotton, Darrell N

    2015-11-01

    Differentiation of functional thyroid epithelia from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) holds the potential for application in regenerative medicine. However, progress toward this goal is hampered by incomplete understanding of the signaling pathways needed for directed differentiation without forced overexpression of exogenous transgenes. Here we use mouse PSCs to identify key conserved roles for BMP and FGF signaling in regulating thyroid lineage specification from foregut endoderm in mouse and Xenopus. Thyroid progenitors derived from mouse PSCs can be matured into thyroid follicular organoids that provide functional secretion of thyroid hormones in vivo and rescue hypothyroid mice after transplantation. Moreover, by stimulating the same pathways, we were also able to derive human thyroid progenitors from normal and disease-specific iPSCs generated from patients with hypothyroidism resulting from NKX2-1 haploinsufficiency. Our studies have therefore uncovered the regulatory mechanisms that underlie early thyroid organogenesis and provide a significant step toward cell-based regenerative therapy for hypothyroidism. PMID:26593959

  15. [Modification of endocrine function of trophoblasts by thyroid hormone].

    PubMed

    Matsuo, H; Maruo, T; Hayashi, M; Mochizuki, M

    1991-11-01

    Direct effects of L-triiodothyronine(T3) on placental endocrine function were investigated in vitro with an organ culture system for human placental tissues. Explants of trophoblastic tissues obtained from early and term placentas were cultured with or without graded doses of T3 in a serum-free condition. The addition of an optimal concentration of T3(10(-3) M T3) stimulated daily secretion of progesterone and estradiol from cultured early placental tissues by acting at the level of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and aromatase enzyme activity, together with the enhancement of hCG(alpha, beta) and hPL secretion. The addition of higher or lower concentrations of T3 gave attenuated effects and the addition of an excessive concentration of T3(10(-3) M T3) resulted in remarkable inhibition of progesterone and estradiol secretion by cultured early placental tissues. These results suggest that the optimal concentration of thyroid hormone acts as a biological amplifier of endocrine function of cultured trophoblasts obtained from early placentas. Unlike the early placental tissues, cultured term placental tissues did not respond to the addition of graded doses of T3 with increased endocrine function. Thus, the frequent occurrence of spontaneous abortion in early pregnancy during the state of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism may represent a direct consequence of inadequate thyroid hormone availability at the level of the trophoblast, followed by diminished endocrine function of early placental trophoblasts. PMID:1940550

  16. TAS2R bitter taste receptors regulate thyroid function

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Adam A.; Dotson, Cedrick D.; Elson, Amanda E. T.; Voigt, Anja; Boehm, Ulrich; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Steinle, Nanette I.; Munger, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine and thyroxine (T3/T4) can impact metabolism, body composition, and development. Thus, it is critical to identify novel mechanisms that impact T3/T4 production. We found that type 2 taste receptors (TAS2Rs), which are activated by bitter-tasting compounds such as those found in many foods and pharmaceuticals, negatively regulate thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-dependent Ca2+ increases and TSH-dependent iodide efflux in thyrocytes. Immunohistochemical Tas2r-dependent reporter expression and real-time PCR analyses reveal that human and mouse thyrocytes and the Nthy-Ori 3-1 human thyrocyte line express several TAS2Rs. Five different agonists for thyrocyte-expressed TAS2Rs reduced TSH-dependent Ca2+ release in Nthy-Ori 3-1 cells, but not basal Ca2+ levels, in a dose-dependent manner. Ca2+ responses were unaffected by 6-n-propylthiouracil, consistent with the expression of an unresponsive variant of its cognate receptor, TAS2R38, in these cells. TAS2R agonists also inhibited basal and TSH-dependent iodide efflux. Furthermore, a common TAS2R42 polymorphism is associated with increased serum T4 levels in a human cohort. Our findings indicate that TAS2Rs couple the detection of bitter-tasting compounds to changes in thyrocyte function and T3/T4 production. Thus, TAS2Rs may mediate a protective response to overingestion of toxic materials and could serve as new druggable targets for therapeutic treatment of hypo- or hyperthyroidism.—Clark, A. A., Dotson, C. D., Elson, A. E. T., Voigt, A., Boehm, U., Meyerhof, W., Steinle, N. I., Munger, S. D. TAS2R bitter taste receptors regulate thyroid function. PMID:25342133

  17. Sex-specific changes in thyroid gland function and circulating thyroid hormones in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following embryonic exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers by maternal transfer.

    PubMed

    Fernie, Kim J; Marteinson, Sarah C

    2016-08-01

    High concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) accumulate in predatory birds. Several PBDE congeners are considered thyroid disruptors; however, avian studies are limited. The authors examined circulating thyroid hormones and thyroid gland function of nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) at 17 d to 20 d of age, following embryonic exposure by maternal transfer only to environmentally relevant levels of PBDEs (DE-71 technical mixture). Nestlings were exposed to in ovo sum (Σ) PBDE concentrations of 11 301 ± 95 ng/g wet weight (high exposure), 289 ± 33 ng/g wet weight (low exposure), or 3.0 ± 0.5 ng/g wet weight (controls, background exposure). Statistical comparisons are made to controls of the respective sexes and account for the relatedness of siblings within broods. Circulating concentrations of plasma total thyroxine (TT4 ) and total triiodothyronine (TT3 ) in female nestlings were significantly influenced overall by the exposure to DE-71. Following intramuscular administration of thyroid-stimulating hormone, the temporal response of the thyroid gland in producing and/or releasing TT4 was also significantly affected by the females' exposure to DE-71. The altered availability of T4 for conversion to T3 outside of the gland and/or changes in thyroid-related enzymatic activity may explain the lower TT3 concentrations (baseline, overall) and moderately altered temporal TT3 patterns (p = 0.06) of the treatment females. Controlling for the significant effect on TT3 levels of the delayed hatching of treatment females, baseline TT3 levels were significantly and positively correlated with body mass (10 d, 15 d, 20 d), with PBDE-exposed females generally being smaller and having lower TT3 concentrations. Given that exposure concentrations were environmentally relevant, similar thyroidal changes and associated thyroid-mediated processes relating to growth may also occur in wild female nestlings. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016

  18. Functional properties of human thyroid follicles cultured within collagen gel.

    PubMed

    Massart, C; Hody, B; Condé, D; Leclech, G; Edan, G; Nicol, M

    1988-04-01

    Cultures of human thyroid follicles embedded in collagen gel were performed to investigate certain functional properties under bovine thyrotropin (TSH) stimulation. Follicles obtained from normal glands responded to increasing concentrations of TSH administered on day 4 in culture and for 3 days by increased amounts of cyclic AMP (cAMP), thyroglobulin (Tg) and triiodothyronine (T3) and by decreased levels of thyroxine (T4). Effect was maximal at 2000 microU/ml TSH (cAMP) or 200 microU/ml (Tg, T3, T4). When methimazole or propylthiouracil (PTU) were added, the T3 levels decreased. Follicle lumens contained a periodic acid-Schiff substance which was identified by immunoreaction as Tg. Thyroid follicles obtained from Graves' disease glands gave modified results with an earlier and intensified T3 response and no increase in Tg. These data show that (1) Tg and T3 are secretory products of functional follicles giving a cAMP-mediated response to TSH. (2) The detected T3 also derives from T4 5'-deiodination inhibited by PTU. (3) Intensified T3 response in Graves' follicles is probably due to enhanced conversion of T4 to T3. PMID:2836248

  19. Thyroid transplantation developing autoimmune thyroiditis following thymectomy and irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S A; Penhale, W J

    1981-01-01

    Post-irradiation transplantation of normal thyroids under the renal capsule of syngenetic thymectomized and irradiated (Tx-X) rats leads to the development of thyroiditis in the ectopic grafted thyroids. A close correlation was observed between the extent of the lesions in the grafted and recipient's own thyroid. The histopathology of both grafted and recipient thyroid was similar and was characterized by infiltration with mononuclear cells together with some plasma cells. Conversely, grafting of affected thyroids from Tx-X rats to normal animals resulted in the regression of the lesion in the graft and no evidence thyroiditis was observed in either the graft or the recipient's thyroid when these were examined 60 days post-grafting. Thyroids derived from normal animals grafted to syngenetic normal rats were found to remain healthy and intact over a 60-day period. In contrast to normal animals, Tx-X rats were unable to reject totally in transplanted allogeneic thyroids by 28 days post-grafting, suggesting that some impairment of cell-mediated immunity follows this treatment. These findings indicate that the pathological change occurring in the thyroid gland of Tx-X rats is not attributable to the local effect of irradiation of the thyroids and adds further support to the concept that the process is immunologically mediated by thyroid-specific circulating components in the absence of normal immune regulatory function. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6896018

  20. Evaluation of hearing functions in patients with euthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Arduc, Ayse; Isık, Serhat; Allusoglu, Serpil; Iriz, Ayse; Dogan, Bercem Aycicek; Gocer, Celil; Tuna, Mazhar Muslim; Berker, Dilek; Guler, Serdar

    2015-12-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss has been reported in various autoimmune diseases. The relationship between Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and the auditory system has not been previously evaluated. In this study, we investigated the effect of euthyroid HT on the hearing ability of adult patients. The study included 30 patients with newly diagnosed euthyroid HT and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. All subjects had a normal otoscopic examination and tympanometry, and they were negative for rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, anti-smooth muscle, antimitochondrial, antineutrophilcytoplasmic, and antigliadin antibodies. Pure tone audiometry exams at 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hertz (Hz) were performed in both groups. Thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg) levels were higher in HT group while TSH, free T4, free T3, plasma electrolytes, glucose, lipid profile, vitamin B12, and blood pressure measurements were similar between the two groups. Higher audiometric thresholds and a higher prevalence of hearing loss at 250, 500, and 6000 Hz were detected in the HT patients than in the healthy controls (P < 0.05). Hearing levels at 250 and 500 Hz correlated positively with anti-Tg levels (ρ = 0.650, P = 0.002; ρ = 0.719, P < 0.001, respectively), and this association remained significant in linear regression analysis. Anti-Tg-positive HT patients had higher hearing thresholds at 250 and 500 Hz than anti-Tg-negative HT patients. Hearing thresholds were similar between anti-Tg-negative HT patients and the control subjects. This study demonstrated that hearing functions are impaired in HT patients. Thyroid autoimmunity seems to have an important impact on a decreased hearing ability, particularly at lower frequencies, in this population of patients. PMID:25963023

  1. Effects of amiodarone on thyroid function in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Zaninovich, A.A.; Bosco, S.; Contreras, L.; El Tamer, E.; Chiozza, M.; Fernandez Pol, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    The present work studies the effects of the anti-arrhythmic drug amiodarone on thyroidal release slopes (TRS) and peripheral kinetics of /sup 125/I-thyroxine (/sup 125/I-T/sub 4/) and /sup 125/I-triiodothyronine (/sup 125/I-T/sub 3/) during chronic (200-800 mg/day, 2-5 years) or acute (400 mg/day, 5-8 days) treatment with amiodarone. Each patient received a tracer does of /sup 125/I-T/sub 4/ or /sup 125/I-T/sub 3/ iv. TRS were derived from daily plasma ratios of /sup 127/I-T4//sup 125/I-T4 and /sup 127/I-T3//sup 125/I-T3. Double antibody radioimmunoassay techniques were employed to measure serum T4, T3, reverse T3 and thyrotropin (TSH). In the /sup 125/I-T4 studies, 8 chronically-treated patients had a mean TRS value of 0.063 +- 0.033 (SD) versus 0.110 +- 0.030 in controls (NS). Fractional T4 turnover (k) was 70% metabolic clearance rate (MCR) 80% and disposal rate (DS) 79% (NS) of the respective value in control subjects. The acute studies in 5 normal subjects showed no changes with amiodarone. In the /sup 125/I-T3 studies chronic patients had a decreased TRS, k MCR and DR whereas the acute studies showed similar, significant changes during amiodarone treatment. Serum T4 and reverse T3 were significantly elevated serum T3 was decreased and serum TSH was non-significantly increased. The authors conclude that despite the supranormal serum T4 and TSH, amiodarone appeared to depress thyroidal function and to block the thyroid gland response to a peripheral decrease in T4 conversion to T3.

  2. Effects of Ammonium Perchlorate on Thyroid Function in Developing Fathead Minnows, Pimephales promelas

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Helen M.; Pickford, Daniel B.; Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Brown, J. Anne

    2005-01-01

    Perchlorate is a known environmental contaminant, largely due to widespread military use as a propellant. Perchlorate acts pharmacologically as a competitive inhibitor of thyroidal iodide uptake in mammals, but the impacts of perchlorate contamination in aquatic ecosystems and, in particular, the effects on fish are unclear. Our studies aimed to investigate the effects of concentrations of ammonium perchlorate that can occur in the environment (1, 10, and 100 mg/L) on the development of fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas. For these studies, exposures started with embryos of < 24-hr postfertilization and were terminated after 28 days. Serial sectioning of thyroid follicles showed thyroid hyperplasia with increased follicular epithelial cell height and reduced colloid in all groups of fish that had been exposed to perchlorate for 28 days, compared with control fish. Whole-body thyroxine (T4) content (a measure of total circulating T4) in fish exposed to 100 mg/L perchlorate was elevated compared with the T4 content of control fish, but 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) content was not significantly affected in any exposure group. Despite the apparent regulation of T3, after 28 days of exposure to ammonium perchlorate, fish exposed to the two higher levels (10 and 100 mg/L) were developmentally retarded, with a lack of scales and poor pigmentation, and significantly lower wet weight and standard length than were control fish. Our study indicates that environmental levels of ammonium perchlorate affect thyroid function in fish and that in the early life stages these effects may be associated with developmental retardation. PMID:15811828

  3. Evaluation of strategy for testing thyroid function applied to hypothyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Corns, C M; Miller, A L

    1986-01-01

    A strategy for testing thyroid function with discretionary assay of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) following initial measurement of total plasma thyroxine (tT4) was retrospectively evaluated in relation to the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Over a two year period 14 641 tT4 assays were done and 6887 TSH assays, of which 29% were initiated in the laboratory. The percentage of raised TSH values (over 5 mU/1) was similar to those for clinician and pathologist initiated requests (23.2% and 23.6%). Some TSH requests (1620) were cancelled; when 212 of these were subsequently analysed the TSH value was raised in 5.7% The incidence of raised TSH values in 188 patients with a tT4 below 100 nmol/1 (7.8 micrograms/100 ml), in whom TSH was not requested, was 5.3% Most of these raised TSH results could be readily explained by information available to the requesting clinician but not given on the request form. PMID:3082940

  4. Thyroid function after radiotherapy and laryngectomy for carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, B.V.; Gaggar, N.; Shaw, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total levels of thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in 37 patients who had previously had carcinoma of the larynx treated by radiotherapy and total laryngectomy with thyroid lobectomy. Ten percent of the patients had clinical features of hypothyroidism and 30% had total T4 levels below the lower limit of normal. A further 40% had results in the low normal range. Forty-four percent of patients had raised TSH levels, 90% of these having low or low normal T4 levels. The histology of the thyroid gland was normal in all 37 patients. Attention should be given to preserving intact the vasculature of the contralateral thyroid lobe whenever it is necessary to remove the ipsilateral thyroid lobe during a laryngectomy. Proper postoperative assessment of thyroid gland function is desirable in all these patients to identify those at risk of hypothyroidism and to avoid unnecessary morbidity.

  5. Autoimmunity affects health-related quality of life in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Bektas Uysal, Hilal; Ayhan, Mediha

    2016-08-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the most common endocrine disorder leading to hypothyroidism. HT is characterized by the presence of elevated circulating antibodies, especially anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg). In our study, we aimed to reveal the effects of autoimmunity on health-related quality of life of euthyroid HT patients. Patients who were admitted to the Adnan Menderes University Outpatient Clinic were enrolled. The medical records of the patients were surveyed and their demographical data were collected. By using communication data, the patients were invited to our clinic, to inform them about our study and to fill out the health-related quality of life questionnaire. A total of 84 euthyroid HT patients older than 18 years who completed the short form-36 questionnaire, were enrolled. As all patients were euthyroid, there was a significant negative correlation between each domain score and the antibody levels, individually. Patients who had higher anti-TPO and anti-Tg levels had significantly lower quality of life domain scores (p < 0.001). There was statistically no significant correlation between the antibody levels and thyroid function tests (p > 0.05). Additionally, all dimension scores were significantly higher both in the anti-Tg and anti-TPO negative groups, indicating a better quality of life than that in the antibody positive groups. Our study revealed that higher thyroid antibody levels were negatively correlated with life quality scores. Thus, patients who had higher anti-TPO and anti-Tg levels had significantly lower quality of life domain scores. We believe that apart from hypothyroidism, a high antibody level was one of the contributing factors for the development of HT-associated symptoms, leading to a lower quality of life. Other probable contributing factors such as selenium deficiency, thyroid hormone fluctuation, and disease awareness should keep in mind. PMID:27523457

  6. Risk assessment of thyroid follicular cell tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, R N; Crisp, T M; Hurley, P M; Rosenthal, S L; Singh, D V

    1998-01-01

    Thyroid follicular cell tumors arise in rodents from mutations, perturbations of thyroid and pituitary hormone status with increased stimulation of thyroid cell growth by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), or a combination of the two. The only known human thyroid carcinogen is ionizing radiation. It is not known for certain whether chemicals that affect thyroid cell growth lead to human thyroid cancer. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency applies the following science policy positions: 1) chemically induced rodent thyroid tumors are presumed to be relevant to humans; 2) when interspecies information is lacking, the default is to assume comparable carcinogenic sensitivity in rodents and humans; 3) adverse rodent noncancer thyroid effects due to chemically induced thyroid-pituitary disruption are presumed to be relevant to humans; 4) linear dose-response considerations are applied to thyroid cancer induced by chemical substances that either do not disrupt thyroid functioning or lack mode of action information; 5) nonlinear thyroid cancer dose-response considerations are applied to chemicals that reduce thyroid hormone levels, increase TSH and thyroid cell division, and are judged to lack mutagenic activity; and 6) nonlinear considerations may be applied in thyroid cancer dose-response assessments on a case-by-case basis for chemicals that disrupt thyroid-pituitary functioning and demonstrate some mutagenic activity. Required data for risk assessment purposes is mode of action information on mutagenicity, increases in follicular cell growth (cell size and number) and thyroid gland weight, thyroid-pituitary hormones, site of action, correlations between doses producing thyroid effects and cancer, and reversibility of effects when dosing ceases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9681971

  7. Perinatal undernutrition programmes thyroid function in the adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Moreno, Rosario; Racotta, Radu; Anguiano, Brenda; Aceves, Carmen; Quevedo, Lucía

    2013-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that alterations in early nutrition programme physiological changes in adulthood. In the present study, we determined the effects of undernutrition during gestation and lactation on the programming of thyroid function in adult rat offspring. Perinatal undernutrition was achieved by a 40% food restriction in female Wistar rats from the mating day to weaning. On postpartum day 21, the offspring of the control and food-restricted dams were weaned and given free access to a commercial diet until adulthood. The results showed that undernourished rats exhibited decreased 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) levels but had normal thyroxine (T4) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels at weaning; on day 90, these rats displayed a significant flip, exhibiting normalised T3 (total and free) and total T4 levels, but low free T4 and persistently higher TSH levels, which were maintained even on postnatal day 140. This profile was accompanied by a scarce fat depot, a lower RMR and an exacerbated sympathetic brown adipose tissue (BAT) tone (deiodinase type 2 expression) in basal conditions. Moreover, when a functional challenge (cold exposure) was applied, the restricted group exhibited partial changes in TSH (29 v. 100%) and T4 (non-response v. 17%) levels, a significant decrease in leptin levels (75 v. 32%) and the maintenance of a sympathetic BAT over-response (higher noradrenaline levels) in comparison with the control group. The findings of the present study suggest that undernutrition during the perinatal period produces permanent changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis with consequent low body weight and decreased RMR and facultative thermogenesis. We hypothesise that these changes predispose individuals to exhibiting adult subclinical hypothyroidism. PMID:23800456

  8. TAS2R bitter taste receptors regulate thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Clark, Adam A; Dotson, Cedrick D; Elson, Amanda E T; Voigt, Anja; Boehm, Ulrich; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Steinle, Nanette I; Munger, Steven D

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine and thyroxine (T3/T4) can impact metabolism, body composition, and development. Thus, it is critical to identify novel mechanisms that impact T3/T4 production. We found that type 2 taste receptors (TAS2Rs), which are activated by bitter-tasting compounds such as those found in many foods and pharmaceuticals, negatively regulate thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-dependent Ca(2+) increases and TSH-dependent iodide efflux in thyrocytes. Immunohistochemical Tas2r-dependent reporter expression and real-time PCR analyses reveal that human and mouse thyrocytes and the Nthy-Ori 3-1 human thyrocyte line express several TAS2Rs. Five different agonists for thyrocyte-expressed TAS2Rs reduced TSH-dependent Ca(2+) release in Nthy-Ori 3-1 cells, but not basal Ca(2+) levels, in a dose-dependent manner. Ca(2+) responses were unaffected by 6-n-propylthiouracil, consistent with the expression of an unresponsive variant of its cognate receptor, TAS2R38, in these cells. TAS2R agonists also inhibited basal and TSH-dependent iodide efflux. Furthermore, a common TAS2R42 polymorphism is associated with increased serum T4 levels in a human cohort. Our findings indicate that TAS2Rs couple the detection of bitter-tasting compounds to changes in thyrocyte function and T3/T4 production. Thus, TAS2Rs may mediate a protective response to overingestion of toxic materials and could serve as new druggable targets for therapeutic treatment of hypo- or hyperthyroidism. PMID:25342133

  9. Testosterone and estradiol treatments differently affect pituitary-thyroid axis and liver deiodinase 1 activity in orchidectomized middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Šošić-Jurjević, B; Filipović, B; Renko, K; Miler, M; Trifunović, S; Ajdžanovič, V; Kӧhrle, J; Milošević, V

    2015-12-01

    We previously reported that orchidectomy (Orx) of middle-aged rats (15-16-month-old; MA) slightly affected pituitary-thyroid axis, but decreased liver deiodinase (Dio) type 1 and pituitary Dio2 enzyme activities. At present, we examined the effects of subsequent testosterone-propionate treatment (5mg/kg; Orx+T), and compared the effects of testosterone with the effects of estradiol-dipropionate (0.06mg/kg; Orx+E) treatment. Hormones were subcutaneously administered, daily, for three weeks, while Orx and sham-operated (SO) controls received only the vehicle. The applied dose of T did not alter serum TSH, T4 and T3 concentrations in Orx- MA, though it increased TSH when administrated to Orx young adults (2.5-month-old; Orx-YA). However, pituitaries of Orx-MA+T rats had higher relative intensity of immunofluorescence (RIF) for TSHβ; in their thyroids we found increased volume and height of follicular epithelium, decreased volume of the colloid and higher RIF for T4-bound to thyroglobulin (Tg-T4). Liver Dio1 activity was increased. E-treatment did not affect serum hormone levels, pituitary RIF for TSHβ, or liver Dio1 activity in Orx-MA rats. Thyroids had decreased relative volume and height of follicular epithelium, increased relative volume of the colloid, decreased volume of sodium-iodide symporter-immunopositive epithelium and lower RIF for Tg-T4. Detected changes were statistically significant. In conclusion, androgenization enhanced pituitary TSHβ RIF, thyroid activation and liver Dio1 enzyme activity in Orx-MA, without elevating serum TSH as in Orx-YA rats. Estrogenization induced pituitary enlargement with no effect on pituitary TSHβ RIF, serum TSH or liver Dio1 activity. E also induced alterations in thyroid histology that indicate mild suppression of its functioning, and contributed to thyroid blood vessel enlargement in Orx-MA rats. PMID:26384168

  10. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pituitary decreases TSH production. [ Top ] Why do health care providers perform thyroid tests? Health care providers perform ... Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism . [ Top ] What blood tests do health care providers use to check a person’s thyroid function? ...

  11. Relationship of dietary iodide and drinking water disinfectants to thyroid function in experimental animals

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, N.W.; McCauley, P.; Holdsworth, G.

    1986-11-01

    The importance of dietary iodide on the reported hypothyroid effect of drinking water disinfectants on thyroid function was investigated. Previous studies have also showed differences in the relative sensitivity of pigeons and rabbits to chlorinated water. Pigeons and rabbits were exposed for 3 months to diets containing high (950 ppb) or low (300 ppb) levels of iodide and to drinking water containing two levels of chlorine. Results showed that the high-iodide diet prevented the hypothyroid effect observed in pigeons given the low-iodide diet and chlorinated drinking water. Similar trends were observed in rabbits exposed to the same treatment; however, significant hypothyroid effects were not observed in this animal model. The factor associated with the observed effect of dietary iodide on the chlorine-induced change in thyroid function is unknown, as is the relative sensitivity of rabbits and pigeons to the effect of chlorine. Several factors may explain the importance of dietary iodide and the relative sensitivity of these species. For example, the iodine formed by the known reaction of chlorine with iodide could result in a decrease in the plasma level of iodide because of the relative absorption rates of iodide and iodine in the intestinal tract, and the various types and concentrations of chloroorganics (metabolites) formed in the diet following the exposure of various dietary constituents to chlorine could affect the thyroid function. The former factor was investigated in the present studies. Results do not confirm a consistent, significant reduction in the plasma level of iodide in rabbits and pigeons exposed to chlorinated water and the low-iodide diet. The latter factor is being investigated.

  12. The synthetic gestagen levonorgestrel directly affects gene expression in thyroid and pituitary glands of Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Claudia; Opitz, Robert; Trubiroha, Achim; Lutz, Ilka; Zikova, Andrea; Kloas, Werner

    2016-08-01

    The synthetic gestagen levonorgestrel (LNG) was previously shown to perturb thyroid hormone-dependent metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis. However, so far the mechanisms underlying the anti-metamorphic effects of LNG remained unknown. Therefore, a series of in vivo and ex vivo experiments was performed to identify potential target sites of LNG action along the pituitary-thyroid axis of X. laevis tadpoles. Prometamorphic tadpoles were treated in vivo with LNG (0.01-10nM) for 72h and brain-pituitary and thyroid tissue was analyzed for marker gene expression. While no treatment-related changes were observed in brain-pituitary tissue, LNG treatment readily affected thyroidal gene expression in tadpoles including decreased slc5a5 and iyd mRNA expression and a strong induction of dio2 and dio3 expression. When using an ex vivo organ explant culture approach, direct effects of LNG on both pituitary and thyroid gland gene expression were detecTable Specifically, treatment of pituitary explants with 10nM LNG strongly stimulated dio2 expression and concurrently suppressed tshb expression. In thyroid glands, ex vivo LNG treatment induced dio2 and dio3 mRNA expression in a thyrotropin-independent manner. When thyroid explants were cultured in thyrotropin-containing media, LNG caused similar gene expression changes as seen after 72h in vivo treatment including a very strong repression of thyrotropin-induced slc5a5 expression. Concerning the anti-thyroidal activity of LNG as seen under in vivo conditions, our ex vivo data provide clear evidence that LNG directly affects expression of genes important for thyroidal iodide handling as well as genes involved in negative feedback regulation of pituitary tshb expression. PMID:27262936

  13. A loss-of-function genetic screening identifies novel mediators of thyroid cancer cell viability.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Maria Carmela; Parascandolo, Alessia; Perälä, Merja; Allocca, Chiara; Fey, Vidal; Sahlberg, Niko; Merolla, Francesco; Basolo, Fulvio; Laukkanen, Mikko O; Kallioniemi, Olli Pekka; Santoro, Massimo; Castellone, Maria Domenica

    2016-05-10

    RET, BRAF and other protein kinases have been identified as major molecular players in thyroid cancer. To identify novel kinases required for the viability of thyroid carcinoma cells, we performed a RNA interference screening in the RET/PTC1(CCDC6-RET)-positive papillary thyroid cancer cell line TPC1 using a library of synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the human kinome and related proteins. We identified 14 hits whose silencing was able to significantly reduce the viability and the proliferation of TPC1 cells; most of them were active also in BRAF-mutant BCPAP (papillary thyroid cancer) and 8505C (anaplastic thyroid cancer) and in RAS-mutant CAL62 (anaplastic thyroid cancer) cells. These included members of EPH receptor tyrosine kinase family as well as SRC and MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinases) families. Importantly, silencing of the identified hits did not affect significantly the viability of Nthy-ori 3-1 (hereafter referred to as NTHY) cells derived from normal thyroid tissue, suggesting cancer cell specificity. The identified proteins are worth exploring as potential novel druggable thyroid cancer targets. PMID:27058903

  14. Global expression profiling reveals gain-of-function onco-genic activity of a mutated thyroid hormone receptor in thyroid carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Changxue; Mishra, Alok; Zhu, Yuelin J; Meltzer, Paul; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are critical in regulating gene expression in normal physiological processes. Decreased expression and/or somatic mutations of TRs have been shown to be associated several types of human cancers including liver, breast, lung, and thyroid. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which mutated TRs promote carcinogenesis, an animal model of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) (Thrbpv/pv mice) was used in the present study. The Thrbpv/pv mouse harbors a knockin dominant negative PV mutation, identified in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone. To understand whether oncogenic actions of PV involve not only the loss of normal TR functions but also gain-of-function activities, we compared the gene expression profiles of thyroid lesions in Thrbpv/pv mice and Thra1-/- Thrb-/- mice that also spontaneously develop FTC, but with less severe malignancy. Analysis of the cDNA microarray data derived from microdissected thyroid tumor cells of these two mice showed contrasting global gene expression profiles. With stringent selection using 2.5-fold change (p<0.01) in cDNA microarray analysis, 241 genes with altered gene expression were identified. Nearly half of the genes (n=103: 42.7% of total) with altered gene expression in thyroid tumor cells of Thrbpv/pv mice were associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis; some of these genes function as oncogenes in human thyroid cancers. The remaining genes were found to function in transcriptional regulation, RNA processing, cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cytoskeleton modification. These results indicate that the more aggressive thyroid tumor progression in Thrbpv/pv mice was not due simply to the loss of tumor suppressor functions of TR via mutation but also, importantly, to gain-of-function in the oncogenic activities of PV to drive thyroid carcinogenesis. Thus, the present study identifies a novel mechanism by which a mutated TRβ evolves with an oncogenic advantage to promote

  15. Thyroid function and obesity in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stichel, H; l'Allemand, D; Grüters, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the frequency of thyroid dysfunction as assessed by TSH, T3 and T4 in a large cohort of 290 obese and 280 healthy children. In addition, thyroid autoantibodies were measured in random subgroups of 123 obese and 80 control children, iodine excretion in 50 and thyroid volume in 23 of the obese children. Elevated TSH levels (>4 U/l) were found in 22 obese children (7.5%), but only in one control (0.3%). The medians of TSH and T3 concentrations were normal, but significantly higher in the obese group than in the controls, while T4 levels did not differ. The prevalence of positive thyroid autoantibodies was increased in the obese children, for the most part in those with elevated TSH. There was no evidence for iodine deficiency as a cause of the average increase of TSH. We conclude that in childhood obesity TSH and T3 levels are significantly increased; in most cases, however, these increases are not accounted for by thyroid autoimmunity or iodine deficiency. As a consequence, TSH elevations with normal thyroid hormone levels in obese children don't need any thyroxine treatment, if thyroid disorders were definitely excluded beforehand. PMID:11182630

  16. Impact of Low-Level Thyroid Hormone Disruption Induced by Propylthiouracil on Brain Development and Function.*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The critical role of thyroid hormone (TH) in brain development is well established, severe deficiencies leading to significant neurological dysfunction. Much less information is available on more modest perturbations of TH on brain function. The present study induced varying degr...

  17. Thyroid diseases in elderly.

    PubMed

    Faggiano, A; Del Prete, M; Marciello, F; Marotta, V; Ramundo, V; Colao, A

    2011-09-01

    Thyroid diseases are the commonest endocrine disorders in the general population. In most of the cases, they are consistent with benign conditions which may be asymptomatic or affect people at a variable extent. Since they often represent chronic conditions their prevalence increases by age and reaches in elderly the highest rates. Thyroid nodules are a common clinical finding. Most subjects with thyroid nodules have few or no symptoms. Thyroid nodules are more commonly non-functioning. However, in elderly, toxic multinodular goiter is the most frequent cause of spontaneous hyperthyroidism and often, it emerges insidiously from nontoxic multinodular goiter. Although autoimmune thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in elderly subjects, other causes, such as drugs, neck radiotherapy, thyroidectomy or radioiodine therapy, are frequently observed among these subjects. A small subset of medications including dopamine agonists, glucocorticoids and somatostatin analogs affect thyroid function through suppression of TSH. Other medications that may affect TSH levels are metformin, antiepileptic medications, lithium carbonate and iodine-containing medications. Other drugs can alter T4 absorption, T4 and T3 transport in serum and metabolism of T4 and T3, such as proton-pump inhibitors and antacids, estrogens, mitotane and fluorouracil, phenobarbital and rifampin. Amiodarone administration is associated with thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. Thyroid cancer has similar characteristics in elderly as in general population, however the rate of aggressive forms such as the anaplastic histotype, is higher in older than younger subjects. Diagnosis of thyroid diseases includes a comprehensive medical history and physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests. A correct diagnosis of thyroid diseases in the elderly is crucial for proper treatment, which consists in the removal of medications that may alter thyroid function, in the use of levo-thyroxine in case of

  18. Structure and Function of Thyroid Hormone Plasma Membrane Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Ulrich; Johannes, Jörg; Bayer, Dorothea; Braun, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) cross the plasma membrane with the help of transporter proteins. As charged amino acid derivatives, TH cannot simply diffuse across a lipid bilayer membrane, despite their notorious hydrophobicity. The identification of monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8, SLC16A2) as a specific and very active TH transporter paved the way to the finding that mutations in the MCT8 gene cause a syndrome of psychomotor retardation in humans. The purpose of this review is to introduce the current model of transmembrane transport and highlight the diversity of TH transmembrane transporters. The interactions of TH with plasma transfer proteins, T3 receptors, and deiodinase are summarized. It is shown that proteins may bind TH owing to their hydrophobic character in hydrophobic cavities and/or by specific polar interaction with the phenolic hydroxyl, the aminopropionic acid moiety, and by weak polar interactions with the iodine atoms. These findings are compared with our understanding of how TH transporters interact with substrate. The presumed effects of mutations in MCT8 on protein folding and transport function are explained in light of the available homology model. PMID:25538896

  19. Exposure to Lithium and Cesium Through Drinking Water and Thyroid Function During Pregnancy: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Harari, Florencia; Bottai, Matteo; Casimiro, Esperanza; Palm, Brita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impaired thyroid function is a common side effect of lithium medication. Recent data indicate that lithium exposure through drinking water, although providing much lower doses than the medication, may also affect thyroid hormone levels. However, the effects in susceptible groups like pregnant women are not known. Methods: In a population-based mother–child cohort in the Argentinean Andes (n = 194), an area with varying concentrations of lithium in the drinking water, we assessed lithium exposure repeatedly during pregnancy by measuring the concentrations in blood using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The markers of thyroid function included thyrotropin (TSH), free/total thyroxine (fT4/T4), free/total triiodothyronine (fT3/T3), thyroglobulin, and transthyretin in serum, sampled at the same time. Multiple potential confounders, including exposure to arsenic, cesium, and boron (elevated in water) as well as selenium and iodine (essential for thyroid function) were considered. Results: The lithium concentrations in blood [median 25 μg/L (0.0036 mmol/L); range 1.9–145 μg/L (0.000027–0.021 mmol/L)] correlated significantly with those in urine and drinking water (rs = 0.84, p < 0.001, and rs = 0.40, p < 0.001, respectively). Using linear quantile regression models, we found a positive association between blood lithium (log2 transformed) and TSH concentrations, particularly in the lowest percentiles of TSH (B = 0.20 mIU/L, [95% confidence interval 0.048–0.35] at the fifth percentile). We also found inverse associations of blood lithium with transthyretin, particularly at the highest percentiles, as well as with fT3 and T3, with less obvious variation across percentiles. Unexpectedly, blood cesium concentrations (median 111 μg/L, range 2.5–711 μg/L) were also inversely associated with fT3 and T3, particularly at the highest T3 percentiles, but not with TSH or transthyretin. Arsenic and boron

  20. Evaluation of Thyroid Disorders During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy by Using Functional Analysis and Ultrasonography

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhshandeh, Mohsen; Hashemi, Bijan; Mahdavi, Seyed Rabie; Nikoofar, Alireza; Edraki, Hamid Reza; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate thyroid function and vascular changes during radiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients treated with primary or postoperative radiotherapy for various cancers in the head and neck region were prospectively evaluated. The serum samples (triiodothyronine [T3], thyroxine [T4], thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free triiodothyronine [FT3], and free thyroxine [FT4]), the echo level of the thyroid gland, and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) parameters of the right inferior thyroid artery (RITA) of the patients were measured before and at regular intervals during radiotherapy. The thyroid gland dose-volume histograms of the patients were derived from their computed tomography-based treatment plans. Results: There was a significant fall in TSH level (p < 0.0001) but an increase in FT4 (p < 0.0001) and T4 (p < 0.022) levels during the radiotherapy course. The threshold dose required to produce significant changes was 12 Gy (Biologically Effective Dose in 2-Gy fractions, BED{sub 2}). There were significant rises in the patients' pulsatility index, resistive index, peak systolic velocity, blood volume flow levels, and RITA diameter (p < 0.0001), as detected by CDU during radiotherapy, compared to those parameters measured before the treatment. Hypoechogenicity and irregular echo patterns (p < 0.0001) were seen during radiotherapy compared to those before treatment. There was significant Pearson's correlation between the CDU parameters and T4, FT4, and TSH levels. Conclusions: Radiation-induced thyroiditis is regarded as primary damage to the thyroid gland. Thyroiditis can subsequently result in hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Our results demonstrated that changes in thyroid vessels occur during radiotherapy delivered to patients. Vessel changes also can be attributed to the late effect of radiation on the thyroid gland. The hypoechogenicity and irregular echo patterns observed in patients may result

  1. Interaction of selenium and lead on several aspects of thyroid function in Pekin ducklings

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M.; Dillon, R.D.

    1982-09-01

    Lead shot recovered at necropsy 2 and 3 weeks after being dropped down the throats of Pekin ducklings caused significant increases in thyroid gland weight and 24-hr thyroid uptake of /sup 125/I while serum PB/sup 125/I levels were maintained at or above control values. Supplementation of lead shot with 1 ppm selenium in drinking water reduced these increases. Selenium in the drinking water incurred no increase in thyroid gland weight at 2 weeks but some goitrogenicity at 3 weeks and significant reductions in thyroid radioiodine uptake and serum PB/sup 125/I levels at 2 and 3 weeks. Chromatographic analyses of thyroid hydrolysates demonstrated a depression in iodothyronine (T4 and T3) labeling in lead shot-treated and selenium-treated animals which was corrected by addition of selenium to lead shot-treated ducklings. These findings indicate that while either lead or selenium treatment, independently, exerts a selective toxic effect on thyroid function, selenium supplementation of lead-treated Pekin ducklings does protect against the toxicity of lead on thyroid function.

  2. Thyroid Function Changes Related to Use of Iodinated Water in United States Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMonigal, Kathleen A.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Dunn, John T.; Stanbury, John B.; Wear, Mary L.; Hamm, Peggy B.; Sauer, Richard L.; Billica, Roger D.; Pool, Sam L.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used iodination as a method of microbial disinfection of potable water systems in United States spacecraft and long-duration habitability modules. A review of the effects on the thyroid following consumption o iodinated water by NASA astronauts was conducted. Pharmacological doses of iodine consumed by astronauts transiently decreased thyroid function, as reflected in serum TSH values. Although the adverse effects of excess iodine consumption in susceptible individuals are well documented, exposure to high doses of iodine during space flight did not result in a statistically significant increase in long-term thyroid disease in the astronaut population.

  3. Chemical contamination and the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Duntas, Leonidas H

    2015-02-01

    Industrial chemical contaminants have a variable impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, this depending both on their class and on confounding factors. Today, mounting evidence is pointing to the role of environmental factors, and specifically EDCs, in the current distressing upsurge in the incidence of thyroid disease. The unease is warranted. These substances, which are nowadays rife in our environments (including in foodstuffs), have been shown to interfere with thyroid hormone action, biosynthesis, and metabolism, resulting in disruption of tissue homeostasis and/or thyroid function. Importantly, based on the concept of the "nonmonotonic dose-response curve", the relationship between dose and effect has often been found to be nonlinear. Thus, small doses can induce unpredictable, adverse effects, one case being polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), of which congener(s) may centrally inhibit the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, or dissociate thyroid receptor and selectively affect thyroid hormone signaling and action. This means that PCBs can act as agonists or antagonists at the receptor level, underlining the complexity of the interaction. This review highlights the multifold activity of chemicals demonstrated to cause thyroid disruption. It also represents a call to action among clinicians to undertake systematic monitoring of thyroid function and registering of the classes of EDs and additionally urges broader scientific collaborations to clarify these chemicals' molecular mechanisms of action, substances whose prevalence in our environments is disrupting not only the thyroid but all life on earth. PMID:25294013

  4. Effect of oral administration of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in combination on thyroid function in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Panciera, D L; Post, K

    1992-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in combination on serum concentrations of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and free thyroxine (fT4) and the thyroid hormone response to thyrotropin administration was assessed. Six dogs were administered sulfadiazine (12.5 mg/kg) and trimethoprim (2.5 mg/kg) orally for 28 days; six untreated dogs acted as controls. Serum T4, T3 and fT4 were determined weekly during and for four weeks after treatment. Thyrotropin response tests were performed prior to treatment, after four weeks of treatment and three weeks after stopping treatment. There were no significant differences in mean serum T4, T3 or fT4 concentrations between treated and control groups at any time during the study. Mean concentration of serum T4 over time did not differ significantly from baseline concentration in either group. Significant differences in the mean serum T3 and fT4 concentrations occurred at several time points in treatment and control groups, and were apparently unrelated to treatment. Significant differences in the T4 or T3 response to thyrotropin administration within or between groups were not present. Serum T3 and fT4 concentrations fluctuate in normal dogs. Administration of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in combination does not affect tests of thyroid function in the dog. PMID:1477803

  5. Thyroid hormone signaling in the Xenopus laevis embryo is functional and susceptible to endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Fini, J B; Le Mével, S; Palmier, K; Darras, V M; Punzon, I; Richardson, S J; Clerget-Froidevaux, M S; Demeneix, B A

    2012-10-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for vertebrate brain development. Most research on TH and neuronal development focuses on late development, mainly the perinatal period in mammals. However, in human infants neuromotor development correlates best with maternal TH levels in the first trimester of pregnancy, suggesting that TH signaling could affect early brain development. Studying TH signaling in early embryogenesis in mammals is experimentally challenging. In contrast, free-living embryos, such as Xenopus laevis, permit physiological experimentation independent of maternal factors. We detailed key elements of TH signaling: ligands, receptors (TR), and deiodinases during early X. laevis development, before embryonic thyroid gland formation. Dynamic profiles for all components were found. Between developmental stages 37 and 41 (~48 h after hatching, coincident with a phase of continuing neurogenesis) significant increases in T(3) levels as well as in mRNA encoding deiodinases and TR occurred. Exposure of embryos at this developmental stage for 24 h to either a TH antagonist, NH-3, or to tetrabromobisphenol A, a flame retardant and known TH disruptor, differentially modulated the expression of a number of TH target genes implicated in neural stem cell function or neural differentiation. Moreover, 24-h exposure to either NH-3 or tetrabromobisphenol A diminished cell proliferation in the brain. Thus, these data show first, that TH signaling exerts regulatory roles in early X. laevis neurogenesis and second, that this period represents a potential window for endocrine disruption. PMID:22968643

  6. A genome-wide association study on thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Soo Heon; Park, Young Joo; Go, Min Jin; Lee, Kyu Eun; Kim, Su-jin; Choi, Hoon Sung; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Do Joon; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Jong-Young; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak C.; Cho, Nam H.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic factors are thought to be an important determinant of thyroid function and autoimmunity. However, there are limited data on genetic variants in Asians. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) concentration and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibody positivity in 4238 Korean subjects. In the Stage 1 genome scan, 3396 participants from the Ansung cohort were investigated using 1.42 million genotyped or imputed markers. In the Stage 2 follow-up, 10 markers were genotyped in 842 participants from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging cohort. An intronic variant in VAV3, rs12126655, which has been reported in Europeans, was significantly associated with plasma TSH concentration in the joint Stages 1 and 2 analyses (P = 2.2 × 10−8). We observed that a novel variant, rs2071403, located 75 bp proximal to the translational start site of TPO was significantly associated with plasma anti-TPO antibody positivity in the joint Stages 1 and 2 analyses (P = 1.3 × 10−10). This variant had a marginal sex-specific effect, and its association was more significant in females. Subjects possessing the rs2071403A allele, associated with an absence of the anti-TPO antibody, had decreased TPO mRNA expression in their thyroid tissue. Another intronic variant of HLA-DPB2, rs733208, had a suggestive association with anti-TPO antibody positivity (P = 4.2 × 10−7). In conclusion, we have identified genetic variants that are strongly associated with TSH level and anti-TPO antibody positivity in Koreans. Further replications and meta-analysis are required to confirm these findings. PMID:24722205

  7. Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

  8. INCUBATION TEMPERATURE AND EGGSHELL CONDUCTANCE EFFECTS ON THE INTESTINAL MATURATION AND THYROID FUNCTION IN COMMERCIAL TURKEY POULTS HATCHING FROM THE FIRST CYCLE FLOCK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggshell conductance (G) and egg white (EW) affect poult viability. Poor livability may be related intestinal maturation and thyroid function of the neonate. The objectives of this study were to test if incubator temperature and G determine poult maturity among egg from a young turkey flock. Matu...

  9. INCUBATION TEMPERATURE AND EGGSHELL CONDUCTANCE EFFECTS ON THE INTESTINAL MATURATION AND THYROID FUNCTION IN COMMERCIAL TURKEY POULTS HATCHING FROM AN INDUCED MOLTED FLOCK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggshell conductance (G) and egg white (EW) affect livability. Poor viability may be related to intestinal maturation and thyroid function of the neonate. The objectives of this study were to test if incubator temperature and G determine poult maturity. Maturation was assessed by measuring body w...

  10. Zinc sulphate following the administration of iodine-131 on the regulation of thyroid function, in rats.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Davinder; Singh Baweja, Mandeep; Dani, Vijayta

    2007-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism in men is often treated with high doses of iodine-131 ((131)I), which may induce radiation side effects to patients and their environment. These therapeutic doses of (131)I could be decreased, if the (131)I uptake of the thyroid gland of the patients could be increased. Zinc sulphate has been considered to exercise a protective role by maintaining the cellular integrity of the thyroid under various pathological states. The aim of our study was to study in Wistar rats whether zinc sulphate can after treatment of the thyroid gland with (131)I: a) increase the uptake of (131)I in the thyroid and b) stabilize the function of the follicular cells. If such a stabilization finally exists in men we could have favorable results like fewer cases of hypothyroidism after (131)I treatment of hyperthyroidism. To carry out these investigations, rats were divided into four groups comprising of eight animals each. Group I animals served as normal controls. Group II animals received a dose of 3.7 MBq of (131)I. Group III animals were supplemented with zinc (227 mg/L of drinking water) and animals in Group IV were given (131)I together with zinc sulphate as above. Our results showed that in Group II, serum levels of tetra-iodo-thyronine (T(4)) and tri-iodo-thyronine (T(3)) decreased significantly as a function of time following (131)I treatment. An increase in the levels of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was noticed one week after (131)I treatment, becoming less pronounced with time. In Group II, thyroid uptake at 2h and at 24h was significantly decreased. In the same Group biological half life (T(biol)) of (131)I in the thyroid gland, was significantly elevated four weeks after the administration of (131)I and decreased eight weeks after. In Group IV animals, zinc sulfate after four weeks, induced normalization of elevated serum TSH levels and a further increase in the T(biol) of (131)I. After eight weeks in these animals, serum T(3) became normal and TSH

  11. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... determine thyroid function include: Free T4 test Serum TSH T3 Thyroid autoantibodies Imaging studies are generally not ... signs of mild thyroid failure (such as elevated TSH). This condition is also known as subclinical hypothyroidism. ...

  12. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland that often results in reduced thyroid function ( hypothyroidism ). Causes Chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto disease is a ... TSH). This condition is also known as subclinical hypothyroidism. If there is no evidence of thyroid hormone ...

  13. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  14. Thyroid hormone signaling: Contribution to neural function, cognition, and relationship to nicotine.

    PubMed

    Leach, Prescott T; Gould, Thomas J

    2015-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is common despite its adverse effects on health, such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. Understanding the mechanisms that contribute to the addictive properties of nicotine makes it possible to target them to prevent the initiation of smoking behavior and/or increase the chance of successful quit attempts. While highly addictive, nicotine is not generally considered to be as reinforcing as other drugs of abuse. There are likely other mechanisms at work that contribute to the addictive liability of nicotine. Nicotine modulates aspects of the endocrine system, including the thyroid, which is critical for normal cognitive functioning. It is possible that nicotine's effects on thyroid function may alter learning and memory, and this may underlie some of its addictive potential. Here, we review the literature on thyroid function and cognition, with a focus on how nicotine alters thyroid hormone signaling and the potential impact on cognition. Changes in cognition are a major symptom of nicotine addiction. Current anti-smoking therapies have modest success at best. If some of the cognitive effects of nicotine are mediated through the thyroid hormone system, then thyroid hormone agonists may be novel treatments for smoking cessation therapies. The content of this review is important because it clarifies the relationship between smoking and thyroid function, which has been ill-defined in the past. This review is timely because the reduction in smoking rates we have seen in recent decades, due to public awareness campaigns and public smoking bans, has leveled off in recent years. Therefore, novel treatment approaches are needed to help reduce smoking rates further. PMID:26344666

  15. Germline HABP2 Mutation Causing Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gara, Sudheer Kumar; Jia, Li; Merino, Maria J.; Agarwal, Sunita K.; Zhang, Lisa; Cam, Maggie; Patel, Dhaval; Kebebew, Electron

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer accounts for 3 to 9% of all cases of thyroid cancer, but the susceptibility genes are not known. Here, we report a germline variant of HABP2 in seven affected members of a kindred with familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer and in 4.7% of 423 patients with thyroid cancer. This variant was associated with increased HABP2 protein expression in tumor samples from affected family members, as compared with normal adjacent thyroid tissue and samples from sporadic cancers. Functional studies showed that HABP2 has a tumor-suppressive effect, whereas the G534E variant results in loss of function. PMID:26222560

  16. Comparison of methods for assessing thyroid function in nonthyroidal illness

    SciTech Connect

    Melmed, S.; Geola, F.L.; Reed, A.W.; Pekary, A.E.; Park, J.; Hershman, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    Various tests of thyroid function were studied in sick patients with nonthyroidal illness (NTI) in order to determine the utility of each test for differentiating these patients from a group with hypothyroidism. We evaluated each test in 22 healthy volunteers who served as controls, 20 patients with hypothyroidism, 14 patients admitted to medical intensive care unit whose serum T/sub 4/ was less than 5 ..mu..g/dl, 13 patients with chronic liver disease, 32 patients on chronic hemodialysis for renal failure, 13 ambulatory oncology patients receiving chemotherapy 16 pregnant women, 7 women on estrogens, and 20 hyperthyroid patients. On all samples, we measured serum T/sub 4/, the free T/sub 4/ index by several methods, free T/sub 4/ by equilibrium dialysis, free T/sub 4/ calculated from thyronine-binding globulin (TBG) RIA, free T/sub 4/ by three commercial kits (Gammacoat, Immophase, and Liquisol), T/sub 3/, rT/sub 3/, and TSH (by 3 different RIA). Although all of the methods used for measuring free T/sub 4/ (including free T/sub 4/ index, free T/sub 4/ by dialysis, free T/sub 4/ assessed by TBG, and free T/sub 4/ assessed by the 3 commercial kits) were excellent for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and euthyroidism in the presence of high TBG, none of these methods showed that free T/sub 4/ was consistently normal in patients with NTI; with each method, a number of NTI patients had subnormal values. In the NTI groups, free T/sub 4/ measured by dialysis and the free T/sub 4/ index generally correlated significantly with the commercial free T/sub 4/ methods. Serum rT/sub 3/ was elevated or normal in NTI patients and low in hypothyroid subjects. Serum TSH provided the most reliable differentiation between patients with primary hypothyroidism and those with NTI and low serum T/sub 4/ levels.

