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Sample records for affecting water availability

  1. The microbial community structure of drinking water biofilms can be affected by phosphorus availability.

    PubMed

    Keinänen, Minna M; Korhonen, Leena K; Lehtola, Markku J; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Martikainen, Pertti J; Vartiainen, Terttu; Suutari, Merja H

    2002-01-01

    Microbial communities in biofilms grown for 4 and 11 weeks under the flow of drinking water supplemented with 0, 1, 2, and 5 microg of phosphorus liter(-1) and in drinking and warm waters were compared by using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and lipopolysaccharide 3-hydroxy fatty acids (LPS 3-OH-FAs). Phosphate increased the proportion of PLFAs 16:1 omega 7c and 18:1 omega 7c and affected LPS 3-OH-FAs after 11 weeks of growth, indicating an increase in gram-negative bacteria and changes in their community structure. Differences in community structures between biofilms and drinking and warm waters can be assumed from PLFAs and LPS 3-OH-FAs, concomitantly with adaptive changes in fatty acid chain length, cyclization, and unsaturation.

  2. Potassium nutrition and water availability affect phloem transport of photosynthetic carbon in eucalypt trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epron, Daniel; Cabral, Osvaldo; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Dannoura, Masako; Packer, Ana Paula; Plain, Caroline; Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Moreira, Marcelo; Trivelin, Paulo; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Gérant, Dominique; Nouvellon, Yann

    2015-04-01

    Potassium fertilisation strongly affects growth and carbon partitioning of eucalypt on tropical soil that are strongly weathered. In addition, potassium fertilization could be of great interest in mitigating the adverse consequences of drought in planted forests, as foliar K concentrations influence osmotic adjustment, stomatal regulation and phloem loading. Phloem is the main pathway for transferring photosynthate from source leaves to sink organs, thus controlling growth partitioning among the different tree compartments. But little is known about the effect of potassium nutrition on phloem transport of photosynthetic carbon and on the interaction between K nutrition and water availability. In situ 13C pulse labelling was conducted on tropical eucalypt trees (Eucalyptus grandis L.) grown in a trial plantation with plots in which 37% of throughfall were excluded (about 500 mm/yr) using home-made transparent gutters (-W) or not (+W) and plots that received 0.45 mol K m-2 applied as KCl three months after planting (+K) or not (-K). Three trees were labelled in each of the four treatments (+K+W, +K-W, -K+W and -K-W). Trees were labelled for one hour by injecting pure 13CO2 in a 27 m3 whole crown chamber. We estimated the velocity of carbon transfer in the trunk by comparing time lags between the uptake of 13CO2 and its recovery in trunk CO2 efflux recorded by off axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (Los Gatos Research) in two chambers per tree, one just under the crown and one at the base of the trunk. We analyzed the dynamics of the label recovered in the foliage and in the phloem sap by analysing carbon isotope composition of bulk leaf organic matter and phloem extracts using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The velocity of carbon transfer in the trunk and the initial rate 13C disappearance from the foliage were much higher in +K trees than in -K trees with no significant effect of rainfall. The volumetric flow of phloem, roughly estimated by multiplying

  3. Survival of Mycobacterium avium in drinking water biofilms as affected by water flow velocity, availability of phosphorus, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Torvinen, Eila; Lehtola, Markku J; Martikainen, Pertti J; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2007-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium is a potential pathogen occurring in drinking water systems. It is a slowly growing bacterium producing a thick cell wall containing mycolic acids, and it is known to resist chlorine better than many other microbes. Several studies have shown that pathogenic bacteria survive better in biofilms than in water. By using Propella biofilm reactors, we studied how factors generally influencing the growth of biofilms (flow rate, phosphorus concentration, and temperature) influence the survival of M. avium in drinking water biofilms. The growth of biofilms was followed by culture and DAPI (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining, and concentrations of M. avium were determined by culture and fluorescence in situ hybridization methods. The spiked M. avium survived in biofilms for the 4-week study period without a dramatic decline in concentration. The addition of phosphorus (10 microg/liter) increased the number of heterotrophic bacteria in biofilms but decreased the culturability of M. avium. The reason for this result is probably that phosphorus increased competition with other microbes. An increase in flow velocity had no effect on the survival of M. avium, although it increased the growth of biofilms. A higher temperature (20 degrees C versus 7 degrees C) increased both the number of heterotrophic bacteria and the survival of M. avium in biofilms. In conclusion, the results show that in terms of affecting the survival of slowly growing M. avium in biofilms, temperature is a more important factor than the availability of nutrients like phosphorus.

  4. National water summary available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In response to a Congressional Directive of 1977, the U.S. Geological Survey has been compiling reports discussing source, use, and disposition of surface water and groundwater in the United States. The latest, “National Water Summary 1987—Hydrologic Events and Water Supply and Use,” published as USGS Water Supply Paper 2350, by Jerry E. Carr, Edith B. Chase, Richard W. Paulson, and David W. Moody (compilers) is immediately available from local USGS Publications Offices or from the Books and Open-file Reports Section, U.S. Geological Survey, Federal Center, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225; cost is $31.

  5. Soil water availability and evaporative demand affect seasonal growth dynamics and use of stored water in co-occurring saplings and mature conifers under drought

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution time series of stem radius variations (SRVs) record fluctuations in tree water status and temporal dynamics of radial growth. The focus of this study was to evaluate the influence of tree size (i.e., saplings vs. mature trees) and soil water availability on SRVs. Dendrometers were installed on Pinus sylvestris at an open xeric site and on Picea abies at a dry-mesic site, and the SRVs of co-occurring saplings and mature trees were analyzed during two consecutive years. The results revealed that irrespective of tree size, radial growth in P. sylvestris occurred in April–May, whereas the main growing period of P. abies was April–June (saplings) and May–June (mature trees). Linear relationships between growth-detrended SRVs (SSRVs) of mature trees vs. saplings and climate-SSRV relationships revealed greater use of water reserves by mature P. abies compared with saplings. This suggests that the strikingly depressed growth of saplings compared with mature P. abies was caused by source limitation, i.e., restricted photosynthesis beneath the dense canopy. In contrast, a tree size effect on the annual increment, SSRV, and climate–SSRV relationships was less obvious in P. sylvestris, indicating comparable water status in mature trees and saplings under an open canopy. The results of this study provided evidence that water availability and a canopy atmosphere can explain differences in temporal dynamics of radial growth and use of stem water reserves among mature trees and saplings. PMID:28381902

  6. Soil water availability in rainfed cultivation affects more than cultivar some nutraceutical components and the sensory profile of virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Bucelli, Pierluigi; Costantini, Edoardo A C; Barbetti, Roberto; Franchini, Elena

    2011-08-10

    This research considered the varieties 'Frantoio' and 'Moraiolo' growing in rainfed olive trees (Olea europaea) and took place in Tuscany, central Italy. Soil moisture was monitored during the very meteorologically contrasting years 2002 and 2003 in two nearby olive groves. The plots had the same morphological and climatic conditions, but different soil types. Monocultivar oil samples were analyzed to determine fatty acids, minor polar compounds, and tocopherols content and were submitted to organoleptic analysis by a panel of trained tasters. The results highlighted that soil water regimen affects some nutraceutical components and the sensory evaluation of olive oil. Cultivar also affected yield components, polyphenols, and tocopherols content, but less than soil water availability. The plants on the soil inducing a relatively more intense and longer water deficit during summer (a Skeleti Calcaric Regosol) had an early ripening and gave the best results in terms of phenolic compounds and, consequently, antioxidant properties of the olive oil. The sensorial properties of the oil obtained from both cultivars on the Regosol were superior in both years of the trial.

  7. Latest national water summary available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In response to a Congressional Directive of 1977, the U.S. Geological Survey has been making available a report discussing source, use, and disposition of surface water and groundwater in the United States. Their latest such report has been published as USGS Water Supply Paper 2350, “National Water Summary 1987—Hydrologic Events and Water Supply and Use,” compiled by Jerry E. Carr, Edith B. Chase, Richard W. Paulson, and David W. Moody. The report is immediately available from local USGS Publications Offices or from the Books and Open-file Reports Section, U.S. Geological Survey, Federal Center, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225, for $31.

  8. Availability and temporal heterogeneity of water supply affect the vertical distribution and mortality of a belowground herbivore and consequently plant growth.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Tomonori; Kachi, Naoki; Suzuki, Jun-Ichirou

    2014-01-01

    We examined how the volume and temporal heterogeneity of water supply changed the vertical distribution and mortality of a belowground herbivore, and consequently affected plant biomass. Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae) seedlings were grown at one per pot under different combinations of water volume (large or small volume) and heterogeneity (homogeneous water conditions, watered every day; heterogeneous conditions, watered every 4 days) in the presence or absence of a larva of the belowground herbivorous insect, Anomala cuprea (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The larva was confined in different vertical distributions to top feeding zone (top treatment), middle feeding zone (middle treatment), or bottom feeding zone (bottom treatment); alternatively no larva was introduced (control treatment) or larval movement was not confined (free treatment). Three-way interaction between water volume, heterogeneity, and the herbivore significantly affected plant biomass. With a large water volume, plant biomass was lower in free treatment than in control treatment regardless of heterogeneity. Plant biomass in free treatment was as low as in top treatment. With a small water volume and in free treatment, plant biomass was low (similar to that under top treatment) under homogeneous water conditions but high under heterogeneous ones (similar to that under middle or bottom treatment). Therefore, there was little effect of belowground herbivory on plant growth under heterogeneous water conditions. In other watering regimes, herbivores would be distributed in the shallow soil and reduced root biomass. Herbivore mortality was high with homogeneous application of a large volume or heterogeneous application of a small water volume. Under the large water volume, plant biomass was high in pots in which the herbivore had died. Thus, the combinations of water volume and heterogeneity affected plant growth via the change of a belowground herbivore.

  9. Water Availability--The Connection Between Water Use and Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Miller, Timothy L.; Myers, Donna N.

    2008-01-01

    Water availability has become a high priority in the United States, in large part because competition for water is becoming more intense across the Nation. Population growth in many areas competes with demands for water to support irrigation and power production. Cities, farms, and power plants compete for water needed by aquatic ecosystems to support their minimum flow requirements. At the same time, naturally occurring and human-related contaminants from chemical use, land use, and wastewater and industrial discharge are introduced into our waters and diminish its quality. The fact that degraded quality limits the availability and suitability of water for critical uses is a well-known reality in many communities. What may be less understood, but equally true, is that our everyday use of water can significantly affect water quality, and thus its availability. Landscape features (such as geology, soils, and vegetation) along with water-use practices (such as ground-water withdrawals and irrigation) govern water availability because, together, they affect the movement of chemical compounds over the land and in the subsurface. Understanding the interactions of human activities with natural sources and the landscape is critical to effectively managing water and sustaining water availability in the future.

  10. Water Availability and Management of Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

  11. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  12. Water availability: the crisis of the eighties

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, E.N.

    1983-06-01

    The United States is not running out of fresh, clean water, but its cost will increase. increased population will increase water use, and today's low-cost water will be replaced with harder-to-find, costlier-to-process water. The incremental value of industrial water is high compared to agriculture (which uses the most water), and water costs and quality will affect industrial locations. Incentives for conservation need developing, as do allocation plans, including interbasin transfers. Future water development projects are likely to be smaller than in the past, experimental, competitive, international, and concerned with quality.

  13. Examination of Land Use, Hydrology, and Perceptions of Use and Management of the Colombian Paramo with Implications for Water Quality and Availability Concerns for Affected Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, A. F.; Covino, T.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern and Central Andes have experienced greater anthropogenic land use/land-cover (LULC) change than nearly any other high mountain system on Earth. In particular, páramo ecosystems, high elevation grasslands of the tropical Andes of Colombia, are undergoing rapid conversion to cropland and pasture. These systems have strong hydrologic buffering capacity and have historically provided consistent freshwater flows to downstream communities. Therefore, loss of these systems could threaten the viability of freshwater resources in the region. While this region has some of the highest runoff ratios, precipitation, and largest river flows in the world, the resiliency of these hydrologic systems and the influence LULC change may have on them remains poorly understood. Here we seek to develop a deeper understanding of these relationships through quantitative analyses of LULC change and impacts on the quantity and quality of water exported from páramo landscapes of Colombia. Our results indicate the intensity and spatial distribution of LULC change, build upon past remote sensing studies of the region, and aid in prioritizing areas of concern for hydrologic research on the ground. This information provides an initial framework for characterizing the degree of modification and impact to water quantity/quality, as well as the long-term sustainability of water resources in the region. We highlight the complexities of watershed management practices in the Colombian páramo and the need to account for the impact of human activity on changes in water quantity and quality in the region.

  14. Changing Nitrate Concentrations in Arid Basin Aquifers- How Anthropogenic and Natural Processes Affect Water Quality and Availability in Trans-Pecos, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, W. M.; Bohlke, J. K.; Sharp, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    nitrogen. These effects are likely temporally and spatially variable, but have a substantial impact on strategies for addressing water quality and sustainability concerns in these basins and similar environments elsewhere.

  15. Water Resources Availability in Kabul, Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, A. M.; Chornack, M. P.; Coplen, T. B.; Emerson, D. G.; Litke, D. W.; Mack, T. J.; Plummer, N.; Verdin, J. P.; Verstraeten, I. M.

    2008-12-01

    The availability of water resources is vital to the rebuilding of Kabul, Afghanistan. In recent years, droughts and increased water use for drinking water and agriculture have resulted in widespread drying of wells. Increasing numbers of returning refugees, rapid population growth, and potential climate change have led to heightened concerns for future water availability. The U.S. Geological Survey, with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development, began collaboration with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resource investigations in the Kabul Basin in 2004. This has led to the compilation of historic and recent water- resources data, creation of monitoring networks, analyses of geologic, geophysical, and remotely sensed data. The study presented herein provides an assessment of ground-water availability through the use of multidisciplinary hydrogeologic data analysis. Data elements include population density, climate, snowpack, geology, mineralogy, surface water, ground water, water quality, isotopic information, and water use. Data were integrated through the use of conceptual ground-water-flow model analysis and provide information necessary to make improved water-resource planning and management decisions in the Kabul Basin. Ground water is currently obtained from a shallow, less than 100-m thick, highly productive aquifer. CFC, tritium, and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analyses indicate that most water in the shallow aquifer appears to be recharged post 1970 by snowmelt-supplied river leakage and secondarily by late winter precipitation. Analyses indicate that increasing withdrawals are likely to result in declining water levels and may cause more than 50 percent of shallow supply wells to become dry or inoperative particularly in urbanized areas. The water quality in the shallow aquifer is deteriorated in urban areas by poor sanitation and water availability concerns may be compounded by poor well

  16. Incorporation of salinity in Water Availability Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Lee, Chihun

    2011-10-01

    SummaryNatural salt pollution from geologic formations in the upper watersheds of several large river basins in the Southwestern United States severely constrains the use of otherwise available major water supply sources. The Water Rights Analysis Package modeling system has been routinely applied in Texas since the late 1990s in regional and statewide planning studies and administration of the state's water rights permit system, but without consideration of water quality. The modeling system was recently expanded to incorporate salinity considerations in assessments of river/reservoir system capabilities for supplying water for environmental, municipal, agricultural, and industrial needs. Salinity loads and concentrations are tracked through systems of river reaches and reservoirs to develop concentration frequency statistics that augment flow frequency and water supply reliability metrics at pertinent locations for alternative water management strategies. Flexible generalized capabilities are developed for using limited observed salinity data to model highly variable concentrations imposed upon complex river regulation infrastructure and institutional water allocation/management practices.

  17. Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Zemlick, Katie M.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

  18. Water Availability in a Warming World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminzade, Jennifer

    As climate warms during the 21st century, the resultant changes in water availability are a vital issue for society, perhaps even more important than the magnitude of warming itself. Yet our climate models disagree in their forecasts of water availability, limiting our ability to plan accordingly. This thesis investigates future water availability projections from Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Models (GCMs), primarily using two water availability measures: soil moisture and the Supply Demand Drought Index (SDDI). Chapter One introduces methods of measuring water availability and explores some of the fundamental differences between soil moisture, SDDI and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). SDDI and PDSI tend to predict more severe future drought conditions than soil moisture; 21st century projections of SDDI show conditions rivaling North American historic mega-droughts. We compare multiple potential evapotranspiration (EP) methods in New York using input from the GISS Model ER GCM and local station data from Rochester, NY, and find that they compare favorably with local pan evaporation measurements. We calculate SDDI and PDSI values using various EP methods, and show that changes in future projections are largest when using EP methods most sensitive to global warming, not necessarily methods producing EP values with the largest magnitudes. Chapter Two explores the characteristics and biases of the five GCMs and their 20th and 21st century climate projections. We compare atmospheric variables that drive water availability changes globally, zonally, and geographically among models. All models show increases in both dry and wet extremes for SDDI and soil moisture, but increases are largest for extreme drying conditions using SDDI. The percentage of gridboxes that agree on the sign of change of soil moisture and SDDI between models is very low, but does increase in the 21st century. Still, differences between models are smaller than differences

  19. ``Water Drops'' Essays Available for Public Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Peter E.

    2007-11-01

    ``Water Drops'' are 90-second essays on water science, hydrology, culture, history, organizations, law, and policy that have aired weekly on radio station WRVO-FM in Oswego, N.Y., since January 2006. Created for the lay public with a basic understanding of Earth science, the 133 essays now are available on Public Radio Exchange (http://www.prx.org) for free use by public radio stations, according to terms set forth at the Exchange Web site that include citing appropriate credits. If aired weekly, there are enough essays for 2.5 years of radio programming.

  20. Water use and water availability constraints to decarbonised electricity systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, Edward; Qadrdan, Meysam; Hall, Jim; Amezaga, Jaime; Chaudry, Modassar; Kilsby, Chris; Martino, Tran; Alderson, David

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of numerous low carbon electricity strategies have been shown to have very divergent water requirements, normally needed for cooling of thermoelectric power stations. Our regional river-basin scale analysis of water use for future UK electricity strategies shows that, whilst in the majority of cases freshwater use is expected to decline, pathways with high levels of carbon capture and storage (CCS) will result in significantly elevated and concentrated water demands in a few key river basins. Furthermore, these growing demands are compared to both current water availability, and our expected regional water availability under the impacts of climate change. We identify key freshwater constraints to electricity strategies with high levels of CCS and show how these risks may be mitigated with higher levels of hybrid cooling and alternative cooling water sources.

  1. Factors affecting rectal temperature measurement using commonly available digital thermometers.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Jonathan M; Streeter, Renee M; Torgerson, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Rectal temperature measurement is an essential part of physical examination of cattle and some physiological experiments. Modern digital thermometers are often used to measure rectal temperatures by students; this study describes their reliability and appropriate use. Students measured rectal temperature on 53 occasions using their personal digital thermometer and techniques gained from previous instruction, rectal temperature was also measured by an experienced person using a Cornell mercury thermometer completely inserted in the rectum. Cornell mercury thermometers values were 38.95±0.05°C (mean±1 SE, n=53). Student rectal temperature measurements using their initial technique were nearly 0.5°C lower, 38.46±0.07°C. After receiving instruction to insert the digital thermometer to the window, student obtained values were 38.77±0.06°C; these are significantly higher than with the student's initial technique and closer to those obtained with a Cornell thermometer. In a series of 53 water bath tests, student owned thermometers recorded similar mean values to those of a traceable (reference) digital thermometer, Cornell mercury thermometer readings were 0.2°C higher. 10 individual digital thermometers were repeatedly tested against a traceable thermometer in a water bath, one was inaccurate. In a separate experiment a trained clinician tested the effect of angle of insertion of a digital thermometer on temperature readings and the affect was <0.1°C. We conclude that accurate temperature measurements using digital thermometers are only likely if the thermometer is inserted to the beginning of the window and the thermometer's accuracy is checked periodically.

  2. Oilseed Productivity Under Varying Water Availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oilseeds for biofuel production may serve as one of the alternative energy strategies that the United States will employ in the future. Biodiesel can be produced from oil extracted from canola, mustard, camelina, sunflower, safflower, and soybean. This paper compares soil water extraction and water ...

  3. EU legislations affecting safety data availability of cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2007-12-01

    With the introduction of the 6th and 7th Amendments (OJ L151, 32-37, 23 June 1993; OJ L066, 26-35, 11 March 2003) to the Cosmetic Products Directive (OJ L262, 169-200, 27 September 1976), imposing a testing and marketing ban on cosmetic products tested on animals, the retrieval of toxicological data on individual ingredients became of greater need. Since the majority of cosmetic ingredients are used for many other purposes than their cosmetic function, they fall under the scope of more than one EU Directive. An overview is given of EU legislation that could potentially affect the availability and interpretation of cosmetic safety data. It will become clear that, although cosmetics are regulated by a specific so-called "vertical" legislation, "horizontal" influences from other products' legislations play a role since they determine the type and amount of data that theoretically could be found on the specific substances they regulate. This knowledge is necessary while performing extended searches in databases and becomes indispensable when initiating negotiations with manufacturers or suppliers for obtaining the safety data required.

  4. Availability of drinking water in US public school cafeterias.

    PubMed

    Hood, Nancy E; Turner, Lindsey; Colabianchi, Natalie; Chaloupka, Frank J; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the availability of free drinking water during lunchtime in US public schools, as required by federal legislation beginning in the 2011-2012 school year. Data were collected by mail-back surveys in nationally representative samples of US public elementary, middle, and high schools from 2009-2010 to 2011-2012. Overall, 86.4%, 87.4%, and 89.4% of students attended elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively, that met the drinking water requirement. Most students attended schools with existing cafeteria drinking fountains and about one fourth attended schools with water dispensers. In middle and high schools, respondents were asked to indicate whether drinking fountains were clean, and whether they were aware of any water-quality problems at the school. The vast majority of middle and high school students (92.6% and 90.4%, respectively) attended schools where the respondent perceived drinking fountains to be clean or very clean. Approximately one in four middle and high school students attended a school where the survey respondent indicated that there were water-quality issues affecting drinking fountains. Although most schools have implemented the requirement to provide free drinking water at lunchtime, additional work is needed to promote implementation at all schools. School nutrition staff at the district and school levels can play an important role in ensuring that schools implement the drinking water requirement, as well as promote education and behavior-change strategies to increase student consumption of water at school.

  5. Surface-water availability, Tuscaloosa County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, Alfred L.; Davis, Marvin E.

    1975-01-01

    The average annual runoff, about 1,270 mgd (million gallons per day), originating in Tuscaloosa County is equivalent to 20 inches or 0.95 mgd per square mile. The Black Warrior and Sipsey Rivers, the largest streams in the county, have average flows of 5,230 mgd and 580 mgd, respectively, where they leave the county, and median annual 7-day low flows in excess of 150 mgd and 35 mgd, respectively. North River, Big Sandy Creek, and Hurricane Creek have average flows in excess of 100 mgd and median annual 7-day low flows in excess of 2 mgd. Surface water generally contains less than 100 mg/l (milligrams per liter) dissolved solids, less than 10 mg/l chloride, and is soft to moderately hard. Streams having the higher hardness and the higher dissolved-solids content are in eastern Tuscaloosa County.

  6. 77 FR 54909 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... certain water quality limited waters and the associated pollutant to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water... technology-based pollution controls are not stringent enough to attain or maintain State water...

  7. [Statins available from chemist shops will not positively affect health].

    PubMed

    Stalenhoef, A F H

    2007-06-23

    Statins should not become available as over- or behind-the-counter drugs at chemist shops. The efficacy of these drugs when given in low dosages has not been proved although the negative aspect of possible side effects remains a realistic possibility. The use of statins as compensation for an unhealthy lifestyle is not desirable and there is a danger that patients with high vascular risk would receive treatment without being adequately supervised.

  8. Autoclaving soil samples affects algal-available phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brandon H; Magdoff, Frederick R

    2005-01-01

    Unwanted microbial interference in samples used for biological assays of P availability has routinely been eliminated by autoclaving samples before inoculation with algae. Twenty-three soils were selected to evaluate the relationship between algal growth in P-deficient solutions containing small quantities of soil and the level of P determined by a variety of tests used to evaluate P availability in soils and sediments. Soils were either autoclaved or not before addition to flasks containing P-starved algae in a nutrient solution without P. Compared to non-autoclaved samples, autoclaving soil resulted in approximately 60% more available P as estimated by increased algal growth. However, algal growth in the presence of autoclaved soil was highly correlated with growth in the presence of non-autoclaved samples. There was no consistent change in the correlations (r) between autoclaving or non-autoclaving samples in the relationships of algal numbers with P extracted by a number of soil tests. The effect of autoclaving soil on soluble P was also evaluated for a subset of six soils. Autoclaved soils had significantly greater concentrations of soluble P than non-autoclaved soils, with 78% more orthophosphate monoesters, 60% more orthophosphate diesters, and 54% more soluble inorganic P. Inhibition of algal growth may have occurred with two high-Zn soils that produced relatively low numbers of algae despite being very high in estimated available P by all extraction methods. Removing those samples from the calculations dramatically improved correlations between soil P measured by various methods and algal growth. With these two soils removed from calculations, algal growth with autoclaved soil was most highly correlated with Olsen P (r = 0.95), with other correlations as follows: Fe-oxide strip (r = 0.80), Mehlich 3 (r = 0.75,), modified Morgan (r = 0.61), and Bray-Kurtz 1 (r = 0.57).

  9. 25 CFR 137.2 - Availability of water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Availability of water. 137.2 Section 137.2 Indians BUREAU... COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.2 Availability of water. Pursuant to section... notice to announce when water is actually available for lands in private ownership under the project...

  10. 25 CFR 137.2 - Availability of water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Availability of water. 137.2 Section 137.2 Indians BUREAU... COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.2 Availability of water. Pursuant to section... notice to announce when water is actually available for lands in private ownership under the project...

  11. 25 CFR 137.2 - Availability of water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Availability of water. 137.2 Section 137.2 Indians BUREAU... COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.2 Availability of water. Pursuant to section... notice to announce when water is actually available for lands in private ownership under the project...

  12. 25 CFR 137.2 - Availability of water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Availability of water. 137.2 Section 137.2 Indians BUREAU... COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.2 Availability of water. Pursuant to section... notice to announce when water is actually available for lands in private ownership under the project...

  13. Water chemistry affects catfish susceptibility to columnaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While columnaris disease has been well-studied, little is known about how specific water chemistries can affect attachment. Recent studies in our labs offer new insight on this subject. Well waters from the USDA/ARS Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center (SNARC; Stuttgart, Arkansas) and fr...

  14. Water hardness affects catfish susceptibility to columnaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columnaris disease can cause tremendous losses of freshwater fish. While it has been studied exhaustively, little is known about its affinity to specific water chemistries that affects attachment. Recent studies in our labs have illuminated this subject. In the first experiment, two waters were ...

  15. Does mountain permafrost in Mongolia control water availability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Lucas; Kopp, Benjamin; Munkhjargal, Munkhdavaa

    2016-04-01

    faster runoff responses during and after summer rainfall. As the active layer depth increases, the soil water storage capacity decreases, which may adversely impact forest regeneration. Therefore, permafrost and forest occurrence appears to be a self-regulating system that rapidly degrades after forest fire. How these processes affect water availability on a larger scale however remains a challenging research question in that region.

  16. Factors affecting radionuclide availability to vegetables grown at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.; Hakonson, T.E.; Ahlquist, A.J.

    1981-07-01

    A field study was conducted in 1977 on /sup 238/ /sup 239/Pu and /sup 137/Cs availability to zucchini squash (Curcurbita melopepo, hybrid seneca) and green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, Landreths stringless) grown under home-garden conditions in an area at Los Alamos National Laboratory used for treated radioactive liquid waste disposal. Radionuclide concentrations were measured as a function of tissue type, height above the soil, fertilization regime, and for the squash, food-cleansing procedures. Analysis of variance procedures was used to analyze the data. Ratios of the concentration of a radionuclide in oven-dried vegetation to dry soil ranged from 0.0004 to 0.116 for the Pu isotopes, and from 0.051 to 0.255 for /sup 137/Cs. Fertilization with cattle manure reduced the Pu concentration ratios by 30% and /sup 137/Cs by 50%. Vegetative parts sampled within 20 cm of the ground surface were contaminated about four times as much as those parts growing further from the ground surface. About 65% of the contamination was removed by washing, indicating the presence of surficial contamination. The 50-year radiation dose commitment to humans consuming vegetables from the garden plot would be less than 0.05 mrem and would be due almost entirely to /sup 137/Cs.

  17. Implant Size Availability Affects Reproduction of Distal Femoral Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Morris, William Z; Gebhart, Jeremy J; Goldberg, Victor M; Wera, Glenn D

    2016-07-01

    A total knee arthroplasty system offers more distal femoral implant anterior-posterior (AP) sizes than its predecessor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of increased size availability on an implant system's ability to reproduce the AP dimension of the native distal femur. We measured 200 cadaveric femora with the AP-sizing guides of Zimmer (Warsaw, IN) NexGen (8 sizes) and Zimmer Persona (12 sizes) total knee arthroplasty systems. We defined "size deviation" as the difference in the AP dimension between the anatomic size of the native femur and the closest implant size. We defined satisfactory reproduction of distal femoral dimensions as < 1 mm difference between the implant and native femur size. The NexGen system was associated with a mean 0.46 mm greater implant size deviation than Persona (p < 0.001). When using a 1 mm size deviation as a cutoff for satisfactory replication of the native distal femoral anatomy, 85/200 specimens (42.5%) were a poor fit by NexGen, but a satisfactory fit by Persona. Only 1/200 specimens (0.5%) was a poor fit by Persona, but a satisfactory fit by NexGen (p < 0.001). The novel knee system with 12 versus 8 sizes reproduces the AP dimension of the native distal femur more closely than its predecessor. Further study is needed to determine the clinical impact of these differences.

  18. Water on Mars - Volatile history and resource availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.

    1990-01-01

    An attempt is made to define the available deposits of water in the near-surface region of Mars which will be available to human exploration missions. The Martian seasonal water cycle is reviewed, and geochemical and geological constraints on the availability of water are examined. It is concluded that the only sure source of water in amounts significant as a resource are in the polar ice deposits.

  19. 46 CFR 76.10-3 - Water availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water availability. 76.10-3 Section 76.10-3 Shipping... Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-3 Water availability. (a) On all vessels on an international voyage, regardless of the date of construction, water pressure from the firemain protecting enclosed spaces shall...

  20. 46 CFR 76.10-3 - Water availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water availability. 76.10-3 Section 76.10-3 Shipping... Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-3 Water availability. (a) On all vessels on an international voyage, regardless of the date of construction, water pressure from the firemain protecting enclosed spaces shall...

  1. 46 CFR 76.10-3 - Water availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water availability. 76.10-3 Section 76.10-3 Shipping... Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-3 Water availability. (a) On all vessels on an international voyage, regardless of the date of construction, water pressure from the firemain protecting enclosed spaces shall...

  2. 46 CFR 76.10-3 - Water availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water availability. 76.10-3 Section 76.10-3 Shipping... Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-3 Water availability. (a) On all vessels on an international voyage, regardless of the date of construction, water pressure from the firemain protecting enclosed spaces shall...

  3. 46 CFR 76.10-3 - Water availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water availability. 76.10-3 Section 76.10-3 Shipping... Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-3 Water availability. (a) On all vessels on an international voyage, regardless of the date of construction, water pressure from the firemain protecting enclosed spaces shall...

  4. Ground-water availability and water quality, Farmington, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazzaferro, David L.

    1980-01-01

    The strataified-drift aquifer in Farmington, Conn., is capable of yielding large amounts of water to individual wells. About 14 square miles of Farmington is underlain by stratified-drift deposits which, in places, are more than 450 feet thick. The most productive deposits are found in the Farmington River valley, from Unionville to River Glen, and along Scott Swamp Brook. In these areas, saturated, coarse-grained, stratified-drift deosits exceed 80 feet in thickness and estimated yields to individual wells ranged from 250 to 1,000 gallons per minute. Results of mathematical model analysis of three of the most favorable ground-water areas indicate that long-term yields range from 1.2 to 2.5 million gallons per day. Water in the Framington and Pequabuck Rivers meets the Connecticut Drinking Water Standards, assuming complete conventional treatment, for coliform orgaisms, color, trubidity, chloride, copper, and nitrate. Coliform bacteria concentrations in the Pequabuck river (12-month geometric mean of about 6,800 colonies per 100 milliliters of water) indicate a potential problem. Water in the stratified-drift aquifer is of good quality with the exception of manganese; 10 of 11 wells sampled had maganese concentrations above 0.05 milligram per liter. (USGS)

  5. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  6. Availability of groundwater data for California, water year 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Mary; Orlando, Patricia v.P.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the groundwater resources of California each water year (October 1-September 30). These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to groundwater data for Water Year 2010. It contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level or water-quality data for Water Year 2010 (fig. 1) and instructions for obtaining this and other groundwater information contained in the databases of the U.S. Geological Survey, California Water Science Center. From 1985 to 1993, data were published in the annual report "Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data"; prior to 1985, the data were published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers.

  7. Fraser River watershed, Colorado : assessment of available water-quantity and water-quality data through water year 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, Lori Estelle; Bails, Jeffrey B.

    1999-01-01

    The water-quantity and water-quality data for the Fraser River watershed through water year 1997 were compiled for ground-water and surface-water sites. In order to assess the water-quality data, the data were related to land use/land cover in the watershed. Data from 81 water-quantity and water-quality sites, which consisted of 9 ground-water sites and 72 surface-water sites, were available for analysis. However, the data were limited and frequently contained only one or two water-quality analyses per site.The Fraser River flows about 28 miles from its headwaters at the Continental Divide to the confluence with the Colorado River. Ground-water resources in the watershed are used for residential and municipal drinking-water supplies. Surface water is available for use, but water diversions in the upper parts of the watershed reduce the flow in the river. Land use/land cover in the watershed is predominantly forested land, but increasing urban development has the potential to affect the quantity and quality of the water resources.Analysis of the limited ground-water data in the watershed indicates that changes in the land use/land cover affect the shallow ground-water quality. Water-quality data from eight shallow monitoring wells in the alluvial aquifer show that iron and manganese concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level. Radon concentrations from these monitoring wells exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed maximum contaminant level. The proposed radon contaminant level is currently being revised. The presence of volatile organic compounds at two monitoring wells in the watershed indicates that land use affects the shallow ground water. In addition, bacteria detected in three samples are at concentrations that would be a concern for public health if the water was to be used as a drinking supply. Methylene blue active substances were detected in the ground water at some sites and are a

  8. Metropolitan Water Availability Forecasting Methods and Applications in South Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The availability of adequate fresh water is fundamental to the sustainable management of water infrastructures that support both urban needs and agricultural uses in human society. Recent drought events in the U.S. have threatened drinking water supplies for communities in Maryl...

  9. 78 FR 27233 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Louisiana to be listed pursuant to Clean Water Act Section 303(d), and request for public comment. Section 303(d) requires that...

  10. 25 CFR 137.2 - Availability of water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Availability of water. 137.2 Section 137.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.2 Availability of water. Pursuant to section 3 of the act of June 7, 1924 (43 Stat....

  11. 77 FR 15368 - Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... availability of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed decision identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Oregon to be listed pursuant to section 303(d)(2) of the Clean...

  12. Ground-Water Availability in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.

  13. Water Availability for the Western United States - Key Scientific Challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Mark Theodore; Woosley, Lloyd H.

    2005-01-01

    In the Western United States, the availability of water has become a serious concern for many communities and rural areas. Near population centers, surface-water supplies are fully appropriated, and many communities are dependent upon ground water drawn from storage, which is an unsustainable strategy. Water of acceptable quality is increasingly hard to find because local sources are allocated to prior uses, depleted by overpumping, or diminished by drought stress. Some of the inherent characteristics of the West add complexity to the task of securing water supplies. The Western States, including the arid Southwest, have the most rapid population growth in the United States. The climate varies widely in the West, but it is best known for its low precipitation, aridity, and drought. There is evidence that the climate is warming, which will have consequences for Western water supplies, such as increased minimum streamflow and earlier snowmelt events in snow-dominated basins. The potential for departures from average climatic conditions threatens to disrupt society and local to regional economies. The appropriative rights doctrine governs the management of water in most Western States, although some aspects of the riparian doctrine are being incorporated. The 'use it or lose it' provisions of Western water law discourage conservation and make the reallocation of water to instream environmental uses more difficult. The hydrologic sciences have defined the interconnectedness of ground water and surface water, yet these resources are still administered separately by most States. The definition of water availability has been expanded to include sustaining riparian ecosystems and individual endangered species, which are disproportionately represented in the Western States. Federal reserved rights, common in the West because of the large amount of Federal land, exist with quite senior priority dates whether or not water is currently being used. A major challenge for water

  14. Socioeconomic differentials and availability of domestic water in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dungumaro, Esther W.

    The past few decades has seen massive efforts to increasing provision of domestic water. However, water is still unavailable to many people most of them located in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and East Asia. Furthermore, availability of water varies greatly both spatially and temporary. While other people pay so dearly for domestic water others have an easy access to adequate clean water and sanitation. Accessibility and affordability of domestic water and sanitation is determined by a great variety of factors including socioeconomic status of households. The main objective of the paper is to inform on factors which need to be taken into account when coming up with projects to provide domestic water. It is more critical when the issue of water pricing comes into the equation. Water pricing has many facets, including equity, willingness to pay and affordability. In this premise, it is deemed important to understand the socioeconomic characteristics of the people before deciding on the amount of money they will have to pay for water consumption. It is argued that understanding people’s socioeconomic situation will greatly help to ensure that principles of sustainability and equity in water allocation and pricing are achieved. To do so, the paper utilized 2002 South Africa General Household Survey (GHS), to analyze socioeconomic variables and availability of domestic water. Analysis was mainly descriptive. However, logistic regression analysis was also utilized to determine the likelihood of living in a household that obtain water from a safe source. The study found that there is a strong relationship between availability of domestic water and socioeconomic conditions. Economic status, household size and to a lesser extent gender of head of household were found to be strong predictors of living in a household which obtained water from a safe source. The paper recommends that needs and priorities for interventions in water provision should take into account

  15. Stover removal effects on seasonal soil water availability under full and deficit irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removing corn (Zea mays L.) stover for livestock feed or bioenergy feedstock may impact water availability in the soil profile to support crop growth. The role of stover in affecting soil profile water availability will depend on annual rainfall inputs as well as irrigation level. To assess how res...

  16. Estimation of Water Availability Considering Climate Change in the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, S.; Lee, D. K.; Hanasaki, N.

    2015-12-01

    The hydrological cycle is directly affected by climate and human intervention. Climate change is expected to affect hydrology and water resources. In Korean Peninsula, the rainfall pattern is seasonally concentrated, causing temporal and spatial variations in water availability. Many previous studies have investigated that the Korean Peninsula region is vulnerable to changes in water availability with changing climate, but a majority of the studies have focused on natural river discharge. However, the present-day hydrological cycle is not natural, but is affected by human activity, such as the water demands of agriculture, the industrial and domestic sector, and reservoir operations. In this study, water availability considering the impacts of human activity and climate change in the Korean Peninsula region is assessed in terms of water supply and demand. To assess present and future water availability, the integrated water resources model H08, which has six sub-modules to address land surfaces, river routing, crop growth, environmental flow requirements, and anthropogenic water withdrawal (Hanasaki et al., 2008), was applied to simulate historical and future hydrological processes based on climate scenarios. The model was calibrated and validated based on observed river discharge data. The simulation results show the temporal and spatial variations of water availability in the Korean Peninsula region. Results of this research could be used for spatial planning, taking into account the water availability.

