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Sample records for affecting urban areas

  1. [Spatiotemporal distribution of negative air ion concentration in urban area and related affecting factors: a review].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Jian; Zeng, Hong-Da; Chen, Guang-Shui; Zhong, Xian-Fang

    2013-06-01

    Negative air ion (NAI) concentration is an important indicator comprehensively reflecting air quality, and has significance to human beings living environment. This paper summarized the spatiotemporal distribution features of urban NAI concentration, and discussed the causes of these features based on the characteristics of the environmental factors in urban area and their effects on the physical and chemical processes of NAI. The temporal distribution of NAI concentration is mainly controlled by the periodic variation of solar radiation, while the spatial distribution of NAI concentration along the urban-rural gradient is mainly affected by the urban aerosol distribution, underlying surface characters, and urban heat island effect. The high NAI concentration in urban green area is related to the vegetation life activities and soil radiation, while the higher NAI concentration near the water environment is attributed to the water molecules that participate in the generation of NAI through a variety of ways. The other environmental factors can also affect the generation, life span, component, translocation, and distribution of NAI to some extent. To increase the urban green space and atmospheric humidity and to maintain the soil natural attributes of underlying surface could be the effective ways to increase the urban NAI concentration and improve the urban air quality. PMID:24066568

  2. Application of soil magnetometry on urban and industrial areas affected by different sources of pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magiera, T.; Szuszkiewicz, M.; Rachwał, M.

    2012-04-01

    Soil magnetometry as a proxy screening method has proven to be a suitable method for outlining soil pollution, connected with industrial and urban dust deposition as well as qualitative and semi-quantitative evaluation of potentially contaminated areas with considerably high concentration of technogenic iron particles and related heavy metals. In combination with geochemical method it could be also used for better targeting the geochemical sampling and reducing the number of chemical analysis. During this study the method was applied on areas dominated by 3 different sources of pollution: urban (mostly related to coal combustion), metallurgical and coke production. The three analyzed forest complexes were artificially planted and grow on anthroposols with different stage of transformation. During the study analysis of vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility (κ) in 40 topsoil profiles taken in 3 above mentioned forest areas were performed. Additionally, soil samples taken from horizons with increased magnetic susceptibility (mostly organic horizon) and from mineral horizons (considered as a background) were selected to chemical analysis of 9 heavy metal content (Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb). X-ray fluorescence method was applied for geochemical study. The highest κ values up to 1200 × 10-5 SI units were measured in the vicinity of metallurgical plant but the correlation between κ values and heavy metal content was there very low and statistically not significant. The considerably high correlation between magnetic susceptibility and some heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, As) were observed on 2 other areas of study. On the base of these study in combination with former mineralogical study of industrial dusts and topsoils, the following conclusions have been drown: Steelworks - emit strongly magnetic technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) including metallic iron (α-Fe) that is strong ferromagnetic (giving high κ values) but do not contain heavy

  3. Urbanization Affects the Extent and Hydrologic Permanence of Headwater Streams in a Midwestern US Metropolitan Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Headwater streams dominate natural landscapes and provide essential functions for downstream waters. However, because of minimal legal protection, they often are piped or buried to accommodate urban growth. Urbanization also alters stream base flows. The combined impact of these ...

  4. Source characterization of volatile organic compounds affecting the air quality in a coastal urban area of South Texas.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Marciano; Karnae, Saritha; John, Kuruvilla

    2008-09-01

    Selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emitted from various anthropogenic sources including industries and motor vehicles act as primary precursors of ozone, while some VOC are classified as air toxic compounds. Significantly large VOC emission sources impact the air quality in Corpus Christi, Texas. This urban area is located in a semi-arid region of South Texas and is home to several large petrochemical refineries and industrial facilities along a busy ship-channel. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has setup two continuous ambient monitoring stations (CAMS 633 and 634) along the ship channel to monitor VOC concentrations in the urban atmosphere. The hourly concentrations of 46 VOC compounds were acquired from TCEQ for a comprehensive source apportionment study. The primary objective of this study was to identify and quantify the sources affecting the ambient air quality within this urban airshed. Principal Component Analysis/Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA/APCS) was applied to the dataset. PCA identified five possible sources accounting for 69% of the total variance affecting the VOC levels measured at CAMS 633 and six possible sources affecting CAMS 634 accounting for 75% of the total variance. APCS identified natural gas emissions to be the major source contributor at CAMS 633 and it accounted for 70% of the measured VOC concentrations. The other major sources identified at CAMS 633 included flare emissions (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (9%), refinery operations (7%), and vehicle exhaust (2%). At CAMS 634, natural gas sources were identified as the major source category contributing to 31% of the observed VOC. The other sources affecting this site included: refinery operations (24%), flare emissions (22%), secondary industrial processes (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (8%) and vehicle exhaust (3%). PMID:19139530

  5. Source Characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds Affecting the Air Quality in a Coastal Urban Area of South Texas

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Marciano; Karnae, Saritha; John, Kuruvilla

    2008-01-01

    Selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emitted from various anthropogenic sources including industries and motor vehicles act as primary precursors of ozone, while some VOC are classified as air toxic compounds. Significantly large VOC emission sources impact the air quality in Corpus Christi, Texas. This urban area is located in a semi-arid region of South Texas and is home to several large petrochemical refineries and industrial facilities along a busy ship-channel. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has setup two continuous ambient monitoring stations (CAMS 633 and 634) along the ship channel to monitor VOC concentrations in the urban atmosphere. The hourly concentrations of 46 VOC compounds were acquired from TCEQ for a comprehensive source apportionment study. The primary objective of this study was to identify and quantify the sources affecting the ambient air quality within this urban airshed. Principal Component Analysis/Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA/APCS) was applied to the dataset. PCA identified five possible sources accounting for 69% of the total variance affecting the VOC levels measured at CAMS 633 and six possible sources affecting CAMS 634 accounting for 75% of the total variance. APCS identified natural gas emissions to be the major source contributor at CAMS 633 and it accounted for 70% of the measured VOC concentrations. The other major sources identified at CAMS 633 included flare emissions (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (9%), refinery operations (7%), and vehicle exhaust (2%). At CAMS 634, natural gas sources were identified as the major source category contributing to 31% of the observed VOC. The other sources affecting this site included: refinery operations (24%), flare emissions (22%), secondary industrial processes (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (8%) and vehicle exhaust (3%). PMID:19139530

  6. Nitrogen multitemporal monitoring through mosses in urban areas affected by mud volcanoes around Mt. Etna, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen emissions were assessed by using mosses as bioindicators in a densely inhabited area affected by mud volcanoes. Such volcanoes, locally called Salinelle, are phenomena that occur around Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy), and are interpreted as the surface outflow of a hydrothermal system located below Mt. Etna, which releases sedimentary fluids (hydrocarbons and Na-Cl brines) along with magmatic gases (mainly CO2 and He). To date, N emissions from such mud volcanoes have been only quantitatively assessed, and no biomonitoring campaigns are reported about the cumulative effects of these emissions. This study analyzed N concentrations in moss, water and soil samples, collected in a 4-year monitoring campaign. The bryophyte Bryum argenteum, a species widely adopted in surveys of atmospheric pollution, was used as a biological indicator. N concentrations in biomonitors showed relatively low values in the study sites. However, the results of this study suggest that N emissions from Salinelle may have an impact on surrounding ecosystems because N values in moss and water showed a significant correlation. N oxides, in particular, contribute to acidification of ecosystems, thus multitemporal biomonitoring is recommended, especially in those areas where N emitting sources are anthropogenic and natural. PMID:23479119

  7. Stochasticity in Natural Forage Production Affects Use of Urban Areas by Black Bears: Implications to Management of Human-Bear Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Wilson, Kenneth R.; Lewis, David L.; Broderick, John; Mao, Julie S.; Breck, Stewart W.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to increased human-wildlife conflict. For American black bears (Ursus americanus), little is known about the degree of bear urbanization and its ecological mechanisms to guide the management of human-bear conflicts. Using 6 years of GPS location and activity data from bears in Aspen, Colorado, USA, we evaluated the degree of bear urbanization and the factors that best explained its variations. We estimated space use, activity patterns, survival, and reproduction and modeled their relationship with ecological covariates related to bear characteristics and natural food availability. Space use and activity patterns were dependent on natural food availability (good or poor food years), where bears used higher human density areas and became more nocturnal in poor food years. Patterns were reversible, i.e., individuals using urban areas in poor food years used wildland areas in subsequent good food years. While reproductive output was similar across years, survival was lower in poor food years when bears used urban areas to a greater extent. Our findings suggest that bear use of urban areas is reversible and fluctuates with the availability of natural food resources, and that removal of urban individuals in times of food failures has the potential to negatively affect bear populations. Given that under current predictions urbanization is expected to increase by 11% across American black bear range, and that natural food failure years are expected to increase in frequency with global climate change, alternative methods of reducing urban human-bear conflict are required if the goal is to prevent urban areas from becoming population sinks

  8. Stochasticity in natural forage production affects use of urban areas by black bears: implications to management of human-bear conflicts.

    PubMed

    Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Wilson, Kenneth R; Lewis, David L; Broderick, John; Mao, Julie S; Breck, Stewart W

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to increased human-wildlife conflict. For American black bears (Ursus americanus), little is known about the degree of bear urbanization and its ecological mechanisms to guide the management of human-bear conflicts. Using 6 years of GPS location and activity data from bears in Aspen, Colorado, USA, we evaluated the degree of bear urbanization and the factors that best explained its variations. We estimated space use, activity patterns, survival, and reproduction and modeled their relationship with ecological covariates related to bear characteristics and natural food availability. Space use and activity patterns were dependent on natural food availability (good or poor food years), where bears used higher human density areas and became more nocturnal in poor food years. Patterns were reversible, i.e., individuals using urban areas in poor food years used wildland areas in subsequent good food years. While reproductive output was similar across years, survival was lower in poor food years when bears used urban areas to a greater extent. Our findings suggest that bear use of urban areas is reversible and fluctuates with the availability of natural food resources, and that removal of urban individuals in times of food failures has the potential to negatively affect bear populations. Given that under current predictions urbanization is expected to increase by 11% across American black bear range, and that natural food failure years are expected to increase in frequency with global climate change, alternative methods of reducing urban human-bear conflict are required if the goal is to prevent urban areas from becoming population sinks

  9. Socioeconomic and personal behavioral factors affecting children's exposure to VOCs in urban areas in Korea.

    PubMed

    Byun, Hyaejeong; Ryu, Kyongnam; Jang, Kyungjo; Bae, Hyunjoo; Kim, Dongjin; Shin, Hosung; Chu, Jangmin; Yoon, Chungsik

    2010-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to cause adverse health effects. We investigated the relationships between children's VOC exposure and socioeconomic and human activity factors with passive personal samplers, questionnaires, and time-activity diaries (TAD). Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS 9.1, and the results were organized using SigmaPlot 8.0 software. Chemicals such as benzene, toluene, 2-butanone, ethylbenzene, xylene, chloroform, n-hexane, heptane, and some kinds of decanes, which are known to adversely affect public health, were identified in measured samples. These were mainly emitted from outdoor sources (e.g., vehicular traffic) or indoor sources (e.g., household activities such as cooking and cleaning) or both. We concluded that region was the most important socioeconomic factor affecting children's VOC exposure, and the significant compounds were n-hexane (p = 0.006), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (p = 0.001), benzene (p = 0.003), toluene (p = 0.002), ethylbenzene (p = 0.020), m-, p-xylene (p = 0.014), dodecane (p = 0.003), and hexadecane (p = 0.001). Parental education, year of home construction and type of housing were also slightly correlated with personal VOC exposure. Only the concentration of o-xylene (p = 0.027) was significantly affected by the parental education, and the concentrations of benzene (p = 0.030) and 2-butanone (p = 0.049) by the type of housing. Also, tridecane (p = 0.049) and n-hexane (p = 0.033) were significantly associated with the year of home construction. When household activities such as cooking were performed indoors, children's VOC concentrations tended to be higher, especially for n-hexane, chloroform, heptane, toluene (p < 0.05), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, benzene, dodecane, and hexadecane (p < 0.01). However, smoking had a significant effect for only dodecane, and cleaning had no impact on any VOC concentrations. Considering both socioeconomic and personal behavioral factors simultaneously, socioeconomic

  10. Tree holes as larval habitats for Aedes aegypti in urban, suburban and forest habitats in a dengue affected area.

    PubMed

    Mangudo, C; Aparicio, J P; Gleiser, R M

    2015-12-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of dengue and urban yellow fever in the world, is highly adapted to the human environment. Artificial containers are the most common larval habitat for the species, but it may develop in tree holes and other phytotelmata. This study assessed whether tree holes in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, a city located in subtropical montane moist forest where dengue outbreaks occur, are relevant as larval habitat for Ae. aegypti and if the species may be found in natural areas far from human habitations. Water holding tree holes were sampled during 3 years once a month along the rainy season using a siphon bottle, in urban and suburban sites within the city and in adjacent forested areas. Larvae and pupae were collected and the presence and volume of water in each tree hole were recorded. Finding Ae. aegypti in forested areas was an isolated event; however, the species was frequently collected from tree holes throughout the city and along the sampling period. Moreover, larvae were collected in considerably high numbers, stressing the importance of taking into account these natural cavities as potential reinfestation foci within dengue control framework. PMID:26193903

  11. Urban Areas. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview discusses the city as an ecosystem, changing urban habitats, urban wildlife habitats, values of wildlife, habitat management, and…

  12. Does residing in urban or rural areas affect the incidence of polypharmacy among older adults in western China?

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Lu, Jing; Hao, Qiukui; Luo, Li; Dong, Birong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the differences among older adults who are rural or urban residents with respects to their socioeconomic position, chronic health conditions and medication use. This cross-sectional study included 887 community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years) from western China. Trained interviewers collected data from all of the study subjects through face-to-face interviews. Polypharmacy was defined as the concomitant use of five or more medications. A total of 717 participants were included in the study analyses. Compared with their urban counterparts, the older adults in rural China were more likely to have more chronic health conditions, and a lower education level, annual income and insurance coverage rate. In addition, the rural inhabitants were less likely to use medications (58.7% vs. 75.7%, p<0.001). The intensity of medication use (the mean number of drugs) was 1.7 for rural residents and 2.3 for urban residents (p<0.001). The prevalence of polypharmacy was significantly lower in rural residents than urban residents (11.5% vs. 17.5%, p=0.021). Urban residence (odds ratios (OR) 1.89, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.03-3.48), number of chronic conditions (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.16-3.30), diabetes (OR 4.14, 95% CI 2.33-7.37), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.25-3.51) were positively associated with polypharmacy, whereas good self-rated health (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.65) was negatively associated with polypharmacy. In conclusion, urban residence is independently associated with polypharmacy in Chinese elders regardless of chronic health conditions and socioeconomic status. PMID:25440757

  13. Natural and Anthropogenic Factors Affecting Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Streams Across an Urban Gradient in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cover, M. R.; Taberski, K. M.; Moore, S. M.; Resh, V. H.

    2005-05-01

    The development of biological criteria for streams requires an understanding of how both natural environmental factors and human disturbance affect biological communities. We used biological metrics, species traits, and multivariate ordinations to assess the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic factors on stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities in the San Francisco Bay Area, California. Upstream watershed land use was the dominant factor affecting macroinvertebrate assemblages. Urban sites exhibited uniformly low richness and functional diversity, and were dominated by four taxa: Chironomidae, Baetis sp., Simulium sp., and Oligochaeta. In contrast, the majority of sites draining rural residential land uses were compositionally similar to minimally disturbed conditions, while sites draining agricultural lands reflected an intermediate level of disturbance. Flow intermittency was the most important natural factor affecting the composition of benthic assemblages. Taxa richness was significantly lower in minimally disturbed intermittent streams (32) than perennial streams (46), as a result of the near absence of taxa with aquatic adult life stages and long life cycles, other than the hellgrammite Neohermes filicornis that survives for months in the moist streambed. Although flow intermittency is a critical factor influencing stream communities in mediterranean climates, urban land use has a much greater effect on benthic assemblages.

  14. Water quality, sediment, and soil characteristics near Fargo-Moorhead urban areas as affected by major flooding of the Red River of the North

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to assess if urban environments affect floodwater quality, and to determine the quantity and quality of overbank sediment deposited in an urban environment after floodwaters recede. Water samples during major flooding of the Red River of the North (RR) were taken on...

  15. Fractal cartography of urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encarnação, Sara; Gaudiano, Marcos; Santos, Francisco C.; Tenedório, José A.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2012-07-01

    In a world in which the pace of cities is increasing, prompt access to relevant information is crucial to the understanding and regulation of land use and its evolution in time. In spite of this, characterization and regulation of urban areas remains a complex process, requiring expert human intervention, analysis and judgment. Here we carry out a spatio-temporal fractal analysis of a metropolitan area, based on which we develop a model which generates a cartographic representation and classification of built-up areas, identifying (and even predicting) those areas requiring the most proximate planning and regulation. Furthermore, we show how different types of urban areas identified by the model co-evolve with the city, requiring policy regulation to be flexible and adaptive, acting just in time. The algorithmic implementation of the model is applicable to any built-up area and simple enough to pave the way for the automatic classification of urban areas worldwide.

  16. Fractal cartography of urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Encarnação, Sara; Gaudiano, Marcos; Santos, Francisco C.; Tenedório, José A.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2012-01-01

    In a world in which the pace of cities is increasing, prompt access to relevant information is crucial to the understanding and regulation of land use and its evolution in time. In spite of this, characterization and regulation of urban areas remains a complex process, requiring expert human intervention, analysis and judgment. Here we carry out a spatio-temporal fractal analysis of a metropolitan area, based on which we develop a model which generates a cartographic representation and classification of built-up areas, identifying (and even predicting) those areas requiring the most proximate planning and regulation. Furthermore, we show how different types of urban areas identified by the model co-evolve with the city, requiring policy regulation to be flexible and adaptive, acting just in time. The algorithmic implementation of the model is applicable to any built-up area and simple enough to pave the way for the automatic classification of urban areas worldwide. PMID:22829981

  17. Appropriate energy technology for urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mixon, W. R.

    1981-05-01

    Some of the unique characteristics of high density urban areas as they affect the potential use of energy conservation measures and more efficient and renewable energy sources are addressed. Energy related problems of urban areas are presented and the inner city is characterized as an environment with limited potential for applying conservation measures and innovative energy sources of the level of individual buildings. District heating and cooling is presented as one technology, uniquely appropriate for urban areas, that can collect thermal energy from efficient cogeneration plants, municipal incinerators, industrial processes, and renewable natural energy resources and distribute that energy throughout a community to its ultimate consumers. Through district heating, the urban communities can conserve energy and scarce fuels, improve environmental quality, and participate in achieving a more harmonious interface between humanity and the natural environment.

  18. QMRAcatch - faecal microbial quality of water resources in a river-floodplain area affected by urban sources and recreational visitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derx, Julia; Schijven, Jack; Sommer, Regina; Kirschner, Alexander; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2016-04-01

    QMRAcatch, a tool to simulate microbial water quality including infection risk assessment, was previously developed and successfully tested at a Danube river site (Schijven et al. 2015). In the tool concentrations of target faecal microorganisms and viruses (TMVs) are computed at a point of interest (PI) along the main river and the floodplain river at daily intervals for a one year period. Even though faecal microbial pathogen concentrations in water resources are usually below the sample limit of detection, this does not ensure, that the water quality complies with a certain required health based target. The aim of this study was therefore to improve the predictability of relevant human pathogenic viruses, i.e. enterovirus and norovirus, in the studied river/floodplain area. This was done by following an innovative calibration strategy based on human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) marker data which were determined following the HF183 TaqMan assay (Green et al. 2011). The MST marker is strongly associated with human faeces and communal sewage, occurring there in numbers by several magnitudes higher than for human enteric pathogens (Mayer et al 2015). The calibrated tool was then evaluated with measured enterovirus concentrations at the PI and in the floodplain river. In the simulation tool the discharges of 5 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were considered with point discharges along a 200 km reach of the Danube river. The MST marker and target virus concentrations at the PI at a certain day were computed based on the concentrations of the previous day, plus the wastewater concentrations times the WWTP discharge divided by the river discharge. A ratio of the river width was also considered, over which the MST marker and virus particles have fully mixed with river water. In the tool, the excrements from recreational visitors frequenting the floodplain area every day were assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the area. A binomial distributed

  19. QMRAcatch - faecal microbial quality of water resources in a river-floodplain area affected by urban sources and recreational visitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derx, Julia; Schijven, Jack; Sommer, Regina; Kirschner, Alexander; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2016-04-01

    QMRAcatch, a tool to simulate microbial water quality including infection risk assessment, was previously developed and successfully tested at a Danube river site (Schijven et al. 2015). In the tool concentrations of target faecal microorganisms and viruses (TMVs) are computed at a point of interest (PI) along the main river and the floodplain river at daily intervals for a one year period. Even though faecal microbial pathogen concentrations in water resources are usually below the sample limit of detection, this does not ensure, that the water quality complies with a certain required health based target. The aim of this study was therefore to improve the predictability of relevant human pathogenic viruses, i.e. enterovirus and norovirus, in the studied river/floodplain area. This was done by following an innovative calibration strategy based on human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) marker data which were determined following the HF183 TaqMan assay (Green et al. 2011). The MST marker is strongly associated with human faeces and communal sewage, occurring there in numbers by several magnitudes higher than for human enteric pathogens (Mayer et al 2015). The calibrated tool was then evaluated with measured enterovirus concentrations at the PI and in the floodplain river. In the simulation tool the discharges of 5 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were considered with point discharges along a 200 km reach of the Danube river. The MST marker and target virus concentrations at the PI at a certain day were computed based on the concentrations of the previous day, plus the wastewater concentrations times the WWTP discharge divided by the river discharge. A ratio of the river width was also considered, over which the MST marker and virus particles have fully mixed with river water. In the tool, the excrements from recreational visitors frequenting the floodplain area every day were assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the area. A binomial distributed

  20. Noisy human neighbours affect where urban monkeys live

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Marina H. L.; Vecci, Marco A.; Hirsch, André; Young, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Urban areas and many natural habitats are being dominated by a new selection pressure: anthropogenic noise. The ongoing expansion of urban areas, roads and airports throughout the world makes the noise almost omnipresent. Urbanization and the increase of noise levels form a major threat to living conditions in and around cities. Insight into the behavioural strategies of urban survivors may explain the sensitivity of other species to urban selection pressures. Here, we show that urban black-tufted marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) living in noisy urban areas may select their home-range based primarily on ambient noise level. We have tested the hypothesis that the noise from vehicular traffic and visitors in an urban park in Brazil influences the use of home-range (space) by urban marmosets. Marmosets even avoided noisy areas with high food availability. In addition, they systematically preferred the quieter areas even with dynamic changes in the acoustic landscape of the park between weekdays and Sundays (no observations were made on Saturdays). These data provide evidence that the use of home-range by wild animals can be affected by a potential aversive stimulus such as noise pollution. PMID:21715396

  1. Noisy human neighbours affect where urban monkeys live.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Marina H L; Vecci, Marco A; Hirsch, André; Young, Robert J

    2011-12-23

    Urban areas and many natural habitats are being dominated by a new selection pressure: anthropogenic noise. The ongoing expansion of urban areas, roads and airports throughout the world makes the noise almost omnipresent. Urbanization and the increase of noise levels form a major threat to living conditions in and around cities. Insight into the behavioural strategies of urban survivors may explain the sensitivity of other species to urban selection pressures. Here, we show that urban black-tufted marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) living in noisy urban areas may select their home-range based primarily on ambient noise level. We have tested the hypothesis that the noise from vehicular traffic and visitors in an urban park in Brazil influences the use of home-range (space) by urban marmosets. Marmosets even avoided noisy areas with high food availability. In addition, they systematically preferred the quieter areas even with dynamic changes in the acoustic landscape of the park between weekdays and Sundays (no observations were made on Saturdays). These data provide evidence that the use of home-range by wild animals can be affected by a potential aversive stimulus such as noise pollution. PMID:21715396

  2. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    PubMed

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes. PMID:23597586

  3. Integrated groundwater quality management in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartjes, F. A.; Otte, P. F.

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater assessments and remediations are approached at the scale of individual groundwater plumes. In urban areas, however, this management of individual groundwater plumes is often problematic for technical, practical or financial reasons, since the groundwater quality is often affected by a combination of sources, including (former) industrial activities, spills and leachate from uncontrolled landfills and building materials. As a result, often a whole series of intermingling contamination plumes is found in large volumes of groundwater. In several countries in the world, this led to stagnation of groundwater remediation in urban areas. Therefore, in the Netherlands there is a tendency managing groundwater in urban areas from an integrated perspective and on a larger scale. This so-called integrated groundwater quality management is often more efficient and hence, cheaper, since the organisation of the management of a cluster of groundwater plumes is much easier than it would be if all individual groundwater plumes were managed at different points in time. Integrated groundwater quality management should follow a tailor-made approach. However, to facilitate practical guidance was developed. This guidance relates to the delineation of the domain, the management of sources for groundwater contamination, procedures for monitoring, and (risk-based) assessment of the groundwater quality. Function-specific risk-based groundwater quality criteria were derived to support the assessment of the groundwater quality.

  4. Immunization in urban areas: issues and strategies.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, S. J.; Cheyne, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the past, immunization programmes have focused primarily on rural areas. However, with the recognition of the increasing numbers of urban poor, it is timely to review urban immunization activities. This update addresses two questions: Is there any need to be concerned about urban immunization and, if so, is more of the same kind of rural EPI activity needed or are there specific urban issues that need specific urban strategies? Vaccine-preventable diseases have specific urban patterns that require efficacious vaccines for younger children, higher target coverage levels, and particular focus to ensure national and global eradication of poliomyelitis. Although aggregate coverage levels are higher in urban than rural areas, gaps are masked since capital cities are better covered than other urban areas and the coverage in the poorest slum and periurban areas within cities is as bad as or worse than that in rural areas. Difficult access to immunization services in terms of distance, costs, and time can still be the main barrier in some parts of the city. Mobilization and motivation strategies in urban areas should make use of the mass media and workplace networks as well as the traditional word-of-mouth strategies. Use of community health workers has been successful in some urban settings. Management issues concern integration of the needs of the poor into a coherent city health plan, coordination of different health providers, and clear lines of responsibility for addressing the needs of new, urbanizing areas. PMID:8205637

  5. Effects of land use on the cooling effect of green areas on surrounding urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, S.; Tanaka, T.

    2011-12-01

    The spatial distribution of the cooling effect of the green area on surrounding urban area in Nagoya, central Japan was examined by applying ASTER data. First, we clarified the correlation between surface temperature and land use in a green area. Second, we also examined the extent of the cooling effect of the green area on the surrounding urban area. Third, we extracted the land-use factors that significantly affect the extent of the cooling effect. Finally, we referred to new knowledge about the effect of terrain on the cooling effect. The surface temperature differed with land use in the green area. Surface temperatures for green areas were lower than those for other categories, except ponds. In green areas, the temperature in forest lands was lower than that in lawn and agricultural land, suggesting that the forest contributes strongly to the cooling effect of the green area. The surface temperature differences among the categories were small in October, compared to the other analysed days during summer. The extent of the cooling effect of the green area on the surrounding urban area averaged in all directions reached about 200m in the surrounding urban area from July to October. However, the surface temperature difference between the urban area and the green area decreased in October. This phenomenon indicated that the cooling effect of the green area was weaker during autumn than during summer. By examining the spatial distribution of the surface temperature, the cooling effect was shown to stretch in almost all directions of the urban area, and it appears unlikely that wind direction affected the extent of the cooling effect (Fig.1). The cooling effect of Heiwa Park was affected by the roads and buildings. Their effect on the cooling effect depended on their layout and size. It is desirable to have green areas scattered throughout an urban environment rather than concentrated at one spot because the cooling range of a single green area is limited to a few

  6. 23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section 1.7 Highways FEDERAL... Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted by the State highway department... partly in such area involving funds authorized for and limited to urban areas....

  7. 23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section 1.7 Highways FEDERAL... Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted by the State highway department... partly in such area involving funds authorized for and limited to urban areas....

  8. 23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section 1.7 Highways FEDERAL... Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted by the State highway department... partly in such area involving funds authorized for and limited to urban areas....

  9. 23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section 1.7 Highways FEDERAL... Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted by the State highway department... partly in such area involving funds authorized for and limited to urban areas....

  10. 23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section 1.7 Highways FEDERAL... Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted by the State highway department... partly in such area involving funds authorized for and limited to urban areas....

  11. Improving the environment in urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Adamkus, V.V.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the need for improvements to the environment in urban areas, and efforts being made under the direction of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address these problems. The impact the new Clean Air Act can have on emissions from gasoline powered autos, diesel burning trucks, fixed emission sources ranging from utilities to chemical plants, and consumer products like hair sprays and charcoal starters, will all work together to improve air quality in urban areas. The author also discusses Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Plan efforts being supported by the EPA in a coordinated plan to get municipalities involved in cleaning up areas with pollution, to remove the blight on the urban areas, provide new land for development, and promote additional jobs.

  12. Handbook for Social Research in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Philip M.

    Addressed primarily to social scientists and administrators in developing areas, this handbook (a volume in the Technology and Society series) is designed for those not widely experienced in research design and data analysis. Many problem areas of developing nations, such as adequate housing and urban amenities, adjustment and acculturation of…

  13. Assessing the earthquake hazards in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, W.W.; Gori, P.L.; Kockelman, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Major urban areas in widely scattered geographic locations across the United States are a t varying degrees of risk from earthquakes. the locations of these urban areas include Charleston, South Carolina; Memphis Tennessee; St.Louis, Missouri; Salt Lake City, Utah; Seattle-Tacoma, Washington; Portland, Oregon; and Anchorage, Alaska; even Boston, Massachusetts, and Buffalo New York, have a history of large earthquakes. Cooperative research during the past decade has focused on assessing the nature and degree of the risk or seismic hazard i nthe broad geographic regions around each urban area. The strategy since the 1970's has been to bring together local, State, and Federal resources to solve the problem of assessing seismic risk. Successfl sooperative programs have been launched in the San Francisco Bay and Los Angeles regions in California and the Wasatch Front region in Utah. 

  14. Urban area update procedures using Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, D. L.; Royal, J. A.; Davis, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    Landsat digital enhancements and classification maps are shown to be useful for updating the urban expansion of standard metropolitan statistical areas on a macro scale. Automated procedures for detecting nonurban to urban land coverage change using multitemporal Landsat data are investigated for five metropolitan areas, showing an overall delineation similar to that obtained from large scale aerial photography. The evaluated change detection procedures include image differencing, principal component transformation prior to differencing, and post classification comparison. Results show that image differencing techniques in MSS band 5 provide the most accurate land cover change detections.

  15. Improving aerosol retrieval over urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picón, A. J.; Wu, Y.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.; Ahmed, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosol retrieval over urban areas is complicated since surface models in the operational algorithms are based on vegetation models such as the case of MODIS. To improve satellite retrieval of aerosols in urban areas, we use simultaneous AERONET radiometer and MODIS measurements in combination to refine surface albedo models. Refined surface models have been implemented for NYC and Mexico City demonstrating significant improvement in AOD in terms of accuracy and spatial resolution. Based on these direct retrievals of the surface reflection for the MODIS Land Aerosol Bands, we were able to show that current parameterizations of the surface as a function of the Modified Vegetation Index are not in good agreement either quantitatively or qualitatively. Further comparisons in other urban areas (eg. Beijing) show that for cases with surface reflectance ratios sufficiently high at the AERONET site, similar over biases can be observed. On the other hand, other cities such as Kanpur, Buenos Aires and Rome do not show any significant bias which can be traced to the fact that these sites are located in regions with less urban surface correlations. Further comparisons in these urban centers are also made with other satellites aerosol retrievals such as POLDER, MISR and OMI.

  16. A critical knowledge pathway to low-carbon, sustainable futures: Integrated understanding of urbanization, urban areas, and carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Gurney, Kevin R.; Seto, Karen C.; Chester, Mikhail; Duren, Riley M.; Hughes, Sara; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Marcotullio, Peter; Baker, Lawrence; Grimm, Nancy B.; Kennedy, Christopher; Larson, Elisabeth; Pincetl, Stephanie; Runfola, Dan; Sanchez, Landy; Shrestha, Gyami; Feddema, Johannes; Sarzynski, Andrea; Sperling, Joshua; Stokes, Eleanor

    2014-10-01

    Independent lines of research on urbanization, urban areas, and carbon have advanced our understanding of some of the processes through which energy and land uses affect carbon. This synthesis integrates some of these diverse viewpoints as a first step toward a coproduced, integrated framework for understanding urbanization, urban areas, and their relationships to carbon. It suggests the need for approaches that complement and combine the plethora of existing insights into interdisciplinary explorations of how different urbanization processes, and socio-ecological and technological components of urban areas, affect the spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions, differentially over time and within and across cities. It also calls for a more holistic approach to examining the carbon implications of urbanization and urban areas, based not only on demographics or income but also on other interconnected features of urban development pathways such as urban form, economic function, economic-growth policies, and other governance arrangements. It points to a wide array of uncertainties around the urbanization processes, their interactions with urban socio-institutional and built environment systems, and how these impact the exchange of carbon flows within and outside urban areas. We must also understand in turn how carbon feedbacks, including carbon impacts and potential impacts of climate change, can affect urbanization processes. Finally, the paper explores options, barriers, and limits to transitioning cities to low-carbon trajectories, and suggests the development of an end-to-end, coproduced and integrated scientific understanding that can more effectively inform the navigation of transitional journeys and the avoidance of obstacles along the way.

  17. Rainwater Harvesting and Consumption in urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar Abbasi, Ali; Tabatabaee, Javad; Ranaee, Ehsan

    2013-04-01

    The soaring rate of urban demand for soft water and the rising cost associated with construction and protection of centralized large-scale water treatment and distribution systems associated with expansion of cities and immigrations of rural population to cities have contributed to increase acceptance of water harvesting systems in urban areas at least. This issue requires special attention in Iran as a developing country in the Middle East semitropical area. In this context, a recent pilot project has been proposed to analyze the performance of rainwater harvesting systems as an answer to some parts of soft water demand in Iranian urban society. A system of rainwater draining and storage has been implemented in a two hectares urban area. Observations and analyses related to runoff quantity and quality have been performed between November 2007 and November 2009 at the basin outlet as well as inside a storage tank which has been set up in the area for water harvesting purposes. The potential of the harvested rainwater to be employed in different consumption contexts has been analyzed in light of national and international standards. Although most of the sampling results support the idea that the quality of harvested water is adequate for any field of consuption, including drinking use (especially during rainfall period of time), a comparison between biological quality evaluation plus turbidity and color of samples with the related standards has led to identify limitations of harvested water usage with particular reference to plant consumptions. Keywords- rainwater harvesting system, runoff, water quality standards

  18. [Tuberculosis control of urban areas in Japan].

    PubMed

    2000-10-01

    The rates of tuberculosis remain high in urban areas. The declining speed of tuberculosis incidence rate in urban areas has been slower than other areas. Efforts and resources to tuberculosis control must be concentrated on urban locations to eradicate tuberculosis in Japan. 1. Tuberculosis control in a public health center of urban area: Teru OGURA and Chiyo INOGUCHI (Toshima City, Ikebukuro Public Health Center, Tokyo Metropolitan) A wide range of TB control measures is implemented by public health centers, such as a patient registration, home-visit guidance, contact examination in urban areas. Directors of every health center have the direct responsibility for tuberculosis control measures in their jurisdiction. Ikebukuro is urban areas where there are many offices, shopping and amusement facilities. Urban people is often on the move looking for job, so public health centers are often not easy to carry out contact examinations as planned. In recent years, homelessness has been recognized as a growing urban social problem. Their incidence of tuberculosis is high. Special TB control program must be carried out in urban areas. 2. Tuberculosis Control in Tokyo Metropolitan: Kazumasa MATSUKI (Department of Infectious Diseases and Tuberculosis, Bureau of Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan) There has been a steady decline in the TB wards. The beds for TB patients are running short and even smear positive TB cases cannot be put in a hospital without waiting several days. Staffs of an urban emergency department must protect tuberculosis infection by environmental controls of emergency room. Tokyo Metropolitan government supports the engineering improvements of emergency room to hospitals. Directly observed therapy for tuberculosis patients at a district has been implemented to complete their therapy. On DOT, a trained health worker observes the patient take anti-TB medication. 3. Usefulness of Molecular Epidemiologic approach on Tuberculosis Control: Atsushi HASE (Osaka

  19. Post-Harbour Areas - New Urban Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowacka-Rejzner, Urszula

    2015-12-01

    In the article on selected examples one illustrated the different solutions for shaping post-harbour areas. One highlighted the complexity and longevity of activities conducted in these areas, which include both: the modernization of building structures, shaping of new functional and spatial interactions, reproduction of natural resources, protection and sharing of preserved buildings and complexes of cultural heritage, but also well balanced management of transformed area. The basis for conducted deliberations constitute studies and field studies concerning the development of urban structures, conducted for many years by the author.

  20. Determination effects of impervious areas on urban watershed.

    PubMed

    Şimşek Uygun, Burcu; Albek, Mine

    2015-02-01

    After the industrial revolution, urban growth has been increasing, especially with technological advances. Urbanization is accelerating environmental pollution and also affects climate significantly because of land use or land cover changes. In this study, the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model developed by the United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) is used for modeling the impervious areas of Eskişehir which is located in the Porsuk Stream Watershed in Inner Anatolia, Turkey. Effects of impervious areas of Eskisehir on the Porsuk Stream pollution between 1975 and 2010 have been investigated. Important water quality parameters like nitrate, orthophosphate, sediment, chloride, and total coliform are modeled. Impervious land segments have been found to be affecting all parameter concentrations and also surface flows significantly as determined using the t test with a confidence level of 95 %. PMID:25182427

  1. A Century of the Evolution of the Urban Area in Shenyang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Miao; Xu, Yanyan; Hu, Yuanman; Li, Chunlin; Sun, Fengyun; Chen, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of the historical urbanization process is essential in understanding the dynamics of urbanization and scientifically planned urban development. Based on historical urban area maps and remote sensing images, this study examined the urban expansion of Shenyang from 1910 to 2010 using area statistics, typology identification, and landscape metrics approaches. The population and gross domestic product were analyzed as driving factors. The results showed that the urban area of Shenyang increased 43.39-fold during the study period and that the growth rate has accelerated since the 1980s. Three urban growth types were distinguished: infilling, edge-expansion, and spontaneous growth. Edge-expansion was the primary growth type. Infilling growth became the main growth type in the periods 1946–70, 1988–97, and 2004–10. Spontaneous growth was concentrated in the period of 1997 to 2000. The results of landscape metrics indicate that the urban landscape of Shenyang originally was highly aggregated, but has become increasingly fragmented. The urban fringe area was the traditional hot zone of urbanization. Shenyang was mainly located north of the Hun River before 1980; however, the south side of the river has been the hot zone of urbanization since the 1980s. The increase of urban area strongly correlated with the growth of GDP and population. Over a long time scale, the urbanization process has been affected by major historical events. PMID:24893167

  2. Racial Prejudice and Locational Equilibrium in an Urban Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yinger, John

    Racial prejudice is said to influence strongly the locational decisions of households in urban areas. This paper introduces racial prejudice into a model of an urban area and derives several results about residential location. A previously developed long-run model of an urban area adds a locational dimension to a model of the housing market under…

  3. Medicaid Expansion Affects Rural And Urban Hospitals Differently.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Brystana G; Reiter, Kristin L; Pink, George H; Holmes, George M

    2016-09-01

    Rural hospitals differ from urban hospitals in many ways. For example, rural hospitals are more reliant on public payers and have lower operating margins. In addition, enrollment in the health insurance Marketplaces of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has varied across rural and urban areas. This study employed a difference-in-differences approach to evaluate the average effect of Medicaid expansion in 2014 on payer mix and profitability for urban and rural hospitals, controlling for secular trends. For both types of hospitals, we found that Medicaid expansion was associated with increases in Medicaid-covered discharges. However, the increases in Medicaid revenue were greater among rural hospitals than urban hospitals, and the decrease in the proportion of costs for uncompensated care were greater among urban hospitals than rural hospitals. This preliminary analysis of the early effects of Medicaid expansion suggests that its financial impacts may be different for hospitals in urban and rural locations. PMID:27605649

  4. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-10-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  5. MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO STORMWATER MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uncaptured stormwater runoff from urban and urbanizing areas has negative impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Alters hydrologic regimes through conversion of precipitation to runoff, lowers extent of infiltration. Aggravates nonpoint source pollution issues.

  6. Topsoil investigation on two different urban areas in West Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Adrienn; Bidló, András

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metal contents of urban soils in two different urban areas have been investigated in Sopron town (169.01 km2) and in Szombathely town 97.50 km2) in Hungary. In a standard network 208 samples have been collected Sopron from 0 to 10 and from 10 to 20 cm depth. 164 samples have been taken on 88 points in the area of Szombathely. We analysed all of the soil samples with ICP equipment applying Lakanen-Erviö method (Ammonium Acetate - EDTA (pH 4.65)) and we focused on Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn during the evaluation. The soils of suburb are determined largely by the bedrock, but in the downtown the soil pH was alkaline in soils of Sopron. Therefore, the toxic elements are still accumulated in the topsoil. The lead content was very high (suggested pollution limit >25 mg Pb/kg) in both layers on the whole area of the town. Urban soils with high copper content (among 611 mg and 1221 mg Cu/kg) have been collected from garden and viticulture areas. According to our measurements we found the highest average values in the soils of parks. The pH of urban topsoils of Szombathely was mostly neutral and it was lower in soil of agricultural areas on the suburb, where the artificial fertiliser is still used. The Pb content was high (more than 25 mg Pb/kg) in case of 13 samples next to traffic roads of the town. The Co, Cu and Ni results were below the suggested Hungarian background limits. The Zn values were above the suggested Hungarian pollution (20 mg Zn/kg) and interventional limits (>40 mg Zn/kg) in most cases. According to the results we found the highest average values of heavy metals in the soil of traffic areas or next to the Gyöngyös creek, which could be originated from traffic contamination, binding in the soil of urban green spaces, thus possibly affects human health. The research is supported by the "Agroclimate-2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) joint EU-national research project. Keywords: anthropogenic effects, heavy metal content, lead pollution, polluted urban soils

  7. Mapping commuter cycling risk in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Bennet, Scott A; Scott, Darren M

    2012-03-01

    Cycling is becoming an increasingly important transportation option for commuters. Cycling offers exercise opportunities and reduces the burden of motor vehicle travel on society. Mapping the risk of collision between cyclists and motor vehicles in urban areas is important to understanding safe cyclist route opportunities, making informed transportation planning decisions, and exploring patterns of injury epidemiology. To date, many geographic analyses and representations of cyclist risk have not taken the concept of exposure into account. Instead, risk is either expressed as a rate per capita, or as a count of events. Using data associated with the City of Hamilton, Canada, we illustrate a method for mapping commuter cyclist collision risk per distance travelled. This measure can be used to more realistically represent the underlying geography of cycling risk, and provide more geographically and empirically meaningful information to those interested in understanding how cycling safety varies over space. PMID:22269497

  8. Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance Report on the Performance of Structures in Densely Urbanized Areas Affected by Surface Fault Rupture During the August 24, 2014 M6 South Napa Earthquake, California, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen-Waeber, J.; Lanzafame, R.; Bray, J.; Sitar, N.

    2014-12-01

    The August 24, 2014, M­w 6.0 South Napa earthquake is the largest seismic event to have occurred in the San Francisco Bay Region, California, USA, since the Mw 6.9 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The event epicenter occurred at the South end of the Napa Valley, California, principally rupturing northwest along parts of the active West Napa fault zone. Bound by two major fault zones to the East and West (Calaveras and Rogers Creek, respectively), the Napa Valley is filled with up to 170 m. of alluvial deposits and is considered to be moderately to very highly susceptible to liquefaction and has the potential for violent shaking. While damage due to strong ground shaking was significant, remarkably little damage due to liquefaction or landslide induced ground deformations was observed. This may be due to recent drought in the region. Instead, the South Napa earthquake is the first to produce significant surface rupture in this area since the Mw 7.9 1906 San Andreas event, and the first in Northern California to rupture through a densely urbanized environment. Clear expressions of surface fault rupture extended approximately 12 - 15 km northward from the epicenter and approximately 1-2 km southeast with a significant impact to infrastructure, including roads, lifelines and residential structures. The National Science Foundation funded Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) Association presents here its observations on the performance of structures affected by surface fault rupture, in a densely populated residential neighborhood located approximately 10 km north of the epicenter. Based on the detailed mapping of 27 residential structures, a preliminary assessment of the quantitative descriptions of damage shows certain characteristic interactions between surface fault rupture and the overlying infrastructure: 48% of concrete slabs cracked up to 8 cm wide, 19% of structures shifted up to 11 cm off of their foundation and 44% of foundations cracked up to 3 cm

  9. How the Cultural Contexts of Urban Teaching Affect Novice Science Educators: Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Marlina

    2014-01-01

    While the challenge to retain highly competent teachers affects all schools, the crisis is critical in urban districts, which historically suffer from high teacher turnover (Ingersoll, 2004). This high turnover is especially problematic in the content areas of science (Ingersoll & Perda, 2010). Through ethnographic case studies the first year…

  10. The effects of urban stream improving the thermal environment in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Ki; Na, Sang-il; Park, Jong-hwa

    2012-10-01

    Urban areas create distinctive urban climates by Urban Heat Island (UHI) that is the temperature increase in urban areas compared to that in surrounding rural areas and is caused by number of factors, such as land use / land cover (LULC) change, concentration of population and increase anthropogenic heat. In general, the study of thermal environment in urban area focused on UHI intensity and phenomenon. Recently, climate improvement has been studied using water and green belt of urban, as interest in UHI phenomenon mitigation or enhancement has been increased. Therefore in this study, effects of urban stream on urban thermal environment were analyzed using remotely sensed data. The Landsat 7 ETM+ data acquired on 6 September 2009 were utilized to derive the surface Temperature (Ts) and surface energy balance using Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL) (Bastiaanssen et al., 1998). The surface energy budget consists of net radiation at the surface (Rn), sensible heat flux to the air (H), latent heat flux (LE) and soil heat flux (G). The net radiation flux is computed by subtracting all outgoing radiant fluxes (K↑: shortwave outgoing, L↑ longwave outgoing) from all incoming radiant fluxes (K↓ shortwave incoming, L↓: longwave incoming). This is given in the surface energy budget equation: Rn = H + LE + G = K↓ - K↑ + L↓ - L↑. The result indicates that the Ts of urban stream are1 °C lower than circumjacent urban area, LE flux of urban stream is higher than surrounding urban area. However, land covers of streamside and around stream with concrete, asphalt and barren belt are comprised of hot spot zone that deteriorates urban thermal environment. And urban stream does perform a role of cool spot zone that improves urban thermal environment.

  11. Urban Area Monitoring using MODIS Time Series Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadiga, S.; Sarkar, S.; Mauoka, E.

    2015-12-01

    Growing urban sprawl and its impact on global climate due to urban heat island effects has been an active area of research over the recent years. This is especially significant in light of rapid urbanization that is happening in some of the first developing nations across the globe. But so far study of urban area growth has been largely restricted to local and regional scales, using high to medium resolution satellite observations, taken at distinct time periods. In this presentation we propose a new approach to detect and monitor urban area expansion using long time series of MODIS data. This work characterizes data points using a vector of several annual metrics computed from the MODIS 8-day and 16-day composite L3 data products, at 250M resolution and over several years and then uses a vector angle mapping classifier to detect and segment the urban area. The classifier is trained using a set of training points obtained from a reference vector point and polygon pre-filtered using the MODIS VI product. This work gains additional significance, given that, despite unprecedented urban growth since 2000, the area covered by the urban class in the MODIS Global Land Cover (MCD12Q1, MCDLCHKM and MCDLC1KM) product hasn't changed since the launch of Terra and Aqua. The proposed approach was applied to delineate the urban area around several cities in Asia known to have maximum growth in the last 15 years. Results were verified using high resolution Landsat data.

  12. [Human African trypanosomiasis in an urban area: an emerging problem?].

    PubMed

    Louis, F J; Bilenge, C M; Simarro, P P; Meso, V Kande; Lucas, P; Jannin, J

    2003-08-01

    The human African trypanosomiasis is essentially a rural disease. The notification of cases in urban area has always been incidental; either a diagnosis made in town revealed a disease contracted in rural environment or it meant the preservation of a complete epidemiological cycle in a remaining urban micro-focus. In Kinshasa, in Democratic Republic of Congo, about forty cases have been notified each year. All of them came from the nearby foci of Bandundu, Lower Congo and Kasaï. In 1996 the number of cases reached suddenly 254 and today the average annual number comes up to 500 in spite of all the efforts undertaken to fight the disease. A study of cases in 1998 and 1999 shows that patients are essentially distributed in suburbs and that the most affected by the disease are the 15-49 year old ones whose job is related with agricultural or fishing activities. Two phenomena seem to explain this sudden increase: the massive inflow of refugees in outskirts of town coming from provinces where trypanosomiasis is endemic and a major economic crisis throwing out urban population in suburbs living on a subsistence micro-agriculture. These concomitant factors have contributed to the setting up of a trypanosomiasis belt around the capital. Today a strategy has to be reconsidered in order to fight against the disease in the capital itself and to make the medical staff aware of the diagnosis of a disease still unknown in their sanitary district. PMID:14582296

  13. Outdoor air pollution in urban areas and allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G

    1999-12-01

    Respiratory allergic diseases (rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, bronchial asthma and its equivalents) appear to be increasing in most countries, and subjects living in urban and industrialized areas are more likely to experience respiratory allergic symptoms than those living in rural areas. This increase has been linked, among various factors, to air pollution, which is now an important public health hazard. Laboratory studies confirm the epidemiological evidence that inhalation of some pollutants, either individually or in combination, adversely affect lung function in asthmatics. The most abundant air pollutants in urban areas with high levels of vehicle traffic are respirable particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. While nitrogen dioxide does not exert consistent effects on lung function, ozone, respirable particulate matter and allergens impair lung function and lead to increased airway responsiveness and bronchial obstruction in predisposed subjects. However, besides acting as irritants, airborne pollutants can modulate the allergenicity of antigens carried by airborne particles. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived paucimicronic particles, pollutants can modify the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents and after their allergenic potential. In addition, by inducing airway inflammation, which increases airway epithelial permeability, pollutants overcome the mucosal barrier and so facilitate the allergen-induced inflammatory responses. Moreover, air pollutants such as diesel exhaust emissions are thought to modulate the immune response by increasing immunoglobulin E synthesis, thus facilitating allergic sensitization in atopic subjects and the subsequent development of clinical respiratory symptoms. PMID:10695313

  14. Non-auditory factors affecting urban soundscape evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; Hong, Joo Young; Cabrera, Densil

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people's perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image, day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception. PMID:22225033

  15. Are Streams in Agricultural and Urban Areas Contaminated by Pesticides?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimbrough, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    To answer this question, a study of pesticides in streams in a small agricultural area and a small urban area in Colorado was conducted in 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The results indicate that pesticides are present in streams, and both agricultural and urban areas are probable sources of the contamination. In the agricultural area, 30 pesticides were detected and in the urban area, 26 pesticides were detected at least once during the thirteen month study. In the agricultural area, the herbicides alachlor (two samples) and cyanazine (four samples) and the insecticide diazinon (one sample) were the only pesticides that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) or health advisory levels (HALs) for drinking water. No pesticides exceeded MCLs or HALs in the urban area.

  16. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (≥ 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland. PMID:25588119

  17. Modelling muddy floods in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo, S. A.; Schmidt, J.

    2012-04-01

    Muddy floods are sediment loaded runoff from agricultural land. The related flooding and mud depositions become a major problem when occuring in settling areas to cover streets, private properties, industrial areas etc. Beside of the psychological strain for the affected residents the costs for mud removal are a burden that has to be considered. Up to now, the threat of muddy floods has poorly been considered in the planing processes of settling or industrial areas. This is because there is no adequate tool to predict the exact places where the mud is transported and where it might be deposited during flash floods. At present the structures of settlements have not been considered in digital elevation models (DEM) wich are used for erosion and deposition modelling. As these structures notably influence surface runoff, it is necessary to develop a method that integrates the elements of settlements into the DEM. We use GIS to alter DEMs with informations about settlement structures (buildings, streets, sidewalks, ditches, walls etc.) and also with information about planed constructions. This altered DEM will than be applied in an event-based soil erosion model (Erosion 3D) that is able to predict both runoff and transported sediment. The aim of this study is to find out runoff and deposition patterns in settlements in case of flash floods, but also to test the impact of changes in the anthropogenic surface due to new constructions. Such a tool would be useful in the planning process of new settlements or industrial areas or to evaluate possible protection measures.

  18. Displacement in urban areas: new challenges, new partnerships.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Jeff; Morris, Tim; Refstie, Hilde

    2012-07-01

    Rapid urbanisation is a key characteristic of the modern world, interacting with and reinforcing other global mega trends, including armed conflict, climate change, crime, environmental degradation, financial and economic instability, food shortages, underemployment, volatile commodity prices, and weak governance. Displaced people also are affected by and engaged in the process of urbanisation. Increasingly, refugees, returnees, and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are to be found not in camps or among host communities in rural areas, but in the towns and cities of developing and middle-income countries. The arrival and long-term settlement of displaced populations in urban areas needs to be better anticipated, understood, and planned for, with a particular emphasis on the establishment of new partnerships. Humanitarian actors can no longer liaise only with national governments; they must also develop urgently closer working relationships with mayors and municipal authorities, service providers, urban police forces, and, most importantly, the representatives of both displaced and resident communities. This requires linking up with those development actors that have established such partnerships already. PMID:22687155

  19. Regional Collaboration Among Urban Area Security Initiative Regions: Results of the Johns Hopkins Urban Area Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J.; Resnick, Beth A.; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration–related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments. PMID:25398073

  20. Regional collaboration among Urban Area Security Initiative regions: results of the Johns Hopkins urban area survey.

    PubMed

    Errett, Nicole A; Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J; Resnick, Beth A; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration-related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments. PMID:25398073

  1. Citizen Science Program Shows Urban Areas Have Lower Occurrence of Frog Species, but Not Accelerated Declines.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Martin J; Scheele, Ben C; Ikin, Karen; Hoefer, Anke Maria; Beaty, R Matthew; Evans, Murray; Osborne, Will; Hunter, David; Rayner, Laura; Driscoll, Don A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of landscape change on animal populations is critical to inform biodiversity conservation efforts. A particularly important goal is to understand how urban density affects the persistence of animal populations through time, and how these impacts can be mediated by habitat provision; but data on this question are limited for some taxa. Here, we use data from a citizen science monitoring program to investigate the effect of urbanization on patterns of frog species richness and occurrence over 13 years. Sites surrounded by a high proportion of bare ground (a proxy for urbanization) had consistently lower frog occurrence, but we found no evidence that declines were restricted to urban areas. Instead, several frog species showed declines in rural wetlands with low-quality habitat. Our analysis shows that urban wetlands had low but stable species richness; but also that population trajectories are strongly influenced by vegetation provision in both the riparian zone and the wider landscape. Future increases in the extent of urban environments in our study area are likely to negatively impact populations of several frog species. However, existing urban areas are unlikely to lose further frog species in the medium term. We recommend that landscape planning and management focus on the conservation and restoration of rural wetlands to arrest current declines, and the revegetation of urban wetlands to facilitate the re-expansion of urban-sensitive species. PMID:26580412

  2. Citizen Science Program Shows Urban Areas Have Lower Occurrence of Frog Species, but Not Accelerated Declines

    PubMed Central

    Westgate, Martin J.; Scheele, Ben C.; Ikin, Karen; Hoefer, Anke Maria; Beaty, R. Matthew; Evans, Murray; Osborne, Will; Hunter, David; Rayner, Laura; Driscoll, Don A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of landscape change on animal populations is critical to inform biodiversity conservation efforts. A particularly important goal is to understand how urban density affects the persistence of animal populations through time, and how these impacts can be mediated by habitat provision; but data on this question are limited for some taxa. Here, we use data from a citizen science monitoring program to investigate the effect of urbanization on patterns of frog species richness and occurrence over 13 years. Sites surrounded by a high proportion of bare ground (a proxy for urbanization) had consistently lower frog occurrence, but we found no evidence that declines were restricted to urban areas. Instead, several frog species showed declines in rural wetlands with low-quality habitat. Our analysis shows that urban wetlands had low but stable species richness; but also that population trajectories are strongly influenced by vegetation provision in both the riparian zone and the wider landscape. Future increases in the extent of urban environments in our study area are likely to negatively impact populations of several frog species. However, existing urban areas are unlikely to lose further frog species in the medium term. We recommend that landscape planning and management focus on the conservation and restoration of rural wetlands to arrest current declines, and the revegetation of urban wetlands to facilitate the re-expansion of urban-sensitive species. PMID:26580412

  3. Dry deposition modelling of air pollutants over urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherin, N.; Roustan, Y.; Seigneur, C.; Musson Genon, L.