  17. Multifactorial determinants of cognition — Thyroid function is not the only one

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Roy; Ortner, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Background Since the 1960s hypothyroidism together with iodine deficiency have been considered to be a principal determinant of cognition development. Following iodine supplementation programs and improved treatment options for hypothyroidism this relation might not be valid in 2015. On the other hand neurosciences have added different inputs also related to cognition. Scope of review We will examine the characteristics of the original and current publications on thyroid function and cognition and also add some general determinants of intelligence and cognition. One central issue for us is the relation of stress to cognition knowing that both physical and psychological stress, are frequent elements in subjects with thyroid dysfunction. We have considered a special type of stress called pre-natal stress which can influence cognitive functions. Fear and anxiety can be intermingled requiring mechanisms of fear extinction. Major conclusions Recent studies have failed to show an influence of thyroid medication during pregnancy on intellectual development. Neuroscience offers a better explanation of cognition than hypothyroidism and iodine deficiency. Additional factors relevant to cognition are nutrition, infection, prenatal stress, and early life stress. In turn stress is related to low magnesium levels. Magnesium supplementation can correct both latent hypothyroidism and acquired mild cognitive deficits. General significance Cognition is a complex process that depends on many determinants and not only on thyroid function. Magnesium deficiency appears to be a basic mechanism for changes in thyroid function as well as of cognition. PMID:26672993

  18. Zebrafish eleutheroembryos as an alternative system for screening chemicals disrupting the mammalian thyroid gland morphogenesis and function.

    PubMed

    Raldúa, Demetrio; Thienpont, Benedicte; Babin, Patrick J

    2012-04-01

    The importance and irreversibility of the effects of thyroid hormone deficiency on human brain development highlight the importance of identifying environmental agents that interfere with thyroid gland morphogenesis and function. Zebrafish eleutheroembryos are currently used by many pharmaceutical companies in drug discovery as a vertebrate model, not subjected to regulations for animal experiments, that provides an intermediate step between in vitro and rodent assay. The mechanisms of zebrafish thyroid development are generally comparable to those in humans, and moreover, molecular and functional studies of zebrafish thyroid follicles have demonstrated a high degree of conservation with upper vertebrates, opening up the possibility of designing alternative methods for screening individual chemicals and mixtures that impairing thyroid gland morphogenesis and/or function. Analysis of the intrafollicular thyroxine-content of zebrafish larvae exposed to potential disruptors has proved to be a reliable, physiologically relevant endpoint to estimate effects of chemicals on the mammalian thyroid gland. PMID:21978863

  19. Testicular function in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated with radioiodine

    SciTech Connect

    Pacini, F.; Gasperi, M.; Fugazzola, L.

    1994-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether {sup 131}I therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) can affect endocrine testicular function. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) concentrations were measured in 103 patients periodically submitted for radioiodine therapy for residual or metastatic disease. Mean follow-up was 93.7{+-}54 mo (range 10-243 mo). Mean FSH values in {sup 131}I-treated patients tested after their last treatment were 15.3{+-}9.9 mU/ml, significantly higher than those of 19 untreated patients (6.5{+-}3.1 mU/ml). Considering the mean +3 s.d. FSH of untreated subjects as the upper limit of normal range, 36.8% of the patients had an abnormal increase in serum FSH. Longitudinal analysis performed in 21 patients showed that the behavior of FSH in response to {sup 131}I therapy was not universal. Six patients had no change or a slight increase in serum FSH after {sup 131}I administration; eleven patients had a transient increase above normal values 6-12 mo after {sup 131}I treatment, with return to normal levels in subsequent months. The administration of a second dose was followed by a similar increase in FSH levels. Finally, four patients, followed for a long period of time and treated with several {sup 131}I doses, showed a progressive increase in serum FSH, which eventually became permanent. Semen analysis, performed in a small subgroup of patients, showed a consistent reduction in the number of normokinetic sperm. No change was found in serum T levels between treated and untreated patients. The results indicate that {sup 131}I therapy for thyroid carcinoma is associated with transient impairment of testicular germinal cell function. The damage may become permanent for high-radiation activities delivered year after year and might pose a significant risk of infertility. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Indices of Central and Peripheral Obesity; Anthropometric Measurements and Laboratory Parameters of Metabolic Syndrome and Thyroid Function

    PubMed Central

    Aras, Şükrü; Üstünsoy, Seyfettin; Armutçu, Ferah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity are serious health problems in the World, including Turkey. Contemporary studies have suggested a meaningful association between insulin resistance (IR), MetS parameters, and thyroid function tests. Aims: We aimed to elucidate the impact of fat distribution on the anthropometric and laboratory parameters, especially indices of MetS, IR and thyroid function, in obese women. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Anthropometric measurements of all participants and biochemical tests in their serum samples were performed. Results: Weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), and other parameters of fat distribution were significantly increased in all obese compared to control subjects; but there was no significant difference between central and peripheral obese groups. The central obese group had significantly higher insulin levels, components of MetS, the ratio free triiodothyronine (fT3) to free thyroxin fT4, and fT4 than those of peripheral obese and control groups. Conclusion: Elevated triglyceride, glucose and insulin levels may be associated with increased IR, which in turn is related to MetS. Body fat composition may affect thyroid tests in the obese; the changes in fT3/fT4 could be the consequence of fat distribution. PMID:26740903

  1. Recessive resistance to thyroid hormone in mice lacking thyroid hormone receptor beta: evidence for tissue-specific modulation of receptor function.

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, D; Hanebuth, E; Smeyne, R J; Everds, N; Stewart, C L; Wehner, J M; Curran, T

    1996-01-01

    The diverse functions of thyroid hormone (T3) are presumed to be mediated by two genes encoding the related receptors, TRalpha and TRbeta. However, the in vivo functions of TRalpha and TRbeta are undefined. Here, we report that targeted inactivation of the mouse TRbeta gene results in goitre and elevated levels of thyroid hormone. Also, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is released by pituitary thyrotropes and which is normally suppressed by increased levels of thyroid hormone, was present at elevated levels in homozygous mutant (Thrb-/-) mice. These findings suggest a unique role for TRbeta that cannot be substituted by TRalpha in the T3-dependent feedback regulation of TSH transcription. Thrb-/- mice provide a recessive model for the human syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) that exhibits a similar endocrine disorder but which is typically caused by dominant TRbeta mutants that are transcriptional inhibitors. It is unknown whether TRalpha, TRbeta or other receptors are targets for inhibition in dominant RTH; however, the analysis of Thrb-/- mice suggests that antagonism of TRbeta-mediated pathways underlies the disorder of the pituitary-thyroid axis. Interestingly, in the brain, the absence of TRbeta may not mimic the defects often associated with dominant RTH, since no overt behavioural or neuroanatomical abnormalities were detected in Thrb-/- mice. These data define in vivo functions for TRbeta and indicate that specificity in T3 signalling is conferred by distinct receptor genes. Images PMID:8670802

  2. [The impact of thyroid function in women of reproductive age: infertility, pregnancy and the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Speer, Gábor

    2013-12-22

    This article reviews the management and diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum, which was published by any of the endocrine societies in 2012. The author presents human data based on these clinical practice guidelines, however, there are also many unresolved questions. Especially, there are inconsistencies about screening using plasma TSH measurement. In pregnancy the main causes of hyperthyroidism are Graves's disease and gestational transient thyrotoxicosis. Generally, gestational transient thyrotoxicosis does not require medication, whereas Graves's disease needs antithyroid drug therapy. Postpartum thyroiditis occurs more frequently in antithyroid peroxidase-positive women, who should be screened using serum thyrotropin measurements at 6 to 12 gestation weeks and at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Because overt maternal hypothyroidism, due to autoimmune pathophysioloical mechanisms, negatively affects the fetus, timely recognition and treatment are important. The subclinical form of maternal hypothyroidism should also be treated. A link between thyroid dysfunction and infertility has been warranted. PMID:24334133

  3. Antithyroid antibodies and thyroid function in pediatric patients with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Kalyoncu, Derya; Urganci, Nafiye

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease, persistence of antithyroid antibodies, effect of gluten-free diet, and long-term outcome of thyroid function in pediatric patients with celiac disease (CD). Methods. 67 patients with CD aged from 1 year to 16 years were screened for thyroid antithyroperoxidase, antithyroglobulin and anti-TSH receptor antibodies, serum free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) at diagnosis and during follow-up. Results. None of the patients had antithyroid antibodies at diagnosis. Antithyroid antibodies became positive in 16.4% of the patients (11/67) 2 to 3 years after the diagnosis of CD. Clinical hypothyroidism was observed only in 3 of 11 CD patients with positive antithyroid antibodies (27.2%). The antithyroid antibodies positive and negative patients did not differ significantly according to compliance to GFD (P > 0.05). A statistically significant difference was observed only in age, in which the patients with positive antithyroid antibodies were younger than the patients with negative antithyroid antibodies (P = 0.004). None of the patients had any change in their thyroid function and antibody profile during their follow-up. Conclusion. Antithyroid antibodies were detected in younger pediatric patients with CD and the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies did not correlate with the duration of gluten intake. PMID:25788942

  4. Effects of plasticizers and their mixtures on estrogen receptor and thyroid hormone functions.

    PubMed

    Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2009-08-25

    Plasticizers are additives used to increase the flexibility or plasticity of the material to which they are added, normally rigid plastic and as additives in paint and adhesives. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the estrogen and the thyroid hormone (TH) systems. We investigated in vitro the thyroid hormone-like and estrogenic activities of a range of widely used plasticizers and phenols including benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dioctyl phthalate (DOP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), 4-tert-octylphenol (tOP), 4-chloro-3-methylphenol (CMP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2-phenylphenol (2-PP) and resorcinol. The TH disrupting potential was determined by the effect on the TH-dependent rat pituitary GH3 cell proliferation (T-screen). The estrogenic activities of the compounds were assessed in MVLN cells, stably transfected with an estrogen receptor (ER) luciferase reporter vector. Furthermore, the combined effect of a multi-components mixture of six plasticizers was evaluated for its estrogenic and TH-like activities. All the tested compounds, but 2-PP, significantly affected the GH3 cell proliferation. tOP, BBP and DBP activated ER transactivity, whereas DEHP antagonized the 17beta-estradiol induced ER function. The mixture significantly induced ER transactivity in an additive manner, whereas in the T-screen, the observed mixture effect was lower than predicted, suggesting a potential antagonizing effect of the mixture. In conclusion, the tested plasticizers and phenols elicited endocrine-disrupting potential that can be mediated via interference with the estrogen and TH systems. Moreover, the observed mixture effect stresses the importance of considering the combined effect of the compounds for risk assessment of human health. PMID:19463926

  5. Thyroid Imaging in Infants.

    PubMed

    Goldis, Marina; Waldman, Lindsey; Marginean, Otilia; Rosenberg, Henrietta Kotlus; Rapaport, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common preventable cause of mental retardation. It is important to know the cause of each patient's thyroid dysfunction to foresee the course of therapy and outcomes. Imaging methods, such as ultrasound and thyroid scan, help determine the anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. Although thyroid scan is considered superior in detecting ectopic thyroid tissue, ultrasound is able to detect the presence of thyroid tissue not otherwise visualized in 15% of patients. PMID:27241963

  6. The incidence of thyroid cancer is affected by the characteristics of a healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Jin; Kim, Sun; Cho, Hong-Jun; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the incidence of thyroid cancer and the characteristics of healthcare systems in OECD countries and to demonstrate that the increasing incidence of thyroid cancer is mainly due to overdiagnosis. We used a random effects panel model to regress the incidence of thyroid cancer on the characteristics of healthcare systems (i.e., share of public expenditure on health, mode of health financing, existence of referral system to secondary care, mode of payment to primary care physicians), controlling for macro context variables (i.e., GDP per capita, educational level) on a country level. Data were derived from 34 OECD countries for 2002 and 2008. The share of public expenditure on health was negatively associated with the incidence of thyroid cancer. However, it had no statistically significant effect on the mortality of thyroid cancer and on the incidence of stomach and lung cancer. In the case of colorectal cancer, it had a positive effect on the incidence rate. The upward trend of the incidence of thyroid cancer is closely related to the healthcare system that permits overdiagnosis. Increases in the proportion of public financing may help reduce the overdiagnosis of thyroid cancer. PMID:23255848

  7. High Iodine and Salt Intakes and Obesity do not Modify the Thyroid Function in Mexican Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Villa, Lorena; García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gutiérrez, David Gustavo; Pérez-Mora, Valeria Alejandra; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Sampson-Zaldívar, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    Mexico is considered as a nutritional transition country with a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, and recent studies have reported a high iodine intake in children. Both high iodine intake and obesity have been associated with thyroid dysfunction. Our aim was to assess iodine and salt intake and thyroid function in Mexican schoolchildren with normal weight and obesity. A cross-sectional study was performed during 2012-2013 in schoolchildren from Queretaro, Mexico. Six hundred seventy-eight schoolchildren were evaluated to obtain nutrition status, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid volume (TVol). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 47.3 %, the median UIC was 428 μg/L and TVol was normal in all schoolchildren; however, obese girls had a higher TVol than normal weight at the age of 8, 10 and 12 years. A subsample of schoolchildren was divided in 6-8 and 9-12-year-old groups, in order to compare thyroid function (thyrotropin, free T4, and anti-thyroid antibodies); iodine and salt intake were estimated with 24-h urinary samples. No differences in thyroid function were observed in both age groups. In the 6-8-year-old group, obese schoolchildren had higher iodine intake than normal-weight children (415.5 vs. 269.1 μg/day, p < 0.05), but no differences in salt intake. In contrast, in the 9-12-year-old group, obese schoolchildren had higher salt intake than normal-weight children (6.2 vs. 3.8 g/day, p < 0.05), but no differences in iodine intake. Dietary patterns could explain the differences between both age groups. Further studies are needed to identify the main sources of iodine intake in Mexican populations. PMID:26689929

  8. Preservation of renal function by thyroid hormone replacement in elderly persons with subclinical hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hong; Liu, Dongmei; Zhao, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism in elderly persons is controversial. Previous studies have shown that there are interactions between kidney and thyroid function, but data regarding interventions that target thyroid function in elderly patients are scarce. We aimed to investigate the impact of thyroid hormone therapy on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in elderly patients. Material and methods Ninety elderly patients aged ≥ 65 years with subclinical hypothyroidism were followed for 36 months in our case-control study. The changes in the eGFR in patients with and without thyroid hormone replacement therapy were compared. The adverse effects during the treatment period were noted. Results The eGFR of both groups was similar at the beginning of the study (43.4 ±6.1 vs. 42.8 ±5.9 ml/min/1.73 m2; p = 0.62). With the decline in thyroid stimulating hormone levels after treatment, the eGFR of the treatment group significantly improved compared with the control group (45.8 ±4.8 vs. 35.8 ±5.3 ml/min/1.73 m2; p < 0.001); the eGFR increased rapidly over the first 6 months and then plateaued. No patients withdrew from the study, but the therapeutic dose was decreased in two patients due to angina pectoris. Conclusions Thyroid hormone therapy preserved renal function in elderly patients. Appropriate individual treatment should be considered in elderly patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. PMID:27478458

  9. Culture of hormone-dependent functional epithelial cells from rat thyroids.

    PubMed Central

    Ambesi-Impiombato, F S; Parks, L A; Coon, H G

    1980-01-01

    Primary cultures of rat thyroid cells were made in medium supplemented with 0.1--0.5% calf serum and containing six hormones or growth factors: insulin, thyrotropin, transferrin, hydrocortisone, somatostatin, and glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine acetate. The FRTL strain was purified by successive colonial isolations and was found to maintain highly differentiated features (secretion into the culture medium of physiological amounts of thyroglobulin and concentration of iodide by 100-fold). The FRTL strain has been observed for more than 3 years in continuous culture. It has maintained the same biochemical and morphological characteristics that typified the primary cultures of thyroid follicular cells immediately after their enzymatic release from the rat thyroid. Thyroid epithelial cells that were grown under more conventional cell culture conditions failed to retain these specialized characteristics. We show that maintenance in vitro of these specialized functions of rat thyroid follicular cells is dependent on low serum concentrations and supplementation with hormones in the primary cultures. Our observations indicate that this culture strategem may be aplicable to the general problem of maintenance of differentiated characteristics in cultures of other epithelial cells. Images PMID:6106191

  10. Analysis of the functional state of T3 nuclear receptors expressed in thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Selmi-Ruby, S; Rousset, B

    1996-05-17

    T3 nuclear receptors (TR) are present in thyroid cells. We have analyzed the ability of thyroid TR to function as transcriptional regulators. Studies were performed on pig thyrocytes in primary culture. Messenger RNA corresponding to TR alpha 1, alpha 2 and beta were detected in pig thyrocytes by RT-PCR and Northern blot; the alpha 2 mRNA was more abundant than the alpha 1 mRNA. Thyrocytes were transiently transfected with different plasmids containing the CAT (chloramphenicol acetyl transferase) gene placed under the control of different promoters (delta MTV, TK or delta SV40) and bearing a thyroid hormone response element, TREp or TRE DR + 4. It was found that TSH induced a concentration-dependent increase of the transfection efficiency, an effect reproduced by (Bu)2cAMP and Forskolin. Cells transfected with either delta MTV-, TK- or delta SV40-TREp-CAT expressed similar basal CAT activities. Addition of T3 produced a 3-fold increase of CAT activity expressed from each of these vectors. In contrast, CAT activity expressed from a vector containing the TRE DR + 4 was decreased by about 50% by T3. Thus, TREp and TRE DR + 4 gave distinct responses. These data demonstrate that TR physiologically expressed in thyroid cells can act as transcriptional regulators in a T3-dependent manner. This finding directly substantiates the concept of autocrine regulatory actions of thyroid hormones. PMID:8793858

  11. Effect of lead nitrate on thyroid function on the Indian palm squirrel, Funambulus pennanti (Wroughton)

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, V.K.; Katti, S.R.; Sathyanesan, A.G.

    1987-06-01

    Some of the known toxic effects of lead in mammals including man are, impaired heme synthesis, anemia, nepatopathy, nephropathy, behavioral disorders and neuropathy. However, very little is known about the effect of lead on endocrine physiology. Some data are available on lead induced impairment of thyroid function in occupationally exposed men and experimental rats. As lead nitrate is largely consumed through water and food, in this study the wild rodents Funambulus pennanti were administered lead through their drinking water and their thyroid structure, radioiodine 131-I percentage uptake and protein bound iodine (PBI) level were assessed.

  12. An iodine load from water-purification tablets alters thyroid function in humans.

    PubMed

    Georgitis, W J; McDermott, M T; Kidd, G S

    1993-12-01

    Tablets containing tetraglycine hydroperiodide are used to purify small quantities of water for drinking. Because short-term administration of stable iodide can alter thyroid function in normal adults, we evaluated the effects of these tablets on thyroid function during a military field training exercise. Fourteen normal volunteers participated in the study. After an adjustment period of 2 weeks to the field environment, half of the subjects received four dissolved water-purification tablets (32 mg free iodine) daily for 7 consecutive days while the other half served as controls. At the end of the study the treatment group showed reductions in the mean serum levels of thyroxine (14%) and total triiodothyronine (15%) and significant increments in basal thyrotropin (TSH) (122%) and the TSH response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (49%) compared to baseline values. The basal TSH level rose above the normal range in two subjects. No significant changes in any parameter of thyroid function were observed in the control subjects. One week of daily exposure to the iodine load from four tetraglycine hydroperiodide water-purification tablets causes mild impairment of thyroid function in humans. PMID:8108021

  13. THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE METABOLITES ON PUBERTY AND THYROID FUNCTION IN THE MALE WISTAR RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Effects of Atrazine Metabolites on Puberty and Thyroid Function in the Male Wistar Rat. Stoker, T.E1., Guidici, D.L.2, Laws, S.C.2 and Cooper, R.L.2 Gamete and Early Embryo Biology Branch and 2 Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  14. Marginal Iodide Deficiency and Thyroid Function: Dose-response analysis for quantitative pharmacokinetic modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Severe iodine deficiency is known to cause adverse health outcomes and remains a benchmark for understanding the effects of hypothyroidism. However, the implications of marginal iodine deficiency on function of the thyroid axis remain less well known. The current study examined t...

  15. PHENOBARBITAL AFFECTS THYROID HISTOLOGY AND LARVAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE AFRICAN CLAWED FROG XENOPUS LAEVIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abstract highlights our recent study to explore endocrine disrupting effects of phenobarbital in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. In mammals, this chemical is known to induce the biotransforming enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) resulting in increased thyroid...

  16. Maternal Urinary Bisphenol A during Pregnancy and Maternal and Neonatal Thyroid Function in the CHAMACOS Study

    PubMed Central

    Gunier, Robert B.; Bradman, Asa; Holland, Nina T.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Harley, Kim G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic bottles, food and beverage can linings, thermal receipts, and dental sealants. Animal and human studies suggest that BPA may disrupt thyroid function. Although thyroid hormones play a determinant role in human growth and brain development, no studies have investigated relations between BPA exposure and thyroid function in pregnant women or neonates. Objective: Our goal was to evaluate whether exposure to BPA during pregnancy is related to thyroid hormone levels in pregnant women and neonates. Methods: We measured BPA concentration in urine samples collected during the first and second half of pregnancy in 476 women participating in the CHAMACOS (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas) study. We also measured free thyroxine (T4), total T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in women during pregnancy, and TSH in neonates. Results: Associations between the average of the two BPA measurements and maternal thyroid hormone levels were not statistically significant. Of the two BPA measurements, only the one taken closest in time to the TH measurement was significantly associated with a reduction in total T4 (β = –0.13 µg/dL per log2 unit; 95% CI: –0.25, 0.00). The average of the maternal BPA concentrations was associated with reduced TSH in boys (–9.9% per log2 unit; 95% CI: –15.9%, –3.5%) but not in girls. Among boys, the relation was stronger when BPA was measured in the third trimester of pregnancy and decreased with time between BPA and TH measurements. Conclusion: Results suggest that exposure to BPA during pregnancy is related to reduced total T4 in pregnant women and decreased TSH in male neonates. Findings may have implications for fetal and neonatal development. PMID:23052180

  17. Thyroid function during intermittent exposure to hypobaric hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawhney, R. C.; Malhotra, A. S.

    1990-09-01

    Circulatory levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and their kinetics were studied in rabbits exposed to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (5200 m, 395 mm Hg, PO2 83 mm Hg) 6 h daily for 5 weeks in a decompression chamber maintained at room temperature of 22° 24° C. Kinetics of T3 and T4 were studied on days 21 and 28 of hypoxic exposure. The T3 and T4 values were found to be significantly lower on day 8 of exposure to hypoxia compared to the pre-exposure values. The decreased levels were maintained throughout the entire period of hypoxic stress. The metabolic clearance rate, production rate, distribution space and extrathyroidal T3 and T4 pools were significantly decreased in animals under hypoxic stress compared to the control animals. The decline in thyroid hormone levels and their production in rabbits under hypoxic stress indicate an adaptive phenomenon under conditions of low oxygen availability.

  18. Thyroid and parathyroid imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, M.P.; Patton, J.A.; Partain, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes the numerous modalities currently used in the diagnosis and treatment of both thyroid and parathyroid disorders. Each modality is fully explained and then evaluated in terms of benefits and limitations in the clinical context. Contents: Production and Quality Control of Radiopharmaceutics Used for Diagnosis and Therapy in Thyroid and Parathyroid Disorders. Basic Physics. Nuclear Instrumentation. Radioimmunoassay: Thyroid Function Tests. Quality Control. Embryology, Anatomy, Physiology, and Thyroid Function Studies. Scintigraphic Thyroid Imaging. Neonatal and Pediatric Thyroid Imaging. Radioiodine Thyroid Uptake Measurement. Radioiodine Treatment of Thyroid Disorders. Radiation Dosimetry of Diagnostic Procedures. Radiation Safety Procedures for High-Level I-131 Therapies. X-Ray Fluorescent Scanning. Thyroid Sonography. Computed Tomography in Thyroid Disease. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Thyroid Disease. Parathyroid Imaging.

  19. Comparative genomics reveals a functional thyroid-specific element in the far upstream region of the PAX8 gene

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The molecular mechanisms leading to a fully differentiated thyrocite are still object of intense study even if it is well known that thyroglobulin, thyroperoxidase, NIS and TSHr are the marker genes of thyroid differentiation. It is also well known that Pax8, TTF-1, Foxe1 and Hhex are the thyroid-enriched transcription factors responsible for the expression of the above genes, thus are responsible for the differentiated thyroid phenotype. In particular, the role of Pax8 in the fully developed thyroid gland was studied in depth and it was established that it plays a key role in thyroid development and differentiation. However, to date the bases for the thyroid-enriched expression of this transcription factor have not been unraveled yet. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a functional thyroid-specific enhancer element located far upstream of the Pax8 gene. Results We hypothesized that regulatory cis-acting elements are conserved among mammalian genes. Comparison of a genomic region extending for about 100 kb at the 5'-flanking region of the mouse and human Pax8 gene revealed several conserved regions that were tested for enhancer activity in thyroid and non-thyroid cells. Using this approach we identified one putative thyroid-specific regulatory element located 84.6 kb upstream of the Pax8 transcription start site. The in silico data were verified by promoter-reporter assays in thyroid and non-thyroid cells. Interestingly, the identified far upstream element manifested a very high transcriptional activity in the thyroid cell line PC Cl3, but showed no activity in HeLa cells. In addition, the data here reported indicate that the thyroid-enriched transcription factor TTF-1 is able to bind in vitro and in vivo the Pax8 far upstream element, and is capable to activate transcription from it. Conclusions Results of this study reveal the presence of a thyroid-specific regulatory element in the 5' upstream region of the Pax8 gene. The

  20. Identification of Thyroid Hormones and Functional Characterization of Thyroid Hormone Receptor in the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas Provide Insight into Evolution of the Thyroid Hormone System

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen; Xu, Fei; Qu, Tao; Zhang, Rui; Li, Li; Que, Huayong; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play important roles in development, metamorphosis, and metabolism in vertebrates. During the past century, TH functions were regarded as a synapomorphy of vertebrates. More recently, accumulating evidence has gradually convinced us that TH functions also occur in invertebrate chordates. To date, however, TH-related studies in non-chordate invertebrates have been limited. In this study, THs were qualitatively detected by two reliable methods (HPLC and LC/MS) in a well-studied molluscan species, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Quantitative measurement of THs during the development of C. gigas showed high TH contents during embryogenesis and that oyster embryos may synthesize THs endogenously. As a first step in elucidating the TH signaling cascade, an ortholog of vertebrate TH receptor (TR), the most critical gene mediating TH effects, was cloned in C. gigas. The sequence of CgTR has conserved DNA-binding and ligand-binding domains that normally characterize these receptors. Experimental results demonstrated that CgTR can repress gene expression through binding to promoters of target genes and can interact with oyster retinoid X receptor. Moreover, CgTR mRNA expression was activated by T4 and the transcriptional activity of CgTR promoter was repressed by unliganded CgTR protein. An atypical thyroid hormone response element (CgDR5) was found in the promoter of CgTR, which was verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). These results indicated that some of the CgTR function is conserved. However, the EMSA assay showed that DNA binding specificity of CgTR was different from that of the vertebrate TR and experiments with two dual-luciferase reporter systems indicated that l-thyroxine, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine, and triiodothyroacetic acid failed to activate the transcriptional activity of CgTR. This is the first study to functionally characterize TR in mollusks. The presence of THs and the functions of CgTR in mollusks

  1. Identification of Thyroid Hormones and Functional Characterization of Thyroid Hormone Receptor in the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas Provide Insight into Evolution of the Thyroid Hormone System.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen; Xu, Fei; Qu, Tao; Zhang, Rui; Li, Li; Que, Huayong; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play important roles in development, metamorphosis, and metabolism in vertebrates. During the past century, TH functions were regarded as a synapomorphy of vertebrates. More recently, accumulating evidence has gradually convinced us that TH functions also occur in invertebrate chordates. To date, however, TH-related studies in non-chordate invertebrates have been limited. In this study, THs were qualitatively detected by two reliable methods (HPLC and LC/MS) in a well-studied molluscan species, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Quantitative measurement of THs during the development of C. gigas showed high TH contents during embryogenesis and that oyster embryos may synthesize THs endogenously. As a first step in elucidating the TH signaling cascade, an ortholog of vertebrate TH receptor (TR), the most critical gene mediating TH effects, was cloned in C. gigas. The sequence of CgTR has conserved DNA-binding and ligand-binding domains that normally characterize these receptors. Experimental results demonstrated that CgTR can repress gene expression through binding to promoters of target genes and can interact with oyster retinoid X receptor. Moreover, CgTR mRNA expression was activated by T4 and the transcriptional activity of CgTR promoter was repressed by unliganded CgTR protein. An atypical thyroid hormone response element (CgDR5) was found in the promoter of CgTR, which was verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). These results indicated that some of the CgTR function is conserved. However, the EMSA assay showed that DNA binding specificity of CgTR was different from that of the vertebrate TR and experiments with two dual-luciferase reporter systems indicated that l-thyroxine, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine, and triiodothyroacetic acid failed to activate the transcriptional activity of CgTR. This is the first study to functionally characterize TR in mollusks. The presence of THs and the functions of CgTR in mollusks contribute

  2. Reference intervals in evaluation of maternal thyroid function of Manipuri women

    PubMed Central

    Jebasingh, Felix K.; Salam, Ranabir; Meetei, Trinity Laishram; Singh, Premchand Thangjam; Singh, Nabakishore Naorem; Prasad, Lallan

    2016-01-01

    Context: The population of Manipur is of different ethnic background from the rest of the country. Several authors have suggested population/ethnic and laboratory specific reference range of maternal thyroid profile of different trimesters. Aims: To find the reference range of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine (TT4) and total tri-iodothyronine (TT3) levels for normal pregnant women of native Manipur descendants. Settings and Design: The cross-sectional study was conducted at a teaching Institute after ethical clearance was obtained. Subjects and Methods: A reference populations of 375 normal pregnant women were established after screening about 600 pregnant women. The study excluded patients with hyperemesis gravid arum, past history or family history of thyroid disorders as well as the connective tissue disorders, WHO grade 1 or 2 goiter, or any medications that alter thyroid functions. The serum levels of TSH, TT4, and TT3 were measured using chemiluminescence assay. Statistical Analysis Used: Data for TT3 and TT4 were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, median and 5–95th percentiles. Results: The mean TSH in the three trimesters was 1.06 + 0.45, 1.23 + 0.30, and 1.25 + 0.36, respectively. The normal reference range thus was different from that of the kit reference range. On comparing to the Indian normative reference for the pregnant women, our results were not similar. However, the values were near similar to that of the American Thyroid Association guidelines. Conclusions: We conclude our study results with a new reference range for the pregnant population in Manipur and also emphasis the use of trimester-specific reference range of thyroid hormone. PMID:27042410

  3. Hematopoietic Stem Cells Transplantation Can Normalize Thyroid Function in a Cystinosis Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Gaide Chevronnay, H P; Janssens, V; Van Der Smissen, P; Rocca, C J; Liao, X H; Refetoff, S; Pierreux, C E; Cherqui, S; Courtoy, P J

    2016-04-01

    Hypothyroidism is the most frequent and earliest endocrine complication in cystinosis, a multisystemic lysosomal storage disease caused by defective transmembrane cystine transporter, cystinosin (CTNS gene). We recently demonstrated in Ctns(-/-) mice that altered thyroglobulin biosynthesis associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, combined with defective lysosomal processing, caused hypothyroidism. In Ctns(-/-) kidney, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation provides long-term functional and structural protection. Tissue repair involves transfer of cystinosin-bearing lysosomes from HSCs differentiated as F4/80 macrophages into deficient kidney tubular cells, via tunneling nanotubes that cross basement laminae. Here we evaluated the benefit of HSC transplantation for cystinotic thyroid and investigated the underlying mechanisms. HSC engraftment in Ctns(-/-) thyroid drastically decreased cystine accumulation, normalized the TSH level, and corrected the structure of a large fraction of thyrocytes. In the thyroid microenvironment, HSCs differentiated into a distinct, mixed macrophage/dendritic cell lineage expressing CD45 and major histocompatibility complex II but low CD11b and F4/80. Grafted HSCs closely apposed to follicles and produced tunneling nanotube-like extensions that crossed follicular basement laminae. HSCs themselves further squeezed into follicles, allowing extensive contact with thyrocytes, but did not transdifferentiate into Nkx2.1-expressing cells. Our observations revealed significant differences of basement lamina porosity between the thyroid and kidney and/or intrinsic macrophage invasive properties once in the thyroid microenvironment. The contrast between extensive thyrocyte protection and low HSC abundance at steady state suggests multiple sequential encounters and/or remanent impact. This is the first report demonstrating the potential of HSC transplantation to correct thyroid disease and supports a major multisystemic benefit of stem

  4. A Rare Presentation of Autonomously Functioning Papillary Thyroid Cancer: Malignancy in Marine-Lenhart Syndrome Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Uludag, Mehmet; Aygun, Nurcihan; Ozel, Alper; Yener Ozturk, Feyza; Karasu, Rabia; Ozguven, Banu Yilmaz; Citgez, Bulent; Mihmanli, Mehmet; Isgor, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Marine-Lenhart Syndrome (MLS) is defined as concomitant occurrence of autonomously functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN) with Graves' disease (GD). Malignancy in a functional nodule is rare. We aimed to present an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid cancer in a MLS nodule with lateral lymph node metastases. Case. A 43-year-old male presented with hyperthyroidism and Graves' ophthalmopathy. On Tc99m pertechnetate scintigraphy, a hyperactive nodule in the left upper thyroid pole was detected and the remaining tissue showed a mildly increased uptake. The ultrasonography demonstrated 15.5 × 13.5 × 12 mm sized hypoechoic nodule in the left upper pole of the thyroid and round lymph nodes on the left side of the neck. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the nodule and lymph node revealed cytological findings consistent with papillary cancer. Total thyroidectomy with central and left modified radical neck dissection was performed. On pathologic examination, two foci of micropapillary cancer were detected. The skip metastases were present in three lymph nodes on the neck. Conclusion. AFTN can be seen rarely in association with GD. It is not possible to exclude malignancy due to the clinical and imaging findings. In the presence of suspicious clinical and sonographic features, FNAB should be performed. PMID:27110424

  5. Changes in thyroid function after short-term ozone exposure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Clemons, G.K.; Garcia, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Exposure of male rats to ozone for 24 h at 1 ppM caused a profound depression of the pituitary-thyroid axis as indicated by a highly significant reduction of circulating thyrotropin hormone (TSH), thyroid hormones (T4 and T3), and protein-bound iodine (PBI). The metabolic clearance of TSH was not altered during ozone exposure and the high TSH levels seen in thyroidectomized rats were also not affected. Circulating prolactin (PRL) levels were significantly elevated after exposure. Pituitary TSH and PRL content was considerably increased in ozone-exposed rats; however, only TSH was released significantly above control values in vitro. Thyroid weight was also significantly increased after exposure. The results suggest that the depression of the pituitary-thyroid axis may be an adaptive mechanism during ozone exposure by reducing hypothalamic stimulation via thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and at the same time lifting the hypothalamic catecholamine inhibition on PRL release. Both may be necessary alterations in order to develop tolerance during ozone exposure.

  6. Various Possible Toxicants Involved in Thyroid Dysfunction: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Jagminder K.; Salwan, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    About 300 million people across the world suffer from thyroid gland dysfunction. Environmental factors play an important role in causation of autoimmune thyroid diseases in susceptible individuals. Genetics contributes to 70% of the risk. In order to reduce the risk, we need to understand the association of environmental agents with thyroid dysfunction. These factors are especially relevant for those at increased risk due to positive family history. The ideal study to see the impact of a thyroid toxicant consists of directly measuring the degree of exposure to toxicant in an individual with his thyroid status. Knowledge of various factors influencing thyroid dysfunction can help in interpreting the results of such studies in a better way. This article is an attempt to highlight the various possible toxicants affecting thyroid function so that adequate measures can be undertaken to control excessive exposure in future to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders. PMID:26894086

  7. Various Possible Toxicants Involved in Thyroid Dysfunction: A Review.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Jagminder K; Salwan, Poonam; Salwan, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    About 300 million people across the world suffer from thyroid gland dysfunction. Environmental factors play an important role in causation of autoimmune thyroid diseases in susceptible individuals. Genetics contributes to 70% of the risk. In order to reduce the risk, we need to understand the association of environmental agents with thyroid dysfunction. These factors are especially relevant for those at increased risk due to positive family history. The ideal study to see the impact of a thyroid toxicant consists of directly measuring the degree of exposure to toxicant in an individual with his thyroid status. Knowledge of various factors influencing thyroid dysfunction can help in interpreting the results of such studies in a better way. This article is an attempt to highlight the various possible toxicants affecting thyroid function so that adequate measures can be undertaken to control excessive exposure in future to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders. PMID:26894086

  8. Exposure to non-persistent pesticides and thyroid function: A systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Campos, Élida; Freire, Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Numerous pesticides are recognized for their endocrine-disrupting properties. Non-persistent pesticides such as organophosphates, dithiocarbamates and pyrethroids may interfere with thyroid function as suggested by animal studies. However, the influence of chronic exposure to these compounds on thyroidal functions in humans remains to be determined. The present study aimed to review epidemiological evidence for an association between exposure to non-persistent pesticides and circulating levels of thyroid hormones (thyroxin [T4] and triiodothyronine [T3]) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Virtual Health Library (BVS) databases. Articles were limited to original studies and reports published in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Nineteen epidemiological studies were identified, 17 of which were cross-sectional, 14 were of occupationally exposed workers and 11 used exposure biomarkers. Fungicides and organophosphates (OP) insecticides were the most studied pesticides. Although methodological heterogeneity between studies was noted, particularly regarding study design, exposure assessment, and control of confounding, most of them showed associations with changes in T3 and T4, and/or TSH levels, while results from a few of these are consistent with experimental data supporting the findings that non-persistent pesticide exposure exerts hypothyroid-like effects. However, reporting quality was moderate to poor in 50% of the studies, particularly regarding method of selection of participants and discussion of external validity. Overall, current knowledge regarding the impact of non-persistent pesticides on human thyroid function is still limited. Given the widespread use of pesticides, future research should assess effects of exposure to currently-used pesticides in cohort studies combining comprehensive questionnaire-based assessment and biomarkers. Investigators need to pay particular attention to exposure

  9. Integrin-linked kinase affects signaling pathways and migration in thyroid cancer cells and is a potential therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Lawrence A.; McCarty, Samantha; Yang, Ming-Chen; Saji, Motoyasu; Zhang, Xiaoli; Phay, John; Ringel, Matthew D.; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2016-01-01

    Background Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a serine-threonine kinase that regulates interactions between the cell and the extracellular matrix. In many cancers, overexpression of ILK leads to increased cell proliferation, motility, and invasion. We hypothesized that ILK functions as a regulator of viability and migration in thyroid cancer cells. Methods Eleven human thyroid cancer cell lines were screened for ILK protein expression. The cell lines with the greatest expression were treated with either ILK small interfering RNA (siRNA) or a novel ILK inhibitor, T315, and the effects were evaluated via Western blot and migration assay. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assays were performed to assess cell viability. Results siRNA against ILK decreased phosphorylation of downstream effectors Akt and MLC, as well as decreased migration. Treatment with T315 showed a dose-related decrease in both Akt and MLC phosphorylation, as well as decreased migration. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assays showed T315 to have an half maximal inhibitory concentration of less than 1 µM in cell lines with high ILK expression. Conclusion ILK is expressed differentially in thyroid cancer cell lines. Both ILK siRNA and T315 inhibit motility of thyroid cancer cell lines, and T315 is shown to be cytotoxic at low concentrations. Altogether, our study suggests that ILK may represent an important kinase in aggressive thyroid cancers. PMID:26549818

  10. Pancreatic and Islet Development and Function: The Role of Thyroid Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Mastracci, Teresa L; Evans-Molina, Carmella

    2014-01-01

    A gradually expanding body of literature suggests that Thyroid Hormone (TH) and Thyroid Hormone Receptors (TRs) play a contributing role in pancreatic and islet cell development, maturation, and function. Studies using a variety of model systems capable of exploiting species-specific developmental paradigms have revealed the contribution of TH to cellular differentiation, lineage decisions, and endocrine cell specification. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that TH is involved in islet β cell proliferation and maturation; however, the signaling pathway(s) connected with this function of TH/TR are not well understood. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current literature that has defined the effects of TH and TRs on pancreatic and islet cell development and function, describe the impact of hyper- and hypothyroidism on whole body metabolism, and highlight future and potential applications of TH in novel therapeutic strategies for diabetes. PMID:25506600

  11. Change of maternal thyroid function in twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Masachi; Arata, Naoko; Sago, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has weak thyroid-stimulating activity because of its homology with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), which is a severe complication of monochorionic twin pregnancies, a close association between maternal serum hCG concentration and TTTS has been reported. And, TTTS can be treated by fetoscopic laser coagulation of the communicating vessels. To clarify the relationship between maternal serum hCG and maternal thyroid function in TTTS, the present study investigated the change in thyroid hormone and hCG levels after laser therapy. The protocol included collection of serial maternal blood samples in TTTS before laser therapy, and at two and four weeks after laser therapy. For 131 cases of TTTS, the following parameters were determined at each point: hCG, TSH, free triiodothyronine (fT3), and free thyroxine (fT4). The multiple of the median (MoM) of pre-operative hCG concentration in TTTS was 5.39 MoM (interquartile range, 2.83 - 8.64). There was a moderate positive correlation between hCG and fT3 in TTTS pre-operatively (R = 0.22, P = 0.030). fT4 was also positively correlated with hCG (R = 0.33, P < 0.001). Some cases showed very high concentration in fT3. When laser therapy for TTTS was effective, the hCG concentration significantly decreased, and fT3 and fT4 decreased progressively in concert with the decrease in hCG. The relationship between hCG and thyroid function in TTTS supports the finding of TTTS as a novel etiology of hCG-mediated hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. PMID:26194271

  12. Iodine status and thyroid function among Spanish schoolchildren aged 6-7 years: the Tirokid study.

    PubMed

    Vila, L; Donnay, S; Arena, J; Arrizabalaga, J J; Pineda, J; Garcia-Fuentes, E; García-Rey, C; Marín, J L; Serra-Prat, M; Velasco, I; López-Guzmán, A; Luengo, L M; Villar, A; Muñoz, Z; Bandrés, O; Guerrero, E; Muñoz, J A; Moll, G; Vich, F; Menéndez, E; Riestra, M; Torres, Y; Beato-Víbora, P; Aguirre, M; Santiago, P; Aranda, J; Gutiérrez-Repiso, C

    2016-05-01

    I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable. PMID:26961225

  13. Young adult reference ranges for thyroid function tests on the Centaur immunoassay analyser.

    PubMed

    Alqahatani, M; Tamimi, W; Aldaker, M; Alenzi, F; Tamim, H; Alsadhan, A

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to establish reference ranges for thyroid tests in young Saudi adults using the Centaur immunoassay method. Physical examination is performed and thyroid function tests include thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3). These are performed on 291 young Saudi adults (182 [63%] females and 109 [37%] males; average age: 27 years [range 18-50]). Clinical thyroid abnormality, related symptoms and/or abnormal thyroid function tests exclude a person from the study and thus a total of 276 subjects (171 [62%] females and 105 [38%] males) are used to establish the new reference ranges. Combined female and male ranges for TSH, FT4, and FT3 were found to be 0.48-6.30 miu/L (9.00-18.62 pmol/L and 3.39-6.85 pmol/L, respectively). Mean TSH and FT4 levels were significantly different (P<0.0001) from those quoted by the manufacturer. Ranges for TSH were 0.48-6.30 miu/L (female) and 0.52-4.89 miu/L (male) (P=0.08). Female ranges for FT4 and FT3 were 9.00-17.15 pmol/L and 3.39-5.82 pmol/L, respectively. Male ranges were 9.92-18.62 pmol/L (P=0.0001) and 4.36-6.85 pmol/L (P<0.0001). The range of TSH levels in the young local Saudi population proved to be higher than that quoted by the manufacturer. FT4 range was lower and narrower than that quoted by the manufacturer. Significant differences between female and male populations suggest that partitioning of the reference ranges by gender is necessary. PMID:17201204

  14. Urinary iodine, thyroid function, and thyroglobulin as biomarkers of iodine status.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Caldwell, Kathleen L

    2016-09-01

    The accurate assessment of population iodine status is necessary to inform public health policies and clinical research on iodine nutrition, particularly the role of iodine adequacy in normal neurodevelopment. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) directly reflects dietary iodine intake and is the most common indicator used worldwide to assess population iodine status. The CDC established the Ensuring the Quality of Iodine Procedures program in 2001 to provide laboratories that measure urinary iodine with an independent assessment of their analytic performance; this program fosters improvement in the assessment of UIC. Clinical laboratory tests of thyroid function (including serum concentrations of the pituitary hormone thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine) are sometimes used as indicators of iodine status, although such use is often problematic. Even in severely iodine-deficient regions, there is a great deal of intraindividual variation in the ability of the thyroid to adapt. In most settings and in most population subgroups other than newborns, thyroid function tests are not considered sensitive indicators of population iodine status. However, the thyroid-derived protein thyroglobulin is increasingly being used for this purpose. Thyroglobulin can be measured in either serum or dried blood spot (DBS) samples. The use of DBS samples is advantageous in resource-poor regions. Improved methodologies for ascertaining maternal iodine status are needed to facilitate research on developmental correlates of iodine status. Thyroglobulin may prove to be a useful biomarker for both maternal and neonatal iodine status, but validated assay-specific reference ranges are needed for the determination of iodine sufficiency in both pregnant women and neonates, and trimester-specific ranges are possibly needed for pregnant women. UIC is currently a well-validated population biomarker, but individual biomarkers that could be used for research, patient care

  15. Correlation of manganese with thyroid function in females having hypo- and hyperthyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Memon, Nusrat Shahab; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Sahito, Oan Muhammad; Baloch, Shahnawaz; Waris, Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the level of manganese (Mn) with thyroid functions, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxin (FT4) of females having hyper- (HPRT) and hypothyroid (HPOT) disorder. For comparative study, females of the same age group (16-30 years) having no thyroid disorders were selected as referents. The serum samples were acid digested prior to analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The validity and accuracy of the methodology was checked by a certified sample. The resulted data indicated that the mean values of Mn in serum samples of females have hyperthyroidism was significantly higher than referent subjects (p < 0.01), while lower values of Mn was observed in serum samples of hypothyroid patients. The mean values of FT3 and FT4 were found to be lower while TSH higher is in HPRT patients than age-matched healthy control females (p = <0.01). The reverse resulted data of these thyroid hormones was observed in HPOT patients (0.003). PMID:25774040

  16. Glucoregulatory function of thyroid hormones: role of pancreatic hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, M.J.B.; Burger, A.G.; Ferrannini, E.; Jequier, E.; Acheson, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glucose metabolism was investigated in humans before and 14 days after 300 micrograms L-thyroxine (T4)/day using a sequential clamp protocol during short-term somatostatin infusion (500 micrograms/h, 0-6 h) at euglycemia (0-2.5 h), at 165 mg/dl (2.5-6 h), and during insulin infusion (1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1, 4.5-6 h). T4 treatment increased plasma T4 (+96%) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3, +50%), energy expenditure (+8%), glucose turnover (+32%), and glucose oxidation (Glucox +87%) but decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone (-96%) and nonoxidative glucose metabolism (Glucnonox, -30%) at unchanged lipid oxidation (Lipox). During somatostatin and euglycemia glucose production (Ra, -67%) and disposal (Rd, -28%) both decreased in euthyroid subjects but remained at -22% and -5%, respectively, after T4 treatment. Glucox (control, -20%; +T4, -25%) fell and Lipox increased (control, +42%; +T4, +45%) in both groups, whereas Glucnonox decreased before (-36%) but increased after T4 (+57%). During somatostatin infusion and hyperglycemia Rd (control, +144%; +T4, +84%) and Glucnonox (control, +326%; +T4, +233%) increased, whereas Glucox and Lipox remained unchanged. Insulin further increased Rd (+76%), Glucox (+155%), and Glucnonox (+50%) but decreased Ra (-43%) and Lipox (-43%). All these effects were enhanced by T4 (Rd, +38%; Glucox, +45%; Glucnonox, +35%; Ra, +40%; Lipox, +11%). Our data provide evidence that, in humans, T3 stimulates Ra and Rd, which is in part independent of pancreatic hormones.

  17. Higher Plasma ApoE Levels are Associated with Low-Normal Thyroid Function: Studies in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Subjects.

    PubMed

    van Tienhoven-Wind, L J N; Dallinga-Thie, G M; Dullaart, R P F

    2016-07-01

    Low-normal thyroid function within the euthyroid range may confer higher plasma triglycerides, but relationships with plasma apolipoprotein (apo) E, which plays an important role in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich apoB-containing lipoproteins, are unknown. We determined relationships of plasma apoE with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (free T4) in euthyroid subjects with and without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). TSH, free T4, lipids, and apoE were measured in fasting plasma from 72 T2DM subjects and 82 nondiabetic subjects. The APOE genotype was also determined. Free T4 was slightly higher in T2DM (p=0.030), but TSH levels were not different vs. nondiabetic subjects. The APOE genotype distribution was not different between the groups. None of the participants had the ε2/ε2 genotype. Plasma triglycerides were higher in T2DM (p=0.037). ApoB and apoE levels were not different between the groups. In all subjects combined, multivariable analysis showed that plasma triglycerides (p=0.039), non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol (p=0.030), and apoE levels (p=0.002) were each independently and positively associated with TSH after adjustment for age, sex, T2DM and the presence of the APOE ε3 allele. Furthermore, the associations of TSH with apoE remained present after adjustment for either triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol, or apoB (p=0.005 to 0.023). The presence of T2DM did not modify the relationships of TSH with these (apo) lipoprotein variables (p=0.11 to 0.36). In conclusion, low-normal thyroid function, as indicated by higher TSH levels within the euthyroid range, may influence the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by affecting apoE regulation. PMID:26916531

  18. [Drug-induced thyroid dysfunctions].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2014-01-01

    latrogenic disorders are an important cause of morbidity, mortality, and admission to hospital in developed countries. Similarly to many other organs, the thyroid gland may be affected by various drugs, often used for the treatment of non-thyroid disorders. Drugs may affect thyroid function via different mechanisms, including thyroid hormone production, storage, secretion and metabolism offering numerous targets for drug interventions. Usually, the effect of pharmacotherapy is observed more frequently and is stronger in case of the presence of the concomitant disorder of this gland. An understanding of the proposed mechanisms of these drug interactions and their evaluation and differential diagnosis is helpful in the interpretation of the findings associated thyroid disorders and in establishing the correct treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the present state of knowledge on the influence of various drugs on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We discuss pros and cons of the use of these agents in patients with concomitant thyroid disease and provide the reader with recommendations concerning the diagnosis and treatment of iatrogenic thyroid disorders. PMID:26030960

  19. Effect of 131I ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ after surgery on the function of parathyroid gland in differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, ZHI-HUA; LI, FENG-QI; HAN, JIAN-KUI; LI, XIAN-JUN

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common malignant tumor of the endocrine glands. Although surgery is the optimal treatment utilized, the disease is characterized by recurrence and metastasis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of iodine-131 (131I) ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ following surgery on the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and its effect on the function of the parathyroid gland. A total of 160 patients diagnosed with DTC, who were consecutively admitted to our Hospital between June 2012 and June 2014 and underwent total thyroidectomy or subtotal resection, were included in the present study. After three months, the patients were administered 131I ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ treatment and underwent a whole body scan after 1 week to determine whether ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ treatment was successful or not. The treatment was repeated within 3 months if not successful. Of the 160 patients, 24 patients had cancer metastasis (15.0%). The average dose of 131I used for the first time was 6.4+1.2 GBq and the treatment was successful in 66 cases (41.3%). The average treatment time was 2.8±0.6 therapy sessions. The results showed that, prior to and following the first treatment and at the end of the follow up, levels of the parathyroid hormone, serum calcium and phosphorus were compared, and no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) was observed. There were 5 patients with persistent hypothyroidism and 8 patients with transient hypothyroidism. The levels of thyroglobulin were significantly decreased, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). A total of 48 patients (30%) with hypothyroidism were identified. In conclusion, the results have shown that DTC resection and 131I ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ treatment did not significantly impair the parathyroid function, thereby improving the treatment effect. PMID:26668598

  20. Management of thyroid disorders

    PubMed Central

    Premawardhana, L D K E; Lazarus, J H

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease is the predominant form of thyroid dysfunction in the developed world. Although its precise cause is currently unclear, principles of management have been established. There is a vigorous debate about the management of the increasingly commonly recognised subclinical forms of thyroid dysfunction despite recent recommendations. Nodular thyroid disease and thyroid carcinoma have received wide attention. The effects of drugs and pregnancy on thyroid function have also been investigated widely. This short review attempts to give an overview and clarify the current management of common thyroid disorders. PMID:16954449

  1. Evaluation of thyroid function in dogs suffering from recurrent flank alopecia.

    PubMed Central

    Daminet, S; Paradis, M

    2000-01-01

    Thyroid function was assessed in euthyroid dogs (n = 20), dogs suffering from canine recurrent flank alopecia (CRFA, n = 18), and hypothyroid dogs (n = 21). Blood samples obtained from all dogs in each group were assayed for total thyroxine (TT4), thyrotropin (TSH), and thyroglobulin autoantibody (TgAA) serum concentrations. Total T4 and TSH serum concentrations were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in the hypothyroid group compared with the other 2 groups. No significant differences in TT4 and TSH serum values were found between the euthyroid and CRFA groups. Thyroglobulin autoantibodies were detected in 10, 11.1, and 61.9% of euthyroid dogs, dogs with CRFA, and hypothyroid dogs, respectively. In conclusion, dogs suffering from CRFA have a normal thyroid function, and the determination of TT4 and TSH serum concentrations allows differentiation of these dogs from dogs with hypothyroidism, in most cases. Occasionally, the 2 diseases can be concomitant. PMID:10992988

  2. Lingual thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, L. K. Surej; Kurien, Nikhil Mathew; Jacob, M. M.; Menon, P. Varun; Khalam, Sherin A.