  17. Predicting and mapping soil available water capacity in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Suk Young; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Yihyun; Lee, Kyungdo

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil available water capacity at a regional or national extent is essential, as soil water capacity is a component of the water and energy balances in the terrestrial ecosystem. It controls the evapotranspiration rate, and has a major impact on climate. This paper demonstrates a protocol for mapping soil available water capacity in South Korea at a fine scale using data available from surveys. The procedures combined digital soil mapping technology with the available soil map of 1:25,000. We used the modal profile data from the Taxonomical Classification of Korean Soils. The data consist of profile description along with physical and chemical analysis for the modal profiles of the 380 soil series. However not all soil samples have measured bulk density and water content at −10 and −1500 kPa. Thus they need to be predicted using pedotransfer functions. Furthermore, water content at −10 kPa was measured using ground samples. Thus a correction factor is derived to take into account the effect of bulk density. Results showed that Andisols has the highest mean water storage capacity, followed by Entisols and Inceptisols which have loamy texture. The lowest water retention is Entisols which are dominated by sandy materials. Profile available water capacity to a depth of 1 m was calculated and mapped for Korea. The western part of the country shows higher available water capacity than the eastern part which is mountainous and has shallower soils. The highest water storage capacity soils are the Ultisols and Alfisols (mean of 206 and 205 mm, respectively). Validation of the maps showed promising results. The map produced can be used as an indication of soil physical quality of Korean soils. PMID:23646290

  18. Understanding the dynamics of water availability and use in China

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.P.; Conrad, S.H.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Engi, E.

    1997-07-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of an analysis of China`s water resources, part of an effort undertaken by the National Intelligence Council Medea scientists to improve the understanding of future food production and consumption in the People`s Republic of China. A dynamic water model was developed to simulate the hydrological budgetary processes in five river drainage basins located in northeastern, central, and southern China: the Chang Jiang (Yangtse River), Huanghe (Yellow River), Haihe, Huaihe, and Liaohe. The model was designed to assess the effects of changes in urban, industrial, and agricultural water use requirements on the availability of water in each basin and to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in China through the year 2025. The model imposes a sustainable yield constraint, that is, groundwater extraction is not allowed to exceed the sustainable yield; if the available water does not meet the total water use requirements, a deficit results. An agronomic model was also developed to generate projections of the water required to service China`s agricultural sector and compare China`s projected grain production with projected grain consumption requirements to estimate any grain surplus and/or deficit. In future refinements, the agronomic model will interface directly with the water model to provide for the exchange of information on projected water use requirements and available water. The preliminary results indicate that the Chang Jiang basin will have a substantial surplus of water through 2025 and that the Haihe basin is in an ongoing situation. The agricultural water use requirements based on grain production indicate that an agricultural water deficit in the Haihe basin begins before the onset of the modeling period (1980) and steadily worsens through 2025. This assumption is confirmed by reports that groundwater mining is already under way in the most intensely cultivated and populated areas of northern China.

  19. Review and classification of indicators of green water availability and scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schyns, J. F.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Booij, M. J.

    2015-11-01

    Research on water scarcity has mainly focussed on blue water (ground- and surface water), but green water (soil moisture returning to the atmosphere through evaporation) is also scarce, because its availability is limited and there are competing demands for green water. Crop production, grazing lands, forestry and terrestrial ecosystems are all sustained by green water. The implicit distribution or explicit allocation of limited green water resources over competitive demands determines which economic and environmental goods and services will be produced and may affect food security and nature conservation. We need to better understand green water scarcity to be able to measure, model, predict and handle it. This paper reviews and classifies around 80 indicators of green water availability and scarcity, and discusses the way forward to develop operational green water scarcity indicators that can broaden the scope of water scarcity assessments.

  20. Grinding and sieving soil affects the availability of organic contaminants: a kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    ter Laak, Thomas L; Barendregt, Arjan; Hermens, Joop L M

    2007-09-01

    Field contaminated soils are often homogenized before application in bioassays and chemical assays that estimate the (bio)availability of their contaminants. The homogenization of the soil might affect the availability, and thereby the outcome of a bioassay might not reflect field situations. In this study, uptake kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by a negligible depletive passive sampler exposed to a ground and non-ground field contaminated soil were tested. The measurements illustrate how freely dissolved pore water concentrations of contaminants can be affected by soil treatment. It took more than a month, and over a year to reach steady state in the passive sampler exposed to the ground and non-ground soil, respectively. The uptake rate seemed to be limited by desorption from the soil, even though the fiber only extracted 0.2% of the soil-sorbed PAH at maximum. If these observations are translated to the field situation, where contaminants are not homogeneously distributed and disappear by (bio)degradation or physical transport processes, it is unlikely that pore water concentrations are solely determined by a thermodynamic equilibrium. Hence, exposure of organisms in these soils cannot always be estimated by sorption studies and an equilibrium partitioning approach.

  1. 78 FR 45925 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... waterbodies were added by EPA because the applicable numeric water quality standards marine criterion for... 303(d) List can be obtained at EPA Region 6's Web site at...

  2. 78 FR 20912 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice and initial request for public input. SUMMARY: The Clean Water Act requires that States... existing technology-based pollution controls are not stringent enough to attain or maintain State...

  3. Assessment of water availability and demand in Lake Guiers , Senegal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambou, D.; Weihrauch, D.; Hellwing, V.; Diekkrüger, B.; Höllermann, B.; Gaye, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of water availability and demand in Lake Guiers, SenegalWater resources are critical to economic growth and social development. In most African countries, supply of drinking water to satisfy population needs is a key issue because of population growth and climate and land use change. During the last three decades, increasing population, changing patterns of water demand, and concentration of population and economic activities in urban areas has pressurize Senegal's freshwater resources. To overcome this deficit, Senegal turned, to the exploitation of the Lake Guiers. It is the sole water reservoir which can be used extensively as a stable freshwater. Its water is use for irrigating crops and sugar refinery and as a drinking water resource for urban centres, including Dakar, the capital city of Senegal, as well as for the local population and animal herds. To ensure sustainability, a greater understanding of Lake Guiers's water resources and effective management of its use will be required. In this study we developed and quantified future water situation (water availability and demand) in Lake Guiers under scenarios of climate change and population growth until 2050, using the water management model WEAP (Water Evaluation And Planning system). The results show that the pressure on Lake Guiers's water resources will increase, leading to greater competition between agriculture and municipal demand site. Decreasing inflows due to climate change will aggravate this situation. WEAP results offer basis to assister lake Guiers water resources manager for an efficient long-term planning and management. Keywords: climate change, population growth , IWRM, Lake Guiers, Senegal

  4. Water Availability for Shale Gas Development in Sichuan Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengjun; Weinthal, Erika; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Deshusses, Marc A; Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-03-15

    Unconventional shale gas development holds promise for reducing the predominant consumption of coal and increasing the utilization of natural gas in China. While China possesses some of the most abundant technically recoverable shale gas resources in the world, water availability could still be a limiting factor for hydraulic fracturing operations, in addition to geological, infrastructural, and technological barriers. Here, we project the baseline water availability for the next 15 years in Sichuan Basin, one of the most promising shale gas basins in China. Our projection shows that continued water demand for the domestic sector in Sichuan Basin could result in high to extremely high water stress in certain areas. By simulating shale gas development and using information from current water use for hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Basin (20,000-30,000 m(3) per well), we project that during the next decade water use for shale gas development could reach 20-30 million m(3)/year, when shale gas well development is projected to be most active. While this volume is negligible relative to the projected overall domestic water use of ∼36 billion m(3)/year, we posit that intensification of hydraulic fracturing and water use might compete with other water utilization in local water-stress areas in Sichuan Basin.

  5. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    SciTech Connect

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  6. Review and classification of indicators of green water availability and scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schyns, J. F.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Booij, M. J.

    2015-06-01

    Research on water scarcity has mainly focused on blue water (surface- and groundwater), but green water (soil moisture directly returning to the atmosphere as evaporation) is also scarce, because its availability is limited and there are competing demands for green water. Crop production, grazing lands, forestry and terrestrial ecosystems are all sustained by green water. The implicit distribution or explicit allocation of limited green water resources over competitive demands determines which economic and environmental goods and services will be produced and may affect food security and nature conservation. We need to better understand green water scarcity to be able to measure, model, predict and handle it. This paper reviews and classifies around 80 indicators of green water availability and scarcity and discusses the way forward to develop operational green water scarcity indicators that can broaden the scope of water scarcity assessments.

  7. Water availability limits tolerance of apical damage in the Chilean tarweed Madia sativa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzáles, Wilfredo L.; Suárez, Lorena H.; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A.; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2008-07-01

    Plant tolerance is the ability to reduce the negative impact of herbivory on plant fitness. Numerous studies have shown that plant tolerance is affected by nutrient availability, but the effect of soil moisture has received less attention. We evaluated tolerance of apical damage (clipping that mimicked insect damage) under two watering regimes (control watering and drought) in the tarweed Madia sativa (Asteraceae). We recorded number of heads with seeds and total number of heads as traits related to fitness. Net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency, number of branches, shoot biomass, and the root:shoot biomass ratio were measured as traits potentially related to tolerance via compensatory responses to damage. In the drought treatment, damaged plants showed ≈43% reduction in reproductive fitness components in comparison with undamaged plants. In contrast, there was no significant difference in reproductive fitness between undamaged and damaged plants in the control watering treatment. Shoot biomass was not affected by apical damage. The number of branches increased after damage in both water treatments but this increase was limited by drought stress. Net photosynthetic rate increased in damaged plants only in the control watering treatment. Water use efficiency increased with drought stress and, in plants regularly watered, also increased after damage. Root:shoot ratio was higher in the low water treatment and damaged plants tended to reduce root:shoot ratio only in this water treatment. It is concluded that water availability limits tolerance to apical damage in M. sativa, and that putative compensatory mechanisms are differentially affected by water availability.

  8. Changes in Terrestrial Water Availability under Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, C. W.; Lo, M. H.; Chou, C.

    2014-12-01

    Under global warming, the annual range of precipitation is widening (Chou and Lan, 2012; Chou et al., 2013) and the frequency of precipitation extreme events also increases. Due to nonlinear responses of land hydrological process to precipitation extremes, runoff can increase exponentially, and on the hard hand, soil water storage may decline. In addition, IPCC AR5 indicates that soil moisture decreases in most areas under the global warming scenario. In this study, we use NCAR Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) to simulate changes in terrestrial available water (TAW, defined as the precipitation minus evaporation minus runoff, and then divided by the precipitation) under global warming. Preliminary results show that the TAW has clear seasonal variations. Compared to previous studies, which do not include the runoff in the calculations of the available water, our estimates on the TAW has much less available water in high latitudes through out the year, especially under extreme precipitation events.

  9. Ground-Water Availability Assessment for the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is assessing the availability and use of the Nation's water resources to gain a clearer understanding of the status of our water resources and the land-use, water-use, and climatic trends that affect them. The goal of the National assessment is to improve our ability to forecast water availability for future economic and environmental uses. Assessments will be completed for regional aquifer systems across the Nation to help characterize how much water we have now, how water availability is changing, and how much water we can expect to have in the future (Reilly and others, 2008). Water availability is a function of many factors, including the quantity and quality of water, and the laws, regulations, economics, and environmental factors that control its use. The focus of the Columbia Plateau regional ground-water availability assessment is to improve fundamental knowledge of the ground-water balance of the region, including the flows, storage, and ground-water use by humans. An improved quantitative understanding of the region's water balance not only provides key information about water quantity, but also can serve as a fundamental basis for many analyses of water quality and ecosystem health.

  10. Water governance in Chile: Availability, management and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés-Pineda, Rodrigo; Pizarro, Roberto; García-Chevesich, Pablo; Valdés, Juan B.; Olivares, Claudio; Vera, Mauricio; Balocchi, Francisco; Pérez, Felipe; Vallejos, Carlos; Fuentes, Roberto; Abarza, Alejandro; Helwig, Bridget

    2014-11-01

    Chile has a unique geography that provides an extraordinary variety of climatic conditions and availability of water resources. The objective of this manuscript was to describe and analyze the spatial and temporal distribution patterns, as well as the management of water resources, along a country with a narrow distance from the Andes Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. This presents challenges to water governance from data collection and analysis perspectives, and for administration of the resource. The Water Resources Directorate (Dirección General de Aguas, DGA), is the federal government organization in charge of the water resources of the country. The DGA and other relevant public and private institutions are examined in terms of competition and conflict resolution across different scales and levels of interaction associated with water resources governance. Both monitoring stations (rainfall, streamflow, water quality, groundwater, sediment and snowfall), and the Chilean management and legislation of water resources are also analyzed. Finally, the success (or lack) of the national administration to upgrade its monitoring stations and equalize water resources distribution throughout the country is discussed including the influence of climate change on data collection, and decision making across different scales of water governance.

  11. Anthropological perspectives on water availability, water quality and water managament in the IMPETUS research areas of Benin and Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirscht, H.; Bollig, M.; Casciarri, B.; Casimir, M.; Rössler, M.; Bako-Arifari, N.

    2003-04-01

    The anthropological research in the framework of the interdisciplinary IMPETUS West Africa-project focuses on water availability, water quality and on social problems and conflicts concerning the management of this sometimes scarce or polluted resource. The northern project area, the catchment of the Drâa river in Southern Moroco, is characterised by a very low precipitation rate and an overall shortage of available water, a situation which has been aggravated by a drought in recent years. But even in the much moister southern research region, the catchment of the river Ouémé in Benin, water is not always available in the required quantity and quality. Although Morocco and Benin share no common cultural or ethnic identities, local 'traditional' water management institutions exist in both countries. The common objective of anthropological research is to identify and analyse these institutions on a micro- or mezzo-level, and to look into the social and cultural processes which lead to a sustainable - or ineffective - use of water. The prime research unit for anthropologists is the household, which is in general congruent with the basic economic unit. It is obvious that gender relations are an important aspect to consider if one looks into the management of water resources. Women are often in charge of supplying the household with drinking water, and in Benin many women are farmers, who, according to local concepts, spend more time on the fields than men. In addition, social changes caused by the shortage of water and their consequences for water management systems are investigated. In Morocco, the emigration of young men is a reaction to the recent droughts, transforming the household structure and gender relations in rural settlements. In return, the investment of the remittances into agriculture, for instance the purchase of motor-pumps for irrigation, affects the water management by circumventing traditional social and politically accepted water distribution

  12. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems throughout the world supply water intermittently, leaving pipes without pressure between supply cycles. Understanding the multiple mechanisms that affect contamination in these intermittent water supplies (IWS) can be used to develop strategies to improve water quality. To study these effects, we tested water quality in an IWS system with infrequent and short water delivery periods in Hubli-Dharwad, India. We continuously measured pressure and physicochemical parameters and periodically collected grab samples to test for total coliform and E. coli throughout supply cycles at 11 sites. When the supply was first turned on, water with elevated turbidity and high concentrations of indicator bacteria was flushed out of pipes. At low pressures (<10 psi), elevated indicator bacteria were frequently detected even when there was a chlorine residual, suggesting persistent contamination had occurred through intrusion or backflow. At pressures between 10 and 17 psi, evidence of periodic contamination suggested that transient intrusion, backflow, release of particulates, or sloughing of biofilms from pipe walls had occurred. Few total coliform and no E. coli were detected when water was delivered with a chlorine residual and at pressures >17 psi.

  13. Climate change will affect the Asian water towers.

    PubMed

    Immerzeel, Walter W; van Beek, Ludovicus P H; Bierkens, Marc F P

    2010-06-11

    More than 1.4 billion people depend on water from the Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Yangtze, and Yellow rivers. Upstream snow and ice reserves of these basins, important in sustaining seasonal water availability, are likely to be affected substantially by climate change, but to what extent is yet unclear. Here, we show that meltwater is extremely important in the Indus basin and important for the Brahmaputra basin, but plays only a modest role for the Ganges, Yangtze, and Yellow rivers. A huge difference also exists between basins in the extent to which climate change is predicted to affect water availability and food security. The Brahmaputra and Indus basins are most susceptible to reductions of flow, threatening the food security of an estimated 60 million people.

  14. Physical processes affecting availability of dissolved silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, David K.; Kindle, John C.

    1994-01-01

    A passive tracer to represent dissolved silicate concentrations, with biologically realistic uptake kinetics, is successfully incorporated into a three-dimensional, eddy-resolving, ocean circulation model of the Indian Ocean. Hypotheses are tested to evaluate physical processes which potentially affect the availability of silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea. An alternative mechanism is offered to the idea that open ocean upwelling is primarily responsible for the high, vertical nutrient flux and consequent large-scale phytoplankton bloom in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon. Model results show that dissolved silicate in surface waters available for uptake by diatoms is primarily influenced by the intensity of nearshore upwelling from soutwest monsoonal wind forcing and by the offshore advective transport of surface waters. The upwelling, which in the model occurs within 200 +/- 50 km of the coast, appears to be a result of a combination of coastal upwelling, Elkman pumping, and divergence of the coastal flow as it turns offshore. Localized intensifications of silicate concentrations appear to be hydrodynamically driven and geographically correlated to coastal topographic features. The absence of diatoms in sediments of the eastern Arabian Basin is consistent with modeled distributional patterns of dissolved silicate resulting from limited westward advection of upwelled coastal waters from the western continental margin of India and rapid uptake of available silicate by diatoms. Concentrations of modeled silicate become sufficiently low to become unavailable for diatom production in the eastern Arabian Sea, a region between 61 deg E and 70 deg E at 8 deg N on the south, with the east and west boundaries converging on the north at approximately 67 deg E, 20 deg N.

  15. Ground-water availability on the Kitsap Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Arnold J.; Bolke, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Unconsolidated deposits on the Kitsap Peninsula, Wash., are of glacial and interglacial origin. These deposits were divided into three units based on lithology and hydraulic properties. Two of the three units are composed of layers of sand and gravel , and silt and clay. The third unit consists of silt and clay and in most places separates the other two units. Water-bearing strata in the upper unit are fairly continuous and average 15 feet in thickness. The lower water-bearing strata are not believed to be as continuous as those in the upper unit, but yield larger quantities of water to wells. The silt-and-clay unit averages 70 feet in thickness, occurs generally near sea level, and is not known to contain major water-bearing deposits. The average annual ground-water recharge to streams on the Kitsap Peninsula was estimated to be 17 times the 1975 annual ground-water pumpage for the peninsula. Some, but an unknown amount, of this water is available for increased withdrawal by wells. Increased withdrawals cause decreased streamflow, declining water levels, and increased seawater contamination. There appears to be no widespread seawater contamination of wells in the study area. Local areas where chloride concentrations from wells exceed 25 milligrams per liter are near the southern part of the Longbranch Peninsula, Horsehead Bay, Point Evans, Sinclair Inlet, Eagle Harbor, Fletcher Bay, the northern end of Bainbridge Island, and the northern tip of the Kitsap Peninsula. (USGS)

  16. Dependence of silver availability on water quality parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffers, R.D.; Bills, T.; Forsythe, B.; Wenholz, M.; Klaine, S.; LaPoint, T.; Cobb, G.P.

    1995-12-31

    The availability of silver in varying water quality conditions such as chloride content, hardness, alkalinity, total organic carbon and pH was investigated during a test to measure acute toxicity to Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas. Water quality parameter treatments included four chloride concentrations (3, 10, 20, 40, mg/L), two hardness treatments (100, 200 Mg CaCO{sub 3}/L), four humic acid concentrations (0, 2, 5, 10 mg/L), a pH of 7.5, and alkalinity at 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} eq/L. Varying silver concentrations were added to,each treatment. Total silver concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Analytical procedures to determine water quality conditions followed modified ASTM methods. Water quality effects on free and bound silver will be discussed.

  17. Availability of Water in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, T.B.; Plummer, L.N.; Rezai, M.T.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of water resources is vital to the social and economic well being and rebuilding of Afghanistan. Kabul City currently (2010) has a population of nearly 4 million and is growing rapidly as a result of periods of relative security and the return of refugees. Population growth and recent droughts have placed new stresses on the city's limited water resources and have caused many wells to become contaminated, dry, or inoperable in recent years. The projected vulnerability of Central and West Asia to climate change (Cruz and others, 2007; Milly and others, 2005) and observations of diminishing glaciers in Afghanistan (Molnia, 2009) have heightened concerns for future water availability in the Kabul Basin of Afghanistan.

  18. Availability of ground water in the Gallup area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    West, Samuel Wilson

    1961-01-01

    -bearing properties of the Westwater Canyon member and the Dakota sandstone are ill defined, because few wells in the area tap either of them exclusively. The specific capacity of wells that tap the Westwater Canyon member, the Dakota sandstone, or both ranges from 0.02 to 2.3 gpm per foot of drawdown. Water in this aquifer generally contains less that 1,000 ppm (parts per million) of dissolved solids. The concentration of sodium and bicarbonate typically is high, and the concentration of sulfate is high locally. The Gallup sandstone is the principal aquifer in the immediate vicinity of, and to the north and south of, Gallup. It yields as much as 260 gpm of water to wells; the specific capacity of wells that tap the Gallup sandstone ranges from 0.08 to 4.7 gpm per foot of drawdown. In general, the water in the Gal]up sandstone is potable, although in places it yields water high in iron, sulfate, and dissolved solids; the concentration of dissolved solids generally is less than 1,000 ppm. Because the yields of all the formations tested at Gallup are small, the town needs a better source of water. The San Juan River discharges annually a larger volume of water than is available from any other source in northwestern New Mexico. Gallup has applied for 15,000 acre-feet of San Juan River water a year, an average of 13,400,000 gpd (gallons per day). This water would be expensive, because about 50 miles of pipeline would be required to transport the water, and it would have to be liked about 1,000 feet over a high ridge north of town. Despite the expense involved, at this time the San Juan River seems to offer the most secure long-term supply of water for the Gallup area.

  19. Alleviation of Zn toxicity by low water availability.

    PubMed

    Disante, Karen B; Cortina, Jordi; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Fuentes, David; Hernández, Encarni I; Ljung, Karin

    2014-03-01

    Heavy metal contamination and drought are expected to increase in large areas worldwide. However, their combined effect on plant performance has been scantly analyzed. This study examines the effect of Zn supply at different water availabilities on morpho-physiological traits of Quercus suber L. in order to analyze the combined effects of both stresses. Seedlings were treated with four levels of zinc from 3 to 150 µM and exposed to low watering (LW) or high watering (HW) frequency in hydroponic culture, using a growth chamber. Under both watering regimes, Zn concentration in leaves and roots increased with Zn increment in nutrient solution. Nevertheless, at the highest Zn doses, Zn tissue concentrations were almost twice in HW than in LW seedlings. Functional traits as leaf photosynthetic rate and root hydraulic conductivity, and morphological traits as root length and root biomass decreased significantly in response to Zn supply. Auxin levels increased with Zn concentrations, suggesting the involvement of this phytohormone in the seedling response to this element. LW seedlings exposed to 150 µM Zn showed higher root length and root biomass than HW seedlings exposed to the same Zn dose. Our results suggest that low water availability could mitigate Zn toxicity by limiting internal accumulation. Morphological traits involved in the response to both stresses probably contributed to this response.

  20. Uncertainty Analysis of Historic Water Resources Availability in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, A.; Arsenault, K. R.; Narapusetty, B.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    Seeing how current agrometerological conditions measure up to historic events helps analysts and decision-makers judge the potential impact that anomalous rainfall and temperatures will have on the availability and accessibility of food and water resources. We present results from the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), which is used to produce multi-model and rainfall ensembles of the water balance over semi-arid Africa from 1982-2014. The ensemble approach allows us to assess confidence in our estimates, which is critical given that food and water insecure regions in Africa are data-poor are characterized by complex interactions and feedbacks that cause deterministic hydrologic modeling approaches to fall short. We then use the ensemble of water balance estimates to calculate drought severity (derived from modeled soil moisture), and the Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (a function of atmospheric water demand). We compare these indices to the GIMMS 30-year vegetation data product from AVHRR, and the ESA ECV 30 year microwave soil moisture. These historical time series (with confidence bounds) allow us to improve our quantitative understanding of drought thresholds, to explore sources of parameter and model uncertainty, and to better contextualize current operational drought monitoring efforts in Africa.

  1. Response of crayfish to hyporheic water availability and excess sedimentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyer, Joseph J.; Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.

    2015-01-01

    Crayfish in many headwater streams regularly cope with seasonal drought. However, it is unclear how landscape changes affect the long-term persistence of crayfish populations. We designed two laboratory experiments to investigate the acute effects of common landscape stressors on crayfish: water withdrawal and sedimentation. The first experiment tested the interaction among water withdrawals (four 24-h water reductions of 0, 15, 30, or 45 cm) and two substrate treatments (pebble and cobble) on the burrowing depth of crayfish. The second experiment evaluated the effects of excess fine sediment (three treatments of 0, 45, and 90% sediment) and substrate type (cobble and pebble) on crayfish burrowing depth. Crayfish were able to burrow deeper into the simulated hyporheic zone in cobble substrate when compared to pebble. Crayfish subjected to greater water withdrawals in the pebble treatment were not able to reach the simulated hyporheic zone. Excess fine sediment reduced the depth that crayfish burrowed, regardless of substrate type. Results from this study suggest excess fine sediment may reduce crayfish persistence, particularly when seeking refuge during prolonged dry conditions.

  2. Mediterranean shrub vegetation: soil protection vs. water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Estringana, Pablo; Nieves Alonso-Blázquez, M.; Alegre, Alegre; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    at least 45% and soil loss by at least 59% in relation to an abandoned and degraded soil (bare soil) (Garcia-Estringana et al., 2010a). D. pentaphyllum, M. strasseri and C. arborescens were more effective in reducing runoff and soil loss (at least 83% and 97% respectively) than R. sphaerocarpa (45% and 59% respectively). Pisctacia Lentiscus L reduced the soil losses in 87% and the runoff rates (68%) meanwhile Quercus coccifera L reached a larger reduction (95% and 88 %) in comparison to herbicide treated agriculture soil. So, all shrub species protected the soil, but not in the same way. In relation to rainfall reaching the soil surface, great differences were observed among species, with interception losses varying between 10% for R. sphaerocarpa to greater than 36% for D. pentaphyllum and M. strasseri, and with stemflow percentages changing between less than 11% for D. pentaphyllum and M. strasseri and 20% for R. sphaerocarpa (Garcia-Estringana et al., 2010b). Rainfall interception on Pistacia Lentiscus and Quercus coccifera were 24% and 34% respectively for the two years of measurements. The integration of the effects of Mediterranean shrub vegetation on soil protection and rainfall partitioning fluxes facilitates understanding the effects of changes in vegetation type on soil and water resources. From this perspective, the interesting protective effect of D. pentpahyllum and M. strasseri, reducing intensely runoff and soil loss contrasts with the dangerous reduction in rainfall reaching the soil surface. Soil protection is essential in semiarid and arid environments, but a proper assessment of the effects on water availability is critical because of water is a scant resource in these kinds of environments. Pistacia Lentiscus and Quercus coccifera shown both a high capacity to intercept rainfall, increase infiltration and reduce the soil losses. We suggest to apply similar research programs into recently fire affected land as the role of vegetation after the fire

  3. Availability of water in Kalamazoo County, southwestern Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, William Burrows; Miller, John B.; Wood, Warren W.

    1972-01-01

    of the utmost importance. Levels at Crooked and Eagle Lakes have been maintained by pumping from lower aquifers. Diversion of water from Gourdneck Creek to West and Austin Lakes has helped in maintaining levels. Several relatively undeveloped lakes could be utilized as reservoirs whose storage could be used to augment streamflow or for water supply.Water in streams is generally of good chemical quality; however, several streams, including the Kalamazoo River downstream from Kalamazoo, have been degraded by municipal and industrial waste disposal. Water in the lakes is generally of good chemical quality with the exception of Barton Lake, which has been degraded by waste disposal. There is sufficient surface water available in Kalamazoo County to meet requirements for development of large quantities of water. The total available supply (average discharge of a stream) is about 680 mgd (million gallons per day). The dependable supply (7-day Q2, or average 7-day low flow having a recurrence interval of 2 years) is about 303 mgd. By developing artificial recharge facilities, surface runoff during winter and spring could be utilized to recharge ground-water reservoirs. Surface-water withdrawal in 1966 was about 58 mgd, of which 33 mgd was withdrawn from the Kalamazoo River. The quantity of water now being withdrawn from the ground and surface sources is small compared to the total that may be obtained in the area through full utilization of these resources. Mathematical models were used to simulate hydrologic conditions in the ground-water reservoirs and to evaluate maximum drawdowns for periods of little or no recharge. The practical limits of development as determined for the ground-water reservoirs are estimated to be at the following average withdrawal rates: Kalamazoo, 39 .mgd; Schoolcraft, 17 mgd; Kalamazoo-Portage, 24 mgd; and several small reservoirs, 67 mgd. These total 147 mgd. Further development would require additional artificial recharge facilities. Average

  4. Water availability and subsidence in California's Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Sneed, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    California’s Central Valley covers about 52,000 square kilometers (km2) and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. More than 250 different crops are grown in the broad alluvial filled structural trough, with an estimated value exceeding $20 billion per year (Faunt 2009) (Figure 1). Central Valley agriculture depends on state and federal water systems that divert surface water, predominantly originating from Sierra Nevada snowmelt, to agricultural fields. Because the valley is semi-arid and the availability of surface water varies substantially from year to year, season to season, and from north to south, agriculture, as it grew, developed a reliance on groundwater for irrigation.

  5. Light availability affects stream biofilm bacterial community composition and function, but not diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karoline; Besemer, Katharina; Burns, Nancy R.; Battin, Tom J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Changes in riparian vegetation or water turbidity and browning in streams alter the local light regime with potential implications for stream biofilms and ecosystem functioning. We experimented with biofilms in microcosms grown under a gradient of light intensities (range: 5–152 μmole photons s−1 m−2) and combined 454‐pyrosequencing and enzymatic activity assays to evaluate the effects of light on biofilm structure and function. We observed a shift in bacterial community composition along the light gradient, whereas there was no apparent change in alpha diversity. Multifunctionality, based on extracellular enzymes, was highest under high light conditions and decoupled from bacterial diversity. Phenol oxidase activity, involved in the degradation of polyphenolic compounds, was twice as high on average under the lowest compared with the highest light condition. This suggests a shift in reliance of microbial heterotrophs on biofilm phototroph‐derived organic matter under high light availability to more complex organic matter under low light. Furthermore, extracellular enzyme activities correlated with nutrient cycling and community respiration, supporting the link between biofilm structure–function and biogeochemical fluxes in streams. Our findings demonstrate that changes in light availability are likely to have significant impacts on biofilm structure and function, potentially affecting stream ecosystem processes. PMID:26013911

  6. Effects of Water-Availability on Carbon and Water Dynamics in a Semi-Arid Pine Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruehr, N. K.; Martin, J. G.; Law, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    Changes in the hydrological cycle, as predicted and currently observed, will significantly impact the water and carbon balance of water-limited forest ecosystems. However, differences in the water-sensitivity of component processes make carbon balance predictions challenging. To examine responses of ecosystem components to water limitations, we conducted a study of tree, soil and ecosystem processes in a young ponderosa pine stand under natural summer drought (control) and increased soil water conditions (watered). Weekly-averaged tree transpiration (T), net ecosystem photosynthesis (Pneco) and soil CO2 efflux (Rs) were related with soil water content (SWC) and declined rapidly when relative extractable soil water (REW) was below 50%. The control of vapor pressure deficit over daily variations in canopy conductance (Gs) was subordinated to SWC (R2=0.97; logarithmic function), decreasing at REW below 50%. Watering maintained REW at about 70% in July and August but positively affected tree carbon and water dynamics only at the end of summer when fluxes in the control treatment were strongly water-limited. A tight coupling of above- and belowground fluxes became apparent; while root-rhizosphere respiration (Rr) in the control treatment decreased along with Pneco and T (R2=0.58) as drought progressed, watering maintained Rr, T and Gs, which were significantly higher than those of the control trees in late summer. In contrast, microbial respiration (Rm) responded instantaneously and strongly to the watering compared to the control treatment. The net effect was increased soil water availability negatively affected the short-term ecosystem C balance due to a larger increase in decomposition than photosynthesis. This clearly highlights that understanding the dissimilar response of tree dynamics and soil decomposition to water availability to be a key component in predicting future C sequestration in water-limited forest ecosystems. Continued watering over multiple years

  7. How processing digital elevation models can affect simulated water budgets.

    PubMed

    Kuniansky, Eve L; Lowery, Mark A; Campbell, Bruce G

    2009-01-01

    For regional models, the shallow water table surface is often used as a source/sink boundary condition, as model grid scale precludes simulation of the water table aquifer. This approach is appropriate when the water table surface is relatively stationary. Since water table surface maps are not readily available, the elevation of the water table used in model cells is estimated via a two-step process. First, a regression equation is developed using existing land and water table elevations from wells in the area. This equation is then used to predict the water table surface for each model cell using land surface elevation available from digital elevation models (DEM). Two methods of processing DEM for estimating the land surface for each cell are commonly used (value nearest the cell centroid or mean value in the cell). This article demonstrates how these two methods of DEM processing can affect the simulated water budget. For the example presented, approximately 20% more total flow through the aquifer system is simulated if the centroid value rather than the mean value is used. This is due to the one-third greater average ground water gradients associated with the centroid value than the mean value. The results will vary depending on the particular model area topography and cell size. The use of the mean DEM value in each model cell will result in a more conservative water budget and is more appropriate because the model cell water table value should be representative of the entire cell area, not the centroid of the model cell.

  8. Estimating plant available water content from remotely sensed evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Warren, G.; Doody, T.

    2012-04-01

    Plant available water content (PAWC) is an emergent soil property that is a critical variable in hydrological modelling. PAWC determines the active soil water storage and, in water-limited environments, is the main cause of different ecohydrological behaviour between (deep-rooted) perennial vegetation and (shallow-rooted) seasonal vegetation. Conventionally, PAWC is estimated for a combination of soil and vegetation from three variables: maximum rooting depth and the volumetric water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point, respectively. Without elaborate local field observation, large uncertainties in PAWC occur due to the assumptions associated with each of the three variables. We developed an alternative, observation-based method to estimate PAWC from precipitation observations and CSIRO MODIS Reflectance-based Evapotranspiration (CMRSET) estimates. Processing steps include (1) removing residual systematic bias in the CMRSET estimates, (2) making spatially appropriate assumptions about local water inputs and surface runoff losses, (3) using mean seasonal patterns in precipitation and CMRSET to estimate the seasonal pattern in soil water storage changes, (4) from these, calculating the mean seasonal storage range, which can be treated as an estimate of PAWC. We evaluate the resulting PAWC estimates against those determined in field experiments for 180 sites across Australia. We show that the method produces better estimates of PAWC than conventional techniques. In addition, the method provides detailed information with full continental coverage at moderate resolution (250 m) scale. The resulting maps can be used to identify likely groundwater dependent ecosystems and to derive PAWC distributions for each combination of soil and vegetation type.

  9. Effects of Light and Water Availability on the Performance of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    PubMed

    Hickin, Mauri; Preisser, Evan L

    2015-02-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere) is a dominant shade-tolerant tree in northeastern United States that has been declining since the arrival of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand). Determining where A. tsugae settles under different abiotic conditions is important in understanding the insect's expansion. Resource availability such as light and water can affect herbivore selectivity and damage. We examined how A. tsugae settlement and survival were affected by differences in light intensity and water availability, and how adelgid affected tree performance growing in these different abiotic treatments. In a greenhouse at the University of Rhode Island, we conducted an experiment in which the factors light (full-sun, shaded), water (water-stressed, watered), and adelgid (infested, insect-free) were fully crossed for a total of eight treatments (20 two-year-old hemlock saplings per treatment). We measured photosynthesis, transpiration, water potential, relative water content, adelgid density, and survival throughout the experiment. Adelgid settlement was higher on the old-growth foliage of shaded and water-stressed trees, but their survival was not altered by foliage age or either abiotic factor. The trees responded more to the light treatments than the water treatments. Light treatments caused a difference in relative water content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration, and water potential; however, water availability did not alter these variables. Adelgid did not enhance the impact of these abiotic treatments. Further studies are needed to get a better understanding of how these abiotic factors impact adelgid densities and tree health, and to determine why adelgid settlement was higher in the shaded treatments.

  10. µ-opioid Receptor Availability in the Amygdala is Associated with Smoking for Negative Affect Relief

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Mary; Gold, Allison B.; Wileyto, E. Paul; Ray, Riju; Ruparel, Kosha; Newberg, Andrew; Dubroff, Jacob; Logan, Jean; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Blendy, Julie A.; Lerman, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    Rationale The perception that smoking relieves negative affect contributes to smoking persistence. Endogenous opioid neurotransmission, and the µ-opioid receptor (MOR) in particular, plays a role in affective regulation and is modulated by nicotine. Objectives We examined the relationship of µ-opioid receptor binding availability in the amygdala to the motivation to smoke for negative affect relief and to the acute effects of smoking on affective responses. Methods Twenty-two smokers were scanned on two separate occasions after overnight abstinence using [11C]carfentanil positron emission tomography imaging: after smoking a nicotine-containing cigarette and after smoking a denicotinized cigarette. Self-reports of smoking motives were collected at baseline, and measures of positive and negative affect were collected pre- and post- cigarette smoking. Results Higher MOR availability in the amygdala was associated with motivation to smoke to relieve negative affect. However, MOR availability was unrelated to changes in affect after smoking either cigarette. Conclusions Increased MOR availability in amygdala may underlie the motivation to smoke for negative affective relief. These results are consistent with previous data highlighting the role of µ-opioid receptor neurotransmission in smoking behavior. PMID:22389047

  11. High sensitivity of northeastern broadleaf forest trees to water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, M.; Pederson, N.; Andreu-Hayles, L.

    2015-12-01

    Temperate deciduous forests of eastern US provide goods and services to millions of people and play a vital role in the terrestrial carbon and hydrological cycles. However, ongoing climate change and increased in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere (ca) are expected to alter growth and gas exchange of trees, and ultimately forest productivity. Still, the magnitude of these effects is unclear. A better comprehension of the species-specific responses to environmental changes will better inform models and managers on the vulnerability and resiliency of these forests. Tree-ring analysis was combined with δ¹³C and δ18O measurements to investigate growth and physiological responses of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) in northeastern US to changes in water availability and ca for the period 1950-2014. We found very strong correlations between summer climatic water balance (June-August) and isotopic tree-ring series for δ¹³C (r = -0.65 and -0.73), and δ18O (r = -0.59 and -0.70), for red oak and tulip poplar, respectively. In contrast, tree-ring width was less sensitive to summer water availability (r = 0.33-0.39). Prior to the mid 1980s, low water availability resulted in low stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and growth. Since that period, pluvial conditions occurring in northeastern US have increased stomatal conductance, carbon uptake, and growth of both species. These findings demonstrate that broadleaf trees in this region could be more sensitive to drought than expected. This appears especially true since much of the calibration period looks wet in a multi-centennial perspective. Further, stronger spatial correlations were found between climate data with tree-ring isotopes than with tree-ring width and the geographical area of the observed δ18O-precipitation response (i.e. the area over which correlations are > 0.5) covers most of the northeastern US. Given the good fit between the isotopic time series and water

  12. Quantifying Impacts of Food Trade on Water Availability Considering Water Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, T.; Yano, S.; Hanasaki, N.