    2012-04-01

    More than one-half of the world's inhabitants lives in urban areas. Consequently, the evolution of pollutants inside these urban areas are problems of great concern in air quality studies. Though the dry deposition fluxes of air pollutants, which are known to be significant in the neighborhood of sources of pollution, like urban areas, have not been modeled precisely until recently within urban areas. By reviewing the physics of the processes leading to the dry deposition of air pollutants, it is clear that atmosphere turbulence is crucial for dry deposition. Urban areas, and particularly buildings, are known to significantly impact flow fields and then by extension the dry deposition fluxes. Numerous urban schemes have been developed in the past decades to approximate the effect of the local scale urban elements on drag, heat flux and radiative budget. The most recent urban canopy models are based on quite simple geometries, but sufficiently close to represent the aerodynamic and thermal characteristics of cities. These canopy models are generally intended to parameterize aerodynamic and thermal fields, but not dry deposition. For dry deposition, the current classical "roughness" approach, uses only two representative parameters, z0 and d, namely the roughness length and the zero-plane displacement height to represent urban areas. In this work, an innovative dry deposition model based on the urban canyon concept, is proposed. It considers a single road, bordered by two facing buildings, which are treated separately. It accounts for sub-grid effects of cities, especially a better parameterization of the turbulence scheme, through the use of local mixing length and a more detailled description of the urban area and key parameters within the urban canopy. Three different flow regimes are distinguished in the urban canyon according to the height-to-width ratio: isolated roughness flow, wake interference flow and skimming flow regime. The magnitude of differences in

  4. Understanding congested travel in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings. PMID:26978719

  5. Understanding congested travel in urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings. PMID:26978719

  6. Understanding congested travel in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C.

    2016-03-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings.

  7. Community Based Information Systems for Education Management in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khosla, Renu

    Lack of education causes and is caused by poverty. In urban areas, it adds to the vulnerability of the poor, resulting in inaccessible schools and irrelevant curricula. Building urban communities and harnessing social capital can create an environment where the poor will have greater opportunities for making decisions that influence their lives.…

  8. Texture mapping based on multiple aerial imageries in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Ye, Siqi; Wang, Yuefeng; Han, Caiyun; Wang, Chenxi

    2015-12-01

    In the realistic 3D model reconstruction, the requirement of the texture is very high. Texture is one of the key factors that affecting realistic of the model and using texture mapping technology to realize. In this paper we present a practical approach of texture mapping based on photogrammetry theory from multiple aerial imageries in urban areas. By collinearity equation to matching the model and imageries, and in order to improving the quality of texture, we describe an automatic approach for select the optimal texture to realized 3D building from the aerial imageries of many strip. The texture of buildings can be automatically matching by the algorithm. The experimental results show that the platform of texture mapping process has a high degree of automation and improve the efficiency of the 3D modeling reconstruction.

  9. Urban areas of Carbonia (Sardinia, Italy): anthropogenic and natural sinkhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mureddu, A.; Corda, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    This work aims to contribute to knowledge on the phenomena of sinkholes in the urban area of Carbonia, primed mostly as a result of mining in underground coal Sulcis, as well as natural causes, in the hills and valleys structurated on the bedrock of Cambrian area, in the localities of Cannas and Serbariu. During the exploitation of the coal deposits, (so called Lignitifero), mines of the Sulcis Area, in over a century of mining, have produced large underground excavations, which were extracted more than 50 million tons of coal and large quantities of tailings. On older crops of mineral minings centers of Serbariu, Cortoghiana and Bacu Abis, the mining operations reached the depth of 300 meters from the surface of the country, over 100 meters below sea level. In the late of 1960, following the closure of the mines, were manifested in the temporal effects of the disruptions caused by the collapse of underground voids, affecting a much wider area of the below mining cultivations. The first signs of instability are occurred with the sudden opening of large potholes and structural damage to buildings up area of Bacu Abis, in neighboring areas to the Mine of Serbariu, intended for production facilities ("Su Landiri Durci"), and along certain streets service. In the case of mine "Serbariu" located on the outskirts of the urban west Carbonia, exploited in the period between 1940 and 1964, the cultivation of the layers of coal left in place, at short depth from the surface level, consisting of empty mines, with more than 5 km of galleries. So, have been found important effects of instability of the soil in urban areas and in the recently built road infrastructure linking lots of settlements. The area affected by mining operations has an area of over 4 square kilometers, is covered in part by the built environment and road infrastructure of regional and state level. In the mining center, now converted to craft and commercial area, have continued various undergrounds mining

  10. Generalized flood-frequency estimates for urban areas in Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gann, Ector Eugene

    1971-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating flood-frequency information for urban areas in Missouri. Flood-frequency relations are presented which provide an estimate of the flood-peak discharge for floods with recurrence intervals from 2.33 to 100 years for basins with various degrees of existing or projected urban development. Drainage area sizes for which the relations are applicable range from 0.1 to 50 square miles. These generalized relations will be useful to the urban planner and designer until more comprehensive studies are completed for the individual urban areas within the State. The relations will also be of use in the definition of flood-hazard areas in Missouri.

  11. Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. INTERIOR VIEW, WATERSIDE MALL Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, WATERSIDE MALL - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Residential Segregation and Social Differentiation in American Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roof, W. Clark; Van Valey, Thomas L.

    1972-01-01

    Reports research designed to resolve a methodological inconsistency in previous studies, by examining the interrelations among several indexes of residential segregation and measures of educational, occupational, and income differentiation in American urban areas as of 1960. (JM)

  14. 77 FR 18651 - Qualifying Urban Areas for the 2010 Census

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... urban area criteria published in the Federal Register on August 24, 2011 (76 FR 53030).\\4\\ This Notice... residential population density measured at the census tract and census block levels of geography, but...

  15. Physical modeling of gas dispersion over urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michálek, Petr; Zacho, David

    2016-06-01

    Experimental study of gas dispersion over urban area model was conducted in boundary layer wind tunnel in VZLU Prague. A scale model of urban area near the Centre of Liberec was made and dispersion of gas emissions from nearby heating plant was measured. The measurements included velocity field and concentration field by means of hot wire anemometer and flame ionization detector. The purpose of this work was to validate and verify a new computational dispersion model, which was developed in VZLU.

  16. Modelling and managing runoff processes in peri-urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Tabach, E.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.

    2008-12-01

    Nowadays, a deeper knowledge of the extreme runoff generation requires more inclusive and interactive understanding of its numerous determining factors. This includes not only a better estimation of meteorological extremes under changing climate conditions, but also a better evaluation of infiltration and saturation excesses, of subsurface return flows, as well as, of human impacts on surface runoff. This communication presents a physically based and spatially distributed numerical model for simulation of the hydrologic interactions between the surface and subsurface flows. Further particularities of this model correspond to: (1) a new methodology for the estimation of the precipitation input; and (2) a new modelling methodology to design Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) in urban and peri-urban areas. The multifractal frequency analyses have been used to evaluate the maximum precipitation rate for several durations with the design return period. This method has the advantage to rely on a few robust exponents that are physically meaningful and can be evaluated on discontinuous and/or low frequency samples. The design of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) in urban and peri-urban areas with low permeability soils as well as with high groundwater levels can be used to decrease the floods risk in the inundated zones. Our model was particularly oriented towards the retention in ponds and swales, infiltration into the ground and drainage through perforated pipes to manage the storm water runoff. The methodology explicitly takes into account the interactions with the water table, the evolution of the latter with infiltration and the soil profile. Using GIS, we visualise the resulting runoff processes together with the evolution of water table levels for the two case studies: a county contiguous to Paris (France) and in the Panola Area (USA). The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of SUDS in urban and peri-urban areas and fluvial retention

  17. Climate Change Projections for African Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo; Engelbrecht, Francois; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mercogliano, Paola; Naidoo, Mogesh

    2013-04-01

    Mainly driven by changes in the orbital characteristics of Earth around the sun, the planet's climate has been continuously changing over periods of tens of thousands of years. However, the warming that has been detected in the Earth's atmosphere over the last century is occurring at a rate that cannot be explained by any known natural cycle. Main-stream science has indeed reached consensus that the 'enhanced green house effect', caused by the interplay of incoming short-wave irradiation, outgoing long-wave radiation and the absorption of energy by enhanced levels of CO2 and water vapour in the troposphere, is the main forcing mechanism responsible for the phenomena of global warming. The enhanced greenhouse effect strengthens the 'natural green house effect' that results from the CO2 and water vapour occurring naturally in the atmosphere. The continuous burning of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution and the simultaneous degradation of large forests, are the main reasons for the increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The availability of climate change projection data varies considerably for different areas on Earth. Whereas the data centres storing climate change projections for Europe and North America now store petabytes of data, regionally downscaled projections for Africa are rarely available. In the context of the research project CLUVA, (Assessing vulnerability of urban systems, populations and goods in relation to natural and man-made disasters in Africa, co-funded by the European Commission under grant agreement no: 265137), the Council for Industrial and Scientific Research (CSIR) in South Africa and the Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) in Italy have produced a large set of projections of climate change over Africa, covering the time period 1950 to 2100. Through the collaboration between CMCC and CSIR, a multi-model ensemble of eight high-resolution simulations of climate change over parts of West and East

  18. Geochemistry of urban sediments from small urban areas and potential impact on surface waters: a case study in Northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Anabela; Oliveira, Ana Isabel; Pinto, João; Parker, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Urban sediments are an important source of contaminants in urban catchments with impact on river ecosystems. Surface runoff from impermeable surfaces transfers sediments and associated contaminants to water bodies affecting the quality of both water and sediment compartments. This study aims to evaluate the metal contents in urban sediments (road deposited sediments) in a small sized urban area, located in a rural mountainous region with no significant industrial units, or mining activities in the vicinity, and subsequently have an insight on the potential contribution to the metal loads transported by fluvial sediments in the streams from the surrounding drainage network. The area under investigation locates in the northeast Portugal, in the Trás-os-Montes region (NE Portugal). Vila Real is a rural city, with 52781 inhabitants, and in the urban area there are dispersed parks with forest and gardens; locally and in the surroundings of the city there are agricultural terrains. The industry is concentrated, in general, in the industry park. Major pollutant activities can be considered the agriculture (pollution by sediments, metals and use of fertilizers) and urban activities such as atmospheric deposition, vehicular traffic, residential activities, soil erosion and industrial activities. According to the aim of the study, road deposited sediment samples were collected in urban and periurban areas as well as in public playgrounds and in the industrial area. The samples were decomposed with aqua regia, and the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V were obtained by ICP-AES. The total concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V, in road-deposited sediments, indicate relative enrichments in samples collected in the main streets and roads, showing spatial variability. The association of Cu, Pb and Zn is observed in samples collected in the streets with high traffic density and industrial activity; in general, higher relative contents

  19. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation

  20. Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands

  1. 41 CFR 102-83.80 - What is an urban area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is an urban area? 102-83.80 Section 102-83.80 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.80 What is an urban area? Urban area means any metropolitan area (MA)...

  2. 41 CFR 102-83.80 - What is an urban area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an urban area? 102-83.80 Section 102-83.80 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.80 What is an urban area? Urban area means any metropolitan area (MA)...

  3. 41 CFR 102-83.80 - What is an urban area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is an urban area? 102-83.80 Section 102-83.80 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.80 What is an urban area? Urban area means any metropolitan area (MA)...

  4. 41 CFR 102-83.80 - What is an urban area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is an urban area? 102-83.80 Section 102-83.80 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.80 What is an urban area? Urban area means any metropolitan area (MA)...

  5. 41 CFR 102-83.80 - What is an urban area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is an urban area? 102-83.80 Section 102-83.80 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.80 What is an urban area? Urban area means any metropolitan area (MA)...

  6. A framework for probabilistic pluvial flood nowcasting for urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntegeka, Victor; Murla, Damian; Wang, Lipen; Foresti, Loris; Reyniers, Maarten; Delobbe, Laurent; Van Herk, Kristine; Van Ootegem, Luc; Willems, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Pluvial flood nowcasting is gaining ground not least because of the advancements in rainfall forecasting schemes. Short-term forecasts and applications have benefited from the availability of such forecasts with high resolution in space (~1km) and time (~5min). In this regard, it is vital to evaluate the potential of nowcasting products for urban inundation applications. One of the most advanced Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF) techniques is the Short-Term Ensemble Prediction System, which was originally co-developed by the UK Met Office and Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The scheme was further tuned to better estimate extreme and moderate events for the Belgian area (STEPS-BE). Against this backdrop, a probabilistic framework has been developed that consists of: (1) rainfall nowcasts; (2) sewer hydraulic model; (3) flood damage estimation; and (4) urban inundation risk mapping. STEPS-BE forecasts are provided at high resolution (1km/5min) with 20 ensemble members with a lead time of up to 2 hours using a 4 C-band radar composite as input. Forecasts' verification was performed over the cities of Leuven and Ghent and biases were found to be small. The hydraulic model consists of the 1D sewer network and an innovative 'nested' 2D surface model to model 2D urban surface inundations at high resolution. The surface components are categorized into three groups and each group is modelled using triangular meshes at different resolutions; these include streets (3.75 - 15 m2), high flood hazard areas (12.5 - 50 m2) and low flood hazard areas (75 - 300 m2). Functions describing urban flood damage and social consequences were empirically derived based on questionnaires to people in the region that were recently affected by sewer floods. Probabilistic urban flood risk maps were prepared based on spatial interpolation techniques of flood inundation. The method has been implemented and tested for the villages Oostakker and Sint-Amandsberg, which are part of the

  7. Decentralized sensor fusion for Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Barbosa, Marco; Bowden, Richard; Capitán, Jesús; Corominas, Andreu; Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Merino, Luis; Mirats, Josep M; Moreno, Plínio; Ollero, Aníbal; Sequeira, João; Spaan, Matthijs T J

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites), a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted. PMID:22294927

  8. Decentralized Sensor Fusion for Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Barbosa, Marco; Bowden, Richard; Capitán, Jesús; Corominas, Andreu; Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Merino, Luis; Mirats, Josep M.; Moreno, Plínio; Ollero, Aníbal; Sequeira, João; Spaan, Matthijs T.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites), a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted. PMID:22294927

  9. Assessing Human Impacts on Climate System over Global Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, M.; Dickinson, R. E.

    2002-12-01

    Urbanization as a form of rapid change in global land cover will contribute to changes of the climate system. Although the climate impacts of urban growth has been studied since the 1950s, it has only been observed through changes of surface air temperature. The past use of remote sensing to look at small areas suggests that such an approach could be very useful on larger scales. However, what is best to observe in such a context and how it might be related to the simulations of global climate models should first be addressed. Recent observations from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA terra satellite can be applied to monitor urban land surface and atmospheric disturbances caused by human activities. Analyzing all of the global urban pixels for land surface skin temperature, albedo, emissivity, land cover, as well as clouds and aerosol properties, we observe that climae is modified over urban areas from the decrease of surface albedo and emissivity, and from the increase of clouds and sulfate aerosol optical depth. The unique strengths of MODIS data (global coverage, fine resolution, simultaneous measurements of various important surface and atmospheric variables) make it possible to investigate all the cities over the globe, and so advance the understanding of what is the range of urbanization effects, what determine these effects, and so suggest how impacts of urban physical processes may be addressed through use of global climate models.

  10. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M.; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.

  11. Report card on low level ozone in urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Onischak, M.

    1994-12-31

    It has been four years since the Clean Air Act was amended in November of 1990. Much work has been done in this time, and the country is beginning to see real air quality benefits. Although these changes have not completely licked the urban ozone problem yet, they have made a lot of progress. All of the urban areas which have been required to reduce their ozone levels have done a good job of lowering their emissions. While the urban areas have not all been able to meet every federal deadline, the areas have all been able to achieve the control milestones before the mandatory Clean Air Act sanctions have taken effect. Some areas are even ready to declare their ozone problems solved.

  12. Urban Groundwater Mapping - Bucharest City Area Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Bica, Ioan; Anghel, Leonard; Amine Boukhemacha, Mohamed; Ionita, Angela

    2013-04-01

    Urban Groundwater Mapping (UGM) is a generic term for a collection of procedures and techniques used to create targeted cartographic representation of the groundwater related aspects in urban areas. The urban environment alters the physical and chemical characteristics of the underneath aquifers. The scale of the pressure is controlled by the urban development in time and space. To have a clear image on the spatial and temporal distribution of different groundwater- urban structures interaction we need a set of thematic maps is needed. In the present study it is described the methodological approach used to obtain a reliable cartographic product for Bucharest City area. The first step in the current study was to identify the groundwater related problems and aspects (changes in the groundwater table, infiltration and seepage from and to the city sewer network, contamination spread to all three aquifers systems located in quaternary sedimentary formations, dewatering impact for large underground structures, management and political drawbacks). The second step was data collection and validation. In urban areas there is a big spectrum of data providers related to groundwater. Due to the fact that data is produced and distributed by different types of organizations (national agencies, private companies, municipal water regulator, etc) the validation and cross check process is mandatory. The data is stored and managed by a geospatial database. The design of the database follows an object-orientated paradigm and is easily extensible. The third step consists of a set of procedures based on a multi criteria assessment that creates the specific setup for the thematic maps. The assessment is based on the following criteria: (1) scale effect area - how the groundwater is interacting with urban structures >, (2) time , (3) vertical distribution and (4) type of the groundwater related problem. The final

  13. Cooling Town - How landscape is affecting urban climates in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerle, Albin; Leitinger, Georg; Heinl, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Cities and urban areas are known to have a local climate different from that of surrounding rural landscapes. The so-called 'urban heat island' phenomenon results from the replacement of natural with impervious, non-evaporative surfaces such as concrete and asphalt. Urban areas usually have higher solar radiation absorption and a greater thermal conductivity and capacity that lead to greater heat storage during the day and heat release at night. This results in a modified climate that is warmer than the surrounding rural areas. Despite being often considered as 'heating islands', cities are not isolated from their environment and are affected by their thermal properties. Reports for the cities of Vienna (Austria) or Stuttgart (Germany) document the importance of the environmental setting for the climate in the cities. Especially large forest areas around the cities have shown to provide cooling and higher air quality. It is therefore not only the core urban area that needs to be considered for climatic effects but also the large-scale surrounding and environmental setting of the city. But only very few studies (e.g. for rice fields in Japan and Taiwan) specifically investigated this temperature effect of surrounding landscapes on urban areas. The research project "Cooling Town" (www.coolingtown.at) addresses this little knowledge on temperature regimes of urban areas and their thermal connectivity with surrounding landscapes, focusing on mountain environments. One major aspect in this research is to assess the summer temperature regime of the city of Bolzano in South Tyrol (northern Italy). The spatial distribution of air and surface temperatures is analyzed to derive rural and urban and regions with specific temperature regimes and climates and their connectivity. Twelve climate stations were placed in and around the city of Bolzano to measure air and surface temperatures together with wind parameters throughout summer 2012. Thermal infrared images were taken from

  14. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  15. Carbon Storage in Urban Areas in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churkina, G.; Brown, D.; Keoleian, G.

    2007-12-01

    It is widely accepted that human settlements occupy a small proportion of the landmass and therefore play a relatively small role in the dynamics of the global carbon cycle. Most modeling studies focusing on the land carbon cycle use models of varying complexity to estimate carbon fluxes through forests, grasses, and croplands, but completely omit urban areas from their scope. Here, we estimate carbon storage in urban areas within the United States, defined to encompass a range of observed settlement densities, and its changes from 1950 to 2000. We show that this storage is not negligible and has been continuously increasing. We include natural- and human-related components of urban areas in our estimates. The natural component includes carbon storage in urban soil and vegetation. The human related component encompasses carbon stored long term in buildings, furniture, cars, and waste. The study suggests that urban areas should receive continued attention in efforts to accurately account for carbon uptake and storage in terrestrial systems.

  16. [Characteristics of surface runoff pollution of Shanghai urban area].

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-feng; Li, Tian; Li, He

    2007-07-01

    Sampling and monitoring of surface runoff in Shanghai urban area were carried out during rainy seasons from 2003 to 2005, and pollutographs of COD, BOD5, SS, NH4+ -N, TP and TN of 56 rainfall events from 19 sampling sites were analyzed. Discharge processes of runoff pollutants during rain events and relationships of the processes with rainfall characters were discussed, and event mean concentrations (EMCs) were calculated. Probability distribution of EMCs and correlation between EMCs and rain characters were analyzed. Medium event mean concentrations of pollutants in surface runoff of Shanghai urban area are: COD 205, BOD5 68, SS 185, NH4+ -N 3.14,TP 0.40, TN 7.23 (mg/L), which are much higher than those in Paris urban area. The ratio of BOD5 to COD is 0.37, which is very high for surface runoff compared with that of large cities of developed countries. Results show that impervious surface pollution is serious in Shanghai urban area and some measures must be taken to improve urban water environment quality except stormwater separation. PMID:17891947

  17. Particulate matter in urban areas: health-based economic assessment.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, M; Massoud, M

    2000-08-10

    The interest in the association between human health and air pollution has grown substantially in recent years. Based on epidemiological studies in several countries, there is conclusive evidence of a link between particulate air pollution and adverse health effects. Considering that particulate matter may be the most serious pollutant in urban areas and that pollution-related illness results in financial and non-financial welfare losses, the main objective of this study is to assess the economic benefits of reducing particulate air pollution in Lebanese urban areas. Accordingly, the extent and value of health benefits due to decreasing levels of particulate in the air are predicted. Health impacts are expressed in both physical and monetary terms for saved statistical lives, and productivity due to different types of morbidity endpoints. Finally, the study concludes with a range of policy options available to mitigate particulate air pollution in urban areas. PMID:10989923

  18. Urban sprawl and you: how sprawl adversely affects worker health.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Mary; Fitzgerald, Sheila

    2004-06-01

    Urban sprawl, once thought of as just an environmental issue, is currently gaining momentum as an emerging public health issue worthy of research and political attention. Characteristics seen in sprawling communities include increasing traffic volumes; inadequate public transportation; pedestrian unfriendly streets; and the division of businesses, shops, and homes. These characteristics can affect health in many ways. Greater air pollution contributes to higher asthma and other lung disorder rates. An increased dependence on the automobile encourages a more sedentary lifestyle and can potentially contribute to obesity. The increased danger and stress of long commutes can lead to more accidents, anxiety, and social isolation. Occupational health nurses can become involved by promoting physical activity in the workplace, creating programs for injury prevention and stress management, becoming involved in political smart growth measures, and educating and encouraging colleagues to become active in addressing this issue. PMID:15219110

  19. Characterization and spatial modeling of urban sprawl in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chen; Liu, Yaolin; Stein, Alfred; Jiao, Limin

    2015-02-01

    Urban sprawl has led to environmental problems and large losses of arable land in China. In this study, we monitor and model urban sprawl by means of a combination of remote sensing, geographical information system and spatial statistics. We use time-series data to explore the potential socio-economic driving forces behind urban sprawl, and spatial models in different scenarios to explore the spatio-temporal interactions. The methodology is applied to the city of Wuhan, China, for the period from 1990 to 2013. The results reveal that the built-up land has expanded and has dispersed in urban clusters. Population growth, and economic and transportation development are still the main causes of urban sprawl; however, when they have developed to certain levels, the area affected by construction in urban areas (Jian Cheng Qu (JCQ)) and the area of cultivated land (ACL) tend to be stable. Spatial regression models are shown to be superior to the traditional models. The interaction among districts with the same administrative status is stronger than if one of those neighbors is in the city center and the other in the suburban area. The expansion of urban built-up land is driven by the socio-economic development at the same period, and greatly influenced by its spatio-temporal neighbors. We conclude that the integration of remote sensing, a geographical information system, and spatial statistics offers an excellent opportunity to explore the spatio-temporal variation and interactions among the districts in the sprawling metropolitan areas. Relevant regulations to control the urban sprawl process are suggested accordingly.

  20. Some Pregnant Women Still Travel to Zika-Affected Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160025.html Some Pregnant Women Still Travel to Zika-Affected Areas 41 New York City moms-to- ... women from New York City are traveling to Zika-affected areas and then getting tested when they ...

  1. Landscape characteristics affect animal control by urban residents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological patterns exist within urban landscapes. Among urban patterns of biodiversity, species occurrences may coincide with interactions between humans and wildlife. However, research focused on consequences of human reaction to interactions with wildlife is limited. We evalua...

  2. Faecal virome of red foxes from peri-urban areas.

    PubMed

    Lojkić, Ivana; Biđin, Marina; Prpić, Jelena; Šimić, Ivana; Krešić, Nina; Bedeković, Tomislav

    2016-04-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most abundant carnivore species in the Northern Hemisphere. Since their populations are well established in peri-urban and urban areas, they represent a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals. In this study, we evaluated the faecal virome of juvenile and adult foxes from peri-urban areas in central Croatia. The dominating mammalian viruses were fox picobirnavirus and parvovirus. The highest number of viral reads (N=1412) was attributed to a new fox circovirus and complete viral genome was de novo assembled from the high-throughput sequencing data. Fox circovirus is highly similar to dog circoviruses identified in diseased dogs in USA and Italy, and to a recently discovered circovirus of foxes with neurologic disease from the United Kingdom. Our fox picobirnavirus was more closely related to the porcine and human picobirnaviruses than to known fox picobirnaviruses. PMID:27012914

  3. Mapping urban climate zones and quantifying climate behaviors--an application on Toulouse urban area (France).

    PubMed

    Houet, Thomas; Pigeon, Grégoire

    2011-01-01

    Facing the concern of the population to its environment and to climatic change, city planners are now considering the urban climate in their choices of planning. The use of climatic maps, such Urban Climate Zone‑UCZ, is adapted for this kind of application. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the UCZ classification, integrated in the World Meteorological Organization guidelines, first can be automatically determined for sample areas and second is meaningful according to climatic variables. The analysis presented is applied on Toulouse urban area (France). Results show first that UCZ differentiate according to air and surface temperature. It has been possible to determine the membership of sample areas to an UCZ using landscape descriptors automatically computed with GIS and remote sensed data. It also emphasizes that climate behavior and magnitude of UCZ may vary from winter to summer. Finally we discuss the influence of climate data and scale of observation on UCZ mapping and climate characterization. PMID:21269746

  4. How female education affects reproductive behavior in urban Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sathar, Z A; Mason, K O

    1993-01-01

    Although Pakistan remains in a pretransitional stage (contraceptive prevalence of only 11.9% among married women in 1992), urban women with post-primary levels of education are spearheading the gradual move toward fertility transition. Data collected in the city of Karachi in 1987 were used to determine whether the inverse association between fertility and female education is attributable to child supply variables, demand factors, or fertility regulation costs. Karachi, with its high concentration of women with secondary educations employed in professional occupations, has a contraceptive prevalence rate of 31%. Among women married for less than 20 years, a 10-year increment in education predicts that a woman will average two-fifths of a child less than other women in the previous 5 years. Regression analysis identified 4 significant intervening variables in the education-fertility relationship: marriage duration, net family income, formal sector employment, and age at first marriage. Education appears to affect fertility because it promotes a later age at marriage and thus reduces life-time exposure to the risk of childbearing, induces women to marry men with higher incomes (a phenomenon that either reduces the cost of fertility regulation or the demand for children), leads women to become employed in the formal sector (leading to a reduction in the demand for children), and has other unspecified effects on women's values or opportunities that are captured by their birth cohort. When these intervening variables are held constant, women's attitude toward family planning loses its impact on fertility, as do women's domestic autonomy and their expectations of self-support in old age. These findings lend support to increased investments in female education in urban Pakistan as a means of limiting the childbearing of married women. Although it is not clear if investment in female education would have the same effect in rural Pakistan, such action is important from a

  5. Pesticides in streams draining agricultural and urban areas in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimbrough, R.A.; Litke, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted from April 1993 through April 1994 to describe and compare the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in streams in a small agricultural and a small urban area in Colorado. Twenty-five water samples collected at least monthly at the mouths of two tributary streams of the South Plate River were analyzed for 47 pesticides. The results indicate that both agricultural and urban areas are probable sources for pesticides in streams. In the agricultural area, 30 pesticides were detected, and in the urban area, 22 pesticides were detected in one or more samples. Most often, the more frequently detected pesticides in both areas also were some of the more commonly used pesticides. In both areas, pesticide concentrations were higher during the summer (application period) with maximum concentrations generally occurring in storm runoff. The year-round detection of some pesticides in both areas at consistently low concentrations, regardless of season or streamflow volume, could indicate that these compounds persist in the shallow alluvial aquifer year-round.

  6. Water Management and Sediment Control for Urbanizing Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Columbus, OH.

    This handbook, developed for use by the Soil Conservation Service and property owners, land developers, local government agencies, and consulting firms, is designed to provide information on water management and minimizing erosion on land undergoing development in urban areas. The standards and specifications listed in this handbook are to provide…

  7. Air quality measurements in urban green areas - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttler, W.; Strassburger, A.

    The influence of traffic-induced pollutants (e.g. CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3) on the air quality of urban areas was investigated in the city of Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany. Twelve air hygiene profile measuring trips were made to analyse the trace gas distribution in the urban area with high spatial resolution and to compare the air hygiene situation of urban green areas with the overall situation of urban pollution. Seventeen measurements were made to determine the diurnal concentration courses within urban parks (summer conditions: 13 measurements, 530 30 min mean values, winter conditions: 4 measurements, 128 30 min mean values). The measurements were carried out during mainly calm wind and cloudless conditions between February 1995 and March 1996. It was possible to establish highly differentiated spatial concentration patterns within the urban area. These patterns were correlated with five general types of land use (motorway, main road, secondary road, residential area, green area) which were influenced to varying degrees by traffic emissions. Urban parks downwind from the main emission sources show the following typical temporal concentration courses: In summer rush-hour-dependent CO, NO and NO 2 maxima only occurred in the morning. A high NO 2/NO ratio was established during weather conditions with high global radiation intensities ( K>800 W m -2), which may result in a high O 3 formation potential. Some of the values measured found in one of the parks investigated (Gruga Park, Essen, area: 0.7 km 2), which were as high as 275 μg m -3 O 3 (30-min mean value) were significantly higher than the German air quality standard of 120 μg m -3 (30-min mean value, VDI Guideline 2310, 1996) which currently applies in Germany and about 20% above the maximum values measured on the same day by the network of the North Rhine-Westphalian State Environment Agency. In winter high CO and NO concentrations occur in the morning and during the afternoon rush-hour. The

  8. Imaging shallow velocity structure using ambient noise in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, H.; Chen, Y. J.

    2013-12-01

    Vehicle traffic and other human activities provide affluent seismic excitation in urban area. We extract Green's function of surface wave from cross correlation of ambient noise recorded by a small array in schoolyard of Peking University. Although non-isotropic source distribution introduces bias in the Green's function reconstruction, relative steady phase and group velocity map could be estimated from only days' records. The inverted S structure demonstrates agreement with well logging data. This technique could be introduced to engineering for well location optimizing design in noisy urban environment.

  9. 41 CFR 102-83.60 - What is an urbanized area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Rural Areas § 102-83.60 What is an urbanized area? An urbanized area is a statistical...

  10. 41 CFR 102-83.60 - What is an urbanized area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Rural Areas § 102-83.60 What is an urbanized area? An urbanized area is a statistical...

  11. 41 CFR 102-83.60 - What is an urbanized area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Rural Areas § 102-83.60 What is an urbanized area? An urbanized area is a statistical...

  12. 41 CFR 102-83.60 - What is an urbanized area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Rural Areas § 102-83.60 What is an urbanized area? An urbanized area is a statistical...

  13. Soil Resources Area Affects Herbivore Health

    PubMed Central

    Garner, James A.; Ahmad, H. Anwar; Dacus, Chad M.

    2011-01-01

    Soil productivity effects nutritive quality of food plants, growth of humans and animals, and reproductive health of domestic animals. Game-range surveys sometimes poorly explained variations in wildlife populations, but classification of survey data by major soil types improved effectiveness. Our study evaluates possible health effects of lower condition and reproductive rates for wild populations of Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman (white-tailed deer) in some physiographic regions of Mississippi. We analyzed condition and reproductive data for 2400 female deer from the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks herd health evaluations from 1991–1998. We evaluated age, body mass (Mass), kidney mass, kidney fat mass, number of corpora lutea (CL) and fetuses, as well as fetal ages. Region affected kidney fat index (KFI), which is a body condition index, and numbers of fetuses of adults (P ≤ 0.001). Region affected numbers of CL of adults (P ≤ 0.002). Mass and conception date (CD) were affected (P ≤ 0.001) by region which interacted significantly with age for Mass (P ≤ 0.001) and CD (P < 0.04). Soil region appears to be a major factor influencing physical characteristics of female deer. PMID:21776246

  14. Estimating vehicle fuel consumption in urban areas. Working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, L.J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Traffic flow simulation and assignment techniques were used to model area-wide effects of traffic management measures. Relationships between fuel consumption under urban driving conditions and the inverse of average travel speed were inferred from experimental tests. From the results a relationship which gave urban fuel consumption as a function of journey distance, total delayed time, and number of stops, was suggested for the 'average urban passenger car' in the UK. A review of reported potential fuel savings from traffic management measures was also undertaken. The effects on fuel consumption of changing the common cycle time for a co-ordinated system of signalised intersections were evaluated using the SATURN traffic simulation/assignment model.

  15. The role of wildlife in the transmission of parasitic zoonoses in peri-urban and urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Mackenstedt, Ute; Jenkins, David; Romig, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last 100 years in many countries of the world, there have been dramatic changes in natural/rural landscapes due to urbanization. Since many wildlife species are unable to adapt to these alterations in their environment, urbanization is commonly responsible for a decline of biodiversity in areas of urban development. In contrast, some wild animal species are attracted to peri-urban and urban habitats due to the availability of an abundant food supply and the presence of structures in which to shelter. Urban foxes and/or raccoons are common sights in many peri-urban and urban areas of Europe where they can reach far higher population densities than in their natural habitats. The same is true for foxes and dingoes in some urban areas of Australia. Unfortunately, some of these highly adaptable species are also hosts for a number of parasites of public health and veterinary importance. Due to the complexity of many parasitic life cycles involving several host species, the interactions between wild animals, domestic animals and humans are not fully understood. The role of potential hosts for transmission of a zoonotic disease in urban or peri-urban areas cannot be extrapolated from data obtained in rural areas. Since more than 75% of human diseases are of zoonotic origin, it is important to understand the dynamics between wildlife, domestic animal species and humans in urbanized areas, and to conduct more focused research on transmission of zoonotic parasites including arthropod vectors under such conditions. PMID:25830108

  16. The role of wildlife in the transmission of parasitic zoonoses in peri-urban and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Mackenstedt, Ute; Jenkins, David; Romig, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    During the last 100 years in many countries of the world, there have been dramatic changes in natural/rural landscapes due to urbanization. Since many wildlife species are unable to adapt to these alterations in their environment, urbanization is commonly responsible for a decline of biodiversity in areas of urban development. In contrast, some wild animal species are attracted to peri-urban and urban habitats due to the availability of an abundant food supply and the presence of structures in which to shelter. Urban foxes and/or raccoons are common sights in many peri-urban and urban areas of Europe where they can reach far higher population densities than in their natural habitats. The same is true for foxes and dingoes in some urban areas of Australia. Unfortunately, some of these highly adaptable species are also hosts for a number of parasites of public health and veterinary importance. Due to the complexity of many parasitic life cycles involving several host species, the interactions between wild animals, domestic animals and humans are not fully understood. The role of potential hosts for transmission of a zoonotic disease in urban or peri-urban areas cannot be extrapolated from data obtained in rural areas. Since more than 75% of human diseases are of zoonotic origin, it is important to understand the dynamics between wildlife, domestic animal species and humans in urbanized areas, and to conduct more focused research on transmission of zoonotic parasites including arthropod vectors under such conditions. PMID:25830108

  17. A new vertical axis wind turbine design for urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frunzulica, Florin; Cismilianu, Alexandru; Boros, Alexandru; Dumitrache, Alexandru; Suatean, Bogdan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we aim at developing the model of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) with the short-term goal of physically realising this turbine to operate at a maximmum power of 5 kW. The turbine is designed for household users in the urban or rural areas and remote or isolated residential areas (hardly accsessible). The proposed model has a biplane configuration on each arm of the VAWT (3 × 2 = 6 blades), allowing for increased performance of the turbine at TSR between 2 and 2.5 (urban area operation) compared to the classic vertical axis turbines. Results that validate the proposed configuration as well as passive control methods to increase the performance of the classic VAWTs are presented.

  18. Seismic Noise Studies of Urbanized Areas at Puerto Vallarta Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara Huerta, K. C.; Escudero, C. R.; Gomez, A.; Madrigal, L.

    2014-12-01

    The application of seismic noise techniques in urbanized environment becomes a valuable tool to obtain information that is critical in areas exposed to earthquakes. Damage distribution during large earthquakes is frequently conditioned by site effects, in this way we determine site effect using ambient noise measurements in the area of Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. We focus our microtremor measurements to the estimation of a subsoil structure. To perform this we use three different techniques H/V spectral ratios, array measurements of microtremors applying the SPAC and F-k techniques. This work discusses the results that were obtained applying these techniques to the urbanized areas of Puerto Vallarta city. We present a series of maps showing the result as well as analyzed its application to risk assessment.

  19. Rainfall Modification by Urban Areas: New Perspectives from TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Pierce, Harold F.; Negri, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) were employed to identify warm season rainfall (1998-2000) patterns around Atlanta, Montgomery, Nashville, San Antonio, Waco, and Dallas. Results reveal an average increase of -28% in monthly rainfall rates within 30-60 kilometers downwind of the metropolis with a modest increase of 5.6% over the metropolis. Portions of the downwind area exhibit increases as high as 51%. The percentage changes are relative to an upwind control area. It was also found that maximum rainfall rates in the downwind impact area exceeded the mean value in the upwind control area by 48% - 116%. The maximum value was generally found at an average distance of 39 km from the edge of the urban center or 64 km from the center of the city. Results are consistent with METROMEX studies of St. Louis almost two decades ago and with more recent studies near Atlanta. Future work is extending the investigation to Phoenix, Arizona, an arid U.S. city, and several international cities like Mexico City, Johannesburg, and Brasilia. The study establishes the possibility of utilizing satellite-based rainfall estimates for examining rainfall modification by urban areas on global scales and over longer time periods. Such research has implications for weather forecasting, urban planning, water resource management, and understanding human impact on the environment and climate.

  20. Flood hazard energy in urban areas: a new integrated method for flood risk analysis in synthesizing interactions with urban boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. Y.; Schmidt, A.

    2015-12-01

    Since urban physical characteristics (such as morphology and land-use/land-cover) are different from those of nature, altered interactions between the surface and atmosphere (especially urban boundary layer, UBL) or surface and subsurface can affect the hydrologic behavior and hence the flood hazards. In this research we focus on three main aspects of the urban surface/atmosphere interactions that affect flood hazard: urban heat island (UHI) effect, increased surface roughness, and accumulated aerosols. These factors, along with the uncertainties in quantifying these components make risk analysis intractable. In order to perform a risk analysis, the impact of these components needs to be mapped to a variable that can be mathematically described in a risk-analysis framework. We propose defining hazard energy as a surrogate for the combined effect of these three components. Perturbations that can change the hazard energy come from diverse sources in the urban areas and these somewhat disconnected things can be combined by the energy concept to characterize the impacts of urban areas in risk assessment. This approach synthesizes across hydrological and hydraulic processes in UBL, land surface, subsurface, and sewer network with scrutinizing energy exchange across places. We can extend our understanding about not only the influence of cities on local climate in rural areas or larger scales but also the interaction of cities and nature affecting each other.

  1. Predictability of road traffic and congestion in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion. PMID:25849534

  2. Predictability of Road Traffic and Congestion in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion. PMID:25849534

  3. Carbon dioxide fluxes from an urban area in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Tao; Wang, Yuesi

    2012-03-01

    A better understanding of urban carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions is important for quantifying urban contributions to the global carbon budget. From January to December 2008, CO 2 fluxes were measured, by eddy covariance at 47 m above ground on a meteorological tower in a high-density residential area in Beijing. The results showed that the urban surface was a net source of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Diurnal flux patterns were similar to those previously observed in other cities and were largely influenced by traffic volume. Carbon uptake by both urban vegetation during the growing season and the reduction of fuel consumption for domestic heating resulted in less-positive daily fluxes in the summer. The average daily flux measured in the summer was 0.48 mg m - 2 s - 1 , which was 82%, 35% and 36% lower than those in the winter, spring and autumn, respectively. The reduction of vehicles on the road during the 29th Olympic and Paralympic Games had a significant impact on CO 2 flux. The flux of 0.40 mg m - 2 s - 1 for September 2008 was approximately 0.17 mg m - 2 s - 1 lower than the flux for September 2007. Annual CO 2 emissions from the study site were estimated at 20.6 kg CO 2 m - 2 y - 1 , considerably higher than yearly emissions obtained from other urban and suburban landscapes.

  4. Does proximity to urban centres affect the dietary regime of marine benthic filter feeders?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puccinelli, Eleonora; Noyon, Margaux; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2016-02-01

    Threats to marine ecosystems include habitat destruction and degradation of water quality, resulting from land- and ocean-based human activities. Anthropogenic input causing modification of water quality, can affect primary productivity and thus food availability and quality for higher trophic levels. This is especially important for sedentary benthic intertidal communities, which rely on local food availability. We investigated the effect of urbanization on the dietary regime of four species of intertidal filter feeders (three barnacles and one mussel) at sites close to high-density cities and at sites far from heavily urbanized areas using fatty acid and stable isotope techniques. δ15N was significantly higher at urbanized sites compared to their corresponding control sites for all species with few exceptions, while no effect on δ13C was recorded. Barnacle fatty acid profiles were not affected by cities, while mussels from sites close to cities had fatty acid signatures with a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We suggest that the enrichment in δ15N at urbanised sites reflects the influence of anthropogenically derived nitrogen directly linked to wastewater input from domestic and industrial sewage. Linked to this, the high proportion of PUFA in mussels at urbanized sites may reflect the influence of increased nitrogen concentrations on primary production and enhanced growth of large phytoplankton cells. The results indicate that anthropogenic effects can strongly influence the diets of benthic organisms, but these effects differ among taxa. Changes in the diet of such habitat forming species can affect their fitness and survival with potential effects on the populations associated with them.

  5. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Urban Heat Island and Urban Metabolism by Satellite Imagery over the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q.; Zhan, S.; Kuai, X.; Zhan, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this research is to combine DMSP-OLS nighttime light data with Landsat imagery and use spatio-temporal analysis methods to evaluate the relationships between urbanization processes and temperature variation in Phoenix metropolitan area. The urbanization process is a combination of both land use change within the existing urban environment as well as urban sprawl that enlarges the urban area through the transformation of rural areas to urban structures. These transformations modify the overall urban climate environment, resulting in higher nighttime temperatures in urban areas compared to the surrounding rural environment. This is a well-known and well-studied phenomenon referred to as the urban heat island effect (UHI). What is unknown is the direct relationship between the urbanization process and the mechanisms of the UHI. To better understand this interaction, this research focuses on using nighttime light satellite imagery to delineate and detect urban extent changes and utilizing existing land use/land cover map or newly classified imagery from Landsat to analyze the internal urban land use variations. These data are combined with summer and winter land surface temperature data extracted from Landsat. We developed a time series of these combined data for Phoenix, AZ from 1992 to 2013 to analyze the relationships among land use change, land surface temperature and urban growth.

  6. The Urban Ecology Institute's field studies program: utilizing urban areas for experiential learning and ecological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starry, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Urban Ecology Institute (UEI) promotes the stewardship of healthy urban ecosystems by improving science and civic education for middle and high school youth and by working with urban communities to protect and transform natural resources. Established in 1999, UEI's field studies program engages over 1000 youth in the greater Boston area. A substantial component of this program involves water quality monitoring. We have recently adapted protocols from published leaf breakdown studies for incorporation into the UEI water quality curriculum. A 2004 pilot study of these leaf breakdown activities, conducted at four sites, compared rates of red maple breakdown to those of Norway maple, a potentially invasive urban street tree. Preliminary data from this successful pilot study suggest that leaf litter inputs from the two different tree species have varying effects on stream ecosystem function. We present this study as an example of how urban areas can be utilized for both ecological research and inclusive experiential learning through which science and mathematic knowledge can be effectively communicated.

  7. A STUDY OF STABILITY CONDITIONS IN AN URBAN AREA

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S T; Lundquist, J K

    2005-11-01

    Accurate numerical prediction of airflow and tracer dispersion in urban areas depends, to a great extent, on the use of appropriate stability conditions. Due to the lack of relevant field measurements or sufficiently sophisticated turbulence models, modelers often assume that nearly neutral conditions are appropriate to use for the entire urban area being simulated. The main argument for such an assumption is that atmospheric stability (as defined by the Richardson number) is determined by both mechanical stresses and buoyant forcing but, for a typical urban setting with a given thermal stability or sensible heat flux, building-induced mechanical stresses can become so dominant to drive the resulting stability toward nearly neutral conditions. Results from our recent simulations of two Joint URBAN 2003 releases, using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model - FEM3MP, appear to support partially the assumption that urban areas tend toward neutral stability. More specifically, based on a model-data comparison for winds and concentration in the near field and velocity and turbulence profiles in the urban wake region, Chan and Lundquist (2005) and Lundquist and Chan (2005) observed that neutral stability assumption appears to be valid for intensive operation period (IOP) 9 (a nighttime release with moderate winds) and also appears to be valid for IOP 3 (a daytime release with strong buoyant forcing) in the urban core area but is less valid in the urban wake region. Our model, developed under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is based on solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on massively parallel computer platforms. The numerical algorithm is based on finite-element discretization for effective treatment of complex building geometries and variable terrain, together with a semi-implicit projection scheme and modern iterative solvers developed by Gresho and

  8. Sub-kilometer Numerical Weather Prediction in complex urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroyer, S.; Bélair, S.; Husain, S.; Vionnet, V.

    2013-12-01

    A Sub-kilometer atmospheric modeling system with grid-spacings of 2.5 km, 1 km and 250 m and including urban processes is currently being developed at the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) in order to provide more accurate weather forecasts at the city scale. Atmospheric lateral boundary conditions are provided with the 15-km Canadian Regional Deterministic Prediction System (RDPS). Surface physical processes are represented with the Town Energy Balance (TEB) model for the built-up covers and with the Interactions between the Surface, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model for the natural covers. In this study, several research experiments over large metropolitan areas and using observational networks at the urban scale are presented, with a special emphasis on the representation of local atmospheric circulations and their impact on extreme weather forecasting. First, numerical simulations are performed over the Vancouver metropolitan area during a summertime Intense Observing Period (IOP of 14-15 August 2008) of the Environmental Prediction in Canadian Cities (EPiCC) observational network. The influence of the horizontal resolution on the fine-scale representation of the sea-breeze development over the city is highlighted (Leroyer et al., 2013). Then severe storms cases occurring in summertime within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) are simulated. In view of supporting the 2015 PanAmerican and Para-Pan games to be hold in GTA, a dense observational network has been recently deployed over this region to support model evaluations at the urban and meso scales. In particular, simulations are conducted for the case of 8 July 2013 when exceptional rainfalls were recorded. Leroyer, S., S. Bélair, J. Mailhot, S.Z. Husain, 2013: Sub-kilometer Numerical Weather Prediction in an Urban Coastal Area: A case study over the Vancouver Metropolitan Area, submitted to Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology.

  9. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    significant soil consolidation and the low-lying areas are prone to urban flooding. The simulation results are compared with measurements in the sewer network. References [1] Guus S. Stelling G.S., 2012. Quadtree flood simulations with subgrid digital elevation models. Water Management 165 (WM1):1329-1354. [2] Vincenzo Cassuli and Guus S. Stelling, 2013. A semi-implicit numerical model for urban drainage systems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids. Vol. 73:600-614. DOI: 10.1002/fld.3817

  10. How urbanization affects the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Neiderud, Carl-Johan

    2015-01-01

    The world is becoming more urban every day, and the process has been ongoing since the industrial revolution in the 18th century. The United Nations now estimates that 3.9 billion people live in urban centres. The rapid influx of residents is however not universal and the developed countries are already urban, but the big rise in urban population in the next 30 years is expected to be in Asia and Africa. Urbanization leads to many challenges for global health and the epidemiology of infectious diseases. New megacities can be incubators for new epidemics, and zoonotic diseases can spread in a more rapid manner and become worldwide threats. Adequate city planning and surveillance can be powerful tools to improve the global health and decrease the burden of communicable diseases. PMID:26112265

  11. Developing technologies for rainwater utilization in urbanized area.

    PubMed

    Kim, R H; Lee, S; Lee, J H; Kim, Y M; Suh, J Y

    2005-04-01

    Rainwater utilization has potential to recover the hydrological cycle, to buffer extreme run-off situations in the watercourses, and to reduce the costs for water supply in urban areas. However, relatively few works have been done for developing technologies to improve the water quality during rainwater utilization in large cities where the contamination of rainwater is anticipated. Therefore, this study focused on developing technologies for rainwater utilization subsystems including catchment, storage, treatment, infiltration, and use for buildings in urban areas. The rainwater samples collected from roof and roof garden were compared with wet deposition to analyze and identify the major components that may cause problems in rainwater utilization. Based on these results, novel techniques utilizing TiO2, sunlight, and bauxsol to minimize the contamination level by particles, microorganisms, and nutrients were developed for rainwater subsystems and applied to explore their suitability. PMID:15906492

  12. 42 CFR 412.234 - Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area. 412.234 Section 412.234 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Redesignation § 412.234 Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another...

  13. 42 CFR 412.234 - Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area. 412.234 Section 412.234 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Redesignation § 412.234 Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another...

  14. 42 CFR 412.234 - Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area. 412.234 Section 412.234 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Redesignation § 412.234 Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another...

  15. 42 CFR 412.234 - Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area. 412.234 Section 412.234 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Redesignation § 412.234 Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another...

  16. 42 CFR 412.234 - Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area. 412.234 Section 412.234 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Redesignation § 412.234 Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another...

  17. Assessment of lead pollution in topsoils of a southern Italy area: Analysis of urban and peri-urban environment.

    PubMed

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Cicchella, Domenico; De Rosa, Rosanna; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) may affect adversely human health. Mapping soil Pb contents is essential to obtain a quantitative estimate of potential risk of Pb contamination. The main aim of this paper was to determine the soil Pb concentrations in the urban and peri-urban area of Cosenza-Rende to map their spatial distribution and assess the probability that soil Pb concentration exceeds a critical threshold that might cause concern for human health. Samples were collected at 149 locations from residual and non-residual topsoil in gardens, parks, flower-beds, and agricultural fields. Fine earth fraction of soil samples was analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry. Stochastic images generated by the sequential Gaussian simulation were jointly combined to calculate the probability of exceeding the critical threshold that could be used to delineate the potentially risky areas. Results showed areas in which Pb concentration values were higher to the Italian regulatory values. These polluted areas were quite large and likely, they could create a significant health risk for human beings and vegetation in the near future. The results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used to study soil contamination to produce geochemical maps, and identify hot-spot areas for soil Pb concentration. PMID:26141891

  18. Hydrologic Data for Urban Studies in the Fort Worth, Texas Metropolitan Area, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slade, R.M., Jr.; Taylor, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    This report contains rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1975 water year for Sycamore Creek, Sycamore Creek tributary , Dry Branch, and Little Fossil Creek study areas in Fort Worth, Texas. The information will be useful in determining the extent to which progressive urbanization will affect the yield and mode of occurrence of storm runoff. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations, including hydrographs and mass curves, are presented for nine storm periods during the water year. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Urban heat evolution in a tropical area utilizing Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanollahi, Jamil; Tzanis, Chris; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Abdullah, Ahmad Makmom

    2016-01-01

    Cloud cover is the main limitation of using remote sensing to study Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) change, and Land Surface Temperature (LST) in tropical area like Malaysia. In order to study LULC change and its effect on LST, the Landsat images were utilized within Geographical Information System (GIS) with the aim of removing the effect of cloud cover and image's gaps on the Digital Number (DN) of the pixels. 5356 points according to pixels coordinate which represent the 960 m to 960 m area were created in GIS environment and matched with thermal bands of the study area in remote sensing environment. The DNs of these points were processed to extract LST and imported in GIS environment to derive the temperature maps. Temperature was found to be generally higher in 2010 than in 2000. The comparison of the highest temperature area in the temperature maps with ground stations data showed that the topographical characteristics of the area, and the wind speed, and direction influence the occurrence of Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. This study concludes that integration of remote sensing data and GIS is a useful tool in urban LST detection in tropical area.

  20. Development of a smart flood warning system in urban areas: A case study of Huwei area in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sheng-Chi; Hsu, Hao-Ming; Kao, Hong-Ming

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we developed a smart flood warning system to clearly understand flood propagations in urban areas. The science and technology park of Huwei, located in the southwest of Taiwan, was selected as a study area. It was designated to be an important urban area of optoelectronics and biotechnology. The region has an area about 1 km2 with approximately 1 km in both length and width. The discrepancy between the highest and lowest elevations is 6.3 m and its elevation decreases along the northeast to the southwest. It is an isolated urban drainage area due to its urban construction plan. The storm sewer system in this region includes three major networks that collect the runoff and drain to the detention pond where is located in the southwest corner of the region. The proposed smart flood warning system combines three important parts, i.e. the physical world, the cyber-physical interface, and the cyber space, to identify how the flood affects urban areas from now until the next three hours. In the physical world, when a rainfall event occurs, monitoring sensors (e.g. rainfall gauges and water level gauges built in the sewer system and ground surface), which are established in several essential locations of the study area, collect in situ hydrological data and then these data being transported to the cyber-physical interface. The cyber-physical interface is a data preprocess space that includes data analysis, quality control and assurance, and data integration and standardization to produce the validated data. In the cyber space, it has missions to receive the validated data from the cyber-physical interface and to run the time machine that has flood analyses of data mining, inundation scenarios simulation, risk and economic assessments, and so on, based on the validated data. After running the time machine, it offers the analyzed results related to flooding planning, mitigation, response, and recovery. According to the analyzed results, the decision supporting

  1. Dispersion of an urban photochemical plume in Phoenix metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Mi; Fernando, H. J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Air quality simulations were conducted using MM5/CMAQ modeling platform to study the intricacies introduced by photochemical reactions during the dispersion of urban pollution plume of Phoenix metropolis. The simulation days included the sole ozone episode recorded during 1996-2005, which violated the previous 1-h ozone standard (0.12 ppm). The modeling results suggest that the Phoenix urban plume can be described in terms of “inert passive dispersion” and “chemically active dispersion”. The former is exemplified by the CO distribution and takes the form of a Gaussian-like plume, for which the source is located at the ground level of the urban core or a freeway. The passive dispersion, nevertheless, is directly subjected to heterogeneities of topography and flow patterns, and hence cannot be strictly Gaussian. The case of active dispersion is much more complicated, and leads to a different plume shape, depending on the chemical reactivity of pollutant species. Secondary pollutants such as ozone and its precursors cause the plume core to have its maximum concentration far downwind of the urban area. Chemical species such as VOCs, which are directly emitted from a source as well as transformed by other primary pollutants, form a plume that qualitatively resembles a transition from an inert plume (CO) to a highly reactive plume (NOx).