    2015-01-01

    Lingual thyroid is an abnormal mass of ectopic thyroid tissue seen in base of tongue caused due to embryological aberrancy in development of thyroid gland. Most of the ectopic tissue is seen in the tongue. Their identification and proper management is essential since they may be the only functioning thyroid tissue occurring in the body. We report a case of lingual thyroid in a 40 year old female patient who was hypothyroid with posterior swelling of tongue. Tc-99 scintigraphy confirmed the clinical diagnosis and surgical excision of entire tissue was done by midline mandibular split osteotomy and patient was placed under lifelong thyroxine replacement. Follow up showed excellent results with minimum patient discomfort. PMID:26389046

  3. Effects of whole-body exposure to 915 MHz RFID on secretory functions of the thyroid system in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Sun; Paik, Man-Jeong; Kim, Yeon Ju; Lee, Gwang; Lee, Yun-Sil; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Byung Chan; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Ahn, Young Hwan

    2013-10-01

    As a part of an investigation on the potential risks of radiofrequency identification (RFID) on human health, we studied whether exposure to 915 MHz RFID in rats significantly affected the secretory function of the thyroid system. A reverberation chamber was used as a whole-body exposure system. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 8 h per day, 5 days per week, for a duration of 2, 4, 8, or 16 weeks. The estimated whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) varied from 3.2 to 4.6 W/kg depending on the age/mass of the animals for the field of the 915 MHz RFID reader. Plasma levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were evaluated via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Morphological changes in the thyroid gland were then analyzed. No changes in T3, T4, or TSH were observed over time between the sham- and RFID-exposed groups. We suggest that subchronic exposure to 915 MHz RFID at a SAR of 4 W/kg does not cause significant effects on thyroid secretory function. PMID:23744731

  4. Thyroid Function, Prevalent Coronary Heart Disease, and Severity of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Yan; Jiang, Jingjing; Gui, Minghui; Liu, Lin; Aleteng, Qiqige; Wu, Bingjie; Wang, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaojing; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if free T4 and TSH concentrations or thyroid function categories were associated with prevalent CHD and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in a population undergoing coronary angiography. This was a cross-sectional study including 1799 patients who were consecutively admitted and underwent coronary angiography. We evaluated the severity of coronary atherosclerosis using Gensini score. In the entire study population, free T4 level was inversely associated with prevalent CHD (OR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.91–0.99, P = 0.01) and the natural log-transformed Gensini score (ln(Gensini score)) (β = −0.03, 95% CI −0.05–−0.01, P = 0.005). The odds of CHD increased gradually across hyperthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, and overt hypothyroidism groups using the euthyroid group as the reference, and the trend is borderline significant (P for trend = 0.051). When comparing to the euthyroid group, ln(Gensini score) of the overt hypothyroidism group was significantly higher (P = 0.009), but the trend was not significant (P for trend = 0.08). A significant association of thyroid function with CHD or ln(Gensini score) in euthyroid patients was not observed. The present study demonstrated an association of thyroid function with prevalent CHD and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in a population undergoing coronary angiography. However, this association was not observed in euthyroid individuals. PMID:26770196

  5. Hepatic Steatosis and Thyroid Function Tests in Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Pacifico, L.; Bonci, E.; Ferraro, F.; Andreoli, G.; Bascetta, S.; Chiesa, C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Associations between thyroid function and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are unknown in childhood. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate in 402 consecutive overweight/obese children the association between thyroid function tests and hepatic steatosis as well as metabolic variables. Methods. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by ultrasound after exclusion of infectious and metabolic disorders. Fasting serum samples were taken for determination of thyroid function (TSH, FT4, and FT3), along with alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance (IR). Results. Eighty-eight children (21.9%) had TSH above the normal range (>4.0 mIU/L). FT3 and FT4 were within the reference intervals in all subjects. Elevated TSH was associated with increased odds of having hepatic steatosis (OR 2.10 (95% CI, 1.22–3.60)), hepatic steatosis with elevated ALT (2.42 (95% CI, 1.29–4.51)), hypertriglyceridemia, elevated total cholesterol, and IR as well as metabolic syndrome (considered as a single clinical entity), after adjustment for age, gender, pubertal status, and body mass index-SD score (or waist circumference). Conclusions. In overweight/obese children, elevated TSH concentration is a significant predictor of hepatic steatosis and lipid and glucose dysmetabolism, independently of the degree of total and visceral obesity. PMID:23431294

  6. Impairment of Regulatory T-Cell Function in Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Abigail B.; Wodzinski, Alaina; Fu, Pingfu

    2013-01-01

    Background Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) pathogenesis may result from a loss of immune tolerance to thyroid antigens. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) control immune responses, prevent excessive inflammation, and may be dysfunctional in AITD. We investigated the role of Tregs in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease (GD), complicated by Down syndrome (DS). Our goal was to identify differences in CD4+CD25high Treg function or number in patients with GD and HT, compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods Treg number was assessed by flow cytometric analysis in samples from 20 AITD patients (seven GD, 13 HT), nine HC, and seven individuals with DS, a genetic disorder associated with multiple autoimmune disorders including AITD. Treg function was assessed by the inhibition of proliferation (radioactive thymidine incorporation into DNA) of blood-derived T effector (Teff) cells by Tregs in a coculture. Various methods of stimulation were contrasted. Cytokine levels were determined in conditioned media from the co-cultures. Results No differences were found in the frequency of Tregs as a percentage of CD4+ cells between AITD and HC. AITD Tregs were less capable of inhibiting the proliferation of Teff cells when compared to HC; however, the impairment was dependent on the type of stimulation used. DS patients without AITD exhibited normal Treg function. We observed few differences in cytokine production between HC and AITD patients. Conclusions Tregs from AITD patients are partly dysfunctional, possibly explaining their autoimmunity. Future work will elucidate the diagnostic potential and pathophysiology of Tregs in AITD. PMID:23379353

  7. [Sex Specificity in Age-Related Thyroid Hormone Responsiveness].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other systems, the endocrine system is affected by aging. Thyroid hormone, the action of which is affected by many factors, has been shown to be associated with longevity. The most useful marker for assessment of the thyroid hormone action is the TSH level. Although age and sex are believed to modify the pituitary set point or response to the free thyroid hormone concentration, the precise age- and sex-dependent responses to thyroid hormone have yet to be reported. In this lecture, molecular aspects of resistance to thyroid hormone are initially overviewed. After presentation of the evidence that the TSH-thyroid hormone axis is evolutionarily modified, and that negative feedback mechanisms may start to play roles in homeostatic regulation at the time of delivery, the rationale of age-dependent thyroid hormone resistance is introduced. To assess the age- and sex-dependent resistance to thyroid hormone, the index is provided by the formula based on the relationship between thyroid hormone and TSH levels. The index is calculated by the results of thyroid function tests obtained from the two individual clinical groups. From the results, there were negative relationships between the free T3 resistance index and age in males of both groups, while there were no apparent relationships in females. These findings indicate that there is a male-specific response to thyroid hormone with aging. Furthermore, the specific features of the response may not be affected by environmental factors such as the presence of disorders or medical treatments. PMID:27192800

  8. Application of a cervical low incision in the functional neck dissection of thyroid papillary carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    XU, JIAJIE; CHEN, CHAO; ZHENG, CHUANMING; WANG, KEJING; SHANG, JINBIAO; FANG, XIANHUA; GE, MINGHUA; TAN, ZHUO

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to discuss the advantage of the application of a cervical low incision for functional neck dissection in patients with thyroid papillary carcinoma. The study was a retrospective analysis of 87 thyroid papillary carcinoma patients; cervical low incision in the functional neck dissection was applied for 47 cases and the classic ‘L’ incision was applied for 40 cases. The different integrity, surgical time, blood loss and the aesthetic property of the incision were compared between the cervical low incision and the classic ‘L’ incision for lateral neck dissection of thyroid cancer. The postoperative pathological diagnosis was that the average total amount and the region II lymph nodes of the unilateral neck dissection were 33 and 10 for the cervical low incision group, and 32 and 11 for the classic ‘L’ incision group, respectively (P>0.05). The average unilateral neck dissection times were 87 and 58 min for the cervical low incision group and the classic ‘L’ incision group, respectively (P<0.05). The blood loss of the cervical low incision group was 67 ml, while the loss for the classic ‘L’ incision group was 61 ml (P>0.05). The postoperative incision of the cervical low incision group was smaller and more concealing. Additionally, the cosmetic deformities were milder for an inconspicuous cervical scar, and the sensation was improved for the patients in comparison with the classic ‘L’ incision group. These results suggest that the application of cervical low incision for functional neck dissection in thyroid papillary carcinoma patients aids in reducing postoperative complications, without increasing recurrence rates. Therefore, the classic ‘L’ incision can be replaced by the cervical low incision. PMID:27073645

  9. The Essential Role of Circulating Thyroglobulin in Maintaining Dominance of Natural Regulatory T Cell Function to Prevent Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Y M; Brown, N K; Morris, G P; Flynn, J C

    2015-09-01

    Several key findings from the late 1960s to mid-1970s regarding thyroid hormone metabolism and circulating thyroglobulin composition converged with studies pertaining to the role of T lymphocytes in autoimmune thyroiditis. These studies cemented the foundation for subsequent investigations into the existence and antigenic specificity of thymus-derived natural regulatory T cells (nTregs). These nTregs prevented the development of autoimmune thyroiditis, despite the ever-present genetic predisposition, autoantigen (thyroglobulin), and thyroglobulin-reactive T cells. Guided by the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis as a fixed set-point regulator in thyroid hormone metabolism, we used a murine model and compared at key junctures the capacity of circulating thyroglobulin level (raised by thyroid-stimulating hormone or exogenous thyroglobulin administration) to strengthen self-tolerance and resist autoimmune thyroiditis. The findings clearly demonstrated an essential role for raised circulating thyroglobulin levels in maintaining the dominance of nTreg function and inhibiting thyroid autoimmunity. Subsequent identification of thyroglobulin-specific nTregs as CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) in the early 2000s enabled the examination of probable mechanisms of nTreg function. We observed that whenever nTreg function was perturbed by immunotherapeutic measures, opportunistic autoimmune disorders invariably surfaced. This review highlights the step-wise progression of applying insights from endocrinologic and immunologic studies to advance our understanding of the clonal balance between natural regulatory and autoreactive T cells. Moreover, we focus on how tilting the balance in favor of maintaining peripheral tolerance could be achieved. Thus, murine autoimmune thyroiditis has served as a unique model capable of closely simulating natural physiologic conditions. PMID:26158397

  10. The presence of monoiodinated derivates of daidzein and genistein in human urine and its effect on thyroid gland function.

    PubMed

    Sosvorová, Lucie; Mikšátková, Petra; Bičíková, Marie; Kaňová, Nataša; Lapčík, Oldřich

    2012-08-01

    Dietary supplements used by women during menopause are usually based on plant extracts containing isoflavonoids, daidzein and genistein. Genistein is a known inhibitor of many enzymes, including thyroid peroxidase (TPO). In the thyroid follicle, genistein acts as its alternate substrate for the formation of genistein iodinated derivatives. The aim of this study was to search for daidzein- and genistein-iodinated derivatives in urine of isoflavonoid-supplemented women. Additionally, selected phytoestrogens, steroid and thyroid hormones before and after three months of phytoestrogen supplementation were estimated. Urinary levels of free phytoestrogen increased significantly after therapy. They ranged between 0.3-1600, 0.6-670 and 0-206 nmol/L for daidzein, genistein and S-equol, respectively. Monoiodinated derivatives of genistein were observed (0-504 pmol/L) in 60% of the investigated samples. Steroid and thyroid hormone levels were within the normal range and were not significantly altered. The presence of monoiodinated derivates in human urine confirmed that genistein and daidzein may enter human thyroid follicles and influence TPO. Since the levels of the free thyroid hormones were not affected, we propose that the use of phytoestrogen dietary supplements is not associated with the development of thyroid-gland disorders in subjects with adequate iodine intake. PMID:22659465

  11. Dual role of betel leaf extract on thyroid function in male mice.

    PubMed

    Panda, S; Kar, A

    1998-12-01

    The effects of betel leaf extract (0.10, 0.40, 0.80 and 2.0 g kg-1 day-1 for 15 days) on the alterations in thyroid hormone concentrations. lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were investigated in male Swiss mice. Administration of betel leaf extract exhibited a dual role, depending on the different doses. While the lowest dose decreased thyroxine (T4) and increased serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations, reverse effects were observed at two higher doses. Higher doses also increased LPO with a concomitant decrease in SOD and CAT activities. However, with the lowest dose most of these effects were reversed. These findings suggest that betel leaf can be both stimulatory and inhibitory to thyroid function, particularly for T3 generation and lipid peroxidation in male mice, depending on the amount consumed. PMID:9990660

  12. How mental stress affects endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Toda, Noboru; Nakanishi-Toda, Megumi

    2011-12-01

    Mental stress is an important factor contributing to recognized mechanisms underlying cardiovascular events. Among these, stress-related endothelial dysfunction is an early risk factor that predicts future development of severe cardiovascular disorders. Acute mental stress by a variety of tests impairs endothelial function in humans, although the opposite results have been reported by some investigators. Chronic stress always deteriorates endothelial function in humans and experimental animals. Stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and endothelin-1 liberated in response to mental stress participate in endothelial dysfunction possibly via downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, eNOS inactivation, decreased nitric oxide (NO) actions, and increased NO degradation, together with vasoconstriction counteracting against NO-induced vasodilatation. Catecholamines do not directly affect endothelial function but impair its function when blood pressure elevation by the amines is sustained. Endogenous opioids favorably affect endothelial function, which counteract deteriorating effects of other stress hormones and mediators. Inhibition of cortisol and endothelin-1 production, prevention of pro-inflammatory mediator accumulation, hypnotics, mirthful laughter, humor orientation, and lifestyle modification would contribute to the prevention and treatment for stress-related endothelial dysfunction and future serious cardiovascular disease. PMID:21947555

  13. Interaction between organophosphate pesticide exposure and PON1 activity on thyroid function

    SciTech Connect

    Lacasana, Marina; Lopez-Flores, Inmaculada; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Aguilar-Garduno, Clemente; Blanco-Munoz, Julia; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Gamboa, Ricardo; Gonzalez-Alzaga, Beatriz; Bassol, Susana; Cebrian, Mariano E.

    2010-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides are widely used in agricultural purposes. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated the ability of these chemicals to alter the function of the thyroid gland in human. Moreover, the paraoxonase-1 enzyme (PON1) plays an important role in the toxicity of some organophosphate pesticides, with low PON1 activity being associated with higher pesticide sensitivity. This study evaluates the interaction between exposure to organophosphate compounds and PON1 enzyme activity on serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones in a population of workers occupationally exposed to pesticides. A longitudinal study was conducted on a population of floriculture workers from Mexico, during two periods of high and low-intensity levels of pesticide application. A structured questionnaire was completed by workers containing questions on sociodemographic characteristics and other variables of interest. Urine and blood samples were taken, and biomarkers of exposure (dialkylphosphates), susceptibility (PON1 polymorphisms and activity) and effect (thyroid hormone levels) were determined. Interaction between dialkylphosphates and PON1 polymorphisms or PON1 activity on hormone levels was evaluated by generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. A significant interaction was found between serum diazoxonase activity and total dialkylphosphates ({Sigma}DAP) on TSH levels. Thus, when PON1 activity was increased we observed a decrease in the percentage of variation of TSH level for each increment in one logarithmic unit of the {Sigma}DAP levels. This interaction was also observed with the PON1{sub 192}RR genotype. These results suggest a stronger association between organophosphate pesticides and thyroid function in individuals with lower PON1 activity.

  14. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    SciTech Connect

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2013-06-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO{sub 4} (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC{sub 10} that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of

  15. Functional analysis of a proline to serine mutation in codon 453 of the thyroid hormone receptor {beta}1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ozata, M.; Suzuki, Satoru; Takeda, Teiji

    1995-10-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding human thyroid hormone receptor {beta}(hTR{beta}) have been associated with generalized resistance to thyroid hormone (GRTH). This disorder is associated with significant behavoral abnormalities. We examined the hTR{beta} gene in a family with members who manifest inappropriately normal TSH, elevated free T{sub 4}, and free and total T{sub 3}. Sequence analysis showed a cytosine to thymine transition at nucleotide 1642 in one allele of the index patient`s genomic DNA. This altered proline to serine at codon 453. The resulting mutant receptor when expressed in vitro bound DNA with high affinity, but the T{sub 3} affinity of the receptor was impaired. The mutant TR demonstrated a dominant negative effect when cotransfected with two isoforms of wild-type receptor and also in the presence of TR variant {alpha}2 in COS-1 cells. Mutations of codon 453 occur more frequently than at other sites, and four different amino acid substitutions have been reported. Significant differences in phenotype occur among affected individuals, varying from normality to moderately severe GRTH. There is no clear correlation between K{sub a} or in vitro function of the mutant receptor, and phenotype. This study extends the association between GRTH and illness, and indicates that early diagnosis and counseling are needed in families with TR{beta}1 abnormalities. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Thyroid function appears to be significantly reduced in Space-borne MDS mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saverio Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco; Curcio, Francesco; Fontanini, Elisabetta; Perrella, Giuseppina; Spelat, Renza; Zambito, Anna Maria; Damaskopoulou, Eleni; Peverini, Manola; Albi, Elisabetta

    It is known that prolonged space flights induced changes in human cardiovascular, muscu-loskeletal and nervous systems whose function is regulated by the thyroid gland but, until now, no data were reported about thyroid damage during space missions. We have demonstrated in vitro that, during space missions (Italian Soyuz Mission "ENEIDE" in 2005, Shuttle STS-120 "ESPERIA" in 2007), thyroid in vitro cultured cells did not respond to thyroid stimulating hor-mone (TSH) treatment; they appeared healthy and alive, despite their being in a pro-apopotic state characterised by a variation of sphingomyelin metabolism and consequent increase in ce-ramide content. The insensitivity to TSH was largely due to a rearrangement of specific cell membrane microdomains, acting as platforms for TSH-receptor (TEXUS-44 mission in 2008). To study if these effects were present also in vivo, as part of the Mouse Drawer System (MDS) Tissue Sharing Program, we performed experiments in mice maintained onboard the Interna-tional Space Station during the long-duration (90 days) exploration mission STS-129. After return to earth, the thyroids isolated from the 3 animals were in part immediately frozen to study the morphological modification in space and in part immediately used to study the effect of TSH treatment. For this purpose small fragments of tissue were treated with 10-7 or 10-8 M TSH for 1 hour by using untreated fragments as controls. Then the fragments were fixed with absolute ethanol for 10 min at room temperature and centrifuged for 20 min. at 3000 x g. The supernatants were used for cAMP analysis whereas the pellet were used for protein amount determination and for immunoblotting analysis of TSH-receptor, sphingomyelinase and sphingomyelin-synthase. The results showed a modification of the thyroid structure and also the values of cAMP production after treatment with 10-7 M TSH for 1 hour were significantly lower than those obtained in Earth's gravity. The treatment with TSH

  17. Comparative endocrinology of testicular, adrenal and thyroid function in captive Asian and African elephant bulls.

    PubMed

    Brown, Janine L; Somerville, Malia; Riddle, Heidi S; Keele, Mike; Duer, Connie K; Freeman, Elizabeth W

    2007-04-01

    Concentrations of serum testosterone, cortisol, thyroxine (free and total T4), triiodothyronine (free and total T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured to assess adrenal and thyroid function as they relate to testicular activity and musth in captive elephants. Blood samples were collected approximately weekly from Asian (n=8) and African (n=12) bulls at seven facilities for periods of 4 months to 9.5 years. Age ranges at study onset were 8-50 years for Asian and 10-21 years for African elephants. Based on keeper logs, seven Asian and three African bulls exhibited behavioral and/or physical (temporal gland secretion, TGS, or urine dribbling, UD) signs of musth, which lasted 2.8+/-2.5 months in duration. Serum testosterone was elevated during musth, with concentrations often exceeding 100 ng/ml. Patterns of testosterone secretion and musth varied among bulls with no evidence of seasonality (P>0.05). Only three bulls at one facility exhibited classic, well-defined yearly musth cycles. Others exhibited more irregular cycles, with musth symptoms often occurring more than once a year. A number of bulls (1 Asian, 9 African) had consistently low testosterone (<10 ng/ml) and never exhibited significant TGS or UD. At facilities with multiple bulls (n=3), testosterone concentrations were highest in the oldest, most dominant male. There were positive correlations between testosterone and cortisol for six of seven Asian and all three African males that exhibited musth (range, r=0.23-0.52; P<0.05), but no significant correlations for bulls that did not (P>0.05). For the three bulls that exhibited yearly musth cycles, TSH was positively correlated (range, r=0.22-0.28; P<0.05) and thyroid hormones (T3, T4) were negatively correlated (range, r=-0.25 to -0.47; P<0.05) to testosterone secretion. In the remaining bulls, there were no clear relationships between thyroid activity and musth status. Overall mean testosterone and cortisol concentrations increased with age

  18. Simple, rapid zebrafish larva bioassay for assessing the potential of chemical pollutants and drugs to disrupt thyroid gland function.

    PubMed

    Raldúa, Demetrio; Babin, Patrick J

    2009-09-01

    Thyroid function may be altered by a very large number of chemicals routinely found in the environment Research evaluating potential thyroid disruption is ongoing, but there are thousands of synthetic and naturally occurring drugs and chemicals to be considered. European and United States policies call for the development of simple methodologies for screening endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Zebrafish are widely used as a model organism for assessing drug effects because of their small size, high fecundity, rapid organogenesis, morphological and physiological similarities to mammals, and easewithwhich large-scale phenotypic screening is performed. A zebrafish-based short-duration screening method was developed to detect the potential effect of chemicals and drugs on thyroid function. This method used a T4 immunofluorescence quantitative disruption test (TIQDT) to measure thyroid function. The 3 day exposure window protocol, from day 2 to day 5 postfertilization (dpf), avoided any potential side effects on thyroid gland morphogenesis. Methimazole, propylthiouracil, and potassium perchlorate, three well-known goitrogens, totally abolished T4 immunoreactivity in thyroid follicles in a dose-specific manner. Amiodarone, a human pharmaceutical with a reported cytotoxic effect on thyroid follicular cells, also decreased T4 levels. Moreover, exposure to 50 nM 3,3',5-triiodothyronine induced a significant decrease in T4 immunoreactivity as did DDT, 2,4-D, and 4-nonylphenol. In conclusion, these data indicated that TIQDT may be useful for obtaining initial information about the ability of environmental pollutants and drugs to impair thyroid gland function as well as assessing the combined effects of endocrine disruptors. PMID:19764258

  19. Clinical and laboratory assessment of thyroid abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, M.M.

    1985-09-01

    Clinical assessment of the patient with suspected thyroid disease remains an important part of the workup. Available laboratory tests of thyroid function include measurements of serum thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone, titers of autoantibodies involved with Graves' disease and thyroiditis, and thyroid imaging and uptake techniques. The usefulness and limitations of each of these tests are reviewed.

  20. Thyroiditis: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lori B; Stewart, Christopher; Gaitonde, David Y

    2014-09-15

    Thyroiditis is a general term that encompasses several clinical disorders characterized by inflammation of the thyroid gland. The most common is Hashimoto thyroiditis; patients typically present with a nontender goiter, hypothyroidism, and an elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody level. Treatment with levothyroxine ameliorates the hypothyroidism and may reduce goiter size. Postpartum thyroiditis is transient or persistent thyroid dysfunction that occurs within one year of childbirth, miscarriage, or medical abortion. Release of preformed thyroid hormone into the bloodstream may result in hyperthyroidism. This may be followed by transient or permanent hypothyroidism as a result of depletion of thyroid hormone stores and destruction of thyroid hormone-producing cells. Patients should be monitored for changes in thyroid function. Beta blockers can treat symptoms in the initial hyperthyroid phase; in the subsequent hypothyroid phase, levothyroxine should be considered in women with a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level greater than 10 mIU per L, or in women with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level of 4 to 10 mIU per L who are symptomatic or desire fertility. Subacute thyroiditis is a transient thyrotoxic state characterized by anterior neck pain, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, and low radioactive iodine uptake on thyroid scanning. Many cases of subacute thyroiditis follow an upper respiratory viral illness, which is thought to trigger an inflammatory destruction of thyroid follicles. In most cases, the thyroid gland spontaneously resumes normal thyroid hormone production after several months. Treatment with high-dose acetylsalicylic acid or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is directed toward relief of thyroid pain. PMID:25251231

  1. Thyroid Hormone and Vascular Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ichiki, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism affect the cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism is known to be associated with enhanced atherosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases. The accelerated atherosclerosis in the hypothyroid state has been traditionally ascribed to atherogenic lipid profile, diastolic hypertension, and impaired endothelial function. However, recent studies indicate that thyroid hormone has direct anti-atherosclerotic effects, such as production of nitric oxide and suppression of smooth muscle cell proliferation. These data suggest that thyroid hormone inhibits atherogenesis through direct effects on the vasculature as well as modification of risk factors for atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the basic and clinical studies on the role of thyroid hormone in vascular remodeling. The possible application of thyroid hormone mimetics to the therapy of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis is also discussed. PMID:26558400

  2. Estrogen treatment affects brain functioning after menopause.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Ulrike; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-12-01

    Sex hormones have powerful neuromodulatory effects on functional brain organization and cognitive functioning. This paper reviews findings from studies investigating the influence of sex hormones in postmenopausal women with and without hormone therapy (HT). Functional brain organization was investigated using different behavioural tasks in postmenopausal women using either estrogen therapy or combined estrogen plus gestagen therapy and age- and IQ-matched postmenopausal women not taking HT. The results revealed HT-related modulations in specific aspects of functional brain organization including functional cerebral asymmetries and interhemispheric interaction. In contrast to younger women during the menstrual cycle, however, it seems that HT, and especially estrogen therapy, after menopause affects intrahemispheric processing rather than interhemispheric interaction. This might be explained by a faster and more pronounced age-related decline in intrahemispheric relative to interhemispheric functioning, which might be associated with higher sensitivity to HT. Taken together, the findings suggest that the female brain retains its plasticity even after reproductive age and remains susceptible to the effects of sex hormones throughout the lifetime, which might help to discover new clinical approaches in the hormonal treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:22120942

  3. Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1: its clinical significance and functional role in human thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Gang; Wu, Shihe; Jiang, Futing; Xie, Jiangping; Wang, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Transcription factor zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), as one of the key inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, has been reported to be regulated by microRNA-144 and Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3, which both promote thyroid cancer cell invasion. However, the involvement of ZEB1 in thyroid cancer has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role and clinical implication of ZEB1 in this disease. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the subcellular localization and the expression level of ZEB1 protein in 82 self-pairs of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cancerous and adjacent noncancerous tissues obtained from patients with thyroid cancer. The roles of ZEB1 in thyroid cancer cell migration, invasion, and proliferation were also detected by transwell and MTT analyses, respectively. Results Immunohistochemistry showed that ZEB1 was predominantly localized in the nucleus of thyroid cancer cells. Its immunoreactive score in thyroid cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent noncancerous tissues (P=0.01). In addition, ZEB1 overexpression was significantly associated with the advanced tumor node metastasis staging (P=0.008), the positive lymph node metastasis (P=0.01) and distant metastasis (P=0.02). Furthermore, ZEB1 knockdown by siRNA could efficiently inhibit the migration, invasion, and proliferation abilities of thyroid cancer cells in vitro. Conclusion These findings indicated that ZEB1 might function as an oncogene, the overexpression of which was associated with the aggressive tumor progression of human thyroid cancer. Interestingly, ZEB1 also could promote thyroid cancer cell migration, invasion, and proliferation, suggesting that the inhibition of this protein might be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of this malignancy. PMID:27099512

  4. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... is to closely replicate normal thyroid functioning. Pure, synthetic thyroxine (T4) works in the same way as ... needing thyroid hormone replacement (see Hypothyroidism brochure ). Pure synthetic thyroxine (T4), taken once daily by mouth, successfully ...

  5. Overexpression of collagen XIII in extraocular fat affected by active thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: A crucial piece of the puzzle?

    PubMed

    Morris, Olivia Claire; Schebitz Walter, Kirsten; Telemo, Esbjörn; Hintschich, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) causes irreversible increase in extraocular fat volume that contributes to the risk of exophthalmos and compressive optic neuropathy. Collagen XIII is implicated in uncontrolled cell growth in some tumours, but we are not aware of any studies of collagen XIII in TAO-affected solid tissue to date. We conducted immunohistochemical staining for collagen XIII alpha 1 (COL13A1), present in both the transmembrane and cleaved forms of collagen XIII, in consecutive prospectively collected human extraocular tissue specimens from patients with TAO and controls. We identified overexpression of collagen XIII in active TAO-affected fat. We discuss how species and cell-type specific responses of collagen XIII to stressors may help explain the different phenotypes of TAO. PMID:27245701

  6. Predictive Modeling of a Mixture of Thyroid Hormone Disrupting Chemicals that Affect Production and Clearance of Thyroxine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormone (TH) disrupting compounds interfere with both thyroidal and extrathyroidal mechanisms to decrease circulating thyroxine (T4). This research tested the hypothesis that serum T4 concentrations of rodents exposed to a mixture of both TH synthesis inhibitors (pesticid...

  7. Thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer is a cancer that starts in the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located inside the front of your lower ... thyroid cells that are normally present in the thyroid gland. This form of thyroid cancer tends to occur ...

  8. Thyroid nodule

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016:chap 14. Read More Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease) Laryngeal nerve damage Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Thyroid cancer Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma Thyroid gland removal Patient Instructions Thyroid gland ...

  9. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  10. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  11. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce ordering of thyroid function tests: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rebecca; Rogers, Morwenna; Fleming, Simon; Patterson, Anthea; Hamilton, William Trevor; Heaton, Janet; Vaidya, Bijay; Hyde, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of behaviour changing interventions targeting ordering of thyroid function tests. Design Systematic review. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database up to May 2015. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies We included studies evaluating the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions aiming to reduce ordering of thyroid function tests. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled studies and before and after studies were included. There were no language restrictions. Study appraisal and synthesis methods 2 reviewers independently screened all records identified by the electronic searches and reviewed the full text of any deemed potentially relevant. Study details were extracted from the included papers and their methodological quality assessed independently using a validated tool. Disagreements were resolved through discussion and arbitration by a third reviewer. Meta-analysis was not used. Results 27 studies (28 papers) were included. They evaluated a range of interventions including guidelines/protocols, changes to funding policy, education, decision aids, reminders and audit/feedback; often intervention types were combined. The most common outcome measured was the rate of test ordering, but the effect on appropriateness, test ordering patterns and cost were also measured. 4 studies were RCTs. The majority of the studies were of poor or moderate methodological quality. The interventions were variable and poorly reported. Only 4 studies reported unsuccessful interventions but there was no clear pattern to link effect and intervention type or other characteristics. Conclusions The results suggest that behaviour change interventions are effective particularly in reducing the volume of thyroid function tests. However, due to the poor methodological quality and reporting of the studies, the likely presence of publication bias and the questionable relevance of some interventions to current

  12. Effect of the antioxidant dibunol on adrenocortical, thyroid, and adenohypopyseal function in adult and old rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gorban', E.N.

    1986-04-01

    This paper studies the effect of dibunol (4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) (D) on the function of the adrenal cortex, thyroid gland, and adenhypophysis, which produces trophic hormones for the other two glands. Experiments were carried out on adult rats. After injection of D concentrations of corticosterone (CS), triodothyronine (T/sub 3/), ACTH, and thyrotrophin (TSH) in the blood plasma and the CS concentration in tssue of the adenohypophysis were determined. It is shown that injection of D caused biphasic changes in the CS concentration in both tissues studied in adult and old animals.

  13. Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Children

    PubMed Central

    Cappa, Marco; Bizzarri, Carla; Crea, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    The two major autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) include Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT); both of which are characterized by infiltration of the thyroid by T and B cells reactive to thyroid antigens, by the production of thyroid autoantibodies and by abnormal thyroid function (hyperthyroidism in GD and hypothyroidism in AT). While the exact etiology of thyroid autoimmunity is not known, it is believed to develop when a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental encounters leads to breakdown of tolerance. It is important to recognize thyroid dysfunction at an early stage by maintaining an appropriate index of suspicion. PMID:21209713

  14. Synergic actions of polyphenols and cyanogens of peanut seed coat (Arachis hypogaea) on cytological, biochemical and functional changes in thyroid.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amar K; Mondal, Chiranjit; Sinha, Sabyasachi; Chakraborty, Arijit; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2015-03-01

    In animals, long-term feeding with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed coats causes hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the thyroid gland. However, to date there have been no detailed studies. Here, we explored the thyroidal effects of dietary peanut seed coats (PSC) in rats. The PSC has high levels of pro-goitrogenic substances including phenolic and other cyanogenic constituents. The PSC was mixed with a standard diet and fed to rats for 30 and 60 days, respectively. Animals fed with the PSC-supplemented diet showed a significant increase in urinary excretion of thiocyanate and iodine, thyroid enlargement, and hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of thyroid follicles. In addition, there was inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity, 5'-deiodinase-I (DIO1) activity, and (Na+-K+)-ATPase activity in the experimental groups of rats as compared to controls. Furthermore, the PSC fed animals exhibited decreased serum circulating total T4 and T3 levels, severe in the group treated for longer duration. These data indicate that PSC could be a novel disruptor of thyroid function, due to synergistic actions of phenolic as well as cyanogenic constituents. PMID:25872244

  15. Thyroid Function Within the Normal Range and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Åsvold, Bjørn O.; Vatten, Lars J.; Bjøro, Trine; Bauer, Douglas C.; Bremner, Alexandra; Cappola, Anne R.; Ceresini, Graziano; den Elzen, Wendy P. J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Franklyn, Jayne A.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Iervasi, Giorgio; Imaizumi, Misa; Kearney, Patricia M.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Newman, Anne. B.; Peeters, Robin P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Razvi, Salman; Sgarbi, José A.; Stott, David J.; Trompet, Stella; Vanderpump, Mark P. J.; Völzke, Henry; Walsh, John P.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Importance Some experts suggest that serum thyrotropin levels in the upper part of the current reference range should be considered abnormal, an approach that would reclassify many individuals as having mild hypothyroidism. Health hazards associated with such thyrotropin levels are poorly documented, but conflicting evidence suggests that thyrotropin levels in the upper part of the reference range may be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Objective To assess the association between differences in thyroid function within the reference range and CHD risk. Design, Setting, and Participants Individual participant data analysis of 14 cohorts with baseline examinations between July 1972 and April 2002 and with median follow-up ranging from 3.3 to 20.0 years. Participants included 55 412 individuals with serum thyrotropin levels of 0.45 to 4.49 mIU/L and no previously known thyroid or cardiovascular disease at baseline. Exposures Thyroid function as expressed by serum thyrotropin levels at baseline. Mainoutcomes and Measures Hazard ratios (HRs) of CHD mortality and CHD events according to thyrotropin levels after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking status. Results Among 55 412 individuals, 1813 people (3.3%) died of CHD during 643 183 person-years of follow-up. In 10 cohorts with information on both nonfatal and fatal CHD events, 4666 of 48 875 individuals (9.5%) experienced a first-time CHD event during 533 408 person-years of follow-up. For each 1-mIU/L higher thyrotropin level, the HR was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.90-1.04) for CHD mortality and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.97-1.03) for a first-time CHD event. Similarly, in analyses by categories of thyrotropin, the HRs of CHD mortality (0.94 [95% CI, 0.74-1.20]) and CHD events (0.97 [95% CI, 0.83-1.13]) were similar among participants with the highest (3.50-4.49 mIU/L) compared with the lowest (0.45-1.49 mIU/L) thyrotropin levels. Subgroup analyses by sex and age group yielded similar results. Conclusions and

  16. Thyroid hormone status and pituitary function in adult rats given oral doses of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is widely distributed and persistent in humans and wildlife. Prior toxicological studies have reported decreased total and free thyroid hormones in serum without a major compensatory rise in thyrotropin (TSH) or altered thyroid gland histology. Alt...

  17. Can lifestyle modification affect men's erectile function?

    PubMed

    Hehemann, Marah C; Kashanian, James A

    2016-04-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  18. Thyroid-Disrupting Chemicals: Interpreting Upstream Biomarkers of Adverse Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark D.; Crofton, Kevin M.; Rice, Deborah C.; Zoeller, R. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence in humans and in experimental animals for a relationship between exposure to specific environmental chemicals and perturbations in levels of critically important thyroid hormones (THs). Identification and proper interpretation of these relationships are required for accurate assessment of risk to public health. Objectives We review the role of TH in nervous system development and specific outcomes in adults, the impact of xenobiotics on thyroid signaling, the relationship between adverse outcomes of thyroid disruption and upstream causal biomarkers, and the societal implications of perturbations in thyroid signaling by xenobiotic chemicals. Data sources We drew on an extensive body of epidemiologic, toxicologic, and mechanistic studies. Data synthesis THs are critical for normal nervous system development, and decreased maternal TH levels are associated with adverse neuropsychological development in children. In adult humans, increased thyroid-stimulating hormone is associated with increased blood pressure and poorer blood lipid profiles, both risk factors for cardiovascular disease and death. These effects of thyroid suppression are observed even within the “normal” range for the population. Environmental chemicals may affect thyroid homeostasis by a number of mechanisms, and multiple chemicals have been identified that interfere with thyroid function by each of the identified mechanisms. Conclusions Individuals are potentially vulnerable to adverse effects as a consequence of exposure to thyroid-disrupting chemicals. Any degree of thyroid disruption that affects TH levels on a population basis should be considered a biomarker of adverse outcomes, which may have important societal outcomes. PMID:19654909

  19. Fluoride caused thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jianjie, Chen; Wenjuan, Xue; Jinling, Cao; Jie, Song; Ruhui, Jia; Meiyan, Li

    2016-02-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect thyroid endocrine system, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in fish. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fluoride on growth performance, thyroid histopathology, thyroid hormone levels, and gene expressions in the HPT axis in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to different determined concentrations of 0.1, 0.9, 2.0 and 4.1 M of fluoride to investigate the effects of fluoride on thyroid endocrine system and the potential toxic mechanisms caused by fluoride. The results indicated that the growth of the male zebrafish used in the experiments was significantly inhibited, the thyroid microtrastructure was changed, and the levels of T3 and T4 were disturbed in fluoride-exposed male fish. In addition, the expressional profiles of genes in HPT axis displayed alteration. The expressions of all studied genes were significantly increased in all fluoride-exposed male fish after exposure for 45 days. The transcriptional levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), iodothyronine I (DIO1), and thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα) were also elevated in all fluoride-exposed male fish after 90 days of exposure, while the inconsistent expressions were found in the mRNA of iodothyronineⅡ (DIO2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (UGT1ab), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). These results demonstrated that fluoride could notably inhibit the growth of zebrafish, and significantly affect thyroid endocrine system by changing the microtrastructure of thyroid, altering thyroid hormone levels and endocrine-related gene expressions in male zebrafish. All above indicated that fluoride could pose a great threat to thyroid endocrine system, thus detrimentally affected the normal function of thyroid of male zebrafish. PMID:26748264

  20. Cytoskeletal and functional changes in bioreactor assembled thyroid tissue organoids exposed to gamma radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lora M.; Patel, Zarana; Murray, Deborah K.; Rightnar, Steven; Burell, Cheryl G.; Gridley, Daila S.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Fischer rat thyroid cells were grown under low-shear stress in a bioreactor to a stage of organization composed of integrated follicles resembling small thyroid glands prior to exposure to 3 Gray-gamma radiation. Bioreactor tissues and controls (both irradiated and non-irradiated) were harvested at 24, 48, 96 and 144 hours post-exposure. Tissue samples were fixed and fluorescently labeled for actin and microtubules. Tissues were assessed for changes in cytoskeletal components induced by radiation and quantified by laser scanning cytometry. ELISA's were used to quantify transforming growth factor-beta and thyroxin released from cells to the culture supernatant. Tissue architecture was disrupted by exposure to radiation with the structural organization of actin and loss of follicular content the most obviously affected. With time post-irradiation the actin appeared disordered and the levels of fluorescence associated with filamentous-actin and microtubules cycled in the tissue analogs, but not in the flask-grown cultures. Active transforming growth factor-beta was higher in supernatants from the irradiated bioreactor tissue. Thyroxin release paralleled cell survival in the bioreactors and control cultures. Thus, the engineered tissue responses to radiation differed from those of conventional tissue culture making it a potentially better mimic of the in vivo situation.

  1. Polarity reversal of inside-out thyroid follicles cultured within collagen gel: reexpression of specific functions.

    PubMed

    Chambard, M; Verrier, B; Gabrion, J; Mauchamp, J

    1984-01-01

    Isolated porcine thyroid cells cultured in suspension in Eagle Minimum Essential Medium supplemented with calf serum (5-20%) reorganize to form vesicles, i.e. closed structures in which all cells have an inverted polarity as compared to that found in follicles: the apical membranes are bathed by the culture medium. Under these conditions, cells neither concentrate iodide nor respond to acute thyrotropin (TSH) stimulation. When embedded in collagen gel, these vesicles undergo polarity reversal to form follicles. We describe here the change in the orientation of cell polarity and the subsequent reappearance of specific thyroid functions. Six hr after embedding, membrane areas in contact with collagen fibers show basal characteristics. At this time, cells begin to concentrate iodide and to respond to acute TSH stimulation (iodide efflux and increased cAMP levels). Most cells form follicles 24 hr after embedding, but 48 hr are required for the transformation of all vesicles into follicles. This occurs without opening of the tight junctions. Iodide organification is detected 24 hr after embedding, when periodic acid-Schiff positive material, identified as thyroglobulin by immunofluorescence, accumulates in the lumen. Iodide concentration and organification, as well as response to TSH stimulation reach maximal levels after 3 days in the collagen matrix. After a 5-day culture in the collagen matrix in the absence of TSH, cell activity can be stimulated by chronic treatment with low hormone concentrations (10-100 microU/ml). As shown with thyroid cells grown in monolayer on permeable substrates (Chambard M., et al., 1983, J. Cell Biol. 96, 1172-1177), iodide uptake and cAMP-mediated TSH responses are expressed when the halogen and the hormone have direct access to the basal membrane. Organification, on the contrary, requires a closed apical compartment. PMID:6098327

  2. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo.

    PubMed

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2013-06-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO4 (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC10 that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. PMID:23562343

  3. Thyroid function abnormalities associated with the chronic outpatient administration of recombinant interleukin-2 and recombinant interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, E L; Clare-Salzler, M J; Chopra, I J; Figlin, R A

    1991-12-01

    We prospectively examined thyroid function during and following chronic, outpatient therapy with recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) and Roferon-A (rIFN-alpha 2a). Twenty-two of 30 patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma treated on a phase II open pilot study of concomitant rIL-2 and rIFN-alpha 2a were included. Serum levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, free thyroxine index, thyrotropin, antithyroid antibodies, and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor binding antibodies were measured before therapy and after every other cycle. Selected patients underwent studies after every cycle and following completion of therapy. Twenty patients (91%) developed laboratory evidence of thyroid dysfunction, 11 (50%) developed hypothyroidism, five (23%) had a biphasic pattern, and four (18%) had hyperthyroidism. The incidence of thyroid dysfunction increased with increased number of treatment cycles. Transient hyperthyroidism was noted in six of the 11 patients studied after the first cycle and persisted after cycle three in only two patients. Hypothyroidism was not observed after cycle 1, but became increasingly frequent between cycles 2 (56%) and 6 (90%). Thyroid function normalized following therapy in nine of 12 patients tested. Antithyroid antibodies were identified pretherapy in five patients (23%) and de novo in none; TSH receptor binding antibodies were not detected. This study demonstrates a remarkably high frequency of reversible thyroid dysfunction in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma treated with repeated cycles of rIL-2 plus rIFN-alpha 2a. We conclude that chronic therapy with rIL-2 and rIFN-alpha 2a produces thyroid dysfunction in virtually all patients most likely secondary to a nonspecific, nonautoimmune, toxic manifestation of prolonged treatment. IL-2 therapy may, therefore, produce thyroid dysfunction by more than one mechanism. PMID:1768679

  4. Interactions between thyroid disorders and kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Gopal; Mohapatra, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    There are several interactions between thyroid and kidney functions in each other organ's disease states. Thyroid hormones affect renal development and physiology. Thyroid hormones have pre-renal and intrinsic renal effects by which they increase the renal blood flow and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Hypothyroidism is associated with reduced GFR and hyperthyroidism results in increased GFR as well as increased renin – angiotensin – aldosterone activation. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by a low T3 syndrome which is now considered a part of an atypical nonthyroidal illness. CKD patients also have increased incidence of primary hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. The physiological benefits of a hypothyroid state in CKD, and the risk of CKD progression with hyperthyroidism emphasize on a conservative approach in the treatment of thyroid hormone abnormalities in CKD. Thyroid dysfunction is also associated with glomerulonephritis often by a common autoimmune etiology. Several drugs could affect both thyroid and kidney functions. There are few described interactions between thyroid and renal malignancies. A detailed knowledge of all these interactions is important for both the nephrologists and endocrinologists for optimal management of the patient. PMID:22470856

  5. Thyroid hormone affects both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells in rat arteries.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yin; Manio, Michael M; Leung, George P H; Xu, Aimin; Tang, Eva H C; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2015-01-15

    Hypothyroidism impairs endothelium-dependent dilatations, while hyperthyroidism augments the production of endothelial nitric oxide. Thus, experiments were designed to determine if thyroid hormone causes endothelium-dependent responses, or alleviates diabetic endothelial dysfunction. Isometric tension was measured in rings with or without endothelium of arteries from normal and diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. Release of 6-keto prostaglandin F1α and thromboxane B2 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and protein levels [endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclooxygenases (COX)] by immunoblotting. Triiodothyronine (T3) caused concentration-dependent (3×10(-6)-3×10(-5)M) relaxations in mesenteric (pEC50, 4.96±0.19) and femoral (pEC50, 4.57±0.35) arteries without endothelium. In femoral arteries of rats with diabetes, 5-methylamino-2-[[(2S,3R,5R,8S,9S)-3,5,9-trimethyl-2-(1-oxo-(1H-pyrrol-2- -yl)propan-2-yl)-1,7-dioxaspiro-(5,5)undecan-8-yl]methyl]benzooxazole-4-carboxylic acid (A23187, 3×10(-7) to 10(-6)M) caused partly endothelium-dependent contractions. After chronic T3-treatment with (10μg/kg/day; four weeks), the contractions to A23187 of preparations with and without endothelium were comparable, the thromboxane B2-release was reduced (by 38.1±9.2%). The pEC50 of 9, 11-dideoxy-11α, 9α-epoxymethanoprostaglandin F2α (U46619, TP-receptor agonist) was increased in T3-treated diabetic rats compared with controls (8.53±0.06 vs 7.94±0.09). The protein expression of eNOS increased (by 228%) but that of COX-1 decreased (by 35%) after chronic T3 treatment. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells incubated for one week with T3 (10(-10)-10(-7)M) in the presence but not in the absence of interleukin-1β (1ng/ml), the expression of eNOS was increased compared to control. In conclusion, thyroid hormone acutely relaxes mesenteric and femoral vascular smooth muscle, but given chronically reduces the release of endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor

  6. GLI1 Transcription Factor Affects Tumor Aggressiveness in Patients With Papillary Thyroid Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jandee; Jeong, Seonhyang; Lee, Cho Rok; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Jeong, Jong Ju; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Shin, Dong Yeob; Chung, Woong Youn; Lee, Eun Jig; Jo, Young Suk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A significant proportion of patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) present with extrathyroidal extension (ETE) and lymph node metastasis (LNM). However, the molecular mechanism of tumor invasiveness in PTC remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study is to understand the role of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in tumor aggressiveness in patients with PTC. Subjects were patients who underwent thyroidectomy from 2012 to 2013 in a single institution. Frozen or paraffin-embedded tumor tissues with contralateral-matched normal thyroid tissues were collected. Hh signaling activity was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Datasets from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) (National Center for Biotechnology Information) were subjected to Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). BRAFT1799A and telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutation C228T were analyzed by direct sequencing. Among 137 patients with PTC, glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1) group III (patients in whom the ratio of GLI1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) level in tumor tissue to GLI1 mRNA level in matched normal tissue was in the upper third of the subject population) had elevated risk for ETE (odds ratio [OR] 4.381, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.414–13.569, P = 0.01) and LNM (OR 5.627, 95% CI 1.674–18.913, P = 0.005). Glioma-associated oncogene homolog 2 (GLI2) group III also had elevated risk for ETE (OR 4.152, 95% CI 1.292–13.342, P = 0.017) and LNM (OR 3.924, 95% CI 1.097–14.042, P = 0.036). GSEA suggested that higher GLI1 expression is associated with expression of the KEGG gene set related to axon guidance (P = 0.031, false discovery rate < 0.05), as verified by qRT-PCR and IHC staining in our subjects. GLI1 and GLI2 expressions were clearly related to aggressive clinicopathological features and aberrant activation of GLI1 involved in the axon guidance pathway. These results may contribute to development of new

  7. GLI1 Transcription Factor Affects Tumor Aggressiveness in Patients With Papillary Thyroid Cancers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jandee; Jeong, Seonhyang; Lee, Cho Rok; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Jeong, Jong Ju; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Shin, Dong Yeob; Chung, Woong Youn; Lee, Eun Jig; Jo, Young Suk

    2015-06-01

    A significant proportion of patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) present with extrathyroidal extension (ETE) and lymph node metastasis (LNM). However, the molecular mechanism of tumor invasiveness in PTC remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study is to understand the role of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in tumor aggressiveness in patients with PTC. Subjects were patients who underwent thyroidectomy from 2012 to 2013 in a single institution. Frozen or paraffin-embedded tumor tissues with contralateral-matched normal thyroid tissues were collected. Hh signaling activity was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Datasets from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) (National Center for Biotechnology Information) were subjected to Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). BRAFT1799A and telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutation C228T were analyzed by direct sequencing. Among 137 patients with PTC, glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1) group III (patients in whom the ratio of GLI1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) level in tumor tissue to GLI1 mRNA level in matched normal tissue was in the upper third of the subject population) had elevated risk for ETE (odds ratio [OR] 4.381, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.414-13.569, P = 0.01) and LNM (OR 5.627, 95% CI 1.674-18.913, P = 0.005). Glioma-associated oncogene homolog 2 (GLI2) group III also had elevated risk for ETE (OR 4.152, 95% CI 1.292-13.342, P = 0.017) and LNM (OR 3.924, 95% CI 1.097-14.042, P = 0.036). GSEA suggested that higher GLI1 expression is associated with expression of the KEGG gene set related to axon guidance (P = 0.031, false discovery rate < 0.05), as verified by qRT-PCR and IHC staining in our subjects.GLI1 and GLI2 expressions were clearly related to aggressive clinicopathological features and aberrant activation of GLI1 involved in the axon guidance pathway. These results may contribute to development of new prognostic markers

  8. Thyroid storm

    MedlinePlus

    Thyrotoxic storm; Hyperthyroid storm; Accelerated hyperthyroidism; Thyroid crisis; Thyrotoxicosis - thyroid storm ... thyroid storm can be caused by treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioiodine therapy.