    2012-12-01

    Food production requires a lot of water, and traded food potentially has external impacts on environment through reducing the water availability in the producing region. Water footprint is supposed to be an indicator to reflect the impacts of water use. However, impacts of water use on environment, resource, and sustainability are different in place and time, and according to the sources of water withdrawals. Therefore it is preferable to characterize the water withdrawals or consumptions rather than just accumulate the total amount of water use when estimating water footprint. In this study, a new methodology, global green-water equivalent method, is proposed in which regional characterization factors are determined based on the estimates of natural hydrological cycles, such as precipitation, total runoff, and sub-surface runoff, and applied for green-water, river(+reservoir) water, and non-renewable ground water uses. Water footprint of the world associated with the production of 19 major crops was estimated using an integrated hydrological and water resources modeling system (H08), with atmospheric forcing data for 1991-2000 with spatial resolution of 0.5 by 0.5 longitudinal and latitudinal degrees. The impacts is estimated to be 6 times larger than the simple summation of green and blue water uses, and reflect the climatological water scarcity conditions geographically. The results can be used to compare the possible impacts of food trade associated with various crops from various regions on environment through reducing the availability of water resources in the cropping area.

  13. Solubility and Plant Availability of Nutrients as Affected by Soil Drainage Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn growth is affected due to oxygen deficiency and root death in a perched water table (PWT). The study objective was to evaluate a surface application of FGD gypsum (FGDG) and glyphosate (GLY) on nutrient uptake in corn with different drainage conditions. The experiment was conducted in greenhous...

  14. Simulations and field observations of root water uptake in plots with different soil water availability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Gaochao; Vanderborght, Jan; Couvreur, Valentin; Javaux, Mathieu; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Root water uptake is a main process in the hydrological cycle and vital for water management in agronomy. In most models of root water uptake, the spatial and temporal soil water status and plant root distributions are required for water flow simulations. However, dynamic root growth and root distributions are not easy and time consuming to measure by normal approaches. Furthermore, root water uptake cannot be measured directly in the field. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate monitoring data of soil water content and potential and root distributions within a modeling framework to explore the interaction between soil water availability and root water uptake. But, most models are lacking a physically based concept to describe water uptake from soil profiles with vertical variations in soil water availability. In this contribution, we present an experimental setup in which root development, soil water content and soil water potential are monitored non-invasively in two field plots with different soil texture and for three treatments with different soil water availability: natural rain, sheltered and irrigated treatment. Root development is monitored using 7-m long horizontally installed minirhizotubes at six depths with three replicates per treatment. The monitoring data are interpreted using a model that is a one-dimensional upscaled version of root water uptake model that describes flow in the coupled soil-root architecture considering water potential gradients in the system and hydraulic conductances of the soil and root system (Couvreur et al., 2012). This model approach links the total root water uptake to an effective soil water potential in the root zone. The local root water uptake is a function of the difference between the local soil water potential and effective root zone water potential so that compensatory uptake in heterogeneous soil water potential profiles is simulated. The root system conductance is derived from inverse modelling using

  15. How hydrophobic buckminsterfullerene affects surrounding water structure.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Dahlia R; Raschke, Tanya M; Levitt, Michael

    2008-03-13

    The hydrophobic hydration of fullerenes in water is of significant interest as the most common Buckminsterfullerene (C60) is a mesoscale sphere; C60 also has potential in pharmaceutical and nanomaterial applications. We use an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation lasting hundreds of nanoseconds to determine the behavior of a single molecule of C60 in a periodic box of water, and compare this to methane. A C60 molecule does not induce drying at the surface; however, unlike a hard sphere methane, a hard sphere C60 solute does. This is due to a larger number of attractive Lennard-Jones interactions between the carbon atom centers in C60 and the surrounding waters. In these simulations, water is not uniformly arranged but rather adopts a range of orientations in the first hydration shell despite the spherical symmetry of both solutes. There is a clear effect of solute size on the orientation of the first hydration shell waters. There is a large increase in hydrogen-bonding contacts between waters in the C60 first hydration shell. There is also a disruption of hydrogen bonds between waters in the first and second hydration shells. Water molecules in the first hydration shell preferentially create triangular structures that minimize the net water dipole near the surface near both the methane and C60 surface, reducing the total energy of the system. Additionally, in the first and second hydration shells, the water dipoles are ordered to a distance of 8 A from the solute surface. We conclude that, with a diameter of approximately 1 nm, C60 behaves as a large hydrophobic solute.

  16. How do people judge risks: availability heuristic, affect heuristic, or both?

    PubMed

    Pachur, Thorsten; Hertwig, Ralph; Steinmann, Florian

    2012-09-01

    How does the public reckon which risks to be concerned about? The availability heuristic and the affect heuristic are key accounts of how laypeople judge risks. Yet, these two accounts have never been systematically tested against each other, nor have their predictive powers been examined across different measures of the public's risk perception. In two studies, we gauged risk perception in student samples by employing three measures (frequency, value of a statistical life, and perceived risk) and by using a homogeneous (cancer) and a classic set of heterogeneous causes of death. Based on these judgments of risk, we tested precise models of the availability heuristic and the affect heuristic and different definitions of availability and affect. Overall, availability-by-recall, a heuristic that exploits people's direct experience of occurrences of risks in their social network, conformed to people's responses best. We also found direct experience to carry a high degree of ecological validity (and one that clearly surpasses that of affective information). However, the relative impact of affective information (as compared to availability) proved more pronounced in value-of-a-statistical-life and perceived-risk judgments than in risk-frequency judgments. Encounters with risks in the media, in contrast, played a negligible role in people's judgments. Going beyond the assumption of exclusive reliance on either availability or affect, we also found evidence for mechanisms that combine both, either sequentially or in a composite fashion. We conclude with a discussion of policy implications of our results, including how to foster people's risk calibration and the success of education campaigns.

  17. Water on Mars: Volatile history and resource availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of water on Mars is undisputed today. Measurements of atmospheric water vapor have shown that the abundance varies with location and season in a systematic way which depends on processes of exchange with the polar caps, regolith, and atmosphere. Channels, which give the appearance of having been carved by water or of having had water involved in their formation, appear in various locations on the surface; some were formed by catastrophic outflow of water from beneath the surface, while others form valley networks which give the appearance of having formed over long periods of time primarily early in the planet's history. The north polar residual cap consists of water ice, possibly containing an amount of water equivalent to a global layer several tens of meters thick. Finally, water is observed within the regolith, as adsorbed water or as water of hydration.

  18. Water distribution in traditionally irrigated valleys under different scenarios of water availability in Northern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J. J.; Fernald, A.; Gutierrez, K. Y.; Ochoa, C. G.; Guldan, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Population growth and water scarcity are factors that increase pressures on water resources of the semiarid southwestern United States. In these areas, groundwater recharge and delayed return flow to rivers are hydrological benefits of traditional irrigation systems. A broad spatial-temporal analysis of the dynamics of surface water and groundwater interactions is necessary to improve water planning and management. Our study at three northern New Mexico agricultural valleys with low to high water availability was carried out to characterize surface water and groundwater interactions and to quantify different water budget components. The study sites were instrumented to collect weather data, water flows from rivers and acequias, shallow groundwater level fluctuations, soil physical properties and irrigation and crop management on irrigated lands. From one crop field of our study sites, results showed up to 38 cm of water level response after the beginning of an irrigation event. Other results in our study sites, showed water level response up to 80 cm after canal flow started and ditch seepage of 12% of the total valley surface water flow. Preliminary field scale results from our three study sites showed that deep percolation from irrigation is the major component of the total water budget with 43, 46 and 52% from low, medium and high water availability sites respectively. This farm scale study revealed that, water availability drives the amount of applied water and the irrigation schedule on the farms that in turn drive deep percolation and shallow aquifer recharge. It appears that traditional irrigation is an important source of groundwater recharge in our study valleys. From the ongoing study, we expect to get detailed information about the water distribution over larger spatial scales using field measurements and geographic information systems-based land use classification.

  19. Common and specific responses to availability of mineral nutrients and water

    PubMed Central

    Kudoyarova, Guzel R.; Dodd, Ian C.; Veselov, Dmitry S.; Rothwell, Shane A.; Yu. Veselov, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Changes in resource (mineral nutrients and water) availability, due to their heterogeneous distribution in space and time, affect plant development. Plants need to sense these changes to optimize growth and biomass allocation by integrating root and shoot growth. Since a limited supply of water or nutrients can elicit similar physiological responses (the relative activation of root growth at the expense of shoot growth), similar underlying mechanisms may affect perception and acquisition of either nutrients or water. This review compares root and shoot responses to availability of different macronutrients and water. Attention is given to the roles of root-to-shoot signalling and shoot-to-root signalling, with regard to coordinating changes in root and shoot growth and development. Involvement of plant hormones in regulating physiological responses such as stomatal and hydraulic conductance is revealed by measuring the effects of resource availability on phytohormone concentrations in roots and shoots, and their flow between roots and shoots in xylem and phloem saps. More specific evidence can be obtained by measuring the physiological responses of genotypes with altered hormone responses or concentrations. We discuss the similarity and diversity of changes in shoot growth, allocation to root growth, and root architecture under changes in water, nitrate, and phosphorus availability, and the possible involvement of abscisic acid, indole-acetic acid, and cytokinin in their regulation. A better understanding of these mechanisms may contribute to better crop management for efficient use of these resources and to selecting crops for improved performance under suboptimal soil conditions. PMID:25697793

  20. Improving the availability of emergency obstetric care in conflict-affected settings.

    PubMed

    Krause, S K; Meyers, J L; Friedlander, E

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an emergency obstetric care (EmOC) project implemented by the Reproductive Health Response in Conflict (RHRC) Consortium in 12 conflict-affected settings in nine countries from 2000-2005 with funding and technical support from Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health Averting Maternal Death and Disability (AMDD) programme. The overall goal of the project was to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in select conflict-affected settings by improving the availability of EmOC. Another aim of the project was to institutionalize EmOC within RHRC Consortium agencies by modelling how to improve the availability of basic and comprehensive EmOC at clinics and hospitals. The specific project purpose was to increase the availability of EmOC in select conflict-affected settings. The project demonstrated that a great deal more can and should be done by humanitarian workers to improve the availability of basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric services in conflict-affected settings.

  1. Estimating future global per capita water availability based on changes in climate and population

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, Esther S; Kodra, Evan; Ganguly, Auroop R; Steinhaeuser, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Human populations are profoundly affected by water stress, or the lack of sufficient per capita available freshwater. Water stress can result from overuse of available freshwater resources or from a reduction in the amount of available water due to decreases in rainfall and stored water supplies. Analyzing the interrelationship between human populations and water availability is complicated by the uncertainties associated with climate change projections and population projections. We present a simple methodology developed to integrate disparate climate and population data sources and develop first-order per capita water availability projections at the global scale. Simulations from the coupled land-ocean-atmosphere Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) forced with a range of hypothetical greenhouse gas emissions scenarios are used to project grid-based changes in precipitation minus evapotranspiration as proxies for changes in runoff, or fresh water supply. Population growth changes according to several Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) storylines are used as proxies for changes in fresh water demand by 2025, 2050 and 2100. These freshwater supply and demand projections are then combined to yield estimates of per capita water availability aggregated by watershed and political unit. Results suggest that important insights might be extracted from the use of the process developed here, notably including the identification of the globe s most vulnerable regions in need of more detailed analysis and the relative importance of population growth versus climate change in in altering future freshwater supplies. However, these are only exemplary insights and, as such, could be considered hypotheses that should be rigorously tested with multiple climate models, multiple observational climate datasets, and more comprehensive population change storylines.

  2. Estimating future global per capita water availability based on changes in climate and population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, Esther S.; Kodra, Evan; Steinhaeuser, Karsten; Ganguly, Auroop R.

    2012-05-01

    Human populations are profoundly affected by water stress, or the lack of sufficient per capita available freshwater. Water stress can result from overuse of available freshwater resources or from a reduction in the amount of available water due to decreases in rainfall and stored water supplies. Analyzing the interrelationship between human populations and water availability is complicated by the uncertainties associated with climate change projections and population projections. We present a simple methodology developed to integrate disparate climate and population data sources and develop first-order per capita water availability projections at the global scale. Simulations from the coupled land-ocean-atmosphere Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) forced with a range of hypothetical greenhouse gas emissions scenarios are used to project grid-based changes in precipitation minus evapotranspiration as proxies for changes in runoff, or fresh water supply. Population growth changes, according to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) storylines, are used as proxies for changes in fresh water demand by 2025, 2050 and 2100. These freshwater supply and demand projections are then combined to yield estimates of per capita water availability aggregated by watershed and political unit. Results suggest that important insights might be extracted from the use of the process developed here, notably including the identification of the globe's most vulnerable regions in need of more detailed analysis and the relative importance of population growth versus climate change in altering future freshwater supplies. However, these are only exemplary insights and, as such, could be considered hypotheses that should be rigorously tested with multiple climate models, multiple observational climate datasets, and more comprehensive population change storylines.

  3. Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCluney, Kevin E.; Belnap, Jayne; Collins, Scott L.; González, Angélica L.; Hagen, Elizabeth M.; Holland, J. Nathaniel; Kotler, Burt P.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Smith, Stanley D.; Wolf, Blair O.

    2012-01-01

    Species interactions play key roles in linking the responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to environmental change. For instance, species interactions are an important determinant of the complexity of changes in trophic biomass with variation in resources. Water resources are a major driver of terrestrial ecology and climate change is expected to greatly alter the distribution of this critical resource. While previous studies have documented strong effects of global environmental change on species interactions in general, responses can vary from region to region. Dryland ecosystems occupy more than one-third of the Earth's land mass, are greatly affected by changes in water availability, and are predicted to be hotspots of climate change. Thus, it is imperative to understand the effects of environmental change on these globally significant ecosystems. Here, we review studies of the responses of population-level plant-plant, plant-herbivore, and predator-prey interactions to changes in water availability in dryland environments in order to develop new hypotheses and predictions to guide future research. To help explain patterns of interaction outcomes, we developed a conceptual model that views interaction outcomes as shifting between (1) competition and facilitation (plant-plant), (2) herbivory, neutralism, or mutualism (plant-herbivore), or (3) neutralism and predation (predator-prey), as water availability crosses physiological, behavioural, or population-density thresholds. We link our conceptual model to hypothetical scenarios of current and future water availability to make testable predictions about the influence of changes in water availability on species interactions. We also examine potential implications of our conceptual model for the relative importance of top-down effects and the linearity of patterns of change in trophic biomass with changes in water availability. Finally, we highlight key research needs and some possible broader impacts

  4. Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change.

    PubMed

    McCluney, Kevin E; Belnap, Jayne; Collins, Scott L; González, Angélica L; Hagen, Elizabeth M; Nathaniel Holland, J; Kotler, Burt P; Maestre, Fernando T; Smith, Stanley D; Wolf, Blair O

    2012-08-01

    Species interactions play key roles in linking the responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to environmental change. For instance, species interactions are an important determinant of the complexity of changes in trophic biomass with variation in resources. Water resources are a major driver of terrestrial ecology and climate change is expected to greatly alter the distribution of this critical resource. While previous studies have documented strong effects of global environmental change on species interactions in general, responses can vary from region to region. Dryland ecosystems occupy more than one-third of the Earth's land mass, are greatly affected by changes in water availability, and are predicted to be hotspots of climate change. Thus, it is imperative to understand the effects of environmental change on these globally significant ecosystems. Here, we review studies of the responses of population-level plant-plant, plant-herbivore, and predator-prey interactions to changes in water availability in dryland environments in order to develop new hypotheses and predictions to guide future research. To help explain patterns of interaction outcomes, we developed a conceptual model that views interaction outcomes as shifting between (1) competition and facilitation (plant-plant), (2) herbivory, neutralism, or mutualism (plant-herbivore), or (3) neutralism and predation (predator-prey), as water availability crosses physiological, behavioural, or population-density thresholds. We link our conceptual model to hypothetical scenarios of current and future water availability to make testable predictions about the influence of changes in water availability on species interactions. We also examine potential implications of our conceptual model for the relative importance of top-down effects and the linearity of patterns of change in trophic biomass with changes in water availability. Finally, we highlight key research needs and some possible broader impacts

  5. Comprehensive assessment of projected changes in water availability and aridity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, Peter; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2015-04-01

    Substantial changes in the hydrological cycle are projected for the 21st century, with potential major impacts, particularly at regional scale. However, the projections are subject to major uncertainties and the metrics generally used to assess such changes do not fully account for the hydroclimatological characteristics of the land surface. In this context, the 'dry gets drier, wet gets wetter' paradigm is often used as a simplifying summary. However, recent studies have challenged the validity of the paradigm both for observations (Greve et al., 2014) and projections (Roderick et al., 2014), especially casting doubt on applying the widely used P-E (precipitation - evapotranspiration) metric over global land surfaces. Here we show in a comprehensive assessment that projected changes in mean annual P-E are generally not significant in most land areas, with the exception of the northern high latitudes where significant changes towards wetter conditions are found. We further show that the combination of decreasing P and increasing atmospheric demand (potential evapotranspiration, Ep) leads to a significant increase in aridity in many subtropical and neighbouring regions, thus confirming the paradigm for some dry regions, but invalidating it for the relative large fraction of the affected area which is currently in a humid or transitional climate regime. Combining both metrics (P-E and P-E_p) we conclude that the 'dry gets drier, wet gets wetter' paradigm is generally not confirmed for projected changes in most land areas (despite notable exceptions in the high latitudes and subtropics), because of a lack of robustness of the projected changes in some regions (tropics) and because humid to transitional regions are shifting to drier conditions, i.e. not following the paradigm. References Greve, P., Orlowsky, B., Mueller, B., Sheffield, J., Reichstein, M., & Seneviratne, S. I. Global assessment of trends in wetting and drying over land. Nature Geosci. 7, 716-721 (2014

  6. Global monthly water scarcity: blue water footprints versus blue water availability.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y; Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Chapagain, Ashok K; Mathews, Ruth E; Richter, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity is a growing concern, placing considerable importance on the accuracy of indicators used to characterize and map water scarcity worldwide. We improve upon past efforts by using estimates of blue water footprints (consumptive use of ground- and surface water flows) rather than water withdrawals, accounting for the flows needed to sustain critical ecological functions and by considering monthly rather than annual values. We analyzed 405 river basins for the period 1996-2005. In 201 basins with 2.67 billion inhabitants there was severe water scarcity during at least one month of the year. The ecological and economic consequences of increasing degrees of water scarcity--as evidenced by the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo), Indus, and Murray-Darling River Basins--can include complete desiccation during dry seasons, decimation of aquatic biodiversity, and substantial economic disruption.

  7. Metal/metalloid fixation by litter during decomposition affected by silicon availability during plant growth.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg

    2013-03-01

    Organic matter is known to accumulate high amounts of metals/metalloids, enhanced during the process of decomposition by heterotrophic biofilms (with high fixation capacity for metals/metalloids). The colonization by microbes and the decay rate of the organic matter depends on different litter properties. Main litter properties affecting the decomposition of organic matter such as the nutrient ratios and the content of cellulose, lignin and phenols are currently described to be changed by silicon availability. But less is known about the impact of silicon availability during plant growth on elemental fixation during decay. Hence, this research focuses on the impact of silicon availability during plant growth on fixation of 42 elements during litter decay, by controlling the litter properties. The results of this experiment are a significantly higher metal/metalloid accumulation during decomposition of plant litter grown under low silicon availability. This may be explained by the altered litter properties (mainly nutrient content) affecting the microbial decomposition of the litter, the microbial growth on the litter and possibly by the silicon double layer, which is evident in leaf litter with high silicon content and reduces the binding sites for metals/metalloids. Furthermore, this silicon double layer may also reduce the growing biofilm by reducing the availability of carbon compounds at the litter surface and has to be elucidated in further research. Hence, low silicon availability during plant growth enhances the metal/metalloid accumulation into plant litter during aquatic decomposition.

  8. FINANCING ASSISTANCE AVAILABLE FOR SMALL PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many small and very small drinking water systems require repair and upgrading if they are to comply with the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 and its amendments. Often, dispersed population makes infracstructure expensive on a per-capita basis. Funding shortages at the federal, ...

  9. Water availability and genetic effects on water relations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos A; Martin, Timothy A

    2010-03-01

    The effect of water availability on water relations of 11-year-old loblolly pine stands was studied over two growing seasons in material from two contrasting seed sources. Increasing soil water availability via irrigation increased transpiration rate, and maximum daily transpiration rate on irrigated plots was similar for both seasons, reaching values of 4.3 mm day(-)(1). Irrigation also changed soil water extraction patterns. In the rain-fed control plots, 73% of the average daily transpiration was extracted from the upper 0.75 m of the soil profile. Under irrigated conditions, 92% of transpired water was extracted from the upper 0.75 m of soil, with 79% of transpired water coming from the upper 0.35 m of the profile; only 10% of total transpiration in this treatment was extracted from the soil below 1 m. There was an irrigation x seed source interaction in the response of canopy conductance to water vapor (G(C)) to vapor pressure deficit (D). Under water-limited conditions, trees from the South Carolina seed source (SC) had stronger stomatal control than trees from the Florida seed source (FL), but this difference was not present when water was not limiting. The transpiration-induced water potential gradient from roots to shoots (DeltaPsi) was relatively constant across treatments (P = 0.52) and seed sources (P = 0.72), averaging 0.75 MPa. This reflects strong stomatal control that maintains relatively constant DeltaPsi but at the same time allows leaf water potential (Psi(l)) to fluctuate dramatically in synchrony with soil water potential (Psi(s)). The two seed sources evaluated also showed differences in foliar N and delta(13)C, possibly reflecting differences in adaptation to ambient humidity and water availability regimes in their respective ranges. These differences among seed sources under different water availability scenarios may be informative to natural resource managers and breeders as they design tree improvement and genetic deployment programs for

  10. Availability of ground water in the area surrounding the Trident submarine construction facility, Kitsap County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Arnold J.; Molenaar, Dee

    1976-01-01

    General information is presented on water resources--with emphasis on ground-water occurrence and availability--in that part of Kitsap County (referred to as Trident Impact Area) that would be most affected by the development of the Trident submarine construction facility at Bangor, Washington. The estimated 1970 water use in the study area averaged about 13 million gallons per day (mgd); of this amount about 9 mgd came from surface-water sources--from a large reservoir outside the study area--and about 4 mgd came from ground water pumped from two aquifers in the area. Anticipated water use soon will be about 18 to 21 mgd; virtually all the additional quantity required (about 5 to 8 mgd) above present use must come from ground-water sources. Preliminary evaluation of the aquifers suggests that an additional 1.5 mgd can be developed from the upper aquifer and 7 mgd from the lower aquifer. Existing wells tapping the lower aquifer might yield additional water and increase the total yield in the area by 3.5 mgd, and new wells drilled in selected areas could produce an additional 3.5 mgd from this aquifer. However, additional, large-scale ground-water withdrawal from the lower aquifer could induce saltwater intrusion into wells situated in coastal areas. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Survey of bottled drinking water available in Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Pip, E

    2000-01-01

    Forty domestic and imported brands of bottled water were purchased in Manitoba, Canada and examined for total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride, sulfate, nitrate-nitrogen, cadmium, lead, copper, and radioactivity. The samples showed great variation in quality, and some exceeded the Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for drinking water for TDS, chloride, and lead. Carbonation, ozonation, and type of packaging were not associated with differences in metal levels, although carbonated samples tended to show higher TDS values. A number of deficiencies were found with respect to product labeling. PMID:11017891

  12. Cuyama Valley, California hydrologic study: an assessment of water availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Water resources are under pressure throughout California, particularly in agriculturally dominated valleys. Since 1949, the Cuyama Valley’s irrigated acreage has increased from 13 to 35 percent of the valley. Increased agriculture has contributed to the demand for water beyond natural recharge. The tools and information developed for this study can be used to help understand the Cuyama Valley aquifer system, an important resource of Santa Barbara County.

  13. Global Change And Water Availability And Quality: Challenges Ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, M. C.; Ryker, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The United States is in the midst of a continental-scale, multi-year water-resources experiment, in which society has not defined testable hypotheses or set the duration and scope of the experiment. What are we doing? We are expanding population at two to three times the national growth rate in our most water-scarce states, in the southwest, where water stress is already great and modeling predicts decreased streamflow by the middle of this century. We are expanding irrigated agriculture from the west into the east, particularly to the southeastern states, where increased competition for ground and surface water has urban, agricultural, and environmental interests at odds, and increasingly, in court. We are expanding our consumption of pharmaceutical and personal care products to historic high levels and disposing of them in surface and groundwater, through sewage treatment plants and individual septic systems that were not designed to treat them. These and other examples of our national-scale experiment are likely to continue well into the 21st century. This experiment and related challenges will continue and likely intensify as non-climatic and climatic factors, such as predicted rising temperature and changes in the distribution of precipitation in time and space, continue to develop.

  14. Prey availability affects daily torpor by free-ranging Australian owlet-nightjars (Aegotheles cristatus).

    PubMed

    Doucette, Lisa I; Brigham, R Mark; Pavey, Chris R; Geiser, Fritz

    2012-06-01

    Food availability, ambient temperatures (T(a)), and prevailing weather conditions have long been presumed to influence torpor use. To a large extent, this is based on measurements in the laboratory of animals placed on restricted diets and kept at low T (a). Information on the determinants of torpor employment in the field is limited. We assessed winter torpor by insectivorous, free-ranging Australian owlet-nightjars (Aegotheles cristatus; 22 birds, 834 bird-days over six winters). Birds in three habitats were investigated to test whether torpor use is affected by annual T(a), rainfall, and arthropod abundance. Owlet-nightjars entered daily torpor regularly at all sites. Torpor frequency, depth and bout duration were greatest during two periods with lower arthropod abundance, providing rare evidence of the link between food availability and torpor patterns of wild birds. Temporal organization of torpor was similar among sites, and nocturnal torpor was more frequent than previously reported. Our findings quantitatively demonstrate that reduced food resources affect torpor usage independently from T(a), and support the view that food availability is a primary ecological determinant of torpor use in the wild.

  15. Protein Molecular Structures, Protein SubFractions, and Protein Availability Affected by Heat Processing: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,P.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization and availability of protein depended on the types of protein and their specific susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis (inhibitory activities) in the gastrointestine and was highly associated with protein molecular structures. Studying internal protein structure and protein subfraction profiles leaded to an understanding of the components that make up a whole protein. An understanding of the molecular structure of the whole protein was often vital to understanding its digestive behavior and nutritive value in animals. In this review, recently obtained information on protein molecular structural effects of heat processing was reviewed, in relation to protein characteristics affecting digestive behavior and nutrient utilization and availability. The emphasis of this review was on (1) using the newly advanced synchrotron technology (S-FTIR) as a novel approach to reveal protein molecular chemistry affected by heat processing within intact plant tissues; (2) revealing the effects of heat processing on the profile changes of protein subfractions associated with digestive behaviors and kinetics manipulated by heat processing; (3) prediction of the changes of protein availability and supply after heat processing, using the advanced DVE/OEB and NRC-2001 models, and (4) obtaining information on optimal processing conditions of protein as intestinal protein source to achieve target values for potential high net absorbable protein in the small intestine. The information described in this article may give better insight in the mechanisms involved and the intrinsic protein molecular structural changes occurring upon processing.

  16. Effects of water availability on free amino acids, sugars, and acrylamide-forming potential in potato.

    PubMed

    Muttucumaru, Nira; Powers, Stephen J; Elmore, J Stephen; Mottram, Donald S; Halford, Nigel G

    2015-03-11

    Irrigation is used frequently in potato cultivation to maximize yield, but water availability may also affect the composition of the crop, with implications for processing properties and food safety. Five varieties of potatoes, including drought-tolerant and -sensitive types, which had been grown with and without irrigation, were analyzed to show the effect of water supply on concentrations of free asparagine, other free amino acids, and sugars and on the acrylamide-forming potential of the tubers. Two varieties were also analyzed under more severe drought stress in a glasshouse. Water availability had profound effects on tuber free amino acid and sugar concentrations, and it was concluded that potato farmers should irrigate only if necessary to maintain the health and yield of the crop, because irrigation may increase the acrylamide-forming potential of potatoes. Even mild drought stress caused significant changes in composition, but these differed from those caused by more extreme drought stress. Free proline concentration, for example, increased in the field-grown potatoes of one variety from 7.02 mmol/kg with irrigation to 104.58 mmol/kg without irrigation, whereas free asparagine concentration was not affected significantly in the field but almost doubled from 132.03 to 242.26 mmol/kg in response to more severe drought stress in the glasshouse. Furthermore, the different genotypes were affected in dissimilar fashion by the same treatment, indicating that there is no single, unifying potato tuber drought stress response.

  17. Water Bouncing Balls: how material stiffness affects water entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truscott, Tadd

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that one can skip a stone across the water surface, but less well known that a ball can also be skipped on water. Even though 17th century ship gunners were aware that cannonballs could be skipped on the water surface, they did not know that using elastic spheres rather than rigid ones could greatly improve skipping performance (yet would have made for more peaceful volleys). The water bouncing ball (Waboba®) is an elastic ball used in a game of aquatic keep away in which players pass the ball by skipping it along the water surface. The ball skips easily along the surface creating a sense that breaking the world record for number of skips could easily be achieved (51 rock skips Russell Byers 2007). We investigate the physics of skipping elastic balls to elucidate the mechanisms by which they bounce off of the water. High-speed video reveals that, upon impact with the water, the balls create a cavity and deform significantly due to the extreme elasticity; the flattened spheres resemble skipping stones. With an increased wetted surface area, a large hydrodynamic lift force is generated causing the ball to launch back into the air. Unlike stone skipping, the elasticity of the ball plays an important roll in determining the success of the skip. Through experimentation, we demonstrate that the deformation timescale during impact must be longer than the collision time in order to achieve a successful skip. Further, several material deformation modes can be excited upon free surface impact. The effect of impact velocity and angle on the two governing timescales and material wave modes are also experimentally investigated. Scaling for the deformation and collision times are derived and used to establish criteria for skipping in terms of relevant physical parameters.

  18. Irrigation in water restricted regions: Managing water use efficiency with limited available water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Political and social pressures to increase water-use efficiency in agriculture from plant to regional scales are reaching critical levels. A region where these pressures have been extremely acute is most semi-arid parts of Texas where reliable crop production is possible only through irrigation. Re...

  19. Climate change and water conservation effects on water availability and vegetation patterns in a stream valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Knaap, Yasmijn; de Graaf, Myrjam; van Ek, Remco; Witte, Jan-Philip; Aerts, Rien; Bierkens, Marc; van Bodegom, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Climate change predictions include an increase in global temperature and changes in precipitation patterns at spatial and seasonal scale. The seasonal changes for temperate Europe include a decrease in the amount of precipitation in summer and an increase in winter. This may lead to an increased flooding risk in winter and early spring, while in summer the drought risk is likely to increase. These hydrological changes can have profound effects on vegetation patterns and development, especially for groundwater dependent vegetation. Water conservation measures can be used to combat the potential negative effects of these changes. Conservation measures can include aquifer storage and recovery, damming streams, or creating retention zones for flooding events. The implementation of these measures can contribute to preserving groundwater dependent vegetation patterns. In this study we simulated with an integrated surface- and groundwater model and a climate robust vegetation model, the implementation of water conservation measures in a stream valley catchment in the Netherlands. We modeled the effects on water availability and on vegetation patterns. The conservation measures were simulated for the current climate and for two climate scenarios, with a temperature increase of two degrees Celsius and either an increase or decrease in precipitation. Water tables were increased in stream valley zones, where groundwater dependent vegetation dominates, to ensure suitable abiotic conditions. The results showed that the water conservation measures increased the water table considerably in a future climate, compared to no conservation measures. Groundwater dependent vegetation was positively stimulated with these new hydrological conditions. With these models we successfully tested the effectiveness of the water conservation measures on water availability and vegetation patterns to ameliorate the negative effects of climate change. We therefore argue that water conservation

  20. Cell and tissue dynamics of olive endocarp sclerification vary according to water availability.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Sofiene B M; Costagli, Giacomo; Rapoport, Hava F

    2013-12-01

    Endocarp developmental timing in drupe-type fruits, involving tissue expansion and sclerification processes, is increasingly used as marker for biological studies and crop management. In spite of its wide application, however, little is known regarding how these morphogenetic processes unfold or the factors that modify it. This study evaluates endocarp expansion and sclerification of olive (Olea europaea) fruits, used as an example of drupe-type fruits, from trees growing under different water regimes: full irrigated, deficit irrigated (moderate reduction of water availability) and rainfed (severe reduction of water availability). Fruits were sampled weekly until pit hardening, and fruit and endocarp areas were evaluated in histological preparations. An image analysis process was tested and adjusted to quantify sclerified area and distribution within the endocarp. Individual stone cells differentiated independently but distribution and timing indicated the overall coordination of endocarp tissue sclerification. Increase in sclerified area was initially gradual, accelerated abruptly the week prior to the end of endocarp expansion and then continued at an intermediate rate. These results suggest that the end of the expansion period is driven by sclerification and the morphogenetic signals involved act first on sclerification rather than endocarp size. Intensification of sclerification and the end of expansive growth occurred first with lowest water supply. Moderate and severe reductions in water availability proportionately decreased endocarp expansion and prolonged the sclerification, delaying the date of physically perceived hardening but not affecting the final degree of endocarp sclerification.

  1. Nanoparticle silver released into water from commercially available sock fabrics.

    PubMed

    Benn, Troy M; Westerhoff, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Manufacturers of clothing articles employ nanosilver (n-Ag) as an antimicrobial agent, but the environmental impacts of n-Ag release from commercial products are unknown. The quantity and form of the nanomaterials released from consumer products should be determined to assess the environmental risks of nanotechnology. This paper investigates silver released from commercial clothing (socks) into water, and its fate in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Six types of socks contained up to a maximum of 1360 microg-Ag/g-sock and leached as much as 650 microg of silver in 500 mL of distilled water. Microscopy conducted on sock material and wash water revealed the presence of silver particles from 10 to 500 nm in diameter. Physical separation and ion selective electrode (ISE) analyses suggest that both colloidal and ionic silver leach from the socks. Variable leaching rates among sock types suggests that the sock manufacturing process may control the release of silver. The adsorption of the leached silver to WWTP biomass was used to develop a model which predicts that a typical wastewater treatment facility could treat a high concentration of influent silver. However, the high silver concentration may limitthe disposal of the biosolids as agricultural fertilizer.

  2. Variations in the Availability of Pollen Resources Affect Honey Bee Health

    PubMed Central

    Di Pasquale, Garance; Alaux, Cédric; Le Conte, Yves; Odoux, Jean-François; Pioz, Maryline; Vaissière, Bernard E.; Belzunces, Luc P.; Decourtye, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Intensive agricultural systems often expose honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to large temporal variations in the availability (quantity, quality and diversity) of nutritional resources. Such nutritional irregularity is expected to affect honey bee health. We therefore tested under laboratory conditions the effect of such variation in pollen availability on honey bee health (survival and nursing physiology—hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin expression). We fed honey bees with different diets composed of pollen pellets collected by honey bees in an agricultural landscape of western France. Slight drops (5–10%) in the availability of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) pollen resulted in significant reductions of all tested variables. Despite some variations in taxonomic diversity and nutritional quality, the pollen mixes harvested over the season had a similar positive influence on honey bee health, except for the one collected in late July that induced poor survival and nursing physiology. This period coincided with the mass-flowering of maize (Zea mays L.), an anemophilous crop which produces poor-quality pollen. Therefore, changes in bee health were not connected to variations in pollen diversity but rather to variations in pollen depletion and quality, such as can be encountered in an intensive agricultural system of western France. Finally, even though pollen can be available ad libitum during the mass-flowering of some crops (e.g. maize), it can fail to provide bees with diet adequate for their development. PMID:27631605

  3. Variations in the Availability of Pollen Resources Affect Honey Bee Health.

    PubMed

    Di Pasquale, Garance; Alaux, Cédric; Le Conte, Yves; Odoux, Jean-François; Pioz, Maryline; Vaissière, Bernard E; Belzunces, Luc P; Decourtye, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Intensive agricultural systems often expose honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to large temporal variations in the availability (quantity, quality and diversity) of nutritional resources. Such nutritional irregularity is expected to affect honey bee health. We therefore tested under laboratory conditions the effect of such variation in pollen availability on honey bee health (survival and nursing physiology-hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin expression). We fed honey bees with different diets composed of pollen pellets collected by honey bees in an agricultural landscape of western France. Slight drops (5-10%) in the availability of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) pollen resulted in significant reductions of all tested variables. Despite some variations in taxonomic diversity and nutritional quality, the pollen mixes harvested over the season had a similar positive influence on honey bee health, except for the one collected in late July that induced poor survival and nursing physiology. This period coincided with the mass-flowering of maize (Zea mays L.), an anemophilous crop which produces poor-quality pollen. Therefore, changes in bee health were not connected to variations in pollen diversity but rather to variations in pollen depletion and quality, such as can be encountered in an intensive agricultural system of western France. Finally, even though pollen can be available ad libitum during the mass-flowering of some crops (e.g. maize), it can fail to provide bees with diet adequate for their development.

  4. Availability and Quality of Water from Underground Coal Mines in Johnson and Martin Counties, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, D.S.; Cordivio1a, Steven; Risser, Dennis W.

    1981-01-01

    This report provides water users with detailed information on the location, quantity, and quality of water available from underground coal mines in the Breathitt Formation of Pennsylvanian age in part of eastern Kentucky. The principal coal seams mined are the Van Lear in Johnson County and the Alma in Martin County. Coal mines that contained water were located by field inventory and coal-mine maps. The principal factors that affect the occurrence of water in coal mines are the size of the recharge area overlying the mine, the intensity and duration of precipitation, and the altitude of the mine relative to that of the nearest perennial stream. Ten above-drainage mines (that is, mines at higher elevations than that of the nearest perennial stream) are considered potential sources of water. Discharge from these mines ranged from 12 to 1,700 gallons per minute. The highest sustained discharge from a mine ranged from 750 to 1,200 gallons per minute. The water in coal mines is part of the hydrologic system and varies seasonally with precipitation. Annual discharge from most above-drainage mines ranged from 3 to 10 percent of annual precipitation on the 1and-surface area above the mine. Eight below-drainage mines are considered potential sources of water. Two were test-pumped at rates of 560 to 620 gallons per minute for as long as 6 hours. After test pumping the Warfield Mining No. 1 mine during September 1977 and March 1978, the recovery (or recharge) rates were significantly different. In September, the recharge rate was about 1,150 gallons per minute, but in March the recharge rate was 103,500 gallons per minute. This difference reflects the seasonal variations in the amount of water available to the ground-water system. Estimates of water stored in below-drainage mines ranged from 22 to 1,462 million gallons. This storage represents a safety factor sufficient to provide water through periods of limited recharge to the mine. Most mine water is of the calcium

  5. Water availability and geology of Sumter County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Marvin E.; Sanford, Thomas H.; Jefferson, Patrick O.