  2. Objects Grouping for Segmentation of Roads Network in High Resolution Images of Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maboudi, M.; Amini, J.; Hahn, M.

    2016-06-01

    Updated road databases are required for many purposes such as urban planning, disaster management, car navigation, route planning, traffic management and emergency handling. In the last decade, the improvement in spatial resolution of VHR civilian satellite sensors - as the main source of large scale mapping applications - was so considerable that GSD has become finer than size of common urban objects of interest such as building, trees and road parts. This technological advancement pushed the development of "Object-based Image Analysis (OBIA)" as an alternative to pixel-based image analysis methods. Segmentation as one of the main stages of OBIA provides the image objects on which most of the following processes will be applied. Therefore, the success of an OBIA approach is strongly affected by the segmentation quality. In this paper, we propose a purpose-dependent refinement strategy in order to group road segments in urban areas using maximal similarity based region merging. For investigations with the proposed method, we use high resolution images of some urban sites. The promising results suggest that the proposed approach is applicable in grouping of road segments in urban areas.

  3. Informing environmental health policy in urban areas: the HEADLAMP approach.

    PubMed

    Briggs, D J; Field, K

    2000-01-01

    Urban areas represent complex environments in which to protect health. Accurate and highly resolved information is thus a prerequisite for effective environmental health policy. The HEADLAMP approach is designed to improve decision-making by providing indicators, based on sound science, to all relevant stakeholders, in an appropriate and usable form. The approach comprises three linked stages: categorization of the issues to be addressed, construction of relevant indicators, and policy formulation and implementation. Nevertheless, the application of this approach faces many challenges. The environment-health chain is both lengthy and complex, so that a wide range of indicators is needed from different points in this chain. The DPSEEA framework provides a useful, though limited, structure to help define and organize these indicators. This complexity also means that the indicators have to be linked, so that problems can be tracked from cause to effect and the effectiveness of actions at different points in the DPSEEA chain can be evaluated. Indicators also have to be designed in ways reflecting the spatial and temporal complexity of urban areas--namely, the rapid rates of change in urban environments and the marked spatial variations in environmental and sociodemographic conditions. Effective methods of participation are equally essential if the indicators are to represent the concerns of the stakeholders involved, and if decisions are to be made on a collective basis. Good indicators thus must be designed to fit many different and varying purposes. The challenge is to devise indicators that serve these purposes by representing the intricacies that are inherent in urban areas, rather than by hiding that complexity. PMID:10939091

  4. Ozone Air Quality Impacts of Shale Gas Development in South Texas Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Liao, K.

    2013-12-01

    Recent technological advances, mainly horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, and continued drilling in shale, have increased domestic production of oil and gas in the United State (U.S.). However, shale gas developments could also affect the environment and human health, particularly in areas where oil and gas developments are new activities. This study is focused on the impacts of shale gas developing activities on summertime ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas since many of them are already ozone nonattainment areas. We use an integrated approach to investigate the ozone air quality impact of the shale gas development in South Texas urban areas. They are: (1) satellite measurement of precursors, (2) observations of ground-level ozone concentrations, and (3) air mass trajectory modeling. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important precursor to ozone formation, and summertime average tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column densities measured by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ozone Monitoring Instrument increased in the South Texas shale area (i.e., the Eagle Ford Shale area) in 2011 and 2012 as compared to 2008-2010. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ground-level observations showed summertime average and peak ozone (i.e., the 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour average ozone) concentrations slightly increased from 2010 to 2012 in Austin and San Antonio. However, the frequencies of peak ozone concentrations above the 75ppb ozone standard have been significantly increasing since 2011 in Austin and San Antonio. It is expected to increase the possibilities of violating the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for South Texas urban areas in the future. The results of trajectory modeling showed air masses transported from the southeastern Texas could reach Austin and San Antonio and confirmed that emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale area could affect ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas in 2011 and 2012

  5. Public facility planning in urban villagers' community based on Public Participation GIS: a case study of Wuhan new urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Zeng, Zheng; Yu, Yang

    2009-10-01

    As a unique group in China's urbanization, "urban villager" is the concern of various parties of the society. From "farmers" to "urban residents", urban villagers' means of production and life style change dramatically. At present, public facility planning in urban villagers' community always fail to meet their particular demands. Taking PPGIS as an instrument, the paper analyzes the present status of public facilities in urban villagers' community and the new demand on public facilities from the changing production means and life style. The purpose is to put forward suggestions for public facility setting in urban villagers' community and offer theoretic guidance and proposal for Wuhan new urban areas. PPGIS is gradually being applied to social science researches in recent years. Through the integrated platform, it can achieve the objective of communication, coordination, cooperation and collaboration of different interests. In this research, ephemeral mapping, sketch mapping, scale mapping and aerial photographs are used to acquire spatial data of public facilities and attribute data of urban villagers in their community. Through the comparison of data, the research shows that while urban villagers in Wuhan new urban areas gradually accept city life, they inevitably maintain certain rural habits and customs. Therefore, the public facility planning in this particular kind of communities can neither be treated equal as countryside facility planning, nor simply adopt the practice in urban residential areas' planning; rather the planning system should take into account facilities of different categories at all levels, communities of different types and residential groups.

  6. Flood frequency and storm runoff of urban areas of Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques are presented for estimating the magnitude and frequency of peak discharges and storm runoff on stream in urban areas of Memphis, Tennessee. Comprehensive analyses were made in which physical characteristics of streams are related to snythetic flood characteristics at gaging stations. Equations derived from analyses provide estimates of peak discharges with recurrence intervals of 2 to 100 years on streams that have drainage areas less than 20 square miles. The regression analyses indicated that size of drainage area and condition of channel (paved or unpaved) are the most significant basin characteristics affecting the magnitude and frequency of floods in urban streams. Data from 27 gaging stations with 8 years of record were used in the analyses. Flood frequency at each gaging station was computed from calibrated parameters in a rainfall-runoff model. Techniques are also presented for estimating discharge hydrographs for individual floods by using the unit hydrograph, lag time, and rainfall excess. (USGS)

  7. Towards the Integration of SAR Tomography and PSI for Improved Deformation Assessment in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, Muhammad Adnan; Hajnsek, Irena; Wegmuller, Urs; Frey, Othmar

    2015-05-01

    Persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) typically rejects the range-azimuth pixels containing multiple scatterers, such as in a layover scenario. Since layovers occur frequently in urban areas, a significant number of candidates may get rejected. SAR tomography allows for resolving layover and has thus the potential to extend the spatial sampling of deformation measurements to layover affected areas. Using extended phase models, also taking into account temperature, an improved simultaneous estimation of elevation, deformation velocity, and temperature-induced scatterer displacement is possible. This paper explores the combined use of PSI and SAR tomography for deformation analysis in urban areas, using a multi-baseline and multi-temporal interferometric stack of stripmap TerraSAR-X images acquired over the city of Barcelona.

  8. [Characteristics of atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition in Beijing urban area].

    PubMed

    He, Cheng-Wu; Ren, Yu-Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Mao, Yu-Xiang

    2014-02-01

    With the ion-exchange resin method, the atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition in Beijing urban area within the Fifth Ring Road was investigated from June to October, 2012. The relationship between atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition and rainfall precipitation was investigated, the differences of nitrogen wet deposition in different months, different ring roads (the Fifth Ring Road, the Fourth Ring Road, the Third Ring Road and the Second Ring Road) and different functional areas (institutes and colleges district, ring-road, residential areas, railway station and public garden) were also investigated. The results showed that the average value and standard deviation of ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen were significantly different during different months in 2012. The atmospheric nitrite nitrogen deposition first decreased and then increased, the maximum value appeared in September. The positive relationships between ammonia nitrogen (nitrate nitrogen) and mean monthly precipitation and negative relationships between nitrite nitrogen and mean monthly precipitation were both significant (P < 0.05). The three nitrogen depositions of ring-road and railway station were higher than other functional areas, but only the nitrite nitrogen deposition had obvious regional difference. The differences of the three nitrogen depositions among different ring roads were all not significant and it meant that the nitrogen wet deposition was equally distributed in Beijing urban area. PMID:24812938

  9. Conceptual study of superconducting urban area power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noe, Mathias; Bach, Robert; Prusseit, Werner; Willén, Dag; Gold-acker, Wilfried; Poelchau, Juri; Linke, Christian

    2010-06-01

    Efficient transmission, distribution and usage of electricity are fundamental requirements for providing citizens, societies and economies with essential energy resources. It will be a major future challenge to integrate more sustainable generation resources, to meet growing electricity demand and to renew electricity networks. Research and development on superconducting equipment and components have an important role to play in addressing these challenges. Up to now, most studies on superconducting applications in power systems have been concentrated on the application of specific devices like for example cables and current limiters. In contrast to this, the main focus of our study is to show the consequence of a large scale integration of superconducting power equipment in distribution level urban power systems. Specific objectives are to summarize the state-of-the-art of superconducting power equipment including cooling systems and to compare the superconducting power system with respect to energy and economic efficiency with conventional solutions. Several scenarios were considered starting from the replacement of an existing distribution level sub-grid up to a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system. One major result is that a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system could be cost competitive with existing solutions in the future. In addition to that, superconducting power systems offer higher energy efficiency as well as a number of technical advantages like lower voltage drops and improved stability.

  10. Urban-area extraction from polarimetric SAR image using combination of target decomposition and orientation angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Bin; Lu, Da; Wu, Zhilu; Qiao, Zhijun G.

    2016-05-01

    The results of model-based target decomposition are the main features used to discriminate urban and non-urban area in polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) application. Traditional urban-area extraction methods based on modelbased target decomposition usually misclassified ground-trunk structure as urban-area or misclassified rotated urbanarea as forest. This paper introduces another feature named orientation angle to improve urban-area extraction scheme for the accurate mapping in urban by PolSAR image. The proposed method takes randomness of orientation angle into account for restriction of urban area first and, subsequently, implements rotation angle to improve results that oriented urban areas are recognized as double-bounce objects from volume scattering. ESAR L-band PolSAR data of the Oberpfaffenhofen Test Site Area was used to validate the proposed algorithm.

  11. Inadvertent Weather Modification in Urban Areas: Lessons for Global Climate Change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changnon, Stanley A.

    1992-05-01

    Large metropolitan areas in North America, home to 65% of the nation's population, have created major changes in their climates over the past 150 years. The rate and amount of the urban climate change approximate those being predicted globally using climate models. Knowledge of urban weather and climate modification holds lessons for the global climate change issue. First, adjustments to urban climate changes can provide guidance for adjusting to global change. A second lesson relates to the difficulty but underscores the necessity of providing scientifically credible proof of change within the noise of natural climatic variability. The evolution of understanding about how urban conditions influence weather reveals several unexpected outcomes, particularly relating to precipitation changes. These suggest that similar future surprises can be expected in a changed global climate, a third lesson. In-depth studies of how urban climate changes affected the hydrologic cycle, the regional economy, and human activities were difficult because of data problems, lack of impact methodology, and necessity for multi disciplinary investigations. Similar impact studies for global climate change will require diverse scientific talents and funding commitments adequate to measure the complexity of impacts and human adjustments. Understanding the processes whereby urban areas and other human activities have altered the atmosphere and changed clouds and precipitation regionally appears highly relevant to the global climate-change issue. Scientific and governmental policy development needs to recognize an old axiom that became evident in the studies of inadvertent urban and regional climate change and their behavioral implications: Think globally but act locally. Global climate change is an international issue, and the atmosphere must be treated globally. But the impacts and the will to act and adjust will occur regionally.

  12. 75 FR 52173 - Proposed Urban Area Criteria for the 2010 Census

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... agglomerations of continuously developed territory. Although such areas do reflect the reality of urbanization at... example, an area of virtually continuous urbanization exists from northeastern Maryland through the..., MA. This area of near-continuous urbanization encompasses nine UAs defined for Census 2000....

  13. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the Federal-aid highway systems... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway...

  14. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the Federal-aid highway systems... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway...

  15. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the Federal-aid highway systems... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway...

  16. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the Federal-aid highway systems... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway...

  17. Atmospheric deposition and resuspension of suspended particulates in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jeong-Hee

    2006-12-01

    Emissions of trace metals to the atmosphere and sub-sequential deposition and resuspension process represent a potential threat to water bodies, ecosystems, and public health throughout coastal Los Angeles. However, few studies have quantified atmospheric deposition in Southern California. This research aims to increase our understanding of the role of atmospheric deposition as a potentially important source of trace metals and the role of subsequent resuspension on aquatic environments in the Los Angeles coastal region. Seasonal measurements of dry deposition were made at six urban and one non-urban site for one year. Dry deposition was significantly higher at urban sites compared with the non-urban site, and the dry atmospheric deposition is dominated by particles larger than 10 mum. The measured concentration and deposition flux at six sites within urban area is spatially uniform, indicating a major role for resuspension in the fate of particles by dispersing particle---associated metals regionally. In addition, atmospheric deposition and runoff measurements (wet and dry) of particle-associated trace metals within an urban catchment made over a year indicates the dominance of dry deposition in Southern California, and shows that atmospheric deposition can potentially account for as much as 57 to 100% of the total trace metal loads in stormwater from the catchment. Furthermore, freeways and other major roads act as a source of locally high deposition rates of copper, lead and zinc, primarily because of increased emissions of particles larger than 6 mum from the freeway. Because of resuspension, these large particles are consistently observed at urban background sites, but as a smaller percentage of the total mass as distance from the emission source increases. A modified Gaussian plume model shows that dispersion may he the most significant process of controlling the spatial variation of concentration and deposition near freeway. Finally, this study demonstrates

  18. Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly

  19. Factors affecting dengue fever knowledge, attitudes and practices among selected urban, semi-urban and rural communities in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Mohanad Rahman, Alwan; Alshagga, Mustafa Ahmed; Saif-Ali, Riyadh

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever is a major public health problem in Malaysia. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever among a selected population in Malaysia. A descriptive, community-based, cross sectional study was conducted with 300 participants from three different geographical settings in urban, semi-urban, and rural areas within the states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever. Mean age of respondents was 34.4 (+/- 5.7) years, and the age ranged from 18 to 65 years. The majority of respondents were married (54.7%), Malays (72.7%) and heard about dengue fever (89.7%). Television was the common source of information about dengue fever (97.0%). Participants answered 4 out of 15 items of knowledge incorrectly. There was no significant association between knowledge score and socio-demographic factors. About one-fifth of the respondents (24%) believed that immediate treatment is not necessary for dengue fever, and the majority of them were not afraid of the disease (96.0%). Attitudes toward dengue fever were significantly associated with the level of education and employment status (p < 0.05). Practice was associated significantly with age, marital status, and geographic area (p < 0.05) and knowledge on dengue fever (p = 0.030). There is a need to increase health promotion activities through campaigns and social mobilization to increase knowledge regarding dengue fever. This would help to mold positive attitudes and cultivate better preventive practices among the public to eliminate dengue in the country. PMID:23682436

  20. A detailed study on Catchment delineation for Urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, B.; B M, A.; Lohani, B.; Jain, A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban flood modelling is carried out for predicting, analysing and planning of floods in urban areas. Catchment information is an important input for urban flood modelling. Automatic catchment delineation at gully gratings for urban areas using appropriate software packages/methods along with an appropriate set of input data and parameters is still a research challenge. Considering the above, the aim of this study is to (i) identify the best suitable software for automatic catchment delineation by considering gully grating as outlet (ii) understand the effect of resolution of DEM on catchments delineated (iii) understand whether to consider DEM or DSM for catchment delineation (iv) study the effect of grid based and TIN based DEM. In this study catchment delineation has been investigated considering IIT Kanpur as a study site. LiDAR data are used to generate DEM/DSM of the study area. A comparative study of catchment delineation has been carried out between ArcHydro 10.1, BASINS 4.1, ArcSWAT, WMS 7.1, and HEC-GeoHMS approaches. Catchments have been delineated for different drainage threshold areas using gully grating points as outlets and their effects have been compared for the aforementioned software. In order to understand the effect of resolution of data, DEMs of 1m and 5m resolution have been generated and compared against each other. Effects of building ridge lines and their contribution to catchment delineation has been studied by generating a DSM of 1m resolution, and comparing the results with catchments delineated using 1m DEM. In order to assess the effects of the types of DEM over catchment delineation, a grid based DEM and TIN based DEM are compared against each other using WMS 7.1 software. The results for the catchment delineation using various software illustrate that ArcHydro 10.1 performs better than any other aforementioned software. Also, it is noted that varied drainage threshold area parameters, resolutions of DEM, selection of DEM

  1. Urban area change detection procedures with remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, E. L. (Principal Investigator); Riordan, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    The underlying factors affecting the detection and identification of nonurban to urban land cover change using satellite data were studied. Computer programs were developed to create a digital scene and to simulate the effect of the sensor point spread function (PSF) on the transfer of modulation from the scene to an image of the scene. The theory behind the development of a digital filter representing the PSF is given as well as an example of its application. Atmospheric effects on modulation transfer are also discussed. A user's guide and program listings are given.

  2. The Low Backscattering Targets Classification in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, L.

    2012-07-01

    The Polarimetric and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (POLINSAR) is widely used in urban area nowadays. Because of the physical and geometric sensitivity, the POLINSAR is suitable for the city classification, power-lines detection, building extraction, etc. As the new X-band POLINSAR radar, the china prototype airborne system, XSAR works with high spatial resolution in azimuth (0.1 m) and slant range (0.4 m). In land applications, SAR image classification is a useful tool to distinguish the interesting area and obtain the target information. The bare soil, the cement road, the water and the building shadow are common scenes in the urban area. As it always exists low backscattering sign objects (LBO) with the similar scattering mechanism (all odd bounce except for shadow) in the XSAR images, classes are usually confused in Wishart-H-Alpha and Freeman-Durden methods. It is very hard to distinguish those targets only using the general information. To overcome the shortage, this paper explores an improved algorithm for LBO refined classification based on the Pre-Classification in urban areas. Firstly, the Pre-Classification is applied in the polarimetric datum and the mixture class is marked which contains LBO. Then, the polarimetric covariance matrix C3 is re-estimated on the Pre-Classification results to get more reliable results. Finally, the occurrence space which combining the entropy and the phase-diff standard deviation between HH and VV channel is used to refine the Pre-Classification results. The XSAR airborne experiments show the improved method is potential to distinguish the mixture classes in the low backscattering objects.

  3. 24 CFR 203.426 - Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas. 203.426 Section 203.426 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  4. 24 CFR 203.426 - Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas. 203.426 Section 203.426 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  5. 24 CFR 203.426 - Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas. 203.426 Section 203.426 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  6. 24 CFR 203.426 - Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas. 203.426 Section 203.426 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  7. 24 CFR 203.426 - Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas. 203.426 Section 203.426 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  8. 24 CFR 597.301 - Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas. 597.301 Section 597.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND...

  9. 24 CFR 597.301 - Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas. 597.301 Section 597.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING...

  10. 24 CFR 597.301 - Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas. 597.301 Section 597.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING...

  11. 24 CFR 597.301 - Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas. 597.301 Section 597.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING...

  12. 24 CFR 597.301 - Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas. 597.301 Section 597.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND...

  13. Dynamics in urban water quality: monitoring the Amsterdam city area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vlugt, Corné; Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris; Ouboter, Maarten; Stuurman, Roelof; Broers, Hans Peter

    2014-05-01

    Urban water quality is influenced by a large number of heterogeneous sources. We aimed to identify solute pathways from different sources in the urban area of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The city is situated in the Dutch delta, and largely below mean sea level. The water system of the centre of the city is connected to the large fresh water lake Ijsselmeer, but suburbs are mainly located within reclaimed lake and polder areas where water is pumped out in order to maintain the water levels, which are generally 1 tot 4 m. below sea level. Sources of water include: urban storm runoff, inlet water from the Ijsselmeer and surrounding areas, groundwater seepage and possibly also leaking sewage systems. The temporal dynamics and spatial patterns related to these flow routes and sources were largely unknown to date. Water quality is measured at those pumping stations systematically each month. We analysed the pumping discharge data and the concentration data to calculate daily water balances and annual load estimates for HCO3,Ca, Cl, Na, SO4, Ptot, Ntot ,NH4, NH3 and NO3. Chloride appears to be a good tracer to identify inlet water and bicarbonate and DIC were effective to estimate the groundwater contribution to the surface water outflow to the regional system. We were able to improve the solute balances by calibrating the measured temporal patterns of chloride and DIC using known concentrations from the individual sources. Subsequently the water balances where used to identify periods where one of the sources was dominant and by doing so we improved our understanding of the dynamics of N, P and S fluxes and the relations with dry and wet meteorological conditions. It appeared that N and P were largely related to groundwater outflow , whereas S was mainly related to dry periods and shallow flow routes influenced by sewage, urban storm runoff and shallow groundwater flow . The results are used to optimize urban water management which benefits from the improved insight in

  14. São Paulo urban heat islands have a higher incidence of dengue than other urban areas.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ricardo Vieira; Albertini, Marcos Roberto; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Suesdek, Lincoln; Franceschi, Nathália Cristina Soares; Bastos, Nancy Marçal; Katz, Gizelda; Cardoso, Vivian Ailt; Castro, Bronislawa Ciotek; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Allegro, Vera Lúcia Anacleto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat islands are characterized by high land surface temperature, low humidity, and poor vegetation, and considered to favor the transmission of the mosquito-borne dengue fever that is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. We analyzed the recorded dengue incidence in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, in 2010-2011, in terms of multiple environmental and socioeconomic variables. Geographical information systems, thermal remote sensing images, and census data were used to classify city areas according to land surface temperature, vegetation cover, population density, socioeconomic status, and housing standards. Of the 7415 dengue cases, a majority (93.1%) mapped to areas with land surface temperature >28°C. The dengue incidence rate (cases per 100,000 inhabitants) was low (3.2 cases) in high vegetation cover areas, but high (72.3 cases) in low vegetation cover areas where the land surface temperature was 29±2°C. Interestingly, a multiple cluster analysis phenogram showed more dengue cases clustered in areas of land surface temperature >32°C, than in areas characterized as low socioeconomic zones, high population density areas, or slum-like areas. In laboratory experiments, A. aegypti mosquito larval development, blood feeding, and oviposition associated positively with temperatures of 28-32°C, indicating these temperatures to be favorable for dengue transmission. Thus, among all the variables studied, dengue incidence was most affected by the temperature. PMID:25523076

  15. Is global dimming and brightening limited to urban areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Imamovic, Adel; Folini, Doris; Ohmura, Atsumu; Wild, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Efforts have been put into place for decades around the world to understand the surface energy budget of the Earth. One of the pillars of such activities is the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) project (Ohmura and Lang 1989), which established a database for the measurements of Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) and other parameters around the world. A major finding from the GEBA project is "global dimming and brightening" (Ohmura and Lang 1989; Wild 2009), which refers originally to the secular trend of SSR on the decadal time scale in Europe that had declined till around 1980s and then has been rising ever since. Secular trends have also been found elsewhere in the world, but the strength and the direction of the trend differ across regions (Ohmura 2009; Skeie et al. 2011; Wild et al. 2005). As a number of observations are made in or close to urban areas, speculations have arisen that the observed SSR trends may be influenced by local atmospheric pollution (with the direct aerosol effects being predominant (Kvalevåg and Myhre 2007)) and also by enhanced cloud cover over urban areas (Shepherd 2005). Thus, this raises a question: to what extent the observed global dimming and brightening is limited to urban areas. To date, only a few studies address this problem including a statistical study based on population data (Alpert et al. 2005) and model studies inspecting SSR trends (e.g. Dwyer et al. 2010; Skeie et al. 2011). Answers are, however, inconclusive and remain debated. We investigate whether the observed global dimming and brightening is a large scale phenomenon or limited to urban areas by using the following two complementary approaches: 1) We focus on a set of selected 14 stations in Japan that yield various high quality measurements since 1961 with three of them being least influenced by urbanization (based on expert elicitation). We look into seasonal time-series of SSR, cloud amount, and sunshine duration (Source: Japanese Meteorological Agency) as well

  16. Psychological Symptoms Affecting Low-Income Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kathryn E.; Katz, Brian N.; Thomas, Kina J.; O'Koon, Jeffrey H.; Meza, C. Manuel; DiPasquale, Anna-Marie; Rodriguez, Vanessa O.; Bergen, Carrie

    2004-01-01

    Rates and cooccurrence of internalizing and externalizing syndromes were examined in a sample of 1,520 low-income urban early adolescents. Results indicate higher rates of clinically elevated internalizing and externalizing symptoms in this sample relative to normative data. In particular, both boys and girls were more likely to score in the…

  17. Factors Affecting Teacher Satisfaction in an Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpert, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish factors that influence the satisfaction levels of teachers in urban school districts. This work also distinguished factors that directly impacted teachers' level of satisfaction towards their work and their attitude towards the administration of their schools. Forty-one teachers from two kindergarten…

  18. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  19. Characterization of Allergen Emission Sources in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Cariñanos, Paloma; Adinolfi, Cristiano; Díaz de la Guardia, Consuelo; De Linares, Concepción; Casares-Porcel, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Pollen released by urban flora-a major contributor to airborne allergen content during the pollen season-has a considerable adverse impact on human health. Using aerobiological techniques to sample and characterize airborne biological particulate matter (BPM), we can identify the main species contributing to the pollen spectrum and chart variations in counts and overall pollen dynamics throughout the year. However, given the exponential increase in the number of pollen allergy sufferers in built-up areas, new strategies are required to improve the biological quality of urban air. This paper reports on a novel characterization of the potential allergenicity of the tree species most commonly used as ornamentals in Mediterranean cities. Values were assigned to each species based on a number of intrinsic features including pollination strategy, pollen season duration, and allergenic capacity as reported in the specialist literature. Findings were used to generate a database in which groups of conifers, broadleaves, and palm trees were assigned a value of between 0 and 36, enabling their allergenicity to be rated as nil, low, moderate, high, or very high. The case study presented here focuses on the city of Granada in southern Spain. The major airborne-pollen-producing species were identified and the allergenicity of species growing in urban green zones was estimated. Corrective measures are proposed to prevent high allergen levels and thus improve biological air quality. PMID:26828180

  20. The Nature of Lightning Augmentation Within Urbanized Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, M. L.; Stallins, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    Lightning property damage is often less spectacular and more dispersed in time than other weather phenomena such as hurricanes or tornadoes. Consequently, lightning has been under recognized in its potential to generate large economic losses. Recent studies have found that heat generated from large urban areas may alter the local distribution of lightning strikes. However, little is known about the characteristics of this lightning and how surface properties and land-use trends influence its damage potential. Geographic studies of lightning property damage conducted to date cast lightning risk as linear and assume only one causal factor. For example, trends in lightning property damage can be attributed to background thunderstorm regime, a control imposed by the physical environment. Other studies emphasize that these loss trends are caused by an increasing societal sensitivity to thunderstorms. This investigation is unique in that there is simultaneous consideration of the physical environment and the societal template as interacting causal agents. The study region, Atlanta, GA, provides an ideal setting to investigate how these interactions shape lightning hazards. Evidence suggests that the highly populated suburban counties to the northeast of downtown Atlanta have lightning strike densities approaching those along the northern Gulf Coast of Florida. This flash density hotspot is collocated with a zone of high-density land use indicative of urban flash augmentation. In addition, a lightning tracking algorithm was developed to examine the nature of individual thunderstorm tracks creating the hotspot. Increases in lightning flash production were noted in storms passing over high-density urban land use.

  1. LCA of selective waste collection systems in dense urban areas.

    PubMed

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents research concerning the environmental analysis of the selective collection management of municipal solid waste. The main goal of this study is to quantify and to compare, by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the potential environmental impacts of three selective collection systems modelled on densely populated urban areas. These systems are: the mobile pneumatic, the multi-container and the door-to-door. Impact assessment method based on CML 2 baseline 2000 is applied to the different systems. The study separates and analyzes the collection systems in substages: two urban substages and one inter-city substage. At the urban level, the multi-container system has the least environmental impact of all systems. The mobile pneumatic system has greater environmental impacts in terms of global warming, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification and eutrophication. In this system, the pipes and the pneumatic transport have the greatest impacts. The door-to-door system has a greatest environmental impact in terms of abiotic depletion, ozone layer depletion and human toxicity. An overall evaluation of the three substages, with a sensitivity analysis, indicates that the mobile pneumatic system at an inter-city distance of 20 km shows the greatest environmental impacts and the greatest energy demand. Inter-city transport is key; the results show that from an inter-city distance of 11 km onwards, this becomes the substage which most contributes to global warming impact and energy demand, in all the systems. PMID:18657964

  2. Microzonation in Urban Areas, Basic Element for Land-Use Planning, Risk Management and Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Morales, G. F.; Dávalos Sotelo, R.; Castillo Aguilar, S.; Mora González, I.; Lermo Samaniego, J. F.; Rodriguez, M.; García Martínez, J.; Suárez, M. Leonardo; Hernández Juan, F.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the results of microzonification of the natural hazards for different metropolitan areas and highlights the importance of integrating these results in urban planning. The cities that have been covered for the definition of danger in the state of Veracruz are: Orizaba, Veracruz and Xalapa, as part of the production of a Geological and Hydrometeorology Hazards Atlas for the state of Veracruz, financed by the Funds for the Prevention of Natural Disasters FOPREDEN and CONACYT. The general data of each metropolitan area was integrated in a geographic information system (GIS), obtaining different theme maps, and maps of dynamic characteristics of soils in each metropolitan area. For the planning of an urban area to aspire to promote sustainable development, it is essential to have a great deal of the details on the pertinent information and the most important is that that has to do with the degree of exposure to natural phenomena. In general, microzonation investigations consider all natural phenomena that could potentially affect an area of interest and hazard maps for each of potential hazards are prepared. With all the data collected and generated and fed into a SIG, models were generated which define the areas most threatened by earthquake, flood and landslide slopes. These results were compared with maps of the main features in the urban zones and a qualitative classification of areas of high to low hazard was established. It will have the basic elements of information for urban planning and land use. This information will be made available to the authorities and the general public through an Internet portal where people can download and view maps using free software available online.;

  3. Human pharmaceuticals in wastewaters from urbanized areas of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Elorriaga, Yanina; Marino, Damián J; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Ronco, Alicia E

    2013-04-01

    The study contributes with a first survey of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewaters discharging into fresh and estuarine waters from areas with varying degrees of urbanization of Argentina. Analyses were done on the soluble fraction by HPLC-MS after SPE extraction. In all of the samples were detected caffeine and ibuprofen within the range of 0.9-44.2 and 0.4-13.0 μg/L, and lower levels of carbamazepine, atenolol and diclofenac between 0.2-2.3, 0.2-1.7 and <0.03-1.2 μg/L, respectively. Profiles of compounds were similar in all studied locations. PMID:23229304

  4. Changes in shallow groundwater quality beneath recently urbanized areas in the Memphis, Tennessee area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kingsbury, James A.; Coupe, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    Memphis, the largest city in the state of Tennessee, and its surrounding suburbs depend on a confined aquifer, the Memphis aquifer, for drinking water. Concern over the potential for downward movement of water from an overlying shallow aquifer to the underlying Memphis aquifer provided impetus for monitoring groundwater quality within the shallow aquifer. The occurrence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrate, and pesticides in samples from the shallow well network indicate a widespread affect on water quality from the overlying urban land use. Total pesticide concentration was generally higher in more recently recharged groundwater indicating that as the proportion of recent water increases, the occurrence of pesticides related to the current urban land use also increases. Groundwater samples with nitrate concentrations greater than 1.5 mg/l and detectable concentrations of the pesticides atrazine and simazine also had higher concentrations of chloroform, a VOC primarily associated with urban land use, than in other samples. The age of the water from these wells indicates that these concentrations are most likely not representative of past agricultural use, but of more recent urban use of these chemicals. Given that the median age of water represented by the shallow well network was 21 years, a lag time likely exists between changes in land use and the occurrence of constituents related to urbanization in shallow groundwater.

  5. Fine-scale urbanization affects Odonata species diversity in ponds of a megacity (Paris, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanmougin, Martin; Leprieur, Fabien; Loïs, Grégoire; Clergeau, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Current developments in urban ecology include very few studies focused on pond ecosystems, though ponds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots. Using Odonata as an indicator model, we explored changes in species composition in ponds localized along an urban gradient of a megacity (Paris, France). We then assessed the relative importance of local- and landscape-scale variables in shaping Odonata α-diversity patterns using a model-averaging approach. Analyses were performed for adult (A) and adult plus exuviae (AE) census data. At 26 ponds, we recorded 657 adults and 815 exuviae belonging to 17 Odonata species. The results showed that the Odonata species assemblage composition was not determined by pond localization along the urban gradient. Similarly, pond characteristics were found to be similar among urban, suburban and periurban ponds. The analyses of AE census data revealed that fine-scale urbanization (i.e., increased density of buildings surrounding ponds) negatively affects Odonata α-diversity. In contrast, pond localization along the urban gradient weakly explained the α-diversity patterns. Several local-scale variables, such as the coverage of submerged macrophytes, were found to be significant drivers of Odonata α-diversity. Together, these results show that the degree of urbanization around ponds must be considered instead of pond localization along the urban gradient when assessing the potential impacts of urbanization on Odonata species diversity. This work also indicates the importance of exuviae sampling in understanding the response of Odonata to urbanization.

  6. Numerical photochemical modeling over Madrid (Spain) mesoscale urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Jose, Roberto; Ramirez-Montesinos, Arturo; Marcelo, Luis M.; Sanz, Miguel A.; Rodriguez, Luis M.

    1995-09-01

    Photochemical air quality models provide the most defensible method for relating future air quality to changes in emission, and hence are the foundation for determining the effectiveness of proposed control strategies. In this contribution, we will show results from different photochemical schemes under typical emission conditions for a summer day in the Madrid mesocsale urban area. We will show that complex numerical integrated urban mesoscale models are a powerful tool to predict the ozone levels on this area. The comparison of model simulations at different grid points show an acceptable preliminary behavior. The results presented in this paper are prepared for August 15th, 1991 and the predicted ozone values are compared with those measured at two stations of the Madrid city monitoring network. Results show that the shape is successfully predicted by using the NUFOMO (numerical photochemical model) model. Because of the computer limitations, we have limited the results to this case study. Further investigations will provide additional information to produce a statistical analysis of the results. However, preliminary results show that the NUFOMO model is able to reproduce the measured ozone values.

  7. Focus for Area Development Analysis: Urban Orientation of Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluestone, Herman

    The orientation of counties to metropolitan systems and urban centers is identified by population density and percentage of urban population. This analytical framework differentiates 6 kinds of counties, ranging from most urban-oriented (group 1) to least urban-oriented (group 6). With this framework, it can be seen that the economic well-being of…

  8. [Estimation of spur dike-affected fish habitat area].

    PubMed

    Ray-Shyan, Wu; Yan-Ru, Chen; Yi-Liang, Ge

    2012-04-01

    Based on the HEC-RAS and River 2D modes, and taking 5% change rate of weighted usable area (WUA) as the threshold to define the spur dike- affected area of target fish species Acrossocheilus paradoxus in Fazi River in Taiwan, this paper studied the affected area of the fish habitat by spur dike, and, in combining with the references about the installations of spur dikes in Taiwan in recent 10 years, analyzed the relative importance of related affecting factors such as dike height, dike length (water block rate), average slope gradient of river way, single or double spur dike, and flow discharge. In spite of the length of the dike, the affected area in downstream was farther, and was about 2-6 times as large as that in upstream. The ratio of the affected area in downstream / upstream decreased with increasing slope gradient, but increased with increasing dike length and flow discharge. When the discharge was approximate to 10 years return periods, the ratio of the affected area would be close to a constant of 2. Building double spur dike would produce a better WUA than building single spur dike. PMID:22803455

  9. LES validation for contaminant transport in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertwig, D.; Leitl, B.; Schatzmann, M.; Patnaik, G.

    2010-09-01

    Contaminant transport in urban areas poses a major challenge with respect to its simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The use of time-resolved approaches like large-eddy simulation (LES) can provide insight into transient flow and dispersion regimes, which are strongly influenced by the urban geometry. LES models have the potential to resolve the characteristic unsteady flow features and their impact on plume dynamics, whereas standard industrial codes based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations can only yield steady state solutions. However, the potential to simulate the energetically dominating part of an inherently unsteady turbulent flow with LES also sets higher requirements for validation strategies. This includes that the evaluation of the model performance must go beyond comparisons of first and second order statistics which were adequate for RANS models and currently provide the basis for most of the validation metrics used as a standard. With regard to an a posteriori validation of model results for atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow and dispersion in complex geometry, laboratory data from boundary-layer wind tunnels are of special value. Since inflow and boundary conditions are well-defined, systematic laboratory studies provide high statistical confidence levels of measured quantities. The potential of field measurements - in this regard - is limited due to the natural atmospheric variability. In order to verify the realistic simulation of the spatio-temporal behavior of turbulent eddies, transient flow phenomena have to be characterized in experimental validation data sets as well. This topic is closely linked to structure identification and the characterization of organized motions in ABL flows, for which advanced analysis strategies like wavelet transforms, orthogonal decomposition, or stochastic estimation can be employed. Systematic comparisons of wind-tunnel measurements and LES simulation results are planned

  10. Instrumentation for slope stability -- Experience from an urban area

    SciTech Connect

    Flentje, P.; Chowdhury, R.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the monitoring of several existing landslides in an urban area near Wollongong in the state of New South Wales, Australia. A brief overview of topography and geology is given and reference is made to the types of slope movement, processes and causal factors. Often the slope movements are extremely slow and imperceptible to the eye, and catastrophic failures are quite infrequent. However, cumulative movements at these slower rates do, over time, cause considerable distress to structures and disrupt residential areas and transport routes. Inclinometers and piezometers have been installed at a number of locations and monitoring of these has been very useful. The performance of instrumentation at different sites is discussed in relation to the monitoring of slope movements and pore pressures. Interval rates of inclinometer shear displacement have been compared with various periods of cumulative rainfall to assess the relationships.

  11. Bird population and habitat surveys in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraaf, R.M.; Geis, A.D.; Healy, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Breeding bird populations in six habitats in Columbia. MD, were studied to develop procedures suitable for measuring bird use of residential areas and to identify habitat characteristics that define the distribution of various common bird species. A procedure to measure bird use based on 4-min transect counts on plots measuring 91 m ? 91 m proved better than point counts. Transect counts reduced many of the problems associated with counting birds in urban areas, such as varying noise and visibility. Eighty percent of observations were recorded in the first 4 min. Habitat measurement procedures were examined also. It was found that a subsample of woody tree and shrub crown volumes made on 0.2 ha was highly correlated with similar measures made on 0.8-ha plots.

  12. Energy and other resource conservation within urbanizing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Peter G.

    1982-05-01

    The reported research seeks to answer several questions regarding energy conservation within urbanizing areas. As a practical matter, to what extent can dependence upon exhaustible resources be reduced? Can these reductions be achieved without severely impairing social well-being and environmental quality? And, what seem to be the prevailing institutional constraints limiting energy conservation within urbanizing areas? The study area was the proposed “downtown” of The Woodlands, a new town north of Houston, Texas. Two plans were developed for this area. In one, no particular attempt was made to conserve energy (conventional plan), while in the other, energy conservation was a primary consideration (conservation plan). For both plans, estimates were made of energy consumption within buildings, in the transportation sector, and in the actual production of building materials themselves (embodied energy). In addition, economic and environmental analyses were performed, including investigation of other resource issues such as water supply, solid waste disposal, stormwater management, and atmospheric emissions. Alternative on-site power systems were also investigated. Within the bounds of economic feasibility and development practicality, it was found that application of energy-conserving methods could yield annual energy savings of as much as 23%, and reduce dependence on prime fuels by 30%. Adverse economic effects on consumers were found to be minimal and environmental quality could be sustained. The major institutional constraints appeared to be those associated with traditional property ownership and with the use of common property resources. The resistance to change of everyday practices in land development and building industries also seemed to constrain potential applications.

  13. Characteristics of Urban Natural Areas Influencing Winter Bird Use in Southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Paul G. R.

    2007-03-01

    Characteristics of urban natural areas and surrounding landscapes were identified that best explain winter bird use for 28 urban natural areas in southern Ontario, Canada. The research confirms for winter birds the importance of area (size) and natural vegetation, rather than managed, horticultural parkland, within urban natural areas as well as percent urban land use and natural habitat in surrounding landscapes. Alien bird density and percent ground feeding species increased with percent surrounding urban land use. Higher percent forest cover was associated with higher percentages of forest, bark feeding, small (<20 g) and insectivorous species. Natural area size (ha) was related to higher species richness, lower evenness and higher percentages of insectivorous, forest interior, area-sensitive, upper canopy, bark feeding, and non-resident species. Higher number of habitat types within natural areas and percent natural habitat in surrounding landscapes were also associated with higher species richness. Common, resident bird species dominated small areas (<6.5 ha), while less common non-residents increased with area, indicative of a nested distribution. Areas at least 6.5 ha and more generally >20 ha start to support some area-sensitive species. Areas similar to rural forests had >25% insectivores, >25% forest interior species, >25% small species, and <5% alien species. Indicator species separated urban natural areas from rural habitats and ordination placed urban natural areas along a gradient between urban development and undisturbed, rural forests. More attention is needed on issues of winter bird conservation in urban landscapes.

  14. On Assessment and Estimation of Potential Losses due to Land Subsidence in Urban Areas of Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Andreas, Heri; Gumilar, Irwan; Sidiq, Teguh P.

    2016-04-01

    Land subsidence is natural-anthropogenic hazard affecting several large urban areas in Indonesia, i.e. Jakarta, Bandung and Semarang. Geodetic based results from various techniques (e.g. Leveling, GPS and InSAR) show that land subsidence rates in all three cities generally have spatial and temporal variations, and their magnitude is in average about 5-10 cm/year. The impacts of subsidence in those cities can be seen in the field in various forms such as cracking of permanent constructions and roads, tilting of houses and buildings, 'sinking' of houses and buildings, changes in river canal and drain flow systems, wider expansion of coastal and/or inland flooding areas, and increased inland sea water intrusion. These impacts can be categorized into infrastructure, environmental, economic, and social impacts. The potential losses due to land subsidence in urban areas are actually quite significant. Related infrastructural, social and environmental costs due to direct and indirect impacts of land subsidence are economically quite significant, and can not be underestimated in sustainable urban development. The planning, development and maintenance costs of building and infrastructures in the affected areas are usually much higher than the normal situation. The collateral impact of coastal subsidence in Jakarta and Semarang, in the form of coastal flooding during high tides is also quite damaging. This repeated coastal flooding in several areas along the coast will deteriorate the structure and function of building and infrastructures, badly influences the quality of the living environment and life (e.g. health and sanitation condition), and also disrupts economic and social activities in the affected areas. As in the case of Bandung, inland subsidence also has a quite significant impact on inland flooding phenomena, since it will theoretically lead to expanded coverage and deeper water depth of flooded (inundated) areas. Since the direct and indirect impacts of

  15. Network Optimization for Induced Seismicity Monitoring in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, T.; Husen, S.; Wiemer, S.

    2012-12-01

    With the global challenge to satisfy an increasing demand for energy, geological energy technologies receive growing attention and have been initiated in or close to urban areas in the past several years. Some of these technologies involve injecting fluids into the subsurface (e.g., oil and gas development, waste disposal, and geothermal energy development) and have been found or suspected to cause small to moderate sized earthquakes. These earthquakes, which may have gone unnoticed in the past when they occurred in remote sparsely populated areas, are now posing a considerable risk for the public acceptance of these technologies in urban areas. The permanent termination of the EGS project in Basel, Switzerland after a number of induced ML~3 (minor) earthquakes in 2006 is one prominent example. It is therefore essential to the future development and success of these geological energy technologies to develop strategies for managing induced seismicity and keeping the size of induced earthquake at a level that is acceptable to all stakeholders. Most guidelines and recommendations on induced seismicity published since the 1970ies conclude that an indispensable component of such a strategy is the establishment of seismic monitoring in an early stage of a project. This is because an appropriate seismic monitoring is the only way to detect and locate induced microearthquakes with sufficient certainty to develop an understanding of the seismic and geomechanical response of the reservoir to the geotechnical operation. In addition, seismic monitoring lays the foundation for the establishment of advanced traffic light systems and is therefore an important confidence building measure towards the local population and authorities. We have developed an optimization algorithm for seismic monitoring networks in urban areas that allows to design and evaluate seismic network geometries for arbitrary geotechnical operation layouts. The algorithm is based on the D-optimal experimental

  16. Five-years of microenvironment data along an urban-rural transect; temperature and CO2 concentrations in urban area at levels expected globally with climate change.

    SciTech Connect

    George, Kate; Ziska, Lewis H; Bunce, James A; Quebedeaux, Bruno

    2007-11-01

    The heat island effect and the high use of fossil fuels in large city centers is well documented, but by how much fossil fuel consumption is elevating atmospheric CO2 concentrations and whether elevations in both atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are consistent from year to year are less well known. Our aim was to record atmospheric CO2 concentrations, air temperature and other environmental variables in an urban area and compare it to suburban and rural sites to see if urban sites are experiencing climates expected globally in the future with climate change. A transect was established from Baltimore city center (Urban site), to the outer suburbs of Baltimore (suburban site) and out to an organic farm (rural site). At each site a weather station was set-up to monitor environmental variables annually for five years. Atmospheric CO2 was significantly increased on average by 66 ppm from the rural to the urban site over the five years of the study. Air temperature was significantly higher at the urban site (14.8 oC) compared to the suburban (13.6 oC) and rural (12.7 oC) sites. Relative humidity was not different between sites but vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was significantly higher at the urban site compared to the suburban and rural sites. During wet years relative humidity was significantly increased and VPD significantly reduced. Increased nitrogen deposition at the rural site (2.1 % compared to 1.8 and 1.2 % at the suburban and urban sites) was small enough not to affect soil nitrogen content. Dense urban areas with large populations and high vehicular traffic have significantly different microclimates compared to outlying suburban and rural areas. The increases in atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are similar to changes predicted in the short term with global climate change, therefore providing an environment suitable for studying future effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems.

  17. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) characteristics for urban land covers: A case study in an industrial area of Gumi, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhang, K.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Studies for urban areas with remote sensing images often involve with NDVI and surface temperature and they are strongly related in various environmental issues. In many cases, urban studies had several difficulties in segregating land covers and defining their properties with remote sensing images because mixtures of land covers are very complex and spectrally ambiguous typically with multispectral remote sensing images. However, we attempted to retrieve and investigated pure land cover characteristics of urban areas in terms of NDVI and surface brightness temperature. We found that urban covers, especially building rooftops, had a few factors controlling NDVI values. Using 148 building structures, shadow and the blue color controlled NDVIs to be high so rooftops sometimes had high NDVI values like full vegetation. The factor controlling seemed to be caused by complex surface pattern of rooftops. Also, land cover types could be defined with three groups in terms of the NDVI vs. temperature relationship from Landsat; urban/soil, vegetation and water. Based on the groups of urban land covers, a mixing scenario could be described with three different mixing cases. Factory roofs have various geometric patterns. The marked circles and squarese indicates samples with highest to lowest normalized vegetation difference index (NDVI) values for the fooftops. The rooftop in the upper left circle is an example of the greatest NDVI value of 0.77 for the 2010 image. Number of ridges on the building surface pattern in the west-east direction affected NDVI values over rooftops in urban areas.

  18. Window Area and Development Drive Spatial Variation in Bird-Window Collisions in an Urban Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Stephen B.; Cosentino, Bradley J.; McKay, Kelly J.; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22%) species (34 total carcasses) recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0–52). These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window collisions can be used

  19. A summary of urban runoff studies in the Denver Metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, S.R.; Mustard, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Denver metropolitan area has been the subject of urban-runoff studies for several years. The first studies, started in about 1968, usually were concerned only with the quantity of urban runoff. In 1974, studies were begun that included both quantity and quality of urban runoff. In 1979, Denver was selected as one of the cities to be included in the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program. The Denver study was called the Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program and was a cooperative study between the Denver Regional Council of Governments and the U.S. Geological Survey. This report presents the major conclusions of the pre-Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program studies and a summary of the various elements of the Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program. The report summarizes and references urban-runoff studies in the Denver metropolitan area and is a reference guide for planners and other persons interested in urban runoff. (USGS)

  20. Urbanization affects neophilia and risk-taking at bird-feeders.

    PubMed

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Møller, Anders Pape; Morelli, Federico; Biaduń, Waldemar; Brauze, Tomasz; Ciach, Michał; Czechowski, Paweł; Czyż, Stanisław; Dulisz, Beata; Goławski, Artur; Hetmański, Tomasz; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Mitrus, Cezary; Myczko, Łukasz; Nowakowski, Jacek J; Polakowski, Michał; Takacs, Viktoria; Wysocki, Dariusz; Zduniak, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Urban environments cover vast areas with a high density of humans and their dogs and cats causing problems for exploitation of new resources by wild animals. Such resources facilitate colonization by individuals with a high level of neophilia predicting that urban animals should show more neophilia than rural conspecifics. We provided bird-feeders across urban environments in 14 Polish cities and matched nearby rural habitats, testing whether the presence of a novel item (a brightly coloured green object made out of gum with a tuft of hair) differentially delayed arrival at feeders in rural compared to urban habitats. The presence of a novel object reduced the number of great tits Parus major, but also the total number of all species of birds although differentially so in urban compared to rural areas. That was the case independent of the potentially confounding effects of temperature, population density of birds, and the abundance of cats, dogs and pedestrians. The number of great tits and the total number of birds attending feeders increased in urban compared to rural areas independent of local population density of birds. This implies that urban birds have high levels of neophilia allowing them to readily exploit unpredictable resources in urban environments. PMID:27346383

  1. Urbanization affects neophilia and risk-taking at bird-feeders

    PubMed Central

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Møller, Anders Pape; Morelli, Federico; Biaduń, Waldemar; Brauze, Tomasz; Ciach, Michał; Czechowski, Paweł; Czyż, Stanisław; Dulisz, Beata; Goławski, Artur; Hetmański, Tomasz; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Mitrus, Cezary; Myczko, Łukasz; Nowakowski, Jacek J.; Polakowski, Michał; Takacs, Viktoria; Wysocki, Dariusz; Zduniak, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Urban environments cover vast areas with a high density of humans and their dogs and cats causing problems for exploitation of new resources by wild animals. Such resources facilitate colonization by individuals with a high level of neophilia predicting that urban animals should show more neophilia than rural conspecifics. We provided bird-feeders across urban environments in 14 Polish cities and matched nearby rural habitats, testing whether the presence of a novel item (a brightly coloured green object made out of gum with a tuft of hair) differentially delayed arrival at feeders in rural compared to urban habitats. The presence of a novel object reduced the number of great tits Parus major, but also the total number of all species of birds although differentially so in urban compared to rural areas. That was the case independent of the potentially confounding effects of temperature, population density of birds, and the abundance of cats, dogs and pedestrians. The number of great tits and the total number of birds attending feeders increased in urban compared to rural areas independent of local population density of birds. This implies that urban birds have high levels of neophilia allowing them to readily exploit unpredictable resources in urban environments. PMID:27346383

  2. Hydropower production from bridges in urban or suburban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucciarelli, Tullio; Sammartano, Vincenzo; Sinagra, Marco; Morreale, Gabriele; Ferreira, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    A new technology for hydropower production from rivers crossing urban or suburban areas is proposed, based on the use of Cross-Flow turbines having its axis horizontal and normal to the flow direction. A large part of the river cross-section could be covered by the turbine cross-section and this would generate a small, but consistent jump between the water levels of the inlet and the outlet sections. The turbine should be anchored to a pre-existing bridge and the total length of its axis should be of the same order of the bridge length. Due to the large axis extension, it should be possible to easily attain a gross power similar to the power produced with a more traditional installation, based on weirs or barrages, if single jumps of few tens of centimeters were added over a large number of bridges. If the bridges were set in urbanized areas, the production of electricity would be located close to its consumption, according to the smart grid requirements, and the hydrological basin at the bridge section (along with the corresponding discharge) would be greater than the basin of traditional plants located in more upstream locations. The maximum water level to be attained in the upstream section of the bridge should be the minimum among the following ones: 1) the level corresponding to the maximum flood allowed by the surrounding infra-structures, 2) the level corresponding to the maximum force allowed by the bridge structures. The resulting upstream water level hydrographs should be compatible with the river suspended and bed load equilibrium and with the requirement of the aquatic living population. The system should include a mechanism able to raise the turbine completely out of the water level, if required, for maintenance or other purposes. The complete lifting of the turbine could be used to: a) reconstruct the natural river bed profile during floods, b) allow the navigation or fish movements during some periods of the year, or even some hours of the day. A

  3. BUDEM: an urban growth simulation model using CA for Beijing metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Ying; Shen, Zhenjiang; Du, Liqun; Mao, Qizhi; Gao, Zhanping

    2008-10-01

    It is in great need of identifying the future urban form of Beijing, which faces challenges of rapid growth in urban development projects implemented in Beijing. We develop Beijing Urban Developing Model (BUDEM in short) to support urban planning and corresponding policies evaluation. BUDEM is the spatio-temporal dynamic model for simulating urban growth in Beijing metropolitan area, using cellular automata (CA) and Multi-agent system (MAS) approaches. In this phase, the computer simulation using CA in Beijing metropolitan area is conducted, which attempts to provide a premise of urban activities including different kinds of urban development projects for industrial plants, shopping facilities, houses. In the paper, concept model of BUDEM is introduced, which is established basing on prevalent urban growth theories. The method integrating logistic regression and MonoLoop is used to retrieve weights in the transition rule by MCE. After model sensibility analysis, we apply BUDEM into three aspects of urban planning practices: (1) Identifying urban growth mechanism in various historical phases since 1986; (2) Identifying urban growth policies needed to implement desired urban form (BEIJING2020), namely planned urban form; (3) Simulating urban growth scenarios of 2049 (BEIJING2049) basing on the urban form and parameter set of BEIJING2020.

  4. Flood risk: proposal of an integrated urban area flood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sole, A.; Zuccaro, G.

    2003-04-01

    The recent hydrogeological events have increased the interest of the public opinion and of the Scientific Community towards a more accurate study regarding the phenomena of flooding in urban areas. The present project proposes a new model that integrates optimally a model of propagation in riverbed of the flood wave and one of flooding in urban areas. Indeed, to be able to simulate at best the evolution of a flood event it is obvious that, given to their narrow link, the phenomena of outflow in riverbed and overflow must be considered together. When the discharge assumes such a value as to let the water exceed the banks and flood on the surrounding areas, the flow in riverbed both upstream -in case of subcritical flow- and downstream of the overflow point remains influenced by the amount of spilled water. The remaining part continues its course in riverbed until it does not meet another point in which the level of the free surface exceeds that of the banks. In order to delimit the overflowed areas, therefore, it is necessary to precisely calculate the water amount that overflows. Namely, if this value is underestimated, the computed area will be less than the real one in the point of overflow and greater downstream, while, if the value is overestimated, it will be greater in the considered point and inferior downstream. Another phenomenon to be taken into account is the type of propagation of the fluid mass in urban area because of the shape and the presence of obstacles that render such territory poorly adequate for a standard simulation of the outflow with traditionals models and instruments. A further complication not to be neglected is the strongly non stationary behavior of a flood event, as described by the hydrogrammes outgoing from hydrological models relative to events of extreme precipitation. In the present work we consider necessary not only to treat together, but also to integrate thoroughly the modelling of the outflow in riverbed and outside riverbed

  5. Surface ozone in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, R. A. F. D.; Costa, P. S.; Silva, C.; Godoi, R. M.; Martin, S. T.; Tota, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Pauliquevis, T.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Manzi, A. O.; Wolf, S. A.; Cirino, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    When nitrogen oxides from vehicle and industrial emissions mix with volatile organic compounds from trees and plants with exposure to sunlight, a chemical reaction occurs contributing to ground-level ozone pollution. The preliminary results of the surface ozone study in urban area of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, are presented for the first intensive operating period (IOP1) of the GoAmazon experiment (February/March 2014). Photochemical ozone production was found to be a regular process, with an afternoon maximum of the ozone mixing ratio of lower than 20 ppbv for cloudy days or clear sky weather. Typical ozone concentrations at mid-day were low (about 10 ppb). On the other hand, several high-value ozone episodes with surface ozone mixing ratios up to three times larger were registered during the dry season of 2013 (September/October). At the beginning of the wet season, the ozone concentration in Manaus decreased significantly, but diurnal variations can be found during the days with rainfall and other fast changes of meteorological conditions. Possible explanations of the nature of pulsations are discussed. Photochemical ozone production by local urban plumes of Manaus is named as a first possible source of the ozone concentration and biomass burning or power plant emissions are suggested as an alternative or an additional source.