  9. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposure and Thyroid Function Tests in North American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Makey, Colleen M.; McClean, Michael D.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; He, Xue-Mei; Sjödin, Andreas; Weinberg, Janice M.; Webster, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardant chemicals that are added to many consumer products. Multiple animal studies have shown PBDEs to be thyroid hormone (TH) disruptors. Epidemiologic evidence of PBDE exposure associated with TH disruption has been inconclusive. Objectives: We used repeated measures to estimate associations between serum PBDE concentrations and THs in a North American adult cohort. Methods: From 2010 to 2011, we collected ≤ 3 serum samples at approximately 6-month intervals from 52 healthy adult office workers from Boston, Massachusetts, for analysis of PBDE congeners and THs. Results: The geometric mean sum concentrations of the most prevalent PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-153) were 22 ng/g lipid in winter 2010, 23 ng/g lipid in summer 2010, and 19 ng/g lipid in winter 2011. BDE-47 was the predominant congener. Based on a multivariable mixed regression model, we estimated that on average, a 1-ng/g serum increase in BDE-47 was associated with a 2.6-μg/dL decrease in total thyroxine (T4) (95% CI: –4.7, –0.35). Total T4 was inversely associated with each PBDE congener. Serum concentrations of PBDEs were not strongly associated with total triiodothyronine (T3), free T4, or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Conclusion: These results are consistent with those from animal studies showing that exposure to PBDEs is associated with a decrease in serum T4. Because the other TH concentrations did not appear to be associated with BDE exposures, our findings do not indicate effects on the pituitary–thyroid axis. Taken together, our findings suggest that PBDE exposure might decrease the binding of T4 to serum T4 binding proteins. Citation: Makey CM, McClean MD, Braverman LE, Pearce EN, He XM, Sjödin A, Weinberg JM, Webster TF. 2016. Polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and thyroid function tests in North American adults. Environ Health Perspect 124:420–425; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  10. Modelling of Thyroid Peroxidase Reveals Insights into Its Enzyme Function and Autoantigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Fodor, James; Riley, Blake; Godlewska, Marlena; Góra, Monika; Czarnocka, Barbara; Banga, J Paul; Hoke, David E.; Kass, Itamar; Buckle, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) catalyses the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones and is a major autoantigen in Hashimoto’s disease—the most common organ-specific autoimmune disease. Epitope mapping studies have shown that the autoimmune response to TPO is directed mainly at two surface regions on the molecule: immunodominant regions A and B (IDR-A, and IDR-B). TPO has been a major target for structural studies for over 20 years; however, to date, the structure of TPO remains to be determined. We have used a molecular modelling approach to investigate plausible modes of TPO structure and dimer organisation. Sequence features of the C-terminus are consistent with a coiled-coil dimerization motif that most likely anchors the TPO dimer in the apical membrane of thyroid follicular cells. Two contrasting models of TPO were produced, differing in the orientation and exposure of their active sites relative to the membrane. Both models are equally plausible based upon the known enzymatic function of TPO. The “trans” model places IDR-B on the membrane-facing side of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-like domain, potentially hindering access of autoantibodies, necessitating considerable conformational change, and perhaps even dissociation of the dimer into monomers. IDR-A spans MPO- and CCP-like domains and is relatively fragmented compared to IDR-B, therefore most likely requiring domain rearrangements in order to coalesce into one compact epitope. Less epitope fragmentation and higher solvent accessibility of the “cis” model favours it slightly over the “trans” model. Here, IDR-B clusters towards the surface of the MPO-like domain facing the thyroid follicular lumen preventing steric hindrance of autoantibodies. However, conformational rearrangements may still be necessary to allow full engagement with autoantibodies, with IDR-B on both models being close to the dimer interface. Taken together, the modelling highlights the need to consider the oligomeric state of TPO, its

  11. Modelling of Thyroid Peroxidase Reveals Insights into Its Enzyme Function and Autoantigenicity.

    PubMed

    Le, Sarah N; Porebski, Benjamin T; McCoey, Julia; Fodor, James; Riley, Blake; Godlewska, Marlena; Góra, Monika; Czarnocka, Barbara; Banga, J Paul; Hoke, David E; Kass, Itamar; Buckle, Ashley M

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) catalyses the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones and is a major autoantigen in Hashimoto's disease--the most common organ-specific autoimmune disease. Epitope mapping studies have shown that the autoimmune response to TPO is directed mainly at two surface regions on the molecule: immunodominant regions A and B (IDR-A, and IDR-B). TPO has been a major target for structural studies for over 20 years; however, to date, the structure of TPO remains to be determined. We have used a molecular modelling approach to investigate plausible modes of TPO structure and dimer organisation. Sequence features of the C-terminus are consistent with a coiled-coil dimerization motif that most likely anchors the TPO dimer in the apical membrane of thyroid follicular cells. Two contrasting models of TPO were produced, differing in the orientation and exposure of their active sites relative to the membrane. Both models are equally plausible based upon the known enzymatic function of TPO. The "trans" model places IDR-B on the membrane-facing side of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-like domain, potentially hindering access of autoantibodies, necessitating considerable conformational change, and perhaps even dissociation of the dimer into monomers. IDR-A spans MPO- and CCP-like domains and is relatively fragmented compared to IDR-B, therefore most likely requiring domain rearrangements in order to coalesce into one compact epitope. Less epitope fragmentation and higher solvent accessibility of the "cis" model favours it slightly over the "trans" model. Here, IDR-B clusters towards the surface of the MPO-like domain facing the thyroid follicular lumen preventing steric hindrance of autoantibodies. However, conformational rearrangements may still be necessary to allow full engagement with autoantibodies, with IDR-B on both models being close to the dimer interface. Taken together, the modelling highlights the need to consider the oligomeric state of TPO, its conformational

  12. Transient Maternal Hypothyroxinemia Potentiates the Transcriptional Response to Exogenous Thyroid Hormone in the Fetal Cerebral Cortex Before the Onset of Fetal Thyroid Function: A Messenger and MicroRNA Profiling Study.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongyan; You, Seo-Hee; Williams, Andrew; Wade, Mike G; Yauk, Carole L; Thomas Zoeller, R

    2015-07-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for brain development both before and after birth. We have used gene expression microarrays to identify TH-regulated genes in the fetal cerebral cortex prior to the onset of fetal thyroid function to better understand the role of TH in early cortical development. TH levels were transiently manipulated in pregnant mice by treatment with goitrogens from gestational day (GD) 13-16 and/or by injection of TH 12 h before sacrifice on GD 16. The transcriptional response to exogenous TH in the GD 16 fetal cortex was potentiated by transient goitrogen treatment, suggesting that the hypothyroxinemic brain is a different substrate upon which TH can act, or that robust compensatory mechanisms are induced by transient hypothyroxinemia. Several known TH-responsive genes were identified including Klf9, and several novel TH-responsive genes such as Appbp2, Ppap2b, and Fgfr1op2 were identified in which TH response elements were confirmed. We also identified specific microRNAs whose expression in the fetal cortex was affected by TH treatment, and determined that Ppap2b and Klf9 are the target genes of miR-16 and miR-106, respectively. Thus, a complex redundant functional network appears to coordinate TH-mediated gene expression in the developing brain. PMID:24436321

  13. Stereology of the Thyroid Gland in Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in Comparison with Human (Homo sapiens): Quantitative and Functional Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kot, Brian Chin Wing; Lau, Thomas Yue Huen; Cheng, Sammy Chi Him

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian thyroid gland maintains basal metabolism in tissues for optimal function. Determining thyroid volume is important in assessing growth and involution. Volume estimation is also important in stereological studies. Direct measurements of colloid volume and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the follicular cells may provide important information about thyroid gland function such as hormone storage and secretion, which helps understand the changes at morphological and functional levels. The present study determined the colloid volume using simple stereological principle and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of 4 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and 2 human thyroid glands. In both dolphin and human thyroid glands, the size of the follicles tended to be quite variable. The distribution of large and small follicles within the thyroid gland was also found to be random in both the dolphin and human thyroid gland; however, the size of follicles appeared to decrease as a function of increasing age in the dolphin thyroid gland. The mean colloid volume of the dolphin thyroid gland and human thyroid gland was 1.22×105 µm3 and 7.02×105 µm3 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean colloid volume. The mean N/C ratio of the dolphin thyroid follicular epithelia and human follicular epithelia was 0.50 and 0.64 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean N/C ratio. This information contributes to understanding dolphin thyroid physiology and its structural adaptations to meet the physical demands of the aquatic environment, and aids with ultrasonography and corrective therapy in live subjects. PMID:23690927

  14. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Parameswaran, Praveen Kolumam; Thompson, Michael; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proliferation of primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial respiration upon insulin exposure. Mice administered intranasal insulin showed increased collagen deposition in the lungs as well as a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K/Akt mediated activation of β-catenin, a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development of asthma-like phenotype. PMID:26919895

  15. Solitary thyroid nodule. 1. Clinical characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzaferri, E.L.

    1981-07-01

    The approach to management of an isolated thyroid nodule requires some understanding of the natural history of thyroid cancer and other forms of nodular thyroid disease. The histologic classification of thyroid cancer is an important determinant of survival, as are the size of the primary tumor, presence of thyroid capsule invasion, and presence of distant metastases. Therapeutic radiation and radioactive fallout increase the risk that a thyroid nodule is malignant. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules are usually benign follicular adenomas and may cause thyrotoxicosis.

  16. Functional Analyses of c.2268dup in Thyroid Peroxidase Gene Associated with Goitrous Congenital Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Harun, Fatimah; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Lim, Chor Yin; Ng, Khoon Leong

    2014-01-01

    The c.2268dup mutation in thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene was reported to be a founder mutation in Taiwanese patients with dyshormonogenetic congenital hypothyroidism (CH). The functional impact of the mutation is not well documented. In this study, homozygous c.2268dup mutation was detected in two Malaysian-Chinese sisters with goitrous CH. Normal and alternatively spliced TPO mRNA transcripts were present in thyroid tissues of the two sisters. The abnormal transcript contained 34 nucleotides originating from intron 12. The c.2268dup is predicted to generate a premature termination codon (PTC) at position 757 (p.Glu757X). Instead of restoring the normal reading frame, the alternatively spliced transcript has led to another stop codon at position 740 (p.Asp739ValfsX740). The two PTCs are located at 116 and 201 nucleotides upstream of the exons 13/14 junction fulfilling the requirement for a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Quantitative RT-PCR revealed an abundance of unidentified transcripts believed to be associated with the NMD. TPO enzyme activity was not detected in both patients, even though a faint TPO band of about 80 kD was present. In conclusion, the c.2268dup mutation leads to the formation of normal and alternatively spliced TPO mRNA transcripts with a consequential loss of TPO enzymatic activity in Malaysian-Chinese patients with goitrous CH. PMID:24745015

  17. Reciprocal changes in parathyroid hormone and thyroid function after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, D.S.; Nussbaum, S.R.

    1989-06-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with negative calcium balance, normal to increased serum calcium concentrations, and decreased cortical bone mass. There is no agreement concerning serum PTH levels in such patients. In this study, we measured serum PTH concentrations using a newly developed sensitive 2-site immunoradiometric assay in 17 hyperthyroid patients before and after radioiodine therapy. The mean serum PTH and calcium concentrations were 28 +/- 15 (+/- SD) ng/L (normal range, 12-65 ng/L) and 2.4 +/- 0.5 mmol/L (normal range, 2.1-2.6 mmol/L) before therapy. After therapy serum PTH concentrations increased in 16 of the 17 patients. The increase in serum PTH was greater in the 9 patients who became hypothyroid rapidly (29 +/- 15 to 75 +/- 29 ng/L) compared with that in the 8 patients who became euthyroid gradually (26 +/- 16 to 45 +/- 24 ng/L). Serum PTH rose along with TSH as the patients became hypothyroid after radioiodine, and both serum PTH and TSH fell when L-T4 therapy was given. The reciprocal changes in serum PTH concentrations and thyroid function over time suggest a strong association of bone mineral metabolism and thyroid status.

  18. Comparison of the Effects of Iodine and Iodide on Thyroid Function in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robison, Linda M.; Bull, Richard J.; Sylvester, Paul W.; Birkenfeld, Paul; Lang, Jerome

    1995-01-01

    The present experiment in humans failed to confirm the differential effect of I(sub 2) on maintenance of serum T(sub 4) concentrations relative to the effects of I(-) that was observed in prior experiments in rats. The reaction of I(sub 2) with metabolites of thyroid hormones in the intestine that appears responsible for this effect in rats probably also exists at some level in humans. The present results suggest that the concentrations of such metabolites in the human intestinal tract are too small to significantly affect circulating concentration of T(sub 4). However, based on the elevations in TSH, there should be some concern over the potential impacts of chronic consumption of iodine in drinking water.

  19. Thyroid axis alterations in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Gertig, Anna M; Niechciał, Elżbieta; Skowrońska, Bogda

    2012-01-01

    In recent years researchers have become increasingly interested in the particular relation between the function of the thyroid gland and the body mass in the population of obese children. Numerous studies have been conducted and the literature on the related issues has been abounding. Several thereof have strived at pinpointing a significant link between the function of the thyroid axis and the body mass. Yet, it still remains to be clarified whether these subtle changes in the level of thyroid hormones and TSH observed in childhood obesity are responsible for the increased body mass or rather they represent a secondary phenomenon. The mechanism most often put forward by the researchers that links obesity to thyroid function is the increased level of leptin, which affects neurones in the hypothalamus and the thyroid axis causing TRH and TSH secretion. The body mass is positively correlated with serum leptin and elevated level of leptin is connected with an increase in TSH level. However, there is still controversy whether these inconspicuous differences observed in thyroid axis merit the treatment with thyroxine since these changes seem to constitute a consequence rather than a cause of obesity. Therefore, as most authors postulate, primary importance should be placed on lifestyle changes and body weight reduction leaving substitutive treatment as a supplementary option. The purpose of this review is to present the most current issues on child obesity and the related malfunction of the thyroid axis through an overview of international publications from the years 1996-2011. PMID:23146791

  20. Placental angiogenic and hormonal factors are affected by thyroid hormones in rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juneo Freitas; Ocarino, Natália Melo; Serakides, Rogéria

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the thyroid hormones in the gene transcription and immunohistochemical expression of hormonal and angiogenic factors in the placenta of rats. Seventy-two adult female rats were divided equally into propylthiouracil (PTU)-treated, thyroxine (T4)-treated, and control groups. The animals were sacrificed at 10, 14, and 19 days of gestation. We evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of VEGF and its receptor Flk-1. The gene transcription of VEGF, Flk-1, PGF, sFlt1, PL-1, and rPlf was evaluated in placental discs by real-time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed using a Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test. At day 10, T4-treated rats presented increased VEGF and PGF gene expression, while PTU-treated rats showed increased rPlf gene expression. Both groups showed reduced Flk-1 and PL-1 gene expression at day 10. At day 14, PTU-treated rats showed reduced VEGF, PGF, and rPlf gene expression. PTU-treated group showed reduced VEGF immunostaining in the placental labyrinth at 14 and 19 days of gestation but it showed increased VEGF immunostaining in the spongiotrophoblast layer at day 14. PTU-treated rats showed increased Flk-1 expression at 14 days of gestation. At days 14 and 19, T4-treated group showed increased PL-1 gene expression and reduced VEGF immunostaining. T4-treated rats also showed reduced Flk-1 and sFlt-1 expression at day 19. Both groups showed increased rPlf gene expression at day 19. In conclusion, rats treated with PTU and T4 have differential effects on the expression of factors involved in placental angiogenic and hormonal activity, and these effects are dependent on the gestational period. PMID:25499719

  1. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read More Anaplastic thyroid cancer Cancer Goiter - simple Hyperthyroidism Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II PET scan Skin ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Nuclear Scans Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Diseases Thyroid ...

  2. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... is done to: Check for thyroid cancer Evaluate thyroid nodules or goiter Find the cause of an overactive ... the thyroid appears lighter, it could be a thyroid problem. Nodules that are darker can be overactive and may ...

  3. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high thyroid hormone levels in the blood) and hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels in the blood). In postpartum thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis occurs first followed by hypothyroidism. What causes postpartum thyroiditis? The exact cause is ...

  4. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... calories and how fast your heart beats. Thyroid tests check how well your thyroid is working. They ... thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroid tests include blood tests and imaging tests. Blood tests ...

  5. Thyroid nodule

    MedlinePlus

    ... other thyroid blood tests Thyroid ultrasound Thyroid scan (nuclear medicine) Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the nodule or ... Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Nodules. Endocr Pract. 2010;16(suppl ...

  6. Morphological and functional deterioration of the rat thyroid following chronic exposure to low-dose PCB118.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jin-Mei; Li, Wen; Xie, Yu-Chun; Guo, Hong-Wei; Cheng, Pei; Chen, Huan-Huan; Zheng, Xu-Qin; Jiang, Lin; Cui, Dai; Liu, Yun; Ding, Guo-Xian; Duan, Yu

    2013-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the synthesis and secretion of endocrine hormones. To investigate the effects of 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB118) on thyroid structure and function, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 equal treatment groups and administered vehicle or one of three doses of PCB118. The experimental groups received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 10, 100, or 1000μg/kg/day PCB118, 5 days per week for 13 weeks, whereas the control group was injected with corn oil (vehicle). Serum concentrations of free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured by radioimmunoassays. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes in the thyroid were observed under light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mRNA expression levels of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) and thyroglobulin (TG) were quantified by real-time PCR. Increasing doses of PCB118 resulted in progressively lower FT3, FT4 and TSH concentrations in serum. Injection of PCB118 at all doses led to histopathological deterioration of the thyroid characterized by follicular hyperplasia and expansion, shedding of epithelial cells and fibrinoid necrosis. Follicle cells exhibited swollen or vacuolated endoplasmic reticula, as revealed by TEM. Exposure to PCB118 also caused significant decreases in NIS and TG mRNA expression levels. Chronic exposure to low-dose PCB118 and other PCB congeners may be a significant risk factor for thyroid diseases. PMID:23557935

  7. Defective oxidative phosphorylation in thyroid oncocytic carcinoma is associated with pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations affecting complexes I and III.

    PubMed

    Bonora, Elena; Porcelli, Anna Maria; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Biondi, Annalisa; Ghelli, Anna; Carelli, Valerio; Baracca, Alessandra; Tallini, Giovanni; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Lenaz, Giorgio; Rugolo, Michela; Romeo, Giovanni

    2006-06-15

    Oncocytic tumors are characterized by cells with an aberrant accumulation of mitochondria. To assess mitochondrial function in neoplastic oncocytic cells, we studied the thyroid oncocytic cell line XTC.UC1 and compared it with other thyroid non-oncocytic cell lines. Only XTC.UC1 cells were unable to survive in galactose, a condition forcing cells to rely solely on mitochondria for energy production. The rate of respiration and mitochondrial ATP synthesis driven by complex I substrates was severely reduced in XTC.UC1 cells. Furthermore, the enzymatic activity of complexes I and III was dramatically decreased in these cells compared with controls, in conjunction with a strongly enhanced production of reactive oxygen species. Osteosarcoma-derived transmitochondrial cell hybrids (cybrids) carrying XTC.UC1 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were generated to discriminate whether the energetic failure depended on mitochondrial or nuclear DNA mutations. In galactose medium, XTC.UC1 cybrid clones showed reduced viability and ATP content, similarly to the parental XTC.UC1, clearly pointing to the existence of mtDNA alterations. Sequencing of XTC.UC1 mtDNA identified a frameshift mutation in ND1 and a nonconservative substitution in cytochrome b, two mutations with a clear pathogenic potential. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration that mitochondrial dysfunction of XTC.UC1 is due to a combined complex I/III defect associated with mtDNA mutations, as proven by the transfer of the defective energetic phenotype with the mitochondrial genome into the cybrids. PMID:16778181

  8. THE EFFECTS OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL EITHER MIXTURE, ON FEMALE PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE EFFECTS OF DE-71, A COMMERICAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER MIXTURE, ON FEMALE PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION. S.C. Laws1, J. M. Ferrell1, J. M Hedge2, K. M. Crofton2, R.L. Cooper1, and T.E. Stoker1. 1Reprod. Tox. Div., 2Neurotox. Div., NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, R...

  9. Thyroid function testing in eastern Nepal and the impact of CME on subsequent requests.

    PubMed

    Baral, N; Koner, B C; Lamsal, M; Niraula, I; Dhungel, S

    2001-07-01

    This study reveals 1 year's experience of the introduction of thyroid function tests (TFT) in B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), a Medical University situated in eastern Nepal. These were performed on theadvice of doctors working in this region. The rational TFT advice by the medical practitioners was evaluated according to how closely the advice was in line with the algorithms recommended in the textbooks. Only about 14% of the TFT advice followed some rational strategy. A retrospective analysis showed that rational TFT advice could have reduced the cost of a TFT investigation to 43.11% without altering the patient management and disease outcome. Continuing medical education (CME) lectures arranged for a limited number of doctors were found to improve the quality of the subsequentTFT advising pattern. This emphasizes the importance of CME while introducing a costly laboratory test panel (e.g.TFT, lipid profile) needing a strategic approach. PMID:11444339

  10. Role of maternal thyroid hormones in the developing neocortex and during human evolution.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, Denise; Huttner, Wieland B

    2013-01-01

    The importance of thyroid hormones during brain development has been appreciated for many decades. In humans, low levels of circulating maternal thyroid hormones, e.g., caused by maternal hypothyroidism or lack of iodine in diet, results in a wide spectrum of severe neurological defects, including neurological cretinism characterized by profound neurologic impairment and mental retardation, underlining the importance of the maternal thyroid hormone contribution. In fact, iodine intake, which is essential for thyroid hormone production in the thyroid gland, has been related to the expansion of the brain, associated with the increased cognitive capacities during human evolution. Because thyroid hormones regulate transcriptional activity of target genes via their nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (THRs), even mild and transient changes in maternal thyroid hormone levels can directly affect and alter the gene expression profile, and thus disturb fetal brain development. Here we summarize how thyroid hormones may have influenced human brain evolution through the adaptation to new habitats, concomitant with changes in diet and, therefore, iodine intake. Further, we review the current picture we gained from experimental studies in rodents on the function of maternal thyroid hormones during developmental neurogenesis. We aim to evaluate the effects of maternal thyroid hormone deficiency as well as lack of THRs and transporters on brain development and function, shedding light on the cellular behavior conducted by thyroid hormones. PMID:23882187

  11. Role of maternal thyroid hormones in the developing neocortex and during human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Stenzel, Denise; Huttner, Wieland B.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of thyroid hormones during brain development has been appreciated for many decades. In humans, low levels of circulating maternal thyroid hormones, e.g., caused by maternal hypothyroidism or lack of iodine in diet, results in a wide spectrum of severe neurological defects, including neurological cretinism characterized by profound neurologic impairment and mental retardation, underlining the importance of the maternal thyroid hormone contribution. In fact, iodine intake, which is essential for thyroid hormone production in the thyroid gland, has been related to the expansion of the brain, associated with the increased cognitive capacities during human evolution. Because thyroid hormones regulate transcriptional activity of target genes via their nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (THRs), even mild and transient changes in maternal thyroid hormone levels can directly affect and alter the gene expression profile, and thus disturb fetal brain development. Here we summarize how thyroid hormones may have influenced human brain evolution through the adaptation to new habitats, concomitant with changes in diet and, therefore, iodine intake. Further, we review the current picture we gained from experimental studies in rodents on the function of maternal thyroid hormones during developmental neurogenesis. We aim to evaluate the effects of maternal thyroid hormone deficiency as well as lack of THRs and transporters on brain development and function, shedding light on the cellular behavior conducted by thyroid hormones. PMID:23882187

  12. Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis hormones stimulate mitochondrial function and biogenesis in human hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Vidali, Silvia; Knuever, Jana; Lerchner, Johannes; Giesen, Melanie; Bíró, Tamás; Klinger, Matthias; Kofler, Barbara; Funk, Wolfgang; Poeggeler, Burkhard; Paus, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate mitochondrial function. As other hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis hormones, i.e., thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyrotropin (TSH), are expressed in human hair follicles (HFs) and regulate mitochondrial function in human epidermis, we investigated in organ-cultured human scalp HFs whether TRH (30 nM), TSH (10 mU ml(-1)), thyroxine (T4) (100 nM), and triiodothyronine (T3) (100 pM) alter intrafollicular mitochondrial energy metabolism. All HPT-axis members increased gene and protein expression of mitochondrial-encoded subunit 1 of cytochrome c oxidase (MTCO1), a subunit of respiratory chain complex IV, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and Porin. All hormones also stimulated intrafollicular complex I/IV activity and mitochondrial biogenesis. The TSH effects on MTCO1, TFAM, and porin could be abolished by K1-70, a TSH-receptor antagonist, suggesting a TSH receptor-mediated action. Notably, as measured by calorimetry, T3 and TSH increased follicular heat production, whereas T3/T4 and TRH stimulated ATP production in cultured HF keratinocytes. HPT-axis hormones did not increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Rather, T3 and T4 reduced ROS formation, and all tested HPT-axis hormones increased the transcription of ROS scavengers (catalase, superoxide dismutase 2) in HF keratinocytes. Thus, mitochondrial biology, energy metabolism, and redox state of human HFs are subject to profound (neuro-)endocrine regulation by HPT-axis hormones. The neuroendocrine control of mitochondrial biology in a complex human mini-organ revealed here may be therapeutically exploitable. PMID:23949722

  13. Functional thyroid gland adenoma in a dog treated with surgical excision alone.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Teruo; Kojimoto, Atsuko; Nibe, Kazumi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Shii, Hiroki

    2007-01-01

    An 11-year-old male Golden Retriever presented with progressive weight loss, tachycardia, hyperthermia, polyuria and polydipsia. A freely movable mass, 4.5 x 4 cm in size, was palpated at the cranioventral cervical region. Hormonal study revealed high levels of serum thyroid hormones, and a tentative diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to a thyroid tumor was made. The tumor was removed surgically and diagnosed histopathologically as thyroid gland adenoma. Serum thyroid hormone levels decreased after surgery with improved clinical signs. At 12 months after surgery, the dog maintained a good physical condition with no evidence of recurrence. PMID:17283402

  14. Thyroid disrupting chemicals: Mechanisms and mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants are known to act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are xenobiotics that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis, or change circulating o...

  15. Correlation of normal thyroid ultrasonography with thyroid tests

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Cafer; Üçler, Rıfkı; Dirikoç, Ahmet; Ersoy, Reyhan; Çakır, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid disorders are frequently seen in the community. Thyroid ultrasonography (US) is commonly used in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. The relationship between heterogeneous echogenicity of thyroid gland and thyroid tests are well known. Methods The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation of normal US with the thyroid tests. A total of 681 individuals were enrolled in the study. Individuals were separated into two groups as normal (group 1) and hypoechoic (group 2) according to the echogenicity in US. Subjects with nodular thyroid lesions were excluded from the study. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 (fT4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) values were recorded in both groups and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) was recorded in individuals with low TSH. Results 86.1% of individuals in group 1 had normal TSH, 93.7% had normal thyroid antibodies and in 77.6% of individuals, all thyroid tests performed were normal. In the 6.9% of the group 2, all reviewed thyroid tests were normal (P<0.001). Conclusions Our study shows that US is correlated with normal thyroid function tests and is a valuable tool in the prediction of normal thyroid function. PMID:26435920

  16. Clinical investigation: thyroid function test abnormalities in cardiac arrest associated with acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Iltumur, Kenan; Olmez, Gonul; Arıturk, Zuhal; Taskesen, Tuncay; Toprak, Nizamettin

    2005-01-01

    Introduction It is known that thyroid homeostasis is altered during the acute phase of cardiac arrest. However, it is not clear under what conditions, how and for how long these alterations occur. In the present study we examined thyroid function tests (TFTs) in the acute phase of cardiac arrest caused by acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and at the end of the first 2 months after the event. Method Fifty patients with cardiac arrest induced by ACS and 31 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who did not require cardioversion or cardiopulmonary resuscitation were enrolled in the study, as were 40 healthy volunteers. The patients were divided into three groups based on duration of cardiac arrest (<5 min, 5–10 min and >10 min). Blood samples were collected for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), tri-iodothyronine (T3), free T3, thyroxine (T4), free T4, troponin-I and creatine kinase-MB measurements. The blood samples for TFTs were taken at 72 hours and at 2 months after the acute event in the cardiac arrest and AMI groups, but only once in the control group. Results The T3 and free T3 levels at 72 hours in the cardiac arrest group were significantly lower than in both the AMI and control groups (P < 0.0001). On the other hand, there were no significant differences between T4, free T4 and TSH levels between the three groups (P > 0.05). At the 2-month evaluation, a dramatic improvement was observed in T3 and free T3 levels in the cardiac arrest group (P < 0.0001). In those patients whose cardiac arrest duration was in excess of 10 min, levels of T3, free T3, T4 and TSH were significantly lower than those in patients whose cardiac arrest duration was under 5 min (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.005 and P < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion TFTs are significantly altered in cardiac arrest induced by ACS. Changes in TFTs are even more pronounced in patients with longer periods of resuscitation. The changes in the surviving patients were characterized by euthyroid sick

  17. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes. PMID:1726925

  18. Evaluation of calcium and lead interaction, in addition to their impact on thyroid functions in hyper and hypothyroid patients.

    PubMed

    Memon, Nusrat Shahab; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Sahito, Oan Muhammad; Baloch, Shahnawaz; Waris, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    There is compelling evidence in support of interaction between calcium (Ca) and lead (Pb) in thyroid disorders. The aim of present study was to compare the level of Ca and Pb with thyroid hormones such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxin (FT4) in serum samples of hyperthyroid (HPRT) and hypothyroid (HPOT) patients of both genders. For comparative purpose, age-matched (25-50 years) subjects having no thyroid disorders were selected as referents/controls. The serum samples were acid-digested prior to analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials. The resulted data indicates that the mean values of Ca in serum samples of HPRT patients were significantly higher than those of referent subjects (p < 0.01), while reverse pattern was observed in the case of HPOT patients. The level of Pb was higher in the serum samples of both types of thyroid patients, but difference was significant in case of HPOT patients as compare to referent subjects (p < 0.01). A negative correlation was observed between serum Ca levels and TSH of HPRT patients (-r = 0.37-0.39, p < 0.01), while FT3 and FT4 have positive correlation (r = 0.49-0.52 and r = 0.46-0.47), p values <0.01. The Pb in serum had positive correlation with TSH (r = 0.48-0.51, p < 0.005), while negative correlation was observed for FT3 and FT4 (-r = 0.55-0.56, 0.5-0.54, p < 0.05) in HPRT patients. On the other hand, a reverse pattern was observed, for correlation of Ca and Pb with thyroid functions in HPOT patients. PMID:26347420

  19. Flavonoid Rutin Increases Thyroid Iodide Uptake in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lima Gonçalves, Carlos Frederico; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Ginabreda, Maria Gloria; Soares Fortunato, Rodrigo; Pires de Carvalho, Denise; Freitas Ferreira, Andrea Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid iodide uptake through the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is not only an essential step for thyroid hormones biosynthesis, but also fundamental for the diagnosis and treatment of different thyroid diseases. However, part of patients with thyroid cancer is refractory to radioiodine therapy, due to reduced ability to uptake iodide, which greatly reduces the chances of survival. Therefore, compounds able to increase thyroid iodide uptake are of great interest. It has been shown that some flavonoids are able to increase iodide uptake and NIS expression in vitro, however, data in vivo are lacking. Flavonoids are polyhydroxyphenolic compounds, found in vegetables present in human diet, and have been shown not only to modulate NIS, but also thyroperoxidase (TPO), the key enzyme in thyroid hormones biosynthesis, besides having antiproliferative effect in thyroid cancer cell lines. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of some flavonoids on thyroid iodide uptake in Wistar rats in vivo. Among the flavonoids tested, rutin was the only one able to increase thyroid iodide uptake, so we decided to evaluate the effect of this flavonoid on some aspects of thyroid hormones synthesis and metabolism. Rutin led to a slight reduction of serum T4 and T3 without changes in serum thyrotropin (TSH), and significantly increased hypothalamic, pituitary and brown adipose tissue type 2 deiodinase and decreased liver type 1 deiodinase activities. Moreover, rutin treatment increased thyroid iodide uptake probably due to the increment of NIS expression, which might be secondary to increased response to TSH, since TSH receptor expression was increased. Thus, rutin might be useful as an adjuvant in radioiodine therapy, since this flavonoid increased thyroid iodide uptake without greatly affecting thyroid function. PMID:24023911

  20. Does iron deficiency anemia affect olfactory function?

    PubMed

    Dinc, Mehmet Emre; Dalgic, Abdullah; Ulusoy, Seckin; Dizdar, Denizhan; Develioglu, Omer; Topak, Murat

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion This study found a negative effect of IDA on olfactory function. IDA leads to a reduction in olfactory function, and decreases in hemoglobin levels result in further reduction in olfactory function. Objective This study examined the effects of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) on olfactory function. Method The study enrolled 50 IDA patients and 50 healthy subjects. Olfactory function was evaluated using the Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test. The diagnosis of IDA was made according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Results Patients with IDA had a significantly lower threshold, discrimination, and identification (TDI) value, and a lower threshold compared with the control group. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of smell selectivity values. PMID:26963317

  1. Thyroid Function and Perchlorate in Drinking Water: An Evaluation among California Newborns, 1998

    PubMed Central

    Buffler, Patricia A.; Kelsh, Michael A.; Lau, Edmund C.; Edinboro, Charlotte H.; Barnard, Julie C.; Rutherford, George W.; Daaboul, Jorge J.; Palmer, Lynn; Lorey, Fred W.

    2006-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4−) has been detected in groundwater sources in numerous communities in California and other parts of the United States, raising concerns about potential impacts on health. For California communities where ClO4− was tested in 1997 and 1998, we evaluated the prevalence of primary congenital hypothyroidism (PCH) and high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels among the 342,257 California newborns screened in 1998. We compared thyroid function results among newborns from 24 communities with average ClO4− concentrations in drinking water > 5 μg/L (n = 50,326) to newborns from 287 communities with average concentrations ≤5 μg/L (n = 291,931). ClO4− concentrations obtained from the California Drinking Water Program provided source-specific data for estimating weighted average concentrations in community water. Fifteen cases of PCH from communities with average concentration > 5 μg/L were observed, with 20.4 expected [adjusted prevalence odds ratio (POR) = 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.40–1.19]. Although only 36% of all California newborns were screened before 24 hr of age in 1998, nearly 80% of newborns with high TSH were screened before 24 hr of age. Because of the physiologic postnatal surge of TSH, the results for newborns screened before 24 hr were uninformative for assessing an environmental impact. For newborns screened ≥24 hr, the adjusted POR for high TSH was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.40–1.23). All adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were controlled for sex, ethnicity, birth weight, and multiple birth status. Using an assessment of ClO4− in drinking water based on available data, we did not observe an association between estimated average ClO4− concentrations > 5 μg/L in drinking water supplies and the prevalence of clinically diagnosed PCH or high TSH concentrations. PMID:16675440

  2. Identification of thyroid tumor cell vulnerabilities through a siRNA-based functional screening

    PubMed Central

    Cetti, Elena; Fraietta, Ivan; Todoerti, Katia; Miranda, Claudia; Mazzoni, Mara; Re, Claudia; Colombo, Riccardo; Ukmar, Giorgio; Camisasca, Stefano; Pagliardini, Sonia; Pierotti, Marco A.; Neri, Antonino; Galvani, Arturo; Greco, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma is rapidly increasing. Although generally associated with good prognosis, a fraction of thyroid tumors are not cured by standard therapy and progress to aggressive forms for which no effective treatments are currently available. In order to identify novel therapeutic targets for thyroid carcinoma, we focused on the discovery of genes essential for sustaining the oncogenic phenotype of thyroid tumor cells, but not required to the same degree for the viability of normal cells (non-oncogene addiction paradigm). We screened a siRNA oligonucleotide library targeting the human druggable genome in thyroid cancer BCPAP cell line in comparison with immortalized normal human thyrocytes (Nthy-ori 3–1). We identified a panel of hit genes whose silencing interferes with the growth of tumor cells, while sparing that of normal ones. Further analysis of three selected hit genes, namely Cyclin D1, MASTL and COPZ1, showed that they represent common vulnerabilities for thyroid tumor cells, as their inhibition reduced the viability of several thyroid tumor cell lines, regardless the histotype or oncogenic lesion. This work identified non-oncogenes essential for sustaining the phenotype of thyroid tumor cells, but not of normal cells, thus suggesting that they might represent promising targets for new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26431489

  3. Identification of thyroid tumor cell vulnerabilities through a siRNA-based functional screening.

    PubMed

    Anania, Maria; Gasparri, Fabio; Cetti, Elena; Fraietta, Ivan; Todoerti, Katia; Miranda, Claudia; Mazzoni, Mara; Re, Claudia; Colombo, Riccardo; Ukmar, Giorgio; Camisasca, Stefano; Pagliardini, Sonia; Pierotti, Marco; Neri, Antonino; Galvani, Arturo; Greco, Angela

    2015-10-27

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma is rapidly increasing. Although generally associated with good prognosis, a fraction of thyroid tumors are not cured by standard therapy and progress to aggressive forms for which no effective treatments are currently available. In order to identify novel therapeutic targets for thyroid carcinoma, we focused on the discovery of genes essential for sustaining the oncogenic phenotype of thyroid tumor cells, but not required to the same degree for the viability of normal cells (non-oncogene addiction paradigm). We screened a siRNA oligonucleotide library targeting the human druggable genome in thyroid cancer BCPAP cell line in comparison with immortalized normal human thyrocytes (Nthy-ori 3-1). We identified a panel of hit genes whose silencing interferes with the growth of tumor cells, while sparing that of normal ones. Further analysis of three selected hit genes, namely Cyclin D1, MASTL and COPZ1, showed that they represent common vulnerabilities for thyroid tumor cells, as their inhibition reduced the viability of several thyroid tumor cell lines, regardless the histotype or oncogenic lesion. This work identified non-oncogenes essential for sustaining the phenotype of thyroid tumor cells, but not of normal cells, thus suggesting that they might represent promising targets for new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26431489

  4. [Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Fraczek, Magdalena Maria; Łacka, Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that thyroid hormones affect the cardiovascular system through genomic and nongenomic actions. TRalpha1 is the major thyroid hormone receptor in the heart. T3 suppresses increased mitotic activity of stimulated cardiomyocytes. Hyperthyroidism induces a hyperdynamic cardiovascular state, which is associated with enhanced left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and the chronotropic and inotropic properties of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism, however, is characterized by opposite changes. In addition, thyroid hormones decrease peripheral vascular resistance, influence the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS), and increase blood volume and erythropoetin secretion with subsequent increased preload and cardiac output. Thyroid hormones play an important role in cardiac electrophysiology and have both pro- and anti-arrhytmic potential. Thyroid hormone deficiency is associated with a less favorable lipid profile. Selective modulation of the TRbeta1 receptor is considered as a potential therapeutic target to treat dyslipidemia without cardiac side effects. Thyroid hormones have a beneficial effect on limiting myocardial ischemic injury, preventing and reversing cardiac remodeling and improving cardiac hemodynamics in endstage heart failure. This is crucial because a low T3 syndrome accompanies both acute and chronic cardiac diseases. PMID:25345279

  5. Onco-lncRNA HOTAIR and its functional genetic variants in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; Lv, Zheng; An, Changming; Shi, Meng; Pan, Wenting; Zhou, Liqing; Yang, Wenjun; Yang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) and its functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is still largely unclear. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of lncRNA HOTAIR and its three haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPs) in PTC. There was higher expression of HOTAIR in PTC tissues compared to normal tissues. A series of gain-loss assays demonstrated that HOTAIR acts as a PTC oncogene via promoting tumorigenic properties of PTC cells. Additionally, the functional HOTAIR rs920778 genetic variant was a PTC susceptibility SNP. Subjects with the HOTAIR rs920778 TT genotype had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.88, 1.25 and 1.61 (P = 6.0 × 10(-6), P = 0.028 and P = 3.2 × 10(-5)) for developing PTC in Shandong, Jiangsu and Jilin case-control sets compared with subjects with the CC genotype. This statistically significant associations were only found between the rs920778 genetic polymorphism and PTC risk in females but not in males. The allele-specific regulation on HOTAIR expression by the rs920778 SNP was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that functional SNPs influencing lncRNA regulation may explain a part of PTC genetic basis. PMID:27549736

  6. Onco-lncRNA HOTAIR and its functional genetic variants in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hui; Lv, Zheng; An, Changming; Shi, Meng; Pan, Wenting; Zhou, Liqing; Yang, Wenjun; Yang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) and its functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is still largely unclear. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of lncRNA HOTAIR and its three haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPs) in PTC. There was higher expression of HOTAIR in PTC tissues compared to normal tissues. A series of gain-loss assays demonstrated that HOTAIR acts as a PTC oncogene via promoting tumorigenic properties of PTC cells. Additionally, the functional HOTAIR rs920778 genetic variant was a PTC susceptibility SNP. Subjects with the HOTAIR rs920778 TT genotype had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.88, 1.25 and 1.61 (P = 6.0 × 10−6, P = 0.028 and P = 3.2 × 10−5) for developing PTC in Shandong, Jiangsu and Jilin case-control sets compared with subjects with the CC genotype. This statistically significant associations were only found between the rs920778 genetic polymorphism and PTC risk in females but not in males. The allele-specific regulation on HOTAIR expression by the rs920778 SNP was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that functional SNPs influencing lncRNA regulation may explain a part of PTC genetic basis. PMID:27549736

  7. Thyroid hormone and retinoid X receptor function and expression during sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Manzon, Lori A; Youson, John H; Holzer, Guillaume; Staiano, Leopoldo; Laudet, Vincent; Manzon, Richard G

    2014-08-01

    Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are members of the ancient class Agnatha and undergo a metamorphosis that transforms blind, sedentary, filter-feeding larvae into free-swimming, parasitic juveniles. Thyroid hormones (THs) appear to be important for lamprey metamorphosis, however, serum TH concentrations are elevated in the larval phase, decline rapidly during early metamorphosis and remain low until metamorphosis is complete; these TH fluctuations are contrary to those of other metamorphosing vertebrates. Moreover, thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitors (goitrogens) induce precocious metamorphosis and exogenous TH treatments disrupt natural metamorphosis in P. marinus. Given that THs exert their effects by binding to TH nuclear receptors (TRs) that often act as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs), we cloned and characterized these receptors from P. marinus and examined their expression during metamorphosis. Two TRs (PmTR1 and PmTR2) and three RXRs (PmRXRs) were isolated from P. marinus cDNA. Phylogenetic analyses group the PmTRs together on a branch prior to the gnathostome TRα/β split. The three RXRs also group together, but our data indicated that these transcripts are most likely either allelic variants of the same gene locus, or the products of a lamprey-specific duplication event. Importantly, these P. marinus receptors more closely resemble vertebrate as opposed to invertebrate chordate receptors. Functional analysis revealed that PmTR1 and PmTR2 can activate transcription of TH-responsive genes when treated with nanomolar concentrations of TH and they have distinct pharmacological profiles reminiscent of vertebrate TRβ and TRα, respectively. Also similar to other metamorphosing vertebrates, expression patterns of the PmTRs during lamprey metamorphosis suggest that PmTR1 has a dynamic, tissue-specific expression pattern that correlates with tissue morphogenesis and biochemical changes and PmTR2 has a more uniform expression pattern. This TR

  8. Association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and thyroid function among males and females: data from NHANES 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between thyroid function and exposure to selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) among those aged ≥ 20 years. Thyroid variables considered for evaluation were thyroid-stimulating hormone, free and total serum thyroxine (FT4, TT4), free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3), and thyroglobulin. PAH metabolites in urine for which data were analyzed were 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 3-hydroxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene. Using data from 2007 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, regression models with logs of thyroid variables as dependent variables and PAH exposure, age, race/ethnicity, iodine sufficiency, smoking status, and others as independent variables were fitted. For females, increased levels of 2-hydroxynapthalene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene were associated with elevated levels of TT3. For males, increased levels of 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 9-hydroxypyrene were associated with decreased levels of FT4. PMID:26787071

  9. Blood Lead Concentration and Thyroid Function during Pregnancy: Results from the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Linda G.; Liu, Xinhua; Rajovic, Biljana; Popovac, Dusan; Oberfield, Sharon; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although maternal hypothyroidism increases the risk of adverse neonatal and obstetric outcomes as well as lower IQ in children, the environmental determinants of maternal thyroid dysfunction have yet to be fully explored. Objectives: We aimed to examine associations between mid-pregnancy blood lead (BPb) and concomitant measures of thyroid function among participants in the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure. Methods: As part of a population-based prospective study of two towns in Kosovo—one with high levels of environmental lead and one with low—women were recruited during the second trimester of pregnancy, at which time blood samples and questionnaire data were collected. We measured concentrations of BPb, free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) in archived serum samples. Results: Compared with women from the unexposed town, women from the exposed town had lower mean FT4 (0.91 ± 0.17 vs. 1.03 ± 0.16 ng/dL), higher mean TPOAb (15.45 ± 33.08 vs. 5.12 ± 6.38 IU/mL), and higher mean BPb (20.00 ± 6.99 vs. 5.57 ± 2.01 μg/dL). No differences in TSH levels were found. After adjustment for potential confounders, for each natural log unit increase in BPb, FT4 decreased by 0.074 ng/dL (95% CI: –0.10, –0.046 ng/dL), and the odds ratio for testing positive to TPOAb was 2.41 (95% CI: 1.53, 3.82). We found no association between BPb and TSH. Conclusions: Prolonged lead exposure may contribute to maternal thyroid dysfunction by stimulating autoimmunity to the thyroid gland. Citation: Kahn LG, Liu X, Rajovic B, Popovac D, Oberfield S, Graziano JH, Factor-Litvak P. 2014. Blood lead concentration and thyroid function during pregnancy: results from the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:1134–1140; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307669 PMID:24866691

  10. Contribution of R domain phosphoserines to the function of CFTR studied in Fischer rat thyroid epithelia.

    PubMed

    Baldursson, O; Berger, H A; Welsh, M J

    2000-11-01

    The regulatory domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) regulates channel activity when several serines are phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. To further define the functional role of individual phosphoserines, we studied CFTR containing previously studied and new serine to alanine mutations. We expressed these constructs in Fischer rat thyroid epithelia and measured transepithelial Cl(-) current. Mutation of four in vivo phosphorylation sites, Ser(660), Ser(737), Ser(795), and Ser(813) (S-Quad-A), substantially decreased cAMP-stimulated current, suggesting that these four sites account for most of the phosphorylation-dependent response. Mutation of either Ser(660) or Ser(813) alone significantly decreased current, indicating that these residues play a key role in phosphorylation-dependent stimulation. However, neither Ser(660) nor Ser(813) alone increased current to wild-type levels; both residues were required. Changing Ser(737) to alanine increased current above wild-type levels, suggesting that phosphorylation of Ser(737) may inhibit current in wild-type CFTR. These data help define the functional role of regulatory domain phosphoserines and suggest interactions between individual phosphoserines. PMID:11053017

  11. Pediatric Patients with Vitiligo in Eastern China: Abnormalities in 145 Cases Based on Thyroid Function Tests and Immunological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Xianfeng, Cheng; Yuegen, Jiang; Zhiyu, Yin; Yan, Yang; Xuesi, Zeng; Fenglai, Wang; Ansheng, Li; Wei, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate abnormalities in thyroid function according to tests and the humoral immune systems of patients from Eastern China with pediatric vitiligo. Material/Methods A total of 145 pediatric patients with vitiligo were investigated in this study, along with 59 children without autoimmune diseases as controls. Laboratory tests of thyroid function were conducted, and these tests examined free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin antibody (TG-Ab), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab), antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgG), and complements (C3 and C4). Results A total of 63 patients (43.4%), including 39 boys (44.3%) and 24 girls (42.1%), displayed abnormalities in thyroid function according to the tests. This finding indicated that patients with vitiligo differed significantly from those in the control group (P<0.001), particularly in terms of FT3 and TSH abnormalities (P<0.05). However, these groups did not deviate significantly with respect to FT4, Tg-Ab, and TPO-Ab abnormalities (P>0.05). Thirteen patients (8.9%) and 1 (1.7%) control were positive for ANA. All 12 specific antibodies were detected in 8 patients. Anti-SSA/Ro-60 and anti-SSA/Ro-52 were the most prevalent antibodies, followed by anti-dsDNA and then by anti-SmD1 and CENB-P. The serum levels of IgA and IgG decreased more significantly in the vitiligo group than in the control group (P<0.001). However, no significant difference was observed in terms of IgM levels (P>0.05). C4 serum levels also decreased more significantly in the vitiligo group than in the control group (P=0.035). Conclusions Results suggest that the incidence of abnormalities in the thyroid functions of children and adolescents is significantly higher in those with vitiligo than that in those in the control group. In addition, immunological dysfunction is common in the vitiligo group. PMID:26496247

  12. Comparison of the Reference Intervals Used for the Evaluation of Maternal Thyroid Function During Pregnancy Using Sequential and Nonsequential Methods

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jian-Xia; Yang, Shuai; Qian, Wei; Shi, Feng-Tao; Huang, He-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maternal thyroid dysfunction is common during pregnancy, and physiological changes during pregnancy can lead to the overdiagnosis of hyperthyroidism and misdiagnosis of hypothyroidism with nongestation-specific reference intervals. Our aim was to compare sequential with nonsequential methods for the evaluation of thyroid function in pregnant women. Methods: We tested pregnant women who underwent their trimester prenatal screening at our hospital from February 2011 to September 2012 for serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) using the Abbott and Roche kits. There were 447 and 200 patients enrolled in the nonsequential and sequential groups, respectively. The central 95% range between the 2.5th and the 97.5th percentiles was used as the reference interval for the thyroid function parameter. Results: The nonsequential group exhibited a significantly larger degree of dispersion in the TSH reference interval during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters as measured using both the Abbott and Roche kits (all P < 0.05). The TSH reference intervals were significantly larger in the nonsequential group than in the sequential group during the 3rd trimester as measured with both the Abbott (4.95 vs. 3.77 mU/L, P < 0.001) and Roche kits (6.62 vs. 5.01 mU/L, P = 0.004). The nonsequential group had a significantly larger FT4 reference interval as measured with the Abbott kit during all trimesters (12.64 vs. 5.82 pmol/L; 7.96 vs. 4.77 pmol/L; 8.10 vs. 4.77 pmol/L, respectively, all P < 0.05), whereas a significantly larger FT4 reference interval was only observed during the 2nd trimester with the Roche kit (7.76 vs. 5.52 pmol/L, P = 0.002). Conclusions: It was more reasonable to establish reference intervals for the evaluation of maternal thyroid function using the sequential method during each trimester of pregnancy. Moreover, the exclusion of pregnancy-related complications should be considered in the inclusion criteria for thyroid function tests. PMID

  13. Maternal thyroid dysfunction affects placental profile of inflammatory mediators and the intrauterine trophoblast migration kinetics.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juneo Freitas; Ocarino, Natália Melo; Serakides, Rogéria

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the gene and immunohistochemical expression of inflammatory mediators involved in the immune activity and the intrauterine trophoblast migration of the placentas in hypothyroid and L-thyroxine (L-T4)-treated rats. A total of 144 adult female rats were divided equally into hypothyroid, l-T4-treated, and euthyroid (control) groups. Hypothyroidism was induced by daily administration of propylthiouracil. Rats were killed at 0, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 days of gestation. We evaluated the depth of interstitial and endovascular intrauterine trophoblast invasion and the immunohistochemical expression of interferon γ (INFy), migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2 (iNOS)). The gene expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2) and Tlr4, Infy, Mif, tumor necrosis factor (Tnf (Tnfα)), Il10, Nos2, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2) and Mmp9, and placental leptin was also measured in placental disks by real-time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed using an Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test. Hypothyroidism reduced the endovascular and interstitial trophoblast migration, and the expression of TLR4, INFy, MIF, interleukin 10 (IL10), NOS2, MMP2 and MMP9, and placental leptin, while increased the expression of TLR2 (P<0.05). T4-treated rats not only increased the expression of IL10 and NOS2 but also reduced the expression of TNF and MIF at 10 days of gestation (P<0.05). However, at 19 days of gestation, expression of INFy and MIF was increased in T4-treated group (P<0.05). Excess of T4 also increased the gene expression of Mmp2 at 10 days of gestation (P<0.05), but reduced the endovascular trophoblast migration at 18 days of gestation (P<0.05). Hypothyroidism and excess of T4 differentially affect the immune profile and the intrauterine trophoblast migration of the placenta, and these effects are dependent on the gestational period. PMID:24534949

  14. THYROID HORMONE INSUFFICIENCY DURING BRAIN DEVELOPMENT REDUCES PARVALBUMIN IMMUNOREACTIVITY AND INHIBITORY FUNCTION IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA must evaluate the risk of exposure of the developing brain to chemicals with the potential to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. The existing literature identifies morphological and neurochemical indices of severe neonatal hypothyroidism in the early postnatal period i...