    1975-01-01

    Geologic units that crop out in Sumter County include the Selma Group of Late Cretaceous age; the Midway and Wilcox Groups of Tertiary Age; and terrace deposits and alluvium of Quaternary age. The Tuscaloosa Group, consisting of the Coker and Gordo Formations, and Eutaw Formation of Late Cretaceous age underlie the entire county. The Cretaceous units dip southwestward about 45 feet per mile and strike northwestward. They consist chiefly of deposits of sand, gravel, chalk, and clay. Potential sources of large supplies of ground water are major aquifers in the Coker, Gordo, and Eutaw Formations; expected yields are 1.6 mgd (million gallons per day or more per well. The Naheola and Nanafalia formations, Tuscahome Sand, and terrace deposits and alluvium are expected to yield 10 to 50 gallons per minute per well.

  6. Floral longevity and autonomous selfing are altered by pollination and water availability in Collinsia heterophylla

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, Rachael; Arathi, H. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims A plant investing in reproduction partitions resources between flowering and seed production. Under resource limitation, altered allocations may result in floral trait variations, leading to compromised fecundity. Floral longevity and timing of selfing are often the traits most likely to be affected. The duration of corolla retention determines whether fecundity results from outcrossing or by delayed selfing-mediated reproductive assurance. In this study, the role of pollination schedules and soil water availability on floral longevity and seed production is tested in Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae). Methods Using three different watering regimes and pollination schedules, effects on floral longevity and seed production were studied in this protandrous, flowering annual. Key Results The results reveal that soil water status and pollination together influence floral longevity with low soil water and hand-pollinations early in the floral lifespan reducing longevity. However, early pollinations under excess water did not extend longevity, implying that resource surplus does not lengthen the outcrossing period. The results also indicate that pollen receipt, a reliable cue for fecundity, accelerates flower drop. Early corolla abscission under drought stress could potentially exacerbate sexual conflict in this protandrous, hermaphroditic species by ensuring self-pollen paternity and enabling male control of floral longevity. While pollination schedules did not affect fecundity, water stress reduced per-capita seed numbers. Unmanipulated flowers underwent delayed autonomous selfing, producing very few seeds, suggesting that inbreeding depression may limit benefits of selfing. Conclusions In plants where herkogamy and dichogamy facilitate outcrossing, floral longevity determines reproductive success and mating system. Reduction in longevity under drought suggests a strong environmental effect that could potentially alter the preferred breeding

  7. Role of soil erodibility in affecting available nitrogen and phosphorus losses under simulated rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoqiang; Wu, Binbin; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Hong; Xu, Zongxue

    2014-06-01

    The loss of available nutrients and the effects of soil erodibility on available nutrients losses were rarely researched. Here, laboratory simulation experiments were conducted to determine the soil erodibility effects on the available nitrogen (AN) and phosphorus (AP) losses. The impacts of rainfall intensity and slope on AN and AP losses were also studied. Two contrasting agricultural soils (Burozems and Cinnamon) that occur throughout the northern erosion region of China were selected. Two rainfall intensities (60 and 120 mm h-1) and two slopes (10% and 20%) were studied. Overall, greater runoff, sediment and available nutrient losses occurred from the Cinnamon soil due to its greater soil erodibility, which was approximately 2.8 times greater than that of the Burozems soil. The influence of runoff on sediment was positively linear. The absolute slope of the regression line between runoff rate and sediment yield rate was suitable as a soil erodibility indicator. Runoff-associated AN and AP losses were mainly controlled by runoff rate, and were weakly affected by soil erodibility (p > 0.05). However, soil erodibility significantly influenced the sediment-associated AN and AP losses (p < 0.01), and a positive logarithmic correlation best described their relationships. Since the runoff-associated AN and AP losses dominated the total AN and AP losses for both soils, soil erodibility also exhibited negligible influence on the total AN and AP losses (p > 0.05). Increasing rainfall intensity and slope generally increased the runoff, sediment, and available nutrient losses for both soils, but had no significant influences on their relationships. Our results provide a better understanding of soil and nutrient loss mechanisms.

  8. Food availability and maternal immunization affect transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmad; Jacquin, Lisa; Haussy, Claudy; Legoupi, Julie; Perret, Samuel; Gasparini, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The ability of mothers to transfer antibodies (Abs) to their young and the temporal persistence of maternal Abs in offspring constitute important life-history traits that can impact the evolution of host-parasite interactions. Here, we examined the effects of food availability and parental immunization on the transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons (Columba livia). This species can transmit maternal Abs to offspring before hatching through the egg yolk and potentially after hatching through crop milk. However, the role of this postnatal substance in immunity remains elusive. We used a full cross-fostering design to disentangle the effects of food limitation and parental immunization both before and after hatching on the levels and persistence of maternal Abs in chicks. Parents were immunized via injection with keyhole limpet hemocyanin antigens. Using an immunoassay that specifically detected the IgY antibodies that are known to be transmitted via the yolk, we found that the levels of anti-KLH Abs in newly hatched chicks were positively correlated with the levels of anti-KLH Abs in the blood of their biological mothers. However, this correlation was not present between chicks and their foster parents, suggesting limited IgY transfer via crop milk to the chick's bloodstream. Interestingly, biological mothers subjected to food limitation during egg laying transferred significantly fewer specific maternal Abs, which suggests that the transfer of antibodies might be costly for them. In addition, the persistence of maternal Abs in a chick's bloodstream was not affected by food limitation or the foster parents' anti-KLH Ab levels; it was only affected by the initial level of maternal anti-KLH Abs that were present in newly hatched chicks. These results suggest that the maternal transfer of Abs could be costly but that their persistence in an offspring's bloodstream may not necessarily be affected by environmental conditions.

  9. The Coupling of Ecosystem Productivity and Water Availability in Dryland Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R. L.; Biederman, J. A.; Barron-Gafford, G.

    2014-12-01

    Land cover and climatic change will alter biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of water vapor and carbon dioxide depending, in part, on feedbacks between biotic activity and water availability. Eddy covariance observations allow us to estimate ecosystem-scale productivity and respiration, and these datasets are now becoming sufficiently mature to advance understanding of these ecohydrological interactions. Here we use a network of sites in semiarid western North America representing gradients of water availability and functional plant type. We examine how precipitation (P) controls evapotranspiration (ET), net ecosystem production (NEP), and its component fluxes of ecosystem respiration (Reco) and gross ecosystem production (GEP). Despite the high variability in seasonal and annual precipitation timing and amounts that we expect to influence ecosystem function, we find persistent overall relationships between P or ET and the fluxes of NEP, Reco and GEP across the network, indicating a commonality and resilience in ecosystem soil and plant response to water availability. But we also observe several important site differences such as prior seasonal legacy effects on subsequent fluxes which vary depending on dominant plant functional type. For example, multiyear droughts, episodic cool-season droughts, and hard winter freezes seem to affect the herbaceous species differently than the woody ones. Nevertheless, the overall, strong coupling between hydrologic and ecologic processes at these sites bolsters our ability to predict the response of dryland ecosystems to future precipitation change.

  10. Availability of Ground-water in Marion County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, William R.; Reussow, J.P.; Gillies, D.C.; Shampine, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    A series of model experiments were carried out to test the capacity of the aquifers to sustain increases in pumpage. In all of these, a new equilibrium was established within 6 years of simulated pumpage. In two of these experiments, water levels in the discharging wells were allowed to draw down to approximately half of the saturated thickness of the glacial-outwash aquifer. At this drawdown limit, the total discharge of wells in the system was found to be 59 million gallons per day (2.6 cubic second) assuming that the streams were fully connected to the upper third of the glacial-outwash aquifer. In two other experiments, discharging wells were allowed to drawdown an average of two-thirds of the saturated thickness of the glacial-outwash aquifer. At this limit, the total discharge was found to be 72 million gallons per day (3.2 cubic metres per second) using the conservative stream-aquifer connection, and 103 million gallons per day (4.5 cubic metres per second) assuming a full connection. Some dewatering of the aquifer was associated with the 72 million gallons per day (3.2 cubic metres per second) discharge. In all experiments, the amount that could be pumped from the confined aquifers without disturbing existing domestic wells was found to be small.

  11. Regional Algal Biofuel Production Potential in the Coterminous United States as Affected by Resource Availability Trade-offs

    SciTech Connect

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2014-03-15

    The warm sunny climate and unoccupied arid lands in the American southwest are favorable factors for algae cultivation. However, additional resources affect the overall viability of specific sites and regions. We investigated the tradeoffs between growth rate, water, and CO2 availability and costs for two strains: N. salina and Chlorella sp. We conducted site selection exercises (~88,000 US sites) to produce 21 billion gallons yr-1 (BGY) of renewable diesel (RD). Experimental trials from the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-Products (NAABB) team informed the growth model of our Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT). We simulated RD production by both lipid extraction and hydrothermal liquefaction. Sites were prioritized by the net value of biofuel minus water and flue gas costs. Water cost models for N. salina were based on seawater and high salinity groundwater and for Chlorella, fresh and brackish groundwater. CO2 costs were based on a flue gas delivery model. Selections constrained by production and water were concentrated along the Gulf of Mexico and southeast Atlantic coasts due to high growth rates and low water costs. Adding flue gas constraints increased the spatial distribution, but the majority of sites remained in the southeast. The 21 BGY target required ~3.8 million hectares of mainly forest (41.3%) and pasture (35.7%). Exclusion in favor of barren and scrub lands forced most production to the southwestern US, but with increased water consumption (5.7 times) and decreased economic efficiency (-38%).

  12. Activities affecting surface water resources: A general overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    In November 1987, P.E.I. signed a federal/provincial work-sharing arrangement on water resource management focusing on groundwater pollution, surface water degradation and estuarine eutrophication. The surface water program was designed to identify current surface water uses and users within 12 major watersheds across the Island containing 26 individual rivers, as well as problems arising due to practices that degrade the quality of surface water and restricts its value to other user groups. This report presents a general overview of the program, covering the general characteristics of the Island; operations in agriculture, fish and wildlife, forestry, recreation, fisheries, and industry; alterations of natural features of waterways; wetlands; additional watershed activities such as hydrometric stations and subdivision development; and activities affecting surface water resources such as sedimentation sources, pollution point sources and instream obstructions.

  13. Biological Filtration Limits Carbon Availability and Affects Downstream Biofilm Formation and Community Structure†

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Chee Meng; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2006-01-01

    Carbon removal strategies have gained popularity in the mitigation of biofouling in water reuse processes, but current biofilm-monitoring practices based on organic-carbon concentrations may not provide an accurate representation of the in situ biofilm problem. This study evaluated a submerged microtiter plate assay for direct and rapid monitoring of biofilm formation by subjecting the plates to a continuous flow of either secondary effluent (SE) or biofilter-treated secondary effluent (BF). This method was very robust, based on a high correlation (R2 = 0.92) between the biomass (given by the A600 in the microtiter plate assay) and the biovolume (determined from independent biofilms developed on glass slides under identical conditions) measurements, and revealed that the biomasses in BF biofilms were consistently lower than those in SE biofilms. The influence of the organic-carbon content on the biofilm community composition and succession was further evaluated using molecular tools. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed a group of pioneer colonizers, possibly represented by Sphingomonadaceae and Caulobacter organisms, to be common in both SE and BF biofilms. However, differences in organic-carbon availabilities in the two water samples eventually led to the selection of distinct biofilm communities. Alphaproteobacterial populations were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization to be enriched in SE biofilms, while Betaproteobacteria were dominant in BF biofilms. Cloning analyses further demonstrated that microorganisms adapted for survival under low-substrate conditions (e.g., Aquabacterium, Caulobacter, and Legionella) were preferentially selected in the BF biofilm, suggesting that carbon limitation strategies may not achieve adequate biofouling control in the long run. PMID:16957184

  14. Methodology to Analyse the actual and the future effect of water scarcity on the available water resources in Meguellil watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oueslati, I.; Lili-Chabaane, Z.; Shabou, M.; Zribi, M.; Ben Issa, N.; chakroun, H.; Galafassi, D.; Rathwell, K.; Hoff, H.; Pizzigalli, C.

    2012-04-01

    Scarcity often has its roots in water shortage, and it is in the arid and semiarid regions affected by droughts and wide climate variability, combined with population growth and economic development, that the problems of water scarcity are most acute. The Merguellil watershed, situated in the center of Tunisia, represents exactly this state of fact where the agriculture is the main consumer with about 80% of the total water resources because of the continuous increase and intensification of irrigated area. The surface water can satisfy a very low portion of this demand; consequently, the groundwater is overexploited. The irrigation sector is divided into public and private. While the public irrigated areas are well known, the private ones are not sufficiently controlled mainly the water volumes pumped from the aquifer. Therefore, a sustainable management of all available water resources and meeting as much as possible all water demands, is crucial. To analyze the actual and future water balance of the Merguellil watershed, and to identify critical trends and thresholds and effective solutions, a WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning system) application has been developed. It utilizes a constrained optimization algorithm to allocate water among competing demands in a basin. The year 2009 is considered as the reference one which represents the basic definition of the water system as it currently exists, and forms the foundation of all scenarios analysis. Three scenarios were compared to the reference one. The first combines between the reduction of 10% in precipitation, as it is forseen by the regional climate model RCA (driven by ECHAM5) that provides statistic data of precipitation until 2050, and the increase of 2% per year in irrigated area in the kairouan plain deduced from the land use maps dating from 1991/1992 to 2009/2010 obtained by multi dates remote sensing data. The second scenario is the application of a deficit irrigation that respects the yield

  15. Endogenous change: on cooperation and water availability in two ancient societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, S.; Ertsen, M.

    2014-05-01

    We propose and test the theory of endogenous change in societal institutions based on historical reconstructions of two ancient civilizations, the Indus and Hohokam, in two water-scarce basins, the Indus Basin in the Indian subcontinent and the lower Colorado Basin in the southwestern United States. In our reconstructions, institutions are approximated by the scale of "cooperation", be it in the form of the extent of trade, sophisticated irrigation networks, a central state or a loosely held state with a common cultural identity. We study changes in institutions brought about by changes in factors like rainfall, population density, and land-use-induced water resource availability, in a proximate manner. These factors either change naturally or are changed by humans; in either case we contend that the changes affect the stability of cooperative structures over time. We relate the quantitative dimensions of water access by ancient populations to the co-evolution of water access and the socioeconomic and sociopolitical organizations. In doing so, we do not claim that water manipulation was the single most significant factor in stimulating social development and complexity - this would be highly reductionist. Nonetheless, we provide a discussion with the aim to enhance our understanding of the complexity of coupled human-hydrological systems. We find that scarcity triggered more complex cooperative arrangements in both Indus and Hohokam societies.

  16. Food availability during migratory stopover affects testis growth and reproductive behaviour in a migratory passerine.

    PubMed

    Bauchinger, Ulf; Van't Hof, Thomas; Biebach, Herbert

    2009-03-01

    Long-distance migratory passerines initiate testicular recrudescence during spring migration to meet the demands of timely reproduction upon immediate arrival on the breeding grounds. The degree of testicular development is known to depend on environmental factors like stopover habitat quality; reproductive performance may be strongly impacted by testicular maturation upon arrival on the breeding grounds. We investigated the effect of stopover food availability on subsequent reproductive performance in garden warblers (Sylvia borin). Spring migration was simulated by repeated food deprivation and re-feeding to imitate the alternation of flight and stopover periods. During the two final stopover periods, males were either kept under ad libitum food (ad libitum males) or under limited food conditions (limited males). After simulated arrival in the breeding area, manipulation of previous stopover food availability resulted in significantly slower testicular recrudescence (p<0.001) and decreased plasma testosterone (p<0.01) in limited males compared to ad libitum males. Body mass change was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.38). Limited males also exhibited reduced performance in reproductive behaviours employed in territorial and sexual contexts. Limited males had a longer 'freezing' interval (p<0.05) and decreased activity (p<0.01) when challenged with a live male decoy. In direct confrontation between limited and ad libitum males in the presence of a female, limited males exhibited significantly fewer behavioural traits in sexual context, i.e. directed to the female (p<0.001). Therefore, we suggest that conditions encountered during previous migratory stopover may affect subsequent annual reproductive success by influencing key reproductive behaviours.

  17. Microbial Succession and Nitrogen Cycling in Cultured Biofilms as Affected by the Inorganic Nitrogen Availability.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuangshuang; Peng, Chengrong; Wang, Chun; Zheng, Jiaoli; Hu, Yao; Li, Dunhai

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms play important roles in nutrients and energy cycling in aquatic ecosystems. We hypothesized that as eutrophication could change phytoplankton community and decrease phytoplankton diversity, ambient inorganic nitrogen level will affect the microbial community and diversity of biofilms and the roles of biofilms in nutrient cycling. Biofilms were cultured using a flow incubator either with replete inorganic nitrogen (N-rep) or without exogenous inorganic nitrogen supply (N-def). The results showed that the biomass and nitrogen and phosphorous accumulation of biofilms were limited by N deficiency; however, as expected, the N-def biofilms had significantly higher microbial diversity than that of N-rep biofilms. The microbial community of biofilms shifted in composition and abundance in response to ambient inorganic nitrogen level. For example, as compared between the N-def and the N-rep biofilms, the former consisted of more diazotrophs, while the latter consisted of more denitrifying bacteria. As a result of the shift of the functional microbial community, the N concentration of N-rep medium kept decreasing, while that of N-def medium showed an increasing trend in the late stage. This indicates that biofilms can serve as the source or the sink of nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems, and it depends on the inorganic nitrogen availability.

  18. Growth of non-Saccharomyces yeasts affects nutrient availability for Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2012-07-02

    Yeast produces numerous secondary metabolites during fermentation that impact final wine quality. Although it is widely recognized that growth of diverse non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeast can positively affect flavor complexity during Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine fermentation, the inability to control spontaneous or co-fermentation processes by NS yeast has restricted their use in winemaking. We selected two NS yeasts from our Uruguayan native collection to study NS-S. cerevisiae interactions during wine fermentation. The selected strains of Hanseniaspora vineae and Metschnikowia pulcherrima had different yeast assimilable nitrogen consumption profiles and had different effects on S. cerevisiae fermentation and growth kinetics. Studies in which we varied inoculum size and using either simultaneous or sequential inoculation of NS yeast and S. cerevisiae suggested that competition for nutrients had a significant effect on fermentation kinetics. Sluggish fermentations were more pronounced when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 24h after the initial stage of fermentation with a NS strain compared to co-inoculation. Monitoring strain populations using differential WL nutrient agar medium and fermentation kinetics of mixed cultures allowed for a better understanding of strain interactions and nutrient addition effects. Limitation of nutrient availability for S. cerevisiae was shown to result in stuck fermentations as well as to reduce sensory desirability of the resulting wine. Addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and a vitamin mix to a defined medium allowed for a comparison of nutrient competition between strains. Addition of DAP and the vitamin mix was most effective in preventing stuck fermentations.

  19. Water availability as dominant control of heat stress responses in two contrasting tree species.

    PubMed

    Ruehr, Nadine K; Gast, Andreas; Weber, Christina; Daub, Baerbel; Arneth, Almut

    2016-02-01

    Heat waves that trigger severe droughts are predicted to increase globally; however, we lack an understanding of how trees respond to the combined change of extreme temperatures and water availability. Here, we studied the impacts of two consecutive heat waves as well as post-stress recovery in young Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (Douglas-fir) and Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust) growing under controlled conditions. Responses were compared under water supply close to the long-term average and under reduced irrigation to represent drought. Exposure to high temperatures (+10 °C above ambient) and vapour pressure deficit strongly affected the trees in terms of water relations, photosynthesis and growth. Douglas-fir used water resources conservatively, and transpiration decreased in response to mild soil water limitation. In black locust, heat stress led to pronounced tree water deficits (stem diameter shrinkage), accompanied by leaf shedding to alleviate stress on the hydraulic system. The importance of water availability during the heat waves became further apparent by a concurrent decline in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance with increasing leaf temperatures in both species, reaching the lowest rates in the heat-drought treatments. Stress severity determined both the speed and the amount of recovery. Upon release of stress, photosynthesis recovered rapidly in drought-treated black locust, while it remained below control rates in heat (t = -2.4, P < 0.05) and heat-drought stressed trees (t = 2.96, P < 0.05). In Douglas-fir, photosynthesis recovered quickly, while water-use efficiency increased in heat-drought trees because stomatal conductance remained reduced (t = -2.92, P < 0.05). Moreover, Douglas-fir was able to compensate for stem-growth reductions following heat (-40%) and heat-drought stress (-68%), but most likely at the expense of storage and other growth processes. Our results highlight the importance of studying heat waves alongside

  20. Effects of clonal integration on the invasive clonal plant Alternanthera philoxeroides under heterogeneous and homogeneous water availability

    PubMed Central

    You, Wen-Hua; Han, Cui-Min; Liu, Chun-Hua; Yu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Many notorious invasive plants are clonal, living in heterogeneous or homogeneous habitats. To understand how clonal integration affects the performance of these plants in different habitat conditions, an 8-week greenhouse experiment was conducted: ramet pairs of A. philoxeroides were grown in two habitats, either heterogeneous or homogeneous in water availability, with the stolon connections either severed or kept intact. Under heterogeneous water availability, compared with ramets in homogeneous habitats, clonal integration significantly promoted the growth and photosynthetic performance of water-stressed apical ramets, whereas it only increased the photosynthetic performance but did not affect the growth of water-stressed basal ramets. Moreover, clonal integration markedly increased the root/shoot ratios of ramets grown in habitats with high water supply but decreased it under low water availability. Under homogeneous water availability, stolon connection (clonal integration) did not influence the growth, photosynthetic performance and biomass allocation of water-stressed ramets, but it significantly promoted the growth of well-watered ramets in both apical and basal sections. These findings deepen our understanding of the bidirectional and differentiated (mainly acropetal) clonal integration of A. philoxeroides, suggesting that the invasive plant A. philoxeroides can benefit from clonal integration in both heterogeneous and homogeneous habitats. PMID:27416868

  1. Large Scale Evapotranspiration Estimates: An Important Component in Regional Water Balances to Assess Water Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garatuza-Payan, J.; Yepez, E. A.; Watts, C.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Valdez-Torres, L. C.; Robles-Morua, A.

    2013-05-01

    used in a "kind of" crop factor manner for all vegetation types (including agricultural fields). Finally, the model uses air temperature and humidity, both extracted from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) database. ET estimates were then compared to ground truth data from four sites where long-term Eddy Covariance (EC) measurements of ET were conducted. This approach was developed and applied in Northern Mexico. Emphasis was placed on trying to minimize the large uncertainties that still remained on the temporal evolution and the spatial repartition of ET. Results show good agreement with ground data (with r2 greater than 0.7 on daily ET estimates) from the four sites evaluated using different vegetation types hence reducing the spatial uncertainties. Estimates of total annual ET were used in a water balance, assessing ground water availability for eleven aquifers in the state of Chihuahua. Annual ET in a four-year analysis period, ranged from 200 to 280 mm/year, representing 63 to 83 % of total annual precipitation, which reflects the importance of this component in the water balance. A GIS tool kit is under development to support decision makers at CONAGUA.

  2. Factors affecting 137Cs bio- availability under the application of different fertilizing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorkova, M. V.; Belova, N. I.

    2012-04-01

    Although it has been 25 years since the Chernobyl accident, it was generally found that radiocaesium remained bio-availability in some regions. Plant uptake of 137Cs is depended from quantity of exchangeable radionuclide and strongly influenced by soil properties. The addition of fertilizers to soil induces chemical and biological changes that influence the distribution of free ions the different phases (soil and soil solution). In this study we try to estimate influence of different soil conditions affecting the 137Cs bio-availability under the application of manure and inorganic fertilizers. Our research carried out in 2001-2008 years on contaminated after Chernobyl accident sod-podzolic soil during of prolonged field experiment. The experimental site was located in south-west of Bryansk region, Russia. Contamination density by 137Cs in the sampling point was equal to 475±30 kBq/m2. The sequence of crops in rotation was: 1) potato; 2) oats 3) lupine 4) winter rye. Three fertilizing systems were compared: organic - 80 tons per hectare of cow manure; inorganic fertilizing system - different rates of NPK (low, temperate and high) and mixed - 40 tons per hectare of cow manure + NPK. Main soil properties and chemical form of 137Cs and K (potassium) were detected. Radiocaesium activity was determined in soil and plant samples by gamma spectrometry, using a high purity Ge detectors. Overall efficiency was known to an accuracy of about 10-12%. Obtained results shows, that various fertilizing systems influence soil properties, chemical forms of 137Cs and K in soil and radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer in different ways. The highest reduction of exchangeable 137Cs in soil was found in case with application of organic fertilizers and also - temperate NPK rates. Part of exchangeable 137Cs is equal 6.8% (from total activity) in case of manure, 7.8% in case of inorganic fertilizers with control value - 10.2%. Caesium mobility in soil is affected by such soil properties as

  3. Water relations traits of C4 grasses depend on phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and habitat water availability

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Osborne, Colin P.

    2015-01-01

    The repeated evolution of C4 photosynthesis in independent lineages has resulted in distinct biogeographical distributions in different phylogenetic lineages and the variants of C4 photosynthesis. However, most previous studies have only considered C3/C4 differences without considering phylogeny, C4 subtype, or habitat characteristics. We hypothesized that independent lineages of C4 grasses have structural and physiological traits that adapt them to environments with differing water availability. We measured 40 traits of 33 species from two major C4 grass lineages in a common glasshouse environment. Chloridoideae species were shorter, with narrower and longer leaves, smaller but denser stomata, and faster curling leaves than Panicoideae species, but overall differences in leaf hydraulic and gas exchange traits between the two lineages were weak. Chloridoideae species had two different ways to reach higher drought resistance potential than Panicoideae; NAD-ME species used water saving, whereas PCK species used osmotic adjustment. These patterns could be explained by the interactions of lineage×C4 subtype and lineage×habitat water availability in affected traits. Specifically, phylogeny tended to have a stronger influence on structural traits, and C4 subtype had more important effects on physiological traits. Although hydraulic traits did not differ consistently between lineages, they showed strong covariation and relationships with leaf structure. Thus, phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and adaptation to habitat water availability act together to influence the leaf water relations traits of C4 grasses. This work expands our understanding of ecophysiology in major C4 grass lineages, with implications for explaining their regional and global distributions in relation to climate. PMID:25504656

  4. Water relations traits of C4 grasses depend on phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and habitat water availability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Osborne, Colin P

    2015-02-01

    The repeated evolution of C4 photosynthesis in independent lineages has resulted in distinct biogeographical distributions in different phylogenetic lineages and the variants of C4 photosynthesis. However, most previous studies have only considered C3/C4 differences without considering phylogeny, C4 subtype, or habitat characteristics. We hypothesized that independent lineages of C4 grasses have structural and physiological traits that adapt them to environments with differing water availability. We measured 40 traits of 33 species from two major C4 grass lineages in a common glasshouse environment. Chloridoideae species were shorter, with narrower and longer leaves, smaller but denser stomata, and faster curling leaves than Panicoideae species, but overall differences in leaf hydraulic and gas exchange traits between the two lineages were weak. Chloridoideae species had two different ways to reach higher drought resistance potential than Panicoideae; NAD-ME species used water saving, whereas PCK species used osmotic adjustment. These patterns could be explained by the interactions of lineage×C4 subtype and lineage×habitat water availability in affected traits. Specifically, phylogeny tended to have a stronger influence on structural traits, and C4 subtype had more important effects on physiological traits. Although hydraulic traits did not differ consistently between lineages, they showed strong covariation and relationships with leaf structure. Thus, phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and adaptation to habitat water availability act together to influence the leaf water relations traits of C4 grasses. This work expands our understanding of ecophysiology in major C4 grass lineages, with implications for explaining their regional and global distributions in relation to climate.

  5. Vegetative response to water availability on the San Carlos Apache Reservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrakis, Roy; Wu, Zhuoting; McVay, Jason; Middleton, Barry R.; Dye, Dennis G.; Vogel, John M.

    2016-01-01

    On the San Carlos Apache Reservation in east-central Arizona, U.S.A., vegetation types such as ponderosa pine forests, pinyon-juniper woodlands, and grasslands have significant ecological, cultural, and economic value for the Tribe. This value extends beyond the tribal lands and across the Western United States. Vegetation across the Southwestern United States is susceptible to drought conditions and fluctuating water availability. Remotely sensed vegetation indices can be used to measure and monitor spatial and temporal vegetative response to fluctuating water availability conditions. We used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index II (MSAVI2) to measure the condition of three dominant vegetation types (ponderosa pine forest, woodland, and grassland) in response to two fluctuating environmental variables: precipitation and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The study period covered 2002 through 2014 and focused on a region within the San Carlos Apache Reservation. We determined that grassland and woodland had a similar moderate to strong, year-round, positive relationship with precipitation as well as with summer SPEI. This suggests that these vegetation types respond negatively to drought conditions and are more susceptible to initial precipitation deficits. Ponderosa pine forest had a comparatively weaker relationship with monthly precipitation and summer SPEI, indicating that it is more buffered against short-term drought conditions. This research highlights the response of multiple, dominant vegetation types to seasonal and inter-annual water availability. This research demonstrates that multi-temporal remote sensing imagery can be an effective tool for the large scale detection of vegetation response to adverse impacts from climate change and support potential management practices such as increased monitoring and management of drought-affected areas. Different

  6. The chemistry of salt-affected soils and waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the chemistry of salt affected soils and waters is necessary for management of irrigation in arid and semi-arid regions. In this chapter we review the origin of salts in the landscape, the major chemical reactions necessary for prediction of the soil solution composition, and the use of...

  7. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change.

    PubMed

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-03-04

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future.

  8. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change

    PubMed Central

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D.; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future. PMID:24344275

  9. Honeydew feeding in the solitary bee Osmia bicornis as affected by aphid species and nectar availability.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Roger; Wäckers, Felix L; Romeis, Jörg; Babendreier, Dirk

    2009-12-01

    Like honey bees (Apis mellifera), non-Apis bees could exploit honeydew as a carbohydrate source. In addition to providing carbohydrates, this may expose them to potentially harmful plant products secreted in honeydew. However, knowledge on honeydew feeding by solitary bees is very scarce. Here we determine whether the polylectic solitary bee Osmia bicornis (=O. rufa) collects honeydew under semi-field conditions, and whether this is affected by aphid species and presence of floral nectar. Bees were provided with oilseed rape plants containing flowers and/or colonies of either Myzus persicae or Brevicoryne brassicae. We used the total sugar level of the bee crop as a measure of the individual's nutritional state and the oligosaccharide erlose as indicator for honeydew consumption. Erlose was present in honeydews from both aphid species, while absent in oilseed rape nectar, nor being synthesized by O. bicornis. When bees were confined to a single honeydew type as the only carbohydrate source, consumption of M. persicae honeydew was confirmed for 47% of the bees and consumption of B. brassicae honeydew for only 3%. Increased mortality in the latter treatment provided further evidence that B. brassicae honeydew is an unsuitable food source for O. bicornis. All bees that were given the choice between honeydew and floral nectar showed significantly increased total sugar levels. However, the fact that no erlose was detected in these bees indicates that honeydew was not consumed when suitable floral nectar was available. This study demonstrates that honeydew exploitation by O. bicornis is dependent on honeydew type and the presence of floral nectar.

  10. The inequality of water scarcity events: who is actually being affected?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldkamp, Ted I. E.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, Matti; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Ward, Philip J.

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decades, changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions increased regional and global water scarcity problems. In the near future, projected changes in human water use and population growth - in combination with climate change - are expected to aggravate water scarcity conditions and its associated impacts on our society. Whilst a wide range of studies have modelled past and future regional and global patterns of change in population or land area impacted by water scarcity conditions, less attention is paid on who is actually affected and how vulnerable this share of the population is to water scarcity conditions. The actual impact of water scarcity events, however, not only depends on the numbers being affected, but merely on how sensitive this population is to water scarcity conditions, how quick and efficient governments can deal with the problems induced by water scarcity, and how many (financial and infrastructural) resources are available to cope with water scarce conditions. Only few studies have investigated the above mentioned interactions between societal composition and water scarcity conditions (e.g. by means of the social water scarcity index and the water poverty index) and, up to our knowledge, a comprehensive global analysis including different water scarcity indicators and multiple climate and socioeconomic scenarios is missing. To address this issue, we assess in this contribution the adaptive capacity of a society to water scarcity conditions, evaluate how this may be driven by different societal factors, and discuss how enhanced knowledge on this topic could be of interest for water managers in their design of adaptation strategies coping with water scarcity events. For that purpose, we couple spatial information on water scarcity conditions with different components from, among others, the Human Development Index and the Worldwide Governance Indicators, such as: the share of the population with an income below the poverty

  11. Ascorbate availability affects tumor implantation-take rate and increases tumor rejection in Gulo(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Elizabeth J; Vissers, Margreet Cm; Dachs, Gabi U

    2016-01-01

    In solid tumors, HIF1 upregulates the expression of hundreds of genes involved in cell survival, tumor growth, and adaptation to the hypoxic microenvironment. HIF1 stabilization and activity are suppressed by prolyl and asparagine hydroxylases, which require oxygen as a substrate and ascorbate as a cofactor. This has led us to hypothesize that intracellular ascorbate availability could modify the hypoxic HIF1 response and influence tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of variable intracellular ascorbate levels on HIF1 induction in cancer cells in vitro, and on tumor-take rate and growth in the Gulo(-/-) mouse. These mice depend on dietary ascorbate, and were supplemented with 3,300 mg/L, 330 mg/L, or 33 mg/L ascorbate in their drinking water, resulting in saturating, medium, or low plasma and tissue ascorbate levels, respectively. In Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LL/2) in culture, optimal ascorbate supplementation reduced HIF1 accumulation under physiological but not pathological hypoxia. LL/2, B16-F10 melanoma, or CMT-93 colorectal cancer cells were implanted subcutaneously into Gulo(-/-) mice at a range of cell inocula. Establishment of B16-F10 tumors in mice supplemented with 3,300 mg/L ascorbate required an increased number of cancer cells to initiate tumor growth compared with the number of cells required in mice on suboptimal ascorbate intake. Elevated ascorbate intake was also associated with decreased tumor ascorbate levels and a reduction in HIF1α expression and transcriptional activity. Following initial growth, all CMT-93 tumors regressed spontaneously, but mice supplemented with 33 mg/L ascorbate had lower plasma ascorbate levels and grew larger tumors than optimally supplemented mice. The data from this study indicate that improved ascorbate intake is consistent with increased intracellular ascorbate levels, reduced HIF1 activity and reduced tumor initiation and growth, and this may be advantageous in the management of cancer.

  12. Energy balance of a high marsh on the Texas Gulf Coast: Effect of water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilman, J. L.; Heinsch, F. A.; Cobos, D. R.; McInnes, K. J.

    2000-09-01

    The supply of water to the Nueces River Delta near Corpus Christi, Texas, and its estuarine marshes is limited by low tidal ranges in the Gulf of Mexico and by channelization of the Nueces River which restricts freshwater inflow. Micrometeorological measurements were made at the upper end (high marsh) of the delta to determine how daily and seasonal changes in the surface energy balance were affected by availability of water. The marsh consists of shallow ponds interconnected by narrow channels, and elevated areas containing emergent vegetation. During the spring and fall when ponds were flooded, latent and sensible heat flux averaged 67% and 30%, respectively, of net radiation. In the summer when ponds dried, energy partitioning was reversed with sensible heat flux accounting for 65% of net radiation and latent heat accounting for 27%. When ponds were flooded, heat storage in the water column was the major component of storage heat flux. When ponds dried, storage heat flux was controlled by sediment water content, largely through its effect on thermal diffusivity. The ratio of actual to equilibrium evaporation averaged 0.7 in the spring and fall, and 0.3 in the summer, indicating that the marsh behaved more like a dryland ecosystem than a wetland.

  13. Effects of Trampling on Morphological and Mechanical Traits of Dryland Shrub Species Do Not Depend on Water Availability

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Freitas, Sofia M. A.; Yu, Fei-Hai; Dong, Ming; Anten, Niels P. R.; Werger, Marinus J. A.

    2013-01-01

    In semiarid drylands water shortage and trampling by large herbivores are two factors limiting plant growth and distribution. Trampling can strongly affect plant performance, but little is known about responses of morphological and mechanical traits of woody plants to trampling and their possible interaction with water availability. Seedlings of four shrubs (Caragana intermedia, Cynanchum komarovi, Hedysarum laeve and Hippophae rhamnoides) common in the semiarid Mu Us Sandland were grown at 4% and 10% soil water content and exposed to either simulated trampling or not. Growth, morphological and mechanical traits were measured. Trampling decreased vertical height and increased basal diameter and stem resistance to bending and rupture (as indicated by the increased minimum bend and break force) in all species. Increasing water availability increased biomass, stem length, basal diameter, leaf thickness and rigidity of stems in all species except C. komarovii. However, there were no interactive effects of trampling and water content on any of these traits among species except for minimum bend force and the ratio between stem resistance to rupture and bending. Overall shrub species have a high degree of trampling resistance by morphological and mechanical modifications, and the effects of trampling do not depend on water availability. However, the increasing water availability can also affect trade-off between stem strength and flexibility caused by trampling, which differs among species. Water plays an important role not only in growth but also in trampling adaptation in drylands. PMID:23341918

  14. The effects of natural enemies, competition, and host plant water availability on an aphid population.

    PubMed

    Morris, William F

    1992-06-01

    I used a factorial experiment repeated in two years to assess the relative effects of natural enemy attack, interspecific competition, and water availability to the host plant, and of interactions among these factors, on the population dynamics of the aphid Aphis varians feeding on fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium). The impact of a suite of coccinellid and syrphid predators emerged as the predominant factor affecting the success of aphid colonies: colonies protected from natural enemies grew in size at a rate of ten percent per day, were only one tenth as likely to go extinct, and produced over ten times more dispersing alates. In contrast, I found only minor effects of removing flea beetles, the most abundant herbivore with which A. varians colonies cohabit fireweed stems, and of supplementing water availability to fireweed host plants, in spite of a significant effect of watering frequency on aphid growth in the green-house. There was no evidence of significant two- or three-way interactions among factors. Hence, despite the potential complexity of the food web in which it is embedded, the dynamics of A. varians appears to be driven predominantly by a single factor, i.e. interactions with natural enemies.

  15. Geocomposite with Superabsorbent as an Element Improving Water Availability for Plants on Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlowski, A.; Lejcus, K.; Garlikowski, D.; Orzeszyna, H.