  6. Persistent Scatterer InSAR monitoring of Bratislava urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakon, Matus; Perissin, Daniele; Papco, Juraj; Lazecky, Milan

    2014-05-01

    The main purpose of this research is to monitor the ground stability of Bratislava urban area by application of the satellite radar interferometry. Bratislava, the capital city of Slovakia, is situated in its south-west on the borders with Austria and Hungary and only 62 kilometers from the border with Czech Republic. With an exclusive location and good infrastructure, the city attracts foreign investors and developers, what has resulted in unprecedented boom in construction in recent years. Another thing is that Danube River in the last five hundred years caused a hundred of devastating floods, so therefore flood occurs every five years, on average. From geological point of view, the Little Carpathians covers the main part of study area and are geologically and tectonically interesting. The current state of relief and spatial distribution of individual geological forms is the result of vertical geodynamic movements of tectonic blocks, e.g., subsiding parts of Vienna Basin and Danubian Basin or uplifting mountains. The Little Carpathians horst and the area of Vienna Basin contains a number of tectonic faults, where ground motions as a result of geodynamic processes are mostly expected. It is assumed that all the phenomena stated above has an impact on the spatial composition of the Earth's surface in Bratislava urban area. As nowadays surface of the Little Carpathians is heavily eroded and morphology smoothed, question of this impact cannot be answered only by interpreting geological tectonic maps. Furthermore, expected changes have never been revealed by any geodetic measurements which would offer advantages of satellite radar interferometry concerning temporal coverage, spatial resolution and accuracy. Thus the generation of ground deformation maps using satellite radar interferometry could gather valuable information. The work aims to perform a series of differential interferograms and PSInSAR (Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

  7. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Austin, Texas, metropolitan area, 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slade, R.M.; Dorsey, M.E.; Gordon, J.D.; Mitchell, R.N.; Gaylord, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1979 water year for the Austin, Texas, metropolitan area. In 1975, the program was expanded to include the collection of water-quality data. In 1978, the program was expanded to include a groundwater resources study of the south Austin metropolitan area in the Balcones fault zone. The information will be useful in determining the extent to which progressive urbanization will affect the yeild and mode of occurrence of storm runoff. The major streams in the study area are the Colorado River, Onion Creek, Barton Creek, Walnut Creek, Bull Creek, Boggy Creek, Shoal Creek, Williamson Creek, Slaughter Creek, Bear Creek, and Waller Creek. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are presented for eight storm periods during the 1979 water year. Water-quality data for sites in the Austin metropolitan area are also given in this report. (USGS)

  8. Key factors affecting urban runoff pollution under cold climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtanen, Marjo; Sillanpää, Nora; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-10-01

    Urban runoff contains various pollutants and has the potential of deteriorating the quality of aquatic ecosystems. In this study our objective is to shed light on the factors that control the runoff water quality in urbanized catchments. The effects of runoff event characteristics, land use type and catchment imperviousness on event mass loads (EML) and event mean concentrations (EMC) were studied during warm and cold periods in three study catchments (6.1, 6.5 and 12.6 ha in size) in the city of Lahti, Finland. Runoff and rainfall were measured continuously for two years at each catchment. Runoff samples were taken for total nutrients (tot-P and tot-N), total suspended solids (TSS), heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Mn) and total organic carbon (TOC). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis (SMLR) was used to identify general relationships between the following variables: event water quality, runoff event characteristics and catchment characteristics. In general, the studied variables explained 50-90% of the EMLs but only 30-60% of the EMCs, with runoff duration having an important role in most of the SMLR models. Mean runoff intensity or peak flow was also often included in the runoff quality models. Yet, the importance (being the first, second or third best) and role (negative or positive impact) of the explanatory variables varied between the cold and warm period. Land use type often explained cold period concentrations, but imperviousness alone explained EMCs weakly. As for EMLs, the influence of imperviousness and/or land use was season and pollutant dependent. The study suggests that pollutant loads can be - throughout the year - adequately predicted by runoff characteristics given that seasonal differences are taken into account. Although pollutant concentrations were sensitive to variation in seasonal and catchment conditions as well, the accurate estimation of EMCs would require a more complete set of explanatory factors than used in this

  9. Urban bat communities are affected by wetland size, quality, and pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Straka, Tanja Maria; Lentini, Pia Eloise; Lumsden, Linda Faye; Wintle, Brendan Anthony; van der Ree, Rodney

    2016-07-01

    Wetlands support unique biota and provide important ecosystem services. These services are highly threatened due to the rate of loss and relative rarity of wetlands in most landscapes, an issue that is exacerbated in highly modified urban environments. Despite this, critical ecological knowledge is currently lacking for many wetland-dependent taxa, such as insectivorous bats, which can persist in urban areas if their habitats are managed appropriately. Here, we use a novel paired landscape approach to investigate the role of wetlands in urban bat conservation and examine local and landscape factors driving bat species richness and activity. We acoustically monitored bat activity at 58 urban wetlands and 35 nonwetland sites (ecologically similar sites without free-standing water) in the greater Melbourne area, southeastern Australia. We analyzed bat species richness and activity patterns using generalized linear mixed-effects models. We found that the presence of water in urban Melbourne was an important driver of bat species richness and activity at a landscape scale. Increasing distance to bushland and increasing levels of heavy metal pollution within the waterbody also negatively influenced bat richness and individual species activity. Areas with high levels of artificial night light had reduced bat species richness, and reduced activity for all species except those adapted to urban areas, such as the White-striped free-tailed bat (Austronomus australis). Increased surrounding tree cover and wetland size had a positive effect on bat species richness. Our findings indicate that wetlands form critical habitats for insectivorous bats in urban environments. Large, unlit, and unpolluted wetlands flanked by high tree cover in close proximity to bushland contribute most to the richness of the bat community. Our findings clarify the role of wetlands for insectivorous bats in urban areas and will also allow for the preservation, construction, and management of wetlands

  10. Do speed cameras reduce speeding in urban areas?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Daniele Falci de; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Costa, Dário Alves da Silva; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    This observational study aimed to estimate the prevalence of speeding on urban roadways and to analyze associated factors. The sample consisted of 8,565 vehicles circulating in areas with and without fixed speed cameras in operation. We found that 40% of vehicles 200 meters after the fixed cameras and 33.6% of vehicles observed on roadways without speed cameras were moving over the speed limit (p < 0.001). Motorcycles showed the highest recorded speed (126km/h). Most drivers were men (87.6%), 3.3% of all drivers were using their cell phones, and 74.6% of drivers (not counting motorcyclists) were wearing their seatbelts. On roadway stretches without fixed speed cameras, more women drivers were talking on their cell phones and wearing seatbelts when compared to men (p < 0.05 for both comparisons), independently of speed limits. The results suggest that compliance with speed limits requires more than structural interventions. PMID:26648375

  11. The boundary layer growth in an urban area.

    PubMed

    Pino, D; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J; Comerón, A; Rocadenbosch, F

    2004-12-01

    The development and maintenance of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) plays a key role in the distribution of atmospheric constituents, especially in a polluted urban area. In particular, the ABL has a direct impact on the concentration and transformation of pollutants. In this work, in order to analyze the different mechanisms which control the boundary layer growth, we have simulated by means of the non-hydrostatic model MM5 several boundary layer observed in the city of Barcelona (Spain). Sensitivity analysis of the modelled ABL is carried out by using various descriptions of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Direct and continuous measurements of the boundary layer depth taken by a lidar are used to evaluate the results obtained by the model. PMID:15504507

  12. Hydrological and sediment connectivity in areas affected by wildfires.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Murillo, Juan F.; Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.

    2016-04-01

    This study deals with the hydrological and sediment connectivity (HSC) process in burned areas, from detailed to wider spatial scales: -First of all, it is presented a brief review and analysis of meta-data, already published. -Secondly, some examples of HSC are shown from areas affected by wildfires in South of Spain. -Finally, it is an attempt of applying some indexes of hydrological connectivity to those areas. The study try to shed light on this complex process of connectivity from the hydrological and sedimentary point of view, a kew issue to improve the management of burned areas.

  13. What Factors Contribute to Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Urban, Conflict-Affected Settings? Qualitative Findings from Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, L F; Gupta, J; Shuman, S; Cole, H; Kpebo, D; Falb, K L

    2016-04-01

    Rapid urbanization is a key driver of the unique set of health risks facing urban populations. One of the most critical health hazards facing urban women is intimate partner violence (IPV). In post-conflict urban areas, women may face an even greater risk of IPV. Yet, few studies have examined the IPV experiences of urban-dwelling, conflict-affected women, including those who have been internally displaced. This study qualitatively examined the social and structural characteristics of the urban environment that contributed to the IPV experiences of women residing in post-conflict Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Ten focus groups were conducted with men and women, both internally displaced (IDPs) and non-displaced. Lack of support networks, changing gender roles, and tensions between traditional gender norms and those of the "modern" city were reported as key contributors to IPV. Urban poverty and with it unemployment, food insecurity, and housing instability also played a role. Finally, IDPs faced heightened vulnerability to IPV as a result of displacement and discrimination. The relationship between economic strains and IPV are similar to other conflict-affected settings, but Abidjan's urban environment presented other unique characteristics contributing to IPV. Understanding these factors is crucial to designing appropriate services for women and for implementing IPV reduction interventions in urban areas. Strengthening formal and informal mechanisms for help-seeking, utilizing multi-modal interventions that address economic stress and challenge inequitable gender norms, as well as tailoring programs specifically for IDPs, are some considerations for IPV program planning focused on conflict-affected women in urban areas. PMID:27000124

  14. Expansion of urban area and wastewater irrigated rice area in Hyderabad, India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gumma, K.M.; van, Rooijen D.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Aakuraju, R.V.; Amerasinghe, P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate land use changes in urban and peri-urban Hyderabad and their influence on wastewater irrigated rice using Landsat ETM + data and spectral matching techniques. The main source of irrigation water is the Musi River, which collects a large volume of wastewater and stormwater while running through the city. From 1989 to 2002, the wastewater irrigated area along the Musi River increased from 5,213 to 8,939 ha with concurrent expansion of the city boundaries from 22,690 to 42,813 ha and also decreased barren lands and range lands from 86,899 to 66,616 ha. Opportunistic shifts in land use, especially related to wastewater irrigated agriculture, were seen as a response to the demand for fresh vegetables and easy access to markets, exploited mainly by migrant populations. While wastewater irrigated agriculture contributes to income security of marginal groups, it also supplements the food basket of many city dwellers. Landsat ETM + data and advanced methods such as spectral matching techniques are ideal for quantifying urban expansion and associated land use changes, and are useful for urban planners and decision makers alike. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Visualizing Diurnal Population Change in Urban Areas for Emergency Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

  16. Visualizing diurnal population change in urban areas for emergency management.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management. PMID:21491706

  17. Baltimore WATERS Test Bed -- Quantifying Groundwater in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.; Ryan, R. J.; Crook, N.; Kerchkof, T.; Larson, P.; Smith, J.; Baeck, M. L.; Kaushal, S.; Belt, K.; McGuire, M.; Scanlon, T.; Warner, J.; Shedlock, R.; Band, L.; Groffman, P.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to quantify the urban water cycle, with an emphasis on urban groundwater, using investigations at multiple spatial scales. The overall study focuses on the 171 sq km Gwynns Falls watershed, which spans an urban to rural gradient of land cover and is part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER. Within the Gwynns Falls, finer-scale studies focus on the 14.3 sq km Dead Run and its subwatersheds. A coarse-grid MODFLOW model has been set up to quantify groundwater flow magnitude and direction at the larger watershed scale. Existing wells in this urban area are sparse, but are being located through mining of USGS NWIS and local well data bases. Wet and dry season water level synoptics, stream seepage transects, and existing permeability data are being used in model calibration. In collaboration with CUAHSI HMF Geophysics, a regional-scale microgravity survey was conducted over the watershed in July 2007 and will be repeated in spring 2008. This will enable calculation of the change in groundwater levels for use in model calibration. At the smaller spatial scale (Dead Run catchment), three types of data have been collected to refine our understanding of the groundwater system. (1) Multiple bromide tracer tests were conducted along a 4 km reach of Dead Run under low-flow conditions to examine groundwater- surface water exchange as a function of land cover type and stream position in the watershed. The tests will be repeated under higher base flow conditions in early spring 2008. Tracer test data will be interpreted using the USGS OTIS model and results will be incorporated into the MODFLOW model. (2) Riparian zone geophysical surveys were carried out with support from CUAHSI HMF Geophysics to delineate depth to bedrock and the water table topography as a function of distance from the stream channel. Resistivity, ground penetrating radar, and seismic refraction surveys were run in ten transects across and around the stream channels. (3) A finer

  18. Material versus social deprivation and health: a case study of an urban area.

    PubMed

    Testi, Angela; Ivaldi, Enrico

    2009-07-01

    Socioeconomic factors are one of the main determinants of health inequalities. However, which component of socioeconomic status affects health most and how that relationship should be measured remains an open question. The aim of this study was to compare material and social deprivation indexes in order to determine which better explains health inequalities within an urban area. Following a review of the literature on small area deprivation indexes, a case study of the Italian city Genoa is presented. The city of Genoa is split into 71 small areas [urbanistic units (UU)], each of which has about 9,500 inhabitants. For each small area, socioeconomic indicators were extracted from the 2001 Census, whereas health indicators were computed from the death registry for 2001-2003. Factorial analyses was used to choose the deprivation variables, which were utilised to create two distinct deprivation indexes referring to material and social deprivation, respectively. Both deprivation indexes are positively correlated with health status proxied by standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) under 65. The material index, however, correlates more highly with SMRs than the social index, and thus the material index is the more suitable measure to explain variations in premature mortality within an urban area. Moreover, the two indexes must be kept distinct. PMID:19018580

  19. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1580 - High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs) A Appendix A to... TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. A Appendix A to Part 1580—High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs) State Candidate... Area not identified as eligible through the risk analysis process for two consecutive years will not...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1580 - High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs) A Appendix A to... TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. A Appendix A to Part 1580—High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs) State Candidate... Area not identified as eligible through the risk analysis process for two consecutive years will not...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1580 - High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs) A Appendix A to... TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. A Appendix A to Part 1580—High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs) State Candidate... Area not identified as eligible through the risk analysis process for two consecutive years will not...

  2. Assessing urbanized area expansion through the integration of Landsat and conventional data /79052/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. B.; Friedman, S. Z.

    1979-01-01

    An image base information system (IBIS) is utilized to integrate Landsat and census data for the purpose of mapping urban land and updating urbanized-area outer lines. IBIS is a subset of the video image communication and retrieval digital image processing system developed at JPL. IBIS is used to analyze three urban areas: Orlando, Florida; Seattle, Washington; and Boston, Massachusetts. In all three applications the primary objective is to map the expansion of urban land cover in the urban fringe. Pertinent tabular reports are produced.

  3. Measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) in urban area of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Bernard, François; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Grosselin, Benoît; Zhou, Bin; Zheng, Jun; Liang, Peng; Zhang, Yujie; Ye, Xingnan; Daële, Véronique; Mu, Yujing; Zhang, Renyi; Chen, Jianmin; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2016-03-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO), as a precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH), plays an important role in the photochemistry of the troposphere, especially in the polluted urban atmosphere. A field campaign was conducted to measure atmospheric HONO concentration and that of other pollutants (such as NO2 and particle mass concentration) in the autumn of 2009 at Shanghai urban areas. HONO mixing ratios were simultaneously measured by three different techniques: long path absorption photometer (LOPAP), differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). The measurements showed that the mixing ratios of HONO were highly variable and depended strongly on meteorological parameters. The HONO levels ranged from 0.5 to 7 ppb with maximum values during early morning and minimum levels during late afternoon. The three instruments reproduced consistent diurnal pattern of HONO concentrations with higher concentration during the night compared to the daylight hours. Comparison of HONOLOPAP/HONOCIMS ratios during daytime and nighttime periods exhibited a non-systematic disagreement of 0.93 and 1.16, respectively. This would indicate different chemical compositions of sampled air for the LOPAP and the CIMS instruments during daytime and nighttime periods, which have possibly affected measurements. Mean HONO concentration reported by LOPAP was 33 % higher than by DOAS on the whole period with no significant difference between daytime and nighttime periods. This revealed a systematic deviation from both instruments. The present data provides complementary information of HONO ambient levels in the atmosphere of Shanghai urban areas. PMID:26590058

  4. The use of LANDSAT data to monitor the urban growth of Sao Paulo Metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Lombardo, M. A.; Foresti, C.

    1982-01-01

    Urban growth from 1977 to 1979 of the region between Billings and the Guarapiranga reservoir was mapped and the problematic urban areas identified using several LANDSAT products. Visual and automatic interpretation techniques were applied to the data. Computer compatible tapes of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data were analyzed through the maximum likelihood Gaussian algorithm. The feasibility of monitoring fast urban growth by remote sensing techniques for efficient urban planning and control is demonstrated.

  5. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an industrialized urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachada, A.; Pereira, R.; Ferreira da Silva, E.; Duarte, A. C.

    2009-04-01

    Urbanization, agricultural intensification and industrialization are contributing to erosion, local and diffuse contamination and sealing of soil surfaces, resulting in soil quality degradation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in urban environments and considered good markers of anthropogenic activities such as traffic, industry, domestic heating and agriculture. Although they are subject to biodegradation and photodegradation, once in the soil, they tend to bind to the soil organic fraction. Estarreja is a small coastal town in the Northwestern Portuguese coast, with a close relation with the lagoon of Aveiro which supports a variety of biotopes (channels, islands with vegetation, mudflats, salt marshes and agricultural fields) of important ecological value. It supports an intensive and diversified agriculture, a variety of heavy and light industries and a population of about half a million people which is dependent on this resource. This is a very industrialized area, due to its five decades of chemical industry. This study aims to assess the impact of the urbanization and of the chemical industry in PAHs distribution. The survey and sampling method were based on pre-interpreted maps, aerial photographs, and directly checked in the field, in order to get an overall characterization of the area. Topsoils were collected from 34 sites, considering different land uses. Five land uses were chosen: ornamental gardens, parks, roadsides, forest and agricultural. Parameters such as soil pH (ISO method 10390:1994), total C, N, H, S percentages (microanalyser LECO, CNHS-932), organic matter (LOI at 430°), particle size distribution (Micromeritics® Sedigraph 5100), cation exchange capacity and exchangeable bases, were determined in order to have a general characterization of soil. Determination of the 16 EPA PAHs in soils was performed by GC/MS after a Soxhlet extraction and an alumina clean-up of extracts. Procedure blanks, duplicates and reference

  6. Hierarchical Spatial Analysis of Extreme Precipitation in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajulapati, C. R.; Mujumdar, P.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of extreme precipitation is important for hydrologic designs. Due to lack of availability of extreme precipitation data for sufficiently large number of years, estimating the probability of extreme events is difficult and extrapolating the distributions to locations where observations are not available is challenging. In an urban setting, the spatial variation of precipitation can be high; the precipitation amounts and patterns often vary within short distances of less than 10 km. Therefore it is crucial to study the uncertainties in the spatial variation of precipitation in urban areas. In this work, the extreme precipitation is modeled spatially using the Bayesian hierarchical spatial analysis and the spatial variation of return levels is studied. The analysis is carried out with both the Peak over Threshold (PoT) and the Block Maxima approaches for defining the extreme precipitation. The study area is Bangalore city, India. Daily data for seventeen stations in and around Bangalore city are considered in the study. The threshold exceedences are modeled using a Generalized Pareto (GP) distribution and the block maxima are modeled using Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. In the hierarchical analysis, the statistical model is specified in three layers. The data layer models the data (either block maxima or the threshold exceedences) at each station. In the process layer, the latent spatial process characterized by geographical and climatological covariates (lat-lon, elevation, mean temperature etc.) which drives the extreme precipitation is modeled and in the prior level, the prior distributions that govern the latent process are modeled. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to obtain the samples of parameters from the posterior distribution of parameters. The spatial maps of return levels for specified return periods, along with the associated uncertainties, are obtained. The results show that there is significant variation in

  7. Increasing impact of urban fine particles (PM2.5) on areas surrounding Chinese cities

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    The negative impacts of rapid urbanization in developing countries have led to a deterioration in urban air quality, which brings increasing negative impact to its surrounding areas (e.g. in China). However, to date there has been rare quantitative estimation of the urban air pollution to its surrounding areas in China.We thus evaluated the impact of air pollution on the surrounding environment under rapid urbanization in Chinese prefectures during 1999 – 2011. We found that: (1) the urban environment generated increasing negative impact on the surrounding areas, and the PM2.5 concentration difference between urban and rural areas was particularly high in large cities. (2) Nearly half of the Chinese prefectures (156 out of 350) showed increased impact of urban PM2.5 pollution on its surrounding areas. Those prefectures were mainly located along two belts: one from northeast China to Sichuan province, the other from Shanghai to Guangxi province. Our study demonstrates the deterioration in urban air quality and its potential impacts on its surrounding areas in China. We hope that the results presented here will encourage different approaches to urbanization to mitigate the negative impact caused by urban air pollution, both in China and other rapidly developing countries. PMID:26219273

  8. An investigation of aeroallergens affecting urban Malaysian asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Sam, C K; Soon, S C; Liam, C K; Padmaja, K; Cheng, H M

    1998-03-01

    We investigated the aeroallergens affecting 200 asthmatics from the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and found 164 (82%) patients with skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to one or more of a panel of 14 allergens, which included indoor and outdoor animal and plant aeroallergens. Reactivity was most frequent to the indoor airborne allergens, with 159 (79.5%) reacting to either or both house dust mite (Dermatophagoides) species and 87 (43.5%) to cockroach. The SPT reactivity to house dust mites corresponded with the finding that patients found house dust to be the main precipitant of asthmatic attacks. PMID:9681124

  9. An Urban Food Store Intervention Positively Affects Food-Related Psychosocial Variables and Food Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B.; Henry, Elizabeth G.; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a…

  10. Determining Surface Roughness in Urban Areas Using Lidar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Donald

    2009-01-01

    An automated procedure has been developed to derive relevant factors, which can increase the ability to produce objective, repeatable methods for determining aerodynamic surface roughness. Aerodynamic surface roughness is used for many applications, like atmospheric dispersive models and wind-damage models. For this technique, existing lidar data was used that was originally collected for terrain analysis, and demonstrated that surface roughness values can be automatically derived, and then subsequently utilized in disaster-management and homeland security models. The developed lidar-processing algorithm effectively distinguishes buildings from trees and characterizes their size, density, orientation, and spacing (see figure); all of these variables are parameters that are required to calculate the estimated surface roughness for a specified area. By using this algorithm, aerodynamic surface roughness values in urban areas can then be extracted automatically. The user can also adjust the algorithm for local conditions and lidar characteristics, like summer/winter vegetation and dense/sparse lidar point spacing. Additionally, the user can also survey variations in surface roughness that occurs due to wind direction; for example, during a hurricane, when wind direction can change dramatically, this variable can be extremely significant. In its current state, the algorithm calculates an estimated surface roughness for a square kilometer area; techniques using the lidar data to calculate the surface roughness for a point, whereby only roughness elements that are upstream from the point of interest are used and the wind direction is a vital concern, are being investigated. This technological advancement will improve the reliability and accuracy of models that use and incorporate surface roughness.

  11. Fast 3D stereo flood simulations in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoes, O.; de Haan, G.; Stelling, G.; van Leeuwen, E.; van Dam, A.; Pleumeekers, O.; Schuurmans, W.

    2012-04-01

    Flood propagation models are essential to study floods as it is problematic to collect data during actual floods. Moreover, models are needed to explore the consequences of additional scenarios above the actual flood itself. The results of these model studies are generally graphs with water levels over time for certain locations or maps with the flood extent in an area for different return periods. A main difficulty with these depictions of flood information is that they do not reflect the seriousness of flood impacts well in terms of life-like human experience. Typically, one needs a (near) flood before measures are implemented. Apparently, a graph or map is not the proper material to convince politicians and policy makers, even if they live in the threatened area. The recent introduction of commercially available 3D stereo projectors and high resolution elevation data make it possible to build life-like visualizations of simulations. In our research we explored using 3D stereo, the recently collected elevation data of the Netherlands (20 laser points per m2!) in combination with aerial photographs, and a new fast 2D flood propagation calculation scheme. This scheme (under construction) is able to simulate floods using such high amounts of data points. The model simulates flood propagation on an irregular grid; at locations with large elevation differences (e.g. in urban areas) and fast flowing water, smaller cells are used compared to flat surfaces where the water is not or hardly flowing. The result of our combination is a very detailed flood simulation model that can be used to simulate floods within a fraction of the current calculation time. The opportunities of models and their results increase enormously with fast calculations and visualizations combined. For example, the model allows on the spot exploration of measures during a flood, with the 3D visualization ensuring that flood impacts become clear for decision makers. We will show the preliminary

  12. URBAN EFFICIENT ENERGY EVALUATION IN HIGH RESOLUTION URBAN AREAS BY USING ADAPTED WRF-UCM AND MICROSYS CFD MODELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J. L.; Gonzalez, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Urban metabolism modeling has advanced substantially during the last years due to the increased detail in mesoscale urban parameterization in meteorological mesoscale models and CFD numerical tools. Recently the implementation of the “urban canopy model” (UCM) into the WRF mesoscale meteorological model has produced a substantial advance on the understanding of the urban atmospheric heat flux exchanges in the urban canopy. The need to optimize the use of heat energy in urban environment has produced a substantial increase in the detailed investigation of the urban heat flux exchanges. In this contribution we will show the performance of using a tool called MICROSYS (MICRO scale CFD modelling SYStem) which is an adaptation of the classical urban canopy model but on a high resolution environment by using a classical CFD approach. The energy balance in the urban system can be determined in a micrometeorologicl sense by considering the energy flows in and out of a control volume. For such a control volume reaching from ground to a certain height above buildings, the energy balance equation includes the net radiation, the anthropogenic heat flux, the turbulent sensible heat flux, the turbulent latent heat flux, the net storage change within the control volume, the net advected flux and other sources and sinks. We have applied the MICROSYS model to an area of 5 km x 5 km with 200 m spatial resolution by using the WRF-UCM (adapted and the MICROSYS CFD model. The anthropogenic heat flux has been estimated by using the Flanner M.G. (2009) database and detailed GIS information (50 m resolution) of Madrid city. The Storage energy has been estimated by calculating the energy balance according to the UCM procedure and implementing it into the MICROSYS tool. Results show that MICROSYS can be used as an energy efficient tool to estimate the energy balance of different urban areas and buildings.

  13. Characteristics of extreme dust events observed over two urban areas in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidokhti, Abbas-Ali A.; Gharaylou, Maryam; Pegahfar, Nafiseh; Sabetghadam, Samaneh; Rezazadeh, Maryam

    2016-03-01

    Determination of dust loading in the atmosphere is important not only from the public health point of view, but also for regional climate changes. The present study focuses on the characteristics of two major dust events for two urban areas in Iran, Kermanshah and Tehran, over the period of 4 years from 2006 to 2009. To detect extreme dust outbreaks, various datasets including synoptic data, dust concentration, reanalysis data and numerical results of WRF and HYSPLIT models were used. The weather maps demonstrate that for these events dusts are mainly generated when wind velocity is high and humidity is low in the lower troposphere and the region is under the influence of a thermal low. The event lasts until the atmospheric stability prevails and the surface wind speed weakens. The thermal low nature of the synoptic conditions of these major events is also responsible for deep boundary layer development with its thermals affecting the vertical dust flux over the region. Trajectory studies show that the dust events originated from deserts in Iraq and Syria and transported towards Iran. The main distinction between the two types of mobilizations seems to affect the dust concentrations in the Tehran urban area.

  14. Aerosol Retrieval over Urban Area in MODIS Dark Target Land Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, P.; Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.

    2013-12-01

    Urban air quality in many parts of the globe has reached at dangerous level (5 to 10 times higher than WHO guidelines) as urbanization and industrialization have amplified many folds during the last few decades. More than half of the world's population now lives in urban areas and their number will increase 60% by 2030. Therefore it is very critical to monitor air quality (aerosol or PM) on a daily basis; especially in populated regions (urban areas) around the world. The new version (C6) of MODIS Dark Target Land Aerosol Algorithm (MDT) provides aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals at 10km2 and 3km2 spatial resolutions over dark vegetated regions. Initial validation efforts during DISCOVER-AQ field campaign over Baltimore-DC area shows that MDT overestimates AOD over urban areas, mainly because the bright and complex urban surface is not characterized properly. Accurate estimation of the surface signal within satellite-measured radiance is essential for aerosol retrieval. Surface characterization can be challenging and small error (~0.01) can produce large errors in retrieved AOD (~0.1). In this new approach, we have modified the surface characterization for urban areas, using the urban percentage information from the MODIS Land Product. We used the MODIS land surface spectral reflectance product to redefine the relationship between shortwave-IR and visible wavelengths over urban areas. We derived new surface characterization for urban area and used the DRAGON network measurements, during DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns, to validate the new AOD retrievals both in 10km and 3km spatial resolution. Initial inter-comparison with AERONET data over US shows significant improvement in AOD retrieval over urban areas. This improved AOD retrieval will be an important step toward utilization of satellite based particulate matter estimation for surface air quality monitoring. We also evaluate whether the new 3km product can enable studies of small-scale gradients in aerosol

  15. Integrated urban and rural water affairs management reform in China: Affecting factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Dajun; Liu, Bin

    The institutional evolution is often induced by some factors. This paper intends to analyze the affecting factors in integrated urban and rural water affairs management reform in China. The integrated urban and rural water affairs management reform is to restructure the governmental organizational setting in water management by forms of water affair bureau or re-designing functions of current water resources bureau to incorporate part or all functions of resources management, service regulation and environment management in water sector. The analyses selected some natural and socio-economic factors. The results point out that the integrated urban and rural water affairs management reform is a factor-induced institutional evolution. The factors promoting this reform include occasional drought events, higher central water investment percentage; but the data from the urban sector do not provide the support to the reform.

  16. Major inputs and mobility of potentially toxic elements contamination in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Cachada, A; Dias, A C; Pato, P; Mieiro, C; Rocha-Santos, T; Pereira, M E; Ferreira da Silva, E; Duarte, A C

    2013-01-01

    Soil quality in urban areas is affected by anthropogenic activities, posing a risk to human health and ecosystems. Since the pseudo-total concentrations of potentially toxic elements may not reflect their potential risks, the study of element mobility is very important on a risk assessment basis. This study aims at characterising the distribution and major sources of 34 elements in two Portuguese urban areas (Lisbon and Viseu), with different geological characteristics, industrial and urban development processes. Furthermore, the potential availability of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was assessed, by measuring the fraction easily mobilised. Lisbon is enriched in elements of geogenic and anthropogenic origin, whereas in the smaller city, the high levels observed are mainly related to a geogenic origin. Background values can be more relevant than the dimension of the city, even when anthropogenic components may be present, and this parameter should be considered when comparing results from different cities. Regarding the potential available fraction, a high variability of results was observed for elements and for sampling sites with an influence of the soil's general characteristics. Elements showing very high concentrations due to geological reasons presented, in general, a low mobility and it was not dependent on the degree of contamination. For elements with major anthropogenic origin, only Zn was dependent on the pseudo-total content. Yet, the highest available fractions of some elements, both with major geogenic and anthropogenic origin, were observed in specific contaminated samples. Therefore, a site-specific evaluation in urban soils is important due to the high spatial variability and heterogeneity. PMID:22350347

  17. Contrasting impacts of urban forms on the future thermal environment: example of Beijing metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Long; Niyogi, Dev; Tewari, Mukul; Aliaga, Daniel; Chen, Fei; Tian, Fuqiang; Ni, Guangheng

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated impacts of urban forms on the future thermal environment over Beijing, the capital city of China. Beijing is experiencing remarkable urban expansion and is planned to undergo the transformation of urban forms from single-centric (compact-city) to poly-centric city (dispersed-city). Impacts of urban forms on the future thermal environment were compared and evaluated by conducting numerical experiments based on a regional atmospheric model coupled with a single-layer urban canopy model as well as future climate forcing output from a global climate model. Results show that a dispersed city is efficient in reducing mean urban heat island intensity, but produces larger thermal loading and deeper thermal feedback at the regional scale compared to a compact city. Thermal comfort over downtown areas is reduced in compact-city scenario under future climate conditions. Future climate contributes almost 80% of the additional thermal loading over urban areas, with the remaining 20% contributed by urbanization (for both the compact-city and dispersed-city scenarios). The thermal contrast between the two urban forms is dominated by the expected future climate change. This study leads to two complementary conclusions: (i) for developing assessments related to current climate comfort, urban form of the city is important; (ii) for assessing future climate change impacts, the areal coverage of the city and urbanization extent emerges to be more important than the details related to how the urbanization will evolve.

  18. Contrasting characteristics of the surface energy balance between the urban and rural areas of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu; Miao, Shiguang; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Li, Dan

    2015-04-01

    A direct comparison of urban and rural surface energy balances, as well as a variety of other variables including incoming shortwave/longwave radiation and aerosol optical depth, is conducted for the Beijing metropolitan area. The results indicate that, overall, the urban area receives a smaller amount of incoming shortwave radiation but a larger amount of incoming longwave radiation. However, comparisons in the aerosol optical depth and cloud fraction at the two locations suggest that neither aerosol optical depth nor cloud fraction alone can explain the difference in the incoming shortwave radiation. The urban-rural differences in the incoming longwave radiation are unlikely to be caused by the presence of more abundant greenhouse gases over the urban area, as suggested by some previous studies, given that water vapor is the most dominant greenhouse gas and precipitable water is found to be less in urban areas. The higher incoming longwave radiation observed over the urban area is mostly likely due to the higher temperatures of the ambient air. The urban area is also found to always produce higher sensible heat fluxes and lower latent heat fluxes in the growing season. Furthermore, the urban area is associated with a larger amount of available energy (the sum of sensible and latent heat fluxes) than the rural area, except in May and October when evapotranspiration in the rural area significantly exceeds that in the urban area. This study provides observational evidence of urban-rural contrasts in relevant energy-balance components that plausibly arise from urban-rural differences in atmospheric and land-surface conditions.

  19. Optimizing wind power generation while minimizing wildlife impacts in an urban area.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Gil; Zhu, Kunpeng; Jones, Robert L; Curtis, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    The location of a wind turbine is critical to its power output, which is strongly affected by the local wind field. Turbine operators typically seek locations with the best wind at the lowest level above ground since turbine height affects installation costs. In many urban applications, such as small-scale turbines owned by local communities or organizations, turbine placement is challenging because of limited available space and because the turbine often must be added without removing existing infrastructure, including buildings and trees. The need to minimize turbine hazard to wildlife compounds the challenge. We used an exclusion zone approach for turbine-placement optimization that incorporates spatially detailed maps of wind distribution and wildlife densities with power output predictions for the Ohio State University campus. We processed public GIS records and airborne lidar point-cloud data to develop a 3D map of all campus buildings and trees. High resolution large-eddy simulations and long-term wind climatology were combined to provide land-surface-affected 3D wind fields and the corresponding wind-power generation potential. This power prediction map was then combined with bird survey data. Our assessment predicts that exclusion of areas where bird numbers are highest will have modest effects on the availability of locations for power generation. The exclusion zone approach allows the incorporation of wildlife hazard in wind turbine siting and power output considerations in complex urban environments even when the quantitative interaction between wildlife behavior and turbine activity is unknown. PMID:23409117

  20. Optimizing Wind Power Generation while Minimizing Wildlife Impacts in an Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    Bohrer, Gil; Zhu, Kunpeng; Jones, Robert L.; Curtis, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    The location of a wind turbine is critical to its power output, which is strongly affected by the local wind field. Turbine operators typically seek locations with the best wind at the lowest level above ground since turbine height affects installation costs. In many urban applications, such as small-scale turbines owned by local communities or organizations, turbine placement is challenging because of limited available space and because the turbine often must be added without removing existing infrastructure, including buildings and trees. The need to minimize turbine hazard to wildlife compounds the challenge. We used an exclusion zone approach for turbine-placement optimization that incorporates spatially detailed maps of wind distribution and wildlife densities with power output predictions for the Ohio State University campus. We processed public GIS records and airborne lidar point-cloud data to develop a 3D map of all campus buildings and trees. High resolution large-eddy simulations and long-term wind climatology were combined to provide land-surface-affected 3D wind fields and the corresponding wind-power generation potential. This power prediction map was then combined with bird survey data. Our assessment predicts that exclusion of areas where bird numbers are highest will have modest effects on the availability of locations for power generation. The exclusion zone approach allows the incorporation of wildlife hazard in wind turbine siting and power output considerations in complex urban environments even when the quantitative interaction between wildlife behavior and turbine activity is unknown. PMID:23409117

  1. Parasitic diseases and urban development.

    PubMed Central

    Mott, K. E.; Desjeux, P.; Moncayo, A.; Ranque, P.; de Raadt, P.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution and epidemiology of parasitic diseases in both urban and periurban areas of endemic countries have been changing as development progresses. The following different scenarios involving Chagas disease, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis are discussed: (1) infected persons entering nonendemic urban areas without vectors; (2) infected persons entering nonendemic urban areas with vectors; (3) infected persons entering endemic urban areas; (4) non-infected persons entering endemic urban areas; (5) urbanization or domestication of natural zoonotic foci; and (6) vectors entering nonendemic urban areas. Cultural and social habits from the rural areas, such as type of house construction and domestic water usage, are adopted by migrants to urban areas and increase the risk of disease transmission which adversely affects employment in urban populations. As the urban health services must deal with the rise in parasitic diseases, appropriate control strategies for the urban setting must be developed and implemented. PMID:2127380

  2. The effect of urban canopy parameterizations on mesoscale meteorological model simulations in the Paso del Norte area

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.J.; Williams, M.D.

    1997-04-01

    Since mesoscale numerical models do not have the spatial resolution to directly simulate the fluid dynamics and thermodynamics in and around urban structures, urban canopy parameterizations are sometimes used to approximate the drag, heating, and enhanced turbulent kinetic energy (tke) produced by the sub-grid scale urban elements. In this paper, we investigate the effect of the urban canopy parameterizations used in the HOTMAC mesoscale meteorological model by turning the parameterizations on and off. The model simulations were performed in the Paso del Norte region, which includes the cities of El Paso and Ciudad Juarez, the Franklin and Sierra Juarez mountains, and the Rio Grande. The metropolitan area is surrounded by relatively barren scrubland and is intersected by strips of vegetation along the Rio Grande. Results indicate that the urban canopy parameterizations do affect the mesoscale flow field, reducing the magnitude of wind speed and changing the magnitude of the sensible heat flux and tke in the metropolitan area. A nighttime heat island and a daytime cool island exist when urban canopy parameters are turned on, but associated recirculation flows are not readily apparent. Model-computed solar, net, and longwave radiation values look reasonable, agreeing for the most part with published measurements.

  3. Vision-Based Georeferencing of GPR in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Barzaghi, Riccardo; Cazzaniga, Noemi Emanuela; Pagliari, Diana; Pinto, Livio

    2016-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveying is widely used to gather accurate knowledge about the geometry and position of underground utilities. The sensor arrays need to be coupled to an accurate positioning system, like a geodetic-grade Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) device. However, in urban areas this approach is not always feasible because GNSS accuracy can be substantially degraded due to the presence of buildings, trees, tunnels, etc. In this work, a photogrammetric (vision-based) method for GPR georeferencing is presented. The method can be summarized in three main steps: tie point extraction from the images acquired during the survey, computation of approximate camera extrinsic parameters and finally a refinement of the parameter estimation using a rigorous implementation of the collinearity equations. A test under operational conditions is described, where accuracy of a few centimeters has been achieved. The results demonstrate that the solution was robust enough for recovering vehicle trajectories even in critical situations, such as poorly textured framed surfaces, short baselines, and low intersection angles. PMID:26805842

  4. Atmospheric SF6 near a large urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, David T.; Schlosser, Peter

    2000-06-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has the potential to be a valuable transient tracer for dating of young ground water. However, near urban areas, there are typically numerous point sources of SF6 which have a significant impact on the temporal evolution of its atmospheric mixing ratio, thereby complicating its use as an age-dating tool. Here, we present and discuss a 12-month record of atmospheric SF6 from a location near New York City. The data were obtained by gas chromatographic analyses performed at intervals of approximately 10 minutes yielding about 40,000 data points for the time series. Nearly all measured SF6 values are in excess of remote Northern Hemisphere (NH) atmospheric mixing ratios. Temporal trends in the baseline data from LDEO indicate that atmospheric SF6 at LDEO decreased at a rate of 0.4 ppt yr-1 over the 12-month period. The SF6 data are compared to records of CFCs obtained during the same period. Whereas the CFCs show daily, weekly, and seasonal patterns of variability near New York City, the SF6 data exhibit only a daily cycle. The observed SF6 excesses are far greater than those found for CFCs during the same time period. This indicates that in order to use SF6 as an age dating tool of groundwater near source regions, its input function, i.e., its concentration in soil air above the groundwater table, needs to be defined explicitly.

  5. Ventilation of idealised urban area, LES and wind tunnel experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukačka, L.; Fuka, V.; Nosek, Š.; Kellnerová, R.; Jaňour, Z.

    2014-03-01

    In order to estimate the ventilation of vehicle pollution within street canyons, a wind tunnel experiment and a large eddy simulation (LES) was performed. A model of an idealised urban area with apartment houses arranged to courtyards was designed according to common Central European cities. In the wind tunnel, we assembled a set-up for simultaneous measurement of vertical velocity and tracer gas concentration. Due to the vehicle traffic emissions modelling, a new line source of tracer gas was designed and built into the model. As a computational model, the LES model solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations was used. In this paper, we focused on the street canyon with the line source situated perpendicular to an approach flow. Vertical and longitudinal velocity components of the flow with the pollutant concentration were obtained from two horizontal grids placed in different heights above the street canyon. Vertical advective and turbulent pollution fluxes were computed from the measured data as ventilation characteristics. Wind tunnel and LES data were qualitatively compared. A domination of advective pollution transport within the street canyon was determined. However, the turbulent transport with an opposite direction to the advective played a significant role within and above the street canyon.

  6. Vision-Based Georeferencing of GPR in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Barzaghi, Riccardo; Cazzaniga, Noemi Emanuela; Pagliari, Diana; Pinto, Livio

    2016-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveying is widely used to gather accurate knowledge about the geometry and position of underground utilities. The sensor arrays need to be coupled to an accurate positioning system, like a geodetic-grade Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) device. However, in urban areas this approach is not always feasible because GNSS accuracy can be substantially degraded due to the presence of buildings, trees, tunnels, etc. In this work, a photogrammetric (vision-based) method for GPR georeferencing is presented. The method can be summarized in three main steps: tie point extraction from the images acquired during the survey, computation of approximate camera extrinsic parameters and finally a refinement of the parameter estimation using a rigorous implementation of the collinearity equations. A test under operational conditions is described, where accuracy of a few centimeters has been achieved. The results demonstrate that the solution was robust enough for recovering vehicle trajectories even in critical situations, such as poorly textured framed surfaces, short baselines, and low intersection angles. PMID:26805842

  7. Education in Urban Areas. Cross-National Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P., Ed.

    This book provides a collection of articles that covers urban education from both developed and developing countries. It presents five studies focused on the United States and other industrialized countries, two studies on Asia, two on Africa, and one on Latin American. Major sections discuss concepts and trends in urban education, the…

  8. Event-based stormwater quality and quantity loadings from elevated urban infrastructure affected by transportation.

    PubMed

    Sansalone, John J; Hird, Jonathan P; Cartledge, Frank K; Tittlebaum, Marty E

    2005-01-01

    Urban-rainfall runoff affected by transportation is a complex matrix of a very wide gradation of particulate matter (< 1 to > 10 000 microm) and dissolved inorganic and organic constituents. Particulate matter transported by rainfall runoff can be a significant vector for many reactive particulate-bound constituents, particularly metal elements. The water quality and hydrology of nine events from a representative elevated section of Interstate 10 (I-10) (eastbound average daily traffic load of 70 400 vehicles) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, were characterized and compared with respect to the passage of each hydrograph. Residence time on the paved concrete surface was less than 30 minutes for all events. Results indicate that event-mean concentrations (EMCs) of particulate matter as total-suspended solids (TSS) (138 to 561 mg/L) and chemical-oxygen demand (COD) (128 to 1440 mg/L) were greater than those found in untreated municipal wastewater from the same service area. Particulate-matter dissolution and COD partitioned as a function of pH, pavement residence time, and organic content. In general, delivery of mass for aggregate indices, such as particulate matter (measured as TSS) and COD mass, were driven by the hydrology of the event, while concentrations of aggregate-constituent measurements, such as total-dissolved solids (TDS), illustrated an exponential-type decline during the rising limb of the hydrograph. Despite the short residence times, wide solids gradation, partitioning, and complexity of the rainfall-runoff chemistry, conductivity and dissolved solids were strongly correlated. Characterization of the transport and loads of constituents in urban-rainfall runoff, as a function of hydrology, is a necessary first step when considering treatability, structural or nonstructural controls, and mass trading for discharges from paved infrastructure. PMID:16121503

  9. Environmental magnetic approach towards the quantification of pollution in Kathmandu urban area, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Pitambar; Blaha, Ulrich; Appel, Erwin; Neupane, Ghanashyam

    The Kathmandu Valley is a bowl-shaped intermontane basin, which occupies an area of 583 km 2 in the heart of the Himalayas, with its floor at ≈1400 m and the surrounding mountains attaining a height of 2000-2800 m. It is inhabited by ≈1.5 million people, concentrated mostly in three cities, Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur. Due to rapid but uncontrolled urbanisation and factors such as traffic movement, emissions from brick-kilns, cement factories, waste disposal and biomass burning, environmental pollution has been constantly increasing; adversely affecting land, water, air and biological systems. In order to quantify the degree of environmental pollution using magnetic methods, magnetic susceptibility of soils, sediments and roadside materials, in and outside the Kathmandu urban area has been measured. In areas far from roads or industry, median magnetic susceptibility is between 3 and 35 × 10 -5 SI, similar to that observed in the valley-filling clastic sediments and hence consistent with geologic or pedogenic origin. In traverses of in situ susceptibility across roads, a 5-m wide zone situated on either side of the asphalt-paved road exhibits an enhancement zone with maximum susceptibility of 240-850 × 10 -5 SI occurring 0.5-2.5 m from the road edge. In urban recreational areas, magnetic susceptibility varies within a broad range (3 to >100 × 10 -5 SI) with lowest values occurring ≈50 m from surrounding roads, in areas least disturbed by human activity. A systematic increase in susceptibility towards the roads or industrial sites is observed. Within urban areas, in the vicinity of heavy traffic or industrial sites, the upper 30-50 cm of soil profiles exhibit frequent enhancement in susceptibility, of one or two orders of magnitude, higher than those expected from geologic input. Such enhancement is attributed to input from anthropogenic or industrial sources. Magneto-mineralogical analyses and scanning electron microscopy on magnetic extracts, grain size

  10. Optimized groundwater drawdown in a subsiding urban mining area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Peter; Duran, Emre; Baumann, Rainer; Finkel, Michael

    2009-02-01

    SummaryThis study establishes the first real-world application of evolution strategies for solving a groundwater management problem. In an urban coal mining area in the Emscher and Rhine Basin of Northwestern Germany the groundwater table rises relative to subsiding ground and threatens local infrastructure and basements of buildings. The active extraction system, which consists of one highly productive horizontal and twelve vertical wells that pump more than 500 m 3/h, is revised by combining groundwater model and algorithmic optimization procedure. By capitalizing on the robustness and self-adaptivity of evolution strategies, both fixed and moving well formulations are solved. It is shown that well layout can be improved by automatic optimization even though it has been previously soundly configured by experts. The total pumping effort can be noticeably reduced while complying with the drawdown targets given at 24 different locations in the study area. Savings increase if new well positions are considered. For example, one additional well yields a 9% reduction of the total extraction rate. We also investigate the relevance of the spatially variable drawdown targets and demonstrate how those targets that mainly control the optimized well layouts can be identified by varying the penalty function. It is revealed that there is huge potential for additionally reducing the extraction rate if one or more of these individual targets could be resigned, for example as a result of technical construction or land use changes. A reduction of more than 25% has been estimated for giving up the most notable constraining target. This way, by testing the significance of given constraints, algorithmic optimization may guide the re-formulation of the original optimization problem in order to conceive new groundwater management scenarios that ultimately lead to an increased efficiency of the well field. This procedure is similar to a chance-constraint approach, efficient with CMA

  11. Active Fault Characterization in the Urban Area of Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Kurt; Grupe, Sabine; Hintersberger, Esther

    2016-04-01

    The identification of active faults that lie beneath a city is of key importance for seismic hazard assessment. Fault mapping and characterization in built-up areas with strong anthropogenic overprint is, however, a challenging task. Our study of Quaternary faults in the city of Vienna starts from the re-assessment of a borehole database of the municipality containing several tens of thousands of shallow boreholes. Data provide tight constraints on the geometry of Quaternary deposits and highlight several locations with fault-delimited Middle to Late Pleistocene terrace sediments of the Danube River. Additional information is obtained from geological descriptions of historical outcrops which partly date back to about 1900. The latter were found to be particularly valuable by providing unprejudiced descriptions of Quaternary faults, sometimes with stunning detail. The along-strike continuations of some of the identified faults are further imaged by industrial 2D/3D seismic acquired outside the city limits. The interpretation and the assessment of faults identified within the city benefit from a very well constrained tectonic model of the active Vienna Basin fault system which derived from data obtained outside the city limits. This data suggests that the urban faults are part of a system of normal faults compensating fault-normal extension at a releasing bend of the sinistral Vienna Basin Transfer Fault. Slip rates estimated for the faults in the city are in the range of several hundredths of millimetres per year and match the slip rates of normal faults that were trenched outside the city. The lengths/areas of individual faults estimated from maps and seismic reach up to almost 700 km² suggesting that all of the identified faults are capable of producing earthquakes with magnitudes M>6, some with magnitudes up to M~6.7.

  12. Seismicity and Faulting in an Urbanized area: Flagstaff, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumbaugh, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    Flagstaff, Arizona is a community of more than 60,000 and lies in an area of active tectonism. Well documented evidence exists of geologically recent volcanism and fault related seismicity. The urban area is located within a volcanic field that is considered active and the area is also the locus of numerous fault systems, some of whose members are considered to be potentially active. This suggestion of active faulting and seismicity for the area is supported by the recent 1993 Mw 5.3 Cataract Creek earthquake. Chief concern for Flagstaff is focused upon the Anderson Mesa fault which has a mapped surface length of 40 kilometers with the north end extending into the city limits of Flagstaff. A worse case scenario for rupture along the entire length of the fault would be the occurrence of an Mw 6.9 earthquake. The slip rate for this fault is low, however it is not well determined due to a lack of Neogene or Quaternary deposits. The historic record of seismicity adjacent to the surface expression of the Anderson Mesa fault includes two well recorded earthquake swarms (1979,2011) as well as other individual events over this time period all of which are of M< 4.0. The epicentral locations of these events are of interest with respect to the fault geometry which shows four prominent segments: North, Central, South, Ashurst. All of the historic events are located within the central segment. This distribution can be compared to evidence available for the orientation of regional stresses. The focal mechanism for the 1993 Mw 5.3 Cataract Creek earthquake shows a northwest striking preferred slip surface with a trend (300) parallel to that of the Central segment of the Anderson Mesa fault (300-305). The other three fault segments of the Anderson Mesa fault have north-south trends. The seismicity of the Central segment of the fault suggests that slip on this segment may occur in the future. Given the length of this segment a MCE event could be as large as Mw 6.3.

  13. Measuring the Pattern of High Temperature Areas in Urban Greenery of Nanjing City, China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Weizhong; Yang, Guishan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Yinbao

    2012-01-01

    Most studies are concerned with the cooling effect of urban greenery, but some have also revealed that some patches changed from normal temperature areas (NTAs) into high temperature areas (HTAs). Landsat TM images and ArcGIS software are used to analyze the HTA patterns in Nanjing, China. The HTAs’ lower limit temperature was defined as the 30.26 °C and the percentage of the HTAs in all greenery was 24.87%. The disturbance on the cooling effect existed but not evidently. The average impervious ratio (IR) and surface temperature (ST) of HTAs, respectively, were 3.76 times and higher 2.86 °C than those of NTAs. The structure of NTAs’ IR levels was extremely uneven but the HTAs’ were relatively even. However, the co-coefficient between the IR and ST in the whole greenery was small. Sampling analysis with the same ST and IR revealed that the complex environment in green buffer affected temperature differences; The adjacent HTAs, with its 89.78% in the study area, largely along the green patch, were far more than independent HTAs and presented a ring shape. Thus, the significantly heterogeneous urban environment inevitably resulted in diverse factors forming HTAs. PMID:23066406

  14. Application of frequency-domain helicopter-borne electromagnetics for groundwater exploration in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemon, Bernhard; Steuer, Annika; Ullmann, Angelika; Vasterling, Margarete; Voß, Wolfgang

    Airborne geophysical methods have been used successfully in groundwater exploration over the last decades. Particularly airborne electromagnetics is appropriate for large-scale and efficient groundwater surveying. Due to the dependency of the electrical conductivity on both the clay content of the host material and the mineralisation of the water, airborne electromagnetics is suitable for providing information on groundwater resources, water quality, aquifer conditions and protection levels. Frequency-domain helicopter-borne electromagnetic systems are used to investigate near-surface groundwater occurrences in detail even in rough terrain and populated areas. In order to reveal the subsurface conductivity distribution, the quantities measured, the secondary magnetic fields, are generally inverted into resistivity-depth models. Due to the skin-effect the penetration depths of the electromagnetic fields depend on the system characteristics used: high-frequency data describe the shallower parts of the conducting subsurface and the low-frequency data the deeper parts. Typical maximum investigation depths range from some ten metres (highly conductive saltwater saturated sediments) to several hundred metres (resistive hard rocks). In urban areas there are a number of man-made sources affecting the electromagnetic measurements. These effects on the secondary field values are discussed on the basis of synthetic data as well as uncorrected and corrected field data. The case histories of different hydrogeological setups in Indonesia, The Netherlands and Germany demonstrate that airborne electromagnetics can be applied to groundwater exploration purposes even in urban areas.

  15. How Teaching in the Urban Setting Affects Career Motivations of Beginning Teachers: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagano, Alicia; Weiner, Lois; Rand, Muriel K.