  15. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Thyroid Tests Page Content On this page: What is the ... Top ] Why do health care providers perform thyroid tests? Health care providers perform thyroid tests to assess ...

  16. Thyroid Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid surgery, requiring treatment with thyroid hormone (see Hypothyroidism brochure ). This is especially true if you had ... Nodules Goiter Graves’ Disease Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Hyperthyroidism (Overactive) Hypothyroidism (Underactive) Iodine Deficiency Low Iodine Diet Radioactive Iodine ...

  17. Silent thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland. The disorder can cause hyperthyroidism, followed by hypothyroidism. The thyroid gland is located in the neck, ... Later symptoms may be of an underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ), including fatigue and cold intolerance, until the thyroid ...

  18. Radioactive iodine treatment of a functional thyroid carcinoma producing hyperthyroidism in a dog.

    PubMed

    Peterson, M E; Kintzer, P P; Hurley, J R; Becker, D V

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (131I) was used in the treatment of a 12-year-old female dog with hyperthyroidism resulting from a large, unresectable (and metastatic) thyroid carcinoma associated with signs of severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, nervousness) and high basal serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations, as well as thyroid radioiodine kinetic studies that showed a high radioiodine uptake into the thyroid (% thyroid uptake) and markedly increased serum concentrations of protein-bound iodine-131 (PB131I) after 131I tracer injection. Thyroid imaging revealed diffuse radionuclide accumulation by the tumor, which involved both thyroid lobes. The dog was treated with three large doses of radioiodine (131I), ranging from 60 to 75 mCi, given at intervals of 5 to 7 months. The dog became euthyroid, and the size of the tumor decreased by approximately 25% after each 131I treatment, improving the severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea, but both the hyperthyroid state and breathing difficulty recurred within a few months of each treatment. The dog was euthanatized 5 months after the last treatment because of progressive tracheal compression and pulmonary metastasis. PMID:2926718

  19. EEG of Chronic Marijuana Users during Abstinence: Relationship to Years of Marijuana Use, Cerebral Blood Flow and Thyroid Function

    PubMed Central

    Herning, Ronald I.; Better, Warren; Cadet, Jean L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Marijuana abuse is associated with neurological changes including increases in frontal EEG alpha during abstinence. Research is needed to assess to what extent these EEG patterns are indicative of cerebral perfusion deficits. Methods We recorded the resting eyes closed EEG of 75 abstinent marijuana users and 33 control subjects. Fifty-six marijuana users used marijuana for less than eight years and 19 used for eight years or more. The EEG evaluation occurred within 72 hours of admission to an inpatient unit. Fifty-nine marijuana users remained abstinent for a month and were tested twice. Supplemental psychological and physiological data were also collected. Results Log alpha2 and beta2 power at posterior sites were significantly lower for the marijuana abusers that used eight years or more than the other marijuana abusers and the control subjects. These EEG changes continued for the month of abstinence. The marijuana users who used marijuana for more than eight years, also, had lower heart rates and thyroid function (T4) compared to the other marijuana users and the control subjects. Conclusions Chronic marijuana use was also associated with reduced EEG power in alpha and beta bands at posterior sites. These reductions in EEG power appear to be related to cerebral perfusion deficits and/or thyroid function in marijuana abusers. Significance Our results suggest EEG, cerebral blood flow velocity, cardiovascular and thyroid function alterations in marijuana abuser with an extended period of use. These alterations reflect under arousal in these systems. PMID:18065267

  20. Overview of surgical pathology of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, R H

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this overview is to provide timely information on selected topics on the surgical pathology of the thyroid gland. Selected publications of the author and his colleagues at the University of Michigan and the Maine Medical Center form the basis of this review. Information provided in our reports is updated by perusal of recent, pertinent publications. The following questions summarize the contents of the overview. What is a "lateral aberrant thyroid"? Does it always represent metastatic carcinoma? What are dyshormogenetic goiters? Can "focal thyroiditis" in thyroid glands removed for the treatment of Graves' disease and toxic nodular goiters be predictive of the development of postoperative hypothyroidism? What is the pathology of autonomously functioning (hot) nodules? Do tall-cell, columnar-cell, and diffuse sclerosing types of papillary carcinomas forbode bad prognoses? What is the controversy over Hurthle cell tumors? Does the presence of a better differentiated component in an anaplastic thyroid carcinoma modify its biologic behavior? Are poorly differentiated carcinomas unique histologic variants? Does their histology affect prognosis? What is the most common small-cell tumor of the thyroid gland? Has the Chernobyl nuclear disaster affected the incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma? Are these radiation-induced tumors more aggressive? The answers, some of which are controversial, are found in this overview. The aims here were to provide information to surgeons and pathologists and to improve the care of patients with thyroid disease. PMID:10865033

  1. Impact of environmental chemicals on the thyroid hormone function in pituitary rat GH3 cells.

    PubMed

    Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva C

    2005-12-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are widespread in the environment and suspected to interfere with the function of thyroid hormones (THs). We investigated the TH disrupting activity of different classes of EDCs including plasticizers (bisphenol A, bisphenol A dimethacrylate), alkylphenols (4-n-nonylphenol, 4-octylphenol), pesticides (prochloraz, iprodion, chlorpyrifos), PCB metabolites (OH-PCB 106, OH-PCB 121, OH-PCB 69) and brominated flame-retardants (tetrabromobisphenol A). The ED potential of a chemical was determined by its effect on the cell proliferation of TH-dependent rat pituitary GH3 cell line. All tested chemicals significantly interfered with the cell proliferation alone or upon co-treatment with T3. The growth of GH3 cells was stimulated by all tested chemicals, but 4-n-nonylphenol, 4-octylphenol, prochloraz and iprodion elicited an inhibitory effect on cell growth. In conclusion, these EDCs have the potential to exert TH disruption increasing the risk or a negative impact on fetal brain development, resulting in cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:16221524

  2. Effects of perfluoroalkyl acids on the function of the thyroid hormone and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Long, Manhai; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2013-11-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are perfluorinated compounds that widely exist in the environment and can elicit adverse effects including endocrine disruption in humans and animals. This study investigated the effect of seven PFAAs on the thyroid hormone (TH) system assessing the proliferation of the 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thryonine (T3)-dependent rat pituitary GH3 cells using the T-screen assay and the effect on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivation in the AhR-luciferase reporter gene bioassay. A dose-dependent impact on GH3 cells was observed in the range 1×10(-9)-1×10(-4) M: seven PFAAs (perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA)) inhibited the GH3 cell growth, and four PFAAs (PFOS, PFHxS, PFNA, and PFUnA) antagonized the T3-induced GH3 cell proliferation. At the highest test concentration, PFHxS showed a further increase of the T3-induced GH3 growth. Among the seven tested PFAAs, only PFDoA and PFDA elicited an activating effect on the AhR. In conclusion, PFAAs possess in vitro endocrine-disrupting potential by interfering with TH and AhR functions, which need to be taken into consideration when assessing the impact on human health. PMID:23539207

  3. Genetic Analysis Reveals Different Functions for the Products of the Thyroid Hormone Receptor α Locus

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Karine; Plateroti, Michelina; Harvey, Clare B.; Williams, Graham R.; Weiss, Roy E.; Refetoff, Samuel; Willott, James F.; Sundin, Victoria; Roux, Jean-Paul; Malaval, Luc; Hara, Masahiro; Samarut, Jacques; Chassande, Olivier

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by the TRα (NR1A1) and TRβ (NR1A2) loci. These genes are transcribed into multiple variants whose functions are unclear. Analysis by gene inactivation in mice has provided new insights into the functional complexity of these products. Different strategies designed to modify the TRα locus have led to strikingly different phenotypes. In order to analyze the molecular basis for these alterations, we generated mice devoid of all known isoforms produced from the TRα locus (TRα0/0). These mice are viable and exhibit reduced linear growth, bone maturation delay, moderate hypothermia, and reduced thickness of the intestinal mucosa. Compounding TRα0 and TRβ− mutations produces viable TRα0/0β−/− mice, which display a more severe linear growth reduction and a more profound hypothermia as well as impaired hearing. A striking phenotypic difference is observed between TRα0/0 and the previously described TRα−/− mice, which retain truncated TRΔα isoforms arising from a newly described promoter in intron 7. The lethality and severe impairment of the intestinal maturation in TRα−/− mice are rescued in TRα0/0 animals. We demonstrate that the TRΔα protein isoforms, which are natural products of the TRα locus, are the key determinants of these phenotypical differences. These data reveal the functional importance of the non-T3-binding variants encoded by the TRα locus in vertebrate postnatal development and homeostasis. PMID:11416150

  4. Computation of thyroid doses and carcinogenic radiation risks to patients undergoing neck CT examinations.

    PubMed

    Huda, Walter; Spampinato, Maria V; Tipnis, Sameer V; Magill, Dennise

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how differences in patient anatomy and CT technical factors in neck CT impact on thyroid doses and the corresponding carcinogenic risks. The CTDIvol and dose-length product used in 11 consecutive neck CT studies, as well as data on automatic exposure control (AEC) tube current variation(s) from the image DICOM header, were recorded. For each CT image that included the thyroid, the mass equivalent water cylinder was estimated based on the patient cross-sectional area and average relative attenuation coefficient (Hounsfield unit, HU). Patient thyroid doses were estimated by accounting for radiation intensity at the location of the patient's thyroid, patient size and the scan length. Thyroid doses were used to estimate thyroid cancer risks as a function of patient demographics using risk factors in BEIR VII. The length of the thyroid glands ranged from 21 to 54 mm with an average length of 42 ± 12 mm. Water cylinder diameters corresponding to the central slice through the patient thyroid ranged from 18 to 32 cm with a mean of 25 ± 5 cm. The average CTDIvol (32-cm phantom) used to perform these scans was 26 ± 6 mGy, but the use of an AEC increased the tube current by an average of 44 % at the thyroid mid-point. Thyroid doses ranged from 29 to 80 mGy, with an average of 55 ± 19 mGy. A 20-y-old female receiving the highest thyroid dose of 80 mGy would have a thyroid cancer risk of nearly 0.1 %, but radiation risks decreased very rapidly with increasing patient age. The key factors that affect thyroid doses in neck CT examinations are the radiation intensity at the thyroid location and the size of the patient. The corresponding patient thyroid cancer risk is markedly influenced by patient sex and age. PMID:23579263

  5. Evaluation of the thyroid nodule

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, C.R.

    1986-05-01

    Evaluation of thyroid nodules challenges the most astute clinician. The history and the physical examination often identify those patients who require immediate surgical management. In other patients, time-honored thyroid function studies and thyroid scanning are helpful. Fine needle aspiration and computed tomography are also valuable in the diagnostic work-up.

  6. Integument structure and function in juvenile Xenopus laevis with disrupted thyroid balance.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Edison S M; Fuentes, Juan; Power, Deborah M

    2011-12-01

    The skin is the largest organ in the body and is a barrier between the internal and external environment. The present study evaluates how PTU, a goitrogen, that is used to treat hyperthyroidism affects the structure and electrical properties of the frog (Xenopus laevis) skin. The results are considered in the context of the two-membrane model established in the seminal work of Ussing and collegues in the 1940s and 1950s. In vitro experiments with skin from Xenopus adults revealed that PTU can act directly on skin and causes a significant increase (p<0.05, One-way ANOVA) in short circuit current (Isc) via an amiloride-insensitive mechanism. Juvenile Xenopus exposed to waterborne PTU (5 mg/L) had a significantly bigger and more active thyroid gland (p<0.01, Student's t-test) than control Xenopus. The bioelectric properties of skin taken from Xenopus juveniles treated with PTU in vivo had a lower Isc, (3.05±0.4, n=13) and Rt (288.2±39.5) than skin from control Xenopus (Isc, 4.19±1.14, n=14; Rt, 343.3±43.3). A histological assessment of skin from PTU treated Xenopus juveniles revealed the epidermis was significantly thicker (p<0.01, Student's t-test) and had a greater number of modified exocrine glands (p<0.01, Student's t-test) in the dermis compared to control skin. Modifications in skin structure are presumably the basis for its changed bioelectric properties and the study highlights a site of action for environmental chemicals which has been largely neglected. PMID:21963960

  7. Association of Thyroid Functional Disease With Mortality in a National Cohort of Incident Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Steven; Gillen, Daniel L.; Oztan, Tolga; Wang, Jiaxi; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kuttykrishnan, Sooraj; Nguyen, Danh V.; Brunelli, Steven M.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Brent, Gregory A.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2015-01-01

    Context: Hypothyroidism is a common condition that disproportionately affects hemodialysis patients. In the general population, hypothyroidism is associated with higher mortality, particularly in populations with underlying cardiovascular risk. Despite their heightened cardiovascular mortality, the impact of hypothyroidism on the survival of hemodialysis patients remains uncertain. Objective: To examine whether hypothyroidism is independently associated with higher mortality in hemodialysis patients. Design, Setting, and Patients: Among 8840 incident hemodialysis patients receiving care from a large national dialysis provider from January 2007 to December 2011, we examined the association of hypothyroidism (TSH >5.0 mIU/L) with mortality. Main Outcome Measures: Associations between baseline and time-dependent hypothyroidism with all-cause mortality were determined using case-mix adjusted Cox models. In secondary analyses, we examined the impact of low-normal, upper-normal, subclinical range, and overt range TSH levels (TSH ≥0.5–3.0, >3.0–5.0, >5.0–10.0, and >10.0 mIU/L, respectively) on mortality risk. Results: The study population consisted of 1928 (22%) hypothyroid and 6912 (78%) euthyroid patients. Baseline and time-dependent hypothyroidism were associated with higher mortality: adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.47 (1.34–1.61) and 1.62 (1.45–1.80), respectively. Compared to low-normal TSH, upper-normal, subclinical hypothyroid, and overt hypothyroid TSH levels were associated with incrementally higher adjusted death risk in baseline and time-dependent analyses. In time-dependent analyses, the hypothyroidism-mortality association was increasingly stronger across higher body mass index strata. Conclusions: Hypothyroidism as well as upper-normal TSH levels are associated with higher mortality in hemodialysis patients. Further studies are needed to determine whether restoration of TSH to low-normal levels with thyroid hormone

  8. Cardiovascular effects of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Sangster, Jodi K; Panciera, David L; Abbott, Jonathan A

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid hormones have many effects on cardiovascular function, and deficiency or excess of thyroid hormones can result in cardiac dysfunction. Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are often identified during examination of hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients. This article addresses the effects of thyroid hormones on the cardiovascular system and the clinical relevance of the cardiovascular response to thyroid dysfunction. In addition, treatment recommendations are presented. PMID:23677842

  9. Thyroid function and cognition in the euthyroid elderly: a case-control study embedded in Quebec longitudinal study - NuAge.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Laurin, Danielle; Langlois, Marie-France; Fortier, Mélanie; Tessier, Daniel; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Ferland, Guylaine; Payette, Hélène; Lorrain, Dominique; Cunnane, Stephen C

    2013-09-01

    It is presently unclear whether there is a significant association between thyroid function and cognitive decline in euthyroid elderly. This case-control study aimed to examine serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine, free thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, and free triiodothyronine in relation to cognitive decline over a 3-year period in a subsample of 62 participants (31 pairs) aged 67 years and over at baseline from the NuAge study (Quebec longitudinal study). They were matched for age, sex and global cognition. In conditional regression logistic models, there was no significant association between any thyroid function indices and the 3-year risk of cognitive decline as measured with the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS). TSH and thyroid hormones do not appear to be associated with cognitive decline in euthyroid older persons. These findings need confirmation given the small number of pairs of subjects. PMID:23507188

  10. Thyroid Echography-induced Thyroid Storm and Exacerbation of Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, Keisuke; Nakazawa, Naomi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Asano, Ryotaro; Saito, Hideki; Nomura, Hidekimi; Isomura, Daichi; Okada, Hisayuki; Sugiura, Ryo; Oka, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism and thyroid storm affect cardiac circulation in some conditions. Several factors including trauma can induce thyroid storms. We herein describe the case of a 57-year-old woman who experienced a thyroid storm and exacerbation of acute heart failure on thyroid echography. She initially demonstrated a good clinical course after medical rate control for atrial fibrillation; however, thyroid echography for evaluating hyperthyroidism led to a thyroid storm and she collapsed. A multidisciplinary approach stabilized her thyroid hormone levels and hemodynamics. Thus, the medical staff should be prepared for a deterioration in the patient's condition during thyroid echography in heart failure patients with hyperthyroidism. PMID:27522996

  11. Thyroid imaging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Drew, H.H.; LaFrance, N.D.; Chen, J.J.S.

    1987-06-01

    This is the second in a series of Continuing Education articles related to functional/quantitative imaging techniques. After reading this article, the reader should be able to: 1) discuss the clinical applications of thyroid imaging; 2) understand the relationship of related thyroid tests; and 3) recognize the pitfalls and problems associated with this procedure.

  12. Thyroid and Aging or the Aging Thyroid? An Evidence-Based Analysis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone production, metabolism, and action change with aging. The reference ranges for serum thyrotropin and thyroid hormones are derived mainly from younger populations. Thus, the prevalence of subclinical thyroid dysfunction is increased greatly in the elderly. However, it is unclear whether mild thyroid dysfunction in the elderly is associated with adverse outcomes. In this review, we discuss current evidence-based literature on thyroid function in the elderly and whether subclinical thyroid dysfunction in the elderly should be treated. PMID:24106641

  13. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Thyroid Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Thyroid Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Symptoms ...

  14. Thyroid and parathyroid imaging.

    PubMed

    Freitas, J E; Freitas, A E

    1994-07-01

    With the advent of better thyroid function tests, a tumor marker, and fine-needle aspiration, the role of thyroid imaging studies in the evaluation of the patients with thyroid disease has diminished. Although multimodality thyroid imaging had improved our understanding of thyroid disease, current indications for thyroid imaging are the solitary or dominant thyroid nodule, an upper mediastinal mass, differentiation of hyperthyroidism, detection and staging of postoperative thyroid cancer, neonatal hypothyroidism, thyroid developmental anomalies, and the thyroid mass post-thyroidectomy for benign disease. To provide optimal, cost-effective, care for the thyroid patient, the physician must understand the advantages and disadvantages of each imaging modality--scintigraphy, real-time sonography (RTS), computed tomography, and magnetic resonance--in specific clinical settings. Similarly, preoperative noninvasive localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism undergoing their initial neck exploration usually is not warranted. In this situation, the best localization procedure is to enlist the services of an experienced parathyroid surgeon. However, if this is not feasible because of local constraints, both sestamibi methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide excellent localization (< 90%) of juxta-thyroidal and ectopic parathyroid adenomas. Hyperplastic glands are more difficult to detect because of their smaller size, and tandem studies (MIBI and MRI) should provide higher sensitivity before initial exploration, especially in patients with ectopic glands. In patients with persistent or recurrent disease, multimodality imaging with MIBI, MR, computed tomography and RTS in a sequential fashion is warranted to optimize two-test, site-specific localization. PMID:7973759

  15. Comparison of the in vitro effects of TCDD, PCB 126 and PCB 153 on thyroid-restricted gene expression and thyroid hormone secretion by the chicken thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Kowalik, Kinga; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) and 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; non-coplanar PCB) on mRNA expression of thyroid-restricted genes, i.e. sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG), and thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Relative expression levels of NIS, TG and TPO genes and thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) secretion from the thyroidal explants were quantified by the real-time qPCR and RIA methods, respectively. In comparison with the control group, TCDD and PCB 126 significantly increased mRNA expression of TPO and TG genes. TCDD did not affect NIS mRNA levels, but PCB 126 decreased its expression. No effect of PCB 153 on the expression of these genes was observed. TCDD and PCB 126 significantly decreased T4 and T3 secretion. There was no significant effect of PCB 153 on these hormone secretions. In conclusion, the results obtained show that in comparison with non-coplanar PCB 153, TCDD and coplanar PCB 126 can directly affect thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and in consequence, they may disrupt the endocrine function of the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. PMID:25682001

  16. Studies on thyroglobulin-specific suppressor T cell function in autoimmune thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, H.; Hamada, N.; DeGroot, L.J.

    1985-08-01

    T cell regulation of the generation of thyroglobulin plaque-forming cells (Tg PFC) and protein A plaque-forming cells (Prot A PFC) was investigated using lymphocytes from patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. T and B cell mixed cultures (T-B MC) were carried out without mitogenic or antigenic stimulation to identify physiological T cell effects in the system. Tg PFC were found in 8 (44%) of 18 patients who had high titers of thyroglobulin antibody in their sera. Tg-specific and nonspecific immunoregulation by T cells from patients and normal subjects was studied using B cells from these eight patients in the T-B MC system. Remarkably lower values of Tg PFC induction compared to Prot A PFC induction were found after T cell addition. Normal T cells inhibited Tg PFC induction, but patient T cells did not, while the same extent of helper effects were found on Prot A PFC induction by the addition of patient and normal T cells. Irradiation (1500 rads) of T cells from patients and normal subjects significantly enhanced both Tg PFC and Prot A PFC induction. Thus, Tg-specific suppressor T cells are present in all normal subjects as part of the radiosensitive suppressor T cell subset. The increase in Tg-PFC caused by irradiation-induced inhibition of Tg-specific suppressor T cell function was significantly greater in normal subjects than in patients. Histamine type 2 receptor-bearing T cells inhibited Prot A PFC induction, but not Tg PFC induction, in the autologous T-B MC system. No Tg PFC were induced from normal B cells in any combination with untreated T cells, irradiated T cells, or histamine type 2 receptor-negative T cells from patients or normal subjects.

  17. Generation of intercellular heterogeneity of growth and function in cloned rat thyroid cells (FRTL-5).

    PubMed

    Huber, G; Derwahl, M; Kaempf, J; Peter, H J; Gerber, H; Studer, H

    1990-03-01

    The most characteristic hallmarks of human nodular goiters are nodular growth and heterogeneity of structure and function between different areas of the same goiter. In search of the earliest detectable stage of thyroid heterogeneity we have observed doubling times, TSH dependency, and thyroglobulin production in colonies formed from individual FRTL-5 cells growing as monolayers in slide flasks. Single cells and the colonies derived thereof were followed on photographs taken daily until confluence. We observed that each cell had its individual stable multiplication rate throughout the observation period. This was true for all TSH doses tested (0.625-10 mU/ml). A wide range of doubling times (20 h to almost infinite) in the individual cells was observed. The mean growth velocity of subcloned cell lines was highly reproducible in consecutive passages, although a minority of cells escaped this rule. Cells with either high or low thyroglobulin content occurred in clusters, indicating again that specific traits tend to remain stable in the offspring. We conclude that a highly individual growth program, unrelated to mutation, appears to be switched on at the very moment a cell is generated and that this program is passed on to the majority of the offspring, with a minority of cells acquiring qualities differing from those of their sister cell. Therefore, goiter heterogeneity may be the in vivo amplification of a natural phenomenon occurring in all growing cells. Monoclonal adenomas in vivo and nontransformed immortal cell lines in vitro may represent the far end of the large spectrum of individual growth potency among normal thyrocytes. PMID:2307123

  18. Social functioning and age across affective and non-affective psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Elizabeth A.; Öngür, Dost; Cohen, Bruce M.; Lewandowski, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Both non-affective and affective psychoses are associated with deficits in social functioning across the course of the illness. However, it is not clear how social functioning varies among diagnostic groups as a function of age. The current study examined the relationship between social functioning and age in schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SZA), and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBD). We found that individuals with PBD had the highest functioning while individuals with SZ had the poorest. The functioning of individuals with SZA fell in between the other groups. We also found that older ages were associated with poorer functioning. Although there was not a significant diagnostic group by age interaction, visual inspection of our data suggests a subtly steeper trajectory of decline in PBD. These results indicate that a decline in social functioning with may be an important area of unmet need in treatment across psychotic disorders. PMID:25503785

  19. DEHP reduces thyroid hormones via interacting with hormone synthesis-related proteins, deiodinases, transthyretin, receptors, and hepatic enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Letian; Wei, Li; Li, Lianbing

    2015-08-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used extensively in many personal care and consumer products, resulting in widespread nonoccupational human exposure through multiple routes and media. Limited studies suggest that exposure to DEHP may be associated with altered thyroid function, but detailed mechanisms are unclear. In order to elucidate potential mechanisms by which DEHP disturbs thyroid hormone homeostasis, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were dosed with DEHP by gavage at 0, 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg/day for 30 days and sacrificed within 24 h after the last dose. Gene expressions of thyroid hormone receptors, deiodinases, transthyretin, and hepatic enzymes were measured by RT-PCR; protein levels of transthyretin were also analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that DEHP caused histological changes in the thyroid and follicular epithelial cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia were observed. DEHP significantly reduced thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) levels, whereas thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was not affected. After exposure to DEHP, biosynthesis of thyroid hormones was suppressed, and sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) levels were significantly reduced. Additionally, levels of deiodinases and transthyretin were also affected. TSH receptor (TSHr) level was downregulated, while TRH receptor (TRHr) level was upregulated. Metabolism of thyroid hormones was accelerated due to elevated gene expression of hepatic enzymes (UDPGTs and CYP2B1) by DEHP. Taken together, observed findings indicate that DEHP could reduce thyroid hormones through influencing biosynthesis, biotransformation, biotransport, receptor levels, and metabolism of thyroid hormones. PMID:25913319

  20. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THYROID FUNCTION AND OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE SLEEP QUALITY IN OLDER MEN: THE OSTEOPOROTIC FRACTURES IN MEN (MROS) STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Akatsu, Haruko; Ewing, Susan K.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Fink, Howard A.; Stone, Katie L.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Mehra, Reena; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Redline, Susan; Hoffman, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between thyroid hormone levels and sleep quality in community-dwelling men. Methods Among 5,994 men aged ≥65 years in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, 682 had baseline thyroid function data, normal free thyroxine (FT4) (0.70 ≤ FT4 ≤ 1.85 ng/dL), actigraphy measurements, and were not using thyroid-related medications. Three categories of thyroid function were defined: subclinical hyperthyroid, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) <0.55 mIU/L; euthyroid (TSH, 0.55 to 4.78 mIU/L); and subclinical hypothyroid (TSH >4.78 mIU/L). Objective (total hours of nighttime sleep [TST], sleep efficiency [SE], wake after sleep onset [WASO], sleep latency [SL], number of long wake episodes [LWEP]) and subjective (TST, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score) sleep quality were measured. The association between TSH and sleep quality was examined using linear regression (continuous sleep outcomes) and log-binomial regression (categorical sleep outcomes). Results Among the 682 men examined, 15 had subclinical hyperthyroidism and 38 had subclinical hypothyroidism. There was no difference in sleep quality between subclinical hypothyroid and euthyroid men. Compared to euthyroid men, subclinical hyperthyroid men had lower mean actigraphy TST (adjusted mean difference [95% confidence interval (CI)], −27.4 [−63.7 to 8.9] minutes) and lower mean SE (−4.5% [−10.3% to 1.3%]), higher mean WASO (13.5 [−8.0 to 35.0] minutes]), whereas 41% had increased risk of actigraphy-measured TST <6 hours (relative risk [RR], 1.41; 95% CI, 0.83 to 2.39), and 83% had increased risk of SL ≥60 minutes (RR, 1.83; 95% CI, 0.65 to 5.14) (all P>0.05). Conclusion Neither subclinical hypothyroidism nor hyperthyroidism is significantly associated with decreased sleep quality. PMID:24449663

  1. Thyroid hormone receptor can modulate retinoic acid-mediated axis formation in frog embryogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Banker, D E; Eisenman, R N

    1993-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptor acts as a hormone-dependent transcriptional transactivator and as a transcriptional repressor in the absence of thyroid hormone. Specifically, thyroid hormone receptor can repress retinoic acid-induced gene expression through interactions with retinoic acid receptor. (Retinoic acid is a potent teratogen in the frog Xenopus laevis, acting at early embryonic stages to interfere with the formation of anterior structures. Endogenous retinoic acid is thought to act in normal anterior-posterior axis formation.) We have previously shown that thyroid hormone receptor RNA (alpha isotype) is expressed and polysome-associated during Xenopus embryogenesis preceding thyroid gland maturation and endogenous thyroid hormone production (D. E. Banker, J. Bigler, and R. N. Eisenman, Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:5079-5089, 1991). To determine whether thyroid hormone receptor might influence the effects of retinoic acid in early frog development, we have examined the results of ectopic thyroid hormone receptor expression on retinoic acid teratogenesis. We demonstrate that microinjections of full-length thyroid hormone receptor RNA protect injected embryos from retinoic acid teratogenesis. DNA binding is apparently essential to this protective function, as truncated thyroid hormone receptors, lacking DNA-binding domains but including hormone-binding and dimerization domains, do not protect from retinoic acid. We have shown that microinjections of these dominant-interfering thyroid hormone receptors, as well as anti-thyroid hormone receptor antibodies, increase retinoic acid teratogenesis in injected embryos, presumably by inactivating endogenous thyroid hormone receptor. This finding suggests that endogenous thyroid hormone receptors may act to limit retinoic acid sensitivity. On the other hand, after thyroid hormone treatment, ectopic thyroid hormone receptor mediates teratogenesis that is indistinguishable from the dorsoanterior deficiencies produced in retinoic acid

  2. Alteration of Thyroid-Related Hormones within Normal Ranges and Early Functional Outcomes in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-yan; Li, Wen-yu; Hu, Xing-yue

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the prognostic value of thyroid-related hormones within normal ranges after acute ischemic stroke. This was a retrospective study and we reviewed 1072 ischemic stroke patients consecutively admitted within 72 h after symptom onset. Total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), free T3, free T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were assessed to determine their values for predicting functional outcome at the first follow-up clinic visits, which usually occurred 2 to 4 weeks after discharge from the hospital. 722 patients were finally included. On univariate analysis, poor functional outcome was associated with presence of atrial fibrillation as the index event. Furthermore, score of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), total T4, free T4, and C-reactive protein at admission were significantly higher in patients with poor functional outcome, whereas free T3 and total T3 were significantly lower. On multiple logistic regression analysis, lower total T3 concentrations remained independently associated with poor functional outcome [odds ratio (OR), 0.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.01–0.84; P = 0.035]. The only other variables independently associated with poor functional outcome were NIHSS scores. In sum, lower total T3 concentrations that were within the normal ranges were independently associated with poor short-term outcomes. PMID:27375741

  3. Alteration of Thyroid-Related Hormones within Normal Ranges and Early Functional Outcomes in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Yan; Li, Wen-Yu; Hu, Xing-Yue

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the prognostic value of thyroid-related hormones within normal ranges after acute ischemic stroke. This was a retrospective study and we reviewed 1072 ischemic stroke patients consecutively admitted within 72 h after symptom onset. Total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), free T3, free T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were assessed to determine their values for predicting functional outcome at the first follow-up clinic visits, which usually occurred 2 to 4 weeks after discharge from the hospital. 722 patients were finally included. On univariate analysis, poor functional outcome was associated with presence of atrial fibrillation as the index event. Furthermore, score of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), total T4, free T4, and C-reactive protein at admission were significantly higher in patients with poor functional outcome, whereas free T3 and total T3 were significantly lower. On multiple logistic regression analysis, lower total T3 concentrations remained independently associated with poor functional outcome [odds ratio (OR), 0.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.01-0.84; P = 0.035]. The only other variables independently associated with poor functional outcome were NIHSS scores. In sum, lower total T3 concentrations that were within the normal ranges were independently associated with poor short-term outcomes. PMID:27375741

  4. Kidney, thyroid and other organ functions after 40 years or more of lithium therapy: a case series of five patients

    PubMed Central

    Permoda-Osip, Agnieszka; Abramowicz, Maria; Kraszewska, Agnieszka; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Chlopocka-Wozniak, Maria; Rybakowski, Janusz K.

    2016-01-01

    We present the cases of five patients (two men aged 64 years and 79 years) and three women (aged 64 years, 65 years and 75 years) who have received lithium treatment for 40–45 years, with particular regard to kidney and thyroid functions, hypercalcaemia and cognition, in the context of disease course and overall functioning. Lithium was initiated in the early phase of the illness (in three patients within the first 2 years). In four patients, lithium concentration was between 0.60 and 0.65 mmol/l and in one patient, between 0.7 and 0.8 mmol/l. Four were very good lithium responders. One man had stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and the other stage 2/3 chronic kidney disease. All three women had asymptomatic stage 2 chronic kidney disease. One woman had severe thyroid dysfunction (Hashimoto’s disease) with extremely high levels of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies and antithyroglobulin antibodies and was receiving thyroxine. Serum calcium levels were normal or borderline in all five patients, and most cognitive functions were comparable to healthy persons of similar gender, age and years of education. All the patients were professionally active until 55–65 years and their family and social functioning were satisfactory. It was concluded that, in good lithium responders, ultra-long-term treatment with lithium enables good professional and psychosocial functioning, and the possible somatic side effects are manageable. PMID:27536347

  5. Kidney, thyroid and other organ functions after 40 years or more of lithium therapy: a case series of five patients.

    PubMed

    Permoda-Osip, Agnieszka; Abramowicz, Maria; Kraszewska, Agnieszka; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Chlopocka-Wozniak, Maria; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2016-08-01

    We present the cases of five patients (two men aged 64 years and 79 years) and three women (aged 64 years, 65 years and 75 years) who have received lithium treatment for 40-45 years, with particular regard to kidney and thyroid functions, hypercalcaemia and cognition, in the context of disease course and overall functioning. Lithium was initiated in the early phase of the illness (in three patients within the first 2 years). In four patients, lithium concentration was between 0.60 and 0.65 mmol/l and in one patient, between 0.7 and 0.8 mmol/l. Four were very good lithium responders. One man had stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and the other stage 2/3 chronic kidney disease. All three women had asymptomatic stage 2 chronic kidney disease. One woman had severe thyroid dysfunction (Hashimoto's disease) with extremely high levels of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies and antithyroglobulin antibodies and was receiving thyroxine. Serum calcium levels were normal or borderline in all five patients, and most cognitive functions were comparable to healthy persons of similar gender, age and years of education. All the patients were professionally active until 55-65 years and their family and social functioning were satisfactory. It was concluded that, in good lithium responders, ultra-long-term treatment with lithium enables good professional and psychosocial functioning, and the possible somatic side effects are manageable. PMID:27536347

  6. Implication of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake by affected lymph nodes in cases with differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Takaaki; Yajima, Reina; Tatsuki, Hironori; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of positron emission tomography using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) to detect metastatic lymph nodes in differentiated thyroid cancer. We also investigated whether certain factors, including the size of the metastasis to the lymph nodes, are associated with FDG avidity. A total of 22 consecutive patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who underwent FDG-PET preoperatively were enrolled in this study. Lymph node metastasis was diagnosed in the final pathology in 10 of the 22 patients (45.5%). The mean maximum standardized uptake value of the metastatic lymph nodes was 4.53 (range, 0–23.5). The 22 cases with differentiated thyroid cancer were divided into two groups based on lymph node metastasis. Clinicopathological variables other than FDG uptake of metastatic lymph nodes were not predictors of lymph node metastasis of thyroid cancer. The sensitivity, specificity, overall accuracy and false-negative rates of preoperative FDG-PET in the prediction of lymph node status were 40.0, 100, 72.7 and 60.0%, respectively. The false-positive rate of FDG-PET evaluation was 0%. The mean largest dimension of metastasis was 23.0 mm for FDG-positive cases and 10.9 mm for FDG-negative cases. There was a marked difference in the size of metastases between FDG-positive and -negative cases; however, even in patients with node metastasis >10 mm, the false-negative rate was 50.0%. Therefore, FDG-PET imaging was not found to be sufficient for the evaluation of lymph node status, particularly in cases with small metastases. Our findings indicate that preoperative FDG-PET evaluation of the lymph nodes cannot be considered predictive of the final pathology. PMID:27600496

  7. Thyroid hormones in milk: physiological approach--a review.

    PubMed

    Strbák, V; Macho, L; Skultétyová, M; Michalicková, J; Pohlová, G

    1983-10-01

    Reported values of the concentration of thyroid hormones in milk vary substantially. There are some doubts on the specificity of methods used for their estimation. We aimed, therefore, to study the effects of mother milk on thyroid function parameters in sucklings as well as at the effect of milk secretion on maternal thyroid. According to Fukuda et al. [1980] the lactation induces a hypothyroid state in the rat (high TSH, low thyroid hormones in maternal plasma). In our study the weaning of 18-day old rats resulted in gradual decrease of T4 in suckling plasma through 24 h followed with a transient thyroid activation. Thyroidectomy of lactating rats resulted in a transient decrease of T4 in sucklings. The difference in mother milk intake achieved by different litter size also affected the thyroid function of sucklings. The pups from small size litters (more milk consumption) had low thyroid secretion rate and low plasma TSH, while the level of T4 in plasma was high under a higher growth rate and accelerated overall maturation. All these results suggest an exogenous intake of thyroid hormones in suckling rat. We found that lactation in women resulted in lower T4 and higher TSH in plasma as compared to women who had interrupted their lactation. In the next part of our study more than 80 infants were longitudinally followed and sampled at birth (cord blood), at 2, 6 and 10 weeks and at 4, 6, 9 and 12 months. Only moderate differences were found at 4 months (high rT3) in breast fed infants and 9 at months (high T3 in plasma of infants weaned during the first week of life) when the data were evaluated according to the type of feeding. Thyroid activity of human milk was tested by feeding thyroidectomized rats with a diet containing human milk. Although plasma TSH was affected by such a diet, we did not detect any T4 and T3 in plasma of thyroidectomized rats which probably refects low calculated intake of hormones with the diet. We conclude that the lactation affects the

  8. 2,2",4,4"-TETRABROMODIPHENYL (PBDE 47) ALTERS THYROID FUNCTION IN THE RAT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two commercial PBDE mixtures, DE-71 and DE-79, cause dose-dependent depletion of serum T4 via induction of UGTs and increased CYP1A1 activity. This work characterized the effect of a major congener, PBDE-47, in DE-71 for effects on hepatic enzymes and thyroid hormones. Female 27...

  9. Effects of prolonged exposure to perchlorate on thyroid and reproductive function in zebrafish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Patino, R.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of prolonged exposure to perchlorate on (1) thyroid status and reproductive performance of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and (2) F1 embryo survival and early larval development. Using a static-renewal procedure, mixed sex populations of adult zebrafish were exposed to 0, 10, and 100 mg/l nominal concentrations of waterborne perchlorate for 10 weeks. Thyroid histology was qualitatively assessed, and females and males were separated and further exposed to their respective treatments for six additional weeks. Eight females in each tank replicate (n = 3) were paired weekly with four males from the same respective treatment, and packed-egg (spawn) volume (PEV) was measured each of the last five weeks. At least once during weeks 14-16 of exposure, other end points measured included fertilization rate, fertilized egg diameter, hatching rate, standard length, and craniofacial development of 4-day-postfertilization larvae and thyroid hormone content of 3.5-h embryos and of exposed mothers. At 10 weeks of exposure, perchlorate at both concentrations caused thyroidal hypertrophy and colloid depletion. A marked reduction in PEV was observed toward the end of the 6-week spawning period, but fertilization and embryo hatching rates were unaffected. Fertilized egg diameter and larval length were increased by parental exposure to perchlorate. Larval head depth was unaffected but the forward protrusion of the lower jaw-associated cartilage complexes, Meckel's and ceratohyal, was decreased. Exposure to both concentrations of perchlorate inhibited whole-body thyroxine content in mothers and embryos, but triiodothyronine content was unchanged. In conclusion, prolonged exposure of adult zebrafish to perchlorate not only disrupts their thyroid endocrine system but also impairs reproduction and influences early F1 development. ?? 2007 Oxford University Press.

  10. How Does Maternal Employment Affect Children's Socioemotional Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    The maternal employment becomes an irreversible trend across the globe. The effect of maternal employment on children's socioemotional functioning is so pervasive that it warrants special attention to investigate into the issue. A trajectory of analytical framework of how maternal employment affects children's socioemotional functioning originates…

  11. Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and in postpartum period: treatment and latest recommendations.

    PubMed

    Vandana; Kumar, Amit; Khatuja, Ritu; Mehta, Sumita

    2014-05-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is the second most common endocrine disorder, only after diabetes mellitus, affecting females in reproductive age group. Pregnancy is associated with profound repercussions on the thyroid status of a lady. Thyroid dysfunctions such as hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis and thyroid nodules may develop during pregnancy leading to abortion, placental abruptions, pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and reduced intellectual function in the offspring. Thus, maintenance of euthyroid state is of utmost important for maternal and fetal well being during pregnancy as well as after. The Endocrine Society has issued latest guidelines regarding the diagnosis and management of thyroid dysfunction related to pregnancy. All the clinicians should be well aware of the latest recommendations regarding management of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy and in postpartum phase and practice them accordingly. PMID:24510157

  12. Quantitative Assessment of Cardiac Function in Fetuses of Women with Maternal Gestational Thyroid Dysfunction Using VVI Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meixin; Yu, Jing; Fu, Xiuxiu; Wan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background The study aimed to investigate the clinical value of velocity vector imaging (VVI) in assessing heart function in fetuses of pregnant women with thyroid dysfunction. The inter-observer and intra-observer variability was assessed for all VVI parameters observed. Material/Methods The participants were enrolled from singleton pregnant women with gestational ages ranging 24+0 to 40+1 weeks who visited the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, China, for prenatal care from July 2011 to February 2014. Digital 2-dimensional (2D) dynamic 4-chamber images of the heart were collected. A total of qualified 226 images from 125 fetuses of pregnant women with normal thyroid (control group), 64 fetuses of pregnant women with hypothyroidism (hypothyroidism group), and 37 fetuses of pregnant women with hyperthyroidism (hyperthyroidism group) were interrogated offline using VVI software. The echocardiographic parameters including the myocardium peak systolic velocity (Vs), peak diastolic velocity (Vd), peak systolic strain (S), peak systolic strain rate (SRs), peak diastolic strain rate (SRd) of RV and LV, were obtained from the velocity curves of 2D myocardial motion. The heart rate was measured using a virtual M-mode algorithm built into the software. Results The study found that the longitudinal Vs and Vd of both ventricles in the control group gradually decreased from basal segments to apical segments and significantly increased over the gestation. S, SRs, and SRd of both ventricles remained stable after middle gestation. Compared with the control group, the hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism groups exhibited significantly reduced S, SRs, and SRd, even for fetuses at 24-weeks gestation. There were no significant differences in global Vs and global Vd between the control group and the hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism groups. Conclusions The thyroid dysfunction of pregnant women may damage fetal heart function, and

  13. Reproductive manifestations of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C A

    1994-05-01

    Thyroid function and reproductive function have many interactions, the scope and mechanism of which are not fully understood. These functions are of greatest clinical importance for veterinarians working with breeders of purebred dogs. Thyroid dysfunction does not always result in clinical signs of reproductive disorders or in subfertility. It seems that animals with overt thyroid dysfunction are those most likely to manifest reproduction problems. PMID:8053110

  14. Thyroid Disease and the Heart.

    PubMed

    Klein, Irwin; Danzi, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid hormones have an intimate relationship with cardiac function. Some of the most significant clinical signs and symptoms of thyroid disease are the cardiac manifestations. In both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, the characteristic physiological effects of thyroid hormone can be understood from the actions at the molecular and cellular level. Here we explore topics from the metabolism and cellular effects of thyroid hormone to special considerations related to statin and amiodarone therapy for the alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism that accompany heart disease. PMID:26792255

  15. Structural functional associations of the orbit in thyroid eye disease: Kalman filters to track extraocular rectal muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nelson, Katrina; Mundy, Kevin; Luo, Yifu; Harrigan, Robert L.; Damon, Steve; Fabbri, Daniel; Mawn, Louise; Landman, Bennett

    2016-03-01

    Pathologies of the optic nerve and orbit impact millions of Americans and quantitative assessment of the orbital structures on 3-D imaging would provide objective markers to enhance diagnostic accuracy, improve timely intervention, and eventually preserve visual function. Recent studies have shown that the multi-atlas methodology is suitable for identifying orbital structures, but challenges arise in the identification of the individual extraocular rectus muscles that control eye movement. This is increasingly problematic in diseased eyes, where these muscles often appear to fuse at the back of the orbit (at the resolution of clinical computed tomography imaging) due to inflammation or crowding. We propose the use of Kalman filters to track the muscles in three-dimensions to refine multi-atlas segmentation and resolve ambiguity due to imaging resolution, noise, and artifacts. The purpose of our study is to investigate a method of automatically generating orbital metrics from CT imaging and demonstrate the utility of the approach by correlating structural metrics of the eye orbit with clinical data and visual function measures in subjects with thyroid eye disease. The pilot study demonstrates that automatically calculated orbital metrics are strongly correlated with several clinical characteristics. Moreover, it is shown that the superior, inferior, medial and lateral rectus muscles obtained using Kalman filters are each correlated with different categories of functional deficit. These findings serve as foundation for further investigation in the use of CT imaging in the study, analysis and diagnosis of ocular diseases, specifically thyroid eye disease.

  16. Structural Functional Associations of the Orbit in Thyroid Eye Disease: Kalman Filters to Track Extraocular Rectal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nelson, Katrina; Mundy, Kevin; Luo, Yifu; Harrigan, Robert L; Damon, Steve; Fabbri, Daniel; Mawn, Louise; Landman, Bennett

    2016-01-01

    Pathologies of the optic nerve and orbit impact millions of Americans and quantitative assessment of the orbital structures on 3-D imaging would provide objective markers to enhance diagnostic accuracy, improve timely intervention and eventually preserve visual function. Recent studies have shown that the multi-atlas methodology is suitable for identifying orbital structures, but challenges arise in the identification of the individual extraocular rectus muscles that control eye movement. This is increasingly problematic in diseased eyes, where these muscles often appear to fuse at the back of the orbit (at the resolution of clinical computed tomography imaging) due to inflammation or crowding. We propose the use of Kalman filters to track the muscles in three-dimensions to refine multi-atlas segmentation and resolve ambiguity due to imaging resolution, noise, and artifacts. The purpose of our study is to investigate a method of automatically generating orbital metrics from CT imaging and demonstrate the utility of the approach by correlating structural metrics of the eye orbit with clinical data and visual function measures in subjects with thyroid eye disease. The pilot study demonstrates that automatically calculated orbital metrics are strongly correlated with several clinical characteristics. Moreover, the superior, inferior, medial and lateral rectus muscles obtained using Kalman filters are each correlated with different categories of functional deficit. These findings serve as foundation for further investigation in the use of CT imaging in the study, analysis and diagnosis of ocular diseases, specifically thyroid eye disease. PMID:27127330

  17. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... isthmus). The thyroid secretes three main hormones: 1) Thyroxine, that contains iodine, needed for growth and metabolism; ... also contains iodine and similar in function to Thyroxine; and 3) Calcitonin, which decreases the concentration of ...

  18. Horner's syndrome associated with a functional thyroid carcinoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Melián, C; Morales, M; Espinosa de los Monteros, A; Peterson, M E

    1996-12-01

    A seven-year-old entire male Irish setter was presented because of a neck mass, prolapse of the third eyelid and apparent drooping of the upper eyelid. Historical findings included increased appetite as well as polyuria and polydipsia for about two weeks. The most remarkable findings on physical examination were right-sided Horner's syndrome, pre-scapular lymphadenopathy and a large, ventral cervical mass. Lateral cervical radiographs showed a large, soft tissue opacity surrounding the trachea and retropharyngeal area which was causing displacement and narrowing of the cervical trachea and oesophagus. Results of thyroid testing suggested hyperthyroidism. At necropsy, a large, invasive tumour was identified in the ventral cervical region and multiple metastases of various sizes were detected in the lungs. Histopathological examination of the tumour revealed follicular thyroid carcinoma and confirmed widespread pulmonary metastasis. PMID:8981280

  19. Functional expression of the thyrotropin receptor in C cells: new insights into their involvement in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis

    PubMed Central

    Morillo-Bernal, Jesús; Fernández-Santos, José M; Utrilla, José C; de Miguel, Manuel; García-Marín, Rocío; Martín-Lacave, Inés

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid C cells, or parafollicular cells, are mainly known for producing calcitonin, a hormone involved in calcium homeostasis with hypocalcemic and hypophosphatemic effects. Classically, the main endocrine activity of this cell population has been believed to be restricted to its roles in serum calcium and bone metabolism. Nonetheless, in the last few years evidence has been accumulating in the literature with regard to local regulatory peptides secreted by C cells, such as somatostatin, ghrelin, thyrotropin releasing hormone or the recently described cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript, which could modify thyroid function. As thyrotropin is the main hormone controlling the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and, accordingly, thyroid function, we have examined the functional expression of the thyrotropin receptor in C-cell lines and in thyroid tissues. We have found that rat and human C-cell lines express the thyrotropin receptor at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, incubation of C cells with thyrotropin resulted in a 10-fold inhibition of thyrotropin-receptor expression, and a concomitant decrease of the steady-state mRNA levels for calcitonin and calcitonin gene-related peptide determined by quantitative real-time PCR was found. Finally, thyrotropin receptor expression by C cells was confirmed at protein level in both normal and pathological thyroid tissues by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. These results confirm that C cells, under regulation by thyrotropin, are involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and suggest a putative role in local fine-tuning of follicular cell activity. PMID:19493188

  20. Disruptive effects of persistent organohalogen contaminants on thyroid function in white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Villanger, G D; Lydersen, C; Kovacs, K M; Lie, E; Skaare, J U; Jenssen, B M

    2011-06-01

    We analysed levels of 56 organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) including brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides in the blubber of white (beluga) whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway (N=12; 6 adults [5 males and 1 female] and 6 subadults [4 males and 2 females]) collected in 1996-2001. We also measured circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the whales. The results confirm that OHC levels in these white whales are among the highest levels recorded in wildlife from Svalbard, and at the high end of the range when compared to white whales from the North American Arctic. A projection to latent structure (PLS) model (subadults and adult males grouped together) revealed that known or suspected thyroid disruptive contaminants (polybrominated diphenylether [PBDE]-28, -47, -99, -100, and -154, hexachlorobenzene [HCB], and PCB-105) were negatively correlated with circulating levels of total thyroxin (TT4), free T4 (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3). Most of these negative relationships were also confirmed using partial correlations controlling for length (and thus age) of the whales. The positive correlations of TT4, FT4 and FT3 with hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), chlorinated bornanes CHB-40 and CHB-62 revealed by the PLS model were not confirmed by partial correlations. TH levels in the present study appeared to be somewhat lower than levels measured in beluga whales from the Canadian Arctic. However, we were not able to determine if this was caused by different levels of OHCs, or differences in biological factors (e.g. age, sex, moulting status, and season) and analytical methods between the studies. Although the sample sizes were low and statistical models cannot depict the biological cause-effect relationships, this study suggests negative influences of specific OHCs, particularly PBDEs, on thyroid hormone levels in white

  1. miR-199a-3p displays tumor suppressor functions in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    De Cecco, Loris; Dugo, Matteo; Cassinelli, Giuliana; Pilotti, Silvana; Degl'Innocenti, Debora; Lanzi, Cinzia; Casalini, Patrizia; Pierotti, Marco A.; Greco, Angela; Borrello, Maria Grazia

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence is rapidly increasing. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC), the most frequent hystotype, usually displays good prognosis, but no effective therapeutic options are available for the fraction of progressive PTC patients. BRAF and RET/PTC are the most frequent driving genetic lesions identified in PTC. We developed two complementary in vitro models based on RET/PTC1 oncogene, starting from the hypothesis that miRNAs modulated by a driving PTC-oncogene are likely to have a role in thyroid neoplastic processes. Through this strategy, we identified a panel of deregulated miRNAs. Among these we focused on miR-199a-3p and showed its under-expression in PTC specimens and cell lines. We demonstrated that miR-199a-3p restoration in PTC cells reduces MET and mTOR protein levels, impairs migration and proliferation and, more interesting, induces lethality through an unusual form of cell death similar to methuosis, caused by macropinocytosis dysregulation. Silencing MET or mTOR, both involved in survival pathways, does not recapitulate miR-199a-3p-induced cell lethality, thus suggesting that the cooperative regulation of multiple gene targets is necessary. Integrated analysis of miR-199a-3p targets unveils interesting networks including HGF and macropinocytosis pathways. Overall our results indicate miR-199a-3p as a tumor suppressor miRNA in PTC. PMID:24810336

  2. Radioactive iodine therapy: Effect on functioning metastases of adenocarcinoma of the thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Seidlin, S.M.; Marinelli, L.D.; Oshry, E. )

    1990-09-01

    A case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the thyroid is reported in which treatment by means of radioactive iodine has been successful. The patient was completely thyroidectomized for malignant adenoma in 1923, with neither thyrotoxicosis then nor hypothyroidism postoperatively; 15 years later there developed classic symptoms of hyperthyroidism and severe pain in the lower back. In October 1939 a pulsating tumor removed from the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra proved to be metastatic thyroid adenocarcinoma (histologically well differentiated, with small follicles and colloid). In the next two years hyperthyroidism increased and roentgenograms revealed new metastases in the lungs, upper part of the right femur, second rib on the left side, left ilium, and skull. Roentgenologic irradiation of the metastases proved ineffectual. In March 1943 a tracer dose of radioactive iodine revealed iodine retention by all the known lesions and no evidence of residual thyroid tissue in the neck. Therapeutic amounts of radioactive iodine were administered orally between May and October 1943. Definite and lasting clinical improvement followed. In April 1944 and March 1945 additional I* was administered with a resultant disappearance of pain, increase in weight, and progressive change in all clinical criteria in the direction of hypothyroidism. Roentgenographic evidence pointed to an arrest if not a regression of the disease. No untoward effects followed this therapy. Radioactive iodine seems to be an effective therapeutic agent in the control of this type of tumor.