    2009-04-01

    Water availability for plants on a slope is usually worse, then on a plane surface. Exposure on sun radiation makes these conditions even more difficult. The key problem is how to supply plants with water. Frequently watering is good but expensive solution. To avoid often repeating of such action and/or to use as much as possible water from precipitation, it has to be retained in soil. One of the ways to increase soil water retention is superabsorbents (SAP), called often hydrogel addition to the soil. They can absorb 300 - 1000 times more water, then theirs own weight. This water can be later taken by roots system. Addition to the soil small amount of dry superabsorbent, which, after absorbing water, forms gel can affect stability of the slope top layer, diminishing soil strength parameters. Part of the strength lose can be recompensed by reinforcing action of better developed roots system, which, according to the tests are increasing soil shear strength. However because it is a living system still rest some uncertainty about its functioning over many vegetation seasons. From engineering point of view, these strength parameters are very difficult for precise calculation, control and determination of long term behaviour. Important factor of superabsorbent influence on soil shear parameters is its dosage and, as a result, final volume and properties after water absorption. If the volume of superabsorbent is not greater then available pore volume of soil, this influence is not decisive. By bigger dosage, when volume of superabsorbent with retained water is much greater then pore space volume. The soil form a suspension in hydrogel and in laboratory condition one can observe sedimentation of soil fraction at the early stage of saturation. After longer time gel's density is already high enough to support grains of soils and stop sedimentation process. By highly permeable soils, which are sometimes used in embankment construction, eg. for buttress, gel, just after

  16. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and

  17. Lake-level variability and water availability in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Douglas A.; Thompson, Todd A.; Booth, Robert K.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we present recorded and reconstructed (pre-historical) changes in water levels in the Great Lakes, relate them to climate changes of the past, and highlight major water-availability implications for storage, coastal ecosystems, and human activities. 'Water availability,' as conceptualized herein, includes a recognition that water must be available for human and natural uses, but the balancing of how much should be set aside for which use is not discussed. The Great Lakes Basin covers a large area of North America. The lakes capture and store great volumes of water that are critical in maintaining human activities and natural ecosystems. Water enters the lakes mostly in the form of precipitation and streamflow. Although flow through the connecting channels is a primary output from the lakes, evaporation is also a major output. Water levels in the lakes vary naturally on timescales that range from hours to millennia; storage of water in the lakes changes at the seasonal to millennial scales in response to lake-level changes. Short-term changes result from storm surges and seiches and do not affect storage. Seasonal changes are driven by differences in net basin supply during the year related to snowmelt, precipitation, and evaporation. Annual to millennial changes are driven by subtle to major climatic changes affecting both precipitation (and resulting streamflow) and evaporation. Rebounding of the Earth's surface in response to loss of the weight of melted glaciers has differentially affected water levels. Rebound rates have not been uniform across the basin, causing the hydrologic outlet of each lake to rise in elevation more rapidly than some parts of the coastlines. The result is a long-term change in lake level with respect to shoreline features that differs from site to site. The reconstructed water-level history of Lake Michigan-Huron over the past 4,700 years shows three major high phases from 2,300 to 3,300, 1,100 to 2,000, and 0 to 800

  18. Effect of reduced barometric pressure on water availability related to microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Hawrylewicz, E J; Hagen, C; Tolkacz, V; Ehrlich, R

    1967-01-01

    Data obtained from Mariner IV indicate that the barometric pressure on Mars is considerably lower than previously estimated. Current estimates from Mariner IV indicate a range from 4 to 7 mb and by near infrared spectroscopy 33-56 mb. Inasmuch as the pressure has a marked influence on availability of water, this should affect the existence of Martian life. At the maximum temperatures recorded on Mars, namely 25 degrees C, a barometric pressure of 30 mb is required for the retention of free water. The lower pressure, 4 mb, would suggest that the moisture is present as a vapor above the freezing point and consequently it is not available for utilizing by living cells. The lower estimates of barometric pressure also inversely affect the carbon dioxide concentration in the Martian atmosphere. Our previous studies have demonstrated that spores of Bacillus cereus survive, germinate and grow in a simulated Martian environment (2.4% CO2, 98 mb) supplemented with moisture. The studies described in this paper were designed to determine the effect of low barometric pressures (10 to 98 mb Hg) and high concentrations of carbon dioxide (37 to 100%) in the simulated Martian environment on survival and growth of B cereus. The organism was inoculated into a felsite-limonite soil at 8% moisture level. The temperature cycles used were 8 hr at -65 degrees C and 16 hr at 25 degrees C, or 20 hr at -65 degrees C and 4 hr at 25 degrees C. The data suggest that the organism after achieving maximum growth in the simulated Martian environment (2.4% CO2, 98 mb) immediately enters into the growth phase upon reinoculation into fresh soil. These data reflect upon the possibility of contamination through air movements. Based upon currently available Martian environmental data, the probability of contamination of Mars by terrestrial micro-organisms will be discussed.

  19. Dealing with variability in water availability: the case of the Verde Grande River basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collischonn, B.; Lopes, A. V.; Pante, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a water resources management strategy developed by the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA) to cope with the conflicts between water users in the Verde Grande River basin, located at the southern border of the Brazilian semi-arid region. The basin is dominated by water-demanding fruit irrigation agriculture, which has grown significantly and without adequate water use control, over the last 30 years. The current water demand for irrigation exceeds water availability (understood as a 95 % percentile of the flow duration curve) in a ratio of three to one, meaning that downstream water users are experiencing more frequent water shortages than upstream ones. The management strategy implemented in 2008 has the objective of equalizing risk for all water users and consists of a set of rules designed to restrict water withdrawals according to current river water level (indicative of water availability) and water demand. Under that rule, larger farmers have proportionally larger reductions in water use, preserving small subsistence irrigators. Moreover, dry season streamflow is forecasted at strategic points by the end of every rainy season, providing evaluation of shortage risk. Thus, water users are informed about the forecasts and corresponding restrictions well in advance, allowing for anticipated planning of irrigated areas and practices. In order to enforce restriction rules, water meters were installed in all larger water users and inefficient farmers were obligated to improve their irrigation systems' performance. Finally, increases in irrigated area are only allowed in the case of annual crops and during months of higher water availability (November to June). The strategy differs from convectional approached based only on water use priority and has been successful in dealing with natural variability of water availability, allowing more water to be used in wet years and managing risk in an isonomic manner during dry years.

  20. Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent C. Tidwell; Barbara D. Moreland; Katie M. Zemlick; Barry L. Roberts; Howard D. Passell; Daniel Jensen; Christopher Forsgren; Gerald Sehlke; Margaret A. Cook; Carey W. King

    2014-06-01

    New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

  1. Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Roberts, Barry L.; Passell, Howard D.; Jensen, Daniel; Forsgren, Christopher; Sehlke, Gerald; Cook, Margaret A.; King, Carey W.; Larsen, Sara

    2014-05-01

    New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

  2. Hydrologic models and analysis of water availability in Cuyama Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Gibbs, Dennis R.; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Changes in population, agricultural development practices (including shifts to more water-intensive crops), and climate variability are placing increasingly larger demands on available water resources, particularly groundwater, in the Cuyama Valley, one of the most productive agricultural regions in Santa Barbara County. The goal of this study was to produce a model capable of being accurate at scales relevant to water management decisions that could be considered in the evaluation of the sustainable water supply. The Cuyama Valley Hydrologic Model (CUVHM) was designed to simulate the most important natural and human components of the hydrologic system, including components dependent on variations in climate, thereby providing a reliable assessment of groundwater conditions and processes that can inform water users and help to improve planning for future conditions. Model development included a revision of the conceptual model of the flow system, construction of a precipitation-runoff model using the Basin Characterization Model (BCM), and construction of an integrated hydrologic flow model with MODFLOW-One-Water Hydrologic Flow Model (MF-OWHM). The hydrologic models were calibrated to historical conditions of water and land use and, then, used to assess the use and movement of water throughout the Valley. These tools provide a means to understand the evolution of water use in the Valley, its availability, and the limits of sustainability. The conceptual model identified inflows and outflows that include the movement and use of water in both natural and anthropogenic systems. The groundwater flow system is characterized by a layered geologic sedimentary sequence that—in combination with the effects of groundwater pumping, natural recharge, and the application of irrigation water at the land surface—displays vertical hydraulic-head gradients. Overall, most of the agricultural demand for water in the Cuyama Valley in the initial part of the growing season is

  3. Vegetation Productivity in Natural vs. Cultivated Systems along Water Availability Gradients in the Dry Subtropics

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Germán; Texeira, Marcos; Murray, Francisco; Jobbágy, Esteban G.

    2016-01-01

    The dry subtropics are subject to a rapid expansion of crops and pastures over vast areas of natural woodlands and savannas. In this paper, we explored the effect of this transformation on vegetation productivity (magnitude, and seasonal and long-term variability) along aridity gradients which span from semiarid to subhumid conditions, considering exclusively those areas with summer rains (>66%). Vegetation productivity was characterized with the proxy metric “Enhanced Vegetation Index” (EVI) (2000 to 2012 period), on 6186 natural and cultivated sampling points on five continents, and combined with a global climatology database by means of additive models for quantile regressions. Globally and regionally, cultivation amplified the seasonal and inter-annual variability of EVI without affecting its magnitude. Natural and cultivated systems maintained a similar and continuous increase of EVI with increasing water availability, yet achieved through contrasting ways. In natural systems, the productivity peak and the growing season length displayed concurrent steady increases with water availability, while in cultivated systems the productivity peak increased from semiarid to dry-subhumid conditions, and stabilized thereafter giving place to an increase in the growing season length towards wetter conditions. Our results help to understand and predict the ecological impacts of deforestation on vegetation productivity, a key ecosystem process linked to a broad range of services. PMID:28005955

  4. Factors Affecting Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Availability in Competitive Venues of US Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study explores sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) availability in US secondary school competitive venues during the first 3 years following the school wellness policy requirement (2007-2009). Furthermore, analyses examine associations with school policy and SSB availability. Methods: Analyses use questionnaire data from 757 middle and…

  5. Root-zone plant available water estimation using the SMOS-derived soil water index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Zamora, Ángel; Sánchez, Nilda; Martínez-Fernández, José; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    Currently, there are several space missions capable of measuring surface soil moisture, owing to the relevance of this variable in meteorology, hydrology and agriculture. However, the Plant Available Water (PAW), which in some fields of application could be more important than the soil moisture itself, cannot be directly measured by remote sensing. Considering the root zone as the first 50 cm of the soil, in this study, the PAW at 25 cm and 50 cm and integrated between 0 and 50 cm of soil depth was estimated using the surface soil moisture provided by the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. For this purpose, the Soil Water Index (SWI) has been used as a proxy of the root-zone soil moisture, involving the selection of an optimal T (Topt), which can be interpreted as a characteristic soil water travel time. In this research, several tests using the correlation coefficient (R), the Nash-Sutcliffe score (NS), several error estimators and bias as predictor metrics were applied to obtain the Topt, making a comprehensive study of the T parameter. After analyzing the results, some differences were found between the Topt obtained using R and NS as decision metrics, and that obtained using the errors and bias, but the SWI showed good results as an estimator of the root-zone soil moisture. This index showed good agreement, with an R between 0.60 and 0.88. The method was tested from January 2010 to December 2014, using the database of the Soil Moisture Measurements Stations Network of the University of Salamanca (REMEDHUS) in Spain. The PAW estimation showed good agreement with the in situ measurements, following closely the dry-downs and wetting-up events, with R ranging between 0.60 and 0.92, and error values lower than 0.05 m3m-3. A slight underestimation was observed for both the PAW and root-zone soil moisture at the different depths; this could be explained by the underestimation pattern observed with the SMOS L2 soil moisture product, in line with previous

  6. Estimating the spatio-temporal distribution of surface water availability across India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.; Kumar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the spatio-temporal variation of future surface water availability across India is critical for water resources planning and management in the water stressed region. However, this remains a challenge as long-term streamflow data is scarce and there is significant uncertainty regarding unmonitored withdrawals. We present a framework to estimate long-term (surface) water availability and its vulnerability to climate change across India using hydro-climatic variables based on long-term precipitation, potential and actual evapotranspiration. We derive estimates of actual evapotranspiration through a probabilistic Budyko framework which further allows us to obtain uncertainty bounds on surface water availability. We define vulnerability as a relative change in long-term surface water availability for a unit change in long-term precipitation. Based on this, we present vulnerability maps for India which shows the spatio-temporal variation of vulnerability of surface water resources to climate change across India.

  7. Socioeconomic status affects mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitat type availability and infestation level.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Zara; Ladeau, Shannon L; Armbruster, Peter; Biehler, Dawn; Leisnham, Paul T

    2013-07-01

    Mosquito populations are largely regulated by processes occurring at the larval stage. We sampled mosquito larval microhabitats (mostly water-holding containers) in six neighborhoods in the Washington, DC, area that varied in socioeconomic status (SES) and housing structure (row houses vs. stand-alone houses) to test associations among these neighborhood characteristics, microhabitat abundance and parameters, and mosquito occurrence and densities. Thirty-four percent (33.9%) of sampled microhabitats contained mosquito larvae, and 93.1% of larvae were Aedes albopictus Skuse or Culex pipiens L. Five specific container types (drains, corrugated flexible drainpipes, planters, garbage cans, and buckets) accounted for the majority of water-holding (56.0%) and mosquito-positive (50.6%) microhabitats sampled. We found no associations between SES or housing structure with total microhabitat abundance per yard, mosquito occurrence or mosquito densities per microhabitat. In contrast, container purpose varied with SES, with low SES neighborhoods having greater numbers of disused containers and lower numbers of functional containers than low and medium SES neighborhoods. Ae. albopictus were 83% more abundant in disused containers, whereas Cx. pipiens were more abundant in structural and functional containers, possibly owing to species-specific oviposition and development related to water quality. Ae. albopictus densities increased over the summer, whereas Cx. pipiens densities remained constant. Ae. albopictus is usually the dominant pest in urban areas in the eastern United States; therefore, integrated mosquito management programs should incorporate the elimination of disused containers to reduce its infestation and adult production, especially in low SES neighborhoods where they occur most frequently.

  8. Estimated availability of water from stratified-drift aquifers in the Concord River Basin, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bratton, Lisa; Parker, Gene W.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management, Office of Water Resources, studied the Concord River Basin to estimate the volume of water that is available from stratified-drift aquifers. A combined hydrograph-separation and streamflow- duration-curve analysis indicates that 20.8 million cubic feet of water can be withdrawn from the stratified-drift aquifer above the South Acton streamflow-gaging station during a 102-day period of no recharge before streamflow is reduced to a prescribed minimum level. This volume, which equaled 2.85 million cubic feet per square mile of strati- fied drift, was used to estimate volume of available water for the 17 aquifer areas in the Concord River Basin. The total volume of available water in the Concord River Basin is estimated to be 561 million cubic feet. Finite-difference ground-water-flow models for the River Meadow Brook aquifer area and the Sudbury and Concord aquifer area quantified the current and potential water availability. The results of three withdrawal simulations for each aquifer area indicate that the 1989 withdrawal rates do not exceed the volume of water available during a 102-day period of no recharge. Results from model simulations of 10- and 65-percent water-table draw- down at existing and hypothetical wells indicate that withdrawn water volumes would exceed the available water in the two aquifer areas.

  9. Can rainfed agriculture adapt to uncertainty in availability of water in Indus Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutla, A.; Sen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding impacts of hydrological and climatological functions under changing climate on regional floods, droughts as well as agricultural commodities remain a serious challenge in tropical agricultural basins. These "tropical agricultural basins" are regions where: (i) the understanding on hydrologic functions (such as precipitation, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, surface runoff, vegetation) are not well established; (ii) increasing population is at the convergence of rural and urban boundaries; (iii) resilience and sustainability of the water resources under different climatic conditions is unknown; and, (iv) agriculture is the primary occupation for majority of the population. More than 95% of the farmed lands in tropical regions are rainfed and 60% of total agricultural production in South Asia relying on seasonal rainfall. Tropical regions frequently suffer from unexpected droughts and sudden flash floods, resulting in massive losses in human lives and affecting regional economy. Prediction of frequency, intensity and magnitude of floods in tropical regions is still a subject of debate and research. A clear example is from the massive floods in the Eastern Indus River in July 2010 that submerged 17 million acre of fertile cropland. Yet, seasonal droughts, such as 2014 rain deficits in Indus Basin, had no effects on annual crop yields - thus creating a paradox. Large amounts of groundwater is being used to supplement water needs for crops during drought conditions, leading to oversubscription of natural aquifers. Key reason that rainfed agriculture is relying heavily on groundwater is because of the uncertainty in timing and distribution of precipitation in the tropical regions, where such data are not routinely collected as well as the basins are transnational, thus limiting sharing of data. Assessment of availability of water for agricultural purposes a serious challenge in tropical regions. This study will provide a framework for using multi

  10. Soil water repellency affects production and transport of CO2 and CH4 in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Qassem, Khalid

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is known to be vital in controlling both the production and transport of C gases in soil. Water availability regulates the decomposition rates of soil organic matter by the microorganisms, while the proportion of water/air filled pores controls the transport of gases within the soil and at the soil-atmosphere interface. Many experimental studies and process models looking at soil C gas fluxes assume that soil water is uniformly distributed and soil is easily wettable. Most soils, however, exhibit some degree of soil water repellency (i.e. hydrophobicity) and do not wet spontaneously when dry or moderately moist. They have restricted infiltration and conductivity of water, which also results in extremely heterogeneous soil water distribution. This is a world-wide occurring phenomenon which is particularly common under permanent vegetation e.g. forest, grass and shrub vegetation. This study investigates the effect of soil water repellency on microbial respiration, CO2 transport within the soil and C gas fluxes between the soil and the atmosphere. The results from the field monitoring and laboratory experiments show that soil water repellency results in non-uniform water distribution in the soil which affects the CO2 and CH4 gas fluxes. The main conclusion from the study is that water repellency not only affects the water relations in the soil, but has also a great impact on greenhouse gas production and transport and therefore should be included as an important parameter during the sites monitoring and modelling of gas fluxes.

  11. Factors affecting the microbial degradation of phenanthrene in soil. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Manilal, V.B.; Alexander, M.

    1991-12-31

    Because phenanthrene was mineralized more slowly in soils than in liquid media, a study was conducted to determine the environmental factors that may account for the slow biodegradation in soil. Mineralization was enhanced by additions of phosphate but not potassium, and it was reduced by additions of nitrate. Aeration or amending the soil with glucose affected the rate of mineralization, although not markedly. Phenanthrene was sorbed to soil constituents, the extent of sorption being directly related to the percentage of organic matter in the soil. Soluble phenanthrene was not detected after addition of the compound to a muck soil. The rate of mineralization was slow in the organic soil and higher in mineral soils with lower percentages of organic matter. We suggest that sorption by soil organic matter slows the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are otherwise readily metabolized.

  12. Calcium oxalate content affects the nutritional availability of calcium from Medicago truncatula leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is known that oxalate, present in edible plants, can bind calcium in a crystalline form that reduces the availability of the bound calcium for nutritional absorption by humans. It is unknown, however, the degree to which the calcium oxalate content of a plant can be genetically altered and how mu...

  13. Searching for Housing as a Battered Woman: Does Discrimination Affect Reported Availability of a Rental Unit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barata, Paula C.; Stewart, Donna E.

    2010-01-01

    Individual battered women have reported experiencing housing discrimination, but the extent of this problem has not been examined. This research used two experiments and a survey to determine if landlord discrimination could keep women from accessing rental units. In Study 1, a confederate asked 181 landlords about the availability of a rental…

  14. Does the Availability of Parental Health Insurance Affect the College Enrollment Decision of Young Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Juergen; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Rhoads, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines whether the college enrollment decision of young individuals (student full-time, student part-time, and non-student) depends on health insurance coverage via a parent's family health plan. Our findings indicate that the availability of parental health insurance can have significant effects on the probability that a young…

  15. Elevated CO2 affects plant responses to variation in boron availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of elevated CO2 on N relations are well studied, but effects on other nutrients, especially micronutrients, are not. We investigated effects of elevated CO2 on response to variation in boron (B) availability in three unrelated species: geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum), barley (Hordeum vulga...

  16. Available soil phosphorus affects herbage yield and stand persistence in forage chicory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage chicory displays poor persistence in the Appalachian region, possibly because of the low soil P fertility that is common to regional soils. We evaluated the effects of available soil P (ASP) on forage yield and stand persistence of three chicory cultivars differing in root morphology at loca...

  17. 32 CFR 701.65 - Availability, public inspection, and indexing of other documents affecting the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... readily available for public inspection and copying at designated locations, unless they are promptly... clearly unwarranted invasion of privacy. (2) Where necessary to prevent a clearly unwarranted invasion of a person's privacy, identifying details should be deleted from a record which is required to...

  18. 32 CFR 701.65 - Availability, public inspection, and indexing of other documents affecting the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... readily available for public inspection and copying at designated locations, unless they are promptly... clearly unwarranted invasion of privacy. (2) Where necessary to prevent a clearly unwarranted invasion of a person's privacy, identifying details should be deleted from a record which is required to...

  19. 75 FR 8697 - Notice of Availability of Class Deviation; Disputes Resolution Procedures Related to Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... AGENCY Notice of Availability of Class Deviation; Disputes Resolution Procedures Related to Clean Water and Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF and DWSRF, Respectively) Reallocation Under the... * * * for the Clean and Drinking Water State Revolving Funds (Revolving Funds) where projects are not...

  20. 75 FR 68783 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    .... SUMMARY: This action announces the availability of EPA decisions identifying water quality limited... stringent enough to attain or maintain State water quality standards and for which total maximum daily loads... several water quality limited segments as impaired and additional associated pollutants for several...

  1. 76 FR 62061 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... added by EPA because the applicable numeric water quality standards marine criterion for dissolved....epa.gov/region6/water/npdes/tmdl/index.htm#303dlists , or by writing or calling Ms. Diane Smith...

  2. 75 FR 52735 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... EPA's decision identifying 12 water quality limited waterbodies and associated pollutants in South Dakota to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water Act Section 303(d)(2), and requests public...

  3. Nutrient availability constrains the hydraulic architecture and water relations of savannah trees.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabian G; Goldstein, Guillermo; Meinzer, Frederick C; Franco, Augusto C; Campanello, Paula I; Villalobos-Vega, Randol; Bustamante, Mercedes; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

    2006-12-01

    Leaf and whole plant-level functional traits were studied in five dominant woody savannah species from Central Brazil (Cerrado) to determine whether reduction of nutrient limitations in oligotrophic Cerrado soils affects carbon allocation, water relations and hydraulic architecture. Four treatments were used: control, N additions, P additions and N plus P additions. Fertilizers were applied twice yearly, from October 1998 to March 2004. Sixty-three months after the first nutrient addition, the total leaf area increment was significantly greater across all species in the N- and the N + P-fertilized plots than in the control and in the P-fertilized plots. Nitrogen fertilization significantly altered several components of hydraulic architecture: specific conductivity of terminal stems increased with N additions, whereas leaf-specific conductivity and wood density decreased in most cases. Average daily sap flow per individual was consistently higher with N and N + P additions compared to the control, but its relative increase was not as great as that of leaf area. Long-term additions of N and N + P caused midday PsiL to decline significantly by a mean of 0.6 MPa across all species because N-induced relative reductions in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance were greater than those of stomatal conductance and transpiration on a leaf area basis. Phosphorus-fertilized trees did not exhibit significant changes in midday PsiL. Analysis of xylem vulnerability curves indicated that N-fertilized trees were significantly less vulnerable to embolism than trees in control and P-fertilized plots. Thus, N-induced decreases in midday PsiL appeared to be almost entirely compensated by increases in resistance to embolism. Leaf tissue water relations characteristics also changed as a result of N-induced declines in minimum PsiL: osmotic potential at full turgor decreased and symplastic solute content on a dry matter basis increased linearly with declining midday PsiL across species and

  4. Resource availability hypothesis: Perceived financial and caloric status affect individuals' height preferences for potential partners.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingzhou; Lou, Liandi; Lu, Jingyi; Wang, Xiaoming; Zhong, Jun; Tan, Xuyun; Li, Yanxia; Liu, Yongfang

    2016-10-01

    Height is an important concern in human mate choices. Prior research indicates that people who live in areas with abundant resources differ from those who live in areas with scarce resources regarding height preferences. Based on a health-maximizing principle, we propose a resource availability account for such differences. Compared with women's height preferences, men's height preferences are hypothesized to be more dependent on either financial or caloric resource availability. Specifically, taller females would be more preferred by males who are poor in resources than those who are rich in resources. Results from three studies supported these hypotheses. In Study 1, men from remote areas of China who had lower family income preferred taller women more than those from eastern China who had higher family income. In Study 2, men who were financially dissatisfied preferred taller women more than those who were financially satisfied. In Study 3, men with low caloric status preferred taller women more than men with high caloric status. In addition, women's height preferences in Studies 1, 2 and 3 were less determined by resource availability. These findings suggest that height preferences are changeable, depending on financial or caloric status.

  5. Ectoenzyme activity in coastal marine waters: response to temperature and metal ion availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenbeck, J. K.; Neino, V.; Allison, S. D.; Martiny, A.

    2009-12-01

    Ectoenzymes in the ocean are vital for the breakdown of complex organic substrates and for the uptake of nutrients by marine organisms. The activity levels of these enzymes affect the turnover rate of nutrient pools within the ocean, and thus have a significant impact on global biogeochemical nutrient cycles. This study measured the activity of extracellular enzymes from seawater samples under different environmental conditions. Samples were collected daily from coastal waters in the subtropical North Pacific (Lat.: 33°). Ambient seawater temperatures were between 18° and 20° C for the duration of the study. The activity response of four enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, β-glucosidase, β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, and leucine aminopeptidase) was measured over a range of temperatures (4° to 40° C). The optimal temperatures of all four enzymes were above the ambient seawater temperature of the samples: optimal temperatures of β-glucosidase, β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, and leucine aminopeptidase in the seawater samples were between 28° and 34° C, while alkaline phosphatase activity increased with the temperature over the range tested. Enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase was further investigated under several metal ion conditions. Activity was highest in the presence of Co2+ ions, while the availability of other ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+/Zn2+) had a lesser effect. The influence of Co2+ on alkaline phosphatase activity indicates the presence of a Co2+-dependent alkaline phosphatase in coastal marine waters. These results suggest that variations in environmental conditions (such as temperature and ion concentration) have discernable effects on enzyme activity, and thus affect turnover rates of nutrient pools in the ocean.

  6. 75 FR 78231 - Management of Energy and Water Efficiency in Federal Buildings: Availability of Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Management of Energy and Water Efficiency in Federal Buildings: Availability of Guidance AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... Subsection (f), Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings) is available at:...

  7. Regulating availability: how access to alcohol affects drinking and problems in youth and adults.

    PubMed

    Gruenewald, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Regulations on the availability of alcohol have been used to moderate alcohol problems in communities throughout the world for thousands of years. In the latter half of the 20th century, quantitative studies of the effects of these regulations on drinking and related problems began in earnest as public health practitioners began to recognize the full extent of the harmful consequences related to drinking. This article briefly outlines the history of this work over four areas, focusing on the minimum legal drinking age, the privatization of alcohol control systems, outlet densities, and hours and days of sale. Some historical background is provided to emphasize the theoretical and empirical roots of this work and to highlight the substantial progress that has been made in each area. In general, this assessment suggests that higher minimum legal drinking ages, greater monopoly controls over alcohol sales, lower outlet numbers and reduced outlet densities, and limited hours and days of sale can effectively reduce alcohol sales, use, and problems. There are, however, substantial gaps in the research literature and a near absence of the quantitative theoretical work needed to direct alcohol-control efforts. Local community responses to alcohol policies are complex and heterogeneous, sometimes reinforcing and sometimes mitigating the effects of availability regulations. Quantitative models of policy effects are essential to accelerate progress toward the formulation and testing of optimal control strategies for the reduction of alcohol problems.

  8. Oxygen availability strongly affects chronological lifespan and thermotolerance in batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Bisschops, Markus M.; Vos, Tim; Martínez-Moreno, Rubén; Cortés, Pilar T.; Pronk, Jack T.; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Stationary-phase (SP) batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which growth has been arrested by carbon-source depletion, are widely applied to study chronological lifespan, quiescence and SP-associated robustness. Based on this type of experiments, typically performed under aerobic conditions, several roles of oxygen in aging have been proposed. However, SP in anaerobic yeast cultures has not been investigated in detail. Here, we use the unique capability of S. cerevisiae to grow in the complete absence of oxygen to directly compare SP in aerobic and anaerobic bioreactor cultures. This comparison revealed strong positive effects of oxygen availability on adenylate energy charge, longevity and thermotolerance during SP. A low thermotolerance of anaerobic batch cultures was already evident during the exponential growth phase and, in contrast to the situation in aerobic cultures, was not substantially increased during transition into SP. A combination of physiological and transcriptome analysis showed that the slow post-diauxic growth phase on ethanol, which precedes SP in aerobic, but not in anaerobic cultures, endowed cells with the time and resources needed for inducing longevity and thermotolerance. When combined with literature data on acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance in retentostat cultures, the present study indicates that the fast transition from glucose excess to SP in anaerobic cultures precludes acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance. Moreover, this study demonstrates the importance of a preceding, calorie-restricted conditioning phase in the acquisition of longevity and stress tolerance in SP yeast cultures, irrespective of oxygen availability. PMID:28357268

  9. Water quality degradation effects on freshwater availability: Impacts to human activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.; Meybeck, Michel

    2000-01-01

    The quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflects the combined effects of many processes along water pathways. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quality and quantity. Alteration of the landscape and associated vegetation has not only changed the water balance, but typically has altered processes that control water quality. Effects of human activities on a small scale are relevant to an entire drainage basin. Furthermore, local, regional, and global differences in climate and water flow are considerable, causing varying effects of human activities on land and water quality and quantity, depending on location within a watershed, geology, biology, physiographic characteristics, and climate. These natural characteristics also greatly control human activities, which will, in turn, modify (or affect) the natural composition of water. One of the most important issues for effective resource management is recognition of cyclical and cascading effects of human activities on the water quality and quantity along hydrologic pathways. The degradation of water quality in one part of a watershed can have negative effects on users downstream. Everyone lives downstream of the effects of some human activity. An extremely important factor is that substances added to the atmosphere, land, and water generally have relatively long time scales for removal or clean up. The nature of the substance, including its affinity for adhering to soil and its ability to be transformed, affects the mobility and the time scale for removal of the substance. Policy alone will not solve many of the degradation issues, but a combination of policy, education, scientific knowledge, planning, and enforcement of applicable laws can provide mechanisms for slowing the rate of degradation and provide human and environmental protection. Such an integrated approach is needed to effectively manage land and water resources.

  10. Food availability affects the maternal transfer of androgens and antibodies into eggs of a colonial seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gasparini, J.; Boulinier, T.; Gill, V.A.; Gil, D.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Roulin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mothers can improve the quality of their offspring by increasing the level of certain components in their eggs. To examine whether or not mothers increase deposition of such components in eggs as a function of food availability, we food-supplemented black-legged kittiwake females (Rissa tridactyla) before and during egg laying and compared deposition of androgens and antibodies into eggs of first and experimentally induced replacement clutches. Food-supplemented females transferred lower amounts of androgens and antibodies into eggs of induced replacement clutches than did non-food-supplemented mothers, whereas first clutches presented no differences between treatments. Our results suggest that when females are in lower condition, they transfer more androgens and antibodies into eggs to facilitate chick development despite potential long-term costs for juveniles. Females in prime condition may avoid these potential long-term costs because they can provide their chicks with more and higher quality resources. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  11. Energy Reliability Related to Water Availability under Climate Extremes in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.; Duncan, I.; Young, M.; Wolaver, B. D.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding linkages between water and energy is critical during climate extremes, particularly droughts. With 40% reduction in per capita water storage since the 1980s, Texas is much more vulnerable to droughts now than in the past. Texas experienced the most extreme one year drought on record in 2011, with 60% reduction in precipitation and 40% reduction in reservoir storage relative to the long term mean. Power plants in Texas rely almost entirely on surface water for cooling. We evaluated water requirements for power plants based on fuel types and cooling technologies to assess their vulnerability to future droughts. Water demand was estimated for electricity generation using multiple sources, including Energy Information Agency, Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, and Texas Water Development Board. The following analysis reflects 2010 data; however, 2011 data will be analyzed as soon as they are made available. Analysis of 2010 data showed that Texas generated 411 million MWHr of electricity, mostly from natural gas (46%), coal (37%), nuclear (10%), and renewables (7%). Approximately 70% of net electricity generation in 2010 required water for cooling. Water consumption for electricity generation totaled 0.6 km3, which represents 3% of the states total water consumption in 2010 (22 km3). Water withdrawals totaled 28 km3; however, 97% of this water is returned to the system. Water consumption varies with fuel source (coal, natural gas, nuclear, renewables) and cooling system technology (once-through, pond, and recirculating tower). Coal plants accounted for the majority of water consumption in 2010, followed by natural gas, nuclear, and other. Water consumption varied by cooling system technology, with ponds accounting for most water consumption, followed by recirculating towers, and once-through cooling systems. The vulnerability of the different systems to drought was examined with water requirements for withdrawal and consumption relative to water

  12. Water use, availability, and net demand in the Tennessee River watershed within Alabama, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, Amy C.; Harper, Michael J.; Littlepage, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey worked in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs—Office of Water Resources to estimate water use and water availability for 2005 for the portion of the Tennessee River watershed contained within the borders of the State of Alabama. Estimates of water use and availability are an important part of planning for population and economic growth in the Tennessee River watershed in Alabama. Total water use for the region in 2005 was 5,197 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Total surface-water withdrawals were 5,139 Mgal/d, and total groundwater withdrawals were about 58 Mgal/d. About 92 percent of the total water withdrawn was surface water used for once-through cooling for thermoelectric power generation. Self-supplied industrial and public-supply water uses accounted for the next greatest uses of water, constituting approximately 49 and 42 percent, respectively, of the total water use excluding thermoelectric power use. Summaries of water use by county and subbasin indicated the areas of greatest water withdrawals and use within the Tennessee River watershed. Limestone (2,012 Mgal/d), Jackson (1,498 Mgal/d), and Colbert (1,363 Mgal/d) Counties were the counties with the greatest total water use in 2005 and had large amounts of water withdrawn for thermoelectric power generation. When water use from thermoelectric power generation was not considered, the counties with the greatest withdrawals were Morgan (124 Mgal/d), Madison (72 Mgal/d), Colbert (69 Mgal/d), and Lawrence (67 Mgal/d). The subbasin with the greatest total water use was Wheeler Lake (2,260 Mgal/d) in the Middle Tennessee—Elk subregion. Wheeler Lake subbasin also had the greatest public-supply, irrigation, industrial, mining, and thermoelectric withdrawals of any subbasin in the Tennessee River watershed within Alabama. Total water availability for the Tennessee River watershed within Alabama was estimated to be 34,567 Mgal/d by the Geological

  13. Functional profiling discovers the dieldrin organochlorinated pesticide affects leucine availability in yeast.

    PubMed

    Gaytán, Brandon D; Loguinov, Alex V; Lantz, Stephen R; Lerot, Jan-Michael; Denslow, Nancy D; Vulpe, Chris D

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to organochlorinated pesticides such as dieldrin has been linked to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, endocrine disruption, and cancer, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity behind these effects remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate, using a functional genomics approach in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that dieldrin alters leucine availability. This model is supported by multiple lines of congruent evidence: (1) mutants defective in amino acid signaling or transport are sensitive to dieldrin, which is reversed by the addition of exogenous leucine; (2) dieldrin sensitivity of wild-type or mutant strains is dependent upon leucine concentration in the media; (3) overexpression of proteins that increase intracellular leucine confer resistance to dieldrin; (4) leucine uptake is inhibited in the presence of dieldrin; and (5) dieldrin induces the amino acid starvation response. Additionally, we demonstrate that appropriate negative regulation of the Ras/protein kinase A pathway, along with an intact pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, is required for dieldrin tolerance. Many yeast genes described in this study have human orthologs that may modulate dieldrin toxicity in humans.

  14. Food availability affects the strength of mutualistic host-microbiota interactions in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Callens, Martijn; Macke, Emilie; Muylaert, Koenraad; Bossier, Peter; Lievens, Bart; Waud, Michael; Decaestecker, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    The symbiotic gut microbial community is generally known to have a strong impact on the fitness of its host. Nevertheless, it is less clear how the impact of symbiotic interactions on the hosts' fitness varies according to environmental circumstances such as changes in the diet. This study aims to get a better understanding of host-microbiota interactions under different levels of food availability. We conducted experiments with the invertebrate, experimental model organism Daphnia magna and compared growth, survival and reproduction of conventionalized symbiotic Daphnia with germ-free individuals given varying quantities of food. Our experiments revealed that the relative importance of the microbiota for the hosts' fitness varied according to dietary conditions. The presence of the microbiota had strong positive effects on Daphnia when food was sufficient or abundant, but had weaker effects under food limitation. Our results indicate that the microbiota can be a potentially important factor in determining host responses to changes in dietary conditions. Characterization of the host-associated microbiota further showed that Aeromonas sp. was the most prevalent taxon in the digestive tract of Daphnia.

  15. Efficacy of commercially available ultrasonic pest repellent devices to affect behavior of bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Yturralde, K M; Hofstetter, R W

    2012-12-01

    Little is known about the potential for acoustic communication in bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), or the use of sound as cues in host location, although many hemipterans are known to communicate with sound. Most behavioral research has focused on bed bug pheromones that are used in aggregation and as alarm signals. We investigated the influence of sound as a deterrent and as an attractant, either of which could ultimately be used to monitor and control bed bugs. Female bed bugs were tested in two-choice tests with four different commercially available ultrasonic repellent devices. We found that female bed bugs were equally likely to occur in arenas with or without sound produced by ultrasonic devices. These devices did not repel or attract bed bugs during choice trials. However, more bed bugs preferred the middle corridor between the test (sound) and control (no sound) arenas when the sound devices were played. Bed bugs were also more likely to exit the middle corridor during control trials compared with treatment trials with ultrasonic devices. Our results confirm that commercial devices producing ultrasound are not a promising tool for repelling bed bugs.

  16. Metabolomic response of Calotropis procera growing in the desert to changes in water availability.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Ahmed; Sabir, Jamal S M; Alakilli, Saleha Y M; Shokry, Ahmed M; Gadalla, Nour O; Edris, Sherif; Al-Kordy, Magdy A; Al-Zahrani, Hassan S; El-Domyati, Fotouh M; Bahieldin, Ahmed; Baker, Neil R; Willmitzer, Lothar; Irgang, Susann

    2014-01-01

    Water availability is a major limitation for agricultural productivity. Plants growing in severe arid climates such as deserts provide tools for studying plant growth and performance under extreme drought conditions. The perennial species Calotropis procera used in this study is a shrub growing in many arid areas which has an exceptional ability to adapt and be productive in severe arid conditions. We describe the results of studying the metabolomic response of wild C procera plants growing in the desert to a one time water supply. Leaves of C. procera plants were taken at three time points before and 1 hour, 6 hours and 12 hours after watering and subjected to a metabolomics and lipidomics analysis. Analysis of the data reveals that within one hour after watering C. procera has already responded on the metabolic level to the sudden water availability as evidenced by major changes such as increased levels of most amino acids, a decrease in sucrose, raffinose and maltitol, a decrease in storage lipids (triacylglycerols) and an increase in membrane lipids including photosynthetic membranes. These changes still prevail at the 6 hour time point after watering however 12 hours after watering the metabolomics data are essentially indistinguishable from the prewatering state thus demonstrating not only a rapid response to water availability but also a rapid response to loss of water. Taken together these data suggest that the ability of C. procera to survive under the very harsh drought conditions prevailing in the desert might be associated with its rapid adjustments to water availability and losses.