    This study explores how two years of teaching affected the motivation of graduates of the teacher preparation program at Jersey City State College who had been teaching in urban schools. These 21 teachers (12 elementary, 9 secondary, 7 early childhood) had taken part in an earlier study which examined their career motivations during student…

  16. Affective Self-Regulation Trajectories during Secondary School Predict Substance Use among Urban Minority Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multiethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived…

  17. Factors Affecting the Happiness of Urban Elementary School Students: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenney, Jodiann K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this transformative mixed methods study was to examine the school happiness of upper elementary students in three Connecticut urban demonstration schools. The study examined the differences in students' happiness based on ethnicity, gender, and their interaction. It also investigated the factors that affect students' happiness in…

  18. Dogs in the Hall: A Case Study of Affective Skill Development in an Urban Veterinary Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael; Tummons, John; Ball, Anna; Bird, William

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this bounded single case study was to explore how an urban high school veterinary program impacted students' affective skill development. The program was unique because students were required to participate in internships with local animal care businesses and care for animals within the school veterinary laboratory. The…

  19. Affective Teaching for Data Driven Learning: How Can Strengths-Based Training Support Urban Teacher Efficacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos, Teri

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine urban teachers' identified strengths in varied cognitive, affective, and psychological capacities, and their impact on self-efficacy and teacher practices. Clifton and Anderson in the Gallup Organization's Strengths Quest (2004) presented compelling evidence suggesting a mind-set of "what's right with me"…

  20. Phenotypic shifts in urban areas in the tropical lizard Anolis cristatellus.

    PubMed

    Winchell, Kristin M; Reynolds, R Graham; Prado-Irwin, Sofia R; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J

    2016-05-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly important dimension of global change, and urban areas likely impose significant natural selection on the species that reside within them. Although many species of plants and animals can survive in urban areas, so far relatively little research has investigated whether such populations have adapted (in an evolutionary sense) to their newfound milieu. Even less of this work has taken place in tropical regions, many of which have experienced dramatic growth and intensification of urbanization in recent decades. In the present study, we focus on the neotropical lizard, Anolis cristatellus. We tested whether lizard ecology and morphology differ between urban and natural areas in three of the most populous municipalities on the island of Puerto Rico. We found that environmental conditions including temperature, humidity, and substrate availability differ dramatically between neighboring urban and natural areas. We also found that lizards in urban areas use artificial substrates a large proportion of the time, and that these substrates tend to be broader than substrates in natural forest. Finally, our morphological data showed that lizards in urban areas have longer limbs relative to their body size, as well as more subdigital scales called lamellae, when compared to lizards from nearby forested habitats. This shift in phenotype is exactly in the direction predicted based on habitat differences between our urban and natural study sites, combined with our results on how substrates are being used by lizards in these areas. Findings from a common-garden rearing experiment using individuals from one of our three pairs of populations provide evidence that trait differences between urban and natural sites may be genetically based. Taken together, our data suggest that anoles in urban areas are under significant differential natural selection and may be evolutionarily adapting to their human-modified environments. PMID:27074746

  1. Promoting community based approaches to social infrastructure provision in urban areas in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Uduku, N O

    1994-10-01

    Inadequate social infrastructure provision--in terms of education, health care facilities, and water and sanitation--has become a critical issue in Nigeria's urban areas. The decline of the Nigerian economy and the introduction of economic structural adjustment have curtailed drastically government spending on these services. Recommended is a return to the regional community-based approaches that prevailed in earlier periods. In precolonial Nigeria, the community help ethic ensured that all societies had adequate social infrastructure. With colonization and the emergence of an urban cash economy, the government took control of service provision in urban areas; in rural areas, neglected by government, self-help efforts continued to flourish. The trend in recent decades has been toward the privatization of urban services, deregulation, and growing inequities between affluent urban dwellers and the urban and rural poor. The recommended localization strategy would involve the creation of regional bodies to provide public utilities and regulate social infrastructure provision. Responsibility for the organization and provision of these services would rest with democratically elected community associations in rural areas and municipal councils in urban areas. The needs of poor communities could be funded by cross-subsidizing utility costs among affluent communities. Such a strategy, although unlikely to be supported by government and urban elites, would revitalize the community responsibility ethos that was lost in the urbanization process. PMID:12289002

  2. A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yuyu; Smith, Steven J.; Elvidge, Christopher; Zhao, Kaiguang; Thomson, Allison M.; Imhoff, Marc L.

    2014-05-05

    Accurate information of urban areas at regional and global scales is important for both the science and policy-making communities. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime stable light data (NTL) provide a potential way to map urban area and its dynamics economically and timely. In this study, we developed a cluster-based method to estimate the optimal thresholds and map urban extents from the DMSP/OLS NTL data in five major steps, including data preprocessing, urban cluster segmentation, logistic model development, threshold estimation, and urban extent delineation. Different from previous fixed threshold method with over- and under-estimation issues, in our method the optimal thresholds are estimated based on cluster size and overall nightlight magnitude in the cluster, and they vary with clusters. Two large countries of United States and China with different urbanization patterns were selected to map urban extents using the proposed method. The result indicates that the urbanized area occupies about 2% of total land area in the US ranging from lower than 0.5% to higher than 10% at the state level, and less than 1% in China, ranging from lower than 0.1% to about 5% at the province level with some municipalities as high as 10%. The derived thresholds and urban extents were evaluated using high-resolution land cover data at the cluster and regional levels. It was found that our method can map urban area in both countries efficiently and accurately. Compared to previous threshold techniques, our method reduces the over- and under-estimation issues, when mapping urban extent over a large area. More important, our method shows its potential to map global urban extents and temporal dynamics using the DMSP/OLS NTL data in a timely, cost-effective way.

  3. Groundwater flow and hydrochemistry in mountain areas affected by DSGSDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Pena Reyes, Fredy; Riva, Federico

    2014-05-01

    Large slope instabilities such as DSGSD and rockslides locally affect the groundwater flow at the slope scale. These phenomena present morphostructures (scarps, counterscarps and trenches) parallel to the slope direction that control the surface water runoff, directing it transversal to the slope dip and favouring its percolation within the slope through the more conductive materials aligned with the trench . This also affects the slope hydrochemistry, locally controlling the solute transport and circulation. The upper Valtellina (Central European Alps, Northern Italy) is characterize by a high density of DSGSD phenomena, with 29 DSGSDs within an area of about 900 km2 (Crosta et al, 2013). The study area ranges from 1150 to 3500 m in altitude, and shows a clear glacial imprint, which significantly influenced the geomorphology and water distribution in the study area. In order to characterize the groundwater flow and the hydrochemistry of the area, we collected historical data analysis (4070 samples from springs, wells, lakes, rivers and public fountains), and we performed four seasonal campaigns, from summer 2012 to spring 2013, to complete a hydrologic year. During these campaigns, we measured the spring discharge, and we collected samples for chemical (anions and cations) and isotopic (tritium, deuterium and O18) analyses in more almost 40 selected spring located throughout the study area. These springs were selected because representative of main spring clusters, with a particular attention to problems related to the presence of Arsenic in high concentration. In this study, we analyze the effect of DSGSD phenomena on the aquifers of upper Valtellina through the quantitative analysis of hydro-chemical and isotopic data. We show how these phenomena affect the ground water flow also in relation to the presence of geological structures that are associated and locally reactivated by DSGSDs.

  4. Contribution of area sources to hazardous air pollutant emissions in three urban areas. Report for November 1992-October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.W.; Campbell, D.L.

    1995-04-01

    The paper discusses the contribution of area sources to hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions in three urban areas--Baltimore, Chicago, and Seattle-Tacoma (Puget Sound). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has implemented the Urban Area Source Program (UASP) required until Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The HAPs emitted in the greatest quantities in these area source inventories are from degreasing and dry cleaning. Another important source category is fossil fuel combustion. The best approach to use in developing a HAP area source emissions inventory may be to combine the top-down method with local surveys of small manufacturing facilities and service industies.

  5. Microbial evaluation of sandboxes located in urban area.

    PubMed

    Gotkowska-Płachta, Anna; Korzeniewska, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the degree of bacteriological pollution of sandboxes situated in fenced and unfenced housing estates located in an urban area in Olsztyn, Poland. Heterotrophic plate counts (HPC22, HPC37), Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Clostridium perfringens determined by cultivation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods were used as indicators of the sanitary state. Their maximum number in the sand samples reached values of up to 5.4×10(7), 2.6×10(6), 3.3×10(4), 2.1×10(3), 1.8×10(4), 1.9×10(1) and 1.2×10(4)CFU/g, respectively. It was found that values of culture-independent method were two-four orders greater than those obtained by the cultivation method. Among identified Enterobacteriaceae, Pantoea spp. and Enterobacter cloacae were the most numerous, whereas Escherichia cells were detected only occasionally. Pathogenic bacteria of the genus Salmonella sp. were isolated from sandboxes also when E. coli were absent. Bacteria from Staphylococcus genus were isolated irrespective of the site and time of sampling. Additionally, the presence of molds and yeasts was studied. Maximum counts of these microorganisms amounted to 1.0×10(5) and to 3.5×10(4)CFU/g. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria and Trichoderma genera were most numerous among molds, whereas Trichosporon was detected most frequently among yeasts. Sandboxes in the fenced housing estate and those located in the area which is not close to trees were less polluted than the sand collected from sandboxes in the unfenced housing estate. Potentially pathogenic bacteria of the genus Salmonella spp. were identified in analyzed sandboxes, also when Toxocara and E. coli were absent. It seems that assessing the contamination of children's play areas basing only on fecal bacteria counts and by monitoring number of parasites' eggs may be insufficient to evaluate microbial pollution of sandboxes and may not fully

  6. Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Mattias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that global change has on urban areas in the United States and how the growth of urban areas will affect the environment. It presents the elements of our Synthesis and Assessment Report (SAP) report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

  7. Exploring the nitrous acid (HONO) formation mechanism in winter Beijing: direct emissions and heterogeneous production in urban and suburban areas.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shengrui; Hou, Siqi; Zhang, Ying; Chu, Biwu; Liu, Yongchun; He, Hong; Zhao, Pusheng; Ge, Maofa

    2016-07-18

    Continuous measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) were performed from December 12 to December 22, 2015 in both urban and suburban areas of Beijing to study the formation mechanism of HONO. The measurement campaign in both sites included a clean-haze-clean transformation process. HONO concentrations showed similar variations in the two sites, while they were always higher in the urban area. Moreover, correlations of HONO with NOx, NO2, NO, PM2.5 and relative humidity (RH) were studied to explore possible HONO formation pathways, and the contributions of direct emissions, heterogeneous reactions, and homogeneous reactions were also calculated. This showed that HONO in urban and suburban areas underwent totally different formation procedures, which were affected by meteorological conditions, PM2.5 concentrations, direct emissions, homogeneous reactions and heterogeneous reactions. PM2.5 concentrations and RH would influence the NO2 conversion efficiency. Heterogeneous reactions of NO2 were more efficient in suburban areas and in clean periods while direct emissions and homogeneous reactions contributed more in urban areas and in polluted periods when the concentrations of NOx and NO were at a high level. PMID:27081740

  8. Automatic mapping of urban areas from Landsat data using impervious surface fraction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, S. T.; Chen, C. F.; Chen, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization is a result of aggregation of people in urban areas that can help advance socioeconomic development and pull out people from the poverty line. However, if not monitored well, it can also lead to loss of farmlands, natural forests as well as to societal impacts including burgeoning growth of slums, pollution, and crime. Thus, spatiotemporal information that shapes the urbanization is thus critical to the process of urban planning. The overall objective of this study is to develop an impervious surface fraction algorithm (ISFA) for automatically mapping urban areas from Landsat data. We processed the data for 1986, 2001 and 2014 to trace the multi-decadal spatiotemporal change of Honduran capital city using a three-step procedure: (1) data pre-processing to perform image normalization as well as to produce the difference in the values (DVSS) between the simple ratio (SR) of green and shortwave bands and the soil adjust vegetation index (SAVI), (2) quantification of urban areas using ISFA, and (3) accuracy assessment of mapping results using the ground reference data constructed using land-cover maps and FORMOSAT-2 imagery. The mapping accuracy assessment was performed for 2001 and 2014 by comparing with the ground reference data indicated satisfactory results with the overall accuracies and Kappa coefficients generally higher than 90% and 0.8, respectively. When examining the urbanization between these years, it could be observed that the urban area was significantly expanded from 1986 to 2014, mainly driven by two factors of rapid population growth and socioeconomic development. This study eventually leads to a realization of the merit of using ISFA for multi-decadal monitoring of the urbanization of Honduran capital city from Landsat data. Results from this research can be used by urban planners as a general indicator to quantify urban change and environmental impacts. The methods were thus transferable to monitor urban growth in cities and their peri

  9. CADYRI, a dynamic mapping tool of human risk associated with flooding in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguy, M.; Chokmani, K.; Bernier, M.; Poulin, J.

    2013-12-01

    When a flood affects an urban area, the managers and services responsible for public safety need precise and real time information on the localization of the flooded areas, on the submersion heights in those areas, but also on the vulnerability of people exposed to this hazard. Such information is essential for an effective crisis management. Despite a growing interest in this topic over the last 15 years, the development of flood risk assessment tools mainly focused on quantitative modeling of the monetary damages caused by floods to residential buildings or to critical infrastructures. Little attention was paid to the vulnerability of people exposed to flooding but also to the effects of the failure or destruction of critical infrastructures and residential building on people health and security during the disaster. Moreover, these models do not integrate the dynamic features of the flood (extent, submersion heights) and the evolution of human vulnerability in the same mapping tool. Thus, an accurate and precise evaluation of human risk induced by urban flooding is hardly feasible using such models. This study presents CADYRI, a dynamic mapping tool of human risk associated with flooding in urban areas, which fills the actual needs in terms of flood risk evaluation and management. This innovative tool integrates a methodology of flood hazard mapping that simulates, for a given discharge, the associated water level, and subsequently determines the extent of the flooded area and the submersion heights at each point of the flooded area, using a DEM. The dynamics of human vulnerability is then mapped at the household level, according to the characteristics of the flood hazard. Three key components of human vulnerability have been identified and are integrated to CADYRI: 1, the intrinsic vulnerability of the population, estimated by specific socio-economic indicators; 2, the vulnerability of buildings, assessed by their structural features; 3, the vulnerability of

  10. Transport of traffic-related aerosols in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Wróbel, A; Rokita, E; Maenhaut, W

    2000-08-10

    This study was undertaken to assess the influence of traffic on particulate air pollution in an urban area, and to characterise the short-range transport of the aerosols generated by traffic. The study was conducted in Kraków, a city located in southern Poland with a population of approximately 800,000. Aerosol samples were collected using automatic sampling equipment at five sites located at different distances from the main road in Kraków, ranging from 5 to 1500 m. The sampling set-up allowed standardisation of the results due to continuous determination of the meteorological parameters (temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, rainfall and humidity). Aerosol particles were separated according to aerodynamic diameter into two size fractions: > 1.9 microm (coarse fraction); and 1.9-72 microm (fine fraction). The concentrations of 27 elements were measured in both size fractions (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, Pb). The multielement analyses were performed by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) spectrometry. Traffic contribution to particulate air pollution was determined on the basis of 13 elements which were present above the detection limit in all samples (Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb). It was found that the traffic contribution in the coarse size fraction was approximately 80% up to 150 m from the road; it dropped abruptly by a factor of 2 over a distance of 150-200 m and declined further to 20% at 1500 m from the road. Traffic contribution for the fine particle concentrations of individual elements was 50-70% in the close vicinity of the road (5 m); then there was a decrease, followed by an increase at a greater distance from the road. Possible explanations for this behaviour of the fine particles are given. PMID:10989929

  11. Assessment of environmental quality of Bucharest urban area by multisensor satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Zoran, Liviu Florin V.

    2004-10-01

    Urban environmental quality is an important part of efficient urban environment planning and management. A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic, dynamics processes, and climatic change effects. Synergetic use of quasi-simultaneously acquired multi-sensor data may therefore allow for a better approach of change detection and environmental impact classification and assessment in urban area. As is difficult to quantify the environmental impacts of human and industrial activities in urban areas , often many different indicators can conflict with each other. The spatial and temporal distribution of land cover is a fundamental dataset for urban ecological research. Based on Landsat TM, ETM, SPOT and SAR data for Bucharest metropolitan area in Romania, it was performed a land cover classification based on spectral signatures of different terrain features used to separate surface units of urban and sub-urban area . A complete set of criteria to evaluate and examine the urban environmental quality, including the air pollution condition indicators, water pollution indicators, solid waste treated indicators, noise pollution indicators, urban green space have been widely used .

  12. Seasonal and spatial variation of organic tracers for biomass burning in PM1 aerosols from highly insolated urban areas.

    PubMed

    van Drooge, B L; Fontal, M; Bravo, N; Fernández, P; Fernández, M A; Muñoz-Arnanz, J; Jiménez, B; Grimalt, J O

    2014-10-01

    PM1 aerosol characterization on organic tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan and its isomers and dehydroabietic acid) was conducted within the AERTRANS project. PM1 filters (N = 90) were sampled from 2010 to 2012 in busy streets in the urban centre of Madrid and Barcelona (Spain) at ground-level and at roof sites. In both urban areas, biomass burning was not expected to be an important local emission source, but regional emissions from wildfires, residential heating or biomass removal may influence the air quality in the cities. Although both areas are under influence of high solar radiation, Madrid is situated in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, while Barcelona is located at the Mediterranean Coast and under influence of marine atmospheres. Two extraction methods were applied, i.e. Soxhlet and ASE, which showed equivalent results after GC-MS analyses. The ambient air concentrations of the organic tracers for biomass burning increased by an order of magnitude at both sites during winter compared to summer. An exception was observed during a PM event in summer 2012, when the atmosphere in Barcelona was directly affected by regional wildfire smoke and levels were four times higher as those observed in winter. Overall, there was little variation between the street and roof sites in both cities, suggesting that regional biomass burning sources influence the urban areas after atmospheric transport. Despite the different atmospheric characteristics in terms of air relative humidity, Madrid and Barcelona exhibit very similar composition and concentrations of biomass burning organic tracers. Nevertheless, levoglucosan and its isomers seem to be more suitable for source apportionment purposes than dehydroabietic acid. In both urban areas, biomass burning contributions to PM were generally low (2 %) in summer, except on the day when wildfire smoke arrive to the urban area. In the colder periods the contribution increase to around 30 %, indicating that regional

  13. Robust human detection, tracking, and recognition in crowded urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present algorithms we recently developed to support an automated security surveillance system for very crowded urban areas. In our approach for human detection, the color features are obtained by taking the difference of R, G, B spectrum and converting R, G, B to HSV (Hue, Saturation, Value) space. Morphological patch filtering and regional minimum and maximum segmentation on the extracted features are applied for target detection. The human tracking process approach includes: 1) Color and intensity feature matching track candidate selection; 2) Separate three parallel trackers for color, bright (above mean intensity), and dim (below mean intensity) detections, respectively; 3) Adaptive track gate size selection for reducing false tracking probability; and 4) Forward position prediction based on previous moving speed and direction for continuing tracking even when detections are missed from frame to frame. The Human target recognition is improved with a Super-Resolution Image Enhancement (SRIE) process. This process can improve target resolution by 3-5 times and can simultaneously process many targets that are tracked. Our approach can project tracks from one camera to another camera with a different perspective viewing angle to obtain additional biometric features from different perspective angles, and to continue tracking the same person from the 2nd camera even though the person moved out of the Field of View (FOV) of the 1st camera with `Tracking Relay'. Finally, the multiple cameras at different view poses have been geo-rectified to nadir view plane and geo-registered with Google- Earth (or other GIS) to obtain accurate positions (latitude, longitude, and altitude) of the tracked human for pin-point targeting and for a large area total human motion activity top-view. Preliminary tests of our algorithms indicate than high probability of detection can be achieved for both moving and stationary humans. Our algorithms can simultaneously track

  14. Ultrafine particle concentrations in the surroundings of an urban area: comparing downwind to upwind conditions using Generalized Additive Models (GAMs).

    PubMed

    Sartini, Claudio; Zauli Sajani, Stefano; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Mari; Scotto, Fabiana; Trentini, Arianna; Ferrari, Silvia; Poluzzi, Vanes

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an urban area on ultrafine particle (UFP) concentration in nearby surrounding areas. We assessed how downwind and upwind conditions affect the UFP concentration at a site placed a few kilometres from the city border. Secondarily, we investigated the relationship among other meteorological factors, temporal variables and UFP. Data were collected for 44 days during 2008 and 2009 at a rural site placed about 3 kilometres from Bologna, in northern Italy. Measurements were performed using a spectrometer (FMPS TSI 3091). The average UFP number concentration was 11 776 (±7836) particles per cm(3). We analysed the effect of wind direction in a multivariate Generalized Additive Model (GAM) adjusted for the principal meteorological parameters and temporal trends. An increase of about 25% in UFP levels was observed when the site was downwind of the urban area, compared with the levels observed when wind blew from rural areas. The size distribution of particles was also affected by the wind direction, showing higher concentration of small size particles when the wind blew from the urban area. The GAM showed a good fit to the data (R(2) = 0.81). Model choice was via Akaike Information Criteria (AIC). The analysis also revealed that an approach based on meteorological data plus temporal trends improved the goodness of the fit of the model. In addition, the findings contribute to evidence on effects of exposure to ultrafine particles on a population living in city surroundings. PMID:24077061

  15. Generating Accurate Urban Area Maps from Nighttime Satellite (DMSP/OLS) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc; Lawrence, William; Elvidge, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest by the international research community to use the nighttime acquired "city-lights" data sets collected by the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan system to study issues relative to urbanization. Many researchers are interested in using these data to estimate human demographic parameters over large areas and then characterize the interactions between urban development , natural ecosystems, and other aspects of the human enterprise. Many of these attempts rely on an ability to accurately identify urbanized area. However, beyond the simple determination of the loci of human activity, using these data to generate accurate estimates of urbanized area can be problematic. Sensor blooming and registration error can cause large overestimates of urban land based on a simple measure of lit area from the raw data. We discuss these issues, show results of an attempt to do a historical urban growth model in Egypt, and then describe a few basic processing techniques that use geo-spatial analysis to threshold the DMSP data to accurately estimate urbanized areas. Algorithm results are shown for the United States and an application to use the data to estimate the impact of urban sprawl on sustainable agriculture in the US and China is described.

  16. Preliminary Assessment of Health Risks of Potentially Toxic Elements in Settled Dust over Beijing Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Dejun; Zhan, Changlin; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi; Yang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    To examine levels, health risks, sources, and spatial distributions of potentially toxic elements in settled dust over Beijing urban area, 62 samples were collected mostly from residential building outdoor surfaces, and their <63 μm fractions were measured for 12 potentially toxic elements. The results show that V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Ba in dust are from predominantly natural sources, whereas Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb mostly originate from anthropogenic sources. Exposure to these elements in dust has significant non-cancer risks to children but insignificant to adults. Cancer risks of Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Cd via inhalation and dermal contact are below the threshold of 10−6–10−4 but As via dust ingestion shows a tolerable risk. The non-cancer risks to children are contributed mainly (75%) by As, Pb, and Sb, and dominantly (92%) via dust ingestion, with relatively higher risks mainly occurring in the eastern and northeastern Beijing urban areas. Although Cd, Zn, and Cu in dust are heavily affected by anthropogenic sources, their health risks are insignificant. Source appointments suggest that coal burning emissions, the dominant source of As, are likely the largest contributors to the health risk, and traffic-related and industrial emissions are also important because they contribute most of the Pb and Sb in dust. PMID:27187427

  17. Land use and soil contamination with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Huan; Qin, Hongyu; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-10-15

    Because soil contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts is increasingly recognized as a major source of infection for humans, in this study, we investigated the spatial pattern of soil contamination with T. gondii oocysts in urban area of northeastern Mainland China. From April 2014 to May 2015, more than 9000 soil samples were collected. Detection of T. gondii oocysts was performed applying real-time quantitative PCR. Sensitivity was improved by analyzing four replicates for each sampling point. T. gondii was detected in 30.3% of all samples. Subsequently, a maximum entropy model was used to evaluate the effect of land use and intrinsic soil properties on the risk of contamination with oocysts. Jackknife analysis revealed that the likelihood for positive results is significantly enhanced in soil originating from foci of human habitation, wood land and grass land. Furthermore, soil temperature and humidity significantly influence the probability of contamination with T. gondii oocysts. Our findings indicate that land use may affect distribution of T. gondii oocysts in urban areas. PMID:27373378

  18. Preliminary Assessment of Health Risks of Potentially Toxic Elements in Settled Dust over Beijing Urban Area.

    PubMed

    Wan, Dejun; Zhan, Changlin; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi; Yang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    To examine levels, health risks, sources, and spatial distributions of potentially toxic elements in settled dust over Beijing urban area, 62 samples were collected mostly from residential building outdoor surfaces, and their <63 μm fractions were measured for 12 potentially toxic elements. The results show that V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Ba in dust are from predominantly natural sources, whereas Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb mostly originate from anthropogenic sources. Exposure to these elements in dust has significant non-cancer risks to children but insignificant to adults. Cancer risks of Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Cd via inhalation and dermal contact are below the threshold of 10(-6)-10(-4) but As via dust ingestion shows a tolerable risk. The non-cancer risks to children are contributed mainly (75%) by As, Pb, and Sb, and dominantly (92%) via dust ingestion, with relatively higher risks mainly occurring in the eastern and northeastern Beijing urban areas. Although Cd, Zn, and Cu in dust are heavily affected by anthropogenic sources, their health risks are insignificant. Source appointments suggest that coal burning emissions, the dominant source of As, are likely the largest contributors to the health risk, and traffic-related and industrial emissions are also important because they contribute most of the Pb and Sb in dust. PMID:27187427

  19. Assessing the hydrologic restoration of an urbanized area via integrated distributed hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, D. H.; Chui, T. F. M.

    2013-04-01

    Green structures (e.g. green roof and bio-retention systems) are adopted to mitigate the hydrological impacts of urbanization. However, our current understanding of the urbanization impacts are often process-specific (e.g. peak flow or storm recession), and our characterizations of green structures are often on a local scale. This study uses an integrated distributed hydrological model, Mike SHE, to evaluate the urbanization impacts on both overall water balance and water regime, and also the effectiveness of green structures at a catchment level. Three simulations are carried out for a highly urbanized catchment in the tropics, representing pre-urbanized, urbanized and restored conditions. Urbanization transforms vegetated areas into impervious surfaces, resulting in 20 and 66% reductions in infiltration and base flow respectively, and 60 to 100% increase in peak outlet discharge. Green roofs delay the peak outlet discharge by 2 h and reduce the magnitude by 50%. Bio-retention systems mitigate the peak discharge by 50% and also enhance infiltration by 30%. The combination of green roofs and bio-retention systems even reduces the peak discharge to the pre-urbanized level. The simulation results obtained are independent of field data, enabling a generic model for understanding hydrological changes during the different phases of urbanization. This will benefit catchment level planning of green structures in other urban areas.

  20. Assessing the hydrologic restoration of an urbanized area via an integrated distributed hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, D. H.; Chui, T. F. M.

    2013-12-01

    Green structures (e.g. green roof and bio-retention systems) are adopted to mitigate the hydrological impacts of urbanization. However, our current understanding of urbanization impacts are often process-specific (e.g. peak flow or storm recession), and our characterizations of green structures are often on a local scale. This study uses an integrated distributed hydrological model, Mike SHE, to evaluate the urbanization impacts on both overall water balance and water regime, and also the effectiveness of green structures at a catchment level. Three simulations are carried out for a highly urbanized catchment in the tropics, representing pre-urbanized, urbanized and restored conditions. Urbanization transforms vegetated areas into impervious surfaces, resulting in 20 and 66% reductions in infiltration and base flow respectively, and 60 to 100% increase in peak outlet discharge. Green roofs delay the peak outlet discharge by 2 h and reduce the magnitude by 50%. Bio-retention systems mitigate the peak discharge by 50% and also enhance infiltration by 30%. The combination of green roofs and bio-retention systems even reduces the peak discharge to the pre-urbanized level. The simulation results obtained are independent of field data, enabling a generic model for understanding hydrological changes during the different phases of urbanization. This will benefit catchment-level planning of green structures in other urban areas.

  1. Unsupervised polarimetric SAR urban area classification based on model-based decomposition with cross scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Deliang; Tang, Tao; Ban, Yifang; Su, Yi; Kuang, Gangyao

    2016-06-01

    Since it has been validated that cross-polarized scattering (HV) is caused not only by vegetation but also by rotated dihedrals, in this study, we use rotated dihedral corner reflectors to form a cross scattering matrix and propose an extended four-component model-based decomposition method for PolSAR data over urban areas. Unlike other urban area decomposition techniques which need to discriminate the urban and natural areas before decomposition, this proposed method is applied on PolSAR image directly. The building orientation angle is considered in this scattering matrix, making it flexible and adaptive in the decomposition. Therefore, we can separate cross scattering of urban areas from the overall HV component. Further, the cross and helix scattering components are also compared. Then, using these decomposed scattering powers, the buildings and natural areas can be easily discriminated from each other using a simple unsupervised K-means classifier. Moreover, buildings aligned and not aligned along the radar flight direction can be also distinguished clearly. Spaceborne RADARSAT-2 and airborne AIRSAR full polarimetric SAR data are used to validate the performance of our proposed method. The cross scattering power of oriented buildings is generated, leading to a better decomposition result for urban areas with respect to other state-of-the-art urban decomposition techniques. The decomposed scattering powers significantly improve the classification accuracy for urban areas.

  2. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas. PMID:26690056

  3. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas. PMID:26690056

  4. Where is the UK's pollinator biodiversity? The importance of urban areas for flower-visiting insects

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, Katherine C. R.; Goddard, Mark A.; Hicks, Damien M.; Kunin, William E.; Mitschunas, Nadine; Osgathorpe, Lynne M.; Potts, Simon G.; Robertson, Kirsty M.; Scott, Anna V.; Stone, Graham N.; Vaughan, Ian P.; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Insect pollinators provide a crucial ecosystem service, but are under threat. Urban areas could be important for pollinators, though their value relative to other habitats is poorly known. We compared pollinator communities using quantified flower-visitation networks in 36 sites (each 1 km2) in three landscapes: urban, farmland and nature reserves. Overall, flower-visitor abundance and species richness did not differ significantly between the three landscape types. Bee abundance did not differ between landscapes, but bee species richness was higher in urban areas than farmland. Hoverfly abundance was higher in farmland and nature reserves than urban sites, but species richness did not differ significantly. While urban pollinator assemblages were more homogeneous across space than those in farmland or nature reserves, there was no significant difference in the numbers of rarer species between the three landscapes. Network-level specialization was higher in farmland than urban sites. Relative to other habitats, urban visitors foraged from a greater number of plant species (higher generality) but also visited a lower proportion of available plant species (higher specialization), both possibly driven by higher urban plant richness. Urban areas are growing, and improving their value for pollinators should be part of any national strategy to conserve and restore pollinators. PMID:25673686

  5. Reduction on NOx emissions on urban areas by changing specific vehicle fleets: effects on NO2 and O3 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, M.; Jimenez, P.; Baldasano, J.

    2007-12-01

    The largest amount of NOx emissions in urban areas comes from on-road traffic, which is the largest contributor to urban air pollution (Colvile et al., 2001). Currently different strategies are being tested in order to reduce its effects; many of them oriented to the reduction of the unitary vehicles emissions, by alternative fuels use (such as biofuels, natural gas or hydrogen) or introduction of new technologies (such as hybrid electric vehicles or fuel cells). Atmospheric modelling permits to predict their consequences on tropospheric chemistry (Vautard et al., 2007). Hence, this work assesses the changes on NO2 and O3 concentrations when substituting a 10 per cent of the urban private cars fleets by petrol hybrid electric cars (HEC) or by natural gas cars (NGC) in Madrid and Barcelona urban areas (Spain). These two cities are selected in order to highlight the different patterns of pollutants transport (inland vs. coastal city) and the different responses to emissions reductions. The results focus on a typical summertime episode of air pollution, by means of the Eulerian air quality model ARW- WRF/HERMES/CMAQ, applied with high resolution (1-hr, 1km2) since of the complexity of both areas under study. The detailed emissions scenarios are implemented in the HERMES traffic emissions module, based on the Copert III-EEA/EMEP-CORINAIR (Nztiachristos and Samaras, 2000) methodology. The HEC introduction reduces NOx emissions from on-road traffic in a 10.8 per cent and 8.2 per cent; and the NGC introduction in a 10.3 per cent and 7.8 per cent, for Madrid and Barcelona areas, respectively. The scenarios also affect the NMVOCs reduction (ranging from -3.1 to -6.9 per cent), influencing the tropospheric photochemistry through the NOx/NMVOCs ratio. The abatement of the NO photooxidation but also to the reduction on primary NO2 involves a decrease on NO2 levels centred on urban areas. For example, the NO2 24-hr average concentration in downtown areas reduces up to 8 per

  6. Assessing surface water quality and its relation with urban land cover changes in the Lake Calumet area, Greater Chicago.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Cyril; Weng, Qihao

    2010-05-01

    Urban land use and land cover change significantly affect spatial and temporal patterns of runoff, which in turn impacts surface water quality. With the exponential growth in urban areas over the past three decades, changes in land use and land cover to cater for the growth of cities has been a conspicuous spectacle in urban spaces. The main goal of this study was to assess the impacts of land cover change on runoff and surface water quality using a partial area hydrology framework. The study employed ArcHydro GIS extension and a modified version of Long-Term Hydrologic and Nonpoint Source Pollution model (L-THIA-NPS) in estimating runoff and nonpoint source pollutant concentration around Lake Calumet between 1992 and 2001. Data employed include National Land Cover Data set, rainfall data, digital elevation model (DEM), Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) data, and The United States Environmental Protection Agency's STORET (storage and retrieval) water quality data. The model was able to predict surface water quality reasonably well over the study period. Sensitivity analysis facilitated a manual calibration of the model. Model validation was executed by comparing simulated results following calibration and observed water quality data for the study area. The study demonstrates that the level of concentration of nonpoint source pollutants in surface water within an urban watershed heavily depends on the spatiotemporal variations in areas that contribute towards runoff compared to the spatial extent of change in major land use/land cover. PMID:20364379

  7. Assessing Surface Water Quality and Its Relation with Urban Land Cover Changes in the Lake Calumet Area, Greater Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Cyril; Weng, Qihao

    2010-05-01

    Urban land use and land cover change significantly affect spatial and temporal patterns of runoff, which in turn impacts surface water quality. With the exponential growth in urban areas over the past three decades, changes in land use and land cover to cater for the growth of cities has been a conspicuous spectacle in urban spaces. The main goal of this study was to assess the impacts of land cover change on runoff and surface water quality using a partial area hydrology framework. The study employed ArcHydro GIS extension and a modified version of Long-Term Hydrologic and Nonpoint Source Pollution model (L-THIA-NPS) in estimating runoff and nonpoint source pollutant concentration around Lake Calumet between 1992 and 2001. Data employed include National Land Cover Data set, rainfall data, digital elevation model (DEM), Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) data, and The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s STORET (storage and retrieval) water quality data. The model was able to predict surface water quality reasonably well over the study period. Sensitivity analysis facilitated a manual calibration of the model. Model validation was executed by comparing simulated results following calibration and observed water quality data for the study area. The study demonstrates that the level of concentration of nonpoint source pollutants in surface water within an urban watershed heavily depends on the spatiotemporal variations in areas that contribute towards runoff compared to the spatial extent of change in major land use/land cover.

  8. Geophysical Exploration and Visualization of subsurface voids in urban Karst areas using the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabon, J. P.; Rodriguez, H. R.; Asencio, E.

    2006-12-01

    Geo-electrical geophysical techniques have been widely used to study Karst sinkholes in Puerto Rico, but these techniques are seriously affected by cultural noise in urban areas. There is an urgent need to assess different geophysical techniques that could be used in urban and developed regions to address problems related to geologic and engineering hazards in tropical regions. This investigation addresses the use of the Multi-channel Analysis of Surface waves (MASW) technique to study areas of limestone dissolution in urban areas covered with asphalt and concrete and shows to be a good assessment tool in areas with known/or suspected dissolution. We studied three sites with known subsurface dissolution with the MASW technique. At two sites we were able to correlate our results with soil boring information. One of the urban sites was a basketball court. The basketball court is a concrete slab constructed over the North Coast Karst Terrain of Puerto Rico. The concrete slab shows concentric cracks and the center of the slab has subsided about 2 inches with respect of the edges of the court. Our results show a bowl-shaped low velocity zone (<200m/sec) beneath the basketball court that we have interpreted as the zone of dissolution. Subsurface voids were identified at the other two sites and contrasted with soil borings.

  9. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Fotso, Jean-Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. Methods The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number of countries, their geographical spread across Western/Central and Eastern/Southern Africa, and their socioeconomic diversities, constitute a good yardstick for the region and allow us to draw some generalizations. A household wealth index is constructed in each country and area (urban, rural), and the odds ratio between its uppermost and lowermost category, derived from multilevel logistic models, is used as a measure of socioeconomic inequalities. Control variables include mother's and father's education, community socioeconomic status (SES) designed to represent the broad socio-economic ecology of the neighborhoods in which families live, and relevant mother- and child-level covariates. Results Across countries in SSA, though socioeconomic inequalities in stunting do exist in both urban and rural areas, they are significantly larger in urban areas. Intra-urban differences in child malnutrition are larger than overall urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition, and there seem to be no visible relationships between within-urban inequities in child health on the one hand, and urban population growth, urban malnutrition, or overall rural-urban differentials in malnutrition, on the other. Finally, maternal and father's education, community SES and other measurable covariates at the mother and child levels only explain a slight part of the within-urban differences in child malnutrition. Conclusion The urban advantage in health masks enormous disparities between the poor and the non

  10. Results of the round table "Impact of natural and man-made hazards on urban areas"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru-Dan, Maria; Olga Gociman, Cristina; Hostiuc, Constantin; Mihaila, Marina; Gheorghe (Popovici), Diana Alexandra; Anghelache, Mirela Adriana; Dutu, Andreea; Tascu-Stavre, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    On Thursday the 6th of November a round table was organised at the Centre of Architectural and Urban Studies of the "Ion Mincu" University of Architecture and Urban Planning on the topic of this session. It included a review of the previous editions, and an outlook to the edition this year. We shared publications, and a publication is in work from the round table itself. The series of round tables at the Centre of Architectural and Urban Studies is an innitiative of Constantin Hostiuc, the secretary general of the centre. This round table was organised by Maria Bostenaru Dan, and moderated by Cristina Olga Gociman, who currently runs a project on a related topic. From the various ways to approach the effects of hazards, up to the disatrous ones, on urban areas, we consider the most suitable the approach to the impact. From the point of view of natural sciences and of the engineering ones this was approached a number of times, and newly social sciences are included as well. The role of planning and design for a better prevention, and even post-disaster intervention is ignored many times though. The goal of the round table was to bring together multidisciplinary approaches (architecture, urban planning, seismology, geography, structural engineering, ecology, communication sciences, art history) on a problem set from this point of view. Discussed topics were: 1. Assessment and mapping methods of the impact of natural hazards on urban areas (preventive, postdisaster) 2. Visualisation and communication techniques of the assessed impact, including GIS, internet, 3D 3. Strategies for the reduction of the impact of natural hazards on urban areas 4. Suitable methods of urban design for the mitigation of the effects of disasters in multihazard case 5. Partnership models among the involved actors in the decision process for disaster mitigaton 6. Urban planning instruments for risc management strategies (ex. master plan) 7. Lessons learned from the relationship between hazard

  11. Area-averaged profiles over the mock urban setting test array

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, M. A.; Brown, M. J.; Pardyjak, E. R.; Klewicki, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    Urban areas have a large effect on the local climate and meteorology. Efforts have been made to incorporate the bulk dynamic and thermodynamic effects of urban areas into mesoscale models (e.g., Chin et al., 2000; Holt et al., 2002; Lacser and Otte, 2002). At this scale buildings cannot be resolved individually, but parameterizations have been developed to capture their aggregate effect. These urban canopy parameterizations have been designed to account for the area-average drag, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production, and surface energy balance modifications due to buildings (e.g., Sorbjan and Uliasz, 1982; Ca, 1999; Brown, 2000; Martilli et al., 2002). These models compute an area-averaged mean profile that is representative of the bulk flow characteristics over the entire mesoscale grid cell. One difficulty has been testing of these parameterizations due to lack of area-averaged data. In this paper, area-averaged velocity and turbulent kinetic energy profiles are derived from data collected at the Mock Urban Setting Test (MUST). The MUST experiment was designed to be a near full-scale model of an idealized urban area imbedded in the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL). It's purpose was to study airflow and plume transport in urban areas and to provide a test case for model validation. A large number of velocity measurements were taken at the test site so that it was possible to derive area-averaged velocity and TKE profiles.

  12. Impact of human activity and natural processes on groundwater arsenic in an urbanized area (South China) using multivariate statistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guanxing; Chen, Zongyu; Liu, Fan; Sun, Jichao; Wang, Jincui

    2014-11-01

    Anthropogenic factors resulted from the urbanization may affect the groundwater As in urbanized areas. Groundwater samples from the Guangzhou city (South China) were collected for As and other parameter analysis, in order to assess the impact of urbanization and natural processes on As distribution in aquifers. Nearly 25.5 % of groundwater samples were above the WHO drinking water standard for As, and the As concentrations in the granular aquifer (GA) were generally far higher than that in the fractured bedrock aquifer (FBA). Samples were classified into four clusters by using hierarchical cluster analysis. Cluster 1 is mainly located in the FBA and controlled by natural processes. Anthropogenic pollution resulted from the urbanization is responsible for high As concentrations identified in cluster 2. Clusters 3 and 4 are mainly located in the GA and controlled by both natural processes and anthropogenic factors. Three main mechanisms control the source and mobilization of groundwater As in the study area. Firstly, the interaction of water and calcareous rocks appears to be responsible for As release in the FBA. Secondly, reduction of Fe/Mn oxyhydroxides and decomposition of organic matter are probably responsible for high As concentrations in the GA. Thirdly, during the process of urbanization, the infiltration of wastewater/leachate with a high As content is likely to be the main source for groundwater As, while NO3 (-) contamination diminishes groundwater As. PMID:24996949

  13. Urban area delineation and detection of change along the urban-rural boundary as derived from LANDSAT digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, J. W.; Lachowski, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    LANDSAT digital multispectral scanner data, in conjunction with supporting ground truth, were investigated to determine their utility in delineation of urban-rural boundaries. The digital data for the metropolitan areas of Washington, D. C.; Austin, Texas; and Seattle, Washingtion; were processed using an interactive image processing system. Processing focused on identification of major land cover types typical of the zone of transition from urban to rural landscape, and definition of their spectral signatures. Census tract boundaries were input into the interactive image processing system along with the LANDSAT single and overlayed multiple date MSS data. Results of this investigation indicate that satellite collected information has a practical application to the problem of urban area delineation and to change detection.

  14. Indicators of airborne fungal concentrations in urban homes: understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Judith A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Anagnost, Susan E; Hunt, Andrew; Abraham, Jerrold L

    2015-06-01

    Indoor fungal exposure can compromise respiratory health. Low-income urban areas are of concern because of high asthma and allergy rates and housing disrepair. Understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures is important for assessing health risks and for developing mitigation strategies. We examined the types and concentrations of airborne fungi inside and outside of homes in low-income areas of Syracuse, NY as well as the effect of snow cover on fungal levels. At 103 homes, air samples for viable fungi were collected, occupants were interviewed and homes were inspected for visible mold, musty odors, water problems and other factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to relate high fungal levels to home conditions. Predominant indoor fungi included Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and hyaline unknowns. Basidiomycetes and an uncommon genus Acrodontium were also found frequently due to analysis methods developed for this project. With snow cover, outdoor total fungal levels were depressed and indoor concentrations were three times higher than outdoor on average with a maximum of 29 times higher. Visible mold was related to elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 4.11 95% CI 1.37-14.0) and bacteria (OR 3.79 95% CI 1.41-11.2). Musty, moldy odors were associated with elevated concentrations of total fungi (OR 3.48 95% CI 1.13-11.6) and basidiomycetes. Cockroaches, an indicator of moisture, were associated with elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 3.66 95% CI 1.16-13.1) and Aspergillus (OR 4.36 95% CI 1.60-13.4). Increasing relative humidity was associated with higher concentrations of Penicillium, yeasts and basidiomycetes. Visible mold, musty odors, indoor humidity and cockroaches are modifiable factors that were important determinants of indoor fungal exposures. Indoor air investigators should interpret indoor:outdoor fungal ratios cautiously when snow cover is present. PMID:25725196

  15. Influence of climate variability and urban areas on the flood events in Bari (Apulia, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHEs) can be defined as the occurrence of one or more simultaneous phenomena, such as droughts, windstorms, heat waves, landslides, floods and secondary floods (i.e. rapid accumulation or pounding of surface water with very low flow velocity), causing damages. They represent a serious problem, especially in DHE-prone areas with growing urbanization, where the infiltration capability is limited by buildings and where the vulnerability is higher than other areas. The paper proposes a methodology, based on both historical and time series approaches, used for describing the influence of climatic variability and urban development on the number of phenomena observed. The historical approach is finalised to collect phenomenon historical data, very important for the comprehension of the evolution of a study area. Phenomenon historical data is useful for expanding the historical period of investigation in order to assess the occurrence trend of DHEs. The historical analysis of DHEs can support decision making and land-use planning, ultimately reducing natural risks. The time series approach includes the collection and the statistical analysis of climatic data (monthly rainfall, wet days, rainfall intensity, and temperature), useful to characterise the climate variations and trends and to roughly assess the effects of these trends on river discharge and on the triggering of landslides. The time series approach is completed by tools to analyse simultaneously all data types. The study of land use variations, with a special emphasis on the urban areas, is important to understand how the modifications occurred in the territory, especially in terms of vulnerability, could influence the occurrence of DHEs. The methodology can be applied simultaneously to floods and landslides and was tested considering the municipality of Bari (southern Italy), particularly affected by flood events. Since the climate trend (decreasing trend of rainfall and

  16. Production of biochar out of organic urban waste to amend salt affected soils in the basin of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez Garcia, Elizabeth; Siebe, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Biochar is widely recognized as an efficient tool for carbon sequestration and soil fertility. The understanding of its chemical and physical properties, strongly related to the biomass and production conditions, is central to identify the most suitable application of biochar. On the other hand, salt affected soils reduce the value and productivity of extensive areas worldwide. One feasible option to recover them is to add organic amendments, which improve water holding capacity and increase sorption sites for cations as sodium. The former lake Texcoco in the basin of Mexico has been a key area for the control of surface run-off and air quality of Mexico City. However, the high concentrations of soluble salts in their soils do not allow the development of a vegetation cover that protects the soil from wind erosion, being the latter the main cause of poor air quality in the metropolitan area during the dry season. On the other hand, the population of the city produces daily 2000 t of organic urban wastes, which are currently composted. Thus, we tested if either compost or biochar made out of urban organic waste can improve the salt affected soils of former lake Texcoco to grow grass and avoid wind erosion. We examined the physico-chemical properties of biochar produced from urban organic waste under pyrolysis conditions. We also set up a field experiment to evaluate the addition of these amendments into the saline soils of Texcoco. Our preliminary analyses show biochar yield was ca. 40%, it was mainly alkaline (pH: 8-10), with a moderate salt content (electrical conductivity: 0.5-3 mS/cm). We show also results of the initial phase of the field experiment in which we monitor the electrical conductivity, pH, water content, water tension and soil GHG fluxes on small plots amended with either biochar or compost in three different doses.

  17. BOOK REVIEW (ABSTRACT FORMAT) "WATER FOR URBAN AREAS: CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES"

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book is a compilation of papers from the Sixth Global Environmental Forum, convened by the United Nations University in Tokyo, Japan in June 1997 on "Water for Urban Areas in the 21st Century." This book has a broad perspective of urban water including drinking, wastewater ...

  18. Urban streams across the USA: Lessons learned from studies in 9 metropolitan areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Cuffney, T.F.; Coles, J.F.; Fitzpatrick, F.; McMahon, G.; Steuer, J.; Bell, A.H.; May, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems have usually focused on single metropolitan areas. Synthesis of the results of such studies have been useful in developing general conceptual models of the effects of urbanization, but the strength of such generalizations is enhanced by applying consistent study designs and methods to multiple metropolitan areas across large geographic scales. We summarized the results from studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in 9 metropolitan areas across the US (Boston, Massachusetts; Raleigh, North Carolina; Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Portland, Oregon). These studies were conducted as part of the US Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program and were based on a common study design and used standard sample-collection and processing methods to facilitate comparisons among study areas. All studies included evaluations of hydrology, physical habitat, water quality, and biota (algae, macroinvertebrates, fish). Four major conclusions emerged from the studies. First, responses of hydrologic, physical-habitat, water-quality, and biotic variables to urbanization varied among metropolitan areas, except that insecticide inputs consistently increased with urbanization. Second, prior land use, primarily forest and agriculture, appeared to be the most important determinant of the response of biota to urbanization in the areas we studied. Third, little evidence was found for resistance to the effects of urbanization by macroinvertebrate assemblages, even at low levels of urbanization. Fourth, benthic macroinvertebrates have important advantages for assessing the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems relative to algae and fishes. Overall, our results demonstrate regional differences in the effects of urbanization on stream biota and suggest additional studies to elucidate

  19. Gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations are higher in urban forests than adjacent open areas during summer but not in winter--Exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa; Tervo, Peatta; Setälä, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    While the potential of plants to uptake polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is widely acknowledged, empirical evidence of the effects of this process on local atmospheric PAH concentrations and human health is tenuous. We measured gaseous PAH concentrations using passive samplers in urban tree-covered areas and adjacent open, treeless areas in a near-road environment in Finland to gain information on the ability of urban vegetation to improve air quality. The ability of urban, mostly deciduous, vegetation to affect PAHs was season dependent: during summer, concentrations were significantly higher in tree-covered areas, while in the fall, concentrations in open areas exceeded those in tree-covered areas. During winter, concentrations in tree-covered areas were either lower or did not differ from those in open areas. Results of this study imply that the commonly believed notion that trees unequivocally improve air quality does not apply to PAHs studied here. PMID:26412199

  20. [Seasonal variation and function-area difference of PAHs in road dust from Shanghai urban area].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu-bo; Liu, Min; Ou, Dong-ni; Gao, Lei; Wang, Li-li; Xu, Shi-yuan

    2007-12-01

    Seasonal variation and function-area difference of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in road dust from Shanghai centre area were studied, and the probable reasons were also discussed. The result showed that the accumulation level of PAHs varied significantly from winter to summer, namely, and the concentrations of total PAHs and the homologues in winter were higher than that in summer. Total PAH concentrations (t-PAH) in winter samples ranged from 9176 to 32,573 ng x g(-1), with a mean value of 20,648 ng x g(-1), whereas they varied from 6875 to 27,766 ng x g(-1) in summer, with an average of 14098 ng x g(-1). The individual PAHs composition ranged from 50 (acenaphthylene) to 3162 (indeno (1,2,3,-cd) pyrene) ng x g(-1) in winter, and 3 (acenaphthene) to 1485 (indeno(1,2,3,-cd) pyrene) ng x g(-1) in summer. The results exhibited that the levels showed a great rise from summer to winter. The difference of PAHs concentrations in road dust from functional areas were also obvious, that is, in winter, PAHs concentrations in road dust at industrial area (ID), commercial area (CO) and traffic area (TR) were much higher than those in other areas, with t-PAH mean concentration of 31 163, 24 932 and 18 815 ng x g(-1) resepectively, while city park (CP) and public lawn (PL) had the lowest level (7885, 8036 ng x g(-1)). In summer, the lowest concentration (7942 ng x g(-1)) appeared in CP, however, TR, ID and CO were the most polluted areas, with t-PAH mean concentration of 14,528, 14,247 and 11,523 ng x g(-1), respectively. The concentration of PAH homologues raised gradually with the ring number or molecular weight. Seasonal variation and function-area difference of PAHs in road dust from urban area correlated with both their sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. PMID:18290438

  1. Burial affects the biogeochemistry of headwater streams in a midwestern US metropolitan area - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban basins. Urban stream burial has only recently been recognized by ecologists as a regional environmental impact and little resea...

  2. Burial affects the biogeochemistry of headwater streams in a midwestern US metropolitan area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban basins. Urban stream burial has only recently been recognized by ecologists and little research has addressed the extent to whi...

  3. Nonpoint sources of volatile organic compounds in urban areas - Relative importance of land surfaces and air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Bender, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) commonly detected in urban waters across the United States include gasoline-related compounds (e.g. toluene, xylene) and chlorinated compounds (e.g. chloroform, tetrachloroethane [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE]). Statistical analysis of observational data and results of modeling the partitioning of VOCs between air and water suggest that urban land surfaces are the primary nonpoint source of most VOCs. Urban air is a secondary nonpoint source, but could be an important source of the gasoline oxygenate methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE). Surface waters in urban areas would most effectively be protected by controlling land-surface sources.

  4. Public Participation in Urban Environmental Management: A Model for Promoting Community-Based Environmental Management in Peri-Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoob, May; Brantly, Eugene; Whiteford, Linda

    In October 1992, the Water and Sanitation for Health (WASH) Project held a workshop to explore how the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) could incorporate community participation as a core element in projects to improve water supply, sanitation, and other environmental conditions of peri-urban areas in developing countries. The…

  5. An assessment of landscape characteristics affecting estuarine nitrogen loading in an urban watershed.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojun

    2012-02-01

    Exploring the quantitative association between landscape characteristics and the ecological conditions of receiving waters has recently become an emerging area for eco-environmental research. While the landscape-water relationship research has largely targeted on inland aquatic systems, there has been an increasing need to develop methods and techniques that can better work with coastal and estuarine ecosystems. In this paper, we present a geospatial approach to examine the quantitative relationship between landscape characteristics and estuarine nitrogen loading in an urban watershed. The case study site is in the Pensacola estuarine drainage area, home of the city of Pensacola, Florida, USA, where vigorous urban sprawling has prompted growing concerns on the estuarine ecological health. Central to this research is a remote sensor image that has been used to extract land use/cover information and derive landscape metrics. Several significant landscape metrics are selected and spatially linked with the nitrogen loading data for the Pensacola bay area. Landscape metrics and nitrogen loading are summarized by equal overland flow-length rings, and their association is examined by using multivariate statistical analysis. And a stepwise model-building protocol is used for regression designs to help identify significant variables that can explain much of the variance in the nitrogen loading dataset. It is found that using landscape composition or spatial configuration alone can explain most of the nitrogen loading variability. Of all the regression models using metrics derived from a single land use/cover class as the independent variables, the one from the low density urban gives the highest adjusted R-square score, suggesting the impact of the watershed-wide urban sprawl upon this sensitive estuarine ecosystem. Measures towards the reduction of non-point source pollution from urban development are necessary in the area to protect the Pensacola bay ecosystem and its

  6. 42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas... Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.103 Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas... that is located in an urban area (as defined in subpart D of this part) may be reclassified as a...

  7. 42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas... Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.103 Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas... that is located in an urban area (as defined in subpart D of this part) may be reclassified as a...

  8. 42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas... Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.103 Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas... that is located in an urban area (as defined in subpart D of this part) may be reclassified as a...

  9. 42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas... Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.103 Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas... that is located in an urban area (as defined in subpart D of this part) may be reclassified as a...

  10. 42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas... Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.103 Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas... that is located in an urban area (as defined in subpart D of this part) may be reclassified as a...

  11. Lung deposited surface area size distributions of particulate matter in different urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuuluvainen, Heino; Rönkkö, Topi; Järvinen, Anssi; Saari, Sampo; Karjalainen, Panu; Lähde, Tero; Pirjola, Liisa; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Hillamo, Risto; Keskinen, Jorma

    2016-07-01

    Lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration is considered as a relevant metric for the negative health effects of aerosol particles. We report for the first time the size distributions of the LDSA measured in urban air. The measurements were carried out in the metropolitan area of Helsinki, including mobile laboratory and stationary measurements in different outdoor environments, such as traffic sites, a park area, the city center and residential areas. The main instrument in this study was an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI), which was calibrated in the field to measure the LDSA concentration. The calibration factor was determined to be 60 μm2/(cm3 pA). In the experiments, the LDSA size distributions were found to form two modes at the traffic sites and in the city center. Both of these traffic related particle modes, the nucleation mode and the soot mode, had a clear contribution to the total LDSA concentration. The average total concentrations varied from 12 to 94 μm2/cm3, measured in the park area and at the traffic site next to a major road, respectively. The LDSA concentration was found to correlate with the mass of fine particles (PM2.5), but the relation of these two metrics varied between different environments, emphasizing the influence of traffic on the LDSA. The results of this study provide valuable information on the total concentrations and size distributions of the LDSA for epidemiological studies. The size distributions are especially important in estimating the contribution of outdoor concentrations on the concentrations inside buildings and vehicles through size-dependent penetration factors.