  3. Thyroid diseases and female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Mintziori, G; Anagnostis, P; Toulis, K A; Goulis, D G

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid diseases are very common in women of reproductive age. The aim of this study was to review the current evidence on physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of women with thyroid disorders that are currently seeking fertility, undergoing assisted reproduction technologies (ART) or being pregnant. Normal thyroid function is essential for normal function of the gonadal axis, thus important in maintaining normal reproductive capacity. On the contrary, any type of thyroid dysfunction may reduce the likelihood of pregnancy; the latter can be restored to normal after appropriate treatment. Over eight million children have been born as a result of assisted reproduction techniques (ART) since 1978. As these procedures are becoming more common in clinical practice, the exact impact of thyroid status on reproductive outcomes as well as that of drugs used in ART on thyroid function has to be fully elucidated. Maternal thyroid function is crucial, especially during the first weeks of gestation, for offspring's wellness and brain development. On the other hand, normal physiological mechanisms during gestation can have a major impact on maternal thyroid function. As human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)-like effect, high hCG concentrations are associated with thyroid stimulation, both functionally (lower serum TSH concentrations) and anatomically (increased thyroid volume). Although the association between maternal hypothyroidism and increased perinatal morbidity has been described for over a century, more recently, even the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as recurrent abortions and placental abruption. This is of major clinical significance, as anti-thyroid antibodies are surprisingly prevalent in pregnancy, especially during the first two trimesters. PMID:22278068

  4. Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... base of your neck, just below your Adam's apple. This gland makes thyroid hormone that travels in ... base of your neck, just below your Adam's apple. This gland makes thyroid hormone that travels in ...

  5. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  6. Thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... known prevention. Awareness of risk (such as previous radiation therapy to the neck) can allow earlier diagnosis and treatment. Sometimes, people with family histories and genetic mutations related to thyroid cancer will have their thyroid ...

  7. Thyroid ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: Cysts Enlargement of the thyroid gland ( goiter ) Thyroid nodules Your doctor can use these results and the results of other tests to direct your care. Additional conditions ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Papillary carcinoma of ...

  8. Thyroid Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... treated differently. Common thyroid disorders and problems include: Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a disorder in which your thyroid doesn’ ... normal after you get better. If you have hypothyroidism, however, the levels of T4 in your blood ...

  9. Thyroid Antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... blocking production of thyroid hormones and resulting in hypothyroidism . TBII is not routinely tested, but TSI is ... autoimmune disease . A low level of thyroid hormones ( hypothyroidism ) can cause symptoms, such as: Weight gain Fatigue ...

  10. Silent thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the thyroid gland. The disorder can cause hyperthyroidism , followed by hypothyroidism . ... earliest symptoms result from an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism). These symptoms may last for up to 3 ...

  11. Thyroid storm

    MedlinePlus

    Thyrotoxic storm; Hyperthyroid storm; Accelerated hyperthyroidism ... Thyroid storm occurs in people with untreated hyperthyroidism. It is usually brought on by a major stress such as trauma, heart attack, or infection. Thyroid storm is very rare.

  12. Thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications.

  13. Iodotyrosine deiodinase, a novel target of environmental halogenated chemicals for disruption of the thyroid hormone system in mammals.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Many synthetic chemicals have been identified as environmental contaminants with activity to disrupt normal function of the thyroid hormone system. Thyroid hormones play important roles in growth, development, differentiation, and basal metabolic homeostasis, as well as in brain development in human fetus and children, and thyroid dysfunction can have very serious consequences, including mental retardation. Environmental chemicals may affect thyroid hormone action in multiple ways, including reduced thyroid hormone synthesis owing to direct toxicity at the thyroid gland, interaction with thyroid hormone receptors and transporters such as transthyretin, and disturbance of thyroid hormone metabolism (e.g., glucuronidation, sulfation and deiodination). In addition, iodotyrosine deiodinase, which is involved in iodide salvage by catalyzing deiodination of iodinated by-products of thyroid hormone production, was recently identified as a possible new target for disruption of thyroid hormone homeostasis by environmental halogenated chemicals. This topic, after briefly summarizing findings on the thyroid hormone-disrupting action of environmental chemicals in mammals, focuses on the effects of environmental halogenated chemicals on iodotyrosine deiodinase activity. PMID:25177024

  14. Thyroid Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Myxedema coma and thyroid storm are thyroid emergencies associated with increased mortality. Prompt recognition of these states-which represent the severe, life-threatening conditions of extremely reduced or elevated circulating thyroid hormone concentrations, respectively-is necessary to initiate treatment. Management of myxedema coma and thyroid storm requires both medical and supportive therapies and should be treated in an intensive care unit setting. PMID:27598067

  15. Thyroid, spermatogenesis, and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Rajender, Singh; Monica, Marie Gray; Walter, Lee; Agarwal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Since the identification of thyroid hormone receptors on the testes, thyroid has been suggested to have a significant impact on the male reproductive tract, spermatogenesis, and male fertility. Several research articles on the role of thyroid in spermatogenesis or male infertility have been published in the last three decades. We conducted an exhaustive literature search was conducted in order to create an up-to-date review of literature. This review aims to discuss the impact of thyroid on testicular development, spermatogenesis, hypo- or hyper- thyroidism and male infertility, and the management of thyroid related abnormal semen profile. The literature revealed that thyroid significantly impacts testicular development and that abnormal thyroid profile affects semen quality and male fertility by compromising testicular size, sperm motility and ejaculate volume. A clear link exists between thyroid hormones, testicular development and spermatogenesis. Thyroid disease negatively affects spermatogenesis and consequently may cause male infertility. In such cases, infertility is reversible, but more studies need to be conducted, especially in post-pubertal males to cement the current findings. PMID:21622096

  16. Serotonin and Dopamine: Unifying Affective, Activational, and Decision Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Roshan; Nakamura, Kae; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin, like dopamine (DA), has long been implicated in adaptive behavior, including decision making and reinforcement learning. However, although the two neuromodulators are tightly related and have a similar degree of functional importance, compared with DA, we have a much less specific understanding about the mechanisms by which serotonin affects behavior. Here, we draw on recent work on computational models of dopaminergic function to suggest a framework by which many of the seemingly diverse functions associated with both DA and serotonin—comprising both affective and activational ones, as well as a number of other functions not overtly related to either—can be seen as consequences of a single root mechanism. PMID:20736991

  17. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2015-05-01

    Amiodarone is an effective medication for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Originally developed for the treatment of angina, it is now the most frequently prescribed antiarrhythmia drug despite the fact that its use is limited because of potential serious side effects including adverse effects on the thyroid gland and thyroid hormones. Although the mechanisms of action of amiodarone on the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone metabolism are poorly understood, the structural similarity of amiodarone to thyroid hormones, including the presence of iodine moieties on the inner benzene ring, may play a role in causing thyroid dysfunction. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction includes amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) and amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism (AIH). The AIT develops more commonly in iodine-deficient areas and AIH in iodine-sufficient areas. The AIT type 1 usually occurs in patients with known or previously undiagnosed thyroid dysfunction or goiter. The AIT type 2 usually occurs in normal thyroid glands and results in destruction of thyroid tissue caused by thyroiditis. This is the result of an intrinsic drug effect from the amiodarone itself. Mixed types are not uncommon. Patients with cardiac disease receiving amiodarone treatment should be monitored for signs of thyroid dysfunction, which often manifest as a reappearance of the underlying cardiac disease state. When monitoring patients, initial tests should include the full battery of thyroid function tests, thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and antithyroid antibodies. Mixed types of AIT can be challenging both to diagnose and treat and therapy differs depending on the type of AIT. Treatment can include thionamides and/or glucocorticoids. The AIH responds favorably to thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Amiodarone is lipophilic and has a long half-life in the body. Therefore, stopping the amiodarone therapy usually has little short-term benefit. PMID:24067547

  18. Thyroid Hormone and Cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Anthony Martin; Ojamaa, Kaie

    2016-01-01

    The heart is a major target of thyroid hormones, with maintenance of euthyroid hormone balance critical for proper function. In particular, chronic low thyroid function can eventually lead to dilated heart failure with impaired coronary blood flow. New evidence also suggests that heart diseases trigger a reduction in cardiac tissue thyroid hormone levels, a condition that may not be detectible using serum hormone assays. Many animal and clinical studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of low thyroid function in heart diseases with worse outcomes from this condition. Animal and human studies have also demonstrated many benefits from thyroid hormone treatment of heart diseases, particularly heart failure. Nonetheless, this potential treatment has not yet translated to patients due to a number of important concerns. The most serious concern involves the potential of accidental overdose leading to increased arrhythmias and sudden death. Several important clinical studies, which actually used excessive doses of thyroid hormone analogs, have played a major role in convincing the medical community that thyroid hormones are simply too dangerous to be considered for treatment in cardiac patients. Nonetheless, this issue has not gone away due primarily to overwhelmingly positive evidence for treatment benefits and a new understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying those benefits. This review will first discuss the clinical evidence for the use of thyroid hormones as a cardioprotective agent and then provide an overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying beneficial changes from thyroid hormone treatment of heart diseases. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1199-1219, 2016. PMID:27347890

  19. Nuclear cysteine cathepsin variants in thyroid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tedelind, Sofia; Poliakova, Kseniia; Valeta, Amanda; Hunegnaw, Ruth; Yemanaberhan, Eyoel Lemma; Heldin, Nils-Erik; Kurebayashi, Junichi; Weber, Ekkehard; Kopitar-Jerala, Nataša; Turk, Boris; Bogyo, Matthew; Brix, Klaudia

    2010-08-01

    The cysteine peptidase cathepsin B is important in thyroid physiology by being involved in thyroid prohormone processing initiated in the follicular lumen and completed in endo-lysosomal compartments. However, cathepsin B has also been localized to the extrafollicular space and is therefore suggested to promote invasiveness and metastasis in thyroid carcinomas through, e.g., ECM degradation. In this study, immunofluorescence and biochemical data from subcellular fractionation revealed that cathepsin B, in its single- and two-chain forms, is localized to endo-lysosomes in the papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line KTC-1 and in the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines HTh7 and HTh74. This distribution is not affected by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) incubation of HTh74, the only cell line that expresses a functional TSH-receptor. Immunofluorescence data disclosed an additional nuclear localization of cathepsin B immunoreactivity. This was supported by biochemical data showing a proteolytically active variant slightly smaller than the cathepsin B proform in nuclear fractions. We also demonstrate that immunoreactions specific for cathepsin V, but not cathepsin L, are localized to the nucleus in HTh74 in peri-nucleolar patterns. As deduced from co-localization studies and in vitro degradation assays, we suggest that nuclear variants of cathepsins are involved in the development of thyroid malignancies through modification of DNA-associated proteins. PMID:20536394

  20. [Thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research. PMID:22514922

  1. Thyroid function in newborn infants from goitrous and non goitrous mothers.

    PubMed

    Sunartini; Nakamura, H

    1991-12-01

    Endemic goiter is one of the health effects of iodine deficiency. Enlargement of the thyroid is often seen during pregnancy especially in the endemic iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) areas. Thyroid hormones have a vital role in the fetal development and maturation of the brain. The lack of these hormones may result in neurological damage. We measured thyroid hormones and TSH in cord blood and TSH in newborn's blood from dry blood spots on filter paper in 5-14 th days, from 58 non goitrous and 61 goitrous mothers. T4, T3 and TSH concentrations in cord blood were measured by enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) using enzymum test Boehringer and TSH from dry blood spots on filter paper were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Goiter size was graded as follows: O, I, II and III. There were significant differences in cord serum T3 concentrations between non goitrous and goitrous mothers with grade I, II and III. TSH concentration in newborn's blood from goitrous mothers of grade III were significantly higher than those from non goitrous mothers and from goitrous mothers of grade I. T4 concentration in cord blood from non goitrous mothers in IDD area was significantly lower than those from non IDD area and those from goitrous mothers in the IDD area. There were significant differences also between TSH concentration in newborn's blood spots from goitrous mothers in IDD area and those from goitrous mothers in non IDD area and from non goitrous mothers in IDD area. Two cases of congenital hypothyroidism were found in infants from goitrous mothers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1817205

  2. A selective TSH receptor antagonist inhibits stimulation of thyroid function in female mice.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Susanne; Nir, Eshel A; Eliseeva, Elena; Huang, Wenwei; Marugan, Juan; Xiao, Jingbo; Dulcey, Andrés E; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2014-01-01

    Because the TSH receptor (TSHR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid disease, a TSHR antagonist could be a novel treatment. We attempted to develop a small molecule, drug-like antagonist of TSHR signaling that is selective and active in vivo. We synthesized NCGC00242364 (ANTAG3) by chemical modification of a previously reported TSHR antagonist. We tested its potency, efficacy, and selectivity in a model cell system in vitro by measuring its activity to inhibit stimulation of cAMP production stimulated by TSH, LH, or FSH. We tested the in vivo activity of ANTAG3 by measuring its effects to lower serum free T4 and thyroid gene expression in female BALB/c mice continuously treated with ANTAG3 for 3 days and given low doses of TRH continuously or stimulated by a single administration of a monoclonal thyroid-stimulating antibody M22. ANTAG3 was selective for TSHR inhibition; half-maximal inhibitory doses were 2.1 μM for TSHR and greater than 30 μM for LH and FSH receptors. In mice treated with TRH, ANTAG3 lowered serum free T4 by 44% and lowered mRNAs for sodium-iodide cotransporter and thyroperoxidase by 75% and 83%, respectively. In mice given M22, ANTAG3 lowered serum free T4 by 38% and lowered mRNAs for sodium-iodide cotransporter and thyroperoxidase by 73% and 40%, respectively. In conclusion, we developed a selective TSHR antagonist that is effective in vivo in mice. This is the first report of a small-molecule TSHR antagonist active in vivo and may lead to a drug to treat Graves' disease. PMID:24169564

  3. Pemphigus vulgaris with solitary toxic thyroid nodule.

    PubMed

    Alfishawy, Mostafa; Anwar, Karim; Elbendary, Amira; Daoud, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune vesiculobullous disease, affecting the skin and mucous membranes. It is reported to be associated with other autoimmune diseases including autoimmune thyroid diseases. However we report herein a case of pemphigus vulgaris associated with autonomous toxic nodule. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old woman was evaluated for blisters and erosions that develop on her trunk, face, and extremities, with a five-year history of progressively enlarging neck mass, and a past medical history of pemphigus vulgaris seven years ago. The condition was associated with palpitation, dyspnea, and heat intolerance. Thyroid function tests and thyroid scan were compatible with the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis due to autonomous toxic nodule. Exacerbation of pemphigus vulgaris was proved by skin biopsy from the patient which revealed histologic picture of pemphigus vulgaris. Conclusion. Autoimmune thyroid diseases are reported to associate pemphigus vulgaris. To our knowledge, this case is the first in the English literature to report association between pemphigus vulgaris and autonomous toxic nodule and highlights the possibility of occurrence of pemphigus vulgaris with a nonautoimmune thyroid disease raising the question: is it just a coincidence or is there an explanation for the occurrence of both conditions together? PMID:25309761

  4. Inductive learning of thyroid functional states using the ID3 algorithm. The effect of poor examples on the learning result.

    PubMed

    Forsström, J

    1992-01-01

    The ID3 algorithm for inductive learning was tested using preclassified material for patients suspected to have a thyroid illness. Classification followed a rule-based expert system for the diagnosis of thyroid function. Thus, the knowledge to be learned was limited to the rules existing in the knowledge base of that expert system. The learning capability of the ID3 algorithm was tested with an unselected learning material (with some inherent missing data) and with a selected learning material (no missing data). The selected learning material was a subgroup which formed a part of the unselected learning material. When the number of learning cases was increased, the accuracy of the program improved. When the learning material was large enough, an increase in the learning material did not improve the results further. A better learning result was achieved with the selected learning material not including missing data as compared to unselected learning material. With this material we demonstrate a weakness in the ID3 algorithm: it can not find available information from good example cases if we add poor examples to the data. PMID:1551737

  5. Lifetime affect and midlife cognitive function: prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Richards, M.; Barnett, J. H.; Xu, M. K.; Croudace, T. J.; Gaysina, D.; Kuh, D.; Jones, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent affective problems are predictive of cognitive impairment, but the timing and directionality, and the nature of the cognitive impairment, are unclear. Aims To test prospective associations between life-course affective symptoms and cognitive function in late middle age. Method A total of 1668 men and women were drawn from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort). Longitudinal affective symptoms spanning age 13-53 years served as predictors; outcomes consisted of self-reported memory problems at 60-64 years and decline in memory and information processing from age 53 to 60-64 years. Results Regression analyses revealed no clear pattern of association between longitudinal affective symptoms and decline in cognitive test scores, after adjusting for gender, childhood cognitive ability, education and midlife socioeconomic status. In contrast, affective symptoms were strongly, diffusely and independently associated with self-reported memory problems. Conclusions Affective symptoms are more clearly associated with self-reported memory problems in late midlife than with objectively measured cognitive performance. PMID:24357571

  6. Does Subacromial Osteolysis Affect Shoulder Function after Clavicle Hook Plating?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Siwei; Gan, Minfeng; Sun, Han; Wu, Guizhong; Yang, Huilin; Zhou, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate whether subacromial osteolysis, one of the major complications of the clavicle hook plate procedure, affects shoulder function. Methods. We had performed a retrospective study of 72 patients diagnosed with a Neer II lateral clavicle fracture or Degree-III acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from July 2012 to December 2013. All these patients had undergone surgery with clavicle hook plate and were divided into two groups based on the occurrence of subacromial osteolysis. By using the Constant-Murley at the first follow-up visit after plates removal, we evaluated patients' shoulder function to judge if it has been affected by subacromial osteolysis. Results. We have analyzed clinical data for these 72 patients, which shows that there is no significant difference between group A (39 patients) and group B (33 patients) in age, gender, injury types or side, and shoulder function (the Constant-Murley scores are 93.38 ± 3.56 versus 94.24 ± 3.60, P > 0.05). Conclusion. The occurrence of subacromial osteolysis is not rare, and also it does not significantly affect shoulder function. PMID:27034937

  7. Clinicoepidemiological Observational Study of Acquired Alopecias in Females Correlating with Anemia and Thyroid Function

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Kirti; Sharma, Yugal K.; Wadhokar, Meenakshi; Tyagi, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Alopecia can either be inherited or acquired; the latter, more common, can be diffuse, patterned, and focal, each having cicatricial and noncicatricial forms. This observational study of 135 cases in a semiurban Indian population aimed to detect the prevalence of various forms of acquired alopecia in females and correlate the same with levels of hemoglobin, serum ferritin, triiodothyronine, thyroxin, and thyroid stimulating hormone. The majority (84, 62.2%) of our cases of alopecia had telogen effluvium followed by female pattern alopecia (32, 23.7%). Stress (86, 63.7%), topical application of chemicals (72, 53.3%), systemic medications for concurrent illnesses (62, 5%), and pregnancy (14, 10.3%) were the common exacerbating factors. Neither low hemoglobin (<12 gm%, 73.4%) nor low serum ferritin (<12 μg/L, 6.7%) was found to be statistically significant. A majority (90, 90.9%) of 99 cases with anemia (hemoglobin levels of <12 gm%) had serum ferritin levels >12 μg/L. Though lack of vitamin B12 testing was a limitation of our study, its deficiency could be the probable cause of iron deficiency as the majority (58, 64.4%) of these cases, as indeed majority (89, 65.4%) of our study population, were vegetarians. Thyroid disorders (23, 17%, including 9 newly diagnosed) were not of significance statistically. PMID:26904106

  8. Mechanistic aspects of ingested chlorine dioxide on thyroid function: impact of oxidants on iodide metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Bercz, J.P.; Jones, L.L.; Harrington, R.M.; Bawa, R.; Condie, L.

    1986-11-01

    Toxicological studies dealing with recent findings of health effects of drinking water disinfectants are reviewed. Experiments with monkeys and rodents indicate that the biological activity of ingested disinfectants is expressed via their chemical interaction with the mucosal epithelia, secretory products, and nutritional contents of the alimentary tract. Evidence exists that a principal partner of this redox interaction is the iodide of nutritional origin that is ubiquitous in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus the observation that subchronic exposure to chlorine dioxide (ClO/sub 2/) in drinking water decreases serum thyroxine levels in mammalian species can be best explained with changes produced in the chemical form of the bioavailable iodide. Ongoing and previously reported mechanistic studies indicate that oxidizing agents such as chlorine-based disinfectants oxidize the basal iodide content of the gastrointestinal tract. The resulting reactive iodine species readily attaches to organic matter by covalent bonding. Evidence suggests that the extent to which such iodinated organics are formed is proportional to the magnitude of the electromotive force and stoichiometry of the redox couple between iodide and the disinfectant. Because the extent of thyroid uptake of the bioavailable iodide does not decrease during ClO/sub 2/ ingestion, it seems that ClO/sub 2/ does not cause iodide deficiency of sufficient magnitude to account for the decease in hormonogenesis. Absorption of one or more of iodinated molecules, e.g., nutrient, hormones, or cellular constituents of the alimentary tract having thyromimetic or thyroid inhibitory properties, is a better hypothesis for the effects seen.

  9. Clinicoepidemiological Observational Study of Acquired Alopecias in Females Correlating with Anemia and Thyroid Function.

    PubMed

    Deo, Kirti; Sharma, Yugal K; Wadhokar, Meenakshi; Tyagi, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Alopecia can either be inherited or acquired; the latter, more common, can be diffuse, patterned, and focal, each having cicatricial and noncicatricial forms. This observational study of 135 cases in a semiurban Indian population aimed to detect the prevalence of various forms of acquired alopecia in females and correlate the same with levels of hemoglobin, serum ferritin, triiodothyronine, thyroxin, and thyroid stimulating hormone. The majority (84, 62.2%) of our cases of alopecia had telogen effluvium followed by female pattern alopecia (32, 23.7%). Stress (86, 63.7%), topical application of chemicals (72, 53.3%), systemic medications for concurrent illnesses (62, 5%), and pregnancy (14, 10.3%) were the common exacerbating factors. Neither low hemoglobin (<12 gm%, 73.4%) nor low serum ferritin (<12 μg/L, 6.7%) was found to be statistically significant. A majority (90, 90.9%) of 99 cases with anemia (hemoglobin levels of <12 gm%) had serum ferritin levels >12 μg/L. Though lack of vitamin B12 testing was a limitation of our study, its deficiency could be the probable cause of iron deficiency as the majority (58, 64.4%) of these cases, as indeed majority (89, 65.4%) of our study population, were vegetarians. Thyroid disorders (23, 17%, including 9 newly diagnosed) were not of significance statistically. PMID:26904106

  10. Thyroid hormone autoantibodies: are they a better marker to detect early thyroid damage in patients with hematologic cancers receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitor or immunoregulatory drug treatments?

    PubMed Central

    Mondello, P.; Mian, M.; Pitini, V.; Cuzzocrea, S.; Sindoni, A.; Galletti, M.; Mandolfino, M.; Santoro, D.; Mondello, S.; Aloisi, C.; Altavilla, G.; Benvenga, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unlike cytotoxic agents, novel antineoplastic drugs can variably affect thyroid function and so impair patient outcomes. However, the widely used standard thyroid tests have demonstrated low sensitivity for detecting early thyroid damage that leads to dysfunction of the gland. To find a more reliable thyroid marker, we assessed the presence of antibodies binding thyroid hormones (thAbs) in a cancer population undergoing potentially thyrotoxic treatment. Methods From April 2010 to September 2013, 82 patients with hematologic malignancies treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors or immunoregulatory drugs were recruited. Healthy volunteers (n = 104) served as control subjects. Thyroid function, autoimmunity tests, thAbs, and thyroid sonography were assessed once during treatment. Results Overall, thAb positivity was recorded in 13% of the entire cohort. In most cases, the thAbs were of a single type, with a predominance of T3 immunoglobulin G. More specifically, thAbs were detected in 11 cancer patients; and abnormal levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin antibody, and thyroperoxidase antibody were detected in 6 (p = 0.05), 0 (p = 0.0006), and 2 cancer patients (p = 0.001) respectively. Ultrasonographic alterations of the thyroid were observed in 12 cancer patients. In contrast, of the 104 healthy control subjects, only 1 was positive for thAbs (1%). Conclusions We have demonstrated for the first time that thAbs are a reliable marker of early thyroid dysfunction when compared with the widely used standard thyroid tests. A confirmatory prospective trial aiming at evaluating thAbs at various time points during treatment could clarify the incidence and timing of antibody appearance. PMID:27330353

  11. Thyroid Hormones as Renal Cell Cancer Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Matak, Damian; Bartnik, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary; Czarnecka, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that thyroid hormone is an important regulator of cancer development and metastasis. What is more, changes across the genome, as well as alternative splicing, may affect the activity of the thyroid hormone receptors. Mechanism of action of the thyroid hormone is different in every cancer; therefore in this review thyroid hormone and its receptor are presented as a regulator of renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27034829

  12. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. ... and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less ...

  13. Association of Thyroid Function with Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in Euthyroid Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, B.; Shetty, Ranjan; Rau, N.R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Thyroid hormone exerts multiple effects on the heart and vascular system. Variations of free T3 have been linked to coronary artery disease. We conducted a study to observe whether there is a relationship between the variation of the serum thyroid hormone levels (TSH, FT3 and FT4) and the presence and severity of CAD in the euthyroid patients. Aim To study association of serum TSH, FT4 and FT3 levels within the normal range with presence and severity of coronary artery disease. Materials and Methods A total of 100 euthyroid patients with stable angina, who underwent coronary angiography were enrolled in the study. Coronary artery disease was defined as >50% stenosis in the luminal diameter in at least one major epicardial coronary artery. The Gensini scoring system was used to define the severity of the CAD and serum TSH, FT3 and FT4 levels were measured by the chemiluminescence method. Results Single vessel disease was found in 23%, double vessel disease in 15% and triple vessel disease in 17% of patients. TSH and FT4 levels were also comparable between the groups. Normal coronary group had significantly higher mean FT3 values than triple vessel disease (p=0.004) and FT3 levels showed an inverse relation with Gensini score (Pearson’s correlation =- 0.30) (p =0.002). A level of FT3 ≤ 2.7 predicted the severity of CAD with a 70% sensitivity and 60% specificity (area under curve (AUC): 0.755, p=0.001). Conclusion In the absence of primary thyroid disease and acute coronary syndrome, the occurrence of CAD is associated with lower serum levels of FT3. FT3 and not the FT4 and TSH levels may be used as an indicator of increased risk for severe CAD. The present study clearly shows the existence of a strong association between the reduction of biologically active T3 and severity of coronary artery disease. However, low T3 state could be at first interpreted as just a biological risk factor of severe coronary artery disease; only the demonstration of

  14. Epidemiological trends of iodine-related thyroid disorders: an example from Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Gaberšček, Simona; Zaletel, Katja

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology of thyroid disorders is significantly associated with iodine supply. In 1999, Slovenia increased iodine content in kitchen salt from 10 mg to 25 mg of potassium iodide per kg of salt. According to the WHO criteria, Slovenia shifted from a mildly iodine-deficient country to a country with adequate iodine intake. Ten years after the increase in iodine intake, the incidence of diffuse goitre and thyroid autonomy decreased. Now patients with diffuse goitre and thyroid autonomy reach older age than the patients before the increase in iodine intake. In addition, patients with thyroid autonomy are less frequently hyperthyroid than ten years ago and iodine-induced hyperthyroidism is less severe. The incidence of highly malignant thyroid carcinoma has also dropped. However, the incidence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis increased, most probably in genetically predisposed individuals. Over the last ten years, many animal and in vitro studies evaluated the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) on various aspects of the thyroid function. They mostly studied the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated chemicals, and perchlorate. However, human studies on the effects of EDCs on the thyroid function are very scarce, especially the long-term ones. What they do suggest is that PCBs and dioxins interfere with the transport of thyroid hormones and adversely affect the thyroid function. Many authors agree that iodine deficiency predisposes the thyroid gland to harmful effects of EDCs. Therefore the effects of EDCs in iodine-deficient areas could be more severe than in areas with adequate iodine intake. PMID:27331296

  15. [Postpartum thyroiditis. A review].

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Hernández, Z; Segura-Domínguez, A

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a transient thyroid dysfunction of autoimmune origin that can occur in the first year postpartum in women who have not been previously diagnosed with thyroid disease. It may start with clinical thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism and the subsequent recovery of thyroid function, or may just appear as isolated thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. PPT recurs in high percentage of patients after subsequent pregnancies. Many women develop permanent hypothyroidism sometime during the 3 to 10 year period after an episode of PPT. It is important for family physicians to be familiar with this disease, due to its high prevalence in order to make a correct diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Family doctors also play a crucial role in the monitoring of these patients, given the negative implications of established hypothyroidism on reproduction in the female population during their reproductive years. This article reviews the principle characteristics of PPT along with its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23834978

  16. Effects of bedrest and centrifugation of humans on serum thyroid function tests.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Driscoll, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Changes in plasma volume and protein concentration have been reported when normal subjects are bedrested or centrifuged. Since thyroid hormones are transported by specific plasma proteins, each of these procedures could be expected to change plasma levels of these hormones. In this study centrifugation of normal healthy human subjects produced an increased concentration of total protein and albumin. When these same subjects were bedrested for six days, no change in total protein, albumin or thyroxine binding globulin were found although there was an eight per cent decrease in plasma volume. Centrifugation and, to a lesser extent, bedrest produced changes in serum T-4 levels and the T-3 test results. The direction of these changes (decreased % T-3 values and increased T-4 levels) indicate that these two situations produce an increased plasma concentration of thyroxine binding sites.

  17. Effect of chronic douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine on iodine absorption and thyroid function

    SciTech Connect

    Safran, M.; Braverman, L.E.

    1982-07-01

    Daily vaginal douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine in 12 euthyroid volunteers for 14 days resulted in a significant increase in serum total iodine concentration and urine iodine excretion. The increase in serum total iodine was associated with a marked decrease in 24-hour /sup 123/I uptake by the thyroid and a small but significant increase in serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration. However, values for serum TSH never rose above the normal range. No significant changes in serum thyroxine (T4), free T4 index (FTI), or triiodothyronine concentrations were observed, although serum T4 and FTI did decrease slightly during treatment. The findings suggest that iodine is absorbed across the vaginal mucosa and that the subsequent increase in serum total iodine does induce subtle increases in serum TSH concentration. There was no evidence, however, of overt hypothyroidism in these euthyroid women.

  18. Assessment of petroleum streams for thyroid toxicity.

    PubMed

    Fowles, Jeff R; Banton, Marcy I; Boogaard, Peter J; Ketelslegers, Hans B; Rohde, Arlean M

    2016-07-01

    in the JP-8 or F-179 products than in studies in which thyroid effects were not observed. Thus, a few products may carry a weak potential to affect the thyroid at high doses in rodents, possibly through secondary effects on the rodent liver or possibly through a pathway involving the inhibition of TPO by specific members of the PAH family. Human epidemiology evidence found weak and inconsistent effects on the thyroid but without identification of specific chemicals involved. Two studies in petroleum workers, which found a lower rate of morbidity and mortality overall, reported a statistically significant increase in thyroid cancer, but the small number of cases could not exclude confounding variables as possible explanations for the statistical findings. Overall, the available data indicates a low potential for thyroid hormone effects from exposure to petroleum streams, especially when the aromatic content is low. Because regulatory studies for most chemicals do not include detailed thyroid function or receptor studies, it remains possible that subclinical effects on this system may exist that were not detectable using conventional pathology or hormone measurements. PMID:27150732

  19. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Drozd, Valentina M.; Saenko, Vladimir A.; Brenner, Alina V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I.; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V.; Demidchik, Yuri E.; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I.; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer. PMID:26397978

  20. [Thyroid Adenomas in Children].

    PubMed

    Morozov, D A; Pimenova, E S; Mirokova, E D

    2015-01-01

    According to the papers thyroid nodules are quite rare in the first two decades of life. However, there are some exceptions, relating to areas with an iodine deficiency or affected by radioactive fallout, where the risk of nodules and carcinomas is increased. Therefore, it is a great challenge for the physician to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions preoperatively, and not only in these areas of greater risk. The authors analyzed current works, which are devoted to diagnostics and treatment of adenomas of thyroid gland in children. This literature review is based on works dedicated to epidemiology, histotypes study, and methods of diagnostics, surgical treatment, prognosis and complications of this pathology. The current tendencies in surgical approaches, intraoperative monitoring of recurrent laryngeal nerve are also discussed. The actuality of this problem is connected with last decade increase of adenomas in structure of thyroid gland nodules, increase of number of patients with multiple adenomas and with polypathias: adenomas with nodular goiter, autoimmune thyroiditis and cancer in children. The difficulties of diagnostic of adenomas are related to the similar clinical symptoms, cytogenetic characteristics of growth of benign and malignant lesions of thyroid gland. Additionally there is no systematic review about thyroid adenomas in children recent years. PMID:26846075

  1. Effects of 3,5-Diiodotyrosine and Potassium Iodide on Thyroid Function and Oxidative Stress in Iodine-Excess Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Lin, Xinying; Yu, Fugui; Zhang, Man; Chen, Hongxia; Bao, Wei; Wang, Xia

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of organic iodine (3,5-diiodotyrosine, DIT) and inorganic iodine (potassium iodine, KI) on thyroid function and oxidative stress in iodine-excess Wistar rats. Seventy-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups: normal control (NC), thyroid tablet-induced hyperthyroidism model (HM), low DIT (L-DIT), medium DIT (M-DIT), high DIT (H-DIT), low KI (L-KI), medium KI (M-KI), and high KI (H-KI). All rats were fed ad libitum for 30 days. Morphological changes in the thyroid, absolute and relative weights of the thyroid, thyroid function markers free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4), urinary iodine level, and oxidative stress indicators were measured. Compared to the HM groups, the FT3 and FT4 levels decreased in the L-DIT groups; the thyroid weight and thyroid weight/body weight values decreased markedly in the L-DIT and M-DIT groups; serum superoxide dismutase/malondialdehyde increased markedly; glutathione peroxidase activity increased markedly in the L-DIT groups; and malondialdehyde levels decreased significantly in the M-DIT groups. However, the FT3 and FT4 levels decreased and glutathione peroxidase levels increased significantly in the DIT groups compared to their corresponding KI groups. Additionally, urinary iodine levels increased significantly in both DIT and KI groups, while the highest urinary iodine excretion was showed in the DIT groups among groups. When the addition of iodine with the same doses in iodine-excess rats, although neither DIT nor KI normalized iodine levels in the iodine-excess rats, the DIT did less damage than did KI to thyroid follicular cells. Therefore, DIT rather than KI had a protective effect by balancing the antioxidant system when exposed to supraphysiological iodine. These suggest that DIT may be used as a new alternative iodized salt in the universal salt iodization to avoid the potential damage of surplus KI. PMID:26002813

  2. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Nazarpour, Sima; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective), case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly identified and its long

  3. Functional significance of preserved affect recognition in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fiszdon, Joanna M.; Johannesen, Jason K.

    2009-01-01

    Affect recognition (AR) is a core component of social information processing, thus may be critical to understanding social behavior and functioning in broader aspects of daily living. Deficits in AR are well documented in schizophrenia, however, there is also evidence that many individuals with schizophrenia perform AR tasks at near-normal levels. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the functional significance of AR deficits in schizophrenia by comparing subgroups with normal-range and impaired AR performance on proxy and interviewer-rated measures of real-world functioning. Schizophrenia outpatients were classified as normal-range (N=17) and impaired (N=31) based on a logistic cut point in the sample distribution of BLERT scores, referenced to a normative sample of healthy control subjects (N=56). The derived schizophrenia subgroups were then compared on proxy (UCSD, UPSA, SSPA, MMAA) and interviewer-rated (QLS, ILSS) measures of functioning, as well as battery of neurocognitive tests. Initial analyses indicated superior MMAA and QLS performance in the near-normal AR subgroup. Covariate analyses indicated that group differences in neurocognition fully mediated the observed associations between AR and MMAA and attenuated the observed relationships between AR classification and QLS. These results support three main conclusions. First, AR, like many other domains of psychopathology studied in schizophrenia, is preserved in select subgroups. Second, there is a positive relationship between AR performance and functional outcome measures. Third, neurocognition appears to mediate the relationship between AR and measures of functioning. PMID:20202689

  4. Disruption of thyroid hormone functions by low dose exposure of tributyltin: an in vitro and in vivo approach.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Shruti; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha

    2014-09-15

    Triorganotins, such as tributyltin chloride (TBTCl), are environmental contaminants that are commonly found in the antifouling paints used in ships and other vessels. The importance of TBTCl as an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) in different animal models is well known; however, its adverse effects on the thyroid gland are less understood. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the thyroid-disrupting effects of this chemical using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. We used HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells for the in vitro studies, as they are a thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-positive and thyroid responsive cell line. For the in vivo studies, Swiss albino male mice were exposed to three doses of TBTCl (0.5, 5 and 50μg/kg/day) for 45days. TBTCl showed a hypo-thyroidal effect in vivo. Low-dose treatment of TBTCl exposure markedly decreased the serum thyroid hormone levels via the down-regulation of the thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) genes by 40% and 25%, respectively, while augmenting the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) expression was up-regulated in the thyroid glands of treated mice by 6.6-fold relative to vehicle-treated mice (p<0.05). In the transient transactivation assays, TBTCl suppressed T3 mediated transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, TBTCl was found to decrease the expression of TR. The present study thus indicates that low concentrations of TBTCl suppress TR transcription by disrupting the physiological concentrations of T3/T4, followed by the recruitment of NCoR to TR, providing a novel insight into the thyroid hormone-disrupting effects of this chemical. PMID:25101840

  5. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    PubMed

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. PMID:27590367

  6. Microbial composition affects the functioning of estuarine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Heather E; Martiny, Jennifer BH

    2013-01-01

    Although microorganisms largely drive many ecosystem processes, the relationship between microbial composition and their functioning remains unclear. To tease apart the effects of composition and the environment directly, microbial composition must be manipulated and maintained, ideally in a natural ecosystem. In this study, we aimed to test whether variability in microbial composition affects functional processes in a field setting, by reciprocally transplanting riverbed sediments between low- and high-salinity locations along the Nonesuch River (Maine, USA). We placed the sediments into microbial ‘cages' to prevent the migration of microorganisms, while allowing the sediments to experience the abiotic conditions of the surroundings. We performed two experiments, short- (1 week) and long-term (7 weeks) reciprocal transplants, after which we assayed a variety of functional processes in the cages. In both experiments, we examined the composition of bacteria generally (targeting the 16S rDNA gene) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) specifically (targeting the dsrAB gene) using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). In the short-term experiment, sediment processes (CO2 production, CH4 flux, nitrification and enzyme activities) depended on both the sediment's origin (reflecting differences in microbial composition between salt and freshwater sediments) and the surrounding environment. In the long-term experiment, general bacterial composition (but not SRB composition) shifted in response to their new environment, and this composition was significantly correlated with sediment functioning. Further, sediment origin had a diminished effect, relative to the short-term experiment, on sediment processes. Overall, this study provides direct evidence that microbial composition directly affects functional processes in these sediments. PMID:23235294

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF THYROID FUNCTION AND BONE TURNOVER ON LIPOPROTEIN PROFILE IN YOUNG PHYSICALLY ACTIVE MEN WITH DIFFERENT INSULIN SENSITIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Lutosławska, G.; Czajkowska, A.; Tkaczyk, J.; Mazurek, K.; Tomaszewski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity induces changes in the endocrine system. Previous data indicated that changes in insulin secretion and the tissue response to this hormone are very important for energy metabolism. It is believed that they are accompanied by changes in lipid metabolism, but factors contributing to this process are still disputed. The aim of this study was to assess interactions among insulin sensitivity, thyroid function, a bone turnover marker and serum lipid profile in young physically active men. Eighty-seven physical education students, aged 18-23 years, participated in the study. We measured serum levels of glucose, lipids, insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), osteocalcin and anthropometric parameters. Insulin sensitivity was determined using homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The median value of HOMA-IR (1.344) was used to divide the study population into Group A (above the median) and Group B (below the median). Men from both groups did not differ in anthropometric parameters or in daily physical activity. Triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were higher in Group A (P < 0.05). TSH and osteocalcin levels were similar in males with different HOMA-IR. Multiple regression analysis for TSH and osteocalcin showed that in Group A these hormones had no effect on plasma lipoproteins. However, in Group B they significantly determined the variation of plasma TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (in about 28% and 29%, respectively). We concluded that TSH and osteocalcin are involved in determination of a more healthy lipid profile at a certain level of insulin sensitivity. PMID:24899778

  8. The influence of thyroid function and bone turnover on lipoprotein profile in young physically active men with different insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kęska, A; Lutosławska, G; Czajkowska, A; Tkaczyk, J; Mazurek, K; Tomaszewski, P

    2014-06-01

    Physical activity induces changes in the endocrine system. Previous data indicated that changes in insulin secretion and the tissue response to this hormone are very important for energy metabolism. It is believed that they are accompanied by changes in lipid metabolism, but factors contributing to this process are still disputed. The aim of this study was to assess interactions among insulin sensitivity, thyroid function, a bone turnover marker and serum lipid profile in young physically active men. Eighty-seven physical education students, aged 18-23 years, participated in the study. We measured serum levels of glucose, lipids, insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), osteocalcin and anthropometric parameters. Insulin sensitivity was determined using homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The median value of HOMA-IR (1.344) was used to divide the study population into Group A (above the median) and Group B (below the median). Men from both groups did not differ in anthropometric parameters or in daily physical activity. Triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were higher in Group A (P < 0.05). TSH and osteocalcin levels were similar in males with different HOMA-IR. Multiple regression analysis for TSH and osteocalcin showed that in Group A these hormones had no effect on plasma lipoproteins. However, in Group B they significantly determined the variation of plasma TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (in about 28% and 29%, respectively). We concluded that TSH and osteocalcin are involved in determination of a more healthy lipid profile at a certain level of insulin sensitivity. PMID:24899778

  9. Preliminary validation of a short-term morphological assay to evaluate adverse effects on amphibian metamorphosis and thyroid function using Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Fort, D J; Rogers, R L; Morgan, L A; Miller, M F; Clark, P A; White, J A; Paul, R R; Stover, E L

    2000-01-01

    Short-term static-renewal studies were performed on Xenopus laevis embryos with 16 selected test materials from day 50 (stage 60) to day 64 (stage 66) (14-day test) to evaluate effects on tail resorption and thyroid function. Of the 16 test materials, nine were found to inhibit significantly the rate of tail resorption, four were found to stimulate metamorphosis and three had no appreciable effect on the rate of metamorphosis. In an effort to determine if the morphological effects observed were related to alteration in thyroid activity, measurement of triiodothyronine (T3) in the test organisms and coadministration studies using thyroxine (agonist) or propylthiouracil (antagonist) were performed based on the morphological response noted during tail resorption. Of the nine compounds found to inhibit the rate of tail resorption, six were found to reduce the levels of T3. In each case, the inhibitory response could be at least partially alleviated by the co-administration of thyroxine. Larvae exposed to the four stimulatory agents had somewhat elevated levels of T3 and were responsive to propylthiouracil antagonism. These results suggest that 12 of the 14 compounds tested in this study that altered the rate of tail resorption did so via the thyroid axis. Overall, the X. laevis model appeared to be a suitable system for evaluating the impact of environmental agents and chemical products on thyroid function. PMID:11139173

  10. [The effect of nonthyroidal diseases on the serum hormone level of the thyroid gland function regulation cycle].

    PubMed

    Weissel, M

    1983-08-01

    Thyroid hormone serum concentrations were measured in clinically apparently euthyroid patients suffering from diseases that have symptoms in common with thyroid dysfunction. The diseases investigated were: anorexia nervosa (n = 13), myocardial infarction (n = 13) cirrhosis of the liver (n = 19), terminal renal insufficiency (n = 30) and rheumatoid arthritis (n = 14). In each group, the patients were divided into groups according to the degree of their disease. A relative decrease in 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (TT3) serum levels is the most pronounced effect of all the non-thyroidal ailments investigated. Individual observations show that total and free thyroxine levels can also be lowered by some acute illnesses. Moreover, the extent of the decrease in TT3 serum levels depends significantly on the severity of the non-thyroidal illness. This phenomenon was observed in all ailments investigated. Based on our findings it is concluded that the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction may be extremely difficult in many non-thyroidal illnesses. This study should help the clinician to evaluate laboratory hormone data correctly in respect to the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction in patients with non-thyroidal illnesses. PMID:6618391

  11. Thyroid disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae: Different molecular response patterns lead to impaired eye development and visual functions.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Lisa; Ros, Albert; Rehberger, Kristina; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Segner, Helmut

    2016-03-01

    The vertebrate thyroid system is important for multiple developmental processes, including eye development. Thus, its environmentally induced disruption may impact important fitness-related parameters like visual capacities and behaviour. The present study investigated the relation between molecular effects of thyroid disruption and morphological and physiological changes of eye development in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Two test compounds representing different molecular modes of thyroid disruption were used: propylthiouracil (PTU), which is an enzyme-inhibitor of thyroid hormone synthesis, and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), which interacts with the thyroid hormone receptors. Both chemicals significantly altered transcript levels of thyroid system-related genes (TRα, TRβ, TPO, TSH, DIO1, DIO2 and DIO3) in a compound-specific way. Despite these different molecular response patterns, both treatments resulted in similar pathological alterations of the eyes such as reduced size, RPE cell diameter and pigmentation, which were concentration-dependent. The morphological changes translated into impaired visual performance of the larvae: the optokinetic response was significantly and concentration-dependently decreased in both treatments, together with a significant increase of light preference of PTU-treated larvae. In addition, swimming activity was impacted. This study provides first evidence that different modes of molecular action of the thyroid disruptors can be associated with uniform apical responses. Furthermore, this study is the first to show that pathological eye development, as it can be induced by exposure to thyroid disruptors, indeed translates into impaired visual capacities of zebrafish early life stages. PMID:26765085

  12. Dietary contaminant exposure affects plasma testosterone, but not thyroid hormones, vitamin A, and vitamin E, in male juvenile arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    PubMed

    Hallanger, Ingeborg G; Jørgensen, Even H; Fuglei, Eva; Ahlstrøm, Øystein; Muir, Derek C G; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2012-01-01

    Levels of persistent organic pollutants (POP), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are high in many Arctic top predators, including the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus). The aim of this study was to examine possible endocrine-disruptive effects of dietary POP exposure in male juvenile Arctic foxes in a controlled exposure experiment. The study was conducted using domesticated farmed blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus) as a model species. Two groups of newly weaned male foxes received a diet supplemented with either minke whale (Baleneoptera acutorostrata) blubber that was naturally contaminated with POP (exposed group, n = 5 or 21), or pork (Sus scrofa) fat (control group, n = 5 or 21). When the foxes were 6 mo old and had received the 2 diets for approximately 4 mo (147 d), effects of the dietary exposure to POP on plasma concentrations of testosterone (T), thyroid hormones (TH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), retinol (vitamin A), and tocopherol (viramin E) were examined. At sampling, the total body concentrations of 104 PCB congeners were 0.1 ± 0.03 μg/g lipid weight (l.w.; n = 5 [mean ± standard deviation]) and 1.5 ± 0.17 μg/g l.w. (n = 5) in the control and exposed groups, respectively. Plasma testosterone concentrations in the exposed male foxes were significantly lower than in the control males, being approximately 25% of that in the exposed foxes. There were no between-treatment differences for TH, TSH, retinol, or tocopherol. The results suggest that the high POP levels experienced by costal populations of Arctic foxes, such as in Svalbard and Iceland, may result in delayed masculine maturation during adolescence. Sex hormone disruption during puberty may thus have lifetime consequences on all aspects of reproductive function in adult male foxes. PMID:23030655

  13. THYROID HORMONE DISRUPTION: FROM KINETICS TO DYNAMICS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are chemicals that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormones (THs), or change circulating or t...

  14. Thyroid Function and its Implications in Oxidative Stress Influencing the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis in Adults with Down Syndrome: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Villani, E R; Onder, G; Carfì, A; Di Segni, C; Raimondo, S; Silvestrini, A; Meucci, E; Mancini, A

    2016-09-01

    People with Down syndrome (DS) show lower bone mass density (BMD) and a higher prevalence of hypothyroidism compared to general population. Furthermore, DS is a well-known high oxidative stress (OS) condition because genes involved in OS map on chromosome 21. Thyroid function too is involved in OS. Since both thyroid function and OS lead to lower BMD and osteoporotic fractures, we have explored correlations among BMD, thyroid hormones, and parameters of OS in DS adults. A total of 105 DS patients (48 males; 21-71 years; mean BMI 28.88±7.12 kg/m(2)) were enrolled in a cohort study, 48 of them undergoing thyroid replacement therapy. We evaluated thyroid function, BMD, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in blood plasma. TAC was assayed by H2O2-metmyoglobin system, as source of radicals, and by the chromogenous ABTS, with a latency time (LAG) in the appearance of its cation ABTS+proportional to antioxidant concentration. BMD was evaluated with DEXA, using WHO criteria to classify osteoporosis. Low BMD was found in 83.78% of patients. TSH and LAG did not correlate with BMD. Nevertheless, LAG significantly correlates to Z-scores estimated at the lumbar spine (r(2)=0.558; p=0.03) in hypothyroid patients. Our data show that low TAC could be more associated with reduced BMD rather than TSH itself in DS patients and that the OS could have a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis regarding the hypothyroid subgroup. PMID:27557341

  15. Transient Hypothyroidism after Radioiodine for Graves’ Disease: Challenges in Interpreting Thyroid Function Tests

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Michael T.; Doi, Suhail A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Graves’ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and is often managed with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. With current dosing schemes, the vast majority of patients develop permanent post-RAI hypothyroidism and are placed on life-long levothyroxine therapy. This hypothyroidism typically occurs within the first 3 to 6 months after RAI therapy is administered. Indeed, patients are typically told to expect life-long thyroid hormone replacement therapy to be required within this timeframe and many providers expect this post-RAI hypothyroidism to be complete and permanent. There is, however, a small subset of patients in whom a transient post-RAI hypothyroidism develops which, initially, presents exactly as the typical permanent hypothyroidism. In some cases the transient hypothyroidism leads to a period of euthyroidism of variable duration eventually progressing to permanent hypothyroidism. In others, persistent hyperthyroidism requires a second dose of RAI. Failure to appreciate and recognize the possibility of transient post-RAI hypothyroidism can delay optimal and appropriate treatment of the patient. We herein describe five cases of transient post-RAI hypothyroidism which highlight this unusual sequence of events. Increased awareness of this possible outcome after RAI for Graves’ disease will help in the timely management of patients. PMID:26864507

  16. Transient Hypothyroidism after Radioiodine for Graves' Disease: Challenges in Interpreting Thyroid Function Tests.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Michael T; Doi, Suhail A R

    2016-03-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and is often managed with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. With current dosing schemes, the vast majority of patients develop permanent post-RAI hypothyroidism and are placed on life-long levothyroxine therapy. This hypothyroidism typically occurs within the first 3 to 6 months after RAI therapy is administered. Indeed, patients are typically told to expect life-long thyroid hormone replacement therapy to be required within this timeframe and many providers expect this post-RAI hypothyroidism to be complete and permanent. There is, however, a small subset of patients in whom a transient post-RAI hypothyroidism develops which, initially, presents exactly as the typical permanent hypothyroidism. In some cases the transient hypothyroidism leads to a period of euthyroidism of variable duration eventually progressing to permanent hypothyroidism. In others, persistent hyperthyroidism requires a second dose of RAI. Failure to appreciate and recognize the possibility of transient post-RAI hypothyroidism can delay optimal and appropriate treatment of the patient. We herein describe five cases of transient post-RAI hypothyroidism which highlight this unusual sequence of events. Increased awareness of this possible outcome after RAI for Graves' disease will help in the timely management of patients. PMID:26864507

  17. Association between arsenic exposure and thyroid function: data from NHANES 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-01-01

    The association of arsenic variables in urine, total arsenic (UAS), arsenobetaine (UAB), dimethylarsinic acid (UDMA), and arsenic adjusted for arsenobetaine (UAAS) with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total serum thyroxine (FT4, TT4), free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3), and thyroglobulin (TGN) was evaluated by analyzing data from 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. For iodine deficient males, there was a positive association between TSH and UDMA (p < 0.01) and a negative association between the levels of TT4 and UDMA (p < 0.01). Levels of UAAS were inversely associated with the levels of TT4 for both iodine-deficient (p = 0.054) and iodine-replete females (p < 0.01). For iodine-replete females, levels of both TSH and TGN increased with decrease in the levels of both UAB (p < 0.01) and UAS (p < 0.01). There was also a negative association between TSH and UAB as well as UAS (p < 0.01). For iodine-replete males, increased levels of UDMA were associated with decreasing levels of FT4 (p = 0.03). PMID:26153429

  18. How does temperature affect the function of tissue macrophages?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Repasky, Elizabeth A.