  17. Availability, Sustainability, and Suitability of Ground Water, Rogers Mesa, Delta County, Colorado - Types of Analyses and Data for Use in Subdivision Water-Supply Reports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    Mesa consists of alluvial-fan deposits that overlie shale and, locally, sandstone. Maps of the base of the aquifer, the water table, and the saturated thickness of the aquifer were prepared from data from the well files of the Colorado Division of Water Resources. The base of the aquifer generally is topographically higher than the valleys of the North Fork Gunnison River and Leroux Creek, and direct hydraulic connection of the aquifer to North Fork Gunnison River and Leroux Creek is limited. The aquifer is recharged primarily by infiltration of surface water diverted for irrigation. Ground water discharges to seeps and springs and through slope deposits at the boundaries of the aquifer. Data from the well files also were used to estimate the specific capacity of wells and to estimate the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. A water budget was used to estimate recharge to and discharge from the aquifer. Although storage within the aquifer likely varies seasonally and from year to year, it was assumed that there were no long-term changes in ground-water storage. Estimated average annual recharge to and discharge from the aquifer during November 1998 through October 2006 were about 30,767 acre-feet per year. Although sufficient ground water is available on Rogers Mesa for additional domestic water supplies, conversion of irrigated land to residential land use likely would reduce recharge to the aquifer, affecting the sustainability of ground-water supplies on Rogers Mesa. Stream-depletion analyses indicate that the ground water in the aquifer likely would be considered tributary ground water and additional uses of ground water to supply new subdivisions likely would require implementation of augmentation plans. Although sufficient ground water is available on Rogers Mesa for additional domestic water supplies, conversion of irrigated land to residential land use likely would reduce recharge to the aquifer, affecting the sustainability

  18. Water availability, use, and estimated future water demand in the upper Duck River basin, middle Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutson, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Duck River in Tennessee supplied about 18.9 Mgal of water/d to Tullahoma, Manchester, Lewisburg, Columbia, and other cities. Municipal water use increased to 20.9 Mgal/d in 1990; projections indicate increases in demand for the next 25 yr. Socioeconomic and water use data from the basin for 1989 were used to calibrate the water use models within the Institute for Water Resources Municipal and Industrial Needs (IWR-MAIN) System. The models were used to estimate future water use demand in the basin for the years 1995, 2000, and 2015. Projections showed demands of about 24.3 Mgal/d in 1995; 28.3 Mgal/d in 2000; and 39.0 Mgal/d in 2015. Increases in withdrawals from the Duck River downstream from Shelbyville could reduce the minimum flow at Columbia from 119 to 83.8 cu feet/s. The study also included an overview of the potential for developing groundwater resources in the area. Statistical analyses of yields to 5,938 wells showed that the highest yields are in Coffee County, but 75 percent of the wells in Coffee County produced less than 30 gal/m. However, measurements of streamflow losses along tributaries to the Duck River suggest that the potential for development of groundwater does exist at specific sites.

  19. Progress toward establishing a national assessment of water availability and use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Evenson, Eric J.; Barber, Nancy L.; Bruce, Breton W.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, Ward O.; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Hughes, William B.; Kennen, Jonathan G.; Kiang, Julie E.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Ralston, Barbara; Tessler, Steven; Verdin, James P.

    2013-01-01

    The Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-11) was passed into law on March 30, 2009. Subtitle F, also known as the SECURE Water Act, calls for the establishment of a "national water availability and use assessment program" within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). A major driver for this recommendation was that national water availability and use have not been comprehensively assessed since 1978. This report fulfills a requirement to report to Congress on progress in implementing the national water availability and use assessment program, also referred to as the National Water Census. The SECURE Water Act authorized \\$20 million for each of fiscal years (FY) 2009 through 2023 for assessment of national water availability and use. The first appropriation for this effort was \\$4 million in FY 2011, followed by an appropriation of \\$6 million in FY 2012. The National Water Census synthesizes and reports information at the regional and national scales, with an emphasis on compiling and reporting the information in a way that is useful to states and others responsible for water management and natural-resource issues. The USGS works with Federal and non-Federal agencies, universities, and other organizations to ensure that the information can be aggregated with other types of water-availability and socioeconomic information, such as data on food and energy production. To maximize the utility of the information, the USGS coordinates the design and development of the effort through the Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information. A National Water Census is a complex undertaking, particularly because there are major gaps in the information needed to conduct such an assessment. To maximize progress, the USGS engaged stakeholders in a discussion of priorities and leveraged existing studies and program activities to enhance efforts toward the development of a National Water Census.

  20. Dietary energy availability affects primary and metastatic breast cancer and metformin efficacy.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, Kathryn N; Vumbaca, Frank; Fox, Melissa M; Evans, Rebecca; Claffey, Kevin P

    2010-09-01

    Dietary energy restriction has been shown to repress both mammary tumorigenesis and aggressive mammary tumor growth in animal studies. Metformin, a caloric restriction mimetic, has a long history of safe use as an insulin sensitizer in diabetics and has been shown to reduce cancer incidence and cancer-related mortality in humans. To determine the potential impact of dietary energy availability and metformin therapy on aggressive breast tumor growth and metastasis, an orthotopic syngeneic model using triple negative 66cl4 tumor cells in Balb/c mice was employed. The effect of dietary restriction, a standard maintenance diet or a diet with high levels of free sugar, were tested for their effects on tumor growth and secondary metastases to the lung. Metformin therapy with the various diets indicated that metformin can be highly effective at suppressing systemic metabolic biomarkers such as IGF-1, insulin and glucose, especially in the high energy diet treated animals. Long-term metformin treatment demonstrated moderate yet significant effects on primary tumor growth, most significantly in conjunction with the high energy diet. When compared to the control diet, the high energy diet promoted tumor growth, expression of the inflammatory adipokines leptin and resistin, induced lung priming by bone marrow-derived myeloid cells and promoted metastatic potential. Metformin had no effect on adipokine expression or the development of lung metastases with the standard or the high energy diet. These data indicate that metformin may have tumor suppressing activity where a metabolic phenotype of high fuel intake, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes exist, but may have little or no effect on events controlling the metastatic niche driven by proinflammatory events.

  1. The Interplay of Bioenergy Crop Production and Water Resource Availability in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Landuyt, W.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale growing of bioenergy crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum viragatum) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), may introduce new challenges for water resource availability in the US. However, the strength of the interplay between bioenergy crop production and water resource availability is highly uncertain at the spatial scale and determined by (1) the spatial distribution of land cover types; (2) availability of soil water resources; (3) climate conditions and (4) biophysical characteristics of different bioenergy crops, such as water use efficiency (WUE), tolerances to extreme water and thermal conditions (dry, high temperature, low temperature etc.) and photoperiod adaptability, etc. To address potential water availability concerns the spatial distribution of bioenergy crops needs to be optimized by considering the maximum WUE and the minimum dependence and impact on water resource availability. To address this objective, we apply a coupled biophysical and biogeochemical model (ISAM), to investigate spatial variability in the interplay between water resources and bioenergy crop production in the US. The bioenergy crops considered in this study include Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock and Alamo switchgrasses, and corn (grain and stover). The interplay between bioenergy crop and corn production with water resources is quantitatively evaluated by calculating WUE and average water stress for different bioenergy crops and change in plant available soil water between bioenergy crops and natural vegetation. Our results indicate that low soil water availability limits production of bioenergy grasses in central and eastern Great Plains. Growing energy grasses here strengthens water depletion and limits its potential production. Miscanthus has the highest WUE in the central Midwest, followed by corn stover and Cave-in-Rock. However, growing Miscanthus and Cave-in-Rock here strengthens soil water depletion and induces water stress on their production. Though production

  2. The Great Lakes Water Balance: Data availability and annotated bibliography of selected references

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, Brian P.; Killian, Jason R.

    2003-01-01

    Water balance calculations for the Great Lakes have been made for several decades and are a key component of Great Lakes water management. Despite the importance of the water balance, little has been done to inventory and describe the data available for use in water balance calculations. This report provides a catalog and brief description of major datasets that are used to calculate the Great Lakes water balance. Several additional datasets are identified that could be used to calculate parts of the water balance but currently are not being used. Individual offices and web pages that are useful for attaining these datasets are included. Four specific data gaps are also identified. An annotated bibliography of important publications dealing with the Great Lakes water balance is included. The findings of this investigation permit resource managers and scientists to access data more easily, assess shortcomings of current datasets, and identify which data are not currently being utilized in water balance calculations.

  3. Middle-term Metropolitan Water Availability Index Assessment Based on Synergistic Potentials of Multi-sensor Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of recent drought and water pollution episodes results in an acute need to project future water availability to assist water managers in water utility infrastructure management within many metropolitan regions. Separate drought and water quality indices previously deve...

  4. Water availability and use pilot; methods development for a regional assessment of groundwater availability, southwest alluvial basins, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Leake, Stanley A.; Thomas, Blakemore E.; Callegary, James B.

    2011-01-01

    budget components using recent (2000-2007) data and methods of data analysis. Estimates of inflow components, including mountain-front recharge, incidental recharge from irrigation of agriculture, managed recharge from recharge facilities, interbasin underflow from upgradient basins, and streamflow losses, are quantified for recent time periods. Mountain-front recharge is the greatest inflow component to the groundwater system and was estimated using two methods: a basin characteristic model and new precipitation information used in a previously developed regression equation. Annual mountain-front recharge for the study area for 1940-2007 estimated by the two methods is 730,000 acre-ft for the basin characteristic model and 643,000 acre-ft for the regression equation, representing 1.5 percent and 1.3 percent of precipitation, respectively. Outflow components, including groundwater withdrawals, evapotranspiration, and interbasin flow to downgradient basins, are also presented for recent time periods. Groundwater withdrawals accounted for the largest share of the water budget, with nearly 2.4 million acre-ft per year withdrawn from the study area in recent years. Evapotranspiration from groundwater was estimated at nearly 1.3 million acre-ft per year for the study area using a newly developed method incorporating vegetation indices from satellite images and land cover information. For water-budget components with temporal variation that could be assessed from available data, estimates for intervening time periods since before development were also developed. An estimate of aquifer storage change, representing both gains to and losses from the groundwater system since before development, was derived for the most developed basins in the study area using available estimates of groundwater-level changes and storage coefficients. An overall storage loss of 74.5 million acre-ft was estimated for these basins within the study area. Demonstration

  5. Assessing Water Availability in the Rio Grande Basin using NOAH Land Surface Model and NLDAS2 Forcing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khedun, C. P.; Giardino, J. R.; Singh, V. P.; Bolten, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    The Rio Grande/Río Bravo basin is a transboundary basin shared between several states in the United States and trends along part of the border between the United States and Mexico. The basin has a varied climatology - desert with high temperature and low water resources in the northern part and a tropical climate in the southern part. The surface water in the basin is over allocated, and some cities already rely solely on ground water to meet municipal water needs. The population and urban water demand are expected to double in the next 50 years. Climate variability and change, along with persistent long-term droughts, exacerbate the problem of meeting water demands. Uncertainty in the ways these climatic phenomena will affect the water availability in the coming decades will impact the effective long-term policies and management of water resources in the basin in the United States and Mexico, and this can lead to tensions over water allocation across the border. In order to study the impact of demographic changes and climate variability and change on future water availability, it is important to develop a model that can assess the current water availability and evaluate the effect of projected climate change, based on IPCC’s scenarios, on the hydrology of the basin. For this study we developed a model based on the community NOAH land surface model (LSM) within NASA’s GSFC Land Information System. The LSM is a 1-D column model that runs in coupled or uncoupled mode, and it simulates soil moisture, soil temperature, skin temperature, snowpack depth, snow water equivalent, canopy water content, and energy flux and water flux of the surface energy and water balance. The North American Land Data Assimilation Scheme (NLDAS2) is used to drive the model. The NLDAS2 datasets extends back to 1979, thereby allowing the model to be run retrospectively for a period of 30 years. Additional model parameters include seasonal maximum snow free albedo maps, monthly greenness

  6. Thermal properties of ration components as affected by moisture content and water activity during freezing.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Chinachoti, P; Wang, D; Hallberg, L M; Sun, X S

    2008-11-01

    Beef roast with vegetables is an example of a meal, ready-to-eat (MRE) ration entrée. It is a mixture of meat, potato, mushroom, and carrot with a gravy sauce. The thermal properties of each component were characterized in terms of freezing point, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy during freezing using differential scanning calorimetry. Freezing and thawing curves and the effect of freezing and thawing cycles on thermal properties were also evaluated. The freezing points of beef, potato, mushroom, and sauce were all in the range of -5.1 to -5.6 degrees C, but moisture content, water activity, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy varied among these components. Freezing temperature greatly affected the unfrozen water fraction. The unfreezable water content (unfrozen water fraction at -50 degrees C) of ration components was in the range of 8.2% to 9.7%. The freezing and thawing curves of vegetables with sauce differed from those of beef but took similar time to freeze or thaw. Freezing and thawing cycles did not greatly affect the thermal properties of each component. Freezing point and latent heat were reduced by decreasing moisture content and water activity of each component. Water activity was proportionally linear to freezing point at a(w) > 0.88, and moisture content was proportionally linear to freezable water content in all ration components. Water was not available for freezing when moisture content was reduced to 28.8% or less. This study indicates that moisture content and water activity are critical factors affecting thermal behavior of ration components during freezing.

  7. Cover crop biomass production and water use in the central great plains under varying water availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water-limited environment of the semi-arid central Great Plains may not have potential to produce enough cover crop biomass to generate benefits associated with cover crop use in more humid regions. There have been reports that cover crops grown in mixtures produce more biomass with greater wate...

  8. Impact of UV disinfection on microbially available phosphorus, organic carbon, and microbial growth in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Lehtola, Markku J; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Vartiainen, Terttu; Rantakokko, Panu; Hirvonen, Arja; Martikainen, Pertti J

    2003-03-01

    UV irradiation at a wavelength of 253.7 nm (UV(254)) is commonly used for drinking water disinfection. UV radiation is known to convert organically combined phosphorus to orthophosphate and to degrade natural organic matter. We studied if UV disinfection increases the amount of microbially available forms of organic carbon and phosphorus in drinking waters with different characteristics, and if these changes in water chemical quality could enhance the microbial growth in drinking water. The UV(254) dose (15-50 mWs/cm(2)) used in waterworks reduced the concentration of assimilable organic carbon and the sum of the molecular size fractions. The release of microbially available phosphorus needed higher doses (204 mWs/cm(2)) of UV(254) radiation. Of bacteria in drinking water, 90% were inactivated with UV(254)-irradiation doses below 50 mWs/cm(2). A high dose (501 mWs/cm(2)) of UV(254) radiation inhibited the microbial growth in water.

  9. Water Availability for the Western United States: The Role for Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. T.; Woosley, L. H.

    2003-12-01

    In the American West, the availability of water has become a serious concern for many communities and rural homeowners. Water of acceptable quality is harder to find because local sources are allocated to prior uses, depleted by overuse, or diminished by drought stress. Some of the inherent characteristics of the West add complexity to the task. The most rapidly growing States in population are in the Southwest-the most arid region on the continent. There is evidence that the climate is warming, which will have consequences for the Western water supplies, such as increasing minimum streamflow and earlier snowmelt events in snow-dominated basins. Endangered species are disproportionately represented in the Western States, and water availability now means sustaining riparian ecosystems and individual endangered species. Periodic inventory and assessment of the amounts and trends of water available in surface water and ground water are needed to support water management. The widespread perception that the amount of water available is diminishing with time needs to be replaced with fact. For the major Western rivers, there is either no long-term streamflow trend or the trend is increasing. In contrast, systematic information is lacking to make broad assessments of ground-water availability, but for specific aquifers where data are available, the aquifers are being depleted. The complexity added to the issue of Western water availability by these and other factors gives rise to a significant role for science. Science has played a role in support of Western water development from the beginning, and the role has evolved and changed over time along with society's values. The role for science is discussed in three phases-development and construction, consequences and environmental awareness, and sustainability. The development and construction includes some historical accounting of water development for the West and how some precedents set then, still exist today. Science

  10. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

  11. Relation of water level and fish availability to wood stork reproduction in the southern Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, James A.; Ogden, John C.; Higer, Aaron L.

    1975-01-01

    The wood stork is a species of colonial wading bird in the Everglades that is most sensitive to changes in the availability of food. Previous studies have shown that the initiation and success of wood stork nesting depends on high densities of fish concentrated in ponds and other catchment basins during the dry season. The extreme dependence of the wood stork on the cyclic hydrologic regime of the southern Florida wetlands makes it an indicator of the well-being and ecological stability of the Everglades. The wood stork has declined in numbers over the last 25 years. One reason for the decline in wood stork population was the change in the hydrologic regimen of the Everglades which affected the feeding habitat and the food production. The fish on which the wood stork feeds increase in density during the dry season as water levels fall. In the Everglades marsh, densities were highest in front of the drying edge of surface water at a depth of about 0.3 m. Dry-season densities were greatest when a drought occurred the previous year. Historically wood stork nesting success was associated with high summer water levels, high rates of surface-water discharge and high rates of drying. Before the closure of the south side of Conservation Area 3 in 1962, years of successful and unsuccessful nesting were characterized by different patterns of drying. These patterns changed after 1962 and generally the predictability of successful nesting breaks down thereafter. Only two nesting years after 1962 were successful and in only one of these was the drying rate similar to years of successful nesting before 1962. Two other potentially successful years failed after 1962. This suggests that further changes in the hydrobiological relations occurred within the Everglades after 1962. Lack of successful nesting after 1962 can be attributed in large part to late colony formation and the interruption of nesting by winter rainfall. In this period (1962-72), colonies formed earlier in years of

  12. Viability of commercially available bleach for water treatment in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lantagne, Daniele S

    2009-11-01

    Treating household water with low-cost, widely available commercial bleach is recommended by some organizations to improve water quality and reduce disease in developing countries. I analyzed the chlorine concentration of 32 bleaches from 12 developing countries; the average error between advertised and measured concentration was 35% (range = -45%-100%; standard deviation = 40%). Because of disparities between advertised and actual concentration, the use of commercial bleach for water treatment in developing countries is not recommended without ongoing quality control testing.

  13. 43 CFR 404.57 - Does this rule have any affect on state water law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... water law? 404.57 Section 404.57 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... this rule have any affect on state water law? No. Neither the Act nor this rule preempts or affects state water law or any interstate compact governing water. Reclamation will comply with state water...

  14. 43 CFR 404.57 - Does this rule have any affect on state water law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... water law? 404.57 Section 404.57 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... this rule have any affect on state water law? No. Neither the Act nor this rule preempts or affects state water law or any interstate compact governing water. Reclamation will comply with state water...

  15. 43 CFR 404.57 - Does this rule have any affect on state water law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... water law? 404.57 Section 404.57 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... this rule have any affect on state water law? No. Neither the Act nor this rule preempts or affects state water law or any interstate compact governing water. Reclamation will comply with state water...

  16. Impact of root growth and root hydraulic conductance on water availability of young walnut trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerszurki, Daniela; Couvreur, Valentin; Hopmans, Jan W.; Silva, Lucas C. R.; Shackel, Kenneth A.; de Souza, Jorge L. M.

    2015-04-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is a tree species of high economic importance in the Central Valley of California. This crop has particularly high water requirements, which makes it highly dependent on irrigation. The context of decreasing water availability in the state calls for efficient water management practices, which requires improving our understanding of the relationship between water application and walnut water availability. In addition to the soil's hydraulic conductivity, two plant properties are thought to control the supply of water from the bulk soil to the canopy: (i) root distribution and (ii) plant hydraulic conductance. Even though these properties are clearly linked to crop water requirements, their quantitative relation remains unclear. The aim of this study is to quantitatively explain walnut water requirements under water deficit from continuous measurements of its water consumption, soil and stem water potential, root growth and root system hydraulic conductance. For that purpose, a greenhouse experiment was conducted for a two month period. Young walnut trees were planted in transparent cylindrical pots, equipped with: (i) rhizotron tubes, which allowed for non-invasive monitoring of root growth, (ii) pressure transducer tensiometers for soil water potential, (iii) psychrometers attached to non-transpiring leaves for stem water potential, and (iv) weighing scales for plant transpiration. Treatments consisted of different irrigation rates: 100%, 75% and 50% of potential crop evapotranspiration. Plant responses were compared to predictions from three simple process-based soil-plant-atmosphere models of water flow: (i) a hydraulic model of stomatal regulation based on stem water potential and vapor pressure deficit, (ii) a model of plant hydraulics predicting stem water potential from soil-root interfaces water potential, and (iii) a model of soil water depletion predicting the water potential drop between the bulk soil and soil-root interfaces

  17. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended.

  18. Ground-water availability from surficial aquifers in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reppe, Thomas H.C.

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of data and methods presented to evaluate ground-water availability, the Otter Tail and Pineland Sands surficial aquifers and Pelican River sand-plain aquifer have the greatest potential for additional development of ground-water resources in the study area.

  19. 75 FR 30013 - South Feather Water and Power Agency; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission South Feather Water and Power Agency; Notice of Availability of...), Commission staff has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) regarding South Feather Water and Power Agency... Creek development of the South Feather Power Project (FERC No. 2088). Sly Creek is located on Sly...

  20. Probabilistic Water Availability Prediction in the Rio Grande Basin using Large-scale Circulation Indices as Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khedun, C. P.; Mishra, A. K.; Giardino, J. R.; Singh, V. P.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrometeorological conditions, and therefore water availability, is affected by large-scale circulation indices. In the Rio Grande, which is a transboundary basin shared between the United States and Mexico, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influence local hydrological conditions. Different sub-regions of the basin exhibit varying degrees of correlation, but in general, an increase (decrease) in runoff during El Niños (La Niñas) is noted. Positive PDO enhances the effect of El Niño and dampens the negative effect of La Niña, and when it is in its neutral/transition phase, La Niña dominates climatic conditions and reduces water availability. Further, lags of up to 3 months have been found between ENSO and precipitation in the basin. We hypothesize that (1) a trivariate statistical relationship can be established between the two climate indices and water availability, and (2) the relationship can be used to predict water availability based on projected PDO and ENSO conditions. We use copula to establish the dependence between climate indices and water availability. Water availability is generated from Noah land surface model (LSM), forced with the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2 (NLDAS-2). The model is run within NASA GSFC's Land Information System. LSM generated runoff gives a more realistic picture of available surface water as it is not affected by anthropogenic changes, such as the construction of dams, diversions, and other land use land cover changes, which may obscure climatic influences. Marginals from climate indices and runoff are from different distribution families, thus conventional functional forms of multivariate frequency distributions cannot be employed. Copulas offer a viable alternative as marginals from different families can be combined into a joint distribution. Uncertainties in the statistical relationship can be determined and the statistical model can be used for

  1. Productivity of US Forests: Regional Sensitivity to Variation in Soil Water Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, J. M.; Coops, N. C.; Waring, R. H.

    2006-05-01

    The rates that forests accumulate biomass regionally differ substantially based on the environment and the frequency of disturbance. These dynamics significantly affect the terrestrial carbon balance globally. Since 2000, NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) has provided 1km spatial resolution estimates of 8-day gross and annual net primary production (GPP and NPP). MODIS productivity is computed as a simple function of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, and a regionally assigned light-use conversion efficiency that is reduced if temperature or atmospheric vapor pressure deficits are suboptimal. We evaluated the extent that the MODIS productivity estimates might be improved if spatial information on soil water (ASW) storage capacity and soil fertility were available for forested areas across the USA. To accomplish this comparison we parameterized a forest growth model, 3-PGS (Physiological Principles Predicting Growth using Satellite data), which is similar to the MODIS model in operation, but also includes an explicit water balance and a direct link between soil fertility and light-use efficiency. The 3-PGS model was initially run with STATSGO-derived soils information provided by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The analysis was expanded to include variation in ASW storage capacity of 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400mm. Annual 3-PGS estimates of NPP for forests across the USA are highly sensitive to limited ASW (<200mm), reducing estimates by up to 60%, as opposed to increasing the ASW capacity (>200mm), which yields an average increase in NPP of 30%. Changing ASW has more influence on forest GPP in the west, where summer drought is prevalent. Generally, productivity estimates from MODIS and 3-PGS were similar across most of the eastern US. However, the MODIS model consistently overestimated mid-summer GPP values in the west because of its insufficient drought constraints.

  2. Water use efficiency of twenty-five co-existing Patagonian species growing under different soil water availability.

    PubMed

    Golluscio, R A; Oesterheld, M

    2007-11-01

    The variation of plant water use efficiency (WUE) with water availability has two interacting components: a plastic response, evident when individuals of the same genotype are compared (e.g. wet versus dry years), and an interspecific response, evident when different species living in habitats with different water availability are compared. We analysed the WUE of 25 Patagonian species that belong to four life forms (grasses, shrubs, annual herbs and perennial herbs) in relation to the climatic conditions of 2 years and the mean historic water availability experienced by each species. To estimate water availability, we calculated the effective soil water potential (EWP) of each species, based on available information about soil water dynamics, phenology and root system structure. To estimate WUE, we used isotopic discrimination of leaf C (Delta(13)C) and mean annual water vapour difference between leaves and atmosphere (Deltae) measured in situ. For the plastic response, for every species and life form, WUE increased from the dry to the wet year. We hypothesize that photosynthesis was less nutrient limited in the wet than in the dry year, facilitating higher net photosynthesis rates per unit of stomatal conductance in the wet year. For the interspecific response, WUE was lower in species native to drier habitats than in species native to wetter habitats. This response was mostly accounted for by a decrease in Deltae with EWP. Annual herbs, which avoid drought in time (they have the earliest growth cycle), and shrubs, which avoid drought in space (they have the deepest roots), showed the highest EWP and WUE. We conclude that the conventional wisdom which states that the highest WUE occurs within a species during the driest years, and among species in the driest habitats, does not always hold true, and that co-existing life forms drastically differ in water availability and water economy.

  3. The effect of elevation, light and water availability on the growth of Sierran conifer seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, R.A.; Dale, V.H.; Beauchamp, J.J. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1994-06-01

    The composition of many plant communities will be altered with global change, and this will depend on individual species' abilities to reproduce and to survive under new climate conditions. Two experiments are underday to test the hypothesis that seedling demography is affected by the relative drought and shade tolerances of seven co-occurring species of Sierran conifers. The first experiment is being conducted at three sites in Sequoia National Park, California, elevations 1600 m, 1900 m and 2200 m. At each site, closed canopy [open quotes]shade[close quotes] plots and open canopy [open quotes]gap[close quotes] plots are being used. Seedling growth of each species is compared between light levels and elevations. The second experiment also measures seedling growth in low and high levels, but with four levels of water availability at one elevation (1900 m). Microenvironmental monitoring (soil and air temperature, relative humidity, radiation, and soil moisture) by surrounding mature trees are also being measured in order to develop a mechanistic model of seedling growth and survival.

  4. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 143: Availability of chilled water system and room cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, V.T.

    1993-12-01

    This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue (GI-143), {open_quotes}Availability of Chilled Water System and Room Cooling.{close_quotes} The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and related auxiliaries are required to provide control of environmental conditions in areas in light water reactor (LWR) plants that contain safety-related equipment. In some plants, the HVAC and chilled water systems serve to maintain a suitable environment for both safety and non-safety-related areas. Although some plants have an independent chilled water system for the safety-related areas, the heat removal capability often depends on the operability of other supporting systems such as the service water system or the component cooling water system. The operability of safety-related components depends upon operation of the HVAC and chilled water systems to remove heat from areas containing the equipment. If cooling to dissipate the heat generated is unavailable, the ability of the safety-related equipment to operate as intended cannot be assured. Typical components or areas in the nuclear power plant that could be affected by the failure of cooling from HVAC or chilled water systems include the (1) emergency switchgear and battery rooms, (2) emergency diesel generator room, (3) pump rooms for residual heat removal, reactor core isolation cooling, high-pressure core spray, and low-pressure core spray, and (4) control room. The unavailability of such safety-related equipment or areas could cause the core damage frequency (CDF) to increase significantly.

  5. Looking at the spatial and temporal distribution of global water availability and demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burek, Peter; Satoh, Yusuke; Wada, Yoshihide; Floerke, Martina; Eisner, Stefanie; Hanasaki, Naota; Wiberg, David

    2016-04-01

    The human water demand for agriculture, industry, energy and domestic is less than ten per cent of the global freshwater production of around 54,000 km3 per year. Water is distributed unequally in time and space. Not a new insight, but when we zoom in and look at country and regional level and monthly time scale the global picture is dispatching into areas and periods of water abundance and water scarcity, which we can quantify. This study uses the multi-model approach of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) to build up a consistent set of global water scenarios based on Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) for the IIASA Water Futures and Solutions Initiative (WFaS). The WFaS "fast-track" assessment applies three water scenarios based on feasible combinations of two different RCPs and three SSPs, then five different hydrological models are used to estimate water availability and three water use models to estimate water demand from different sectors. Results are shown as indicators for e.g. water stress and water dependency between countries for present time and for future projections up to 2050. The alterations to previous studies are the multi-model approach and the finer temporal monthly scale, showing the temporal and spatial diversity of water demand and availability. One example scenario is based on the combination of SSP2 and RCP6.0. While in 2010 17 countries out of 249 facing severe water stress on an annual basis, the number is likely to increase up to 26 countries by 2050. Looking at the monthly time dimension 51 countries with altogether 3.8 billion people are under severe water stress in at least one month in 2010. This will rise up to 57 countries and 4.9 billion people by 2050. Main driver of this development will be the rising water demand of a growing population and to a lesser extend the changing distribution of water availability. Model biases are inevitable in

  6. Water consumption, not expectancies about water consumption, affects cognitive performance in adults.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Caroline J; Crombie, Rosanna; Ballieux, Haiko; Gardner, Mark R; Dawkins, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that water supplementation positively affects cognitive performance in children and adults. The present study considered whether this could be a result of expectancies that individuals have about the effects of water on cognition. Forty-seven participants were recruited and told the study was examining the effects of repeated testing on cognitive performance. They were assigned either to a condition in which positive expectancies about the effects of drinking water were induced, or a control condition in which no expectancies were induced. Within these groups, approximately half were given a drink of water, while the remainder were not. Performance on a thirst scale, letter cancellation, digit span forwards and backwards and a simple reaction time task was assessed at baseline (before the drink) and 20 min and 40 min after water consumption. Effects of water, but not expectancy, were found on subjective thirst ratings and letter cancellation task performance, but not on digit span or reaction time. This suggests that water consumption effects on letter cancellation are due to the physiological effects of water, rather than expectancies about the effects of drinking water.

  7. Effects of climate change on water demand and water availability for power plants - examples for the German capital Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voegele, Stefan; Koch, Hagen; Grünewald, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    Effects of climate change on water demand and water availability for power plants - examples for the German capital Berlin Stefan Vögelea, Hagen Kochb&c, Uwe Grünewaldb a Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy Research - Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation, D-52425 Jülich, Germany b Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus, Chair Hydrology and Water Resources Management, P.O. Box. 101 344, D-03013 Cottbus, Germany c Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Research Domain Climate Impacts and Vulnerabilities, P.O. Box 601203, D-14412 Potsdam, Germany Numerous power plants in Europe had to be throttled in the summer months of the years 2003 and 2006 due to water shortages and high water temperatures. Therefore, the effects of climate change on water availability and water temperature, and their effects on electric power generation in power plants have received much attention in the last years. The water demand of a power plant for cooling depends on the temperature of the surface waters from which the cooling water is withdrawn. Furthermore, air temperature and air humidity influence the water demand if a cooling tower is used. Beside climatic parameters, the demand for water depends on economic and technological factors as well as on the electricity demand and the socio-political framework. Since the different systems are connected with certain levels of uncertainty, scenarios of socio-economic development and climate change should be used in analyses of climate change on power plants and to identify adaptation measures. In this presentation the effects of global change, comprising technological, socio-economic and climate change, and adaptation options to water shortages for power plants in the German capital Berlin in the short- and long-term are analysed. The interconnection between power plants, i.e. water demand, and water resources management, i.e. water availability, is described in detail. By changing the cooling system of power

  8. Availability, usage, and factors affecting usage of electrophysical agents by physical therapists: a regional cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Yuichi; Goh, Ah-Cheng; Miyoshi, Kei

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the availability, usage, and factors affecting usage of electrophysical agents by physical therapists in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. [Subjects and Methods] Questionnaires were sent to all 1,571 physical therapists working in 245 institutions within Nagano Prefecture. A total of 1,110 questionnaires were returned, out of which 1,099 (70%) questionnaires containing valid responses were analyzed. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for 22 modalities with regards to availability, usage, rate of usage, and confidence level in usage. Factors affecting usage and the relationship between rate of usage and confidence level (Spearman’s rho) were also determined. [Results] The top three responses for the various outcome measures were as follows: (1) hot packs (88%), low frequency stimulators (76%), and ultrasound (68%) for availability; (2) hot packs (72%), ultrasound (61%), and cold packs (59%) for usage; (3) hot packs (75%), cold spray (49%), and ultrasound (44%) for confidence in usage; and (4) equipment availability (80%), past experience (79%), and research evidence (78%) for factors affecting usage. There was a significant positive relationship between confidence and usage for all modalities, except for ultraviolet radiation, iontophoresis, and magnetic field. [Conclusion] Usage was strongly correlated with confidence, with the top three used modalities also being the ones with the highest confidence in usage. PMID:27942126

  9. Water Availability in Indus River at the Upper Indus Basin under Different Climate Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Firdos; Pilz, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    The last decade of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century showed that climate change or global warming is happening and the latter one is considered as the warmest decade over Pakistan ever in history where temperature reached 53 0C on May 26, 2010. The changing climate has impact on various areas including agriculture, water, health, among others. There are two main forces which have central role in changing climate: one is natural variability and the other one is human evoked changes, increasing the density of green house gases. The elements in the bunch of Energy-Food-Water are interlinked with one another and among them water plays a crucial role for the existence of the other two parts. This nexus is the central environmental issue around the globe generally, and is of particular importance in the developing countries. The study evaluated the importance and the availability of water in Indus River under different emission scenarios. Four emission scenarios are included, that is, the A2, B2, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. One way coupling of regional climate models (RCMs) and Hydrological model have been implemented in this study. The PRECIS (Providing Regional Climate for Impact Studies) and CCAM (Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model) climate models and UBCWM (University of British Columbia Watershed Model) hydrological model are used for this purpose. It is observed that Indus River contributes 80 % of the hydro-power generation and contributes 44 % to available water annually in Pakistan. It is further investigated whether sufficient water will be available in the Indus River under climate change scenarios. Toward this goal, Tarbela Reservoir is used as a measurement tool using the parameters of the reservoir like maximum operating storage, dead level storage, discharge capacity of tunnels and spillways. The results of this study are extremely important for the economy of Pakistan in various key areas like agriculture, energy, industries and ecosystem

  10. Soil water availability as controlling factor for actual evapotranspiration in urban soil-vegetation-systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Simon; Reisdorff, Christoph; Gröngröft, Alexander; Jensen, Kai; Eschenbach, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The City of Hamburg is characterized by a large number of greens, parks and roadside trees: 600.000 trees cover about 14% of the city area, and moreover, 245.000 roadside trees can be found here. Urban vegetation is generally known to positively contribute to the urban micro-climate via cooling by evapotranspiration (ET). The water for ET is predominantly stored in the urban soils. Hence, the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is - beside atmospheric drivers - determined by soil water availability at the soil surface and in the rooting zones of the respective vegetation. The overall aim of this study is to characterize soil water availability as a regulative factor for ETa in urban soil-vegetation systems. The specific questions addressed are: i) What is the spatio-temporal variation in soil water availability at the study sites? ii) Which soil depths are predominantly used for water uptake by the vegetation forms investigated? and iii) Which are the threshold values of soil water tension and soil water content (Θ), respectively, that limit ETa under dry conditions on both grass-dominated and tree-dominated sites? Three study areas were established in the urban region of Hamburg, Germany. We selected areas featuring both single tree stands and grass-dominated sites, both representing typical vegetation forms in Hamburg. The areas are characterized by relatively dry soil conditions. However, they differ in regard to soil water availability. At each area we selected one site dominated by Common Oak (Quercus ruber L.) with ages from 40 to 120 years, and paired each oak tree site with a neighboring grass-dominated site. All field measurements were performed during the years 2013 and 2014. At each site, we continuously measured soil water tension and Θ up to 160 cm depth, and xylem sap flux of each of three oak trees per site in a 15 min-resolution. Furthermore, we measured soil hydraulic properties as pF-curve, saturated and unsaturated conductivity at all sites

  11. Water availability and land subsidence in the Central Valley, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faunt, Claudia; Sneed, Michelle; Traum, Jonathan A.; Brandt, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The Central Valley in California (USA) covers about 52,000 km2 and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. This agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage to meet irrigation water demand. Because the valley is semi-arid and surface-water availability varies substantially, agriculture relies heavily on local groundwater. In the southern two thirds of the valley, the San Joaquin Valley, historic and recent groundwater pumpage has caused significant and extensive drawdowns, aquifer-system compaction and subsidence. During recent drought periods (2007–2009 and 2012-present), groundwater pumping has increased owing to a combination of decreased surface-water availability and land-use changes. Declining groundwater levels, approaching or surpassing historical low levels, have caused accelerated and renewed compaction and subsidence that likely is mostly permanent. The subsidence has caused operational, maintenance, and construction-design problems for water-delivery and flood-control canals in the San Joaquin Valley. Planning for the effects of continued subsidence in the area is important for water agencies. As land use, managed aquifer recharge, and surface-water availability continue to vary, long-term groundwater-level and subsidence monitoring and modelling are critical to understanding the dynamics of historical and continued groundwater use resulting in additional water-level and groundwater storage declines, and associated subsidence. Modeling tools such as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model, can be used in the evaluation of management strategies to mitigate adverse impacts due to subsidence while also optimizing water availability. This knowledge will be critical for successful implementation of recent legislation aimed toward sustainable groundwater use.

  12. Water availability and land subsidence in the Central Valley, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Sneed, Michelle; Traum, Jon; Brandt, Justin T.

    2016-05-01

    The Central Valley in California (USA) covers about 52,000 km2 and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. This agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage to meet irrigation water demand. Because the valley is semi-arid and surface-water availability varies substantially, agriculture relies heavily on local groundwater. In the southern two thirds of the valley, the San Joaquin Valley, historic and recent groundwater pumpage has caused significant and extensive drawdowns, aquifer-system compaction and subsidence. During recent drought periods (2007-2009 and 2012-present), groundwater pumping has increased owing to a combination of decreased surface-water availability and land-use changes. Declining groundwater levels, approaching or surpassing historical low levels, have caused accelerated and renewed compaction and subsidence that likely is mostly permanent. The subsidence has caused operational, maintenance, and construction-design problems for water-delivery and flood-control canals in the San Joaquin Valley. Planning for the effects of continued subsidence in the area is important for water agencies. As land use, managed aquifer recharge, and surface-water availability continue to vary, long-term groundwater-level and subsidence monitoring and modelling are critical to understanding the dynamics of historical and continued groundwater use resulting in additional water-level and groundwater storage declines, and associated subsidence. Modeling tools such as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model, can be used in the evaluation of management strategies to mitigate adverse impacts due to subsidence while also optimizing water availability. This knowledge will be critical for successful implementation of recent legislation aimed toward sustainable groundwater use.