  12. Analysis of physical parameters related with water infiltration in tropical soils located in edges forest in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márcia Longo, Regina; Cunha, Jessica C. M.; Lammoglia, Rafaella; Mendes, Deborah R.; Mungilioli, Sarah S.; Damame, Desiree B.; Demamboro, Antônio C.; Bettine, Sueli C.; Ribeiro, Admilson I.; Fengler, Felipe H.

    2015-04-01

    A very important factor for water infiltration into the soil in urban forest systems and suffering constant anthropogenic pressures is the analysis of soil compaction where these forests are or will be established. In this context, this work aimed to promote studies on physical parameters related to distribution of pores, compaction and soil biological activity in forest remnants border areas located in urban watersheds in Campinas / SP - Brazil. The Forest of Santa Genebra (22°49'45 "S and 47°06'33" W) has an average altitude of 680m and tropical climate of altitude, has an area of 251 ha and a nine kilometer perimeter. It constitutes 85% of Semideciduos forests and 15% swamp forest. Due to its location close to urban centers, roads and agricultural areas under direct influence of the anthropic means. For the present study analyzes were performed: particle size, soil density, porosity, matters organic, of biopores, and root distribution (primary, secondary and tertiary) and seedlings in 40 points on the perimeter of the forest equidistant 200m remaining edge. The analysis of the results allowed us to observe that areas suffer direct influence of human activities surrounding. With the results set correlations between the different parameters in order to allow a better understanding of the dynamics of water infiltration into the soil under these conditions and the quantity of tertiary roots, biopores and soil density were the best indicator of environmental quality as suffer direct influence of the surrounding areas, especially those near the most urbanized regions. In general, it can be observed that human activities such as deforestation and vehicle traffic, animals and people, promoted soil compaction and consequent changes in water infiltration into the soil in areas of edges of this remnant of these consequences affect direct numerous parameters that directly influence the dynamics of an ecosystem restoration that is now significantly affected by the

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF DECENTRALIZED BMP CONTROLS IN URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will present an overview of a recently completed project for the US EPA entitled, Optimization of Urban Wet-weather Flow Control Systems. The focus of this effort is on techniques that are suitable for evaluating decentralized BMP controls. The four major components ...

  14. Urban Areas--Partial Creators of Their Own Atmospheric Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marotz, Glen A.

    1975-01-01

    This article describes typical urban-rural atmospheric differences, focuses on heat islands as an example of observable alternation-response effects, and briefly describes some simple exercises which are intended to illustrate the reason for such temperature differences. (Author/DE)

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF DECENTRALIZED BMP CONTROLS IN URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will present an overview of a recently completed project for the US EPA entitled Optimization of Urban Wet-weather Flow Control Systems. The focus of this effort is on techniques that are suitable for evaluating decentralized BMP controls. The four major components o...

  16. Cross Cultural Methods for Survey Research in Black Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word, Carl O.

    This paper summarizes the development of a new approach to survey research in black urban communities, in part by adapting standard techniques. Attention is directed at a group of salient assumptions underlying social science investigations, namely: (1) the universality of majority culture models of attitude structure; (2) sociolinguistic and…

  17. A Model for Coalition Building in Urbanizing Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavernier, Edmund M.; Hartley, Maurice P.

    1995-01-01

    To ensure inclusion of all parties in issues of urbanization, focus groups, consisting of farmers, environmentalists, policymakers, and the nonfarm public were held, issues were refined, and consensus was achieved. A majority thought the process worthwhile in broadening understanding of agriculture. (SK)

  18. Teaching the Geographies of Urban Areas: Views and Visions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beneker, Tine; Sanders, Rickie; Tani, Sirpa; Taylor, Liz; van der Vaart, Rob

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on empirical research in four countries on the growing interest in the perceived "gap" between school and university human geography. Focusing on urban geography, we investigated the views of teachers and academic geographers about key elements of the field and those that were important for geography education. These views were…

  19. Density and Stability of Soil Organic Carbon beneath Impervious Surfaces in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zongqiang; Wu, Shaohua; Yan, Xiao; Zhou, Shenglu

    2014-01-01

    Installation of impervious surfaces in urban areas has attracted increasing attention due to its potential hazard to urban ecosystems. Urban soils are suggested to have robust carbon (C) sequestration capacity; however, the C stocks and dynamics in the soils covered by impervious surfaces that dominate urban areas are still not well characterized. We compared soil organic C (SOC) densities and their stabilities under impervious surface, determined by a 28-d incubation experiment, with those in open areas in Yixing City, China. The SOC density (0–20 cm) under impervious surfaces was, on average, 68% lower than that in open areas. Furthermore, there was a significantly (P<0.05) positive correlation between the densities of SOC and total nitrogen (N) in the open soils, whereas the correlation was not apparent for the impervious-covered soils, suggesting that the artificial soil sealing in urban areas decoupled the cycle of C and N. Cumulative CO2-C evolved during the 28-d incubation was lower from the impervious-covered soils than from the open soils, and agreed well with a first-order decay model (Ct = C1+C0(1-e-kt)). The model results indicated that the SOC underlying capped surfaces had weaker decomposability and lower turnover rate. Our results confirm the unique character of urban SOC, especially that beneath impervious surface, and suggest that scientific and management views on regional SOC assessment may need to consider the role of urban carbon stocks. PMID:25299685

  20. Density and stability of soil organic carbon beneath impervious surfaces in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zongqiang; Wu, Shaohua; Yan, Xiao; Zhou, Shenglu

    2014-01-01

    Installation of impervious surfaces in urban areas has attracted increasing attention due to its potential hazard to urban ecosystems. Urban soils are suggested to have robust carbon (C) sequestration capacity; however, the C stocks and dynamics in the soils covered by impervious surfaces that dominate urban areas are still not well characterized. We compared soil organic C (SOC) densities and their stabilities under impervious surface, determined by a 28-d incubation experiment, with those in open areas in Yixing City, China. The SOC density (0-20 cm) under impervious surfaces was, on average, 68% lower than that in open areas. Furthermore, there was a significantly (P<0.05) positive correlation between the densities of SOC and total nitrogen (N) in the open soils, whereas the correlation was not apparent for the impervious-covered soils, suggesting that the artificial soil sealing in urban areas decoupled the cycle of C and N. Cumulative CO2-C evolved during the 28-d incubation was lower from the impervious-covered soils than from the open soils, and agreed well with a first-order decay model (Ct = C1+C0(1-e-kt)). The model results indicated that the SOC underlying capped surfaces had weaker decomposability and lower turnover rate. Our results confirm the unique character of urban SOC, especially that beneath impervious surface, and suggest that scientific and management views on regional SOC assessment may need to consider the role of urban carbon stocks. PMID:25299685

  1. Urban land use of the Sao Paulo metropolitan area by automatic analysis of LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

    1983-01-01

    The separability of urban land use classes in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo was studied by means of automatic analysis of MSS/LANDSAT digital data. The data were analyzed using the media K and MAXVER classification algorithms. The land use classes obtained were: CBD/vertical growth area, residential area, mixed area, industrial area, embankment area type 1, embankment area type 2, dense vegetation area and sparse vegetation area. The spectral analysis of representative samples of urban land use classes was done using the "Single Cell" analysis option. The classes CBD/vertical growth area, residential area and embankment area type 2 showed better spectral separability when compared to the other classes.

  2. Effects of urbanization on the geomorphology, habitat, hydrology, and fish index of biotic integrity of streams in the Chicago area, Illinois and Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, F.A.; Diebel, M.W.; Harris, M.A.; Arnold, T.L.; Lutz, M.A.; Richards, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of urbanization on geomorphic, habitat, and hydrologic characteristics and fish biotic integrity of 45 streams in the Chicago area were examined by the U.S. Geological Survey from 2000 to 2001. An agricultural to urban land-cover gradient approach was used. Landscape characteristics such as texture of surficial deposits, slope, riparian land cover, and stream network position also were examined to determine if these factors influenced the effects of urbanization. Among geomorphic characteristics, channel enlargement occurred in urban streams with a high percent of watershed clayey surficial deposits. Other geomorphic and habitat characteristics such as stream power, fine substrate, and amount of riffles did not correlate with percent watershed urban land but instead correlated with reach slope. Bank erosion, habitat variability, and two habitat indexes did not correlate with watershed urban land. Below 30% watershed urban land, the unit area discharge for a 2-year flood increased with increasing urban land; however, above 30% urban land, unit area discharges for a 2-year flood were variable, most likely due to variations in stormwater management practices, point-source contributions, and the transport index. Streams with greater than 33% watershed urban land had low base flow, but the effects of urbanization on base flow were offset by point-source contributions. Fish index of biotic integrity (IBI) scores were low in streams with greater than 25% watershed urban land. Fish IBI scores also were low in streams with high percentages of watershed clayey surficial deposits and enlarged channels. The amount of riparian forest/wetland buffer had no moderating effect on geomorphic/habitat/hydrologic characteristics and fish IBI scores. Variations in the texture and topography of glacial landforms affected reach slope and some habitat characteristics. Longitudinal profiles were useful for distinguishing differences in local geologic settings among sampled sites.

  3. Multi-factor controls on terrestrial carbon dynamics in urbanized areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Tian, H.; Pan, S.; Lockaby, G.; Chappelka, A.

    2014-12-01

    As urban land expands rapidly across the globe, much concern has been raised that urbanization may alter the terrestrial carbon cycle. Urbanization involves complex changes in land structure and multiple environmental factors. Little is known about the relative contribution of these individual factors and their interactions to the terrestrial carbon dynamics, however, which is essential for assessing the effectiveness of carbon sequestration policies focusing on urban development. This study developed a comprehensive analysis framework for quantifying relative contribution of individual factors (and their interactions) to terrestrial carbon dynamics in urbanized areas. We identified 15 factors belonging to five categories, and we applied a newly developed factorial analysis scheme to the southern United States (SUS), a rapidly urbanizing region. In all, 24 numeric experiments were designed to systematically isolate and quantify the relative contribution of individual factors. We found that the impact of land conversion was far larger than other factors. Urban managements and the overall interactive effects among major factors, however, created a carbon sink that compensated for 42% of the carbon loss in land conversion. Our findings provide valuable information for regional carbon management in the SUS: (1) it is preferable to preserve pre-urban carbon pools than to rely on the carbon sinks in urban ecosystems to compensate for the carbon loss in land conversion. (2) In forested areas, it is recommendable to improve landscape design (e.g., by arranging green spaces close to the city center) to maximize the urbanization-induced environmental change effect on carbon sequestration. Urbanization-induced environmental change will be less effective in shrubland regions. (3) Urban carbon sequestration can be significantly improved through changes in management practices, such as increased irrigation and fertilizer and targeted use of vehicles and machinery with least

  4. Planning of geological investigations in areas affected by anthropogenic sinkholes: the case of densely urbanised area northeast of Naples (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Paolo Maria; Santo, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    In the last years, many studies about sinkholes have been produced. These sudden phenomena can be generated from natural or artificial causes: the first ones are developed in soluble rocks like carbonate or sulphates, the second are linked to the presence of artificial caves or mines. In Italy both the typologies are widely present, but more often the anthropogenic sinkholes are cause of most damages and fatalities, because many ancient city center were built using the local rock, giving rise to complex and widespread networks of underground cavities, whose collapse brings about the formation of sinkholes. Examples are the Lazio, Toscana, Umbria, Campania, Puglia and Sicily regions, where important towns like Rome, Naples and Palermo are frequently affected by sinkholes. Identifying and analyzing natural and anthropogenic predisposing and triggering factors are essential steps for evaluating susceptibility to sinkholes; nevertheless, the susceptibility zoning must be considered the starting point towards further detailed studies. This study aims to provide a contribution to the definition of a more accurate planning of geological studies at the municipality scale, in order to mitigate the risk in densely urbanized areas affected by anthropogenic sinkholes. The considered study area includes the metropolitan area northeast of Naples (Italy), where sinkholes are very frequent because of the widespread presence of artificial caves dug in pyroclastic rocks. In a first phase, data and information relative to stratigraphic logs, presence and distribution of cavities and sinkholes phenomena were collected and organized in a GIS associated database. Thereafter, the processing of contour maps of tuff top surface and caves depth has been realized, as well as fully detailed cross sections, in order to recognize different characteristics and genesis of sinkholes. At the end, with reference to high susceptibility areas, a list of possible geological surveys and monitoring

  5. SCREENING TO IDENTIFY AND PREVENT URBAN STORM WATER PROBLEMS: ESTIMATING IMPERVIOUS AREA ACCURATELY AND INEXPENSIVELY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Complete identification and eventual prevention of urban water quality problems pose significant monitoring, "smart growth" and water quality management challenges. Uncontrolled increase of impervious surface area (roads, buildings, and parking lots) causes detrimental hydrologi...

  6. Residential Segregation by Occupation and Race in Ten Urbanized Areas, 1950-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkus, Albert A.

    1978-01-01

    This study is directed at measuring the changes in residential segregation in ten United States urbanized areas during the 1950s and 1960s. Changes in the relationship between racial and occupational residential segregation are also examined. (Author/EB)

  7. Social and economic sustainability of urban systems: comparative analysis of metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...

  8. Impact of urban sprawl on carbon uptake in Beijing metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Pan, Xiaoling; Gao, Zhiqiang; Shi, Qingdong; Lv, Guanghui; Gao, Wei

    2005-09-01

    Increasing populations and economics intensify the urban growth and cropland encroachment in Beijing metropolitan area. In this paper we investigated the effects of recent urban sprawl (1991-2001) in Beijing metropolitan region, People's Republic of China on ecosystem net primary production (NPP). The analysis employed a mechanistic model of NPP in combination with satellite-derived and ecological data. Our analysis shows that urban growth in the 10-year study period significantly altered the urban ecosystem component of the regional carbon cycle. The annual amount of atmospheric carbon assimilated into phytomass through NPP was reduced by approximately 50.71×104 Mg C (-15.08%). More than half of this reduction is attributed to the loss of cultivated land. Vegetation removal and road disturbance by the expansion of urban areas reduced the amount of carbon uptake.

  9. Influences of land cover types, meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat and urban area on surface urban heat island in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongyu; Wang, Duoduo; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xiaolei; Qin, Fei; Jiang, Hong; Cai, Yongli

    2016-11-15

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) reflect the localized impact of human activities on thermal fields. In this study, we assessed the surface UHI and its relationship with types of land, meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat sources and urban areas in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRDUA) with the aid of remote sensing data, statistical data and meteorological data. The results showed that the UHI intensity in YRDUA was the strongest (0.84°C) in summer, followed by 0.81°C in autumn, 0.78°C in spring and 0.53°C in winter. The daytime UHI intensity is 0.98°C, which is higher than the nighttime UHI intensity of 0.50°C. Then, the relationship between the UHI intensity and several factors such as meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat sources and the urban area were analysed. The results indicated that there was an insignificant correlation between population density and the UHI intensity. Energy consumption, average temperature and urban area had a significant positive correlation with UHI intensity. However, the average wind speed and average precipitation were significantly negatively correlated with UHI intensity. This study provides insight into the regional climate characteristics and a scientific basis for city layout. PMID:27424113

  10. Study on distribution of aerosol optical depth in Chongqing urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shiqi; Liu, Can; Gao, Yanghua

    2015-12-01

    This paper selected 6S (second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum) model with dark pixel method to inversion aerosol optical depth by MODIS data, and got the spatial distribution and the temporal distribution of Chongqing urban area. By comparing with the sun photometer and API data, the result showed that the inversion method can be used in aerosol optical thickness monitoring in Chongqing urban area.

  11. Ert Applied to the Characterization of Subsidence in Mexico City: Ancient Structures Affecting Urban Utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arango, C.; Chavez, R. E.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.; Hernández-Quintero, E.

    2013-05-01

    The problem of subsidence in Mexico City is basically due to the rapid extraction of groundwater for water supply in addition to the geological conditions. The most typical manifestations of the phenomena are presented as cracks and fractures due to compaction of ancient lake clayish sediments. This phenomenon has caused major affectations to city infrastructure because of the differential subsidence. Fractured buildings, sinkholes, among others manifestations, are potentially sources of collapses, which exposes the population to a serious risk. A small portion of Iztacalco County is being affected by this problem, specifically, in a crossroad formed by two important avenues: La Viga and Plutarco Elias Calles, where the area apparently increases its topographical level. The Electrical Resistivity Tomography technique was selected in order to obtain a resistivity image of the subsoil, which allows identify the main features associated to the terrain uprising. Three (ERT) profiles 200 m, were deployed on the mentioned crossroad in order to characterize the subsurface structures affecting the topographical level of the avenues. A big resistivity anomaly (~ 1000 ohm-m) could be observed towards the central part of the crossroad, coinciding with the major lifting level on surface. This feature appears at 15 m deep in all the profiles and depicts an approximate extension of 100 m in the E-W direction and 60 m in N-S axis. On the other hand, the surrounding material seems to correspond to a higher-saturated environment (lacustrine sediments <10 ohm-m). Shallow anomalies were also detected related to urban artifacts (pipes, sewers, etcetera). The apparently terrain uprising can be associated to a differential subsidence. However, the mentioned avenues were ancient water channels since pre-Hispanic times, where the caudal was enough to allow small steam boating at late nineteenth century. These waterways served as main routes for the exchange of goods during colonial times

  12. A Low-Cost Sensing System for Cooperative Air Quality Monitoring in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Brienza, Simone; Galli, Andrea; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Air quality in urban areas is a very important topic as it closely affects the health of citizens. Recent studies highlight that the exposure to polluted air can increase the incidence of diseases and deteriorate the quality of life. Hence, it is necessary to develop tools for real-time air quality monitoring, so as to allow appropriate and timely decisions. In this paper, we present uSense, a low-cost cooperative monitoring tool that allows knowing, in real-time, the concentrations of polluting gases in various areas of the city. Specifically, users monitor the areas of their interest by deploying low-cost and low-power sensor nodes. In addition, they can share the collected data following a social networking approach. uSense has been tested through an in-field experimentation performed in different areas of a city. The obtained results are in line with those provided by the local environmental control authority and show that uSense can be profitably used for air quality monitoring. PMID:26016912

  13. State and local response to damaging land subsidence in United States urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    Land subsidence caused by man-induced depressuring of underground reservoirs has occurred in at least nine urban areas in the United States. Significant efforts to control it have been made in three areas: Long Beach, California; Houston-Galveston, Texas; and Santa Clara Valley, California. In these areas coastal flooding and its control cost more than $300 million. Institutional changes were required in each area to ameliorate its subsidence problem. In Long Beach and Houston-Galveston, efforts were made to mitigate subsidence only after significant flood damage had occurred. To arrest subsidence at Long Beach, the city lobbied for a special state law, the California Subsidence Act, that required unitization and repressuring of the Wilmington oil field. In the Houston-Galveston region, the Texas State Legislature authorized formation of the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District with authority to regulate ground-water pumping by permit. This solution, which was achieved through efforts of entities affected by subsidence, was the product of a series of compromises necessitated by political fragmentation and disjointed water planning in the region. Amelioration of subsidence in the Santa Clara Valley was a collateral benefit from the effort by water users to curtail ground-water overdraft in the valley. Importation of surface water and a tax on ground-water pumpage reduced ground-water use, thereby allowing the recovery of water level and the arresting of subsidence. ?? 1989.

  14. A low-cost sensing system for cooperative air quality monitoring in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Brienza, Simone; Galli, Andrea; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Air quality in urban areas is a very important topic as it closely affects the health of citizens. Recent studies highlight that the exposure to polluted air can increase the incidence of diseases and deteriorate the quality of life. Hence, it is necessary to develop tools for real-time air quality monitoring, so as to allow appropriate and timely decisions. In this paper, we present uSense, a low-cost cooperative monitoring tool that allows knowing, in real-time, the concentrations of polluting gases in various areas of the city. Specifically, users monitor the areas of their interest by deploying low-cost and low-power sensor nodes. In addition, they can share the collected data following a social networking approach. uSense has been tested through an in-field experimentation performed in different areas of a city. The obtained results are in line with those provided by the local environmental control authority and show that uSense can be profitably used for air quality monitoring. PMID:26016912

  15. Urban cultivation in allotments maintains soil qualities adversely affected by conventional agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, Jill L; Davies, Zoe G; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2014-01-01

    Modern agriculture, in seeking to maximize yields to meet growing global food demand, has caused loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) and compaction, impairing critical regulating and supporting ecosystem services upon which humans also depend. Own-growing makes an important contribution to food security in urban areas globally, but its effects on soil qualities that underpin ecosystem service provision are currently unknown. We compared the main indicators of soil quality; SOC storage, total nitrogen (TN), C : N ratio and bulk density (BD) in urban allotments to soils from the surrounding agricultural region, and between the allotments and other urban greenspaces in a typical UK city. A questionnaire was used to investigate allotment management practices that influence soil properties. Allotment soils had 32% higher SOC concentrations and 36% higher C : N ratios than pastures and arable fields and 25% higher TN and 10% lower BD than arable soils. There was no significant difference between SOC concentration in allotments and urban non-domestic greenspaces, but it was higher in domestic gardens beneath woody vegetation. Allotment soil C : N ratio exceeded that in non-domestic greenspaces, but was lower than that in garden soil. Three-quarters of surveyed allotment plot holders added manure, 95% composted biomass on-site, and many added organic-based fertilizers and commercial composts. This may explain the maintenance of SOC, C : N ratios, TN and low BD, which are positively associated with soil functioning. Synthesis and applications. Maintenance and protection of the quality of our soil resource is essential for sustainable food production and for regulating and supporting ecosystem services upon which we depend. Our study establishes, for the first time, that small-scale urban food production can occur without the penalty of soil degradation seen in conventional agriculture, and maintains the high soil quality seen in urban greenspaces. Given the

  16. Urban thermal environment measurements and numerical simulation for an actual complex urban area covering a large district heating and cooling system in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong; Ooka, Ryozo; Kato, Shinsuke

    Urban thermal situation is thought to have a great influence on the air quality in urban areas. In recent years, the urban thermal environment has become worse, such as the days on which the temperature goes above 30 °C, the sultry nights and heat stroke increase due to changes in terrestrial cover and increased anthropogenic heat emission accompanied by urbanization. Therefore, the urban thermal environment should be carefully investigated and accurately analyzed for a better study of the air quality. Here, in order to study the urban thermal environment in summer, (1) the actual status of an urban thermal environment in a complex urban area covering a large district heating and cooling (DHC) system in Tokyo is investigated using field measurements, and (2) a numerical simulation program which can be adapted to complex urban areas coupled with convection, radiation and conduction is developed and used to predict the urban thermal environment. Wind velocity, temperature and humidity are obtained from the simulation, which shows good agreement with results of the field measurement. The spatial distribution of the standard effective temperature (SET *), the comprehensive index of human thermal comfort, is also calculated using the above results, to estimate the thermal comfort at the pedestrian level. This urban thermal numerical simulation can be coupled with air pollution dispersion and chemical processes to provide a more precise air quality prediction in complex urban areas.

  17. Potentialities of ensemble strategies for flood forecasting over the Milano urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzani, Giovanni; Amengual, Arnau; Ceppi, Alessandro; Homar, Víctor; Romero, Romu; Lombardi, Gabriele; Mancini, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of ensemble forecasting strategies, which can provide a tangible backing for flood early warning procedures and mitigation measures over the Mediterranean region, is one of the fundamental motivations of the international HyMeX programme. Here, we examine two severe hydrometeorological episodes that affected the Milano urban area and for which the complex flood protection system of the city did not completely succeed. Indeed, flood damage have exponentially increased during the last 60 years, due to industrial and urban developments. Thus, the improvement of the Milano flood control system needs a synergism between structural and non-structural approaches. First, we examine how land-use changes due to urban development have altered the hydrological response to intense rainfalls. Second, we test a flood forecasting system which comprises the Flash-flood Event-based Spatially distributed rainfall-runoff Transformation, including Water Balance (FEST-WB) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models. Accurate forecasts of deep moist convection and extreme precipitation are difficult to be predicted due to uncertainties arising from the numeric weather prediction (NWP) physical parameterizations and high sensitivity to misrepresentation of the atmospheric state; however, two hydrological ensemble prediction systems (HEPS) have been designed to explicitly cope with uncertainties in the initial and lateral boundary conditions (IC/LBCs) and physical parameterizations of the NWP model. No substantial differences in skill have been found between both ensemble strategies when considering an enhanced diversity of IC/LBCs for the perturbed initial conditions ensemble. Furthermore, no additional benefits have been found by considering more frequent LBCs in a mixed physics ensemble, as ensemble spread seems to be reduced. These findings could help to design the most appropriate ensemble strategies before these hydrometeorological extremes, given the computational

  18. Temperature trends and Urban Heat Island intensity mapping of the Las Vegas valley area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Adam Leland

    Modified urban climate regions that are warmer than rural areas at night are referred to as Urban Heat Islands or UHI. Islands of warmer air over a city can be 12 degrees Celsius greater than the surrounding cooler air. The exponential growth in Las Vegas for the last two decades provides an opportunity to detect gradual temperature changes influenced by an increasing presence of urban materials. This thesis compares ground based thermometric observations and satellite based remote sensing temperature observations to identify temperature trends and UHI areas caused by urban development. Analysis of temperature trends between 2000 and 2010 at ground weather stations has revealed a general cooling trend in the Las Vegas region. Results show that urban development accompanied by increased vegetation has a cooling effect in arid climates. Analysis of long term temperature trends at McCarran and Nellis weather stations show 2.4 K and 1.2 K rise in temperature over the last 60 years. The ground weather station temperature data is related to the land surface temperature images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper to estimate and evaluate urban heat island intensity for Las Vegas. Results show that spatial and temporal trends of temperature are related to the gradual change in urban landcover. UHI are mainly observed at the airport and in the industrial areas. This research provides useful insight into the temporal behavior of the Las Vegas area.

  19. D Object Classification Based on Thermal and Visible Imagery in Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasani, H.; Samadzadegan, F.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial distribution of land cover in the urban area especially 3D objects (buildings and trees) is a fundamental dataset for urban planning, ecological research, disaster management, etc. According to recent advances in sensor technologies, several types of remotely sensed data are available from the same area. Data fusion has been widely investigated for integrating different source of data in classification of urban area. Thermal infrared imagery (TIR) contains information on emitted radiation and has unique radiometric properties. However, due to coarse spatial resolution of thermal data, its application has been restricted in urban areas. On the other hand, visible image (VIS) has high spatial resolution and information in visible spectrum. Consequently, there is a complementary relation between thermal and visible imagery in classification of urban area. This paper evaluates the potential of aerial thermal hyperspectral and visible imagery fusion in classification of urban area. In the pre-processing step, thermal imagery is resampled to the spatial resolution of visible image. Then feature level fusion is applied to construct hybrid feature space include visible bands, thermal hyperspectral bands, spatial and texture features and moreover Principle Component Analysis (PCA) transformation is applied to extract PCs. Due to high dimensionality of feature space, dimension reduction method is performed. Finally, Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classify the reduced hybrid feature space. The obtained results show using thermal imagery along with visible imagery, improved the classification accuracy up to 8% respect to visible image classification.

  20. New Energy Efficient Housing Has Reduced Carbon Footprints in Outer but Not in Inner Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Ottelin, Juudit; Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2015-08-18

    Avoiding urban sprawl and increasing density are often considered as effective means to mitigate climate change through urban planning. However, there have been rapid technological changes in the fields of housing energy and private driving, and the development is continuing. In this study, we analyze the carbon footprints of the residents living in new housing in different urban forms in Finland. We compare the new housing to existing housing stock. In all areas, the emissions from housing energy were significantly lower in new buildings. However, in the inner urban areas the high level of consumption, mostly due to higher affluence, reverse the gains of energy efficient new housing. The smallest carbon footprints were found in newly built outer and peri-urban areas, also when income level differences were taken into account. Rather than strengthening the juxtaposition of urban and suburban areas, we suggest that it would be smarter to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of both modes of living and develop a more systemic strategy that would result in greater sustainability in both areas. Since such strategy does not exist yet, it should be researched and practically developed. It would be beneficial to focus on area specific mitigation measures. PMID:26177388

  1. Urban area extent extraction in spaceborne HR and VHR data using multi-resolution features.

    PubMed

    Iannelli, Gianni Cristian; Lisini, Gianni; Dell'Acqua, Fabio; Feitosa, Raul Queiroz; da Costa, Gilson Alexandre Ostwald Pedro; Gamba, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Detection of urban area extents by means of remotely sensed data is a difficult task, especially because of the multiple, diverse definitions of what an "urban area" is. The models of urban areas listed in technical literature are based on the combination of spectral information with spatial patterns, possibly at different spatial resolutions. Starting from the same data set, "urban area" extraction may thus lead to multiple outputs. If this is done in a well-structured framework, however, this may be considered as an advantage rather than an issue. This paper proposes a novel framework for urban area extent extraction from multispectral Earth Observation (EO) data. The key is to compute and combine spectral and multi-scale spatial features. By selecting the most adequate features, and combining them with proper logical rules, the approach allows matching multiple urban area models. Experimental results for different locations in Brazil and Kenya using High-Resolution (HR) data prove the usefulness and flexibility of the framework. PMID:25271564

  2. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe; Nwakoby, Boniface; Ezeonu, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001). In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05). In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03). Conclusion The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. PMID:25336992

  3. Three-dimensional visualization of harmful gas diffusion in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, H.; Fan, X.

    2014-02-01

    This paper simulated a harmful gas diffusion in an urban area. Based on the Gaussian Plume Model, the simulation was performed in the 3D virtual environment of the Digital Earth Scientific Platform, which was established by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). This paper calculated the spread distance of harmful gas in every direction and the concentration of a certain point near to the accident point. The spread range of the gas with same concentration could be drawn in the scene and the 3D range affected by the gas diffusion accident also could be performed as well. The result showed that combining the Gaussian Plume Model with GIS technology we can show the affected range clearly in the scene by using curved surface with different color and transparency, which was much better than the common two-dimensional visualization. Besides, this paper also discussed the way to count the number of people who might be affected by the harmful gas, trying to make sense in emergency evacuation and city planning.

  4. Cancer mortality inequalities in urban areas: a Bayesian small area analysis in Spanish cities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-urban inequalities in mortality have been infrequently analysed in European contexts. The aim of the present study was to analyse patterns of cancer mortality and their relationship with socioeconomic deprivation in small areas in 11 Spanish cities. Methods It is a cross-sectional ecological design using mortality data (years 1996-2003). Units of analysis were the census tracts. A deprivation index was calculated for each census tract. In order to control the variability in estimating the risk of dying we used Bayesian models. We present the RR of the census tract with the highest deprivation vs. the census tract with the lowest deprivation. Results In the case of men, socioeconomic inequalities are observed in total cancer mortality in all cities, except in Castellon, Cordoba and Vigo, while Barcelona (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.42-1.67), Madrid (RR = 1.57 95%CI 1.49-1.65) and Seville (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.36-1.74) present the greatest inequalities. In general Barcelona and Madrid, present inequalities for most types of cancer. Among women for total cancer mortality, inequalities have only been found in Barcelona and Zaragoza. The excess number of cancer deaths due to socioeconomic deprivation was 16,413 for men and 1,142 for women. Conclusion This study has analysed inequalities in cancer mortality in small areas of cities in Spain, not only relating this mortality with socioeconomic deprivation, but also calculating the excess mortality which may be attributed to such deprivation. This knowledge is particularly useful to determine which geographical areas in each city need intersectorial policies in order to promote a healthy environment. PMID:21232096

  5. Planning for the conservation and development of infrastructure resources in urban areas; Colorado Front Range urban corridor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Arnold, L. Rick; Fishman, Neil S.; Langer, William H.; Mladinich, Carol S.; Roelle, James E.; Wilburn, David R.

    2002-01-01

    This Circular provides a basic understanding of the characteristics, location, distribution, and quality of infrastructure resources (natural aggregate, energy, and water) in the Colorado Front Range urban corridor between Denver and Ft. Collins. With this understanding, the reader explores the many factors that affect the current and future availability of those resources, including the socioeconomic aspects of the resources and the complexly interwoven individual and collective interests that policymakers, decisionmakers, and the public must address.

  6. Fish assemblage responses to urban intensity gradients in contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama and Boston, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; Coles, J.F.; Zappia, H.

    2005-01-01

    We examined fish assemblage responses to urban intensify gradients in two contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama (BIR) and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urbanization was quantified by using an urban intensity index (UII) that included multiple stream buffers and basin land uses, human population density, and road density variables. We evaluated fish assemblage responses by using species richness metrics and detrended correspondence analyses (DCA). Fish species richness metrics included total fish species richness, and percentages of endemic species richness, alien species, and fluvial specialist species. Fish species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization in BIR (r = -0.82, P = 0.001) and BOS (r = -0.48, P = 0.008). Percentages of endemic species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BIR (r = - 0.71, P = 0.001), whereas percentages of fluvial specialist species decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BOS (r = -0.56, P = 0.002). Our DCA results for BIR indicate that highly urbanized fish assemblages are composed primarily of largescale stoneroller Campostoma oligolepis, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus, whereas the highly urbanized fish assemblages in BOS are dominated by yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lefomis macrochirus, yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis, largemouth bass, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, brown bullhead A. nebulosus, and redfin pickerel Esox americanus. Differences in fish assemblage responses to urbanization between the two areas appear to be related to differences in nutrient enrichment, habitat alterations, and invasive species. Because species richness can increase or decrease with increasing urbanization, a general response model is not applicable. Instead, response models based on species' life histories, behavior, and autecologies offer greater potential for understanding fish assemblage responses to

  7. Evidences of Significant Nonstationarity in Precipitation Extremes over Urbanizing Areas in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, J.; H, V.; Karmakar, S.; Ghosh, S.

    2014-12-01

    The statistical assumption of stationarity in hydrologic extreme time/event series has been relied heavily in frequency analysis. However, due to the analytically perceivable impacts of climate change, urbanization and concomitant land use pattern, assumption of stationarity in hydrologic time series will draw erroneous results, which inturn effects the policy and decision-making. Past studies provided sufficient evidences on changes in the characteristics of Indian monsoon rainfall extremes and further it has been attributed to climate change and urbanization, which indicates the presence of significant nonstationary in the Indian monsoon extremes. Therefore, a comprehensive nonstationary frequency analysis must be conducted all over India to obtain realistic return periods. The present study aims to conduct a nonstationary frequency analysis of the precipitation extremes over India at 1o resolution for a period of 1901-2004, with the implementation of the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) parameters. A cluster of 74 GAMLSS models has been developed by considering nonstationary in different combinations of distribution parameters and regression techniques (families of parametric polynomials and nonparametric/smoothing cubic spline), which overcomes the limitations of the previous studies. Further, for identification of urban, urbanizing and rural grids, an population density data has been utilized. The results showed the significant differences in the stationary and nonstationary return periods for the urbanizing grids, when compared to urbanized and rural grids. The results give implications of presence of nonstationary in the precipitation extremes more prominently in urbanizing areas compare to urbanized and rural areas.

  8. FUNDAMENTAL STUDY ON REAL-TIME FLOOD FORECASTING METHOD FOR LOCALLY HEAVY RAINFALL IN URBAN DRAINAGE AREAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Makoto; Kido, Yoshinobu; Nakakita, Eiichi

    Recently, locally heavy rainfall occurs frequently at highly urbanized area, and causes serious personal accidents, so importance of flood forecasting system is growing in order to reduce damage of inundation. However, flood forecasting that secured lead-time for evacuation is extremely difficult, because the rainfall flows out rapidly. In this study, the numerical simulation model that can finely express inundation mechanism of urban drainage areas was applied with the most recent available data and analysis tool. The influence of the factor (i.e. sewer system, overland and rainfall information) which affected inundation mechanism was evaluated through the sensibility analysis with this model, and evaluation results show some requirements of model condition and information on time and space resolution of real-time flood forecasting.

  9. An Investigation of the Influence of Urban Areas on Rainfall Using the TRMM Satellite and a Cloud-Mesoscale Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; OCStarr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A recent paper by Shepherd and Pierce (in press at Journal of Applied Meteorology) used rainfall data from the Precipitation Radar on NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) satellite to identify warm season rainfall anomalies downwind of major urban areas. Data (PR) were employed to identify warm season rainfall (1998-2000) patterns around Atlanta, Montgomery, Nashville, San Antonio, Waco, and Dallas. Results reveal an average increase of approx. 28% in monthly rainfall rates within 30-60 kilometers downwind of the metropolis with a modest increase of 5.6% over the metropolis. Portions of the downwind area exhibit increases as high as 51%. The percentage changes are relative to an upwind control area. It was also found that maximum rainfall rates in the downwind impact area exceeded the mean value in the upwind control area by 48%-116%. The maximum value was generally found at an average distance of 39 km from the edge of the urban center or 64 km from the center of the city. Results are consistent with METROMEX studies of St. Louis almost two decades ago and with more recent studies near Atlanta. A convective-mesoscale model with extensive land-surface processes is currently being employed to (a) determine if an urban heat island (UHI) thermal perturbation can induce a dynamic response to affect rainfall processes and (b) quantify the impact of the following three factors on the evolution of rainfall: (1) urban surface roughness, (2) magnitude of the UHI temperature anomaly, and (3) physical size of the UHI temperature anomaly. The sensitivity experiments are achieved by inserting a slab of land with urban properties (e.g. roughness length, albedo, thermal character) within a rural surface environment and varying the appropriate lower boundary condition parameters. The study will discuss the feasibility of utilizing satellite-based rainfall estimates for examining rainfall modification by urban areas on global scales and over longer time periods. The

  10. Urban landscape features influencing rodent control and animal movement in two urban areas of California

    EPA Science Inventory

    “Pest” control of both native (e.g., gophers) and exotic (e.g., black rats, house mice) species may impact populations of non-target species inadvertently. We evaluated relationships among animal movement, rodent control, and landscape features in two urban locations in Californ...

  11. An Investigation of the Influence of Urban Areas on Rainfall Using a Cloud-Mesoscale Model and the TRMM Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Starr, David O'C (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A recent paper by Shepherd and Pierce (conditionally accepted to Journal of Applied Meteorology) used rainfall data from the Precipitation Radar on NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) satellite to identify warm season rainfall anomalies downwind of major urban areas. A convective-mesoscale model with extensive land-surface processes is employed to (a) determine if an urban heat island (UHI) thermal perturbation can induce a dynamic response to affect rainfall processes and (b) quantify the impact of the following three factors on the evolution of rainfall: (1) urban surface roughness, (2) magnitude of the UHI temperature anomaly, and (3) physical size of the UHI temperature anomaly. The sensitivity experiments are achieved by inserting a slab of land with urban properties (e.g. roughness length, albedo, thermal character) within a rural surface environment and varying the appropriate lower boundary condition parameters. Early analysis suggests that urban surface roughness (through turbulence and low-level convergence) may control timing and initial location of UHI-induced convection. The magnitude of the heat island appears to be closely linked to the total rainfall amount with minor impact on timing and location. The physical size of the city may predominantly impact on the location of UHI-induced rainfall anomaly. The UHI factor parameter space will be thoroughly investigated with respect to their effects on rainfall amount, location, and timing. This study extends prior numerical investigations of the impact of urban surfaces on meteorological processes, particularly rainfall development. The work also contains several novel aspects, including the application of a high-resolution (less than I km) cloud-mesoscale model to investigate urban-induce rainfall process; investigation of thermal magnitude of the UHI on rainfall process; and investigation of UHI physical size on rainfall processes.

  12. Responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to urbanization in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, T.F.; McMahon, G.; Kashuba, R.; May, J.T.; Waite, I.R.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of urbanization on benthic macroinvertebrates were investigated in nine metropolitan areas (Boston, MA; Raleigh, NC; Atlanta, GA; Birmingham, AL; Milwaukee–Green Bay, WI; Denver, CO; Dallas–Fort Worth, TX; Salt Lake City, UT; and Portland, OR) as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program. Several invertebrate metrics showed strong, linear responses to urbanization when forest or shrublands were developed. Responses were difficult to discern in areas where urbanization was occurring on agricultural lands because invertebrate assemblages were already severely degraded. There was no evidence that assemblages showed any initial resistance to urbanization. Ordination scores, EPT taxa richness, and the average tolerance of organisms were the best indicators of changes in assemblage condition at a site. Richness metrics were better indicators than abundance metrics, and qualitative samples were as good as quantitative samples. A common set of landscape variables (population density, housing density, developed landcover, impervious surface, and roads) were strongly correlated with urbanization and invertebrate responses in all non-agricultural areas. The instream environmental variables (hydrology, water chemistry, habitat, and temperature) that were strongly correlated with urbanization and invertebrate responses were influenced by environmental setting (e.g., dominant ecoregion) and varied widely among metropolitan areas. Multilevel hierarchical regression models were developed that predicted invertebrate responses using only two landcover variables—basinscale landcover (percentage of basin area in developed land) and regional-scale landcover (antecedent agricultural land).

  13. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    PubMed

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale. PMID:23054786

  14. These lit areas are undeveloped: Delimiting China's urban extents from thresholded nighttime light imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Delahunty, Tina; Zhao, Naizhuo; Cao, Guofeng

    2016-08-01

    Nighttime light imagery is a powerful tool to study urbanization because it can provide a uniform metric, lit area, to delimit urban extents. However, lit area is much larger than actual urban area, so thresholds of digital number (DN) values are usually needed to reduce the lit area. The threshold varies greatly among different regions, but at present it is still not very clear what factors impact the changes of the threshold. In this study, urban extent by province for China is mapped using official statistical data and four intercalibrated and geometrically corrected nighttime light images between 2004 and 2010. Lit area in the imagery for most provinces is at least 94% greater than the official amount of urban area. Regression analyses show a significant correlation between optimal thresholds and GDP per capita, and larger thresholds more commonly indicate higher economic level. Size and environmental condition may explain a province's threshold that is disproportionate to GDP. Findings indicate one threshold DN is not appropriate for multiple (adjacent) province urban extent mapping, and optimal thresholds for one year may be notably different than the next. Province-level derived thresholds are not appropriate for other geographic levels. Brightness of nighttime lights is an advantage over imagery that relies on daylight reflection, and decreases in brightness indicate faster growth in the horizontal direction than the vertical. A province's optimal threshold does not always maintain an increase with population and economic growth. In the economically developed eastern provinces, urban population densities decreased (and this is seen in the brightness data), while urban population increased.

  15. An urban food store intervention positively affects food-related psychosocial variables and food behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B; Henry, Elizabeth G; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A

    2010-06-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a comparison group of eight stores in another low-income area of the city. The intervention (Baltimore Healthy Stores; BHS) included an environmental component to increase stocks of more nutritious foods and provided point-of-purchase promotions including signage for healthy choices and interactive nutrition education sessions. Using pre- and postassessments, the authors evaluated the impact of the program on 84 respondents sampled from the intervention and comparison areas. Exposure to intervention materials was modest in the intervention area, and overall healthy food purchasing scores, food knowledge, and self-efficacy did not show significant improvements associated with intervention status. However, based on adjusted multivariate regression results, the BHS program had a positive impact on healthfulness of food preparation methods and showed a trend toward improved intentions to make healthy food choices. Respondents in the intervention areas were significantly more likely to report purchasing promoted foods because of the presence of a BHS shelf label. This is the first food store intervention trial in low-income urban communities to show positive impacts at the consumer level. PMID:19887625

  16. A new framework for modeling urban land expansion in peri-urban area by combining multi-source datasets and data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Xiao, R.; Li, X.

    2015-12-01

    Peri-urban area is a new type region under the impacts of both rural Industrialization and the radiation of metropolitan during rapid urbanization. Due to its complex natural and social characteristics and unique development patterns, many problems such as environmental pollution and land use waste emerged, which became an urgent issue to be addressed. Study area in this paper covers three typical peri-urban districts (Pudong, Fengxian and Jinshan), which around the Shanghai inner city. By coupling cellular automata and multi-agent system model as the basic tools, this research focus on modelling the urban land expansion and driving mechanism in peri-urban area. The big data is aslo combined with the Bayesian maximum entropy method (BME) for spatiotemporal prediction of multi-source data, which expand the dataset of urban expansion models. Data assimilation method is used to optimize the parameters of the coupling model and minimize the uncertainty of observations, improving the precision of future simulation in peri-urban area. By setting quantitative parameters, the coupling model can effectively improve the simulation of the process of urban land expansion under different policies and management schemes, in order to provide scientificimplications for new urbanization strategy. In this research, we precise the urban land expansion simulation and prediction for peri-urban area, expand the scopes and selections of data acquisition measurements and methods, develop the new applications of the data assimilation method in geographical science, provide a new idea for understanding the inherent rules of urban land expansion, and give theoretical and practical support for the peri-urban area in urban planning and decision making.

  17. Long-term strategies of climate change adaptation to manage flooding events in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouget, Laurent; Russo, Beniamino; Redaño, Angel; Ribalaygua, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    Heavy and sudden rainfalls regularly affect the Mediterranean area, so a great number of people and buildings are exposed to the risk of rain-generated floods. Climate change is expected to modify this risk and, in the case that extreme rainfalls increase in frequencies and intensity, this could result in important damages, particularly in urban areas. This paper presents a project that aims to determine adaptation strategies to future flood risks in urban areas. It has been developed by a panel of water companies (R+i Alliance funding), and includes the evaluation of the climate change impact on the extreme rainfall, the use of innovative modelling tools to accurately forecast the flood risk and, finally, the definition of a pro-active and long-term planning against floods. This methodology has been applied in the city of Barcelona. Current climate models give some projections that are not directly applicable for flood risk studies, either because they do not have an adequate spatial and temporal resolution, or because they do not consider some important local factors, such as orography. These points have been considered within the project, when developing the design storms corresponding to future climatic conditions (e.g. years 2030 or 2050). The methodology uses statistical downscaling techniques based on global climate models predictions, including corrections for extreme events and convective storms, as well as temporal downscaling based on historical observations. The design storms created are used in combination with the predictions of sea level rise and land use evolutions to determine the future risk of flooding in the area of study. Once the boundary conditions are known, an accurate flood hazard assessment is done. It requires a local knowledge of the flow parameters in the whole analyzed domain. In urban catchments, in order to fulfill this requirement, powerful hydrological and hydraulic tools and detailed topographic data represent the unique way for

  18. Characteristics of Registered Nurses in Rural versus Urban Areas: Implications for Strategies to Alleviate Nursing Shortages in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skillman, Susan M.; Palazzo, Lorella; Keepnews, David; Hart, L. Gary

    2006-01-01

    Methods: This study compares characteristics of rural and urban registered nurses (RNs) in the United States using data from the 2000 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. RNs in 3 types of rural areas are examined using the rural-urban commuting area taxonomy. Findings: Rural and urban RNs are similar in age and sex; nonwhites and…

  19. Seasonal variations in atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in urban and rural areas of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Hyun-Gu; Choi, Minkyu; Sunwoo, Young

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in both rural (Ansung) and urban (Seoul) areas in Korea from July, 1999 to May, 2000. The chemicals measured in this study include heptachlor, chlordanes, DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and endosulfan. Endosulfan and α-HCH, with values of a few 100s to 1000s of pg m -3, were found to have higher concentrations than other compounds in both areas. Most OCPs showed higher concentrations in Ansung, with many potential sources, such as contaminated surfaces, relative to Seoul. The maximum and minimum concentrations of OCPs at both sites occurred in summer and winter, respectively. It can be partly explained by the variation of temperature. The correlation between atmospheric concentration and temperature was observed using Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) plots. The CC plots for most OCPs in both areas showed good linearity and steep slopes. It is hence inferred that their atmospheric concentrations might be mostly affected by re-volatilization from surfaces of local surroundings at the sampling sites.

  20. Spatial distribution of psychotic disorders in an urban area of France: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Pignon, Baptiste; Schürhoff, Franck; Baudin, Grégoire; Ferchiou, Aziz; Richard, Jean-Romain; Saba, Ghassen; Leboyer, Marion; Kirkbride, James B.; Szöke, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Previous analyses of neighbourhood variations of non-affective psychotic disorders (NAPD) have focused mainly on incidence. However, prevalence studies provide important insights on factors associated with disease evolution as well as for healthcare resource allocation. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of prevalent NAPD cases in an urban area in France. The number of cases in each neighbourhood was modelled as a function of potential confounders and ecological variables, namely: migrant density, economic deprivation and social fragmentation. This was modelled using statistical models of increasing complexity: frequentist models (using Poisson and negative binomial regressions), and several Bayesian models. For each model, assumptions validity were checked and compared as to how this fitted to the data, in order to test for possible spatial variation in prevalence. Data showed significant overdispersion (invalidating the Poisson regression model) and residual autocorrelation (suggesting the need to use Bayesian models). The best Bayesian model was Leroux’s model (i.e. a model with both strong correlation between neighbouring areas and weaker correlation between areas further apart), with economic deprivation as an explanatory variable (OR = 1.13, 95% CI [1.02–1.25]). In comparison with frequentist methods, the Bayesian model showed a better fit. The number of cases showed non-random spatial distribution and was linked to economic deprivation. PMID:27189529

  1. Spatial distribution of psychotic disorders in an urban area of France: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Pignon, Baptiste; Schürhoff, Franck; Baudin, Grégoire; Ferchiou, Aziz; Richard, Jean-Romain; Saba, Ghassen; Leboyer, Marion; Kirkbride, James B; Szöke, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Previous analyses of neighbourhood variations of non-affective psychotic disorders (NAPD) have focused mainly on incidence. However, prevalence studies provide important insights on factors associated with disease evolution as well as for healthcare resource allocation. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of prevalent NAPD cases in an urban area in France. The number of cases in each neighbourhood was modelled as a function of potential confounders and ecological variables, namely: migrant density, economic deprivation and social fragmentation. This was modelled using statistical models of increasing complexity: frequentist models (using Poisson and negative binomial regressions), and several Bayesian models. For each model, assumptions validity were checked and compared as to how this fitted to the data, in order to test for possible spatial variation in prevalence. Data showed significant overdispersion (invalidating the Poisson regression model) and residual autocorrelation (suggesting the need to use Bayesian models). The best Bayesian model was Leroux's model (i.e. a model with both strong correlation between neighbouring areas and weaker correlation between areas further apart), with economic deprivation as an explanatory variable (OR = 1.13, 95% CI [1.02-1.25]). In comparison with frequentist methods, the Bayesian model showed a better fit. The number of cases showed non-random spatial distribution and was linked to economic deprivation. PMID:27189529

  2. Multivariate and geostatistical analyzes of metals in urban soil of Weinan industrial areas, Northwest of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoping; Feng, Linna

    2012-02-01

    An investigation on spatial distribution, possible pollution sources, and affecting factors of heavy metals in the urban soils of Weinan (China) was conducted using geographic information system (GIS) technique and multivariate statistics. The results indicated that the levels of 10 heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ba, Zn, V, Mn, Co, Cu, Ni and As) distribution measured by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF) in urban soil of Weinan were As varied from 2.60 to 11.50 mg kg -1, Co was 8.00-14.50 mg kg -1, Cr from 74.90 to 157.00 mg kg -1, Cu from 14.60 to 34.70 mg kg -1, Ba from 413.00 to 1137.60 mg kg -1, Mn from 431.30 to 653.70 mg kg -1, Ni from 20.80 to 35.8 mg kg -1, Pb from 19.00 to 89.50 mg kg -1, V from 63.80 to 89.50 mg kg -1, Zn from 44.50 to 196.80 mg kg -1, respectively. The mean enrichment factors (EFs) decreased in the order of Pb > Cr > Ba > Cu > Zn > Ni > V > Mn > Co > As, indicating Ba, Cu, Pb, Cr and Zn were significant enriched in the study areas. Spatial distribution maps of heavy metal contents, based on geostatistical analysis and GIS mapping, indicated that Pb and Cr had similar patterns of spatial distribution, likewise, between Ba, Cu and Zn, and among As, Co, Mn, V as well. Multivariate statistical analysis (correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and clustering analysis) showed distinctly different associations among the studied metals, suggesting that the heavy metals, Ba, Cu, Pb, Cr and Zn were associated with anthropic activities (industrial sources, combined with coal combustion as well as traffic factor), whereas Mn, V, Co, As and Ni in study area mainly controlled by parent materials and therefore had natural sources. A comprehensive environmental management strategy should be concerned by the local government to address soil pollution in urban areas.

  3. Management of fire affected areas. Beyond the environmental question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    Fire is considered a natural element of the ecosystems. With exception of the polar areas, fire visited with more or less frequency all the earth biomes, determining the ecosystems characteristics, to the point that several species are fire-dependent to survive and are very resilient to their impact. Fire was a fundamental element for human evolution, which allowed us to cook, manipulation of metals, hunt, protect from predators and clear fields for agriculture. In some extension, we are only humans because of fire. In the last millennium fire was used to shape the landscape as we know today. One good example of this is the Mediterranean environment, a landscape where the ecology is not understood without the presence of fire. Until the end of the first half of the last century, fire was used frequently by farmers to landscape management. However, due to rural abandonment, change of life styles, disconnection with rural environment and lack of understanding of fire role in the ecosystems. The perception of fire changed and nowadays is understood by the population as a threat to the ecosystems, rather than a tool that helped to manage the landscape and help us in our evolution. This change of vision promoted the idea that fire has negative impacts in the ecosystems and should be banned from the nature. Something that is impossible. All these perceptions facilitated the implementation of fire-suppression policies, which today are recognized by science as one of the causes of the occurrence of frequent high-severity wildfires, with important impacts on the ecosystems, economy and society. However, most of the ecosystems can regenerate sooner or later, depending of the fire severity and the ecosystem affected. Thus, fire is not an ecological, but social and economic problem, due to lives loss and the temporary destruction of ecosystems, which local communities depend on. In this context, when we are managing fire affected areas, it goes much beyond environmental

  4. An alternative basin characteristic for use in estimating impervious area in urban Missouri basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southard, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A previous regression analysis of flood peaks on urban basins in St. Louis County, Missouri, indicated that the basin characteristics of percentage of impervious area and drainage area were statistically significant for estimating the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-. and 100-yr peak discharges at ungaged urban basins. In this statewide regression analysis of the urban basins for Missouri, an alternative basin characteristic called the percentage of developed area was evaluated. A regression analysis of the percentage of developed area (independent variable), resulted in a simple equation for computing percentage of impervious area. The percentage of developed area also was evaluated using flood-frequency data for 23 streamflow gaging stations, and the use of this variable was determined to be valid. Using nationwide data, an urban basin characteristic known as the basin development factor was determined to be valid for inclusion in urban regression equations for estimating flood flows. The basin development factor and the percentage of developed area were compared for use in regression equations to estimate peak flows of streams in Missouri. The equations with the basin development factor produced peak flow estimates with slightly smaller average standard errors of estimate than the equation with the percentage of developed area; however, this study indicates that there was not enough statistical or numerical difference to warrant using the basin development factor instead of the percentage of developed area in Missouri. The selection of a basin characteristic to describe the physical conditions of a drainage basin will depend not only on its contribution to accuracy of regression equations, but also on the ease of determining the characteristics; the percentage of developed area has this advantage. A correlation analysis was made by correlating drainage area to percentage of impervious area, the percentage of developed area, and the basin development factor. The results of

  5. Phenology in central Europe - differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roetzer, T.; Wittenzeller, Markus; Haeckel, Hans; Nekovar, Jiri

    In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

  6. The review of some chosen approaches to foresee the development of urban areas. (Polish Title: Przeglad wybranych podejsc w zakresie prognozowania rozwoju obszarow miast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radło-Kulisiewicz, M.