    2011-03-01

    Macrophages create a major danger signal following injury or infection and upon activation release pro-inflammatory cytokines, which in turn help to generate febrile conditions. Thus, like other cells of the body, tissue macrophages are often exposed to naturally occurring elevations in tissue temperature during inflammation and fever. However, whether macrophages sense and respond to temperature changes in a specific manner which modulates their function is still not clear. In this brief review, we highlight recent studies which have analyzed the effects of temperatures on macrophage function, and summarize the possible underlying molecular mechanisms which have been identified. Mild, physiological range hyperthermia has been shown to have both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles in regulating macrophage inflammatory cytokine production and at the meeting presentation, we will show new data demonstrating that hyperthermia can indeed exert both positive and negative signals to macrophages. While some thermal effects are correlated with the induction of heat shock factors/heat shock proteins, overall it is not clear how mild hyperthermia can exert both pro- and anti-inflammatory functions. We also summarize data which shows that hyperthermia can affect other macrophage effector functions, including the anti-tumor cytotoxicity. Overall, these studies may help us to better understand the immunological role of tissue temperature and may provide important information needed to maximize the application of heat in the treatment of various diseases including cancer.

  19. Can the hydrophilicity of functional monomers affect chemical interaction?

    PubMed

    Feitosa, V P; Ogliari, F A; Van Meerbeek, B; Watson, T F; Yoshihara, K; Ogliari, A O; Sinhoreti, M A; Correr, A B; Cama, G; Sauro, S

    2014-02-01

    The number of carbon atoms and/or ester/polyether groups in spacer chains may influence the interaction of functional monomers with calcium and dentin. The present study assessed the chemical interaction and bond strength of 5 standard-synthesized phosphoric-acid ester functional monomers with different spacer chain characteristics, by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), ATR-FTIR, thin-film x-ray diffraction (TF-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and microtensile bond strength (μTBS). The tested functional monomers were 2-MEP (two-carbon spacer chain), 10-MDP (10-carbon), 12-MDDP (12-carbon), MTEP (more hydrophilic polyether spacer chain), and CAP-P (intermediate hydrophilicity ester spacer). The intensity of monomer-calcium salt formation measured by AAS differed in the order of 12-MDDP=10-MDP>CAP-P>MTEP>2-MEP. FTIR and SEM analyses of monomer-treated dentin surfaces showed resistance to rinsing for all monomer-dentin bonds, except with 2-MEP. TF-XRD confirmed the weaker interaction of 2-MEP. Highest µTBS was observed for 12-MDDP and 10-MDP. A shorter spacer chain (2-MEP) of phosphate functional monomers induced formation of unstable monomer-calcium salts, and lower chemical interaction and dentin bond strength. The presence of ester or ether groups within longer spacer carbon chains (CAP-P and MTEP) may affect the hydrophilicity, μTBS, and also the formation of monomer-calcium salts. PMID:24284259

  20. Thyroid doses for evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro; Akiba, Suminori; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Balonov, Mikhail

    2012-07-01

    A primary health concern among residents and evacuees in affected areas immediately after a nuclear accident is the internal exposure of the thyroid to radioiodine, particularly I-131, and subsequent thyroid cancer risk. In Japan, the natural disasters of the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 destroyed an important function of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1-NPP) and a large amount of radioactive material was released to the environment. Here we report for the first time extensive measurements of the exposure to I-131 revealing I-131 activity in the thyroid of 46 out of the 62 residents and evacuees measured. The median thyroid equivalent dose was estimated to be 4.2 mSv and 3.5 mSv for children and adults, respectively, much smaller than the mean thyroid dose in the Chernobyl accident (490 mSv in evacuees). Maximum thyroid doses for children and adults were 23 mSv and 33 mSv, respectively.

  1. Thyroid doses for evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro; Akiba, Suminori; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Balonov, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    A primary health concern among residents and evacuees in affected areas immediately after a nuclear accident is the internal exposure of the thyroid to radioiodine, particularly I-131, and subsequent thyroid cancer risk. In Japan, the natural disasters of the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 destroyed an important function of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1-NPP) and a large amount of radioactive material was released to the environment. Here we report for the first time extensive measurements of the exposure to I-131 revealing I-131 activity in the thyroid of 46 out of the 62 residents and evacuees measured. The median thyroid equivalent dose was estimated to be 4.2 mSv and 3.5 mSv for children and adults, respectively, much smaller than the mean thyroid dose in the Chernobyl accident (490 mSv in evacuees). Maximum thyroid doses for children and adults were 23 mSv and 33 mSv, respectively. PMID:22792439

  2. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... not yet known. Certain changes in a person’s DNA can cause thyroid cells to become cancerous. DNA is the chemical in each of our cells ... parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than just how we ...

  3. SU-E-I-24: Design and Fabrication of a Multi-Functional Neck and Thyroid Phantom for Medical Dosimetry and Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdizadeh, S; Sina, S; Karimipourfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F; Faghihi, R; Babaei, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is the design and fabrication of a multipurpose anthropomorphic neck and thyroid phantom for use in medical applications (i.e. quality control of images in nuclear medicine, and dosimetry). Methods: The designed neck phantom is composed of seven elliptic cylindrical slices with semi-major axis of 14 and semi-minor axis of 12.5 cm, each having the thickness of 2cm. Thyroid gland, bony part of the neck, and the wind pipe were also built inside the neck phantom. Results: The phantom contains some removable plugs,inside and at its surface to accommodate the TLD chips with different shapes and dimensions, (i.e. rod, cylindrical and cubical TLD chips)for the purpose of medical dosimetry (i.e. in radiology, radiotherapy, and nuclear medicine). For the purpose of quality control of images in nuclear medicine, the removable thyroid gland was built to accommodate the radioactive iodine. The female and male thyroid glands were built in two sizes separately. Conclusion: The designed phantom is a multi-functional phantom which is applicable for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy, and quality control of images in nuclear medicine.

  4. Thyroid gland function during cross adaptation to heat and cold in man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, K.; Sawhney, R. C.; Mathew, L.; Pichan, G.; Malhotra, A. S.

    1986-09-01

    Plasma thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels were monitored in 10 healthy euthyroid male subjects of the age group 20 to 30 years before and during heat and cold acclimatisation schedule in a sequential manner. The subjects were exposed to 45‡C DB and 30% relative humidity in a hot chamber for 2 hours daily for 8 consecutive days. Subsequently they were exposed to cold for 4 hours daily at 10‡C for 21 days. The mean plasma T4 and T3 concentration before exposure to heat were 7.87±0.82 ug/dl and 159.8±9.1 ng/dl respectively. A significant decrease in both T4 (p<0.05) and T3 (p<0.01) levels to mean values of 6.4±0.76 Μg/dl and 129±7.9 ng/dl was recorded on day 4 of exposure to heat. Further significant decrease (p<0.05) over the preceding T3 levels was observed on day 8 of heat exposure. Plasma T4 and T3 on day 21 of cold exposure was not significantly different from the levels reckoned after last day of heat exposure but was significantly lower than the pre-exposure values. Throughout the thermal stress schedule there was no change in the TSH levels. These observations suggest that a decrease in thyroid hormone levels during exposure to heat might be an adaptive process which continues even during cold acclimatisation.

  5. Quercetin Affects Erythropoiesis and Heart Mitochondrial Function in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Lina M; Salazar, Celia; Jensen, Erik; Ruiz, Paula A; Tiznado, William; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A; Barreto, Marlen; Elorza, Alvaro A

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid used as a food supplement, showed powerful antioxidant effects in different cellular models. However, recent in vitro and in vivo studies in mammals have suggested a prooxidant effect of quercetin and described an interaction with mitochondria causing an increase in O2 (∙-) production, a decrease in ATP levels, and impairment of respiratory chain in liver tissue. Therefore, because of its dual actions, we studied the effect of quercetin in vivo to analyze heart mitochondrial function and erythropoiesis. Mice were injected with 50 mg/kg of quercetin for 15 days. Treatment with quercetin decreased body weight, serum insulin, and ceruloplasmin levels as compared with untreated mice. Along with an impaired antioxidant capacity in plasma, quercetin-treated mice showed a significant delay on erythropoiesis progression. Heart mitochondrial function was also impaired displaying more protein oxidation and less activity for IV, respectively, than no-treated mice. In addition, a significant reduction in the protein expression levels of Mitofusin 2 and Voltage-Dependent Anion Carrier was observed. All these results suggest that quercetin affects erythropoiesis and mitochondrial function and then its potential use as a dietary supplement should be reexamined. PMID:26106459

  6. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B. Alex; Jetten, Anton M.; Austin, Christopher, P.; Tice, Raymond R.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR. PMID:23562765

  7. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B Alex; Jetten, Anton M; Austin, Christopher P; Tice, Raymond R

    2013-05-25

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR. PMID:23562765

  8. Functional evaluation of TERT-CLPTM1L genetic variants associated with susceptibility of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Minghua; Shi, Meng; An, Changming; Yang, Wenjun; Nie, Xilin; Zhang, Jian; Lv, Zheng; Li, Jinliang; Zhou, Liqing; Du, Zhongli; Yang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    TERT is the catalytic subunit of telomerase which plays an essential part in cellular immortality by maintaining telomere integrity. TERT is commonly over-expressed in human malignancies, indicating its key role in cell transformation. The chromosome 5p15.33 TERT-CLPTM1L region has been associated with susceptibility of multiple cancers via a genome-wide association approach. However, the involvement of this locus in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) etiology is still largely unknown. We analyzed 15 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) of the TERT-CLPTM1L region in a two stage case-control design. After genotyping 2300 PTC patients and frequency-matched 2300 unaffected controls, we found that TERT rs2736100 genetic variant is significantly associated with elevated PTC risk. Ex vivo reporter gene assays indicated that the PTC susceptibility rs2736100 polymorphism locating in a potential TERT intronic enhancer has a genotype-specific effect on TERT expression. Correlations between rs2736100 genotypes and tissue-specific TERT expression supported the regulatory function of this genetic variant in vivo. Our data demonstrated that the functional TERT rs2736100 SNP as a novel genetic component of PTC etiology. This study, together with recent studies in other cancers, unequivocally establishes an essential role of TERT in cancers. PMID:27185198

  9. Functional evaluation of TERT-CLPTM1L genetic variants associated with susceptibility of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ge, Minghua; Shi, Meng; An, Changming; Yang, Wenjun; Nie, Xilin; Zhang, Jian; Lv, Zheng; Li, Jinliang; Zhou, Liqing; Du, Zhongli; Yang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    TERT is the catalytic subunit of telomerase which plays an essential part in cellular immortality by maintaining telomere integrity. TERT is commonly over-expressed in human malignancies, indicating its key role in cell transformation. The chromosome 5p15.33 TERT-CLPTM1L region has been associated with susceptibility of multiple cancers via a genome-wide association approach. However, the involvement of this locus in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) etiology is still largely unknown. We analyzed 15 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) of the TERT-CLPTM1L region in a two stage case-control design. After genotyping 2300 PTC patients and frequency-matched 2300 unaffected controls, we found that TERT rs2736100 genetic variant is significantly associated with elevated PTC risk. Ex vivo reporter gene assays indicated that the PTC susceptibility rs2736100 polymorphism locating in a potential TERT intronic enhancer has a genotype-specific effect on TERT expression. Correlations between rs2736100 genotypes and tissue-specific TERT expression supported the regulatory function of this genetic variant in vivo. Our data demonstrated that the functional TERT rs2736100 SNP as a novel genetic component of PTC etiology. This study, together with recent studies in other cancers, unequivocally establishes an essential role of TERT in cancers. PMID:27185198

  10. Thyroid hormone is required for pruning, functioning and long-term maintenance of afferent inner hair cell synapses

    PubMed Central

    Sundaresan, Srividya; Kong, Jee-Hyun; Fang, Qing; Salles, Felipe T.; Wangsawihardja, Felix; Ricci, Anthony J.; Mustapha, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Functional maturation of afferent synaptic connections to inner hair cells (IHCs) involves pruning of excess synapses formed during development, as well as the strengthening and survival of the retained synapses. These events take place during the thyroid hormone (TH)-critical period of cochlear development, which is in the perinatal period for mice and in the third trimester for humans. Here, we used the hypothyroid Snell dwarf mouse (Pit1dw) as a model to study the role of TH in afferent type I synaptic refinement and functional maturation. We observed defects in afferent synaptic pruning and delays in calcium channel clustering in the IHCs of Pit1dw mice. Nevertheless, calcium currents and capacitance reached near normal levels in Pit1dw IHCs by the age of onset of hearing, despite the excess number of retained synapses. We restored normal synaptic pruning in Pit1dw IHCs by supplementing with TH from postnatal day (P)3 to P8, establishing this window as being critical for TH action on this process. Afferent terminals of older Pit1dw IHCs showed evidence of excitotoxic damage accompanied by a concomitant reduction in the levels of the glial glutamate transporter, GLAST. Our results indicate that a lack of TH during a critical period of inner ear development causes defects in pruning and long-term homeostatic maintenance of afferent synapses. PMID:26386265

  11. Thyroid hormone is required for pruning, functioning and long-term maintenance of afferent inner hair cell synapses.

    PubMed

    Sundaresan, Srividya; Kong, Jee-Hyun; Fang, Qing; Salles, Felipe T; Wangsawihardja, Felix; Ricci, Anthony J; Mustapha, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Functional maturation of afferent synaptic connections to inner hair cells (IHCs) involves pruning of excess synapses formed during development, as well as the strengthening and survival of the retained synapses. These events take place during the thyroid hormone (TH)-critical period of cochlear development, which is in the perinatal period for mice and in the third trimester for humans. Here, we used the hypothyroid Snell dwarf mouse (Pit1(dw)) as a model to study the role of TH in afferent type I synaptic refinement and functional maturation. We observed defects in afferent synaptic pruning and delays in calcium channel clustering in the IHCs of Pit1(dw) mice. Nevertheless, calcium currents and capacitance reached near normal levels in Pit1(dw) IHCs by the age of onset of hearing, despite the excess number of retained synapses. We restored normal synaptic pruning in Pit1(dw) IHCs by supplementing with TH from postnatal day (P)3 to P8, establishing this window as being critical for TH action on this process. Afferent terminals of older Pit1(dw) IHCs showed evidence of excitotoxic damage accompanied by a concomitant reduction in the levels of the glial glutamate transporter, GLAST. Our results indicate that a lack of TH during a critical period of inner ear development causes defects in pruning and long-term homeostatic maintenance of afferent synapses. PMID:26386265

  12. Can lifestyle modification affect men’s erectile function?

    PubMed Central

    Hehemann, Marah C.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  13. Thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Niedziela, Marek

    2014-03-01

    According to the literature, thyroid nodules (TNs) are quite rare in the first two decades of life and are predominantly non-cancerous, although cancerous TNs are more common in the first two decades of life than in adults. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to distinguish benign from malignant lesions preoperatively because the latter require a total thyroidectomy with or without neck lymph node dissection. A careful work-up and a fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are mandatory to improve the preoperative diagnosis. High-resolution thyroid ultrasound and real-time elastosonography are adjuvant presurgical tools in selecting patients for surgery, particularly those with indeterminate or non-diagnostic cytology. Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level in a patient with a thyroid nodule is a new laboratory predictor of thyroid cancer risk. The majority of thyroid carcinomas derive from the follicular cell, whereas medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) derives from calcitonin-producing cells. Patients with MTC are screened for germ-line RET mutations to detect carriers and identify family members for prophylactic or therapeutic thyroidectomy. PMID:24629865

  14. Actions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Glinsky, Gennadi V.

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3); this receptor also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of T4. Tetrac inhibits the binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. Expression of the CX3CL1 gene is downregulated by tetrac, suggesting that T4 and T3 may stimulate fractalkine expression. Independently of its specific receptor (CX3CR1), fractalkine binds to αvβ3 at a site proximal to the thyroid hormone-tetrac receptor and changes the physical state of the integrin. Tetrac also affects expression of the genes for other CNS-relevant chemokines, including CCL20, CCL26, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL10. The chemokine products of these genes are important to vascularity of the brain, particularly of the choroid plexus, to inflammatory processes in the CNS and, in certain cases, to neuroprotection. Thyroid hormones are known to contribute to regulation of each of these CNS functions. We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. PMID:27493972

  15. Actions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on Chemokines.

    PubMed

    Davis, Paul J; Glinsky, Gennadi V; Lin, Hung-Yun; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3); this receptor also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of T4. Tetrac inhibits the binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. Expression of the CX3CL1 gene is downregulated by tetrac, suggesting that T4 and T3 may stimulate fractalkine expression. Independently of its specific receptor (CX3CR1), fractalkine binds to αvβ3 at a site proximal to the thyroid hormone-tetrac receptor and changes the physical state of the integrin. Tetrac also affects expression of the genes for other CNS-relevant chemokines, including CCL20, CCL26, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL10. The chemokine products of these genes are important to vascularity of the brain, particularly of the choroid plexus, to inflammatory processes in the CNS and, in certain cases, to neuroprotection. Thyroid hormones are known to contribute to regulation of each of these CNS functions. We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. PMID:27493972

  16. Scorpion venom components that affect ion-channels function

    PubMed Central

    Quintero-Hernández, V.; Jiménez-Vargas, J.M.; Gurrola, G.B.; Valdivia, H.H.F.; Possani, L.D.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The number and types of venom components that affect ion-channel function are reviewed. These are the most important venom components responsible for human intoxication, deserving medical attention, often requiring the use of specific anti-venoms. Special emphasis is given to peptides that recognize Na+-, K+- and Ca++-channels of excitable cells. Knowledge generated by direct isolation of peptides from venom and components deduced from cloned genes, whose amino acid sequences are deposited into databanks are now adays in the order of 1.5 thousands, out of an estimate biodiversity closed to 300,000. Here the diversity of components is briefly reviewed with mention to specific references. Structural characteristic are discussed with examples taken from published work. The principal mechanisms of action of the three different types of peptides are also reviewed. Na+-channel specific venom components usually are modifier of the open and closing kinetic mechanisms of the ion-channels, whereas peptides affecting K+-channels are normally pore blocking agents. The Ryanodine Ca++-channel specific peptides are known for causing sub-conducting stages of the channels conductance and some were shown to be able to internalize penetrating inside the muscle cells. PMID:23891887

  17. [Thyroid gland and fertility].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, P

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that the thyroid hormones are associated with a number of aspects of the human reproduction. Both states, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, have significant effect on the estrogen and androgen metabolism, the menstrual function and on fertility. The role of thyroid hormones (TH) during infertility has been little exploited. Interesting facts are that TH deficiency is more common in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and in certain cases with unexplained infertility. There are very few studies on the effect and paracrine regulation of TH and its receptors in the female reproductive tract. This report provides an overview of the most common thyroid disorders and their impact on ovarian function and reproductive performance in women as well as in cases with infertility and the implementation of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). PMID:25675618

  18. Integrating Negative Affect Measures in a Measurement Model: Assessing the Function of Negative Affect as Interference to Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the composition of negative affect and its function as inhibitory to thought processes such as self-regulation. Negative affect in the present study were composed of anxiety, worry, thought suppression, and fear of negative evaluation. These four factors were selected based on the criteria of negative affect by…

  19. To what extent does urbanisation affect fragmented grassland functioning?

    PubMed

    van der Walt, L; Cilliers, S S; Kellner, K; Du Toit, M J; Tongway, D

    2015-03-15

    Urbanisation creates altered environments characterised by increased human habitation, impermeable surfaces, artificial structures, landscape fragmentation, habitat loss, resulting in different resource loss pathways. The vulnerable Rand Highveld Grassland vegetation unit in the Tlokwe Municipal area, South Africa, has been extensively affected and transformed by urbanisation, agriculture, and mining. Grassland fragments in urban areas are often considered to be less species rich and less functional than in the more untransformed or "natural" exurban environments, and are therefore seldom a priority for conservation. Furthermore, urban grassland fragments are often being more intensely managed than exurban areas, such as consistent mowing in open urban areas. Four urbanisation measures acting as indicators for patterns and processes associated with urban areas were calculated for matrix areas surrounding each selected grassland fragment to quantify the position of each grassland remnant along an urbanisation gradient. The grassland fragments were objectively classified into two classes of urbanisation, namely "exurban" and "urban" based on the urbanisation measure values. Grazing was recorded in some exurban grasslands and mowing in some urban grassland fragments. Unmanaged grassland fragments were present in both urban and exurban areas. Fine-scale biophysical landscape function was determined by executing the Landscape Function Analysis (LFA) method. LFA assesses fine-scale landscape patchiness (entailing resource conserving potential and erosion resistance) and 11 soil surface indicators to produce three main LFA parameters (stability, infiltration, and nutrient cycling), which indicates how well a system is functioning in terms of fine-scale biophysical soil processes and characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of urbanisation and associated management practices on fine-scale biophysical landscape function of urban and exurban

  20. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    PubMed Central

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p < 0.05). Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p < 0.05). Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p < 0.05). Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p < 0.05). The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. PMID:26697263

  1. Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by radiation therapy to the neck given ...

  2. [An immunocytochemical study of the C-cell function of the thyroid in rats exposed on the Kosmos-2044 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Loginov, V I

    1993-01-01

    Immunocytochemical analysis of thyroid gland C-cells of the rats exposed to a 14-day space flight revealed a decrease in the number of C-cells, volume of their nuclei and a declined percentage of active secretory C-cells, which point to a decline of calcitonin proactive and calcitonin secretory hypofunction of the thyroid C-cells system in flown rats. Tail suspension as a microgravity model caused similar changes in C-cells. PMID:8012307

  3. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in an adolescent girl: A case report

    PubMed Central

    DONG, LI-QUN; SUN, XIAO-MEI; XIANG, CHENG-FA; WU, JIN; YU, PING

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer in childhood is not as common in the adult population. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease associated with autoantibodies, and the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid remains controversial. The present study reported a 15-year-old adolescent girl with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. With the complexity of the clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, it can be expressed as not only hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, but also normal thyroid function. The long-term treatment, and for children with thyroid cancer, early diagnosis is particularly difficult. In the present case, the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is primarily based on clinical manifestations, anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid microsomal antibody. The only diagnostic imaging ultrasound was negative. The present study discussed the possible reason and the identification of this unique case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. PMID:27330783

  4. Grape polyphenols do not affect vascular function in healthy men.

    PubMed

    van Mierlo, Linda A J; Zock, Peter L; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Draijer, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Data suggest that polyphenol-rich products may improve endothelial function and other cardiovascular health risk factors. Grape and wine contain high amounts of polyphenols, but effects of these polyphenols have hardly been investigated in isolation in randomized controlled studies. Our objective in this study was to test the chronic effect of polyphenol-rich solids derived from either a wine grape mix or grape seed on flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Blood pressure and other vascular function measures, platelet function, and blood lipids were secondary outcomes. Thirty-five healthy males were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study consisting of three 2-wk intervention periods separated by 1-wk washout periods. The test products, containing 800 mg of polyphenols, were consumed as capsules. At the end of each intervention period, effects were measured after consumption of a low-fat breakfast (~751 kJ, 25% fat) and a high-fat lunch (~3136 kJ, 78% fat). After the low-fat breakfast, the treatments did not significantly affect FMD. The absolute difference after the wine grape solid treatment was -0.4% (95% CI = -1.8 to 0.9; P = 0.77) and after grape seed solids, 0.2% (95% CI = -1.2 to 1.5; P = 0.94) compared with after the placebo treatment. FMD effects after the high-fat lunch and effects on secondary outcomes also showed no consistent differences between both of the grape solids and placebo treatment. In conclusion, consumption of grape polyphenols has no major impact on FMD in healthy men. Future studies should address whether grape polyphenols can improve FMD and other cardiovascular health risk factors in populations with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:20702747

  5. Thyroid active agents T3 and PTU differentially affect immune gene transcripts in the head kidney of rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Quesada-García, Alba; Encinas, Paloma; Valdehita, Ana; Baumann, Lisa; Segner, Helmut; Coll, Julio M; Navas, José M

    2016-05-01

    In mammals, numerous reports describe an immunomodulating effect of thyroid-active compounds. In contrast, only few reports have been published on this subject in fish. We previously demonstrated that immune cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) possess thyroid hormone receptors (THRs) and that exposure of trout to the thyroid hormone 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) or the antithyroid drug propylthiouracil (PTU) alters immune cell transcript levels of THR and several immune genes. The present study aims to further characterize the immunomodulating action of thyroid-active compounds in trout immune cells. We report here the use of a custom-designed 60-mer oligo immune-targeted microarray for rainbow trout to analyze the gene expression profiles induced in the head kidney by T3 and PTU. Morphometric analyses of the thyroid showed that PTU exposure increased the size of the epithelial cells, whereas T3 induced no significant effects. Both T3 and PTU had diverse and partly contrasting effects on immune transcript profiles. The strongest differential effects of T3 and PTU on gene expressions were those targeting the Mitogen Associated Protein Kinase (MAPK), NFkB, Natural Killer (NK) and Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) pathways, a number of multipath genes (MPG) such as those encoding pleiotropic transcription factors (atf1, junb, myc), as well as important pro-inflammatory genes (tnfa, tnf6, il1b) and interferon-related genes (ifng, irf10). With these results we show for the first time in a fish species that the in vivo thyroidal status modulates a diversity of immune genes and pathways. This knowledge provides the basis to investigate both mechanisms and consequences of thyroid hormone- and thyroid disruptor-mediated immunomodulation for the immunocompetence of fish. PMID:26963519

  6. Does Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy Affect Cognitive Function?

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, P.; Blackburne, H.; Dixon, L.; Dobbs, B.; Eglinton, T.; Ing, A.; Mulder, R.; Porter, R.J.; Wakeman, C.; Frizelle, F.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colonoscopy is a common procedure used in the diagnosis and treatment of a range of bowel disorders. Prior preparation involving potent laxatives is a necessary stage to ensure adequate visualization of the bowel wall. It is known that the sedatives given to most patients during the colonoscopy cause a temporary impairment in cognitive function; however, the potential for bowel preparation to affect cognitive function has not previously been investigated. To assess the effect of bowel preparation for colonoscopy on cognitive function. This was a prospective, nonrandomized controlled study of cognitive function in patients who had bowel preparation for colonoscopy compared with those having gastroscopy and therefore no bowel preparation. Cognitive function was assessed using the Modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMMSE) and selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Individual test scores and changes between initial and subsequent tests were compared between the groups. Age, gender, and weight were also compared. Forty-three colonoscopy and 25 gastroscopy patients were recruited. The 2 groups were similar for age and gender; however, patients having gastroscopy were heavier. MMMSE scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 28.6 and 29.5 (P = 0.24) at baseline, 28.7 and 29.8 (P = 0.32) at test 2, 28.1 and 28.5 (P = 0.76) at test 3. Motor screening scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 349.3 and 354.1 (P = 0.97) at baseline, 307.5 and 199.7 (P = 0.06) at test 2, 212.0 and 183.2 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Spatial working memory scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 14.4 and 6.7 (P = 0.29) at baseline, 9.7 and 4.3 (P = 0.27) at test 2, 10 and 4.5 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 36.3 and 37.8 (P = 0.84) at baseline, 36.4 and

  7. Does Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy Affect Cognitive Function?

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, P; Blackburne, H; Dixon, L; Dobbs, B; Eglinton, T; Ing, A; Mulder, R; Porter, R J; Wakeman, C; Frizelle, F A

    2015-11-01

    Colonoscopy is a common procedure used in the diagnosis and treatment of a range of bowel disorders. Prior preparation involving potent laxatives is a necessary stage to ensure adequate visualization of the bowel wall. It is known that the sedatives given to most patients during the colonoscopy cause a temporary impairment in cognitive function; however, the potential for bowel preparation to affect cognitive function has not previously been investigated. To assess the effect of bowel preparation for colonoscopy on cognitive function. This was a prospective, nonrandomized controlled study of cognitive function in patients who had bowel preparation for colonoscopy compared with those having gastroscopy and therefore no bowel preparation. Cognitive function was assessed using the Modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMMSE) and selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Individual test scores and changes between initial and subsequent tests were compared between the groups. Age, gender, and weight were also compared. Forty-three colonoscopy and 25 gastroscopy patients were recruited. The 2 groups were similar for age and gender; however, patients having gastroscopy were heavier. MMMSE scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 28.6 and 29.5 (P = 0.24) at baseline, 28.7 and 29.8 (P = 0.32) at test 2, 28.1 and 28.5 (P = 0.76) at test 3. Motor screening scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 349.3 and 354.1 (P = 0.97) at baseline, 307.5 and 199.7 (P = 0.06) at test 2, 212.0 and 183.2 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Spatial working memory scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 14.4 and 6.7 (P = 0.29) at baseline, 9.7 and 4.3 (P = 0.27) at test 2, 10 and 4.5 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 36.3 and 37.8 (P = 0.84) at baseline, 36.4 and 40.0 (P

  8. Anatabine ameliorates experimental autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Caturegli, Patrizio; De Remigis, Alessandra; Ferlito, Marcella; Landek-Salgado, Melissa A; Iwama, Shintaro; Tzou, Shey-Cherng; Ladenson, Paul W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco smoking favorably influences the course of Hashimoto thyroiditis, possibly through the antiinflammatory proprieties of nicotine. In this study we tested anatabine, another tobacco alkaloid, in a model of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis. Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis was induced by different doses of thyroglobulin, to produce a disease of low, moderate, or high severity, in 88 CBA/J female mice: 43 drank anatabine supplemented water and 45 regular water. Mice were bled after immunization and killed to assess thyroid histopathology, thyroglobulin antibodies, T(4), and thyroid RNA expression of 84 inflammatory genes. We also stimulated in vitro a macrophage cell line with interferon-γ or lipopolysaccharide plus or minus anatabine to quantitate inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 protein expression. Anatabine reduced the incidence and severity of thyroiditis in the moderate disease category: only 13 of 21 mice (62%) developed thyroid infiltrates when drinking anatabine as compared with 22 of 23 (96%) controls (relative risk 0.59, P = 0.0174). The median thyroiditis severity was 0.5 and 2.0 in anatabine and controls, respectively (P = 0.0007 by Wilcoxon rank sum test). Anatabine also reduced the antibody response to thyroglobulin on d 14 (P = 0.029) and d 21 (P = 0.045) after immunization and improved the recovery of thyroid function on d 21 (P = 0.049). In the thyroid transcriptome, anatabine restored expression of IL-18 and IL-1 receptor type 2 to preimmunization levels. Finally, anatabine suppressed in a dose-dependent manner macrophage production of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2. Anatabine ameliorates disease in a model of autoimmune thyroiditis, making the delineation of its mechanisms of action and potential clinical utility worthwhile. PMID:22807490

  9. Recent developments in the investigation of thyroid regulation and thyroid carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Hard, G C

    1998-01-01

    This review covers new mechanistic information spanning the past 10 years relevant to normal and abnormal thyroid growth and function that may assist in the risk assessment of chemicals inducing thyroid follicular cell neoplasia. Recent studies have shown that thyroid regulation occurs via a complex interactive network mediated through several different messenger systems. Increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels activate the signal transduction pathways to stimulate growth and differentiation of the follicular cell. The important role of TSH in growth as well as in function helps to explain how disruptions in the thyroid-pituitary axis may influence thyroid neoplasia in rodents. New investigations that couple mechanistic studies with information from animal cancer bioassays (e. g., sulfamethazine studies) confirm the linkage between prolonged disruption of the thyroid-pituitary axis and thyroid neoplasia. New initiation/promotion studies in rodents also support the concept that chronic stimulation of the thyroid induced by goitrogens can result in thyroid tumors. Some of these studies confirm previous suggestions regarding the importance of chemically induced thyroid peroxidase inhibition and the inhibition of 3,3',5, 5'-tetraiodothyronine (T4, thyroxine) deiodinases on disruption of the thyroid-pituitary axis leading to thyroid neoplasia. Some comparative physiologic and mechanistic data highlight certain differences between rodents and humans that could be expected to confer an increased vulnerability of rodents to chronic hypersecretion of TSH. New data from epidemiologic and molecular genetic studies in humans contribute further to an understanding of thyroid neoplasia. Acute exposure to ionizing radiation, especially in childhood, remains the only verified cause of thyroid carcinogenesis in humans. Iodine deficiency studies as a whole remain inconclusive, even though several new studies in humans examine the role of dietary iodine deficiency in

  10. Endocrine Disruptors and the Thyroid Gland—A Combined in Vitro and in Vivo Analysis of Potential New Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Schmutzler, Cornelia; Gotthardt, Inka; Hofmann, Peter J.; Radovic, Branislav; Kovacs, Gabor; Stemmler, Luise; Nobis, Inga; Bacinski, Anja; Mentrup, Birgit; Ambrugger, Petra; Grüters, Annette; Malendowicz, Ludwik K.; Christoffel, Julie; Jarry, Hubertus; Seidlovà-Wuttke, Dana; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Köhrle, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that, in addition to the reproductive system, the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis is a target of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). However, this is not reflected adequately in current screening and assessment procedures for endocrine activity that to date determine only general parameters of thyroid function. Objective and Methods We used several in vitro and ex vivo assays in an attempt to identify suitable biomarkers for antithyroid action testing a selected panel of putative EDCs. Results In vitro we detected stimulation or inhibition of iodide uptake into FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells, inhibition of thyroid hormone binding to transthyretin, agonistic or antagonistic effects in a thyroid hormone receptor–dependent reporter assay, and inhibition of thyroid peroxidase using a novel assay system based on human recombinant thyroperoxidase that might be suitable for routine screening for potential EDCs. In rats, chronic application of several EDCs led to changes in thyroid morphology, alterations of thyrotropin and thyroid hormone serum levels as well as alterations in peripheral thyroid hormone–regulated end points such as malic enzyme and type I 5′-deiodinase activity. Conclusions As the effects of EDCs do not reflect classic mechanisms of hormone-dependent regulation and feedback, we believe multitarget and multimodal actions of EDCs affect the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis. These complex effects require a diverse approach for screening, evaluation, and risk assessment of potential antithyroid compounds. This approach involves novel in vitro or cell-based screening assays in order to assess thyroid hormone synthesis, transport, metabolism, and action as well as in vivo assays to measure thyroid hormone–regulated tissue-specific and developmental end points in animals. PMID:18174954

  11. Catecholamines and myocardial contractile function during hypodynamia and with an altered thyroid hormone balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruss, G. M.; Kuznetsov, V. I.; Zhilinskaya, A. A.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamics of catecholamine content and myocardial contractile function during hypodynamia were studied in 109 white rats whose motor activity was severely restricted for up to 30 days. During the first five days myocardial catecholamine content, contractile function, and physical load tolerance decreased. Small doses of thyroidin counteracted this tendency. After 15 days, noradrenalin content and other indices approached normal levels and, after 30 days, were the same as control levels, although cardiac functional reserve was decreased. Thyroidin administration after 15 days had no noticeable effect. A detailed table shows changes in 17 indices of myocardial contractile function during hypodynamia.

  12. Follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Dralle, Henning; Machens, Andreas; Basa, Johanna; Fatourechi, Vahab; Franceschi, Silvia; Hay, Ian D; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Pacini, Furio; Pasieka, Janice L; Sherman, Steven I

    2015-01-01

    Follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers are derived from the follicular cells in the thyroid gland, which secrete the iodine-containing thyroid hormones. Follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers can be classified into papillary thyroid cancer (80-85%), follicular thyroid cancer (10-15%), poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (<2%) and undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid cancer (<2%), and these have an excellent prognosis with the exception of undifferentiated thyroid cancer. The advent and expansion of advanced diagnostic techniques has driven and continues to drive the epidemic of occult papillary thyroid cancer, owing to overdiagnosis of clinically irrelevant nodules. This transformation of the thyroid cancer landscape at molecular and clinical levels calls for the modification of management strategies towards personalized medicine based on individual risk assessment to deliver the most effective but least aggressive treatment. In thyroid cancer surgery, for instance, injuries to structures outside the thyroid gland, such as the recurrent laryngeal nerve in 2-5% of surgeries or the parathyroid glands in 5-10% of surgeries, negatively affect quality of life more than loss of the expendable thyroid gland. Furthermore, the risks associated with radioiodine ablation may outweigh the risks of persistent or recurrent disease and disease-specific mortality. Improvement in the health-related quality of life of survivors of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer, which is decreased despite the generally favourable outcome, hinges on early tumour detection and minimization of treatment-related sequelae. Future opportunities include more widespread adoption of molecular and clinical risk stratification and identification of actionable targets for individualized therapies. PMID:27188261

  13. THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING NEUROTOXIC RISK FROM ENVIRONMENTAL MIXTURES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants are known to act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are xenobiotics that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis, or change circulating o...

  14. The functional polymorphisms of VDR, GC and CYP2R1 are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, N; Watanabe, M; Ishido, N; Katsumata, Y; Kagawa, T; Hidaka, Y; Iwatani, Y

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is a multi-functional immune regulator, and a low serum concentration of vitamin D promotes autoimmune inflammation. In this study, we evaluate the association between the prognosis of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and the functional polymorphisms of genes that regulate vitamin D metabolism. For 139 Graves’ disease (GD) patients, 116 Hashimoto's disease (HD) patients and 76 control subjects, we genotyped the following polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP): vitamin D receptor (VDR): rs731236, rs7975232, rs2228570 and rs1544410; group-specific component (GC): rs7041 and rs4588; and CYP2R1: rs10741657. The frequency of the TT genotype for the rs731236 polymorphism was higher in GD patients than in HD patients (P = 0·0147). The frequency of the C allele for the rs7975232 polymorphism was higher in GD patients than in control subjects (P = 0·0349). The proportion of GD patients whose anti-thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb) level was >51% was higher in those with the CC genotype than in those with the CA+AA genotypes (P = 0·0065). The frequency of the CC genotype for the rs2228570 polymorphism was higher in HD patients than in control subjects (P = 0·0174) and GD patients (P = 0·0149). The frequency of the Gc1Gc1 genotype for the GC polymorphism and the AG genotype for the CYP2R1 polymorphism were lower in intractable GD than in GD in remission (P = 0·0093 and 0·0268, respectively). In conclusion, genetic differences in the VDR gene may be involved in the development of AITD and the activity of GD, whereas the genetic differences in the GC and CYP2R1 genes may be involved with the intractability of GD. PMID:25046415

  15. Thyroid disease in pregnancy. ACOG Technical Bulletin Number 181--June 1993.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    To accurately evaluate thyroid disorders in pregnancy, the physician must understand the physiologic changes that occur both in thyroid gland size and in thyroid function tests. The effect of thyrotoxicosis on pregnancy outcome largely depends on whether metabolic control is achieved. Women who become euthyroid on treatment usually can expect satisfactory outcomes. Propylthiouracil is considered to be the drug of choice for treating thyrotoxicosis during pregnancy. Because of the significant risk of hypothyroidism and obvious goiter in the infant, the use of iodide should be reserved for severe disease, such as thyroid storm or heart failure. Thyrotoxic infants may need antithyroid treatment until TSAbs are metabolized. Since overt hypothyroidism is often associated with infertility, it is uncommon in pregnancy. Hypothyroid women who do become pregnant, however, have an increased risk of low-birth-weight or stillborn infants. These women may require a greater dosage of thyroid hormone during pregnancy. The effects of subclinical hypothyroidism are not well defined. Accordingly, the need for treatment hinges on the woman's clinical history. Infants of hypothyroid mothers usually show no evidence of thyroid dysfunction, but those who are hypothyroid should receive prompt thyroid replacement therapy. To minimize the sequelae of congenital hypothyroidism, mass screening of infants and prompt treatment of those affected is recommended. During pregnancy, thyroid nodules should be evaluated by ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration or tissue biopsy. Radioiodine scanning should be avoided during pregnancy. If thyroid cancer is diagnosed, pregnancy should not delay treatment. Because postpartum thyroid dysfunction is fairly common yet difficult to detect, physicians and patients should be aware of the symptoms and risk factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7904964

  16. Functional specificity of two hormone response elements present on the human apoA-II promoter that bind retinoid X receptor alpha/thyroid receptor beta heterodimers for retinoids and thyroids: synergistic interactions between thyroid receptor beta and upstream stimulatory factor 2a.

    PubMed Central

    Hatzivassiliou, Eudoxia; Koukos, George; Ribeiro, Agnes; Zannis, Vassilis; Kardassis, Dimitris

    2003-01-01

    DNA binding and mutagenesis in vitro established that the -67/-55 region of the apoA-II (apolipoprotein A-II) promoter contains a thyroid HRE (hormone response element), which strongly binds RXRalpha (retinoid X receptor alpha)/T(3)Rbeta (thyroid receptor beta) heterodimers and weakly T(3)Rbeta homodimers, but does not bind other homo- or heterodimers of RXRalpha or orphan nuclear receptors. Transactivation was abolished by point mutations in the thyroid HRE. In co-transfection experiments of HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney 293) cells, the -911/+29 human apoA-II promoter was transactivated strongly by RXRalpha/T(3)Rbeta heterodimers in the presence of RA (9- cis retinoic acid) or T(3) (tri-iodothyronine). Homopolymeric promoters containing either three copies of the -73/-40 (element AIIAB) or four copies of the -738/-712 (element AIIJ) apoA-II promoter could be transactivated by RXRalpha/T(3)Rbeta heterodimers in COS-7 cells only in the presence of T(3) or RA respectively. RXRalpha/T(3)Rbeta heterodimers and USF2a (upstream stimulatory factor 2a) synergistically transactivated the -911/+29 apoA-II promoter in the presence of T(3). USF2a also enhanced the activity of a GAL4-T(3)Rbeta fusion protein in the presence of T(3) and suppressed the activity of a GAL4-RXRalpha fusion protein in the presence of RA. These findings suggest a functional specificity of the two HREs of the apoA-II promoter for retinoids and thyroids, which is modulated by synergistic or antagonistic interactions between RXRalpha/T(3)Rbeta heterodimers and the ubiquitous transcription factor USF2a. PMID:12959642

  17. Nivolumab-induced thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryota; Fujisawa, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Yoshino, Koji; Ohtsuka, Mikio; Fujimoto, Manabu

    2016-06-01

    Nivolumab (ONO-4538) is an anti-programmed death-1 specific monoclonal antibody, which has become a standard treatment for metastatic malignant melanoma. Nivolumab induces autoimmune adverse events, defined as immune-related adverse events. Herein, we report a case of nivolumab-induced thyroid dysfunction in the clinical setting. Fourteen patients were treated with nivolumab at our institute, of which three developed thyroid dysfunction, an incidence higher than previously reported in the initial clinical trials. Interestingly, one patient achieved complete remission; suggesting that in some patients, the occurrence of immune-related adverse events, including thyroid dysfunction, might reflect the drug's antitumour efficacy. No patient died or discontinued nivolumab treatment owing to thyroid dysfunction. Although thyroid dysfunction first appeared to be asymptomatic, two of the three patients developed symptoms related to hypothyroidism soon after, requiring hormone replacement therapy. Another patient developed hyperthyroidism that was initially asymptomatic; the patient subsequently developed myalgia with fever >39.5°C after two additional courses of nivolumab. Treatment with nivolumab was therefore discontinued, and treatment with prednisolone was initiated. Symptoms resolved within a few days, and thyroid function normalized. Thyroid dysfunction is sometimes difficult to diagnose because its symptoms similar to those of many other diseases. In addition, thyroid-related immune-related adverse events may present with unique symptoms such as myalgia with high fever, abruptly worsening patients' quality of life. Consequently, thyroid dysfunction should be considered as a possible immune-related adverse event. Thus, it is important to test for thyroid dysfunction at baseline and before the administration of each nivolumab dose if possible. PMID:27012985

  18. Thyroid Hormone, Cancer, and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Chin, Yu-Tan; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Lai, Husan-Yu; Wang-Peng, Jacqueline; Liu, Leory F; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Davis, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in regulating normal metabolism, development, and growth. They also stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Their metabolic and developmental effects and growth effects in normal tissues are mediated primarily by nuclear hormone receptors. A cell surface receptor for the hormone on integrin [alpha]vβ3 is the initiation site for effects on tumor cells. Clinical hypothyroidism may retard cancer growth, and hyperthyroidism was recently linked to the prevalence of certain cancers. Local levels of thyroid hormones are controlled through activation and deactivation of iodothyronine deiodinases in different organs. The relative activities of different deiodinases that exist in tissues or organs also affect the progression and development of specific types of cancers. In this review, the effects of thyroid hormone on signaling pathways in breast, brain, liver, thyroid, and colon cancers are discussed. The importance of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and of the hormone receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin [alpha]vβ3 as potential cancer risk factors and therapeutic targets are addressed. We analyze the intracellular signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormones in cancer progression in hyperthyroidism or at physiological concentrations in the euthyroid state. Determining how to utilize the deaminated thyroid hormone analog (tetrac), and its nanoparticulate derivative to reduce risks of cancer progression, enhance therapeutic outcomes, and prevent cancer recurrence is also deliberated. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1221-1237, 2016. PMID:27347891

  19. Environmental Triggers of Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Burek, C. Lynne; Talor, Monica V.

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis is among the most prevalent of all the autoimmunities. Autoimmune thyroiditis is multifactorial with contributions from genetic and environmental factors. Much information has been published about the genetic predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis both in experimental animals and humans. There is, in contrast, very little data on environmental agents that can serve as the trigger or autoimmunity in a genetically predisposed host. The best-established environmental factor is excess dietary iodine. Increased iodine consumption is strongly implicated as a trigger for thyroiditis, but only in genetically susceptible individuals. However, excess iodine is not the only environmental agent implicated as a trigger leading to autoimmune thyroiditis. There are a wide variety of other synthetic chemicals that affect the thyroid gland or have the ability to promote immune dysfunction in the host. These chemicals are released into the environment by design, such as in pesticides, or as a by-product of industry. Candidate pollutants include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated biphenols, and polychlorinated biphenols, among others. Infections are also reputed to trigger autoimmunity and may act alone or in concert with environmental chemicals. We have utilized a unique animal model, the NOD.H2h4 mouse to explore the influence of iodine and other environmental factors on autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:19818584

  20. Environmental triggers of autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Burek, C Lynne; Talor, Monica V

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis is among the most prevalent of all the autoimmunities. Autoimmune thyroiditis is multifactorial with contributions from genetic and environmental factors. Much information has been published about the genetic predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis both in experimental animals and humans. There is, in contrast, very little data on environmental agents that can serve as the trigger for autoimmunity in a genetically predisposed host. The best-established environmental factor is excess dietary iodine. Increased iodine consumption is strongly implicated as a trigger for thyroiditis, but only in genetically susceptible individuals. However, excess iodine is not the only environmental agent implicated as a trigger leading to autoimmune thyroiditis. There are a wide variety of other synthetic chemicals that affect the thyroid gland or have the ability to promote immune dysfunction in the host. These chemicals are released into the environment by design, such as in pesticides, or as a by-product of industry. Candidate pollutants include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated biphenols, and polychlorinated biphenols, among others. Infections are also reputed to trigger autoimmunity and may act alone or in concert with environmental chemicals. We have utilized a unique animal model, the NOD.H2(h4) mouse to explore the influence of iodine and other environmental factors on autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:19818584

  1. [Thyroid dysfunction and the hemostatic system].

    PubMed

    Platonova, N M; Sviridonova, M A; Troshina, E A

    2014-01-01

    Whether there is a link between thyroid dysfunction and different impairments in the hemostatic system is discussed. The level of thyroid hormones is an essential factor that influences the coagulation system. Thyroid dysfunction affects the balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis, by increasing the risk of thrombosis and hemorrhage in hyperthyroidism. However, there is no consensus of opinion regarding the mechanisms of the described hemostatic changes in the literature. PMID:25509900

  2. Evaluation of thyroid tissue by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, C. S. B.; Bitar, R. A.; Santos, A. B. O.; Kulcsar, M. A. V.; Friguglietti, C. U. M.; Martinho, H. S.; da Costa, R. B.; Martin, A. A.

    2010-02-01

    Thyroid gland is a small gland in the neck consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus. Thyroid's main function is to produce the hormones thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and calcitonin. Thyroid disorders can disturb the production of these hormones, which will affect numerous processes within the body such as: regulating metabolism and increasing utilization of cholesterol, fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. The gland itself can also be injured; for example, neoplasias, which have been considered the most important, causing damage of to the gland and are difficult to diagnose. There are several types of thyroid cancer: Papillary, Follicular, Medullary, and Anaplastic. The occurrence rate, in general is between 4 and 7%; which is on the increase (30%), probably due to new technology that is able to find small thyroid cancers that may not have been found previously. The most common method used for thyroid diagnoses are: anamnesis, ultrasonography, and laboratory exams (Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy- FNAB). However, the sensitivity of those test are rather poor, with a high rate of false-negative results, therefore there is an urgent need to develop new diagnostic techniques. Raman spectroscopy has been presented as a valuable tool for cancer diagnosis in many different tissues. In this work, 27 fragments of the thyroid were collected from 18 patients, comprising the following histologic groups: goitre adjacent tissue, goitre nodular tissue, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma. Spectral collection was done with a commercial FTRaman Spectrometer (Bruker RFS100/S) using a 1064 nm laser excitation and Ge detector. Principal Component Analysis, Cluster Analysis, and Linear Discriminant Analysis with cross-validation were applied as spectral classification algorithm. Comparing the goitre adjacent tissue with the goitre nodular region, an index of 58.3% of correct classification was obtained. Between goitre (nodular region and

  3. Thyroid function in 36 dogs with leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum before and during treatment with allopurinol with or without meglumine antimonate.