  13. Effects of water availability on emerald ash borer larval performance and phloem phenolics of Manchurian and black ash.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sourav; Whitehill, Justin G A; Hill, Amy L; Opiyo, Stephen O; Cipollini, Don; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2014-04-01

    The invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) beetle is a significant threat to the survival of North American ash. In previous work, we identified putative biochemical and molecular markers of constitutive EAB resistance in Manchurian ash, an Asian species co-evolved with EAB. Here, we employed high-throughput high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS) to characterize the induced response of soluble phloem phenolics to EAB attack in resistant Manchurian and susceptible black ash under conditions of either normal or low water availability, and the effects of water availability on larval performance. Total larval mass per tree was lower in Manchurian than in black ash. Low water increased larval numbers and mean larval mass overall, but more so in Manchurian ash. Low water did not affect levels of phenolics in either host species, but six phenolics decreased in response to EAB. In both ashes, pinoresinol A was induced by EAB, especially in Manchurian ash. Pinoresinol A and pinoresinol B were negatively correlated with each other in both species. The higher accumulation of pinoresinol A in Manchurian ash after attack may help explain the resistance of this species to EAB, but none of the responses measured here could explain increased larval performance in trees subjected to low water availability.

  14. Water and nitrogen availability co-control ecosystem CO2 exchange in a semiarid temperate steppe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Tan, Yulian; Li, Ang; Ren, Tingting; Chen, Shiping; Wang, Lixin; Huang, Jianhui

    2015-10-23

    Both water and nitrogen (N) availability have significant effects on ecosystem CO2 exchange (ECE), which includes net ecosystem productivity (NEP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP). How water and N availability influence ECE in arid and semiarid grasslands is still uncertain. A manipulative experiment with additions of rainfall, snow and N was conducted to test their effects on ECE in a semiarid temperate steppe of northern China for three consecutive years with contrasting natural precipitation. ECE increased with annual precipitation but approached peak values at different precipitation amount. Water addition, especially summer water addition, had significantly positive effects on ECE in years when the natural precipitation was normal or below normal, but showed trivial effect on GEP when the natural precipitation was above normal as effects on ER and NEP offset one another. Nitrogen addition exerted non-significant or negative effects on ECE when precipitation was low but switched to a positive effect when precipitation was high, indicating N effect triggered by water availability. Our results indicate that both water and N availability control ECE and the effects of future precipitation changes and increasing N deposition will depend on how they can change collaboratively in this semiarid steppe ecosystem.

  15. Exploring the temporal effects of seasonal water availability on the snail kite of Florida: Part III

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooij, Wolf M.; Martin, Julien; Kitchens, Wiley M.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Bissonette, John A.; Storch, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    The Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) is an endangered raptor that occurs as an isolated population, currently of about 2,000 birds, in the wetlands of southern and central Florida, USA. Its exclusive prey species, the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) is strongly influenced by seasonal changes in water abundance. Droughts during the snail kite breeding season have a direct negative effect on snail kite survival and reproduction, but droughts are also needed to maintain aquatic vegetation types favorable to snail kite foraging for snails. We used a spatially explicit matrix model to explore the effects of temporal variation in water levels on the viability of the snail kite population under different temporal drought regimes in its wetland breeding habitat. We focused on three aspects of variations in water levels that were likely to affect kites: (1) drought frequency; (2) drought duration; and (3) drought timing within the year. We modeled a 31-year historical scenario using four different scenarios in which the average water level was maintained constant, but the amplitude of water level fluctuations was modified. Our results reveal the complexity of the effects of temporal variation in water levels on snail kite population dynamics. Management implications of these results are discussed. In particular, management decisions should not be based on annual mean water levels alone, but must consider the intra-annual variability.

  16. Morphological and physiological responses of two coffee progenies to soil water availability.

    PubMed

    Dias, Paulo C; Araujo, Wagner L; Moraes, Gustavo A B K; Barros, Raimundo S; DaMatta, Fábio M

    2007-12-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint affecting growth and production of coffee. The effects of water supply on growth, biomass allocation, water relations, and gas exchange in two coffee progenies representing drought-tolerant (Siriema) and drought-sensitive (Catucaí) genotypes were compared. They were grown in 12-L pots until 4-months old, when they were submitted to two watering treatments for 60 d: plants receiving either 100% transpired water (control plants) or a fraction (about 40%) of the amount of water transpired by control plants (drought-stressed plants). Under control conditions, Siriema grew faster than Catucaí. Regardless of the watering regimes and progenies, relative growth rate (RGR) was positively correlated both with net assimilation rate (NAR) and long-term water-use efficiency (WUE), but not with differences in biomass allocation. Both progenies responded to drought stress through (i) similar decreases in both RGR and NAR with marginal, if any, changes in allocation; (ii) decreases in leaf water potential, which occurred to a greater extent in Catucaí than in Siriema, even though they have showed similar abilities to adjust osmotically and elastically; (iii) similar reductions in net photosynthesis due mainly to nonstomatal factors; and (iv) decreases in transpiration rate coupled with increased long-term WUE. However, the lower transpiration rate and the higher long-term WUE as found in Siriema relative to Catucaí under control conditions persisted under drought conditions. Overall, the major differences between these progenies were largely associated with differences in plant water use, which was likely related to the improved water status of Siriema. The possible implications of selecting coffee genotypes for high WUE are discussed.

  17. Water availability and vulnerability of 225 large cities in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padowski, Julie C.; Jawitz, James W.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a quantitative national assessment of urban water availability and vulnerability for 225 U.S. cities with population greater than 100,000. Here, the urban assessments account for not only renewable water flows, but also the extracted, imported, and stored water that urban systems access through constructed infrastructure. These sources represent important hydraulic components of the urban water supply, yet are typically excluded from water scarcity assessments. Results from this hydraulic-based assessment were compared to those obtained using a more conventional method that estimates scarcity solely based on local renewable flows. The inclusion of hydraulic components increased the mean availability to cities, leading to a significantly lower portion of the total U.S. population considered "at risk" for water scarcity (17%) than that obtained from the runoff method (47%). Water vulnerability was determined based on low-flow conditions, and smaller differences were found for this metric between at-risk populations using the runoff (66%) and hydraulic-based (54%) methods. The large increase in the susceptible population between the scarcity measures evaluated using the hydraulic method may better reconcile the seeming contradiction in the United States between perceptions of natural water abundance and widespread water scarcity. Additionally, urban vulnerability measures developed here were validated using a media text analysis. Vulnerability assessments that included hydraulic components were found to correlate with the frequency of urban water scarcity reports in the popular press while runoff-based measures showed no significant correlation, suggesting that hydraulic-based assessments provide better context for understanding the nature and severity of urban water scarcity issues.

  18. Optimising The Available Scarce Water Resources At European Scale In A Modelling Environment: Results And Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Roo, Ad; Burek, Peter; Gentile, Alessandro; Udias, Angel; Bouraoui, Faycal

    2013-04-01

    As a next step to European drought monitoring and forecasting, which is covered in the European Drought Observatory (EDO) activity of JRC, a modeling environment has been developed to assess optimum measures to match water availability and water demand, while keeping ecological, water quality and flood risk aspects also into account. A multi-modelling environment has been developed to assess combinations of water retention measures, water savings measures, and nutrient reduction measures for continental Europe. These simulations have been carried out to assess the effects of those measures on several hydro-chemical indicators, such as the Water Exploitation Index, Environmental Flow indicators, low-flow frequency, N and P concentrations in rivers, the 50-year return period river discharge as an indicator for flooding, and economic losses due to water scarcity for the agricultural sector, the industrial sector, and the public sector. Also, potential flood damage of a 100-year return period flood has been used as an indicator. This modeling environment consists of linking the agricultural CAPRI model, the land use LUMP model, the water quantity LISFLOOD model, the water quality EPIC model, the combined water quantity/quality and hydro-economic LISQUAL model and a multi-criteria optimization routine. A python interface platform (IMO) has been built to link the different models. The work was carried out in the framework of a new European Commission policy document "Blueprint to Safeguard Europe's Water Resources", COM(2012)673), launched in November 2012. Simulations have been carried out to assess the effects of water retention measures, water savings measures, and nutrient reduction measures on several hydro-chemical indicators, such as the Water Exploitation Index, Environmental Flow indicators, N and P concentrations in rivers, the 50-year return period river discharge as an indicator for flooding, and economic losses due to water scarcity for the agricultural

  19. Analysis of plant available water in the context of climate change using Thornthwaite type monthly water balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herceg, Andras; Gribovszki, Zoltan; Kalicz, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological impact of climate change can be dramatic. The primary objective of this paper was to analyze plant available water in the context of climate change using Thornthwaite type monthly water balance calibrated by remote sensing based ET maps. The calibrated model was used for projection on the basis of 4 climate model datasets. The 3 periods of projection were: 2010-2040, 2040-2070, and 2070-2100. The benefit of this method is its robust build up, which can be applied if temperature and precipitation time series are accessible. The key parameter is the water storage capacity of the soil (SOILMAX), which can be calibrated using the actual available evapotranspiration data. If the soil's physical properties are available, the maximal rooting depth is also projectable. Plant available water was evaluated for future scenarios focusing water stress periods. For testing the model, a dataset of an agricultural parcel next to Mosonmagyaróvár and a dataset of a small forest covered catchment next to Sopron were successfully used. Each of the models projected slightly ascending evapotranspiration values (+7 percent), but strongly decreasing soil moisture values (-15 percent) for the 21st century. The soil moisture minimum values (generally appeared at the end of the summer) reduced more than 50 percent which indicate almost critical water stress for vegetation. This research has been supported by Agroclimate.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034 project.

  20. Evaluating water withdrawals and water availability for projected thermoelectric power growth in the Eastern Interconnection of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinter, Kayla

    Water is an essential resource to the thermoelectric power sector, which is the largest user of water in the United States. As water-related issues continue to grow due to drought, climate change, and tension between multiple sectors, it is becoming increasingly important that water resources are considered in long-term energy planning. This study has evaluated projected implications on water resources as energy demand grows and new power plants are built. Capitalizing on recent energy-demand projections from the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) and water availability data from Sandia National Laboratories, we have identified watersheds at highest risk for future water stress due to new-build thermoelectric power plant water withdrawals for three possible future scenarios--1) a business as usual scenario (designated F1S17 by the EIPC) defined by no new energy or environmental policies or programs at the federal, state or regional level, 2) a scenario (designated F6S10) with national renewable portfolio standards implemented at the regional level, and 3) a federal carbon constraint scenario (designated F8S7). Total thermoelectric capacity increased 7.5% between the year 2011 and 2040 for the business as usual future scenario. Relatively no change in total thermoelectric capacity was observed for the future scenario with regional implementation of national renewable portfolio standards. Finally, a 36.6% decrease in total thermoelectric capacity was seen for the carbon reduction future scenario. While the capacity varied, all three future scenarios yielded a decrease in the total amount of water withdrawn from 2011 through 2040. Nearly all watersheds containing thermoelectric power plants were shown to have less than 10% of the total available water withdrawn for thermoelectric use. Overall, the distribution of new capacity in this study yielded 2 watersheds at-risk of over 10% withdrawal of total water available in the Eastern Interconnection for

  1. Drought, Land-Use Change, and Water Availability in California's Central Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faunt, C. C.; Sneed, M.; Traum, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Valley is a broad alluvial-filled structural trough that covers about 52,000 square kilometers and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. Because the valley is semi-arid and the availability of surface water varies substantially from year to year, season to season, and from north to south, agriculture developed a reliance on groundwater for irrigation. During recent drought periods (2007-09 and 2012-present), groundwater pumping has increased due to a combination of factors including drought and land-use changes. In response, groundwater levels have declined to levels approaching or below historical low levels. In the San Joaquin Valley, the southern two thirds of the Central Valley, the extensive groundwater pumpage has caused aquifer system compaction, resulting in land subsidence and permanent loss of groundwater storage capacity. The magnitude and rate of subsidence varies based on geologic materials, consolidation history, and historical water levels. Spatially-variable subsidence has changed the land-surface slope, causing operational, maintenance, and construction-design problems for surface-water infrastructure. It is important for water agencies to plan for the effects of continued water-level declines, storage losses, and/or land subsidence. To combat these effects, excess surface water, when available, is artificially recharged. As surface-water availability, land use, and artificial recharge continue to vary, long-term groundwater-level and land-subsidence monitoring and modelling are critical to understanding the dynamics of the aquifer system. Modeling tools, such as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model, can be used in the analysis and evaluation of management strategies to mitigate adverse impacts due to subsidence, while also optimizing water availability. These analyses will be critical for successful implementation of recent legislation aimed toward sustainable groundwater use.

  2. Availability and quality of ground water, southern Ute Indian Reservation, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brogden, Robert E.; Hutchinson, E. Carter; Hillier, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    Population growth and the potential development of subsurface mineral resources have increased the need for information on the availability and quality of ground water on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Southern Ute Tribal Council, the Four Corners Regional Planning Commission, and the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, conducted a study during 1974-76 to assess the ground-water resources of the reservation. Water occurs in aquifers in the Dakota Sandstone, Mancos Shale, Mesaverde Group, Lewis Shale, Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, Fruitland Formation, Kirtland Shale, Animas and San Jose Formations, and terrace and flood-plain deposits. Well yields from sandstone and shale aquifers are small, generally in the range from 1 to 10 gallons per minute with maximum reported yields of 75 gallons per minute. Well yields from terrace deposits generally range from 5 to 10 gallons per minute with maximum yields of 50 gallons per minute. Well yields from flood-plain deposits are as much as 25 gallons per minute but average 10 gallons per minute. Water quality in aquifers depends in part on rock type. Water from sandstone, terrace, and flood-plain aquifers is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, whereas water from shale aquifers is predominantly a sodium bicarbonate type. Water from rocks containing interbeds of coal or carbonaceous shales may be either a calcium or sodium sulfate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water ranged from 115 to 7,130 milligrams per liter. Water from bedrock aquifers is the most mineralized, while water from terrace and flood-plain aquifers is the least mineralized. In many water samples collected from bedrock, terrace, and flood-plain aquifers, the concentrations of arsenic, chloride, dissolved solids, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, selenium, and sulfate exceeded U.S. Public Health Service (1962) recommended limits for drinking water. Selenium in the ground water in excess of U

  3. A global water scarcity assessment under Shared Socio-economic Pathways - Part 2: Water availability and scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshikawa, S.; Masaki, Y.; Hijioka, Y.; Kainuma, M.; Kanamori, Y.; Masui, T.; Takahashi, K.; Kanae, S.

    2013-07-01

    A global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century was conducted under the latest socio-economic scenario for global change studies, namely Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). SSPs depict five global situations with substantially different socio-economic conditions. In the accompanying paper, a water use scenario compatible with the SSPs was developed. This scenario considers not only quantitative socio-economic factors such as population and electricity production but also qualitative ones such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. In this paper, water availability and water scarcity were assessed using a global hydrological model called H08. H08 simulates both the natural water cycle and major human activities such as water abstraction and reservoir operation. It simulates water availability and use at daily time intervals at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. A series of global hydrological simulations were conducted under the SSPs, taking into account different climate policy options and the results of climate models. Water scarcity was assessed using an index termed the Cumulative Abstraction to Demand ratio, which is expressed as the accumulation of daily water abstraction from a river divided by the daily consumption-based potential water demand. This index can be used to express whether renewable water resources are available from rivers when required. The results suggested that by 2071-2100 the population living under severely water-stressed conditions for SSP1-5 will reach 2588-2793 × 106 (39-42% of total population), 3966-4298 × 106 (46-50%), 5334-5643 × 106 (52-55%), 3427-3786 × 106 (40-45%), 3164-3379 × 106 (46-49%) respectively, if climate policies are not adopted. Even in SSP1 (the scenario with least change in water use and climate) global water scarcity increases considerably, as compared to the present-day. This is mainly due to the growth in population and economic activity in developing

  4. A global water scarcity assessment under shared socio-economic pathways - Part 2: Water availability and scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshikawa, S.; Masaki, Y.; Hijioka, Y.; Kainuma, M.; Kanamori, Y.; Masui, T.; Takahashi, K.; Kanae, S.

    2012-12-01

    A global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century was conducted under the latest socio-economic scenario for global change studies, namely Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). SSPs depict five global situations with substantially different socio-economic conditions. In the accompanying paper, a water use scenario compatible with the SSPs was developed. This scenario considers not only quantitative socio-economic factors such as population and electricity production but also qualitative ones such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. In this paper, water availability and water scarcity were assessed using a global hydrological model called H08. H08 simulates both the natural water cycle and major human activities such as water withdrawal and reservoir operation. It simulates water availability and use at daily time intervals at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. A series of global hydrological simulations were conducted under the SSPs, taking into account different climate policy options and the results of climate models. Water scarcity was assessed using an index termed the Cumulative Withdrawal to Demand ratio, which is expressed as the accumulation of daily water withdrawal from a river over the potential daily water consumption demand. This index can be used to express whether renewable water resources are available from rivers when required. The results suggested that by 2071-2100 the population living under severely water stressed conditions for SSP1-5 will reach 2588-2793 × 106 (39-42% of total population), 3966-4298 × 106 (46-50%), 5334-5643 × 106 (52-55%), 3427-3786 × 106 (40-45%), 3164-3379 × 106 (46-49%), respectively, if climate policies are not adopted. Even in SSP1 (the scenario with least change in water use and climate) global water scarcity increases considerably, as compared to the present day. This is mainly due to the growth in population and economic activity in developing countries, and

  5. Increases in desert shrub productivity under elevated carbon dioxide vary with water availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Housman, D.C.; Naumburg, E.; Huxman, T. E.; Charlet, T.N.; Nowak, R.S.; Smith, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    in leaf area - were not significantly affected by elevated CO2. Together, these findings suggest that elevated CO2 can enhance the productivity of Mojave Desert shrubs, but this effect is most pronounced during years with abundant rainfall when soil resources are most available. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  6. Temperature and resource availability may interactively affect over-wintering success of juvenile fish in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Brodersen, Jakob; Rodriguez-Gil, José Luis; Jönsson, Mikael; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brönmark, Christer; Nilsson, P Anders; Nicolle, Alice; Berglund, Olof

    2011-01-01

    The predicted global warming may affect freshwater systems at several organizational levels, from organism to ecosystem. Specifically, in temperate regions, the projected increase of winter temperatures may have important effects on the over-winter biology of a range of organisms and especially for fish and other ectothermic animals. However, temperature effects on organisms may be directed strongly by resource availability. Here, we investigated whether over-winter loss of biomass and lipid content of juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus) was affected by the physiologically relatively small (2-5 °C) changes of winter temperatures predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), under both natural and experimental conditions. This was investigated in combination with the effects of food availability. Finally, we explored the potential for a correlation between lake temperature and resource levels for planktivorous fish, i.e., zooplankton biomass, during five consecutive winters in a south Swedish lake. We show that small increases in temperature (+2 °C) affected fish biomass loss in both presence and absence of food, but negatively and positively respectively. Temperature alone explained only a minor part of the variation when food availability was not taken into account. In contrast to other studies, lipid analyses of experimental fish suggest that critical somatic condition rather than critical lipid content determined starvation induced mortality. Our results illustrate the importance of considering not only changes in temperature when predicting organism response to climate change but also food-web interactions, such as resource availability and predation. However, as exemplified by our finding that zooplankton over-winter biomass in the lake was not related to over-winter temperature, this may not be a straightforward task.

  7. Temperature and Resource Availability May Interactively Affect Over-Wintering Success of Juvenile Fish in a Changing Climate

    PubMed Central

    Brodersen, Jakob; Rodriguez-Gil, José Luis; Jönsson, Mikael; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brönmark, Christer; Nilsson, P. Anders; Nicolle, Alice; Berglund, Olof

    2011-01-01

    The predicted global warming may affect freshwater systems at several organizational levels, from organism to ecosystem. Specifically, in temperate regions, the projected increase of winter temperatures may have important effects on the over-winter biology of a range of organisms and especially for fish and other ectothermic animals. However, temperature effects on organisms may be directed strongly by resource availability. Here, we investigated whether over-winter loss of biomass and lipid content of juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus) was affected by the physiologically relatively small (2-5°C) changes of winter temperatures predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), under both natural and experimental conditions. This was investigated in combination with the effects of food availability. Finally, we explored the potential for a correlation between lake temperature and resource levels for planktivorous fish, i.e., zooplankton biomass, during five consecutive winters in a south Swedish lake. We show that small increases in temperature (+2°C) affected fish biomass loss in both presence and absence of food, but negatively and positively respectively. Temperature alone explained only a minor part of the variation when food availability was not taken into account. In contrast to other studies, lipid analyses of experimental fish suggest that critical somatic condition rather than critical lipid content determined starvation induced mortality. Our results illustrate the importance of considering not only changes in temperature when predicting organism response to climate change but also food-web interactions, such as resource availability and predation. However, as exemplified by our finding that zooplankton over-winter biomass in the lake was not related to over-winter temperature, this may not be a straightforward task. PMID:21998627

  8. Water-use efficiency in cork oak (Quercus suber) is modified by the interaction of water and light availabilities.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Ismael; Pardos, Marta; Puértolas, Jaime; Jiménez, Maria Dolores; Pardos, Jose Alberto

    2007-05-01

    We studied the interaction of light and water on water-use efficiency in cork oak (Quercus suber L.) seedlings. One-year-old cork oak seedlings were grown in pots in a factorial experiment with four light treatments (68, 50, 15 and 5% of full sunlight) and two irrigation regimes: well watered (WW) and moderate drought stress (WS). Leaf predawn water potential, which was measured at the end of each of two cycles, did not differ among the light treatments. Water-use efficiency, assessed by carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C), tended to increase with increasing irradiance. The trend was similar in the WW and WS treatments, though with lower delta(13)C in all light treatments in the WW irrigation regime. Specific leaf area increased with decreasing irradiance, and was inversely correlated with delta(13)C. Thus, changes in delta(13)C could be explained in part by light-induced modifications in leaf morphology. The relationship between stomatal conductance to water vapor and net photosynthesis on a leaf area basis confirmed that seedlings in higher irradiances maintained a higher rate of carbon uptake at a particular stomatal conductance, implying that shaded seedlings have a lower water-use efficiency that is unrelated to water availability.

  9. WET MARS: plentiful, readily-available martian water and its implications

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Nuckolls, J; Whitehead, J; Wood, L

    1999-08-12

    Water and its major constituent, oxygen, in large specific quantities are essential for maintenance of human life. Providing them in adequate quantities is widely believed to be a major challenge for human Mars exploration and settlement. The Martian regolith isn't known to bear either water or hydrogen, the ice-rich Martian polar regions are thermally inhospitable, and the measured water content of Mars' thin atmosphere represents a layer of liquid water of average thickness only about 1% that of the Moon: {approximately}0.001 cm. Crucially, however, the atmospheric Martian water inventory is advected to everyplace on Mars by meteorological phenomena, so that the few cubic kilometers of liquid water-equivalent in the atmosphere are available most anywhere when, merely for the effort of condensing it. Well-engineered apparatus deployed essentially anywhere on Mars can condense water from the atmosphere in daily quantities not much smaller than its own mass, rejecting into space from radiators deployed over the local terrain the water's heat-of-condensation and the heat from non-ideality of the equipment's operation. Thus, an optimized, photovoltaically-powered 0.3 ton water-condensing system could strip 40 tons of water each year from {approximately}10{sup 4} times this mass of thin, dry Martian air. Given a 480 set I{sub sp} of H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} propulsion systems exhausting into the 6 millibar Mars-surface atmosphere and the 5.0 km/s Martian gravity well, {ge}40 tons of water two-thirds converted into 5:1 O{sub 2}/H{sub 2} cryogenic fuel could support exploration and loft a crew-of-four and their 8-ton ascent vehicle into Earth-return trajectory. The remaining water and excess oxygen would suffice for half-open-cycle life support for a year's stay on Mars. A Mars Expedition thus needs to land only explorers, dehydrated food, habitation gear and unfueled exploration I Earth-return equipment - and a water/oxygen/fuel plant with embedded power supply which operates

  10. Plant roots use a patterning mechanism to position lateral root branches toward available water

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yun; Aggarwal, Pooja; Robbins, Neil E.; Sturrock, Craig J.; Thompson, Mark C.; Tan, Han Qi; Tham, Cliff; Duan, Lina; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Vernoux, Teva; Mooney, Sacha J.; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Dinneny, José R.

    2014-01-01

    The architecture of the branched root system of plants is a major determinant of vigor. Water availability is known to impact root physiology and growth; however, the spatial scale at which this stimulus influences root architecture is poorly understood. Here we reveal that differences in the availability of water across the circumferential axis of the root create spatial cues that determine the position of lateral root branches. We show that roots of several plant species can distinguish between a wet surface and air environments and that this also impacts the patterning of root hairs, anthocyanins, and aerenchyma in a phenomenon we describe as hydropatterning. This environmental response is distinct from a touch response and requires available water to induce lateral roots along a contacted surface. X-ray microscale computed tomography and 3D reconstruction of soil-grown root systems demonstrate that such responses also occur under physiologically relevant conditions. Using early-stage lateral root markers, we show that hydropatterning acts before the initiation stage and likely determines the circumferential position at which lateral root founder cells are specified. Hydropatterning is independent of endogenous abscisic acid signaling, distinguishing it from a classic water-stress response. Higher water availability induces the biosynthesis and transport of the lateral root-inductive signal auxin through local regulation of TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS 1 and PIN-FORMED 3, both of which are necessary for normal hydropatterning. Our work suggests that water availability is sensed and interpreted at the suborgan level and locally patterns a wide variety of developmental processes in the root. PMID:24927545

  11. Methods for Quantifying Shallow-Water Habitat Availability in the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2012-04-09

    As part of regulatory requirements for shallow-water habitat (SWH) restoration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) completes periodic estimates of the quantity of SWH available throughout the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. To date, these estimates have been made by various methods that consider only the water depth criterion for SWH. The USACE has completed estimates of SWH availability based on both depth and velocity criteria at four river bends (hereafter called reference bends), encompassing approximately 8 river miles within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. These estimates were made from the results of hydraulic modeling of water depth and velocity throughout each bend. Hydraulic modeling of additional river bends is not expected to be completed for deriving estimates of available SWH. Instead, future estimates of SWH will be based on the water depth criterion. The objective of this project, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the USACE Omaha District, was to develop geographic information system methods for estimating the quantity of available SWH based on water depth only. Knowing that only a limited amount of water depth and channel geometry data would be available for all the remaining bends within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River, the intent was to determine what information, if any, from the four reference bends could be used to develop methods for estimating SWH at the remaining bends. Specifically, we examined the relationship between cross-section channel morphology and relative differences between SWH estimates based on combined depth and velocity criteria and the depth-only criterion to determine if a correction factor could be applied to estimates of SWH based on the depth-only criterion. In developing these methods, we also explored the applicability of two commonly used geographic information system interpolation methods (TIN and ANUDEM) for estimating SWH using four different elevation data

  12. Plant roots use a patterning mechanism to position lateral root branches toward available water.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yun; Aggarwal, Pooja; Robbins, Neil E; Sturrock, Craig J; Thompson, Mark C; Tan, Han Qi; Tham, Cliff; Duan, Lina; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Vernoux, Teva; Mooney, Sacha J; Bennett, Malcolm J; Dinneny, José R

    2014-06-24

    The architecture of the branched root system of plants is a major determinant of vigor. Water availability is known to impact root physiology and growth; however, the spatial scale at which this stimulus influences root architecture is poorly understood. Here we reveal that differences in the availability of water across the circumferential axis of the root create spatial cues that determine the position of lateral root branches. We show that roots of several plant species can distinguish between a wet surface and air environments and that this also impacts the patterning of root hairs, anthocyanins, and aerenchyma in a phenomenon we describe as hydropatterning. This environmental response is distinct from a touch response and requires available water to induce lateral roots along a contacted surface. X-ray microscale computed tomography and 3D reconstruction of soil-grown root systems demonstrate that such responses also occur under physiologically relevant conditions. Using early-stage lateral root markers, we show that hydropatterning acts before the initiation stage and likely determines the circumferential position at which lateral root founder cells are specified. Hydropatterning is independent of endogenous abscisic acid signaling, distinguishing it from a classic water-stress response. Higher water availability induces the biosynthesis and transport of the lateral root-inductive signal auxin through local regulation of tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis 1 and PIN-formed 3, both of which are necessary for normal hydropatterning. Our work suggests that water availability is sensed and interpreted at the suborgan level and locally patterns a wide variety of developmental processes in the root.

  13. A New Sensitive Bioassay for Determination of Microbially Available Phosphorus in Water

    PubMed Central

    Lehtola, Markku J.; Miettinen, Ilkka T.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Martikainen, Pertti J.

    1999-01-01

    The content of assimilable organic carbon has been proposed to control the growth of microbes in drinking water. However, recent results have shown that there are regions where it is predominantly phosphorus which determines the extent of microbial growth in drinking waters. Even a very low concentration of phosphorus (below 1 μg of P liter−1) can promote extensive microbial growth. We present here a new sensitive method to determine microbially available phosphorus concentrations in water down to 0.08 μg of P liter−1. The method is a bioassay in which the analysis of phosphorus in a water sample is based on maximum growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens P17 when the energy supply and inorganic nutrients, with the exception of phosphorus, do not limit bacterial growth. Maximum growth (CFU) in the water sample is related to the concentration of phosphorus with the factor 373,200 ± 9,400 CFU/μg of PO4-P. A linear relationship was found between cell growth and phosphorus concentration between 0.05 to 10 μg of PO4-P liter−1. The content of microbially available phosphorus in Finnish drinking waters varied from 0.1 to 10.2 μg of P liter−1 (median, 0.60 μg of P liter−1). PMID:10223996

  14. A Versatile Phenotyping System and Analytics Platform Reveals Diverse Temporal Responses to Water Availability in Setaria.

    PubMed

    Fahlgren, Noah; Feldman, Maximilian; Gehan, Malia A; Wilson, Melinda S; Shyu, Christine; Bryant, Douglas W; Hill, Steven T; McEntee, Colton J; Warnasooriya, Sankalpi N; Kumar, Indrajit; Ficor, Tracy; Turnipseed, Stephanie; Gilbert, Kerrigan B; Brutnell, Thomas P; Carrington, James C; Mockler, Todd C; Baxter, Ivan

    2015-10-05

    Phenotyping has become the rate-limiting step in using large-scale genomic data to understand and improve agricultural crops. Here, the Bellwether Phenotyping Platform for controlled-environment plant growth and automated multimodal phenotyping is described. The system has capacity for 1140 plants, which pass daily through stations to record fluorescence, near-infrared, and visible images. Plant Computer Vision (PlantCV) was developed as open-source, hardware platform-independent software for quantitative image analysis. In a 4-week experiment, wild Setaria viridis and domesticated Setaria italica had fundamentally different temporal responses to water availability. While both lines produced similar levels of biomass under limited water conditions, Setaria viridis maintained the same water-use efficiency under water replete conditions, while Setaria italica shifted to less efficient growth. Overall, the Bellwether Phenotyping Platform and PlantCV software detected significant effects of genotype and environment on height, biomass, water-use efficiency, color, plant architecture, and tissue water status traits. All ∼ 79,000 images acquired during the course of the experiment are publicly available.

  15. Water use and availability in the West Narragansett Bay area, coastal Rhode Island, 1995-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimiroski, Mark T.; Wild, Emily C.

    2006-01-01

    During the 1999 drought in Rhode Island, belowaverage precipitation caused a drop in ground-water levels and streamflow was below long-term averages. The low water levels prompted the U. S. Geological Survey and the Rhode Island Water Resources Board to conduct a series of cooperative water-use studies. The purpose of these studies is to collect and analyze water-use and water-availability data in each drainage area in the State of Rhode Island. The West Narragansett Bay study area, which covers 118 square miles in part or all of 14 towns in coastal Rhode Island, is one of nine areas investigated as part of this effort. The study area includes the western part of Narragansett Bay and Conanicut Island, which is the town of Jamestown. The area was divided into six subbasins for the assessment of water-use data. In the calculation of hydrologic budget and water availability, the Hunt, Annaquatucket, and Pettaquamscutt River Basins were combined into one subbasin because they are hydraulically connected. Eleven major water suppliers served customers in the study area, and they supplied an average of 19.301 million gallons per day during 1995–99. The withdrawals from the only minor supplier, which was in the town of East Greenwich in the Hunt River Basin, averaged 0.002 million gallons per day. The remaining withdrawals were estimated as 1.186 million gallons per day from self-supplied domestic, commercial, industrial, and agricultural users. Return flows from self-disposed water (individual sewage-disposal systems) and permitted discharges accounted for 5.623 million gallons per day. Most publicly disposed water (13.711 million gallons per day) was collected by the Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation, and by the East Greenwich, Fields Point, Jamestown, Narragansett, and Scarborough wastewater-treatment facilities. This wastewater was disposed in Narragansett Bay outside of the study area. The PART program, a computerized hydrograph-separation application

  16. Metal availability and bio-accessibility in water-logged soils: in vitro experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florido, M. C.; Madrid, F.; Madrid, L.; Ajmone-Marsan, F.

    2010-05-01

    Reducing conditions of submerged soils were simulated in vitro by keeping various soil samples for various times of reaction (between 1 and 15 days) in sealed flasks and N2 atmosphere under an aqueous solution, 0.01 M CaCl2 containing 1 g/l glucose. Surface samples of soils from urban green areas of Ljubljana (LJU), Torino (TOR) and Sevilla, were chosen. In the latter case, two samples of the same soil were included, before (SE-0) and after (SE-8) receiving a composted biosolid (two yearly doses of 80000 kg/ha) obtained from sewage sludge, often used as amendment by the Parks & Gardens Service of the local Government. A fifth soil (QUE) was chosen from the area affected by an accident where 2 million m3 of metal-rich mine tailings were spilled over the Guadiamar river (SW Spain) and its riparian areas. This highly polluted soil was included for comparison. Values of Eh, pH and several metal concentrations were determined in the solution after each time, and metal availability and bio-accessibility were estimated in the soils after treatment. The metals studied were Fe, Mn and some of those called 'urban' metals, namely Cu, Pb and Zn. The solution pH for LJU, TOR and SE-0 was slightly acidified in the first days and increased steadily afterwards. In contrast, QUE and SE-8 show pH increases from the beginning and a constant pH after 4-8 days. This agrees with the expected H+ consumption during reduction. Most soils show strong initial Eh decreases, subsequent slower increases up to 5-8 days and slow decreases afterwards. Solution Fe and Mn showed significant increases throughout the experiment, and Pb showed slight increases only up to 4 days. In contrast, other metals showed non-significant changes, and very low amounts were dissolved during the treatment. However, the amounts of available and, especially, bio-accessible urban metals in the solid phases were significantly increased by the treatment. Such increases may cause a greater leaching of metals to the water

  17. Geomorphic and biophysical factors affecting water tracks in northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trochim, E. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Prakash, A.; Kane, D. L.

    2016-03-01

    A better understanding of water movement on hillslopes in Arctic environments is necessary for evaluating the effects of climate variability. Drainage networks include a range of features that vary in transport capacity from rills to water tracks to rivers. This research focuses on describing and classifying water tracks, which are saturated linear-curvilinear stripes that act as first-order pathways for transporting water off of hillslopes into valley bottoms and streams. Multiple factor analysis was used to develop five water tracks classes based on their geomorphic, soil, and vegetation characteristics. The water track classes were then validated using conditional inference trees, to verify that the classes were repeatable. Analysis of the classes and their characteristics indicate that water tracks cover a broad spectrum of patterns and processes primarily driven by surficial geology. This research demonstrates an improved approach to quantifying water track characteristics for specific areas, which is a major step toward understanding hydrological processes and feedbacks within a region.

  18. Factors Affecting Atrazine Concentration and Quantitative Determination in Chlorinated Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the herbicide atrazine has been reported to not react measurably with free chlorine during drinking water treatment, this work demonstrates that at contact times consistent with drinking water distribution system residence times, a transformation of atrazine can be obser...

  19. Map showing general availability of ground water in the Salina quadrangle, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Don

    1972-01-01

    The general availability of ground water was determined from well records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State, local, and Federal agencies. Data are for aquifers that in most places are less than 1,000 feet below the land surface. In areas of few or no wells, potential well yields are inferred from geologic data. Special investigations are needed to determine specific factors such as depths and sustained yields of aquifers, water levels, and suitability of water for use in any given area. More detailed information about principal aquifers for specific parts of the map area are obtainable from the district office of the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, Utah.

  20. Estimation of underground river water availability based on rainfall in the Maros karst region, South Sulawesi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsyad, Muhammad; Ihsan, Nasrul; Tiwow, Vistarani Arini

    2016-02-01

    Maros karst region, covering an area of 43.750 hectares, has water resources that determine the life around it. Water resources in Maros karst are in the rock layers or river underground in the cave. The data used in this study are primary and secondary data. Primary data includes characteristics of the medium. Secondary data is rainfall data from BMKG, water discharge data from the PSDA, South Sulawesi province in 1990-2010, and the other characteristics data Maros karst, namely cave, flora and fauna of the Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park. Data analysis was conducted using laboratory test for medium characteristics Maros karst, rainfall and water discharge were analyzed using Minitab Program 1.5 to determine their profile. The average rainfall above 200 mm per year occurs in the range of 1999 to 2005. The availability of the water discharge at over 50 m3/s was happened in 1993 and 1995. Prediction was done by modeling Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), with the rainfall data shows that the average precipitation for four years (2011-2014) will sharply fluctuate. The prediction of water discharge in Maros karst region was done for the period from January to August in 2011, including the type of 0. In 2012, the addition of the water discharge started up in early 2014.

  1. Factors affecting ground-water quality in Oakland County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2004-01-01

    Ground water is water stored in pores within soil and rock beneath the land surface. When these pores are connected so that water can be transmitted to wells or springs, these bodies of soil and rock are termed aquifers, from two Greek words meaning “water” and “to bear.” 

  2. 76 FR 71967 - Marseilles Land & Water Company, IL; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Marseilles Land & Water Company, IL; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy...

  3. 75 FR 52523 - Southern Nevada Water Authority; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Nevada Water Authority; Notice of Availability of Environmental... Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations, 18 CFR Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office...

  4. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Availability on Nitrogen Contribution by the Legume, Lupinus argenteus Pursh.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen-fixing species contribute to ecosystem nitrogen budgets, but background resource levels influence nodulation, fixation, and plant growth. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine the separate and interacting effects of water and N availability on biomass production, tissue N concentr...

  5. Role of soil adsorption and microbial degradation on dissipation of mesotrione in plant available soil water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mesotrione is a carotenoid biosynthesis-inhibiting herbicide labeled for pre-emergence and post emergent weed control in corn production. Understanding the factors that influence the dissipation of mesotrione in soil and in the plant available water (PAW) is important for both the environmental fat...

  6. Evaluation of yield and reproductive efficiency in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under different available soil water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the responses to difference in available soil water levels for yield and reproductive characters of peanut genotypes and relate these responses to pod yield under drought conditions. Eleven peanut genotypes were tested under three soil moisture levels (Field Cap...