    2015-12-01

    The practical importance of Geographical Information Systems in urban planning and managing of urban areas is becoming much more explicit. Managing small cities usually needs simple GIS spatial analysis tools to support planners' decisions. Otherwise, the urban dynamic is bigger and factors affecting changes in city are combined. These analyses are not sufficient and then a need for more advanced and sophisticated solutions can appear. The aim of this article is to introduce popular techniques for urban modelling and underlying importance of GIS as an environment for creating simple models, which let t easy decisions in creating vision of a city be taken. The Article touches on the following issues related to the planning and management of urban space; from the applicable standards concerning materials planning in Poland, through the possibilities that give us network solutions useful at the municipal and country level, to existing techniques in modelling cities in the world. The background for these questions are the Geographical Information Systems (their role in this respect), that naturally fit into this theme. The ability to analyze multi-source data at different levels of detail, in different variants and ranges, predispose the GIS to environmental urban management. While also taking into account social - economic factors, integrated with GIS predictive modeling techniques, allows us to understand dependencies that navigate complex urban phenomena. City management in an integrated and thoughtful manner and will reduce the costs associated with the expansion of the urban fabric and avoid the chaos of urban development.

  7. Geochemical provenance of soils in Kerman urban areas, Iran: Implications for the influx of aeolian dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehbandi, Reza; Aftabi, Alijan

    2016-06-01

    The investigation of the interaction of aeolian dust with residual soils has not been fully explored in the Kerman urban areas, Iran. To assess the geochemical influence of aeolian dust on the residual soils of the Kerman urban areas of Iran, 27 samples were studied petrogeochemically. The arid-semi-arid climate of the area together with the southwest-northeast prevailing wind, have deposited aeolian sands over the residual soils. Residual soils reflect similar mineral compositions to that of the underlying bedrock and include mostly calcite and quartz. However, the minor occurrences of pyroxene, amphibole, olivine, plagioclase and volcanic clasts in urban soils and aeolian dust are attributed to volcanogenic inputs transported by aeolian dust. Urban soils and aeolian dust show different geochemical signatures from the local carbonate rocks. All samples contain trace element concentrations that are higher than the carbonate bedrock. Discrimination diagrams indicate that immobile trace elements have geochemical affinity to the detrital ferromagnesian dust inputs and are different from the local carbonate bedrock. Based on the elemental bivariate and ternary diagrams, the soils and aeolian dust are derived from the interaction of carbonate and volcanic rocks. This highlights that the urban soils in the Kerman urban areas have been formed by interactions of the aeolian dust with the primitive residual soils.

  8. Factors Associated with Recidivism among Corrections-Based Treatment Participants in Rural and Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Harp, Kathi L H; Winston, Erin; Webster, J Matthew; Pangburn, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    The majority of corrections-based treatment outcome studies focus on individuals paroling to urban areas; thus there is a significant gap in the literature on outcomes, including recidivism, among individuals paroling to non-urban and rural communities. This study examines differences in factors associated with recidivism among former corrections-based treatment participants living in urban and rural communities following release. Analyses focused on secondary data collected from treatment participants in one southeastern state over a four year period between July 2006 and June 2010 including both baseline (treatment intake) and follow-up data (12-months post-release). Findings indicated that individuals in urban areas were 2.4 times more likely to recidivate than rural individuals. Other factors identified in separate rural and urban analyses also emerged as significant predictors in the overall model including age, gender, race, employment and drug use. Overall, these findings suggest that corrections-based treatment participants living in urban and rural areas following release may share similar risk factors for recidivism. However, rural areas may be protective for returning to custody despite the presence of some of these risks. PMID:25858761

  9. Characterizing urban areas with good sound quality: development of a research protocol.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Elise; Devilee, Jeroen; Swart, Wim; van Kamp, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization, the spatial variation between wanted and unwanted sounds will decrease or even disappear. Consequently, the characteristics of (urban) areas where people can temporarily withdraw themselves from urban stressors such as noise may change or become increasingly scarce. Hardly any research has been carried out into the positive health effects of spending time in areas with a good sound quality. One of the problems is that an overview of what aspects determines good sound quality in urban areas and how these are interrelated is lacking. This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the sound quality of urban areas. Aim is to summarize what is known about the influence of social, spatial, and physical aspects other than sounds, on peoples' perception of urban sound qualities. Literature from both conventional sound research and from the so-called soundscape field, published between 2000 and the beginning of 2013 in English or Dutch, was evaluated. Although a general set of validated indicators that can be directly applied, is not available yet, a set of indicators was derived from the literature. These form the basis of a study protocol that will be applied in "Towards a Sustainable acoustic Environment", a project that aims to describe sound qualities at a low-scale level. Key-elements of this study protocol, including a questionnaire and the systematic audit of neighborhoods, were presented in this paper. PMID:25387534

  10. Urban Area Extent Extraction in Spaceborne HR and VHR Data Using Multi-Resolution Features

    PubMed Central

    Iannelli, Gianni Cristian; Lisini, Gianni; Dell'Acqua, Fabio; Feitosa, Raul Queiroz; da Costa, Gilson Alexandre Ostwald Pedro; Gamba, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Detection of urban area extents by means of remotely sensed data is a difficult task, especially because of the multiple, diverse definitions of what an “urban area” is. The models of urban areas listed in technical literature are based on the combination of spectral information with spatial patterns, possibly at different spatial resolutions. Starting from the same data set, “urban area” extraction may thus lead to multiple outputs. If this is done in a well-structured framework, however, this may be considered as an advantage rather than an issue. This paper proposes a novel framework for urban area extent extraction from multispectral Earth Observation (EO) data. The key is to compute and combine spectral and multi-scale spatial features. By selecting the most adequate features, and combining them with proper logical rules, the approach allows matching multiple urban area models. Experimental results for different locations in Brazil and Kenya using High-Resolution (HR) data prove the usefulness and flexibility of the framework. PMID:25271564

  11. Revisiting the hierarchy of urban areas in the Brazilian Amazon: a multilevel approach

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sandra; Brondízio, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The Legal Brazilian Amazon, while the largest rainforest in the world, is also a region where most residents are urban. Despite close linkages between rural and urban processes in the region, rural areas have been the predominant focus of Amazon-based population-environment scholarship. Offering a focus on urban areas within the Brazilian Amazon, this paper examines the emergence of urban hierarchies within the region. Using a combination of nationally representative data and community based surveys, applied to a multivariate cluster methodology (Grade of Membership), we observe the emergence of sub-regional urban networks characterized by economic and political inter-dependency, population movement, and provision of services. These networks link rural areas, small towns, and medium and large cities. We also identify the emergence of medium-size cities as important nodes at a sub-regional level. In all, the work provides insight on the proposed model of ‘disarticulated urbanization’ within the Amazon by calling attention to the increasing role of regional and sub-regional urban networks in shaping the future expansion of land use and population distribution in the Amazon. We conclude with a discussion of implications for increasing intra-regional connectivity and fragmentation of conservation areas and ecosystems in the region. PMID:23129877

  12. Urban geochemistry: research strategies to assist risk assessment and remediation of brownfield sites in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Thornton, I; Farago, M E; Thums, C R; Parrish, R R; McGill, R A R; Breward, N; Fortey, N J; Simpson, P; Young, S D; Tye, A M; Crout, N M J; Hough, R L; Watt, J

    2008-12-01

    Urban geochemical maps of Wolverhampton and Nottingham, based on multielement analysis of surface soils, have shown distribution patterns of "total" metals concentrations relating to past and present industrial and domestic land use and transport systems. Several methods have been used to estimate the solubility and potential bioavailability of metals, their mineral forms and potential risks to urban population groups. These include sequential chemical extraction, soil pore water extraction and analysis, mineralogical analysis by scanning electron microscopy, source apportionment by lead isotope analysis and the development of models to predict metal uptake by homegrown vegetables to provide an estimate of risk from metal consumption and exposure. The results from these research strategies have been integrated with a geographical information system (GIS) to provide data for future land-use planning. PMID:18584292

  13. Dissimilarity in turbulent transport of scalar fluxes from urban areas following rain periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, P.; Smith, J. A.; Bou-Zeid, E.

    2012-12-01

    Urban modifications significantly alter the Bowen's Ratio and this fact has been confirmed by various urban experiments. Our study here focuses on how urbanization impacts partitioning of the surface energy budget and alters the turbulent transport of momentum, heat and water vapor. For this analysis, eddy covariance data from four different sites with varying degrees of urbanization will be utilized. Of the four sites, two (Princeton and UMBC) were located in a highly urbanized area, surrounded by medium height buildings and various built surfaces, while the other two sites (Cubhill and Broadmead) were located in a residential and a rural setting respectively. Our preliminary results confirm that the partitioning of incoming energy into various components of the surface energy budget is highly dependent on the climatic forcings, particularly, for wet and dry down periods. During wet periods, apart from increased evapotranspiration from the green cover, the built surfaces that dot the urban landscape, despite their reduced moisture retention capacity compared to green covers, contribute significantly toward latent heat fluxes. In fact, at the urban site, nearly one third of the evaporative fluxes were from built surfaces (rooftops, asphalts and concrete), following heavy precipitation events. Also, during these periods a pronounced dissimilarity exits between the turbulent transport of temperature and humidity. Our ongoing analysis focuses on understanding this impact of urbanization on scalar transport.

  14. Importance of Farmland in Urbanized Areas as a Landscape Component for Barn Swallows ( Hirundo rustica) Nesting on Concrete Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    Urbanization is one of the key factors in the population declines of many species. Conversely, some species may favor urbanized areas. The barn swallow Hirundo rustica is well known to breed in urban areas of Japan, and uses both urban and farmland areas as habitat during the breeding season. Specifically, this species often nests on concrete buildings and feeds in surrounding farmland. Therefore, it was hypothesized that H. rustica is not strongly influenced by heavy urbanization and benefits from farmland areas, even if they are not near its nests. In this study, I evaluated the landscape components around H. rustica nests situated on concrete buildings, focusing on both urbanized and farmland areas. In particular, I explored the occurrence of H. rustica nests at train stations in the Kinki region of Japan. Assisted by 124 citizen scientists, I analyzed the landscape components around the train stations at multiple spatial scales. Results showed that the occurrence of H. rustica nests was negatively influenced by both urbanized land area and road density, whereas nest occurrence was positively influenced by farmland area and river density. These results suggest that H. rustica does not prefer urbanized areas overall, but can rather utilize urbanized areas primarily as nesting spots. Therefore, H. rustica cannot breed in heavily urbanized areas without feeding sites such as farmland or riparian areas.

  15. Importance of farmland in urbanized areas as a landscape component for barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) nesting on concrete buildings.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    Urbanization is one of the key factors in the population declines of many species. Conversely, some species may favor urbanized areas. The barn swallow Hirundo rustica is well known to breed in urban areas of Japan, and uses both urban and farmland areas as habitat during the breeding season. Specifically, this species often nests on concrete buildings and feeds in surrounding farmland. Therefore, it was hypothesized that H. rustica is not strongly influenced by heavy urbanization and benefits from farmland areas, even if they are not near its nests. In this study, I evaluated the landscape components around H. rustica nests situated on concrete buildings, focusing on both urbanized and farmland areas. In particular, I explored the occurrence of H. rustica nests at train stations in the Kinki region of Japan. Assisted by 124 citizen scientists, I analyzed the landscape components around the train stations at multiple spatial scales. Results showed that the occurrence of H. rustica nests was negatively influenced by both urbanized land area and road density, whereas nest occurrence was positively influenced by farmland area and river density. These results suggest that H. rustica does not prefer urbanized areas overall, but can rather utilize urbanized areas primarily as nesting spots. Therefore, H. rustica cannot breed in heavily urbanized areas without feeding sites such as farmland or riparian areas. PMID:25813627

  16. Probabilistic modelling of sea surges in coastal urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiadis, Stylianos; Jomo Danielsen Sørup, Hjalte; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2016-04-01

    Urban floods are a major issue for coastal cities with severe impacts on economy, society and environment. A main cause for floods are sea surges stemming from extreme weather conditions. In the context of urban flooding, certain standards have to be met by critical infrastructures in order to protect them from floods. These standards can be so strict that no empirical data is available. For instance, protection plans for sub-surface railways against floods are established with 10,000 years return levels. Furthermore, the long technical lifetime of such infrastructures is a critical issue that should be considered, along with the associated climate change effects in this lifetime. We present a case study of Copenhagen where the metro system is being expanded at present with several stations close to the sea. The current critical sea levels for the metro have never been exceeded and Copenhagen has only been severely flooded from pluvial events in the time where measurements have been conducted. However, due to the very high return period that the metro has to be able to withstand and due to the expectations to sea-level rise due to climate change, reliable estimates of the occurrence rate and magnitude of sea surges have to be established as the current protection is expected to be insufficient at some point within the technical lifetime of the metro. The objective of this study is to probabilistically model sea level in Copenhagen as opposed to extrapolating the extreme statistics as is the practice often used. A better understanding and more realistic description of the phenomena leading to sea surges can then be given. The application of hidden Markov models to high-resolution data of sea level for different meteorological stations in and around Copenhagen is an effective tool to address uncertainty. For sea surge studies, the hidden states of the model may reflect the hydrological processes that contribute to coastal floods. Also, the states of the hidden Markov

  17. [Ecological environmental quality assessment of Hangzhou urban area based on RS and GIS].

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengwei; Zhao, Duo

    2006-06-01

    In allusion to the shortage of traditional ecological environmental quality assessment, this paper studied the spatial distribution of assessing factors at a mid-small scale, and the conversion of integer character to girding assessing cells. The main assessing factors including natural environmental condition, environmental quality, natural landscape and urbanization pressure, which were classified into four types with about eleven assessing factors, were selected from RS images and GIS-spatial analyzing environmental quality vector graph. Based on GIS, a comprehensive assessment model for the ecological environmental quality in Hangzhou urban area was established. In comparison with observed urban heat island effects, the assessment results were in good agreement with the ecological environmental quality in the urban area of Hangzhou. PMID:16964936

  18. Large-Eddy Simulation of plume dispersion within various actual urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, H.; Jurcakova, K.; Nagai, H.

    2013-02-01

    Plume dispersion of hazardous materials within urban area resulting from accidental or intentional releases is of great concern to public health. Many researchers have developed local-scale atmospheric dispersion models using building-resolving computational fluid dynamics. However, an important issue is encountered when determining a reasonable domain size of the computational model in order to capture concentration distribution patterns influenced by urban surface geometries. In this study, we carried out Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of plume dispersion within various urban areas with a wide range of obstacle density and building height variability. The difference of centerline mean and r.m.s. concentration distributions among various complex urban surface geometries becomes small for downwind distances from the point source greater than 1.0 km. From these results, it can be concluded that a length of a computational model should be at least 1.0 km from a point source.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Major Factors Affecting Black Carbon Transport and Concentrations in the Unique Atmospheric Structures of Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Marissa Shuang

    Black carbon (BC) from vehicular emission in transportation is a principal component of particulate matters ≤ 2.5 mum (PM2.5). PM2.5 and other diesel emission pollutants (e.g., NOx) are regulated by the Clean Air Act (CAA) according to the National Ambient Air Quality standards (NAAQS). This doctoral dissertation details a study on transport behaviors of black carbon and PM2.5 from transportation routes, their relations with the atmospheric structure of an urban formation, and their relations with the use of biodiesel fuels. The results have implications to near-road risk assessment and to the development of sustainable transportation solutions in urban centers. The first part of study quantified near-roadside black carbon transport as a function of particulate matter (PM) size and composition, as well as microclimatic variables (temperature and wind fields) at the interstate highway I-75 in northern Cincinnati, Ohio. Among variables examined, wind speed and direction significantly affect the roadside transport of black carbon and hence its effective emission factor. Observed non-Gaussian dispersion occurred during low wind and for wind directions at acute angles or upwind to the receptors, mostly occurring in the morning hours. Meandering of air pollutant mass under thermal inversion is likely the driving force. In contrary, Gaussian distribution predominated in daytime of strong downwinds. The roles of urban atmospheric structure, wind fields, and the urban heat island (UHI) effects were further examined on pollutant dispersion and transport. Spatiotemporal variations of traffic flow, atmospheric structure, ambient temperature and PM2.5 concentration data from 14 EPA-certified NAAQS monitoring stations, were analyzed in relation to land-use in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. The results show a decade-long UHI effects with higher interior temperature than that in exurban, and a prominent nocturnal thermal inversion frequent in urban boundary layer. The

  20. Mapping forest structure, species gradients and growth in an urban area using lidar and hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Huan

    Urban forests play an important role in the urban ecosystem by providing a range of ecosystem services. Characterization of forest structure, species variation and growth in urban forests is critical for understanding the status, function and process of urban ecosystems, and helping maximize the benefits of urban ecosystems through management. The development of methods and applications to quantify urban forests using remote sensing data has lagged the study of natural forests due to the heterogeneity and complexity of urban ecosystems. In this dissertation, I quantify and map forest structure, species gradients and forest growth in an urban area using discrete-return lidar, airborne imaging spectroscopy and thermal infrared data. Specific objectives are: (1) to demonstrate the utility of leaf-off lidar originally collected for topographic mapping to characterize and map forest structure and associated uncertainties, including aboveground biomass, basal area, diameter, height and crown size; (2) to map species gradients using forest structural variables estimated from lidar and foliar functional traits, vegetation indices derived from AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery in conjunction with field-measured species data; and (3) to identify factors related to relative growth rates in aboveground biomass in the urban forests, and assess forest growth patterns across areas with varying degree of human interactions. The findings from this dissertation are: (1) leaf-off lidar originally acquired for topographic mapping provides a robust, potentially low-cost approach to quantify spatial patterns of forest structure and carbon stock in urban areas; (2) foliar functional traits and vegetation indices from hyperspectral data capture gradients of species distributions in the heterogeneous urban landscape; (3) species gradients, stand structure, foliar functional traits and temperature are strongly related to forest growth in the urban forests; and (4) high uncertainties in our

  1. Assessing Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Observed and Predicted Ozone in Multiple Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Heather; Wells, Benjamin; Baker, Kirk R.; Hubbell, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ambient monitoring data show spatial gradients in ozone (O3) across urban areas. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reductions will likely alter these gradients. Epidemiological studies often use exposure surrogates that may not fully account for the impacts of spatially and temporally changing concentrations on population exposure. Objectives: We examined the impact of large NOx decreases on spatial and temporal O3 patterns and the implications on exposure. Methods: We used a photochemical model to estimate O3 response to large NOx reductions. We derived time series of 2006–2008 O3 concentrations consistent with 50% and 75% NOx emissions reduction scenarios in three urban areas (Atlanta, Philadelphia, and Chicago) at each monitor location and spatially interpolated O3 to census-tract centroids. Results: We predicted that low O3 concentrations would increase and high O3 concentrations would decrease in response to NOx reductions within an urban area. O3 increases occurred across larger areas for the seasonal mean metric than for the regulatory metric (annual 4th highest daily 8-hr maximum) and were located only in urban core areas. O3 always decreased outside the urban core (e.g., at locations of maximum local ozone concentration) for both metrics and decreased within the urban core in some instances. NOx reductions led to more uniform spatial gradients and diurnal and seasonal patterns and caused seasonal peaks in midrange O3 concentrations to shift from midsummer to earlier in the year. Conclusions: These changes have implications for how O3 exposure may change in response to NOx reductions and are informative for the design of future epidemiology studies and risk assessments. Citation: Simon H, Wells B, Baker KR, Hubbell B. 2016. Assessing temporal and spatial patterns of observed and predicted ozone in multiple urban areas. Environ Health Perspect 124:1443–1452; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP190 PMID:27153213

  2. Updating census urban area maps with LANDSAT data. [Orlando, Florida case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, S. Z.

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT data for updating census maps of urbanized areas by identification of a fringe of suburban territory to be considered for inclusion within a revised urban area map is described. Methodologies of the application system verification and transfer project are evaluated. These include manual analysis of color photographs, line printer maps, and land cover classifications; change detection using an image differencing routine to depict changes in reflectance values between the two anniversary LANDSAT images; and use of the IBIS/VICAR digital image processing system. Application of IBIS/VICAR to mapping the Orlando, Florida area is described in detail.

  3. Geographic analysis of pertussis infection in an urban area: a tool for health services planning.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, C; Davidson, A; Kafadar, K; Norris, J M; Todd, J; Steiner, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether incident cases of pertussis cluster in urban census tracts and identified community characteristics that predict high-incidence areas. METHODS: An ecological study design was used. The study population included all persons diagnosed with pertussis from January 1, 1986, through December 31, 1994. Maps of rates were constructed via a geographic information system and clustering was statistically confirmed. Associations between pertussis rates and community characteristics were tested. RESULTS: Mapping and statistical analysis revealed spatial clustering of pertussis. Higher age-adjusted rates of pertussis infection were associated with higher proportions of residents below poverty level. CONCLUSIONS: In urban areas pertussis infection clusters in areas of poverty. PMID:9431296

  4. Chapter D. Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems in the Willamette River Basin and Surrounding Area, Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, Ian R.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Carpenter, Kurt D.; Arnsberg, Andrew J.; Johnson, Henry M.; Hughes, Curt A.; Sarantou, Michael J.; Rinella, Frank A.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems in 28 watersheds along a gradient of urbanization in the Willamette River basin and surrounding area, Oregon and Washington, from 2003 through 2005. The study that generated the report is one of several urban-effects studies completed nationally by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Watersheds were selected to minimize natural variability caused by factors such as geology, elevation, and climate, and to maximize coverage of different stages of urban development among watersheds. Because land use or population density alone often are not a complete measure of urbanization, a combination of land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables were integrated into a multimetric urban intensity index (UII) to represent the degree of urban development in each watershed. Physical characteristics studied include stream hydrology, stream temperature, and habitat; chemical characteristics studied include sulfate, chloride, nutrients, pesticides, dissolved and particulate organic and inorganic carbon, and suspended sediment; and biological characteristics studied include algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblages. Semipermeable membrane devices, passive samplers that concentrate trace levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, also were used. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses along the gradient of urbanization and (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting the structure of aquatic communities. Common effects documented in the literature of urbanization on instream physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as increased contaminants, increased streamflow flashiness, increased concentrations of chemicals, and changes in

  5. Simple Methods of Calculating Dispersion from Urban Area Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Steven R.

    A simple but physically realistic model is shown to be adequate for estimating long-term average pollutant concentrations due to area sources in cities. In this model, the surface concentration is directly proportional to the local area source strength and inversely proportional to the wind speed. The model performs nearly as well as much more…

  6. Handbook for Rural Students: Finding Employment and Adjusting to Urban Areas. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, D. Lanette; Vaughn, Paul R.

    Designed to help rural students find employment and adjust to life in urban areas, the handbook provides basic information in six subject areas. Part I focuses on getting to know yourself by assessing past activities, preferences, abilities, personality, limitations, and values. Part II explores aspects of jobs and careers: being career oriented,…

  7. Eating Habits and Food Preferences of Elementary School Students in Urban and Suburban Areas of Daejeon.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Suk; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the dietary habits and food preferences of elementary school students. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to 4th and 5th grade elementary school students (400 boys and 400 girls) in urban and suburban areas of Daejeon. The results of this study were as follows: male students in urban areas ate breakfast, unbalanced diets, and dairy products more frequently than male students in suburban areas (p < 0.05). Female students in urban areas ate dairy products (p < 0.01) and fruits (p < 0.001) more frequently than female students in suburban areas. Students had the high preferences for boiled rice and noodles with black bean sauce, beef rib soup, steamed beef rib, steamed egg, beef boiled in soy sauce, egg roll, bulgogi, pork cutlet, deep-fried pork covered with sweet and sour starchy sauce, and honeyed juice mixed with fruit as a punch. All students preferred kimchi, although students in the suburban areas preferred kimchi-fried rice (p < 0.05), and those in the urban areas preferred bean-paste soup (p < 0.01). Students in suburban areas showed a greater preference for seasoned bean sprouts and Altari kimchi. All of the students preferred fruits, rice cake made with glutinous rice, and pizza among other foods. Overall, there were distinct differences in the eating habits and food preferences of elementary school students according to the place of residence. PMID:26251838

  8. Population-Based Regional Cancer Incidence in Korea: Comparison between Urban and Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haa-Na; Go, Se-Il; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Yire; Choi, Hye Jung; Lee, Un Seok; Kang, Myoung Hee; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Kang, Jung Hun; Kang, Yune Sik; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Jung, Jin-Myung; Hong, Soon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in organ-specific cancer incidence according to the region and population size in Korea. Materials and Methods We reviewed the data of the cancer registration program of Gyeongnam Regional Cancer Center between 2008 and 2011. Age-standardized rates of cancer incidence were analyzed according to population size of the region and administrative zone. Results Incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing rapidly in both urban and rural areas. However, the thyroid cancer incidence was much lower in rural areas than in urban areas and megalopolis such as Seoul. Gastric cancer was relatively more common in rural areas, in megalopolis near the sea (Ulsan, Busan, and Incheon), and other southern provinces (Chungcheongnam-do, Gyeongsangbuk-do, and Gyeongsangnam-do). A detailed analysis in Gyeongsangnam-do revealed that rural areas have relatively low incidence of thyroid and colorectal cancer, and relatively high incidence of gastric and lung cancer compared to urban areas. Conclusion This study suggests that there are some differences in cancer incidence by population size. Thyroid and colorectal cancer incidence was increasing, and gastric and lung cancer was slightly decreasing in urban areas, whereas gastric and lung cancer incidence still remains high in rural areas. PMID:26194369

  9. Contribution of directly connected and isolated impervious areas to urban drainage network hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Y.; Choi, N.-J.; Schmidt, A. R.

    2013-09-01

    This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA) to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervious areas can contribute directly to the runoff hydrograph, thereby offering an explanation for the long hydrograph tail commonly observed in runoff from urban storm sewers. In this study, a hydrologic analysis based on the width function is introduced, with two types of width functions obtained from both pervious and impervious areas, respectively. The width function can be regarded as the direct interpretation of the network response. These two width functions are derived to obtain distinct response functions for directly connected impervious areas (DCIA), IIA, and pervious areas. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of runoff hydrographs and suggest the need to consider the flow contribution from pervious areas to the runoff hydrograph. It also implies that additional contribution from flow paths through joints and cracks in sewer pipes needs to be taken into account to improve the estimation of runoff hydrographs in urban catchments.

  10. Contribution of directly connected and isolated impervious areas to urban drainage network hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Y.; Choi, N.-J.; Schmidt, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA) to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervious areas can contribute to direct runoff hydrograph, thereby offering an explanation for the long hydrograph tail commonly observed in runoff from urban storm sewers. In this study, a hydrologic analysis based on the width function is introduced, with two types of width functions obtained from both pervious and impervious areas, respectively. The width function can be regarded as the direct interpretation of the network response. These two width functions are derived to obtain distinct response functions for directly connected impervious areas (DCIA), IIA, and pervious areas. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of runoff hydrographs and suggest the need to consider the flow contribution from pervious areas to the runoff hydrograph. It also implies that additional contribution from flow paths through joints and cracks in sewer pipes needs to be taken into account to improve the estimation of runoff hydrographs in urban catchments.

  11. Using Quality of Life Criteria to Define Urban Areas in Catalonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royuela, Vicente; Romani, Javier; Artis, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop the concept and definition of multidimensional urban areas, thereby providing insights into our understanding of the sub-regional structures of household spatial systems. Hence, we propose a framework for strategic planning that considers several areas of household needs. In order to achieve this goal, we…

  12. Land use analysis of US urban areas using high-resolution imagery from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The S-190B imagery from Skylab 3 permitted the detection of higher levels of land use detail than any satellite imagery previously evaluated using manual interpretation techniques. Resolution approaches that of 1:100,000 scale infrared aircraft photography, especially regarding urban areas. Nonurban areas are less distinct.

  13. 41 CFR 102-83.60 - What is an urbanized area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an urbanized area? 102-83.60 Section 102-83.60 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Rural Areas § 102-83.60 What is...

  14. Eating Habits and Food Preferences of Elementary School Students in Urban and Suburban Areas of Daejeon

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Suk; Lee, Je-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the dietary habits and food preferences of elementary school students. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to 4th and 5th grade elementary school students (400 boys and 400 girls) in urban and suburban areas of Daejeon. The results of this study were as follows: male students in urban areas ate breakfast, unbalanced diets, and dairy products more frequently than male students in suburban areas (p < 0.05). Female students in urban areas ate dairy products (p < 0.01) and fruits (p < 0.001) more frequently than female students in suburban areas. Students had the high preferences for boiled rice and noodles with black bean sauce, beef rib soup, steamed beef rib, steamed egg, beef boiled in soy sauce, egg roll, bulgogi, pork cutlet, deep-fried pork covered with sweet and sour starchy sauce, and honeyed juice mixed with fruit as a punch. All students preferred kimchi, although students in the suburban areas preferred kimchi-fried rice (p < 0.05), and those in the urban areas preferred bean-paste soup (p < 0.01). Students in suburban areas showed a greater preference for seasoned bean sprouts and Altari kimchi. All of the students preferred fruits, rice cake made with glutinous rice, and pizza among other foods. Overall, there were distinct differences in the eating habits and food preferences of elementary school students according to the place of residence. PMID:26251838

  15. [Seasonal Dynamics of Airborne Pollens and Its Relationship with Meteorological Factors in Beijing Urban Area].

    PubMed

    Meng, Ling; Wang, Xiao-ke; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Ren, Yu-fen; Wang, Qiao-huan

    2016-02-15

    The seasonal dynamics of airborne pollens and their relationship with meteorological conditions, which are considered to be important factors for appropriate construction of urban green system and reliable prevention of tropic pollinosis, were investigated in Beijing urban area. The airborne pollens were monitored from December 31st 2011 to December 31st 2012 by Burkard volumetric trap, and the data were analyzed. The results revealed that: (1) In 2012 the pollen dispersion period lasted 238 days from March 17 to November 18th, accounting for 65% of the year. There were two peaks of pollen amount in air, which occurred from March to May and from August to October, respectively. In the spring peak, tree pollens such as Oleaceae, Populus and Salix pollens were the dominant, accounting for 53% of the total annual pollens, while in the autumn period, weed pollens such as Compositae, Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae pollens made up about 40% of the annual total value; (2) The highly allergenic weeds pollens dominated in autumn, which caused a high incidence of tropic pollinosis; (3) The airborne pollen amount of Beijing urban area was significantly affected by meteorological condition like the wind speed, temperature, humidity, precipitation and so on; (4) When temperature ranged from OC to 15 degrees C, the pollen amount showed positive relation with temperature; while in the temperature range of 18 degrees C to 30 degrees C, it showed negative relation; (5) The average temperature of spring and autumn season in 2012 was 17 degrees C, and 79% of airborne pollens were detected in these two seasons. This temperature condition was conducive to the pollen dispersion. (6) The pollen amount showed negative relation with relative moisture between 20% and 50% and larger than 70%, while in the moisture range of 50% to 60%, it showed positive relation; (7) The wind speed smaller than 3 m x s(-1) was good to pollen distribution, when it was larger than 4 m x s(-1) or the wind

  16. A Novel Approach in Quantifying the Effect of Urban Design Features on Local-Scale Air Pollution in Central Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Miskell, Georgia; Salmond, Jennifer; Longley, Ian; Dirks, Kim N

    2015-08-01

    Differences in urban design features may affect emission and dispersion patterns of air pollution at local-scales within cities. However, the complexity of urban forms, interdependence of variables, and temporal and spatial variability of processes make it difficult to quantify determinants of local-scale air pollution. This paper uses a combination of dense measurements and a novel approach to land-use regression (LUR) modeling to identify key controls on concentrations of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at a local-scale within a central business district (CBD). Sixty-two locations were measured over 44 days in Auckland, New Zealand at high density (study area 0.15 km(2)). A local-scale LUR model was developed, with seven variables identified as determinants based on standard model criteria. A novel method for improving standard LUR design was developed using two independent data sets (at local and "city" scales) to generate improved accuracy in predictions and greater confidence in results. This revised multiscale LUR model identified three urban design variables (intersection, proximity to a bus stop, and street width) as having the more significant determination on local-scale air quality, and had improved adaptability between data sets. PMID:26151151

  17. How Travel Demand Affects Detection of Non-Recurrent Traffic Congestion on Urban Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbaroglu, B.; Heydecker, B.; Cheng, T.

    2016-06-01

    Occurrence of non-recurrent traffic congestion hinders the economic activity of a city, as travellers could miss appointments or be late for work or important meetings. Similarly, for shippers, unexpected delays may disrupt just-in-time delivery and manufacturing processes, which could lose them payment. Consequently, research on non-recurrent congestion detection on urban road networks has recently gained attention. By analysing large amounts of traffic data collected on a daily basis, traffic operation centres can improve their methods to detect non-recurrent congestion rapidly and then revise their existing plans to mitigate its effects. Space-time clusters of high link journey time estimates correspond to non-recurrent congestion events. Existing research, however, has not considered the effect of travel demand on the effectiveness of non-recurrent congestion detection methods. Therefore, this paper investigates how travel demand affects detection of non-recurrent traffic congestion detection on urban road networks. Travel demand has been classified into three categories as low, normal and high. The experiments are carried out on London's urban road network, and the results demonstrate the necessity to adjust the relative importance of the component evaluation criteria depending on the travel demand level.

  18. City life makes females fussy: sex differences in habitat use of temperate bats in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Lintott, Paul R; Bunnefeld, Nils; Fuentes-Montemayor, Elisa; Minderman, Jeroen; Mayhew, Rebekah J; Olley, Lena; Park, Kirsty J

    2014-11-01

    Urbanization is a major driver of the global loss of biodiversity; to mitigate its adverse effects, it is essential to understand what drives species' patterns of habitat use within the urban matrix. While many animal species are known to exhibit sex differences in habitat use, adaptability to the urban landscape is commonly examined at the species level, without consideration of intraspecific differences. The high energetic demands of pregnancy and lactation in female mammals can lead to sexual differences in habitat use, but little is known of how this might affect their response to urbanization. We predicted that female Pipistrellus pygmaeus would show greater selectivity of forging locations within urban woodland in comparison to males at both a local and landscape scale. In line with these predictions, we found there was a lower probability of finding females within woodlands which were poorly connected, highly cluttered, with a higher edge : interior ratio and fewer mature trees. By contrast, habitat quality and the composition of the surrounding landscape were less of a limiting factor in determining male distributions. These results indicate strong sexual differences in the habitat use of fragmented urban woodland, and this has important implications for our understanding of the adaptability of bats and mammals more generally to urbanization. PMID:26064557

  19. City life makes females fussy: sex differences in habitat use of temperate bats in urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Lintott, Paul R.; Bunnefeld, Nils; Fuentes-Montemayor, Elisa; Minderman, Jeroen; Mayhew, Rebekah J.; Olley, Lena; Park, Kirsty J.

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is a major driver of the global loss of biodiversity; to mitigate its adverse effects, it is essential to understand what drives species' patterns of habitat use within the urban matrix. While many animal species are known to exhibit sex differences in habitat use, adaptability to the urban landscape is commonly examined at the species level, without consideration of intraspecific differences. The high energetic demands of pregnancy and lactation in female mammals can lead to sexual differences in habitat use, but little is known of how this might affect their response to urbanization. We predicted that female Pipistrellus pygmaeus would show greater selectivity of forging locations within urban woodland in comparison to males at both a local and landscape scale. In line with these predictions, we found there was a lower probability of finding females within woodlands which were poorly connected, highly cluttered, with a higher edge : interior ratio and fewer mature trees. By contrast, habitat quality and the composition of the surrounding landscape were less of a limiting factor in determining male distributions. These results indicate strong sexual differences in the habitat use of fragmented urban woodland, and this has important implications for our understanding of the adaptability of bats and mammals more generally to urbanization. PMID:26064557

  20. Impact of Heat Waves on Urban Areas in the North Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, P.; Li, D.; Bou-Zeid, E.

    2014-12-01

    We utilize high-resolution numerical simulations to understand the interaction between heat waves and urban heat islands in the North Eastern United States. Urban areas, due to their dense built-surface cover that efficiently stores and dissipate heat and reduced evapotranspiration, experience elevated near surface temperatures compared to surrounding rural areas. This difference between urban and nearby rural temperature is commonly known as the Urban Heat island Intensity (UHI), which amplifies the effects of heat waves in cities. In this work, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is significantly modified in two major ways to study two heat wave episodes in the North East during the Summer of 2006. First, the single layer urban canopy model in WRF is replaced by the Princeton Urban Canopy Model (PUCM), which includes representation for sub-facet scale heterogeneity. Second, the dominant land use approach used in the default land surface scheme is substituted with a tile-based approach to suitably capture the variability in the urban surface cover. Our preliminary results show that the magnitude of the UHI increased in New York City by more than 1°C during both the nighttime and daytime periods during the heat wave episodes. In Baltimore and Washington D. C, while the UHI increased during the nighttime period, the daytime UHI was mostly unchanged. This ongoing work will further focus on the role played by moisture availability, available energy, wind direction and magnitude and urban characteristics like population density and urban cover in modulating the UHI during these intense heat wave periods.

  1. Water Soluble Organic Nitrogen in atmospheric aerosol samples from urban, sub-urban and pristine areas of Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canelon, R.; Giuliante, A.; Aguiar, G.; Ghneim, T.; Perez, T.

    2007-12-01

    Concentrations of water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) were determined in atmospheric total suspended particles (TSP) collected between September of 2005 and May of 2006, in an urban continental (Caracas, 10° 29' 09'' N, 66° 53' 48'' W), an urban coastal (Catia la mar, 10° 35' 47'' N, 67° 01' 45'' W), a sub-urban coastal (Osma, 10° 32' N, 67° 28' W), a suburban continental (Altos de Pipe, 10° 23' 41'' N, 63° 59' 10'' W), a pristine coastal (Isla de Aves, 15° 40' N, 63° 36' W) and a pristine continental (La Gran Sabana National Park, 5° 41' 30'' N, 61° 34' 20'' W) areas of Venezuela. TSP samples were collected using a Hi-Vol airborne particle sampler. TSP were impacted on a fiberglass filter pretreated under 400° C for 4 hours to minimize organic nitrogen contamination. Ultra sound water extractions of the sample filters were performed and their NH4+, NO2- and NO3- concentrations were determined by ion exchange liquid chromatography. The water extracts were UV digested and the nitrogen inorganic ions were analyzed after the UV exposure. WSON concentrations were calculated by the difference between the inorganic nitrogen concentrations before and after UV digestion. Ninety five percent of the aerosol samples collected in the suburban and pristine areas showed a WSON concentration range from 0.03 to 0.6 μg/m3 whereas in urban areas the range was 0.21 to 1.09 μg/m3. These concentration values are on the same order of magnitude than the previously found in other tropical and subtropical areas. The contribution of aerosol WSON to the total soluble nitrogen in the coastal urban, sub-urban and pristine areas ranged from 23 to 67%, while in Caracas was smaller (38±8%, n=5). Therefore, aerosol WSON provides an important source of nitrogen to these pristine and suburban ecosystems, which could potentially have implications on the nutrient cycling. There was a statistically significant linear correlation between the aerosol WSON and the water soluble inorganic

  2. Ambient particulate matter in a central urban area of Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Vellingiri, Kowsalya; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ma, Chang-Jin; Kang, Chang-Hee; Lee, Jin-Hong; Kim, Ik-Soo; Brown, Richard J C

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were monitored at a central urban area of Yongsan (YS), Seoul, Korea during 2013. The daily average concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 fractions, were 26.6±12.6 and 45.0±20.4 μg m(-3), respectively. The observed PM2.5 concentration slightly exceeded the annual standard value (25 μg m(-3)) set by the Korean Ministry of Environment (KMOE), while that of PM10 was slightly lower than its guideline value (50 μg m(-3)). Comparison of the monthly mean values (μg m(-3)) of both PM fractions showed maximum concentrations in January (PM2.5: 36.9 and PM10: 59.7) and minimum concentrations in September (PM10: 28.1) and October (PM2.5: 14.9). The existence of strong correlations between the concentrations of PM and some gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, SO2, and NOx) indicated the commonality of contributing source processes, such as traffic and industrial emissions. The results of a back-trajectory (BT) analysis also suggests that the PM pollution in the study area is likely to have been affected by many sources such as Asian dust, volcanic emissions, and industrial activities in the surrounding countries (China, Russia, and Japan). PMID:25218979

  3. Landslide and flood hazard assessment in urban areas of Levoča region (Eastern Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magulova, Barbora; Caporali, Enrica; Bednarik, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The case study presents the use of statistical methods and analysis tools, for hazard assessment of "urbanization units", implemented in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. As a case study, the Levoča region (Slovakia) is selected. The region, with a total area of about 351 km2, is widely affected by landslides and floods. The problem, for small urbanization areas, is nowadays particularly significant from the socio-economic point of view. It is considered, presently, also an increasing problem, mainly because of climate change and more frequent extreme rainfall events. The geo-hazards are evaluated using a multivariate analysis. The landslide hazard assessment is based on the comparison and subsequent statistical elaboration of territorial dependence among different input factors influencing the instability of the slopes. Particularly, five factors influencing slope stability are evaluated, i.e. lithology, slope aspect, slope angle, hypsographic level and present land use. As a result a new landslide susceptibility map is compiled and different zones of stable, dormant and non-stable areas are defined. For flood hazard map a detailed digital elevation model is created. A compose index of flood hazard is derived from topography, land cover and pedology related data. To estimate flood discharge, time series of stream flow and precipitation measurements are used. The assessment results are prognostic maps of landslide hazard and flood hazard, which presents the optimal base for urbanization planning.

  4. Cluster analysis of Landslide Vulnerable region on an urban Area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Yonghee; Lee, Sangeun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Baek, Jongrak

    2016-04-01

    Mountain areas occupy about 65% of the territory in South Korea. Due to the rapid population growth and urbanization, many cities suffer from the limitation in space, and hence the commercial buildings, educational facilities, and housing settlement areas continue to stretch until the bottom of the mountain. In result, residents become more and more vulnerable to landslides and debris flow. This led to the central government to perceiving the need for strengthening regulations relevant to urban planning. In order to consider risks due to landslides and debris flow in the stage of urban planning, present authors suggested the strategies, including: first, selecting priority areas necessary to manage landslide-related disasters strictly; second, establishing the integrated management system useful to offer technical assistances to persons in charge of urban planning in the areas; third, promoting disaster awareness programs with those persons along with the central government. As the first attempt, this study mainly discusses the GIS-application procedures in which authors selected the priority areas, which are summarized: 1. Collect the landslide historical data for the period 1999 - 2012 when the disasters particularly threatened the whole country. 2. Define the areas with the one-kilometer radius around the landslide occurrence places. 3. Exclude the areas where population is less than 100 persons per 1 km2. 4. Exclude the areas where mountains with Grade I or II of landslide risk (announced by the Korea Forest Service) go below a certain portion of the area. 5. Carry out the cluster analysis with the remaining areas 6. Classify the types at the standpoint of landslide disaster risk management. Through the procedures, this study obtained a total of 86 priority areas, which were also classified into 24 areas - Type A (high population exposure and mid landslide occurrence likelihood) -, 25 areas - Type B (mid population exposure and high landslide occurrence

  5. A New Automatic Method of Urban Areas Mapping in East Asia from LANDSAT Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    XU, R.; Jia, G.

    2012-12-01

    Cities, as places where human activities are concentrated, account for a small percent of global land cover but are frequently cited as the chief causes of, and solutions to, climate, biogeochemistry, and hydrology processes at local, regional, and global scales. Accompanying with uncontrolled economic growth, urban sprawl has been attributed to the accelerating integration of East Asia into the world economy and involved dramatic changes in its urban form and land use. To understand the impact of urban extent on biogeophysical processes, reliable mapping of built-up areas is particularly essential in eastern cities as a result of their characteristics of smaller patches, more fragile, and a lower fraction of the urban landscape which does not have natural than in the West. Segmentation of urban land from other land-cover types using remote sensing imagery can be done by standard classification processes as well as a logic rule calculation based on spectral indices and their derivations. Efforts to establish such a logic rule with no threshold for automatically mapping are highly worthwhile. Existing automatic methods are reviewed, and then a proposed approach is introduced including the calculation of the new index and the improved logic rule. Following this, existing automatic methods as well as the proposed approach are compared in a common context. Afterwards, the proposed approach is tested separately in cities of large, medium, and small scale in East Asia selected from different LANDSAT images. The results are promising as the approach can efficiently segment urban areas, even in the presence of more complex eastern cities. Key words: Urban extraction; Automatic Method; Logic Rule; LANDSAT images; East AisaThe Proposed Approach of Extraction of Urban Built-up Areas in Guangzhou, China

  6. [Prediction and simulation of urban area expansion in Pearl River Delta Region under the RCPs climate scenarios].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Oun-ou; Deng, Xiang-zheng; Ke, Xin-li; Zhao, Chun-hong; Zhang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The sizes and number of cities in China are increasing rapidly and complicated changes of urban land use system have occurred as the social economy develops rapidly. This study took the urban agglomeration of Pearl River Delta Region as the study area to explore the driving mechanism of dynamic changes of urban area in the urbanization process under the joint influence of natural environment and social economic conditions. Then the CA (cellular automata) model was used to predict and simulate the urban area changes until 2030 under the designed scenarios of planning and RCPs (representative concentration pathways). The results indicated that urbanization was mainly driven by the non-agricultural population growth and social-economic development, and the transportation had played a fundamental role in the whole process, while the areas with high elevation or steep slope restricted the urbanization. Besides, the urban area would keep an expanding trend regardless of the scenarios, however, the expanding speed would slow down with different inflection points under different scenarios. The urban expansion speed increased in the sequence of the planning scenario, MESSAGE scenario and AIM scenario, and that under the MESSAGE climate scenario was more consistent with the current urban development trend. In addition, the urban expansion would mainly concentrate in regions with the relatively high urbanization level, e.g., Guangzhou, Dongguan, Foshan, Shenzhen, Zhanjiang and Chaoshan. PMID:25876417

  7. [Children enteroparasitosis in north east Argentine urban area].

    PubMed

    Milano, Alicia M F; Oscherov, Elena B; Palladino, Alberto C; Bar, Anibal R

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the importance of enteroparasitosis in a young urban population. The relationship between enteroparasitosis in this population and biological and environmental conditions was established for 113 infants between 0 and 14 years. Serial stool samples were analyzed and Graham tests were performed in each infant. The degree of nutrition of each infant was also assessed. Environmental data were collected via semi-structured surveys. Soil samples were tested to determine the degree of soil contamination. The following species were identified: Blastocystis hominis, Enterobius vermicularis, coccidios, Giardia intestinalis, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Taenia sp. Children infection prevalence was 73.5%. The frequency of enteroparasitosis was largest in the population from 3 to 8 years. The homes of the children analyzed were brick houses with tin roof and access to tap water. A 79.5% of these houses had bathrooms. The remaining used outdoors latrines. In 95.5% of these houses, the residents lived with one or more dogs and cats. The soil collected from nine houses was contaminated with infectious forms of Toxocara canis and ancilostomideos. The relationship between parasitosis and latrines and overcrowding was verified. Five cases of malnutrition were detected (4.4%). The relevance of physical and cultural factors in relation to enteric parasitosis suggests that the pharmacological treatment should be accompanied with preventive measures regarding hygiene and proper elimination of human and pet faeces. PMID:17628910

  8. Survey of emissivity variability in thermography of urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Artis, D.A.; Carnahan, W.H.

    1982-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of roof emissivity variation of aerial thermogram images. Thermograms have been used to detect heat loss from residential roofs. Emissivity variation among rooftops, however, can lead to a misrepresentation of the temperatures mapped in a thermogram image. The objectives of this study were (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of a technique to use remotely sensed data to calculate surface emissivities, and (2) to use that technique to determine the extent of emissivity variation in urban surfaces. In the first part of the experimental approach a passive technique is developed to calculate emissivity from two-band thermal infrared radiance data. In the second part of the experimental approach the technique was used to measure the emissivity of 1411 roofs within the city limits of Terre Haute, Indiana. Results of this survey indicated that over 98% of the roofs surveyed were confined to a very narrow range of emissivities. It is concluded that the observed variation in rooftop emissivities has a minimal effect on the temperatures depicted in thermograms.

  9. [Determinants of street drug use in urban areas].

    PubMed

    Angbo-Effi, Kachi Odile; Kouassi, Damus Paquin; Yao, Gnissan Henri Auguste; Douba, Alfred; Secki, Richmond; Kadjo, Alphonse

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study was conducted to assess street drug use in an urban setting. The study was conducted in Abidjan city center (Adjamé). The general aim of the study was to contribute to the fight against street drug consumption by identifying the determinants of drug use. The objectives of this paper are to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of street drug users, to determine the type of drugs purchased, and to identify the factors influencing drug purchase. Based on a sample of 300 individuals, the study found that the use of street drugs is a widespread phenomenon, as shown by its prevalence in the surveyed population (216 individuals out of a total of 300, i.e. 72% of the surveyed population). The study found that most drug users were young, male (32%) and worked in the informal sector. More than half of the drug users (58%) had a monthly income below 50,000 CFA and had no health insurance. The low cost of drugs was found to be the main reason for drug use (69%). The most commonly used drugs were analgesics (75%), antimalarial drugs (72%) and antibiotics (48%). Because of the lack of medical knowledge of drug sellers, drug users are exposed to serious health risks. The results of this study suggest the need for greater public awareness of the dangers of street drugs and emphasize the importance of promoting access to essential generic drugs. PMID:22365044

  10. Urban habitat complexity affects species richness but not environmental filtering of morphologically-diverse ants

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Michael A.; Christie, Fiona J.; Hahs, Amy K.; Livesley, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat complexity is a major determinant of structure and diversity of ant assemblages. Following the size-grain hypothesis, smaller ant species are likely to be advantaged in more complex habitats compared to larger species. Habitat complexity can act as an environmental filter based on species size and morphological traits, therefore affecting the overall structure and diversity of ant assemblages. In natural and semi-natural ecosystems, habitat complexity is principally regulated by ecological successions or disturbance such as fire and grazing. Urban ecosystems provide an opportunity to test relationships between habitat, ant assemblage structure and ant traits using novel combinations of habitat complexity generated and sustained by human management. We sampled ant assemblages in low-complexity and high-complexity parks, and high-complexity woodland remnants, hypothesizing that (i) ant abundance and species richness would be higher in high-complexity urban habitats, (ii) ant assemblages would differ between low- and high-complexity habitats and (iii) ants living in high-complexity habitats would be smaller than those living in low-complexity habitats. Contrary to our hypothesis, ant species richness was higher in low-complexity habitats compared to high-complexity habitats. Overall, ant assemblages were significantly different among the habitat complexity types investigated, although ant size and morphology remained the same. Habitat complexity appears to affect the structure of ant assemblages in urban ecosystems as previously observed in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the habitat complexity filter does not seem to be linked to ant morphological traits related to body size. PMID:26528416

  11. Urban habitat complexity affects species richness but not environmental filtering of morphologically-diverse ants.

    PubMed

    Ossola, Alessandro; Nash, Michael A; Christie, Fiona J; Hahs, Amy K; Livesley, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Habitat complexity is a major determinant of structure and diversity of ant assemblages. Following the size-grain hypothesis, smaller ant species are likely to be advantaged in more complex habitats compared to larger species. Habitat complexity can act as an environmental filter based on species size and morphological traits, therefore affecting the overall structure and diversity of ant assemblages. In natural and semi-natural ecosystems, habitat complexity is principally regulated by ecological successions or disturbance such as fire and grazing. Urban ecosystems provide an opportunity to test relationships between habitat, ant assemblage structure and ant traits using novel combinations of habitat complexity generated and sustained by human management. We sampled ant assemblages in low-complexity and high-complexity parks, and high-complexity woodland remnants, hypothesizing that (i) ant abundance and species richness would be higher in high-complexity urban habitats, (ii) ant assemblages would differ between low- and high-complexity habitats and (iii) ants living in high-complexity habitats would be smaller than those living in low-complexity habitats. Contrary to our hypothesis, ant species richness was higher in low-complexity habitats compared to high-complexity habitats. Overall, ant assemblages were significantly different among the habitat complexity types investigated, although ant size and morphology remained the same. Habitat complexity appears to affect the structure of ant assemblages in urban ecosystems as previously observed in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the habitat complexity filter does not seem to be linked to ant morphological traits related to body size. PMID:26528416

  12. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  13. The closed city as a strategy to reduce vulnerability of urban areas for climate change.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, R E; van de Giesen, N C; van de Ven, F H M

    2007-01-01

    Urbanization, land subsidence and sea level rise will increase vulnerability to droughts in the urbanized low-lying areas in the western part of the Netherlands. In this paper a possibility is explored to decrease vulnerability of urban areas by implementing an alternative water supply option. A four component vulnerability framework is presented that includes threshold capacity, coping capacity, recovery capacity and adaptive capacity. By using the vulnerability framework it is elaborated that current water supply strategies in the Netherlands mainly focus on increasing threshold capacity by constructing improved water storage and delivery infrastructure. A complete vulnerability decreasing strategy requires measures that include all four components. Adaptive capacity can be developed by starting experiments with new modes of water supply. A concept which is symbolically called 'the closed city' uses local urban rainfall as the only source of water supply. The 'closed city' can decrease the water dependence of urban areas on (1) the surrounding rural areas that are diminishing in size and that are increasingly under strain and (2) river water resources that will probably be less constant and reliable as a result of climate change. PMID:17851217

  14. Invertebrate response to changes in streamflow hydraulics in two urban areas in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, Rodney R.; Cuffney, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Stream hydrology is foundational to aquatic ecosystems and has been shown to be a structuring element for fish and invertebrates. The relations among urbanization, hydraulics, and invertebrate communities were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Water-Quality Assessment Program by using measures of stream hydraulics in two areas of the United States. Specifically, the hypothesis that the effects of urbanization on streamflow and aquatic biota are transferable across geographic regions was tested. Data from sites in Raleigh, North Carolina, and Milwaukee–Green Bay, Wisconsin, were compared and indicate that increasing urbanization has an effect on hydraulic characteristics (Reynolds number, shear stress, and stream power for example) in each metropolitan area, though limited commonality of significant correlations was noted between areas. Correspondence of significant correlations between invertebrate and hydraulic metrics between study areas also was limited. The links between urbanization, hydraulics, and invertebrates could be seen only in the Raleigh data. Connections among these three elements in the Milwaukee–Green Bay data were not clear and likely were obscured by antecedent land cover. Observed biotic differences due to hydrology and urbanization characteristics are not similar between geographic regions.

  15. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  16. A prediction model of signal degradation in LMSS for urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsudo, Takashi; Minamisono, Kenichi; Karasawa, Yoshio; Shiokawa, Takayasu

    1993-01-01

    A prediction model of signal degradation in a Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS) for urban areas is proposed. This model treats shadowing effects caused by buildings statistically and can predict a Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) of signal diffraction losses in urban areas as a function of system parameters such as frequency and elevation angle and environmental parameters such as number of building stories and so on. In order to examine the validity of the model, we compared the percentage of locations where diffraction losses were smaller than 6 dB obtained by the CDF with satellite visibility measured by a radiometer. As a result, it was found that this proposed model is useful for estimating the feasibility of providing LMSS in urban areas.

  17. Real-time modeling of complex atmospheric releases in urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1994-08-01

    If a nuclear installation in or near an urban area has a venting, fire, or explosion, airborne radioactivity becomes the major concern. Dispersion models are the immediate tool for estimating the dose and contamination. Responses in urban areas depend on knowledge of the amount of the release, representative meteorological data, and the ability of the dispersion model to simulate the complex flows as modified by terrain or local wind conditions. A centralized dispersion modeling system can produce realistic assessments of radiological accidents anywhere in a country within several minutes if it is computer-automated. The system requires source-term, terrain, mapping and dose-factor databases, real-time meteorological data acquisition, three-dimensional atmospheric transport and dispersion models, and experienced staff. Experience with past responses in urban areas by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory illustrate the challenges for three-dimensional dispersion models.