    PubMed

    Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Chatzis, Manolis K; Kasabalis, Dimitris; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Petanides, Theodoros

    2013-10-18

    Hypothyroidism may predispose to the development of canine leishmaniosis or it may appear during the course of the latter due to infiltration and destruction of the thyroid gland by infected macrophages. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate thyroid function through measurement of serum total thyroxin (tT₄), free thyroxin (fT₄), and canine thyroid stimulating hormone (cTSH) concentrations in 36 dogs with leishmaniosis, before and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment with allopurinol with or without meglumine antimonate. Before treatment 27/36 (75%) dogs had serum tT₄ concentrations below the lower limit of the reference interval but only 2 of them had concurrently serum fT₄ concentrations below the lower limit of the reference interval and none had increased serum cTSH concentrations. During treatment there were no significant changes in serum tT₄ or fT₄ concentrations, whereas a significant increase in serum cTSH was observed. Two dogs had decreased serum tT₄ and fT₄ but normal cTSH concentrations before treatment and two other dogs had decreased serum tT₄ and increased cTSH, but normal fT₄ concentrations during the treatment period. Although hypothyroidism could not be definitively excluded in these dogs it is considered unlikely based on their overall hormonal profile, clinical presentation, and response to treatment. Therefore, hypothyroidism does not appear to be an important predisposing disease or a frequent complication of canine leishmaniosis. PMID:23685064

  4. The role of magnesium and thyroid function in early pregnancy after in-vitro fertilization (IVF): New aspects in endocrine physiology

    PubMed Central

    Stuefer, Sibilla; Moncayo, Helga; Moncayo, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Background The initiation of a pregnancy is a process that requires adequate energetic support. Recent observations at our Institution suggest a central role of magnesium in this situation. The aim of this study was to evaluate magnesium, zinc, selenium and thyroid function as well as anti-Müllerian hormone in early pregnancy following in-vitro fertilization as compared to spontaneous successful pregnancies. Results A successful outcome of pregnancy after IVF treatment was associated with 2 parameters: higher levels of anti-Müllerian hormone as well as higher levels of magnesium in the pre-stimulation blood sample. These two parameters, however, showed no correlation. Spontaneous pregnancies as well as pregnancies after IVF show a fall of magnesium levels at 2–3 weeks of gestation. This drop of magnesium concentration is larger following IVF as compared to spontaneous pregnancies. Parallel to these changes TSH levels showed an increase in early IVF-pregnancy. At this time point we also observed a positive correlation between fT4 and TSH. This was not observed in spontaneous pregnancies. Thyroid antibodies showed no correlation to outcomes. Conclusions In connection with the initiation of pregnancy following ovarian stimulation dynamic changes of magnesium and TSH levels can be observed. A positive correlation was found between fT4 and TSH in IVF pregnancies. In spontaneous pregnancies smaller increases of TSH levels are related to higher magnesium levels. General significance We propose that magnesium plays a role in early pregnancy as well as in pregnancy success independently from anti-Müllerian hormone. Neither thyroid hormones nor thyroid antibodies were related to outcome. PMID:26675754

  5. Identifying Parathyroid Glands With Carbon Nanoparticle Suspension Does Not Help Protect Parathyroid Function in Thyroid Surgery: A Prospective, Randomized Control Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Chang, Shi; Jiang, Xiaolin; Huang, Peng; Yuan, Zhengtai

    2016-08-01

    Objective We aim to evaluate the technique of identifying parathyroid glands with carbon nanoparticle suspension (CNPS) in thyroid surgeries from the perspectives of degrees of declining intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), operation time, and time of postoperative stay. Methods A total of 156 patients who underwent thyroid surgeries in General Surgical Department of Xiangya Hospital between May 2012 and May 2015 were involved in the study. A total of 78 patients were injected with CNPS during the surgery (CNPS group); the other 78 patients received normal saline (control group). Cases were classified into 3 surgical approaches: conventional partial thyroidectomy, conventional total thyroidectomy, and endoscopic partial thyroidectomy. Degrees of declining iPTH were tested to determine the severity of parathyroid injury. Operation time and postoperative hospital stay time were recorded. A P value of less than .05 was considered statistically significant. Results For levels of declining iPTH, there was no statistically significant (ss) difference in conventional thyroid surgery. In endoscopic partial thyroidectomy, it was 23.37 ± 16.20 versus 11.94 ± 11.23 pg/mL (P = .02, ss). The operation time of conventional total thyroidectomy was 210.10 ± 83.75 versus 164.84 ± 69.22 minutes (P = .03, ss), while it was 193.04 ± 75.53 versus 127.67 ± 60.06 minutes (P = .007, ss) in endoscopic thyroidectomy. Conclusions CNPS is not beneficial for protecting the function of parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery from the perspective of declining iPTH. Applying CNPS in conventional total thyroidectomy and endoscopic partial thyroidectomy will also lead to significantly prolonged operation time. PMID:26783268

  6. The effect of a nutritionally-balanced cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) diet on endocrine function using the dog as a model. 2. Thyroid.

    PubMed

    Kamalu, B P; Agharanya, J C

    1991-05-01

    Growing dogs were divided into three groups and were fed on nutritionally-balanced diets. Control dogs were fed on a rice diet, the cassava (gari) group ate a diet in which gari provided the carbohydrate source, while the rice + cyanide group consumed the rice diet to which hydrocyanic acid (equivalent to that present in gari) was added. Each group consumed its diet for 14 weeks, during which plasma thiocyanate concentration and total serum triiodothyronine (T3) were monitored. At the end of the experiment the concentrations of the plasma free amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine, the thyroid weights and histology were determined. While plasma thiocyanate remained undetectable in control dogs, animals consuming both gari and rice + cyanide generated significant amounts. In the control dogs and the gari group, total serum T3 increased 40 and 38.8% respectively from the basal level by the end of the period (P less than 0.02). In contrast there was a decrease in T3 by 36% in the dogs fed on rice + cyanide (P less than 0.05). This group also showed significant thyroid enlargement and a histological picture consistent with parenchymatous goitre, whereas the gari group was essentially normal. The relatively low mean thyroid weight, the rise in total serum T3 level and the normal histological appearance of the gland indicate that dogs that consumed the gari diet were essentially normal with respect to their thyroid function, in spite of their high blood thiocyanate content. In contrast, dogs that consumed rice with cyanide suffered from hypothyroidism and goitre.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1878357

  7. False-Positive Radioactive Iodine Uptake Mimicking Miliary Lung Metastases in a Patient Affected by Papillary Thyroid Cancer and IgA Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Demidowich, Andrew Paul; Kundu, Amartya; Reynolds, James C; Celi, Francesco S

    2016-09-01

    A 42-year-old female with immunoglobulin A deficiency and recurrent sinopulmonary infections underwent thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Follow-up (123)I scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse pulmonary uptake, suggesting metastatic disease. However, subsequent pathologic, biochemical and radiographic testing proved that she was in fact disease free, and the initial (123)I pulmonary uptake was identified as a false positive. Inflammatory conditions may rarely cause iodine uptake in non-thyroidal tissues due to local retention, organification, and/or immunologic utilization. To avoid exposing patients to unnecessary treatments, it is critical for clinicians to recognize that comorbid pulmonary conditions may mimic metastatic PTC on radioiodine scintigraphy. PMID:27540434

  8. Effect of metformin on thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid volume in patients with prediabetes: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Karimifar, Mozhgan; Aminorroaya, Ashraf; Amini, Masoud; Mirfendereski, Taghi; Iraj, Bijan; Feizi, Awat; Norozi, Atsa

    2014-01-01

    Background: The people with prediabetes have insulin resistance (IR). IR may affect thyroid function, size and nodules. We investigated the effects of metformin on the thyroid gland in prediabetic people. Materials and Methods: In a randomized, double-blind placebo-control clinical trial, 89 people with prediabetes, aged 18-65 years were studied for 3 months. They were divided into two, metformin (n = 43) and placebo (n = 46) treated groups. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was measured and thyroid nodules and volume was studied by ultrasonography. The data were compared between and within groups, before and after the study. Results: Mean of the baseline characteristics in metformin and placebo-treated groups had no statistically significant difference. At the end of the study, serum TSH was not significantly different between the two groups. However, if the TSH range was divided into two low normal (0.3-2.5 μU/ml) and high-normal (2.6-5.5 μU/ml) ranges, significant decrease was observed in metformin-treated group with a high-normal basal serum TSH (P = 0.01). Thyroid volume did not change in metformin-treated group. However, in placebo-treated group, the thyroid was enlarged (P = 0.03). In 53.9% of participants, thyroid nodule was observed. There was just a decrease in the volume of small solid (not mixed) nodules from median of 0.07 ml to 0.04 ml in metformin-treated group (P = 0.01). Conclusion: In prediabetic people, metformin decreases serum TSH, only, in those people with TSH >2.5 μU/ml and reduces the size of small solid thyroid nodules. It also prevents an increase in the thyroid volume. PMID:25657744

  9. Environmental Exposures and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures, ranging from perchlorate in rocket fuel to polychlorinated biphenols, have been shown to influence thyroid function. Although most of these agents are associated with reduced thyroid hormone levels or impaired thyroid hormone action, a number of environmental exposures confer an increased risk of autoimmune thyroid disease. Summary Factors that increase autoimmune thyroid disease risk include radiation exposure, both from nuclear fallout and medical radiation, increased iodine intake, as well as several contaminants in the environment that influence the thyroid. Although ∼70% of the risk for developing autoimmune thyroid disease is attributable to genetic background, environmental triggers are thought to play a role in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease in susceptible individuals. Conclusions Understanding the association of environmental agents with thyroid dysfunction can be utilized to reduce the risk to populations. Knowledge of the specific factors that trigger autoimmune thyroid disease and their mode of action, however, may also inform risk reduction in the individual patient. These factors are especially relevant for those at increased risk of autoimmune thyroid disease based on family history. PMID:20578899

  10. Thyroid development in zebrafish lacking Taz.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Andrea; Porreca, Immacolata; Caputi, Luigi; De Felice, Elena; Schulte-Merker, Stephan; Zannini, Mariastella; Sordino, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Taz is a signal-responsive transcriptional coregulator implicated in several biological functions, from chondrogenesis to regulation of organ size. Less well studied, however, is its role in thyroid formation. Here, we explored the in vivo effects on thyroid development of morpholino (MO)-mediated knockdown of wwtr1, the gene encoding zebrafish Taz. The wwtr1 gene is expressed in the thyroid primordium and pharyngeal tissue of developing zebrafish. Compared to mammalian cells, in which Taz promotes expression of thyroid transcription factors and thyroid differentiation genes, wwtr1 MO injection in zebrafish had little or no effect on the expression of thyroid transcription factors, and differentially altered the expression of thyroid differentiation genes. Analysis of wwtr1 morphants at later stages of development revealed that the number and the lumen of thyroid follicles, and the number of thyroid follicle cells, were significantly smaller. In addition, Taz-depleted larvae displayed patterning defects in ventral cranial vessels that correlate with lateral displacement of thyroid follicles. These findings indicate that the zebrafish Taz protein is needed for the normal differentiation of the thyroid and are the first to suggest that Taz confers growth advantage to the endocrine gland. PMID:26478012

  11. Age impact on autoimmune thyroid disease in females

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid autoimmune disease, a widespread phenomenon in female population, impairs thyroid function during pregnancy. Identifying cases, which will develop hypothyroidism during pregnancy, is crucial in the follow-up process. The study group comprised 108 females, with ages between 20-40 years; with known inactive autoimmune thyroid disease, before pregnancy that became pregnant in the study follow-up period. They were monitored by means of clinical, hormonal and immunological assays. Supplemental therapy with thyroid hormones was used, where needed. Maternal age and level of anti-thyroid antibodies were used to predict thyroid functional impairment.

  12. Subacute thyroiditis (de Quervain) presenting as a painless cold nodule

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, P.C.; Boer, R.O.

    1987-09-01

    A 49-yr-old woman presented with a solid, painless, nontender nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed a solitary cold area in the left lobe and a slightly decreased 24-hr radioactive iodine thyroid uptake (9%). Although there were no specific clinical or biochemical signs suggesting thyroiditis needle aspiration cytology showed the presence of a subacute thyroiditis. Approximately 1 mo later the entire thyroid gland was affected leading to a completely suppressed thyroid radioiodine uptake and elevated serum thyroid hormone concentrations. This case illustrates that in the early phase of the disease, subacute thyroiditis may present as a solitary, painless, cold nodule and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of such lesions.

  13. The chronic autoimmune thyroiditis quality of life selenium trial (CATALYST): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis have impaired health-related quality of life. The thyroid gland has a high selenium concentration, and specific selenoprotein enzyme families are crucial to immune function, and catalyze thyroid hormone metabolism and redox processes in thyroid cells. Previous randomized controlled trials have found that selenium supplementation decreases thyroid-disease-specific antibody levels. We hypothesize that selenium might be beneficial in the treatment of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Methods/Design The CATALYST trial is an investigator-initiated randomized, blinded, multicentre clinical trial of selenium supplementation versus placebo in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Inclusion criteria: age ≥18 years; serum thyroid peroxidase antibody level ≥100 IU/ml within the previous 12 months; treatment with levothyroxine and written informed consent. Exclusion criteria: previous diagnosis of toxic nodular goitre, Graves’ hyperthyroidism, postpartum thyroiditis, Graves’ orbitopathy; previous antithyroid drug treatment, radioiodine therapy or thyroid surgery; immune-modulatory or other medication affecting thyroid function; pregnancy, planned pregnancy or breastfeeding; allergy towards any intervention or placebo component; intake of selenium supplementation >55 μg/day; inability to read or understand Danish or lack of informed consent. The trial will include 2 × 236 participants. The experimental intervention and control groups will receive 200 μg selenium-enriched yeast or matching placebo tablets daily for 12 months. The experimental supplement will be SelenoPrecise®. The primary outcome is thyroid-related quality of life assessed by the Thyroid Patient-Reported Outcome (ThyPRO) questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include serum thyroid peroxidase antibody concentration; serum triiodothyronine/thyroxine ratio; levothyroxine dosage; adverse reactions and serious adverse reactions and events

  14. [Autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Krátký, Jan; Jiskra, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Association between autoimmune thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer remains not clear. Although both diseases often occur simultaneously in histological samples, it is not yet clear whether CLT can be regarded as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy. This review focus on the known epidemiological and molecular genetics links between both diseases. Most studies have shown a significant association between thyroid cancer and positive antibodies to thyroglobulin and histological evidence of CLT, as well. Both disorders share some risk factors (greater incidence in women, in areas with adequate supply of iodine and in patients after radiotherapy of the neck) and molecular genetics linkage. For example: RET/PTC rearrangements could be more often found in carcinomas associated with CLT, but this mutation could be found in benign lesions such as CLT, as well. CLT seems to be a positive prognostic factor in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is associated with less invasive forms of tumor, lower occurrence of infiltrated lymphatic nodes and a lower risk of recurrence. PMID:26486481

  15. Systemic sarcoidosis with hypercalcaemia, hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and thyroid involvement.

    PubMed

    Alsahwi, Nassib; Blavo, Delali; Karanchi, Harsha

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder. The lungs are the principal organs affected, however, extrapulmonary involvement including disorders of the pituitary and thyroid glands has been reported but presentation with multiple endocrine manifestations is rare. We report the case of a 36-year-old African-American woman who presented with hypercalcaemia, abnormal thyroid function studies and secondary amenorrhoea. On workup including laboratory, radiological testing and biopsy she was diagnosed with sarcoidosis with multi-organ involvement. Endocrine manifestations included non-parathyroid hormone mediated hypercalcaemia related to sarcoidosis, thyroid involvement with sarcoidosis and hypothalamic-pituitary involvement with a sellar and suprasellar mass associated with secondary adrenal insufficiency, secondary hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and secondary hypothyroidism. We report to the best of our knowledge the first case of simultaneous multiple endocrine manifestations of sarcoidosis that included hypercalcaemia, hypopituitarism and sarcoidosis of the thyroid gland. PMID:27495178

  16. Prospective role of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in attenuating hexavalent chromium-induced functional and cellular damage in rat thyroid.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Irfan Zia; Mahmood, Tariq

    2010-07-01

    Occupational exposure to toxic heavy metals may render industrial workers with thyroid-related problems. Here, we examined the role of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) against hexavalent chromium Cr (VI)-induced damage in rat thyroid gland. Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and ascorbic acid doses were 60 microg and 120 mg kg(-1) body wt (intraperitoneally [i.p.]) respectively. Treatment regimens were group I rats, saline treated control; group II, only K2Cr2O7; group III, ascorbic acid 1 hour prior K2Cr2O7; group IV, simultaneous doses of ascorbic acid and K2Cr2O7, and group V, a combined premix dose of ascorbic acid and K2 Cr2O7 (2:1 ratio). Blood samples were taken before dosing the animals and 48 hours post exposure to determine the serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations. Toward end of experiment, rats were sacrificed and thyroid glands were processed to evaluate the extent of cellular insult. Results showed significantly increased TSH and decreased FT3 and FT4 concentrations in groups II, III and IV rats as compared to control levels (p < 0.05). In contrast, in group V rats, serum TSH, FT3 and FT4 concentrations neared control concentrations. Histopathologically, protective effect of ascorbic acid was found in group V rats only, where thyroid gland structure neared control thyroid except the follicular size that was decreased (p < 0.05). Follicular density was no different from control. Basal laminae were intact, interfollicular spaces were normal. Colloid retraction and/or reabsorption were reduced maximally. Epithelial cell height was no different from control; epithelial follicular index increased only 1.3 fold, whereas nuclear-cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio was decreased by 14% only. The study indicates that the ascorbic acid may have the potential to protect thyroid gland from chromium toxicity; however, the study warrants further in-depth experimentation to precisely elucidate this role. PMID:20504825

  17. Thyroid hormone resistance: a novel mutation in thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene - case report.

    PubMed

    Işık, Emregül; Beck Peccoz, Paolo; Campi, Irene; Özön, Alev; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer; Gönç, Nazlı; Kandemir, Nurgün

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone resistance (THR) is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormones. It is usually caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene. In the present report, we describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics and genetic analysis of patients with a novel THRB gene mutation. The index patient had been misdiagnosed as hyperthyroidism and treated with antithyroid drugs since eight days of age. Thyroid hormone results showed that thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) was never suppressed despite elevated thyroid hormone levels, and there was no symptom suggesting hyperthyroidism. A heterozygous mutation at codon 350 located in exon 9 of the THRB gene was detected in all the affected members of the family. It is important to consider thyroid hormone levels in association with TSH levels to prevent inappropriate treatment and the potential complications, such as clinical hypothyroidism or an increase in goiter size. PMID:24217081

  18. Assessment of Salivary Gland Function Using Salivary Scintigraphy in Pre and Post Radioactive Iodine Therapy in Diagnosed Thyroid Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Badam, Raj Kumar; Suram, Jyotsna; Babu, Dara Balaji Gandhi; Marshal, Rahul; Bontha, Sharath Chandra; Lavanya, Reddy; Kanth, Sudheer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Thyroid carcinoma represents less than 1% of all cancers. The first line of treatment for thyroid cancer is partial/total thyroidectomy. High-dose Iodine131 therapy using Iodine radioisotopes is commonly used in patients with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. In this process, the non-thyroidal tissues, such as, salivary gland, stomach and breast tissues also take up radioactive iodine. Salivary gland scintigraphy is widely accepted as a sensitive and valid method for evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction after Radioactive Iodine131 Therapy (RIT). Aim To assess and compare the salivary flow rates, relative uptake and ejection fractions in parotid and submandibular glands just before and one month after Iodine131 therapy. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 24 patients diagnosed with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma who underwent partial/total thyroidectomy and were due for radioactive iodine therapy. These patients were divided into two groups based on the lesion based dosimetry (Group A: 60-100Gy; Group B: 100-150Gy). Salivary gland assessment was done by salivary gland scintigraphy before and after RIT. Statistical Analysis The data collected was tabulated and statistically analysed using SPSS software version16 using paired t-test and individual sample t-test. Results A statistically significant difference in the uptake percent and ejection fraction percent in the parotid and submandibular glands before RIT and one month after RIT was observed in the study. Conclusion We inferred from the study that there was an overall decrease in uptake percent and ejection fraction percent one month post RIT in both parotid and submandibular glands. Also, a statistically significant difference was noted in the uptake and ejection fraction percent between Group A and Group B concluding the fact that the damage is dose related. PMID:26894178

  19. Thyroid dysfunction from antineoplastic agents.

    PubMed

    Hamnvik, Ole-Petter Riksfjord; Larsen, P Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

    2011-11-01

    Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-α, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%-50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient's quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents. PMID:22010182

  20. [Thyroid dysfunction in primary care medicine].

    PubMed

    Wuerzner, Kaisa; Pasche, Olivier; Rodondi, Nicolas; Portmann, Luc

    2010-12-01

    Thyroid function tests include the measuring of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (T4) in the case of abnormal TSH. These tests are frequently performed in primary care medicine since many clinical situations can be suggestive of dysthyroidism, as for example fatigue, depressive states or cardiac arthmia. In the case of subclinical thyroid dysfunction, the indications for treatment are controversial there being a lack of significant randomised studies. For primary care physicians faced with abnormal thyroid function tests we propose a diagnostic approach, clinical recommendations, and indications for referral to the specialist. PMID:21207724

  1. Identification and characterization of a functional retinoic acid/thyroid hormone-response element upstream of the human insulin gene enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A R; Wilson, M E; London, N J; James, R F; Docherty, K

    1995-01-01

    A deletion analysis of the human insulin gene extending to 2 kb upstream of the transcription start site provided evidence of regulatory sequences located upstream of the insulin-linked polymorphic region (ILPR). Within this ILPR-distal region is a sequence (Ink, for insulin kilobase upstream) which contains three potential nuclear hormone-receptor half-sites, closely matching the consensus sequence AGGTCA. These sequences are arranged as a palindromic element with zero spacing over-lapping a direct repeat with 2 bp spacing. The Ink sequence was used in electrophoretic mobility-shift assays within nuclear extracts from COS-7 cells overexpressing the vitamin D, thyroid hormone or retinoic acid receptors, or from an insulin-expressing hamster cell line, HIT-T15. These studies suggest that the insulin-expressing cell line contains thyroid hormone and retinoic acid receptors at least, and that these receptors are able to recognize the Ink sequence. Three copies of the Ink sequence were placed upstream of the thymidine kinase promoter and firefly luciferase reporter gene. In COS-7 cells expressing the appropriate nuclear hormone receptor, this construct was responsive to both thyroid hormone (18-fold) and all-trans-retinoic acid (31-fold). In HIT-T15 cells the same construct responded to all-trans-retinoic acid, but not to thyroid hormone. Within the context of a 2 kb insulin gene fragment, the Ink sequence was shown to be activated by retinoic acid and by the retinoic acid receptor, but acted as a negative element in the presence of both retinoic acid and the retinoic acid receptor. Mutagenesis studies demonstrated that the palindromic sequence was important for the retinoic acid response, and for binding of complexes containing retinoic acid receptor. In human islets of Langerhans, retinoic acid was shown to stimulate insulin mRNA levels. These results demonstrate that a functional nuclear hormone-receptor-response element is located upstream of the human ILPR. As

  2. Concomitant gastroparesis negatively affects children with functional gallbladder disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis and biliary dyskinesia (BD) occur in children, and if so, to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis affects clinical outcome in children with BD. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children with BD (ejecti...

  3. Thyroid function modifies the association between ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and renal function: a multicenter cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhongshang; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Bingchang; Zhang, Haiqing; Zhang, Xu; Guan, Qingbo; Ning, Guang; Gao, Ling; Xue, Fuzhong; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism was confirmed to be associated with both dyslipidemia and renal dysfunction. However, the impact of thyroid function on the relationship between serum lipid levels and renal function has never been given sufficient attention. In this large-scale multicenter cross-sectional study, the ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) and the prevalence of hypothyroidism in CKD subjects were significantly higher than those in non-CKD ones (P < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, TG/HDL was shown to be significantly associated with serum Cr levels (β = 0.551; 95%CI, 0.394–0.708), and eGFR (β = −0.481; 95%CI, −0.731–−0.230). The risk for CKD was significantly increased as TG/HDL ratio was elevated (adjusted odds ratio = 1.20; 95%CI, 1.11–1.27). These significant associations were found among subjects with euthyroidism and hypothyroidism rather than hyperthyroidism. Furthermore, the associations between TG/HDL and Cr or CKD status were significantly greater in hypothyroidism than those in euthyroidism (P < 0.05). These results suggested that elevated TG/HDL ratio was associated with renal dysfunction; it exhibited a significantly stronger association with Cr and CKD in hypothyroidism than in euthyroidism. Therefore, more attention should be paid on lipid profile to prevent or delay the occurrence and progression of renal dysfunction, especially for those with hypothyroidism. PMID:26179571

  4. Thyroid function modifies the association between ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and renal function: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhongshang; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Bingchang; Zhang, Haiqing; Zhang, Xu; Guan, Qingbo; Ning, Guang; Gao, Ling; Xue, Fuzhong; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism was confirmed to be associated with both dyslipidemia and renal dysfunction. However, the impact of thyroid function on the relationship between serum lipid levels and renal function has never been given sufficient attention. In this large-scale multicenter cross-sectional study, the ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) and the prevalence of hypothyroidism in CKD subjects were significantly higher than those in non-CKD ones (P < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, TG/HDL was shown to be significantly associated with serum Cr levels (β = 0.551; 95%CI, 0.394-0.708), and eGFR (β = -0.481; 95%CI, -0.731--0.230). The risk for CKD was significantly increased as TG/HDL ratio was elevated (adjusted odds ratio = 1.20; 95%CI, 1.11-1.27). These significant associations were found among subjects with euthyroidism and hypothyroidism rather than hyperthyroidism. Furthermore, the associations between TG/HDL and Cr or CKD status were significantly greater in hypothyroidism than those in euthyroidism (P < 0.05). These results suggested that elevated TG/HDL ratio was associated with renal dysfunction; it exhibited a significantly stronger association with Cr and CKD in hypothyroidism than in euthyroidism. Therefore, more attention should be paid on lipid profile to prevent or delay the occurrence and progression of renal dysfunction, especially for those with hypothyroidism. PMID:26179571

  5. Thyroid circadian timing: roles in physiology and thyroid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Jacques; Dibner, Charna

    2015-04-01

    The circadian clock represents an anticipatory mechanism, well preserved in evolution. It has a critical impact on most aspects of the physiology of light-sensitive organisms. These rhythmic processes are governed by environmental cues (fluctuations in light intensity and temperature), an internal circadian timing system, and interactions between this timekeeping system and environmental signals. Endocrine body rhythms, including hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis rhythms, are tightly regulated by the circadian system. Although the circadian profiles of thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) in blood have been well described, relatively few studies have analyzed molecular mechanisms governing the circadian regulation of HPT axis function. In this review, we will discuss the latest findings in the area of complex regulation of thyroid gland function by the circadian oscillator. We will also highlight the molecular makeup of the human thyroid oscillator as well as the potential link between thyroid malignant transformation and alterations in the clockwork. PMID:25411240

  6. Trends of thyroid function and autoimmunity to 5 years after the introduction of mandatory iodization in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, A; Pigliacelli, F; Fumarola, A; Persechino, S

    2016-05-01

    Background. Mandatory iodine fortification of salt was introduced in Italy in 2005. The purpose of our study is to estimate the trend of thyroid diseases in Italy before and after mandatory iodization in Italy. Methods. 7976 patients (6802 females; 1174 males) were examined between 2003 and 2010. We divided the patients into categories according to their clinical diagnosis. Later, we evaluated for each patient if there was the positivity for antibodies anti TPO. Finally, we collected data about TSH values of all patients who did not use therapy for thyroid disease at the time of the examination. To evaluate the differences percentages for categorical variables, χ2-Pearson test was used; to evaluate the percentage differences of TSH values we used the Kruskal-Wallis test. Values were considered statistically significant at p < 0.05. Results. We considered diagnosis of "toxic adenoma / goiter", diagnosis of "Graves' disease" and diagnosis of "hyperthyroidism / thyrotoxicosis" before and after the introduction of mandatory iodization in Italy, to demonstrate the possible presence of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism. Diagnosis of toxic adenoma / goiter before 2005 were 3.7%, while after 2005 they were reduced to 3.1%. Diagnosis of Graves' disease before 2005 were 2.4%, and they remained unchanged after 2005. Finally, diagnosis of hyperthyroidism / thyrotoxicosis decreased from 2.5% to 2.1%. Comparing these results, there were no significant differences (P = 0.261) between the percentages of diagnosis of hyperthyroidism before and after the introduction of mandatory iodization. We considered diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis before and after 2005 to demonstrate a link between the administration of iodine and thyroid autoimmunity. Prevalence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis between 2003 and 2005 was 37%; prevalence between 2006 and 2010 dropped to 34.7%. This small difference has a borderline statistical significance (P = 0.049). Stratifying TSH values from year to year, we

  7. SUMO1 Affects Synaptic Function, Spine Density and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Shinsuke; Lee, Linda; Knock, Erin; Srikumar, Tharan; Sakurai, Mikako; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Katayama, Taiichi; Staniszewski, Agnieszka; Raught, Brian; Arancio, Ottavio; Fraser, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO1) plays a number of roles in cellular events and recent evidence has given momentum for its contributions to neuronal development and function. Here, we have generated a SUMO1 transgenic mouse model with exclusive overexpression in neurons in an effort to identify in vivo conjugation targets and the functional consequences of their SUMOylation. A high-expressing line was examined which displayed elevated levels of mono-SUMO1 and increased high molecular weight conjugates in all brain regions. Immunoprecipitation of SUMOylated proteins from total brain extract and proteomic analysis revealed ~95 candidate proteins from a variety of functional classes, including a number of synaptic and cytoskeletal proteins. SUMO1 modification of synaptotagmin-1 was found to be elevated as compared to non-transgenic mice. This observation was associated with an age-dependent reduction in basal synaptic transmission and impaired presynaptic function as shown by altered paired pulse facilitation, as well as a decrease in spine density. The changes in neuronal function and morphology were also associated with a specific impairment in learning and memory while other behavioral features remained unchanged. These findings point to a significant contribution of SUMO1 modification on neuronal function which may have implications for mechanisms involved in mental retardation and neurodegeneration. PMID:26022678

  8. Mammalian cadherins DCHS1-FAT4 affect functional cerebral architecture.

    PubMed

    Beste, Christian; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; von der Hagen, Maja; Di Donato, Nataliya

    2016-06-01

    Cortical development is a complex process where a multitude of factors, including cadherins, plays an important role and where disruptions are known to have far reaching effects in neural development and cortical patterning. Cadherins play a central role in structural left-right differentiation during brain and body development, but their effect on a functional level remains elusive. We addressed this question by examining functional cerebral asymmetries in a patient with Van Maldergem Syndrome (VMS) (MIM#601390), which is caused by mutations in DCHS1-FAT4 cadherins, using a dichotic listening task. Using neurophysiological (EEG) data, we show that when key regulators during mammalian cerebral cortical development are disrupted due to DCHS1-FAT4 mutations, functional cerebral asymmetries are stronger. Basic perceptual processing of biaurally presented auditory stimuli was unaffected. This suggests that the strength and emergence of functional cerebral asymmetries is a direct function of proliferation and differentiation of neuronal stem cells. Moreover, these results support the recent assumption that the molecular mechanisms establishing early left-right differentiation are an important factor in the ontogenesis of functional lateralization. PMID:25930014

  9. SUMO1 Affects Synaptic Function, Spine Density and Memory.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Shinsuke; Lee, Linda; Knock, Erin; Srikumar, Tharan; Sakurai, Mikako; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Katayama, Taiichi; Staniszewski, Agnieszka; Raught, Brian; Arancio, Ottavio; Fraser, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO1) plays a number of roles in cellular events and recent evidence has given momentum for its contributions to neuronal development and function. Here, we have generated a SUMO1 transgenic mouse model with exclusive overexpression in neurons in an effort to identify in vivo conjugation targets and the functional consequences of their SUMOylation. A high-expressing line was examined which displayed elevated levels of mono-SUMO1 and increased high molecular weight conjugates in all brain regions. Immunoprecipitation of SUMOylated proteins from total brain extract and proteomic analysis revealed ~95 candidate proteins from a variety of functional classes, including a number of synaptic and cytoskeletal proteins. SUMO1 modification of synaptotagmin-1 was found to be elevated as compared to non-transgenic mice. This observation was associated with an age-dependent reduction in basal synaptic transmission and impaired presynaptic function as shown by altered paired pulse facilitation, as well as a decrease in spine density. The changes in neuronal function and morphology were also associated with a specific impairment in learning and memory while other behavioral features remained unchanged. These findings point to a significant contribution of SUMO1 modification on neuronal function which may have implications for mechanisms involved in mental retardation and neurodegeneration. PMID:26022678

  10. What Is Thyroid Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Having too much thyroid hormone (a condition called hyperthyroidism ) can cause a rapid or irregular heartbeat, trouble ... nodules make too much thyroid hormone and cause hyperthyroidism. Nodules that produce increased thyroid hormone are almost ...

  11. Retrosternal thyroid surgery

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid gland is normally located at the front of the neck. A retrosternal thyroid refers to the abnormal location of all or part of the thyroid gland below the breastbone (sternum). This article discusses ...

  12. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ... procedure, a skinny needle is inserted into the thyroid gland, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  13. Stages of Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands make hormones. The thyroid uses iodine , a mineral found in some foods and in iodized salt, ... Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid : The removal of thyroid tissue using a thin needle. The ...

  14. Effects of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on thyroid function in infants born in Japan--the second report from research on environmental health.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, N; Uchiyama, T; Tada, H; Nakamura, Y; Kondo, N; Morita, M; Fukushi, M

    2001-12-01

    Dioxins (PCDD + PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) are potentially hazardous compounds and have structural similarity to thyroid hormones. Our research group on "Dioxins and PCB in Human Milk" was organized in 1997 and has been active for the past three years. We collected breast milk from 80 mothers living in Tokyo, Saitama, Ishikawa and Osaka Prefecture in Japan at 5, 30, 150, 300 postpartum days and measured PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs during 1998-1999. We added another 20 prefectures and cities during 1999-2000. Breast milk was obtained from 415 mothers at 30 postpartum days (breast-feeding group). Blood was taken from infants who were breast-fed at the age of 1 year for evaluation of thyroid and immune functions. Blood was also taken from 53 infants who were bottle-fed (bottle-feeding group) as a control. Serum T4, T3, FT4 and TSH levels in the breast-feeding (n = 337) and bottle-feeding (n = 53) groups were within normal ranges and were not significantly different between the two groups. Although there were a large geographic differences of dioxins and co-PCB content in breast milk, there were no differences in serum T4, T3, FT4, TSH levels and no significant correlation between the mean serum levels of TSH and TEQ in breast milk. There was a significant correlation between serum TSH at 1 year of age and that from blood on dried filter paper TSH at 5 days of age. We concluded that dioxin intake from breast milk in Japanese infants did not impair thyroid function. However, long-term effects remain to be evaluated. PMID:11695630

  15. Robotic surgery for thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, C R; Chung, W Y

    2015-10-01

    While conventional open thyroidectomy techniques are the most widely performed thyroid operation, they produce an anterior neck scar that may be difficult to conceal. The endoscopic thyroidectomy was developed to decrease the cosmetic impact on the patient and has the advantage of reducing the incidence of anterior neck hypoesthesia and paresthesia. However, this procedure has some drawbacks, which motivated surgeons to develop a new operation method. Robotic thyroidectomy is a relatively new approach for treating differentiated thyroid cancer. Over the last few years, robotic thyroidectomies have become more common. Robotic thyroidectomies are a feasible, safe alternative for managing thyroid disease that has remarkable functional benefits beyond those of conventional open methods. The applications for robotic thyroidectomy have expanded to include increasingly advanced cases, which will consequently change the thyroid surgery paradigm in the future. PMID:26149523

  16. Urticarial vasculitis reveals unsuspected thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Olga; Mota, Alberto; Baudrier, Teresa; Azevedo, Filomena

    2012-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with erythematous, violaceous plaques with a serpiginous and unusual appearance located on the left shoulder, left thigh, and right buttock, evolving for 5 days, which eventually became generalized. A skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis and a diagnosis of urticarial vasculitis was made. The complete blood count, biochemistry, complement levels, and other immunological test results were unremarkable. However, antithyroid antibody titers were increased. Despite having normal thyroid function tests and an absence of specific symptoms, the patient underwent a thyroid ultrasound, which revealed features of thyroiditis, and was subsequently referred to an endocrinologist. Several diseases can be associated with urticarial vasculitis, namely infections and autoimmune connective-tissue disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren syndrome. Thyroiditis is an uncommon association. PMID:23000939

  17. Identification of Coordinately Regulated Functional Modules in Thyroid Tissues from Rats Exposed to a Tumorigenic and a Non-Tumorigenic Conazole Fungicide Using Oncomine®

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are triazole- or imidazole-containing fungicides used in agriculture and medicine. Using transcriptomic analysis of rat thyroid tissues exposed to either tumorigenic or non-tumorigenic structurally related conazoles, we identified new findings on thyroid gene expressio...

  18. RhoBTB2 (DBC2) functions as a multifunctional tumor suppressor in thyroid cancer cells via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuan-Jiang; Yang, Dong; Luo, Ying-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy worldwide. Tumor suppressor gene RhoBTB2 (also known as Deleted in Breast Cancer 2, DBC2) was observed in various carcinomas, however, no reports showed the effects of RhoBTB2 on thyroid cancer. In our study, we found that RhoBTB2 decreases proliferation, increases apoptosis, inhibits mobility, and induces mitochondria damage in SW579 cells through increased Bax and decreased Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression. The effects of RhoBTB2 on SW579 cells were inversed by using butin (an inhibitor of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway). Our results suggest that RhoBTB2 suppresses the growth of SW579 cells through a mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. PMID:26131191

  19. Thyroid Function Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Irving T.

    1979-01-01

    Describes two tests, T-4 and T-3, for hypothyroid based on the binding of the hormones by proteins. The tests were performed in courses for physicians, clinical chemists, laboratory technicians, and undergraduate science students by the individuals involved and on their own sera. These tests are commercially available in kit form. (GA)

  20. Temperament Affects Sympathetic Nervous Function in a Normal Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae-Hon; Kang, Eun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although specific temperaments have been known to be related to autonomic nervous function in some psychiatric disorders, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between temperaments and autonomic nervous function in a normal population. In this study, we examined the effect of temperament on the sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. Methods Sixty eight healthy subjects participated in the present study. Temperament was assessed using the Korean version of the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Autonomic nervous function was determined by measuring skin temperature in a resting state, which was recorded for 5 minutes from the palmar surface of the left 5th digit using a thermistor secured with a Velcro® band. Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple linear regression were used to examine the relationship between temperament and skin temperature. Results A higher harm avoidance score was correlated with a lower skin temperature (i.e. an increased sympathetic tone; r=-0.343, p=0.004) whereas a higher persistence score was correlated with a higher skin temperature (r=0.433, p=0.001). Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that harm avoidance was able to predict the variance of skin temperature independently, with a variance of 7.1% after controlling for sex, blood pressure and state anxiety and persistence was the factor predicting the variance of skin temperature with a variance of 5.0%. Conclusion These results suggest that high harm avoidance is related to an increased sympathetic nervous function whereas high persistence is related to decreased sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. PMID:22993530

  1. Fetal urinoma and prenatal hydronephrosis: how is renal function affected?

    PubMed Central

    Oktar, Tayfun; Salabaş, Emre; Kalelioğlu, İbrahim; Atar, Arda; Ander, Haluk; Ziylan, Orhan; Has, Recep; Yüksel, Atıl

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In our study, the functional prognosis of kidneys with prenatal urinomas were investigated. Material and methods: Between 2006 and 2010, fetal urinomas were detected in 19 fetuses using prenatal ultrasonography (US), and the medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 19 cases, the follow-up data were available for 10 fetuses. The gestational age at diagnosis, prognosis of urinomas, clinical course and renal functions were recorded. Postnatal renal functions were assessed with renal scintigraphy. Results: Unilateral urinomas and increased parenchyma echogenicity in the ipsilateral kidney were detected in all of the fetuses. Of the 10 fetuses with follow-up data, the option of termination was offered in 6 cases of anhydramnios, including 3 cases with signs of infravesical obstruction (a possible posterior urethral valve (PUV) and poor prognostic factors and 3 cases with unilateral hydronephrosis and increased echogenicity in the contralateral kidney. Only one family agreed the termination. The other 5 fetuses died during the early postnatal period. The average postnatal follow-up period in the 4 surviving fetuses was 22.5 months (8–38 months). One patient with a PUV underwent ablation surgery during the early postnatal period. In the postnatal period, none of the 4 kidneys that were ipsilateral to the urinoma were functional on scintigraphic evaluation. The urinomas disappeared in 3 cases. Nephrectomy was performed in one case due to recurrent urinary tract infections. Conclusion: In our study, no function was detected in the ipsilateral kidney of surviving patients with urinomas. Upper urinary tract dilatation accompanied by a urinoma is a poor prognostic factor for renal function. PMID:26328088

  2. Dataset of liver proteins of eu- and hypothyroid rats affected in abundance by any of three factors: in vivo exposure to hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), thyroid status, gender differences.

    PubMed

    Miller, I; Renaut, J; Cambier, S; Murk, A J; Gutleb, A C; Serchi, T

    2016-09-01

    Male Wistar rats with different thyroid status (eu-, hypothyroid) were exposed to 0, 3 or 30 mg/kg body weight of the flame retardant HBCD for 7 days and obtained data compared with a previous study in females, "Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) induced changes in the liver proteome of eu- and hypothyroid female rats" (Miller et al., 2016) [1]. Specifically, proteomic investigation of liver protein patterns obtained by 2D-DIGE was performed and differences between animals groups recorded, based on the factors exposure, thyroid status and gender. All proteins with significantly changed abundance in any of these comparisons were identified by mass spectrometry. General, hormone and proteomic data of both the present and the previous studies are discussed in Miller et al. (2016) [1] and in "Gender specific differences in the liver proteome of rats exposed to hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)" Miller et al. (2016) [2]. PMID:27579339

  3. Medications that distort in vitro tests of thyroid function, with particular reference to estimates of serum free thyroxine.

    PubMed

    Stockigt, Jim R; Lim, Chen-Fee

    2009-12-01

    The combination of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with measurement of circulating thyroid hormones greatly improves sensitivity and specificity of thyroid diagnosis, but these assays are not impeccable. Estimation of serum free T4 conveniently accommodates variations in the concentration of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), but no current technique reliably reflects the in vivo free T4 concentration in numerous other situations. The effect of circulating competitors that increase T4 and T3 in vivo, in particular, many medications, is under-estimated by current free hormone estimates that involve sample dilution. Non-esterified fatty acids generated during sample storage and incubation can spuriously increase the measured free T4 estimate, especially after in vivo treatment with heparin. These artefacts are unlikely to be overcome by current assay strategies. Total serum T4, corrected for alterations in TBG concentration, gives a more robust estimate of thyroxine concentration than current methods of free hormone estimation and should now be reintroduced as the 'gold standard'. PMID:19942151

  4. Can Particulate Pollution Affect Lung Function in Healthy Adults?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accompanying editorial to paper from Harvard by Rice et al. entitled "Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart StudyBy almost any measure the Clean Air Act and its amendments has to be considered as one...

  5. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. PMID:26325197

  6. Chemical Modifications that Affect Nutritional and Functional Properties of Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, T.; Kester, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical alterations of selected amino acids resulting from environmental effects (photooxidations, pH extremes, thermally induced effects). Also dicusses use of intentional chemical derivatizations of various functional groups in amino acid residue side chains and how recombinant DNA techniques might be useful in structure/function…

  7. The Effect of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone on Tumor Size in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ozemir, I A; Gurbuz, B; Bayraktar, B; Aslan, S; Başkent, A; Yalman, H; Yigitbasi, R; Alimoglu, O

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the correlation between serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and tumor size and other invasiveness parameters of tumor in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Several clinical studies have reported that TSH may also have a role as a regulator of the development and function of the thyroid gland. It is currently not clear whether TSH is involved in the existence of thyroid cancer or progression of thyroid cancer or both. Patients with DTC who underwent thyroid surgery between 2003 and 2008 were included this study. Preoperative serum T3, T4, and TSH levels were compared with the size and invasiveness of cancer, retrospectively. DTC was observed in 110 patients over the 5-year period. Seventy-seven (70 %) of them were euthyroid and classified as the "normal-TSH group" (NTG), and 33 (30 %) have an overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism, classified as the "low-TSH group" (LTG). The mean tumor diameter in the LTG was found to be 8.91 ± 8.03 mm; however, it was found to be 18.19 ± 16.24 mm in the NTG. There were significantly differences among the groups related to the diameter of tumor (p = 0.001). Microcarcinoma was determined in 36 patients (46.8 %) in the NTG and 23 patients (69.7 %) in the LTG (p = 0.027). Although there were no significant differences, tumor capsule invasion (33.8 vs. 18.2 %, p = 0.099) and lymphovascular invasion (16.9 vs. 6.1 %, p = 0.130) rates were higher in the NTG. These findings suggest that TSH has effects on growing and proliferation of not only normal thyroid cells but also cancer cells in DTC. This study revealed that serum TSH level can be explored as an important factor that affects the size and invasiveness of tumor in DTC. PMID:27011492

  8. Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in rat thyroid toxicity caused by excess fluoride and/or iodide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongliang; Hou, Changchun; Zeng, Qiang; Zhao, Liang; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Wang, Lingzhi; Zhao, Yang; Nie, Junyan; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Aiguo

    2016-09-01

    Excess fluoride and iodide coexist in drinking water in many regions, but few studies have investigated the single or interactive effects on thyroid in vivo. In our study, Wistar rats were exposed to excess fluoride and/or iodide through drinking water for 2 or 8 months. The structure and function of the thyroid, cells apoptosis and the expression of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathway-related factors were analyzed. Results demonstrated that excess fluoride and/or iodide could change thyroid follicular morphology and alter thyroid hormone levels in rats. After 8 months treatment, both single and co-exposure of the two microelements could raise the thyroid cells apoptosis. However, the expressions of IRE1-related factors were only increased in fluoride-alone and the combined groups. In conclusion, thyroid structure and thyroid function were both affected by excess fluoride and/or iodide. IRE1-induced apoptosis were involved in this cytotoxic process caused by fluoride or the combination of two microelements. PMID:27522547

  9. [Thyroid nodules – how to proceed?].

    PubMed

    Murer, Karin; Müller, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Asymptomatic thyroid nodules are very common and detected with increasing frequency by radiological investigations of the neck as so-called “incidentalomas”. If a thyroid nodule is found, the question arises how to proceed with this case. The goal is to recognize the very rare malignant nodules and to perform an adequate therapy. Every work-up of a thyroid nodule includes functional evaluation by determination of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Is the level of the hormone suppressed, a scintigraphy is indicated to rule out a hot thyroid nodule implying a benign finding. Ultrasound is the imaging of choice for the thyroid gland and provides information with respect to size, number and configuration of the nodes. Depending on sonographic evaluation and other possible risk factors, a fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the node is performed. Based on the cytologic findings further therapeutic procedures are determined. PMID:27132640

  10. Thyroid tumors in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Barber, Lisa G

    2007-07-01

    The clinical presentation and biologic behavior of thyroid tumors vary widely among dogs, cats, and human beings. Although thyroid tumors in dogs are rare, they are most likely to be malignant. Clinical signs are usually the result of impingement on surrounding structures, and clinical hyperthyroidism is rare. In contrast, hyperthyroidism resulting from benign thyroid proliferation is relatively common among older cats. Malignant tumors are extremely uncommon but have high metastatic potential. Irrespective of the tumor's ability to produce functional thyroid hormone, scintigraphy is often helpful in the diagnosis and staging of thyroid tumors in all three species. Treatment with surgery is a reasonable treatment option for noninvasive tumors. Iodine 131 is a well-established treatment for thyroid nodules in cats, but its effectiveness in dogs is controversial. In dogs, external beam radiation therapy has produced more consistent results in affording local tumor control when surgery is not possible. PMID:17619010

  11. SLE-associated risk factors affect DC function

    PubMed Central

    Son, Myoungsun; Kim, Sun Jung; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Numerous risk alleles for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have now been identified. Analysis of the expression of genes with risk alleles in cells of hematopoietic origin demonstrates them to be most abundantly expressed in B cells and dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that these cell types may be the drivers of the inflammatory changes seen in SLE. DCs are of particular interest as they act to connect the innate and the adaptive immune response. Thus, DCs can transform inflammation into autoimmunity, and autoantibodies are the hallmark of SLE. In this review, we focus on mechanisms of tolerance that maintain DCs in a non-activated, non-immunogenic state. We demonstrate, using examples from our own studies, how alterations in DC function stemming from either DC-intrinsic abnormalities or DC-extrinsic regulators of function can predispose to autoimmunity. PMID:26683148

  12. RIGHT HEMISPHERIC FUNCTION IN NORMALS, AFFECTIVE DISORDER AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Borde, Milind; Roy, Amal; Davis, Elizabeth J.B.; Davis, Rachel

    1996-01-01

    The happy-sad chimeric faces test has been established as a useful test of right hemispheric function. It is known to elicit a left hemifacial bias (LHF bias) in right handed subjects. 41 normals and 19 manic, depressive and schizophrenic patients each were tested. All subjects were strictly right handed. Normals and depressives showed significant LHF bias. Monies and schizophrenics did not show significant LHF Bias. This suggests right hemispheric dysfunction in both mania and schizophrenia. PMID:21584135

  13. Nuclear cyclophilins affect spliceosome assembly and function in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Adams, B.M.; Coates, Miranda N.; Jackson, S. RaElle; Jurica, Melissa S.; Davis, Tara L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophilins are ubiquitously expressed proteins that bind to prolines and can catalyse cis/trans isomerization of proline residues. There are 17 annotated members of the cyclophilin family in humans, ubiquitously expressed and localized variously to the cytoplasm, nucleus or mitochondria. Surprisingly, all eight of the nuclear localized cyclophilins are found associated with spliceosomal complexes. However, their particular functions within this context are unknown. We have therefore adapted three established assays for in vitro pre-mRNA splicing to probe the functional roles of nuclear cyclophilins in the context of the human spliceosome. We find that four of the eight spliceosom-associated cyclophilins exert strong effects on splicing in vitro. These effects are dose-dependent and, remarkably, uniquely characteristic of each cyclophilin. Using both qualitative and quantitative means, we show that at least half of the nuclear cyclophilins can act as regulatory factors of spliceosome function in vitro. The present work provides the first quantifiable evidence that nuclear cyclophilins are splicing factors and provides a novel approach for future work into small molecule-based modulation of pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:25967372

  14. Prenatal Drug Exposure Affects Neonatal Brain Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Salzwedel, Andrew P.; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala–frontal, insula–frontal, and insula–sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala–frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention. PMID:25855194

  15. Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, Andrew P; Grewen, Karen M; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili; Gao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala-frontal, insula-frontal, and insula-sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala-frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention. PMID:25855194

  16. The effect of negative affect on cognition: Anxiety, not anger, impairs executive function.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Tewell, Carl A; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these 2 affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in participants and examined the effects on executive function. We found that anger did not impair executive function relative to a neutral mood, whereas anxiety did. In addition, self-reports of induced anxiety, but not anger, predicted impairments in executive function. These results support functional models of affect and cognition, and highlight the need to consider differences between anxiety and anger when investigating the influence of negative affect on fundamental cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100367

  17. Thyroid Function in Women after Multimodal Treatment for Breast Cancer Stage II/III: Comparison With Controls From a Population Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Reinertsen, Kristin Valborg; Cvancarova, Milada; Wist, Erik; Bjoro, Trine; Dahl, Alv A.; Danielsen, Turi; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: A possible association between thyroid diseases (TD) and breast cancer (BC) has been debated. We examined prevalence and development of TD in women after multimodal treatment for Stage II/III BC compared with women from a general population. Secondarily, we explored the impact of two different radiotherapy (RT) techniques (standardized field arrangements vs. computed tomography [CT]-based dose planning) on TD in BC patients examined 35-120 months after primary BC treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 403 BC patients completed a questionnaire about TD and had blood samples taken for analyses of thyroid function. All had undergone postoperative RT with or without (2%) adjuvant systemic treatment. The results in the BC patients were compared with a cancer-free, age-matched control group from a general population (CGr). Results: There was higher prevalence of self-reported hypothyroidism in the BC patients as compared with the CGr (18% vs. 6%, p < 0.001). The raised prevalence was predominantly due to a substantial increase in the development of hypothyroidism after BC diagnosis, whereas the prevalence of hypothyroidism before BC diagnosis was similar to that observed in the CGr. Patients treated with CT-based RT showed a trend for increased post-BC development of hypothyroidism as compared with those treated with standardized field arrangements (p = 0.08). Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is significantly increased in women after multimodal treatment for Stage II/III BC. Radiation to the thyroid gland may be a contributing factor. BC patients should be routinely screened for hypothyroidism.

  18. Ectopic thyroid tissue in the adrenal gland: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Casadei, Gian Piero; Bertarelli, Claudia; Giorgini, Eleonora; Cremonini, Nadia; de Biase, Dario; Tallini, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Foci of ectopic thyroid tissue are uncommon. Most sites of thyroid ectopia are confined to the neck region. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue outside the migration pathway of the primitive thyroid in other locations is exceptional. Given that any disease of the thyroid gland may also affect ectopic thyroid tissue, pathologists has to recognize benign or malignant conditions that may develop in the ectopic focus. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with ectopic thyroid parenchyma in the adrenal gland. Clinically, postoperative thyroid ultrasound echography and computed tomography scans did not reveal any thyroid tumor. The ectopic tissue was a cyst bordered by mature follicular thyroid structures and was histologically benign, without the molecular alterations associated with malignant tumors of follicular cell derivation (BRAFV600E, N-RAS, H-RAS, K-RAS). Review of the literature reveals that adrenal ectopic thyroid tissue is nearly always cystic and has distinctive pathologic features. PMID:24997195

  19. Yersinia enterocolitica Affects Intestinal Barrier Function in the Colon.

    PubMed

    Hering, Nina A; Fromm, Anja; Kikhney, Judith; Lee, In-Fah M; Moter, Annette; Schulzke, Jörg D; Bücker, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Infection with Yersinia enterocolitica causes acute diarrhea in early childhood. A mouse infection model presents new findings on pathological mechanisms in the colon. Symptoms involve diarrhea with watery feces and weight loss that have their functional correlates in decreased transepithelial electrical resi