  18. Automatic Classification of coarse density LiDAR data in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, H. M.; Moussa, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2014-06-01

    The classification of different objects in the urban area using airborne LIDAR point clouds is a challenging problem especially with low density data. This problem is even more complicated if RGB information is not available with the point clouds. The aim of this paper is to present a framework for the classification of the low density LIDAR data in urban area with the objective to identify buildings, vehicles, trees and roads, without the use of RGB information. The approach is based on several steps, from the extraction of above the ground objects, classification using PCA, computing the NDSM and intensity analysis, for which a correction strategy was developed. The airborne LIDAR data used to test the research framework are of low density (1.41 pts/m2) and were taken over an urban area in San Diego, California, USA. The results showed that the proposed framework is efficient and robust for the classification of objects.

  19. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rural and urban areas of northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongqijie; Chen, Jiwei; Shen, Huizhong; Shen, Guofeng; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Tang, Jianhui; Li, Qingbo; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Tao, Shu

    2014-09-01

    Air pollution in rural China has often been ignored, especially for the less developed west China. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured monthly at 11 rural sites (5 rural villages and 6 rural fields) together with 7 urban stations in northern China between April 2010 and March 2011. PAH concentrations at rural village sites were similar to those in urban areas and significantly higher than those in rural fields, indicating severe contamination in rural villages. PAH concentrations in the west were similar to those in the more developed North China Plain, and higher than those along the coast. Such a geographical distribution is mainly caused by the differences in residential energy consumption and meteorological conditions, which can explain approximately 48% of the total variation in PAH concentrations. With heavy dependence on biofuel combustion for heating, seasonality in rural areas is more profound than that in urban areas. PMID:24905256

  20. Size distributions, sources and source areas of water-soluble organic carbon in urban background air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timonen, H.; Saarikoski, S.; Tolonen-Kivimäki, O.; Aurela, M.; Saarnio, K.; Petäjä, T.; Aalto, P. P.; Kulmala, M.; Pakkanen, T.; Hillamo, R.

    2008-04-01

    This paper represents the results of one year long measurement period of the size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), inorganic ions and gravimetric mass of particulate matter. Measurements were done at an urban background station (SMEAR III) by using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). The site is located in northern European boreal region in Helsinki, Finland. The WSOC size distribution measurements were completed with the chemical analysis of inorganic ions, organic carbon (OC) and monosaccharide anhydrides from the filter samples. During the measurements gravimetric mass in the MOUDI collections varied between 3.4 and 55.0 μg m-3 and the WSOC concentration was between 0.3 and 7.4 μg m-3. On average, water-soluble particulate organic matter (WSPOM, WSOC multiplied by 1.6) comprised 25±7.7% and 7.5±3.4% of aerosol PM1 mass and the PM1-10 mass, respectively. Inorganic ions contributed 33±12% and 28±19% of the analyzed PM1 and PM1-10 aerosol mass. Five different aerosol categories corresponding to different sources or source areas were identified (long-range transport aerosols, biomass burning aerosols from wild land fires and from small-scale wood combustion, aerosols originating from marine areas and from the clean arctic areas). Clear differences in WSOC concentrations and size distributions originating from different sources or source areas were observed, although there are also many other factors which might affect the results. E.g. the local conditions and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aerosols as well as various transformation processes are likely to have an impact on the measured aerosol composition. Using the source categories, it was identified that especially the oxidation products of biogenic VOCs in summer had a clear effect on WSOC concentrations.

  1. Problems of mapping natural hazard impact on technological systems and urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilova, S.; Petrova, E. G.

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays the GIS analysis plays a very important role in natural hazard management and can be widely used in different fields of researching natural hazard impacts on the technosphere and society. However all the data for GIS analysis should be georeferenced. The large-scale mapping can be done easily, but we always face the problem of precision when dealing with medium and small scales. We have to place on the map the exact location of each event using its precise geographic coordinates, if we are going to investigate space distribution of natural disasters and technological accidents triggered by them. We can map the real place of their occurrences using the large scale. However the small- and medium-scale mapping usually deals with "dots" or "points"; so it doesn't show the exact location where disaster happened, but only indicates a region of occurrence. In urban areas, where the population density as well as a concentration of industrial and infrastructure facilities is especially high, the number of accidents triggered by various natural hazards is bigger than in sparsely populated areas. Thereby, there will be high concentration of "dots" that mark these accidents and an overlapping is inevitable. This is a real mapping problem not only because of deformed visualization, but also for different possibilities of GIS analyses. It is also very important to show in the mapping area of natural disaster different kinds of linear objects (such as roads, railways, power lines, pipelines, etc.) as well as other social and economic objects, which can be affected by natural hazards. There are some ways of solving that kind of problems; for example, different types of natural events can be shown differently, depending on their severity, but in general the strict rules of georeferencing natural disasters in medium and small scales should be invented depending on the nature of phenomena, their influence on the area and needs of the maps' user.

  2. Prevalence of Chikungunya in Urban Field Practice Area of a Private Medical College, Chennai

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramaniam, Sudharsanam M; Krishnakumar, J; Stephen, Thattiparthi; Gaur, Rashmi; Appavoo, NC

    2011-01-01

    Background: The outbreak of Chikungunya in India started during December 2005 with more than 11,00,000 cases. Many cases with symptoms suggestive of Chikungunya reported to our urban health-training centre. Hence this study was done to estimate the prevalence of Chikungunya, to study the common treatment-seeking behavior, control measures and the sequalae of Chikungunya by follow-up. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in Anagaputhur an urban field practice area of our college. The study was done on a sample selected by systematic random sampling. Any person with fever and joint pain, with an onset from 1 August 2006 to 31 August 2006, were enrolled as cases. The cases were followed up after three months. Results: Chikungunya prevalence in the community was 22.3%; 52% of them were females and 56% of cases were in the 15-44 years age group. Median duration of acute phase was three days. Ninety-one percent of them had multiple joints’ involvement. Seventy-eight percent sought treatment from the private sector. Sixty-seven percent reported artificial collections of water around their household and 44% complained of mosquito problems during the day. Eighty-eight percent used mosquito repellents for personal protection. On follow-up 95% of them had residual joint pain, 43% had residual joint swelling and 11% had disabilities with median duration of 30 days. Conclusions: Prevalence of Chikungunya was 22.3%, predominantly affecting the age group of 15-44 years and females. The private sector was commonly sought for treatment. Entomological survey indicated Aedes breeding. Eleven percent had disabilities due to the sequelae. PMID:21976797

  3. Effects of urban development on stormwater runoff characteristics for the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liscum, Fred

    2001-01-01

    A study was done to estimate the effects of urban development in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area on nine stormwater runoff characteristics. Three of the nine characteristics define the magnitude of stormwater runoff, and the remaining six characteristics describe the shape and duration of a storm hydrograph. Multiple linear regression was used to develop equations to estimate the nine stormwater runoff characteristics from basin and rainfall characteristics. Five basin characteristics and five rainfall characteristics were tested in the regressions to determine which basin and rainfall characteristics significantly affect stormwater runoff characteristics. Basin development factor was found to be significant in equations for eight of the nine stormwater runoff characteristics. Two sets of equations were developed, one for each of two regions based on soil type, from a database containing 1,089 storm discharge hydrographs for 42 sites compiled during 1964?89. The effects of urban development on the eight stormwater runoff characteristics were quantified by varying basin development factor in the equations and recomputing the stormwater runoff characteristics. The largest observed increase in basin development factor for region 1 (north of Buffalo Bayou) during the study resulted in corresponding increases in the characteristics that define magnitude of stormwater runoff ranging from about 40 percent (for direct runoff) to 235 percent (for peak yield); and corresponding decreases in the characteristics that describe hydrograph shape and duration ranging from about 22 percent (for direct runoff duration) to about 58 percent (for basin lag). The largest observed increase in basin development factor for region 2 (south of Buffalo Bayou) during the study resulted in corresponding increases in the characteristics that define magnitude of stormwater runoff ranging from about 33 percent (for direct runoff) to about 210 percent (for both peak flow and peak yield); and

  4. Regional urban area extraction using DMSP-OLS data and MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Cai, C.; Li, P. J.

    2014-03-01

    Stable night lights data from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Line-scan System (OLS) provide a unique proxy for anthropogenic development. This paper proposed two new methods of extracting regional urban extents using DMSP-OLS data, MODIS NDVI data and Land Surface Temperature (LST) data. MODIS NDVI data were used to reduce the over-glow effect, since urban areas generally have lower vegetation index values than the surrounding areas (e.g. agricultural and forest areas). On the other hand, urban areas generally show higher surface temperatures than the surrounding areas. Since urban area is the only class of interest, a one-class classifier, the One-Class Support Vector Machine (OCSVM), was selected as the classifier. The first method is classification of different data combinations for mapping: (1) OLS data and NDVI data, (2) OLS data and LST data, and (3) OLS data, NDVI data and LST data combined. The second one is a morphological reconstruction based method which combines classification results from OLS plus NDVI data and from OLS plus LST data. In the morphological reconstruction based method, the classification result using OLS and NDVI data was used as a mask image, while the classification result using OLS and LST data was used as a marker image. The north China area covering 14 provinces was selected as study area. Classification results from Landsat TM/ETM+ data from selected areas with different development levels were used as reference data to validate the proposed methods. The results show that the proposed methods effectively reduced the over-glow effect caused by DSMP-OLS data and achieved better results compared to the results from the traditional thresholding technique. The combination of all three datasets produces more accurate results than those of using any two datasets. The proposed morphological reconstruction based method achieves the best result in urban extent mapping.

  5. Soil respiration contributes substantially to urban carbon fluxes in the greater Boston area.

    PubMed

    Decina, Stephen M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Gately, Conor K; Getson, Jackie M; Reinmann, Andrew B; Short Gianotti, Anne G; Templer, Pamela H

    2016-05-01

    Urban areas are the dominant source of U.S. fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions. In the absence of binding international treaties or decisive U.S. federal policy for greenhouse gas regulation, cities have also become leaders in greenhouse gas reduction efforts through climate action plans. These plans focus on anthropogenic carbon flows only, however, ignoring a potentially substantial contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations from biological respiration. Our aim was to measure the contribution of CO2 efflux from soil respiration to atmospheric CO2 fluxes using an automated CO2 efflux system and to use these measurements to model urban soil CO2 efflux across an urban area. We find that growing season soil respiration is dramatically enhanced in urban areas and represents levels of CO2 efflux of up to 72% of FFCO2 within greater Boston's residential areas, and that soils in urban forests, lawns, and landscaped cover types emit 2.62 ± 0.15, 4.49 ± 0.14, and 6.73 ± 0.26 μmolCO2 m(-2) s(-1), respectively, during the growing season. These rates represent up to 2.2 times greater soil respiration than rates found in nearby rural ecosystems in central Massachusetts (MA), a potential consequence of imported carbon amendments, such as mulch, within a general regime of landowner management. As the scientific community moves rapidly towards monitoring, reporting, and verification of CO2 emissions using ground based approaches and remotely-sensed observations to measure CO2 concentrations, our results show that measurement and modeling of biogenic urban CO2 fluxes will be a critical component for verification of urban climate action plans. PMID:26914093

  6. Preliminary analysis of hazardous air pollutant emission inventories from three major urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.W.; Campbell, D.; Murphy, P.; Smith, R.

    1993-01-01

    The paper reports EPA/AEERL's progress on emissions inventory evaluation and improvement under a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions research program in support of the Urban Area Source Program required under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The paper summarizes results of three current projects and indicates HAP emissions inventory needs. HAP inventories for three urban areas--Chicago, San Francisco, and Seattle/Tacoma--were analyzed to identify area sources as defined in the CAAA. One inventory focused on area sources; the other two were basically point source inventories that had facilities that met the area source definition. The HAPs that contribute most of the area source emissions in each inventory were identified, and 22 HAPs that were common to the inventories were selected for further analysis.

  7. Relation of urbanization to stream fish assemblages and species traits in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Larry R.; Gregory, M. Brian; May, Jason T.

    2009-01-01

    We examined associations of fish assemblages and fish traits with urbanization and selected environmental variables in nine major United States metropolitan areas. The strongest relations between fishes and urbanization occurred in the metropolitan areas of Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; and Portland, Oregon. In these areas, environmental variables with strong associations (rs ≥ 0.70) with fish assemblages and fish traits tended to have strong associations with urbanization. Relations of urbanization with fish assemblages and fish traits were weaker in Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Raleigh, North Carolina. Environmental variables associated with fishes varied among the metropolitan areas. The metropolitan areas with poor relations may have had a limited range of possible response because of previous landscape disturbances. Given the complexities of urban landscapes in different metropolitan areas, our results indicate that caution is warranted when generalizing about biological responses to urbanization.

  8. Inhalation of motor vehicle emissions: effects of urban population and land area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Julian D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; Nazaroff, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Urban population density may influence transportation demand, e.g., as expressed through average daily vehicle-kilometers traveled in private motor vehicles per capita. In turn, changes in transportation demand influence total passenger vehicle emissions to which populations are exposed. Population density can also influence the fraction of total emissions that are inhaled by the exposed urban population. Equations are presented that describe these relationships for an idealized representation of an urban area. Using analytic solutions to these equations, we investigate the effect of three changes in urban population and urban land area (infill, sprawl, and constant-density growth) on per capita inhalation intake of primary pollutants from passenger vehicles. For the system considered, the magnitude of these effects depends on density-emissions elasticity (εe) , a normalized derivative relating change in population density to change in vehicle emissions. For example, based on the idealized representation of the emissions-to-intake relationship presented herein, if urban population increases, then per capita intake is less with infill development than with constant-density growth if εe is <-0.5, while for εe >-0.5, the reverse is true.

  9. Debris Flow Vulnerability Assessment in Urban Area Associated with Landslide Hazard Map : Application to Busan, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okjeong, Lee; Yoonkyung, Park; Mookwang, Sung; Sangdan, Kim

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation, an urban debris flow disaster vulnerability assessment methodology is suggested with major focus on urban social and economic aspect. The proposed methodology is developed based on the landslide hazard maps that Korean Forest Service has utilized to identify landslide source areas. Frist, debris flows are propagated to urban areas from such source areas by Flow-R model, and then urban vulnerability is evaluated by two categories; physical and socio-economic aspect. The physical vulnerability is associated to buildings that can be broken down by a landslide event directly. This study considers two popular building structure types, reinforced concrete frame and non-reinforced concretes frame, to evaluate the physically-based vulnerability. The socio-economic vulnerability is measured as a function of the resistant levels of the exposed people, the intensity and magnitude of indirect or intangible losses, and preparedness level of the local government. An indicator-based model is established to evaluate the life and indirect loss under urban debris flow disasters as well as the resilience ability against disasters. To illuminate the validity of the suggested methodology, physical and socio-economic vulnerability levels are investigated for Daejeon, Korea using the proposed approach. The results reveal that the higher population density areas under a weaker fiscal condition that are located at the downstream of mountainous areas are more vulnerable than the areas in opposite conditions. Key words: Debris flow disasters, Physical vulnerability, Socio-economic Vulnerability, Urban Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant(13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport(MOLIT) of Korea government and Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement(KAIA).

  10. The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.; Mykleby, P.

    2012-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, changes in the local meteorology, and an increase in thermal pollution into urban water bodies. One mitigation strategy involves manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. As part of this project, we have been characterizing the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), a 16,000 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming. Annually, the TCMA has a modest 2-3°C UHI that is especially apparent in winter when the urban core can be up to 5-6°C warmer than the surrounding countryside. We present an analysis of regional temperature variations from a dense network of sensors located throughout the TCMA. We focus on the diurnal and seasonal

  11. Sourcing dry N deposition in urban areas and implications for national N inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redling, K. M.; Elliott, E. M.; Hom, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Fossil fuel combustion from point (e.g. power plants) and mobile (e.g. automobiles) sources in urban areas is a key contributor to dry nitrogen deposition. However, relative to rural areas, atmospheric N deposition in urban areas is poorly characterized because monitoring of reactive N deposition by national networks is primarily conducted at remote locations. For example, the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET), the dry deposition monitoring network in the U.S., intentionally locates sites in rural areas to capture regional background levels of deposition. This may potentially underestimate the amount of atmospheric N reaching the land surface, as it does not take into account hotspots of N deposition near area sources of pollution, such as roadways and urban locations. Furthermore, vegetation in urban environments represents a potentially important sink for atmospheric inputs of reactive N, and understanding the nutrient dynamics of vegetation in urban ecosystems is critical to understanding N budgets. However, little is known about how urban ecosystems compensate for higher local N loading received via depositional processes. This study couples passive sampling of dry N deposition and plant biomonitors to delineate the sources and magnitude of N deposition to urban and rural areas and associated influence on local vegetation. Research sites consisted of two urban to rural transects, one in Baltimore, MD and the other in Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Passive samplers were deployed at urban, suburban and rural sites for five months to collect dry N deposition (NO2, HNO3 and NH3) for analysis of both concentration and stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N). This method provides a straightforward and inexpensive approach for monitoring N deposition and sources across large spatial gradients for extended time periods. Additionally, we deployed grasses as biomonitors along the urban to rural gradients to assess the influence of excess dry N deposition on isotopic

  12. Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

  13. The Macroecology of Airborne Pollen in Australian and New Zealand Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Haberle, Simon G.; Bowman, David M. J. S.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Johnston, Fay H.; Beggs, Paul J.; Buters, Jeroen; Campbell, Bradley; Erbas, Bircan; Godwin, Ian; Green, Brett J.; Huete, Alfredo; Jaggard, Alison K.; Medek, Danielle; Murray, Frank; Newbigin, Ed; Thibaudon, Michel; Vicendese, Don; Williamson, Grant J.; Davies, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    The composition and relative abundance of airborne pollen in urban areas of Australia and New Zealand are strongly influenced by geographical location, climate and land use. There is mounting evidence that the diversity and quality of airborne pollen is substantially modified by climate change and land-use yet there are insufficient data to project the future nature of these changes. Our study highlights the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in Australian and New Zealand urban areas in a systematic, standardised, and sustained way, and provides a framework for targeting the most clinically significant taxa in terms of abundance, allergenic effects and public health burden. PMID:24874807

  14. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation. 412.102 Section 412...: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic... additional amount that equals two-thirds of the difference between the urban standardized amount...

  15. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation. 412.102 Section 412...: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic... additional amount that equals two-thirds of the difference between the urban standardized amount...

  16. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation. 412.102 Section 412...: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic... additional amount that equals two-thirds of the difference between the urban standardized amount...

  17. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation. 412.102 Section 412...: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic... additional amount that equals two-thirds of the difference between the urban standardized amount...

  18. Bayesian spatiotemporal modelling for the assessment of short-term exposure to particle pollution in urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Pirani, Monica; Gulliver, John; Fuller, Gary W; Blangiardo, Marta

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian hierarchical approach to predict short-term concentrations of particle pollution in an urban environment, with application to inhalable particulate matter (PM10) in Greater London. We developed and compared several spatiotemporal models that differently accounted for factors affecting the spatiotemporal properties of particle concentrations. We considered two main source contributions to ambient measurements: (i) the long-range transport of the secondary fraction of particles, which temporal variability was described by a latent variable derived from rural concentrations; and (ii) the local primary component of particles (traffic- and non-traffic-related) captured by the output of the dispersion model ADMS-Urban, which site-specific effect was described by a Bayesian kriging. We also assessed the effect of spatiotemporal covariates, including type of site, daily temperature to describe the seasonal changes in chemical processes affecting local PM10 concentrations that are not considered in local-scale dispersion models and day of the week to account for time-varying emission rates not available in emissions inventories. The evaluation of the predictive ability of the models, obtained via a cross-validation approach, revealed that concentration estimates in urban areas benefit from combining the city-scale particle component and the long-range transport component with covariates that account for the residual spatiotemporal variation in the pollution process. PMID:24280683

  19. Simulations of the Urban Planetary Boundary Layer in an Arid Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman-Clarke, Susanne; Liu, Yubao; Zehnder, Joseph A.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2008-03-15

    Characteristics of the summertime urban planetary boundary layer (PBL) were investigated for the arid Phoenix (Arizona, USA) metropolitan region using simulated data as well as observations from two field campaigns conducted in May/June 1998 and June 2001. A version of the fifth-generation PSU/NCAR mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) was applied that included a refined land cover classification and updated land use/cover data for Phoenix as well as bulk approaches of characteristics of the urban surface energy balance. Planetary boundary layer processes were simulated by a modified version of MM5¹s non-local closure Medium Range Forecast (MRF) scheme that was enhanced by new surface flux and non-local mixing approaches to better capture near-surface wind speeds and the evolution of the planetary boundary layer. Simulated potential temperature profiles were tested against radiosonde data, indicating that the PBL scheme was able to simulate the evolution and height of the PBL with good accuracy and better than the original MRF scheme. During both simulation periods, MM5¹s performance for near-surface meteorological variables in the urban area was consistently improved by the modifications applied to the standard MM5. The results showed that the urban PBL evolved faster after sunrise than the rural PBL due to the reminiscence of the nighttime urban heat island and its influence on the flow field and surface sensible heat fluxes. During afternoon hours the urban PBL was lower than the rural PBL due to the higher water availability for evaporation in the urban area and accompanying lower sensible heat fluxes. No consistent differences between the urban and rural PBL were detected during nighttime because of deviations in air flow and accompanying wind shear.

  20. Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lnkao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Matthias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Human settlements, both large and small, are where the vast majority of people on the Earth live. Expansion of cities both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process that will accelerate in the 21st century. As a consequence of urban growth both in the United States and around the globe, it is important to develop an understanding of how urbanization will affect the local and regional environment. Of equal importance, however, is the assessment of how cities will be impacted by the looming prospects of global climate change and climate variability. The potential impacts of climate change and variability has recently been annunciated by the IPCC's "Climate Change 2007" report. Moreover, the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is preparing a series of "Synthesis and Assessment Products" (SAPs) reports to support informed discussion and decision making regarding climate change and variability by policy matters, resource managers, stakeholders, the media, and the general public. We are authors on a SAP describing the effects of global climate change on human settlements. This paper will present the elements of our SAP report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e

  1. The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.; Hertel, W.

    2011-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) develop when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings. The difference in temperature between the city core and its surroundings is proportional to the size of the city and can be related to differences in vegetation cover, the amount of development, building materials, and the infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, and changes in the local meteorology. To begin to address UHI mitigation strategies, a comprehensive spatial and temporal analysis of the behavior of urban heat islands is necessary. Because the influence of UHIs is most notable in wintertime, solutions to mitigate them are compounded because of societal resistance to modifying the landscape and urban structures to reduce already low wintertime temperatures. To better understand the UHI behavior of a large northern latitude city and to evaluate mitigation strategies that have the desired effect year round, we have embarked on a comprehensive four-year research program - Islands in the Sun - aimed at 1) analyzing the UHIs of the largest urban areas on the planet, 2) monitoring the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming, and 3) developing a numerical UHI model to quantify the effect of different mitigation strategies. Here we present results from an observational study of the TCMA, a 7,700 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul. The TCMA is home to 2.8 million residents within a seven county area comprising an

  2. A novel overall approach for sediment-related disaster prevention in urban areas, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongyeob; Lee, Changwoo; Woo, Choongshik; Jeong, Seonhwan

    2015-04-01

    In South Korea, we had 140 landslides around Mt. Umyeon of Seoul city on July 27, 2011, which caused 16 deaths and more than 150 house damages. These landslides were triggered by a severe rainfall event with the total amount of 365 mm, equivalent to a 100-year-recurrence interval event. The landslide disaster in Mt. Umyeon is the first sediment-related disaster posing the significant serious damages to urban areas in South Korea which requires overall reconsideration about prevention, warning, countermeasure and rehabilitation to sediment-related disasters in urban areas. To meet such demands of society, the Korea Forest Research Institute (KFRI), competent to the sediment-related disasters research, is committed to conducting on a research project of development of a prevention system for sediment-related disasters in urban areas including non-structural countermeasures such as construction of landslide early warning system and structural ones such as development of urban-typed debris flow barriers. Of these countermeasures, a proto-type of landslide early warning system consisting of a variety of sensors such as soil moisture content sensor and tensiometer has been tested in-situ in a point view of system performance maintenance. We have also tried to find the threshold of the sensors by slope failure experiments. Meanwhile, two types of debris flow barriers for urban areas were developed and their functioning abilities have been tested by both of flume test and computational structure analysis. We hope these research results would mitigate potential damages efficiently by sediment-related disasters in urban areas.

  3. Impacts of urban expansion and future green planting on summer precipitation in the Beijing metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao Lin; Chen, Fei; Miao, Shi Guang; Li, Qing Chun; Xia, Xiang Ao; Xuan, Chun Yi

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an analysis of long-term rainfall data reveals that the rapid urban expansion in Beijing since 1981 is statistically correlated to summer rainfall reduction in the northeast areas of Beijing from 1981 to 2005. This coincides with the period in which the shortage of water in the Beijing area has become a serious factor for sustainable economic development. Meanwhile, an analysis of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer spanning the years from 1980 to 2001 shows that there is no clear secular trend in summer AOD in Beijing. With the particular purpose of further understanding the effects of urban expansion on summer rainfall and the potential measures to mitigate such effects, a mesoscale weather/land-surface/urban-coupled model along with different urban land-use change scenarios are used to conduct numerical simulations for two selected heavy summer rainfall events with different, but representative, summer weather patterns in Beijing. Results show that urban expansion can produce less evaporation, higher surface temperatures, larger sensible heat fluxes, and a deeper boundary layer. This leads to less water vapor, more mixing of water vapor in the boundary layer, and hence less (more) convective available potential energy (convective inhibition energy). The combination of these factors induced by expanding urban surfaces is helpful in reducing precipitation for the Beijing area in general and, in particular, for the Miyun reservoir area (the major source for the local water supply). Increasing green vegetation coverage in the Beijing area would produce more rainfall, and model results show that planting grass seems more effective than planting trees. For the same vegetation, the rainfall difference from simulations using two green-planting layouts (annular and cuneiform) is small.

  4. Hydrologic data for urban storm runoff in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Johnnie W.; Doefer, John T.

    1982-01-01

    Urban storm-runoff data collected from April through September 1981 from nine Denver Nationwide Urban Runoff Program sites, urban storm-runoff data collected from April 1980 through September 1981 from ten South Platte River Study sites, and rainfall-runoff simulation data from two sites for June 1980 and May 1981 are presented in this report. The Denver Nationwide Urban Runoff Program sites were two single-family residential areas, two multifamily residential areas, one commercial area (shopping center), one mixed commercial and multifamily residential area, one natural area (open space), and two detention ponds. The South Platte River Study sites were six tributaries of the South Platte River and four instream sites on the South Platte River. The tributary sites were Bear Creek at mouth, at Sheridan; Harvard Gulch at Harvard Park, at Denver; Sanderson Gulch at mouth, at Denver; Weir Gulch at mouth, at Denver; Lakewood Gulch at mouth, at Denver; and Cherry Creek at Denver. The instream sites were South Platte River at Littleton; South Platte River at Florida Avenue, at Denver; South Platte River at Denver; and South Platte River at 50th Avenue, at Denver. The rainfall-runoff simulation sites were North Avenue at Denver Federal Center, at Lakewood and Rooney Gulch at Rooney Ranch, near Morrison. Precipitation, rainfall-runoff, water-quality data, and basin characteristics were collected at the urban storm-runoff sites. The urban storm-runoff data may be used to characterize runoff loading for various land-use types in Denver and other semiarid regions. (USGS)

  5. The effects of urban areas on benthic macroinvertebrates in two Colorado Plains rivers.

    PubMed

    Voelz, Neal J; Zuellig, Robert E; Shieh, Sen-Her; Ward, J V

    2005-02-01

    Water demands in arid and semi-arid areas, coupled with increased human populations and concomitant changes in land use, can greatly alter aquatic ecosystems. A good example of this type of system occurs along the eastern slope of the Colorado Rocky Mountains, U.S.A. Long-term macroinvertebrate metric data from the Big Thompson and Cache la Poudre Rivers, Colorado, were collected at one site above, and three sites in and downstream from urban areas. These data were compared both with regional reference and single reference sites in the respective rivers. Using the surrogate variables of potential urban impact (population and housing units), and the environmental gradient represented primarily by chemical factors, it was determined that there was an effect of urban land use that was reflected in the macroinvertebrate assemblages in both rivers. The most robust results were usually seen when regional reference data were used. However, even using only the upstream reference site in either river indicated some negative impacts from the urban areas. The long-term data, particularly in the Cache la Poudre River, showed that water quality has not been getting worse and there is some evidence of a slight improvement in downstream reaches, even with increased urban development. PMID:15736883

  6. Comparative Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emissions across Large Urban Areas in the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patarasuk, R.; Gurney, K. R.; O'Keeffe, D.; Song, Y.; Rao, P.; Huang, J.; Razlivanov, I. N.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion represents the single largest net annual flux of carbon into the atmosphere. Even though urban areas cover only 2% of the earth's surface, they contribute about 70% of global carbon emissions. We aim to conduct a comparative analysis of fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions in three large urban areas across different regions in the U.S. based on our spatially-explicit Hestia approach, called the 'Hestia Project'. This research effort is the first to use bottom-up methods to quantify all FFCO2 emissions down to the scale of individual buildings, road segments, and industrial/electricity production facilities on an hourly basis for an entire urban landscape. The Hestia method relies on a large swath of input data such as criteria pollutant emissions reporting, stack monitoring, census data, tax assessor parcel data and traffic monitoring. The urban areas quantified with the Hestia approach include Indianapolis, Salt Lake City, and the Los Angeles Basin (encompassing over 80 cities). A comparative analysis will provide a better understanding of how and why FFCO2 emissions differ across time and space. We examine various factors such as heating/cooling degree days, population, GDP, industrial profile and building age. The study seeks to answer the following questions: 1) How and why do FFCO2 differ across the cities/regions? 2) What drives the different temporal profile of urban emissions? and 3) How do these vary across and within the urban landscape? The results from the study will benefit city planners and other stakeholders in managing urban development and greenhouse gas emissions mitigation.

  7. Soil-water interactions: implications for the sustainability of urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.

    2015-04-01

    Cities have become recently the home for more than half of the world's population. Cities are often seen as ecological systems just a short step away from collapse [Newman 2006]. Being a human construction, cities disrupt the natural cycles and the patterns of temporal and spatial distribution of environmental and ecological processes. Urbanization produces ruptures in biota, water, energy and nutrients connectivity that can lead to an enhanced exposure to disruptive events that hamper the wellbeing and the resilience of urban communities in a global change context. And yet, mankind can't give up of these structures one step away from collapse. In this paper we visit the ongoing research at the Ribeira dos Covões peri-urban catchment, as the basis to discuss several important processes and relations in the water-soil interface: A] the impact of the build environment and consequently the increase of the impervious area on the generation and magnitude of hydrological processes at different scales, the impact on flash flood risk and the mitigation approaches. B] the pollutant sources transport and fade in urban areas, with particular emphasis in the role of vegetation and soils in the transmission of pollutants from the atmosphere to the soil and to the water processes. C] the use and the environmental services of the urban ecosystems (where the relations of water, soil and vegetation have a dominate role) to promote a better risk and resources governance. D] the special issue of urban agriculture, where all the promises of sustainability and threats to wellbeing interact, and where the soil and water relations in urban areas are more significant and have the widest and deepest implications.

  8. Integration of spectral information and photogrammetric DSM for urban areas classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nex, F.; Dalla Mura, M.; Remondino, F.

    2013-10-01

    The automated classification of urban areas in one of the main topic in the Geomatics domain. Several papers dealing with this topic have been already presented in the last decade. Most of these approaches uses multi-spectral or LiDAR data or both of them as input. In this paper, an algorithm for urban areas classification based only on overlapping RGB images is presented. The integration of radiometric and geometric information derived from aerial images is exploited in order to extract the three main classes of urban areas (i.e. building, vegetation and road) in automated way and without prior information. A photogrammetric Digital Surface Model (DSM) is firstly generated applying dense image matching techniques and this information as well as some spatial features provided by morphological filters are combined to derive a first classification. Subsequently, a thematic classification of the surveyed areas is performed considering the surface's reflectance in the visible spectrum of the used images and the multi-image information provided by the overlapping images. Range and image information are so merged in an algorithm that allows the reciprocal and iterative sharing of information in order to increase the reliability and completeness of the classification process. After a detailed description of the algorithm, the achieved results over dense urban areas are shown and discussed.

  9. Monitoring urban growth and detecting land-cover changes on the Istanbul metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Geymen, Abdurrahman; Baz, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Istanbul is the most populated city of Turkey with a population of around 10.58 M (2000) living on around 5,750 km2. In 1980, the population was only 4.7 M and then it has been more than doubled in only two decades. The population has been increasing as a result of mass immigration. An urbanization process continues and it causes serious increases in urban areas while decreasing the amount of green areas. This rapid, uncontrolled, and illegal urbanization accompanied by insufficient infrastructure has caused degradation of forest and barren lands in the metropolitan area, especially through the last two decades. The watershed basins inside the metropolitan area and the transportation network have accelerated the land-cover changes, which have negative impacts on water quality of the basins. Monitoring urban growth and land cover change will enable better management of this complex urban area by the Greater Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (GIMM). A temporal assessment of land-cover changes of Istanbul has been documented in this study. The study mainly focuses on the acquisition and analysis of Landsat TM and Landsat GeoCover LC satellite images reflecting the significant land-cover changes between the years of 1990 and 2005. Raster data were converted to vector data and used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A database was created for Istanbul metropolitan area to plan, manage, and utilize statistical attribute data covering population, water, forest, industry, and topographic position. Consequently an overlay analysis was carried out and land use/cover changes through years have been detected for the case study area. The capability of Landsat images in determining the alterations in the macro form of the city are also discussed. PMID:17380412

  10. Paleoseismic targets, seismic hazard, and urban areas in the Central and Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Published geologic information from the central and eastern United States identifies 83 faults, groups of sand blows, named seismic zones, and other geological features as known or suspected products of Quaternary tectonic faulting. About one fifth of the features are known to contain faulted Quaternary materials or seismically induced liquefaction phenomena, but the origin and associated seismic hazard of most of the other features remain uncertain. Most of the features are in or near large urban areas. The largest cluster of features is in the Boston-Washington urban corridor (2005 estimated population: 50 million). The proximity of most features to populous areas identifies paleoseismic targets with potential to impact urban-hazard estimates.

  11. Hydrogeology and water quality of a surficial aquifer underlying an urban area, Manchester, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullaney, John R.; Grady, Stephen J.

    1997-01-01

    ground-water quality extends to the bottom of the surficial aquifer. The age of ground water, as determined by tritium and 3helium concentrations, was 0.9 to 22.6 years. pH, alkalinity, and calcium were higher and concentrations of dissolved oxygen were lower in ground-water samples with ages of 10 years or more than in samples younger than 10 years. In addition, concentrations of sodium, chloride, and nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen were low in ground-water samples with ages of 10 years or more, indicating that concentrations of these compounds may be increasing with time or that the recharge areas to these wells may have had less intensive urban land use. Methyl-tert-butyl ether was detected only in wells with ground water ages of less than 11 years, which is consistent with the date of introduction of this compound as a gasoline additive in Connecticut. Analysis of additional samples collected for analysis of stable nitrogen isotopes indicated that the most likely source of elevated concentrations of nitrate nitrogen was lawn and garden fertilizers, but other sources, including wastewater effluents, soil organic nitrogen, and atmospheric deposition, may contribute to the total. Population density was positively correlated (at the 97 percent confidence level) to concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen. Water quality in the Hockanum River aquifer has been degraded by human activities, and, after discharge to surface water, affects the water quality in the Hockanum River. On an annual basis, ground-water discharge from the study area to the river (as measured at a downstream continuous-record gaging station) contributes about 5 percent of the annual load of nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, but, during low flow, contributes 11 percent of the nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, 32 percent of the calcium, and 16 percent of the chloride to the river.

  12. Geospatial Strategy for Adverse Impact of Urban Heat Island in upper atmospheres of the earth Mountain Areas using LANDSAT ETM+ Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Vandana, Vandana

    2016-07-01

    We are living in the age of the rapidly growing population and changing environmental conditions with advanced technical capacity. This has been resulting in widespread land cover change. Among several human-induced environmental and urban thermal problems are reported to be negatively affecting urban residents in many ways. Urban Heat Islands exist in many large cities especially metropolitan cities and can significantly affect the permafrost layer in mountain areas. The adverse effect of urban heat island has become the subject of numerous studies in recent decades and is reflected in many major mountain cities around the world. The built-up structures in urbanized areas considerably alter land cover thereby affecting thermal energy flow which leads to the development of elevated surface and air temperature. The phenomenon Urban Heat Island implies 'island' of high temperature in cities, surrounded by relatively lower temperature in rural areas. The Urban Heat Island for the temporal period is estimated using geospatial techniques which are then utilized for the impact assessment of the climate of the surrounding regions and how it reduce the sustainability of the natural resources like air, vegetation. The knowledge of surface temperature is important for the study of urban climate and human health. The rapid growth of industries in peri-urban areas results in excessive warming and variations in weather conditions. It leads to soil degradation in frozen areas due to high temperature which leads to melting of snow in mountain areas Remotely sensed data of thermal infrared band in the region of 10.4-12.5 µm of EMR spectrum, available from LANDSAT- ETM+ is proved to be very helpful to identify urban heat islands. Thermal infrared data acquired during the daytime and night time can be used to monitor the heat island associated with urban areas as well as atmospheric pollution. The present paper describes the methodology and resolution dynamic urban heat island

  13. Automatic localization of backscattering events due to particulate in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, Andrea; Parracino, Stefano; Richetta, M.; Murari, A.; Vega, J.

    2014-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM), emitted by vehicles in urban traffic, can greatly affect environment air quality and have direct implications on both human health and infrastructure integrity. The consequences for society are relevant and can impact also on national health. Limits and thresholds of pollutants emitted by vehicles are typically regulated by government agencies. In the last few years, the interest in PM emissions has grown substantially due to both air quality issues and global warming. Lidar-Dial techniques are widely recognized as a costeffective alternative to monitor large regions of the atmosphere. To maximize the effectiveness of the measurements and to guarantee reliable, automatic monitoring of large areas, new data analysis techniques are required. In this paper, an original tool, the Universal Multi-Event Locator (UMEL), is applied to the problem of automatically indentifying the time location of peaks in Lidar measurements for the detection of particulate matter emitted by anthropogenic sources like vehicles. The method developed is based on Support Vector Regression and presents various advantages with respect to more traditional techniques. In particular, UMEL is based on the morphological properties of the signals and therefore the method is insensitive to the details of the noise present in the detection system. The approach is also fully general, purely software and can therefore be applied to a large variety of problems without any additional cost. The potential of the proposed technique is exemplified with the help of data acquired during an experimental campaign in the field in Rome.

  14. Processing of soot in an urban environment: case study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. S.; Zuberi, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Iedema, M. J.; Cowin, J. P.; Gaspar, D. J.; Wang, C.; Laskin, A.

    2005-08-01

    Chemical composition, size, and mixing state of atmospheric particles are critical in determining their effects on the environment. There is growing evidence that soot aerosols play a particularly important role in both climate and human health, but still relatively little is known of their physical and chemical nature. In addition, the atmospheric residence times and removal mechanisms for soot are neither well understood nor adequately represented in regional and global climate models. To investigate the effect of locality and residence time on properties of soot and mixing state in a polluted urban environment, particles of diameter 0.2-2.0 µm were collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MCMA-2003 field campaign from various sites within the city. Individual particle analysis by different electron microscopy methods coupled with energy dispersed X-ray spectroscopy, and secondary ionization mass spectrometry show that freshly-emitted soot particles become rapidly processed in the MCMA. Whereas fresh particulate emissions from mixed-traffic are almost entirely carbonaceous, consisting of soot aggregates with liquid coatings suggestive of unburned lubricating oil and water, ambient soot particles which have been processed for less than a few hours are heavily internally mixed, primarily with ammonium sulfate. Single particle analysis suggests that this mixing occurs through several mechanisms that require further investigation. In light of previously published results, the internally-mixed nature of processed soot particles is expected to affect heterogeneous chemistry on the soot

  15. Processing of soot in an urban environment: case study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. S.; Zuberi, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Iedema, M. J.; Cowin, J. P.; Gaspar, D. J.; Wang, C.; Laskin, A.

    2005-11-01

    Chemical composition, size, and mixing state of atmospheric particles are critical in determining their effects on the environment. There is growing evidence that soot aerosols play a particularly important role in both climate and human health, but still relatively little is known of their physical and chemical nature. In addition, the atmospheric residence times and removal mechanisms for soot are neither well understood nor adequately represented in regional and global climate models. To investigate the effect of locality and residence time on properties of soot and mixing state in a polluted urban environment, particles of diameter 0.2-2.0 μm were collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign from various sites within the city. Individual particle analysis by different electron microscopy methods coupled with energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy, and secondary ionization mass spectrometry show that freshly-emitted soot particles become rapidly processed in the MCMA. Whereas fresh particulate emissions from mixed-traffic are almost entirely carbonaceous, consisting of soot aggregates with liquid coatings suggestive of unburned lubricating oil and water, ambient soot particles which have been processed for less than a few hours are heavily internally mixed, primarily with ammonium sulfate. Single particle analysis suggests that this mixing occurs through several mechanisms that require further investigation. In light of previously published results, the internally-mixed nature of processed soot particles is expected to affect heterogeneous chemistry on the soot surface, including interaction with water during wet-removal.

  16. The Urban Fabric of the City as Its Affects Thermal Energy Responses Derived from Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The physical geography of the city affects numerous aspects of its interlinked biophysical, social, and land-atmosphere characteristics - those attributes that come together to form the total urban environment. One approach to studying the multitude of interactions that occur as a result of urbanization is to view the city from a systems ecology perspective, where energy and material cycle into and out of the urban milieu. Thus, the urban ecosystem is synergistic in linking land, air, water, and living organisms in a vast network of interrelated physical, human, and biological process. Given the number and the shear complexity of the exchanges and, ultimately, their effects, that occur within the urban environment, we are focusing our research on looking at how the morphology or urban fabric of the city, drives thermal energy exchanges across the urban landscape. The study of thermal energy attributes for different cities provides insight into how thermal fluxes and characteristics are partitioned across the city landscape in response to each city's morphology. We are using thermal infrared remote sensing data obtained at a high spatial resolution from aircraft, along with satellite data, to identify and quantify thermal energy characteristics for 4 U.S. cities: Atlanta, GA, Baton Rouge, LA, Salt Lake City, UT, and Sacramento, CA. Analysis of how thermal energy is spatially distributed across the urban landscapes for these cities provides a unique perspective for understanding how the differing morphology of cities forces land-atmosphere exchanges, such as the urban heat island effect, as well as related meteorological and air quality interactions. Keyword: urban ecosystems, remote sensing, urban heat island

  17. Relative importance of impervious area, drainage density, width function, and subsurface storm drainage on flood runoff from an urbanized catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Fred L.; Raj Pradhan, Nawa; Downer, Charles W.; Zahner, Jon A.

    2011-12-01

    The literature contains contradictory conclusions regarding the relative effects of urbanization on peak flood flows due to increases in impervious area, drainage density and width function, and the addition of subsurface storm drains. We used data from an urbanized catchment, the 14.3 km2 Dead Run watershed near Baltimore, Maryland, USA, and the physics-based gridded surface/subsurface hydrologic analysis (GSSHA) model to examine the relative effect of each of these factors on flood peaks, runoff volumes, and runoff production efficiencies. GSSHA was used because the model explicitly includes the spatial variability of land-surface and hydrodynamic parameters, including subsurface storm drains. Results indicate that increases in drainage density, particularly increases in density from low values, produce significant increases in the flood peaks. For a fixed land-use and rainfall input, the flood magnitude approaches an upper limit regardless of the increase in the channel drainage density. Changes in imperviousness can have a significant effect on flood peaks for both moderately extreme and extreme storms. For an extreme rainfall event with a recurrence interval in excess of 100 years, imperviousness is relatively unimportant in terms of runoff efficiency and volume, but can affect the peak flow depending on rainfall rate. Changes to the width function affect flood peaks much more than runoff efficiency, primarily in the case of lower density drainage networks with less impermeable area. Storm drains increase flood peaks, but are overwhelmed during extreme rainfall events when they have a negligible effect. Runoff in urbanized watersheds with considerable impervious area shows a marked sensitivity to rainfall rate. This sensitivity explains some of the contradictory findings in the literature.

  18. An Intelligent Parking Management System for Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Vera-Gómez, Juan A; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; García, Carmelo R; Suárez Moreno, Raúl; Guerra Hernández, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe a low-cost, minimally-intrusive system for the efficient management of parking spaces on both public roads and controlled zones. This system is based on wireless networks of photoelectric sensors that are deployed on the access roads into and out of these areas. The sensors detect the passage of vehicles on these roads and communicate this information to a data centre, thus making it possible to know the number of vehicles in the controlled zone and the occupancy levels in real-time. This information may be communicated to drivers to facilitate their search for a parking space and to authorities so that they may take steps to control traffic when congestion is detected. PMID:27338397

  19. An Intelligent Parking Management System for Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Gómez, Juan A.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; García, Carmelo R.; Suárez Moreno, Raúl; Guerra Hernández, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe a low-cost, minimally-intrusive system for the efficient management of parking spaces on both public roads and controlled zones. This system is based on wireless networks of photoelectric sensors that are deployed on the access roads into and out of these areas. The sensors detect the passage of vehicles on these roads and communicate this information to a data centre, thus making it possible to know the number of vehicles in the controlled zone and the occupancy levels in real-time. This information may be communicated to drivers to facilitate their search for a parking space and to authorities so that they may take steps to control traffic when congestion is detected. PMID:27338397

  20. Upstream structural management measures for an urban area flooding in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyurek, Z.; Bozoğlu, B.; Sürer, S.; Mumcu, H.

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, flooding has become an increasing concern across many parts of the world of both the general public and their governments. The climate change inducing more intense rainfall events occurring in short period of time lead flooding in rural and urban areas. In this study the flood modelling in an urbanized area, namely Samsun-Terme in Blacksea region of Turkey is performed. MIKE21 with flexible grid is used in 2-dimensional shallow water flow modelling. 1 × 1000-1 scaled maps with the buildings for the urbanized area and 1 × 5000-1 scaled maps for the rural parts are used to obtain DTM needed in the flood modelling. The bathymetry of the river is obtained from additional surveys. The main river passing through the urbanized area has a capacity of 500 m3 s-1 according to the design discharge obtained by simple ungauged discharge estimation depending on catchment area only. The upstream structural base precautions against flooding are modelled. The effect of four main upstream catchments on the flooding in the downstream urban area are modelled as different scenarios. It is observed that if the flow from the upstream catchments can be retarded through a detention pond constructed in one of the upstream catchments, estimated Q100 flood can be conveyed by the river without overtopping from the river channel. The operation of the upstream detention ponds and the scenarios to convey Q500 without causing flooding are also presented. Structural management measures to address changes in flood characteristics in water management planning are discussed.

  1. Urban microbiomes and urban ecology: how do microbes in the built environment affect human sustainability in cities?

    PubMed

    King, Gary M

    2014-09-01

    Humans increasingly occupy cities. Globally, about 50% of the total human population lives in urban environments, and in spite of some trends for deurbanization, the transition from rural to urban life is expected to accelerate in the future, especially in developing nations and regions. The Republic of Korea, for example, has witnessed a dramatic rise in its urban population, which now accounts for nearly 90% of all residents; the increase from about 29% in 1955 has been attributed to multiple factors, but has clearly been driven by extraordinary growth in the gross domestic product accompanying industrialization. While industrialization and urbanization have unarguably led to major improvements in quality of life indices in Korea and elsewhere, numerous serious problems have also been acknowledged, including concerns about resource availability, water quality, amplification of global warming and new threats to health. Questions about sustainability have therefore led Koreans and others to consider deurbanization as a management policy. Whether this offers any realistic prospects for a sustainable future remains to be seen. In the interim, it has become increasingly clear that built environments are no less complex than natural environments, and that they depend on a variety of internal and external connections involving microbes and the processes for which microbes are responsible. I provide here a definition of the urban microbiome, and through examples indicate its centrality to human function and wellbeing in urban systems. I also identify important knowledge gaps and unanswered questions about urban microbiomes that must be addressed to develop a robust, predictive and general understanding of urban biology and ecology that can be used to inform policy-making for sustainable systems. PMID:25224504

  2. Integrating Infrastructure and Institutions for Water Security in Large Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padowski, J.; Jawitz, J. W.; Carrera, L.

    2015-12-01

    Urban growth has forced cities to procure more freshwater to meet demands; however the relationship between urban water security, water availability and water management is not well understood. This work quantifies the urban water security of 108 large cities in the United States (n=50) and Africa (n=58) based on their hydrologic, hydraulic and institutional settings. Using publicly available data, urban water availability was estimated as the volume of water available from local water resources and those captured via hydraulic infrastructure (e.g. reservoirs, wellfields, aqueducts) while urban water institutions were assessed according to their ability to deliver, supply and regulate water resources to cities. When assessing availability, cities relying on local water resources comprised a minority (37%) of those assessed. The majority of cities (55%) instead rely on captured water to meet urban demands, with African cities reaching farther and accessing a greater number and variety of sources for water supply than US cities. Cities using captured water generally had poorer access to local water resources and maintained significantly more complex strategies for water delivery, supply and regulatory management. Eight cities, all African, are identified in this work as having water insecurity issues. These cities lack sufficient infrastructure and institutional complexity to capture and deliver adequate amounts of water for urban use. Together, these findings highlight the important interconnection between infrastructure investments and management techniques for urban areas with a limited or dwindling natural abundance of water. Addressing water security challenges in the future will require that more attention be placed not only on increasing water availability, but on developing the institutional support to manage captured water supplies.

  3. Interpolating a consumption variable for scaling and generalizing potential population pressure on urbanizing natural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia

    2010-01-01

    Measures of population pressure, referring in general to the stress upon the environment by human consumption of resources, are imperative for environmental sustainability studies and management. Development based on resource consumption is the predominant factor of population pressure. This paper presents a spatial model of population pressure by linking consumption associated with regional urbanism and ecosystem services. Maps representing relative geographic degree and extent of natural resource consumption and degree and extent of impacts on surrounding areas are new, and this research represents the theoretical research toward this goal. With development, such maps offer a visualization tool for planners of various services, amenities for people, and conservation planning for ecologist. Urbanization is commonly generalized by census numbers or impervious surface area. The potential geographical extent of urbanism encompasses the environmental resources of the surrounding region that sustain cities. This extent is interpolated using kriging of a variable based on population wealth data from the U.S. Census Bureau. When overlayed with land-use/land-cover data, the results indicate that the greatest estimates of population pressure fall within mixed forest areas. Mixed forest areas result from the spread of cedar woods in previously disturbed areas where further disturbance is then suppressed. Low density areas, such as suburbanization and abandoned farmland are characteristic of mixed forest areas.

  4. BASIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR EDUCATIONAL PLANNING FOR CHILDREN IN DEPRESSED URBAN AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARBURGER, CARL L.

    AT A MEETING OF THE SUPERINTENDENTS AND BOARDS OF THE 14 LARGEST AMERICAN SCHOOL SYSTEMS, CONCERNS WERE SHARED ABOUT THE PROBLEMS OF EDUCATION IN LARGE URBAN AREAS. A CAREFUL STUDY OF CURRENT AND PROSPECTIVE YOUTH OPPORTUNITIES WAS MADE, AND FINDINGS ARE BEING IMPLEMENTED IN APPROPRIATE PROGRAMS IN EACH OF THE CITIES. THE PROBLEM OF LIMITED…

  5. Building and Sustaining Community-University Partnerships in Marginalized Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allahwala, Ahmed; Bunce, Susannah; Beagrie, Lesley; Brail, Shauna; Hawthorne, Timothy; Levesque, Sue; von Mahs, Jurgen; Spotton Visano, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    This symposium explores and examines the challenges and opportunities of building community-university collaborations in marginalized urban areas. The selection of short essays highlights different experiences of building and sustaining community-university partnerships in a variety of cities as vehicles for enhancing experiential learning in…

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1580 - High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs) A Appendix A to Part 1580 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. A Appendix...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1580 - High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs) A Appendix A to Part 1580 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. A Appendix...

  8. Washington Area Universities and the Community: Urban Programs and Courses in Eleven Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisconti, Ann S.

    This report contains an inventory of urban programs and courses offered by 11 institutions of higher education in the Washington area. Many of the programs focus on the education and cultural enrichment of the poor and provide basic education for inner-city children, and social, recreational and rehabilitation programs as well as higher education,…

  9. Estimation of water flux in urban area using eddy covariance measurements in Riverside, Southern California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micrometeorological methods can direct measure the sensible and latent heat flux in specific sites and provide robust estimates of the evaporative fraction (EF), which is the fraction of available surface energy contained in latent heat. Across a vegetation coverage gradient in urban area, an empir...

  10. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSION INVENTORIES FROM THREE MAJOR URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports EPA/AEERL's progress on emissions inventory evaluation and improvement under a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions research program in support of the Urban Area Source Program required under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). he paper ...

  11. Homeless Students and Academic Achievement: Evidence from a Large Urban Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Kerri J.

    2016-01-01

    Child homelessness has recently reached levels unprecedented in the United States since the Great Depression. Contemporary research has attempted to isolate the effects of homelessness on education, with mixed results. This study reports results from a study in one large urban area and finds that there is no meaningful difference in achievement…

  12. 77 FR 29320 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ...; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (d... Response: 30 minutes. Estimated Total Annual Burden Hours: 1,500 hours. Frequency: One-time data collection... COMMISSION Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment...

  13. 77 FR 9905 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ...; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (d... Respondent: 1. Estimated Burden Per Response: 45 minutes. Estimated Total Annual Burden Hours: 2,250 hours... COMMISSION Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment...

  14. Access to Music Education with Regard to Race in Two Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Karen; Allegood, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study examined access to school music instruction with regard to race in two urban areas: Detroit, Michigan, and Washington, DC, in 2009-2010. We found significant differences in the provision of music instruction between schools with high and low proportions of nonwhite enrollment, in categories including curricular offerings,…

  15. Sibling Negotiations and the Construction of Literacy Events in an Urban Area of Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg, Sofia Johnson; Holmqvist, Rolf; Rubenson, Birgitta; Rindstedt, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    This study presents findings from analyses of naturally occurring literacy events, where children jointly focus on reading and writing letters of the alphabet, illustrating social constructions of learning created through language and embodied action. Video recorded data from two different families living in an urban low-income area in Tanzania is…

  16. ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY IN THE LAKE MICHIGAN BASIN: INFLUENCE OF THE CHICAGO/GARY URBAN AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relative importance of the Chicago/Gay urban area was investigated to determine its impact on atmospheric mercury (Hg) concentrations and wet deposition in the Lake Michigan basin. Event wet-only precipitation, total particulate, and vapor phase samples were collected for ...

  17. AIR QUALITY MODELING AT COARSE-TO-FINE SCALES IN URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban air toxics control strategies are moving towards a community based modeling approach, with an emphasis on assessing those areas that experience high air toxic concentration levels, the so-called "hot spots". This approach will require information that accurately maps and...

  18. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 49 CFR part 7, Appendix D. (b) Highway Functional Classification. (1) The State transportation agency... PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and... criteria and procedures are provided in the FHWA publication “Highway Functional...

  19. INFLUENCE OF REGIONAL PARTICULATE MATTER ON SELECTED URBAN AREAS ACROSS THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the next few years, states will be required to develop state implementation plans for reducing concentrations of fine particles in air where, PM2.5 annual and or daily standards are exceeded. It is now well recognized that high concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas are in p...

  20. A Study in Comparative Urb