  7. Constraining root-zone soil water availability using data assimilation and satellite remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large-scale monitoring of root-zone soil water availability, and therefore the duration and extent of regional agricultural drought, has emerged as an important application for satellite remote sensing and figures heavily into plans for next-generation earth observing satellites. At present, three ...

  8. Construction of estimated flow- and load-duration curves for Kentucky using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unthank, Michael D.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Nelson, Hugh L.

    2012-01-01

    Flow- and load-duration curves were constructed from the model outputs of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) application for streams in Kentucky. The WATER application was designed to access multiple geospatial datasets to generate more than 60 years of statistically based streamflow data for Kentucky. The WATER application enables a user to graphically select a site on a stream and generate an estimated hydrograph and flow-duration curve for the watershed upstream of that point. The flow-duration curves are constructed by calculating the exceedance probability of the modeled daily streamflows. User-defined water-quality criteria and (or) sampling results can be loaded into the WATER application to construct load-duration curves that are based on the modeled streamflow results. Estimates of flow and streamflow statistics were derived from TOPographically Based Hydrological MODEL (TOPMODEL) simulations in the WATER application. A modified TOPMODEL code, SDP-TOPMODEL (Sinkhole Drainage Process-TOPMODEL) was used to simulate daily mean discharges over the period of record for 5 karst and 5 non-karst watersheds in Kentucky in order to verify the calibrated model. A statistical evaluation of the model's verification simulations show that calibration criteria, established by previous WATER application reports, were met thus insuring the model's ability to provide acceptably accurate estimates of discharge at gaged and ungaged sites throughout Kentucky. Flow-duration curves are constructed in the WATER application by calculating the exceedence probability of the modeled daily flow values. The flow-duration intervals are expressed as a percentage, with zero corresponding to the highest stream discharge in the streamflow record. Load-duration curves are constructed by applying the loading equation (Load = Flow*Water-quality criterion) at each flow interval.

  9. A risk-based framework for water resource management under changing water availability, policy options, and irrigation expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Long-term water resource management requires the capacity to evaluate alternative management options in the face of various sources of uncertainty in the future conditions of water resource systems. This study proposes a generic framework for determining the relative change in probabilistic characteristics of system performance as a result of changing water availability, policy options and irrigation expansion. These probabilistic characteristics can be considered to represent the risk of failure in the system performance due to the uncertainty in future conditions. Quantifying the relative change in the performance risk can provide a basis for understanding the effects of multiple changing conditions on the system behavior. This framework was applied to the water resource system of the Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada. A "bottom-up" flow reconstruction algorithm was used to generate multiple realizations for water availability within a feasible range of change in streamflow characteristics. Consistent with observed data and projected change in streamflow characteristics, the historical streamflow was perturbed to stochastically generate feasible future flow sequences, based on various combinations of changing annual flow volume and timing of the annual peak. In addition, five alternative policy options, with and without potential irrigation expansion, were considered. All configurations of water availability, policy decisions and irrigation expansion options were fed into a hydro-economic water resource system model to obtain empirical probability distributions for system performance - here overall and sectorial net benefits - under the considered changes. Results show that no one specific policy can provide the optimal option for water resource management under all flow conditions. In addition, it was found that the joint impacts of changing water availability, policy, and irrigation expansion on system performance are complex and

  10. Field scale spatio-temporal soil moisture variability for trafficability and crop water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carranza, Coleen; van der Ploeg, Martine; Ritsema, Coen

    2016-04-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns of soil moisture have been studied mostly for inputs in land surface models for weather and climate predictions. Remote sensing techniques for estimation of soil moisture have been explored because of the good spatial coverage at different scales. Current available satellite data provide surface soil moisture as microwave systems only measure soil moisture content up to 5cm soil depth. The OWAS1S project will focus on estimation of soil moisture from freely available Sentinel-1 datasets for operational water management in agricultural areas. As part of the project, it is essential to develop spatio-temporal methods to estimate root zone soil moisture from surface soil moisture. This will be used for crop water availability and trafficability in selected agricultural fields in the Netherlands. A network of single capacitance sensors installed per field will provide continuous measurements of soil moisture in the study area. Ground penetrating radar will be used to measure soil moisture variability within a single field for different time periods. During wetter months, optimal conditions for traffic will be assessed using simultaneous soil strength and soil moisture measurements. Towards water deficit periods, focus is on the relation (or the lack thereof) between surface soil moisture and root zone soil moisture to determine the amount of water for crops. Spatio-temporal distribution will determine important physical controls for surface and root zone soil moisture and provide insights for root-zone soil moisture. Existing models for field scale soil-water balance and data assimilation methods (e.g. Kalman filter) will be combined to estimate root zone soil moisture. Furthermore, effects of root development on soil structure and soil hydraulic properties and subsequent effects on trafficability and crop water availability will be investigated. This research project has recently started, therefore we want to present methods and framework of

  11. Estimated ground-water availability in the Delaware River basin, 1997-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Buxton, Debra E.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-water availability using a watershed-based approach was estimated for the 147 watersheds that make up the Delaware River Basin. This study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC), supports the DRBC's Water Resources Plan for the Delaware River Basin. Different procedures were used to estimate ground-water availability for the region underlain by fractured rocks in the upper part of the basin and for surficial aquifers in the region underlain by unconsolidated sediments in the lower part of the basin. The methodology is similar to that used for the Delaware River Basin Commission's Ground-Water Protected Area in Pennsylvania. For all watersheds, ground-water availability was equated to average annual base flow. Ground-water availability for the 109 watersheds underlain by fractured rocks in Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania was based on lithology and physiographic province. Lithology was generalized by grouping 183 geologic units into 14 categories on the basis of rock type and physiographic province. Twenty-three index streamflow-gaging stations were selected to represent the 14 categories. A base-flow-recurrence analysis was used to determine the average annual 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, and 50-year-recurrence intervals for each index station. A GIS analysis used lithology and base flow at the index stations to determine the average annual base flow for the 109 watersheds. Average annual base flow for these watersheds ranged from 0.313 to 0.915 million gallons per day per square mile for the 2-year-recurrence interval to 0.150 to 0.505 million gallons per day per square mile for the 50-year-recurrence interval. Ground-water availability for watersheds underlain by unconsolidated surficial aquifers was based on predominant surficial geology and land use, which were determined from statistical tests to be the most significant controlling factors of base flow. Twenty-one index streamflow

  12. Records available to September 30, 1956, on use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, John C.

    1957-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize data on the use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area (fig. 2) and to list the principal data sources that are available in published form. The tables and bibliography will assist Geological Survey personnel assigned to the Delaware Basin Project in evaluating the scope and deficiencies of previous studies of the basin. Information is also given on the use of water by public supplies in the New York-New Jersey region comprising the New York City Metropolitan Area and in the remaining north-central and south-eastern parts of New Jersey. These regions may depend increasingly on water from the Delaware River basin for part of their public supplies. The Geological Survey has the responsibility for appraising and describing the water resources of the Nation as a guide to use, development, control, and conservation of these resources. Cooperative Federal-State water-resources investigations in the Delaware Basin States have been carried on the the Geological Survey for more than 50 years. In July 1956 the Survey began the "Delaware Basin Project," a hydrologic study of the Delaware River basin in order to: 1) Determine present status and trends in water availability, quality, and use, 2) assess and improve the adequacy of the Survey's basic water data program in the basin, 3) interpret and evaluate the water-resources data in terms of past and possible future water-use and land-use practices, and 4) disseminate promptly the results of this investigation for the benefit of all interested agencies and the general public. The Geological Survey is working closely with the U.S. Corps of Engineers and other cooperating Federal and State agencies in providing water data which will contribute to the present coordinated investigation aimed at developing a plan for long-range water development in the Delaware River basin. Estimates of quantities of water used are given for water withdrawn from streams and aquifers during calendar

  13. Factors affecting availability of essential medicines among community health workers in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda: solving the last mile puzzle.

    PubMed

    Chandani, Yasmin; Noel, Megan; Pomeroy, Amanda; Andersson, Sarah; Pahl, Michelle K; Williams, Timothy

    2012-11-01

    To understand how supply chain factors affect product availability at the community level, the Improving Supply Chains for Community Case Management of Pneumonia and Other Common Diseases of Childhood Project developed a theory of change (TOC) framework for gathering, organizing, and interpreting evidence about supply constraints to community case management (CCM). Baseline assessments in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda conducted in 2010 provided information on the strengths and weaknesses of existing CCM supply chains for five main products: antibiotics for pneumonia, oral rehydration solution, ready to use therapeutic food, zinc, and artemether/lumefantrine. The assessments tested the strength and validity of causal pathways identified in the TOC that were believed to influence availability of CCM products among community health workers (CHWs) for treating common childhood illnesses. Results of the assessments showed product availability to be weak in each country, with more than half of CHWs stocked out of at least one tracer product on the day of the assessment. This report will focus on the findings related to three key preconditions of the TOC and how these were used to inform the design of the CCM supply chain improvement strategy in each country. The three key preconditions include product availability at CHW resupply points, supply chain knowledge and capacity among CHWs and their supervisors, and availability of appropriate transportation.

  14. Observed changes in surface water availability in the Indian sub-continental River basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, V.; Shah, H. L.

    2015-12-01

    We examined long-term (1901-2012) changes in the hydroclimatic variables in the 18 Indian sub-continental basins. Between 1950 and 2012, a significant decline in the monsoon season (June to September) precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET), and total runoff was observed in many sub-continental river basins that are key to water availability in the one of the most populated regions (e.g. Central India) in the world. On the other hand, significant increases in precipitation, ET, and total runoff were noticed in majority of the basins during the period of 1901-1949, which highlight a diametric nature in changes in the surface water availability. The central Indian region where the changes in surface water availability were more prominent experienced an increase (decline) of 19 (-8) % in total runoff and 8 (-6) % in ET during the pre (post) 1950 periods. While the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Mahanadi, Narmada, and Godavari river basins experienced declines in the monsoon season precipitation, ET, and total runoff, a significant increase in air temperature was noticed in 15 out of 18 sub-continental basins during the period of 1950-2012. Sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indian Ocean increased more than 1.0ºC during the period of 1950-2012, which is strongly associated with the declining trends in surface water availability in the sub-continental river basins. Moreover, SST variability in the Indian Ocean is associated with the diametric changes during the pre and post-1950 in water availability in the central India.

  15. Research on Outer Factor Affecting the Freezing of Supercooled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Akio; Okawa, Seiji; Une, Hiroshi; Tanogashira, Ken'ichi; Tojiki, Akira

    In relation to the problem of supercooling for ice storage devices, various kinds of experiments were carried out to find some factors which control the supercooling phenomenon. Convection due to rotating solid in water, stirring, vibration, shock, rubbing glass with glass in water and collision of solid in water were selected as outer factors. It was found that factors such as convection, stirring, vibration, non-contacting shock have no effect on freezing supercooled water. They seem to be just adding some positive energy to water. On the other hand, collision or rubbing between solids or solid and liquid surface helps supercooled water to freeze. We believe that making water molecules closer to each other, whose motion were restricted by solid or liquid surface, induce the growth of ice embryo.

  16. Ground-Water Availability from the Hawi Aquifer in the Kohala Area, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Underwood, Mark R.; Meyer, William; Souza, William R.

    1995-01-01

    A ground-water study consisting of test-well drilling, aquifer tests, and numerical simulation was done to investigate ground-water availability in the basal part of the Hawi aquifer between the western drainage divide of Pololu Valley and Upolu Point in Kohala, Hawaii. The test-well drilling provided information on geology, water levels, water quality, vertical extent of the freshwater, and the thickness of the freshwater-saltwater transition zone in that aquifer. A total of 12 test wells were drilled at eight locations. Aquifer tests were done at five locations to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. Using information on the distribution of recharge, vertical extent of freshwater, hydraulic conductivity, and geometry of the basal aquifer, a numerical model was used to simulate the movement of water into, through, and out of the basal aquifer, and the effect of additional pumping on the water levels in the aquifer. Results of the modeling indicate that ground-water withdrawal of 20 million gallons per day above the existing withdrawal of 0.6 million gallons per day from the basal aquifer is hydrologically feasible, but that spacing, depth, and pumping rates of individual wells are important. If pumping is concentrated, the likelihood of saltwater intrusion is increased. The additional withdrawal of 20 million gallons per day would result in a reduction of ground-water discharge to the ocean by an amount equal to pumpage. Although model-calculated declines in water-level outside the area of pumping are small, pumping could cause some reduction of streamflow near the mouth of Pololu Stream.

  17. Plant water use affects competition for nitrogen: why drought favors invasive species in California.

    PubMed

    Everard, Katherine; Seabloom, Eric W; Harpole, W Stanley; de Mazancourt, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Classic resource competition theory typically treats resource supply rates as independent; however, nutrient supplies can be affected by plants indirectly, with important consequences for model predictions. We demonstrate this general phenomenon by using a model in which competition for nitrogen is mediated by soil moisture, with competitive outcomes including coexistence and multiple stable states as well as competitive exclusion. In the model, soil moisture regulates nitrogen availability through soil moisture dependence of microbial processes, leaching, and plant uptake. By affecting water availability, plants also indirectly affect nitrogen availability and may therefore alter the competitive outcome. Exotic annual species from the Mediterranean have displaced much of the native perennial grasses in California. Nitrogen and water have been shown to be potentially limiting in this system. We parameterize the model for a Californian grassland and show that soil moisture-mediated competition for nitrogen can explain the annual species' dominance in drier areas, with coexistence expected in wetter regions. These results are concordant with larger biogeographic patterns of grassland invasion in the Pacific states of the United States, in which annual grasses have invaded most of the hot, dry grasslands in California but perennial grasses dominate the moister prairies of northern California, Oregon, and Washington.

  18. Uncertainty and urban water recharge for managing groundwater availability using decision support.

    PubMed

    Passarello, M C; Pierce, S A; Sharp, J M

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying groundwater availability depends upon sound methods and the use of integrated models. To determine availability or sustainable yield, the influence of scientific uncertainty from key sources, such as anthropogenic recharge, must be considered. This study evaluates uncertainty in recharge interpretations on the modeled available water balance for an urban case in Texas, USA. Analyses are completed using the Groundwater Decision Support System, which is a research code-base for an integrated modeling. The case study develops spatially and temporally resolved recharge interpretations based on NEXRAD precipitation and detailed land use data. Results demonstrate the implications of scientific uncertainty as it influences recommendations for policy and urban water management decisions that are based on modeled outputs. Geospatial methods account for spatial and temporal components and can be replicated for other systems. These methods are also useful for resolving uncertainty in relation to the influence of urbanization on recharge through land use change.

  19. Aggregating available soil water holding capacity data for crop yield models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seubert, C. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Holt, D. A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The total amount of water available to plants that is held against gravity in a soil is usually estimated as the amount present at -0.03 MPa average water potential minus the amount present at -1.5 MPa water potential. This value, designated available water-holding capacity (AWHC), is a very important soil characteristic that is strongly and positively correlated to the inherent productivity of soils. In various applications, including assessing soil moisture status over large areas, it is necessary to group soil types or series as to their productivity. Current methods to classify AWHC of soils consider only total capacity of soil profiles and thus may group together soils which differ greatly in AWHC as a function of depth in the profile. A general approach for evaluating quantitatively the multidimensional nature of AWHC in soils is described. Data for 902 soil profiles, representing 184 soil series, in Indiana were obtained from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at Purdue University. The AWHC for each of ten 150-mm layers in each soil was established, based on soil texture and parent material. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to classify each soil profile into one of 4, 8, or 12 classes based upon ten-dimensional AWHC values. The optimum number of classes depends on the range of AWHC in the population of oil profiles analyzed and on the sensitivity of a crop to differences in distribution of water within the soil profile.

  20. Map showing general availability of ground water in the Kaiparowits coal-basin area, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Don

    1977-01-01

    This is one of a series of maps that describe the geology and related natural resources in the Kaiparowits coal-basin area. This map is based partly on records of water wells, springs, and coal and petroleum exploration holes, partly on unpublished reports of field evaluations of prospective stock-water well sites by personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey, and partly on a 6-day field reconnaissance by the writer in parts of the mapped area.Most of the data used to compile this map were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, local, and other Federal agencies. Published sources of data included Phoenix (1963), Iorns, Hembree, and Phoenix (1964), Cooley (1965), Feltis (1966), Goode (1966, 1969), and the final environmental impact statement for the proposed Kaiparowits power project (U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 1976).Few data about the availability or depth of ground water could be obtained for large areas in the Kaiparowits coal basin. In those areas, expected yields of individual wells are inferred from the geology as compiled by Stokes (1964) and Hackman and Wyant (1973), and depths of ground water in wells are inferred largely from the local topography.El Paso Natural Gas Co., Resources Co., Kaiser Engineers, and Southern California Edison Co. provided specific information regarding the availability and depth of ground water in their exploratory holes on the Kaiparowits Plateau. The cooperation of those firms is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Influences of climate change on water resources availability in Jinjiang Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenchao; Wang, Jie; Li, Zhanjie; Yao, Xiaolei; Yu, Jingshan

    2014-01-01

    The influences of climate change on water resources availability in Jinjiang Basin, China, were assessed using the Block-wise use of the TOPmodel with the Muskingum-Cunge routing method (BTOPMC) distributed hydrological model. The ensemble average of downscaled output from sixteen GCMs (General Circulation Models) for A1B emission scenario (medium CO2 emission) in the 2050s was adopted to build regional climate change scenario. The projected precipitation and temperature data were used to drive BTOPMC for predicting hydrological changes in the 2050s. Results show that evapotranspiration will increase in most time of a year. Runoff in summer to early autumn exhibits an increasing trend, while in the rest period of a year it shows a decreasing trend, especially in spring season. From the viewpoint of water resource availability, it is indicated that it has the possibility that water resources may not be sufficient to fulfill irrigation water demand in the spring season and one possible solution is to store more water in the reservoir in previous summer.

  2. Influences of Climate Change on Water Resources Availability in Jinjiang Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Li, Zhanjie; Yao, Xiaolei

    2014-01-01

    The influences of climate change on water resources availability in Jinjiang Basin, China, were assessed using the Block-wise use of the TOPmodel with the Muskingum-Cunge routing method (BTOPMC) distributed hydrological model. The ensemble average of downscaled output from sixteen GCMs (General Circulation Models) for A1B emission scenario (medium CO2 emission) in the 2050s was adopted to build regional climate change scenario. The projected precipitation and temperature data were used to drive BTOPMC for predicting hydrological changes in the 2050s. Results show that evapotranspiration will increase in most time of a year. Runoff in summer to early autumn exhibits an increasing trend, while in the rest period of a year it shows a decreasing trend, especially in spring season. From the viewpoint of water resource availability, it is indicated that it has the possibility that water resources may not be sufficient to fulfill irrigation water demand in the spring season and one possible solution is to store more water in the reservoir in previous summer. PMID:24701192

  3. A Framework Predicting Water Availability in a Rapidly Growing, Semi-Arid Region under Future Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, B.; Benner, S. G.; Glenn, N. F.; Lindquist, E.; Dahal, K. R.; Bolte, J.; Vache, K. B.; Flores, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change can lead to dramatic variations in hydrologic regime, affecting both surface water and groundwater supply. This effect is most significant in populated semi-arid regions where water availability are highly sensitive to climate-induced outcomes. However, predicting water availability at regional scales, while resolving some of the key internal variability and structure in semi-arid regions is difficult due to the highly non-linearity relationship between rainfall and runoff. In this study, we describe the development of a modeling framework to evaluate future water availability that captures elements of the coupled response of the biophysical system to climate change and human systems. The framework is built under the Envision multi-agent simulation tool, characterizing the spatial patterns of water demand in the semi-arid Treasure Valley area of Southwest Idaho - a rapidly developing socio-ecological system where urban growth is displacing agricultural production. The semi-conceptual HBV model, a population growth and allocation model (Target), a vegetation state and transition model (SSTM), and a statistically based fire disturbance model (SpatialAllocator) are integrated to simulate hydrology, population and land use. Six alternative scenarios are composed by combining two climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) with three population growth and allocation scenarios (Status Quo, Managed Growth, and Unconstrained Growth). Five-year calibration and validation performances are assessed with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. Irrigation activities are simulated using local water rights. Results show that in all scenarios, annual mean stream flow decreases as the projected rainfall increases because the projected warmer climate also enhances water losses to evapotranspiration. Seasonal maximum stream flow tends to occur earlier than in current conditions due to the earlier peak of snow melting. The aridity index and water deficit generally increase in the

  4. Development of the Metropolitan Water Availability Index (MWAI) and short-term assessment with multi-scale remote sensing technologies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Goodrich, James A; Daranpob, Ammarin

    2010-06-01

    Global climate change will influence environmental conditions including temperature, surface radiation, soil moisture, and sea level, and it will also significantly impact regional-scale hydrologic processes such as evapotranspiration (ET), precipitation, runoff, and snowmelt. The quantity and quality of water available for drinking and other domestic usage is also likely to be affected by changes in these processes. Consequently, it is necessary to assess and reflect upon the challenges ahead for water infrastructure and the general public in metropolitan regions. One approach to the problem is to use index-based assessment, forecasting and planning. The drought indices previously developed were not developed for domestic water supplies, and thus are insufficient for the purpose of such an assessment. This paper aims to propose and develop a "Metropolitan Water Availability Index (MWAI)" to assess the status of both the quantity and quality of available potable water sources diverted from the hydrologic cycle in a metropolitan region. In this approach, the accessible water may be expressed as volume per month or week (i.e., m(3)/month or m(3)/week) relative to a prescribed historical record, and such a trend analysis may result in final MWAI values ranging from -1 to +1 for regional water management decision making. The MWAI computation uses data and information from both historical point measurements and spatial remote-sensing based monitoring. Variables such as precipitation, river discharge, and water quality changes at drinking water plant intakes at specific locations are past "point" measurements in MWAI calculations. On the other hand, remote sensing provides information on both spatial and temporal distributions of key variables. Examples of remote-sensing images and sensor network technologies are in-situ sensor networks, ground-based radar, air-borne aircraft, and even space-borne satellites. A case study in Tampa Bay, Florida is described to demonstrate

  5. Water use and availability in the Woonasquatucket and Moshassuck River basins, north-central Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimiroski, Mark T.; Wild, Emily C.

    2005-01-01

    The Woonasquatucket River Basin includes 51.0 square miles, and the Moshassuck River Basin includes 23.8 square miles in north-central Rhode Island. The study area comprises these two basins. The two basins border each other with the Moshassuck River Basin to the northeast of the Woonasquatucket River Basin. Seven towns are in the Woonasquatucket River Basin, and six towns are in the Moshassuck River Basin. To determine the water use and availability in the study area, water supply and discharge data were collected for these river basins for the 1995–99 period, and compared to estimated long-term water available. The study area is unique in the State of Rhode Island, because no withdrawals from major public suppliers were made during the study period. Withdrawals were, therefore, limited to self-supplied domestic use, two minor suppliers, and one self-supplied industrial user. Because no metered data were available, the summer water withdrawals were assumed to be the same as the estimates for the rest of the year. Seven major water suppliers distribute an average of 17.564 million gallons per day for use in the study area from sources outside of the study area. The withdrawals from minor water suppliers were 0.017 million gallons per day in the study area, all in the town of Smithfield in the Woonasquatucket River Basin. The remaining withdrawals in the study area were estimated to be 0.731 million gallons per day by self-supplied domestic, commercial, industrial, and agricultural users. Return flows in the study area included self-disposed water and disposal from permitted dischargers, including the Smithfield Sewage Treatment Plant. Return flows accounted for 4.116 million gallons per day in the study area. Most public-disposed water (15.195 million gallons per day) is collected by the Narragansett Bay Commission and is disposed outside of the basin in Narragansett Bay. The PART program, a computerized hydrograph-separation application, was used at one index

  6. Factors Affecting Water Quality in Selected Carbonate Aquifers in the United States,1993-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Berndt, Marian P.; Katz, Brian G.; Ardis, Ann F.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Carbonate aquifers are an important source of water in the United States; however, these aquifers can be particularly susceptible to contamination from the land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program collected samples from wells and springs in 12 carbonate aquifers across the country during 1993-2005; water-quality results for 1,042 samples were available to assess the factors affecting ground-water quality. These aquifers represent a wide range of climate, land-use types, degrees of confinement, and other characteristics that were compared and evaluated to assess the effect of those factors on water quality. Differences and similarities among the aquifers were also identified. Samples were analyzed for major ions, radon, nutrients, 47 pesticides, and 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Geochemical analysis helped to identify dominant processes that may contribute to the differences in aquifer susceptibility to anthropogenic contamination. Differences in concentrations of dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon and in ground-water age were directly related to the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants. Other geochemical indicators, such as mineral saturation indexes and calcium-magnesium molar ratio, were used to infer residence time, an indirect indicator of potential for anthropogenic contamination. Radon exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 300 picocuries per liter in 423 of 735 wells sampled, of which 309 were drinking-water wells. In general, land use, oxidation-reduction (redox) status, and degree of aquifer confinement were the most important factors affecting the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants. Although none of these factors individually accounts for all the variation in water quality among the aquifers, a combination of these characteristics accounts for the majority of the variation. Unconfined carbonate aquifers that had high

  7. Availability of ground water in the Blackstone River area Rhode Island and Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, Herbert E.; Dickerman, David C.

    1974-01-01

    determine streambed infiltration rates; chemical analyses of 92 ground-water and 15 stream-water samples; and geologic mapping. Selected base data are published in a separate (Johnston and Dickerman, in press). The authors are indebted to well drillers, especially American Drilling and Boring Company, R.E. Chapman Company, and Layne New England Company, for making their records available; to the water departments of the towns of Cumberland and Lincoln, for allowing aquifer tests of their well fields; to the Rhode Island Department of Health, for providing data on water quality and use; and to many other federal, state, and municipal agencies, companies, and individuals who supplied information. Their contributions are gratefully acknowledged.

  8. Survey and Assessment of Available Measurements on Thermodynamic Properties of the Mixture {Water + Ammonia}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillner-Roth, Reiner; Friend, Daniel G.

    1998-01-01

    Mixtures of water and ammonia play an important role in absorption refrigeration cycles and have received attention as working fluids in modern power generation cycles. For design and simulations during the development of any application, the thermodynamic properties have to be known accurately. Measurements of available thermodynamic data are compiled and summarized. The data sets are compared, using a Helmholtz free energy formulation. Recommendations are given for which data sets are suited to serve as a basis for an equation of state formulation of the thermodynamic properties of {water+ammonia}. Gaps in the database are shown to give experimenters orientation for future research.

  9. Reassessment of Ground-Water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2002-01-01

    An estimate of ground-water availability in the Hawi area of north Kohala, Hawaii, is needed to determine whether ground-water resources are adequate to meet future demand within the area and other areas to the south. For the Hawi area, estimated average annual recharge from infiltration of rainfall, fog drip, and irrigation is 37.5 million gallons per day from a daily water budget. Low and high annual recharge estimates for the Hawi area that incorporate estimated uncertainty are 19.9 and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively. The recharge estimates from this study are lower than the recharge of 68.4 million gallons per day previously estimated from a monthly water budget. Three ground-water models, using the low, intermediate, and high recharge estimates (19.9, 37.5, and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively), were developed for the Hawi area to simulate ground-water levels and discharges for the 1990?s. To assess potential ground-water availability, the numerical ground-water flow models were used to simulate the response of the freshwater-lens system to withdrawals at rates in excess of the average 1990?s withdrawal rates. Because of uncertainty in the recharge estimate, estimates of ground-water availability also are uncertain. Results from numerical simulations indicate that for appropriate well sites, depths, and withdrawal rates (1) for the low recharge estimate (19.9 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 10 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 160 feet near the withdrawal sites, (2) for the intermediate recharge estimate (37.5 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 15 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 190 feet near the withdrawal sites, and (3) for the high recharge estimate (55.4 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop at

  10. Availability of ground water in the lower Pawcatuck River basin, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonthier, Joseph B.; Johnston, Herbert E.; Malmberg, Glenn T.

    1974-01-01

    The lower Pawcatuck River basin in southwestern Rhode Island is an area of about 169 square miles underlain by crystalline bedrock over which lies a relatively thin mantle of glacial till and stratified drift. Stratified drift, consisting dominantly of sand and gravel, occurs in irregularly shaped linear deposits that are generally less than a mile wide and less than 125 feet thick; these deposits are found along the Pawcatuck River, its tributaries, and abandoned preglacial channels. Deposits of stratified sand and gravel constitute the principal aquifer in the lower Pawcatuck basin and the only one capable of sustaining yields of 100 gallons per minute or more to individual wells. Water available for development in this aquifer consists of water in storage--potential ground-water runoff to streams--plus infiltration that can be induced from streams. Minimum annual ground-water runoff from the sand and gravel aquifer is calculated to be at least 1.17 cubic feet per second per square mile, or 0.76 million gallons per day per square mile. Potential recharge by induced infiltration is estimated to range from about 250 to 600 gallons per day per linear foot of streambed for the principal streams. In most areas, induced infiltration from streams constitutes the major source of water potentially available for development by wells. Because subsurface hydraulic connection in the sand and gravel aquifer is poor in several places, the deposits are conveniently divisible into several ground-water reservoirs. The potential yield from five of the most promising ground-water reservoirs is evaluated by means of mathematical models. Results indicate that continuous withdrawals ranging from 1.3 to 10.3 million gallons per day, and totaling 31 million gallons per day, are obtainable from these reservoirs. Larger yields may be recovered by different well placement, spacing, construction and development, pumping practice, and so forth. Withdrawals at the rates indicated will reduce

  11. Water-supply options in arsenic-affected regions in Cambodia: targeting the bottom income quintiles.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Jim F; Sabatini, David A

    2014-08-01

    In arsenic-affected regions of Cambodia, rural water committees and planners can choose to promote various arsenic-avoidance and/or arsenic-removal water supply systems. Each of these has different costs of providing water, subsequently born by the consumer in order to be sustainable. On a volumetric basis ($/m3-yr) and of the arsenic-avoidance options considered, small-scale public water supply - e.g., treated water provided to a central tap stand - is the most expensive option on a life-cycle cost basis. Rainwater harvesting, protected hand dug wells, and vendor-supplied water are the cheapest with a normalized present worth value, ranging from $2 to $10 per cubic meter per year of water delivered. Subsidization of capital costs is needed to make even these options affordable to the lowest (Q5) quintile. The range of arsenic-removal systems considered here, using adsorptive media, is competitive with large-scale public water supply and deep tube well systems. Both community level and household-scale systems are in a range that is affordable to the Q4 quintile, though more research and field trials are needed. At a target cost of $5.00/m3, arsenic removal systems will compete with the OpEx costs for most of the arsenic-safe water systems that are currently available. The life-cycle cost approach is a valuable method for comparing alternatives and for assessing current water supply practices as these relate to equity and the ability to pay.

  12. Whitebark pine mortality related to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreak, and water availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thoma, David P.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Ray, Andrew; Legg, Kristin; Shovic, Henry

    2016-01-01

    efforts. Using tree-level observations, the National Park Service-led Greater Yellowstone Interagency Whitebark Pine Long-term Monitoring Program provided important ecological insight on the size-dependent effects of white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle, and water availability on whitebark pine mortality. This ongoing monitoring campaign will continue to offer observations that advance conservation in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

  13. Summary of resources available to small water systems for meeting the 10 ppb arsenic drinking water limit.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Thomson, Bruce M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Ziegler, Matt (New Mexico Tech, Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Susan (New Mexico Tech, Albuquerque, NM); Himmelberger, Heather (New Mexico Tech, Albuquerque, NM); Holt, Kathleen Caroline

    2007-01-01

    With the lowering of the EPA maximum contaminant level of arsenic from 50 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 ppb, many public water systems in the country and in New Mexico in particular, are faced with making decisions about how to bring their system into compliance. This document provides detail on the options available to the water systems and the steps they need to take to achieve compliance with this regulation. Additionally, this document provides extensive resources and reference information for additional outreach support, financing options, vendors for treatment systems, and media pilot project results.

  14. WET MARS: Plentiful, Readily-Available Martian Water and its Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.; Ishikawa, M.; Nuckolls, J.; Whitehead, J.; Wood, L.

    1999-09-14

    Water and its major constituent, oxygen, in large specific quantities are essential for maintenance of human life. Providing them in adequate quantities is widely believed to be a major challenge for human exploration and settlement of Mars. The Martian regolith isn't known to bear either water or hydrogen, the ice-rich Martian polar regions are thermally inhospitable, and the measured water content of Mars' thin atmosphere represents a layer of liquid water of average thickness only {approx}1% that available on the Moon, or {approx}0.001 cm. Crucially, however, the atmospheric Martian water inventory is advected meteorologically to everyplace on Mars, so that the few cubic kilometers of liquid water-equivalent in the atmosphere are available anywhere when, merely for the effort of condensing it. Well-engineered apparatus deployed essentially anywhere on Mars can condense water from the atmosphere in daily quantities not much smaller than its own mass, rejecting into space from radiators deployed over the local terrain the water's heat-of-condensation and the heat from non-ideality of the equipment's operation. Thus, an optimized, photovoltaically-powered water-condensing system of {approx}0.3 tons mass could strip 40 tons of water each year from {approx} 10{sup 4} times this mass of thin, dry Martian air. Given a 490 set I{sup sp} of H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} propulsion systems exhausting into the 6 millibar Mars-surface atmosphere and the 5.0 km/s Martian gravity well, {approx}40 tons of water two-thirds converted into 5:1 O{sub 2}/H{sub 2} cryogenic fuel could support exploration and loft a crew-of-four and their 8-ton ascent vehicle into Earth-return trajectory. The remaining H{sub 2}O and excess O{sub 2} would suffice for half-open-cycle life support for a year's exploration-intensive stay on Mars. A Mars Expedition thus needs to land only explorers, dehydrated food, habitation gear and unfueled exploration/Earth-return equipment--and a water/oxygen/fuel plant

  15. NASA Land Information System (LIS) Water Availability to Support Reclamation ET Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David; Arsenault, Kristi; Pinheiro, Ana; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Houser, Paul; Kumar, Sujay; Engman, Ted; Nigro, Joe; Triggs, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation identified the remote sensing of evapotranspiration (ET) as an important water flux for study and designated a test site in the Lower Colorado River basin. A consortium of groups will work together with the goal to develop more accurate and cost effective techniques using the enhanced spatial and temporal coverage afforded by remote sensing. ET is a critical water loss flux where improved estimation should lead to better management of Reclamation responsibilities. There are several areas where NASA satellite and modeling data may be useful to meet Reclamation's objectives for improved ET estimation. In this paper we outline one possible contribution to use NASA's data integration capability of the Land Information System (LIS) to provide a merger of observational (in situ and satellite) with physical process models to provide estimates of ET and other water availability outputs (e.g., runoff, soil moisture) retrospectively, in near real-time, and also providing short-term predictions.

  16. DO AUTOCHTHONOUS BACTERIA AFFECT GIARDIA CYST SURVIVAL IN NATURAL WATERS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giardia lamblia survives in and is transmitted to susceptible human and animal populations via water, where it is present in an environmentally resistant cyst form. Previous research has highlighted the importance of water temperature in cyst survival, and has also suggested the ...

  17. Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

  18. How Do Our Actions Affect Water Quantity and Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Water is an essential resource for all living things. How we live on our watershed can impact water quantity and quality. It is important to recognize how humans alter watershed dynamics, but students often find it challenging to visualize watershed processes and understand how decisions that they make as individuals and together as a community…

  19. 76 FR 79176 - Notice of Availability of Draft Recreational Water Quality Criteria and Request for Scientific Views

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... AGENCY Notice of Availability of Draft Recreational Water Quality Criteria and Request for Scientific... availability of the draft document Recreational Water Quality Criteria (RWQC). The document contains the EPA's draft ambient water quality criteria recommendations for protecting human health in ambient waters...

  20. Microbial H2 cycling does not affect δ2H values of ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Stable hydrogen-isotope values of ground water (δ2H) and dissolved hydrogen concentrations (H(2(aq)) were quantified in a petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer to determine whether the production/consumption of H2 by subsurface microorganisms affects ground water &delta2H values. The range of &delta2H observed in monitoring wells sampled (-27.8 ‰c to -15.5 ‰c) was best explained, however, by seasonal differences in recharge temperature as indicated using ground water δ18O values, rather than isotopic exchange reactions involving the microbial cycling of H2 during anaerobic petroleum-hydrocarbon biodegradation. The absence of a measurable hydrogen-isotope exchange between microbially cycled H2 and ground water reflects the fact that the amount of H2 available from the anaerobic decomposition of petroleum hydrocarbons is small relative to the amount of hydrogen present in water, even though milligram per liter concentrations of readily biodegradable contaminants are present at the study site. Additionally, isotopic fractionation calculations indicate that in order for H2 cycling processes to affect δ2H values of ground water, relatively high concentrations of H2 (>0.080 M) would have to be maintained, considerably higher than the 0.2 to 26 nM present at this site and characteristic of anaerobic conditions in general. These observations suggest that the conventional approach of using δ2H and δ18O values to determine recharge history is appropriate even for those ground water systems characterized by anaerobic conditions and extensive microbial H2 cycling.

  1. Future water availability in North African dams simulated by high-resolution regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramblay, Yves; Jarlan, Lionel; Hanich, Lahoucine; Somot, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    In North Africa, the countries of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia are already experiencing water scarcity and a strong interannual variability of precipitation. To better manage their existing water resources, several dams and reservoirs have been built on most large river catchments. The objective of this study is to provide quantitative scenarios of future changes in water availability for the 47 major dams and reservoirs catchments located in North Africa. An ensemble of regional climate models (RCM) with a spatial resolution of 12km, driven by different general circulation models (GCM), from the EuroCORDEX experiment have been considered to analyze the projected changes on temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) for two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and two time horizons (2040-2065 and 2065-2090). PET is estimated from RCM outputs either with the FAO-Penman-Monteith (PM) equation, requiring air temperature, relative humidity, net radiation and wind, or with the Hargreave Samani (HS) equation, requiring only air temperature. The water balance is analyzed by comparing the climatic demand and supply of water, considering that for most of these catchments groundwater storage is negligible over long time periods. Results indicated a future temperature increase for all catchments between +1.8° and +4.2°, depending on the emission scenario and the time period considered. Precipitation is projected to decrease between -14% to -27%, mainly in winter and spring, with a strong East to West gradient. PET computed from PM or HS formulas provided very similar estimates and projections, ranging between +7% to +18%. Changes in PET are mostly driven by rising temperatures and are greatest during dry summer months than for the wet winter season. Therefore the increased PET has a lower impact than declining precipitation on future water availability, which is expected to decrease by -19% to -33% on average.

  2. Hydrologic modeling for monitoring water availability in Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, A.; Getirana, A.; Arsenault, K. R.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Drought impacts water resources required by crops and communities, in turn threatening lives and livelihoods. Early warning systems, which rely on inputs from hydro-climate models, are used to help manage risk and provide humanitarian assistance to the right place at the right time. However, translating advancements in hydro-climate science into action is a persistent and time-consuming challenge: scientists and decision-makers need to work together to enhance the salience, credibility, and legitimacy of the hydrological data products being produced. One organization that tackles this challenge is the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), which has been using evidence-based approaches to address food security since the 1980s.In this presentation, we describe the FEWS NET Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), developed by FEWS NET and NASA hydrologic scientists to maximize the use of limited hydro-climatic observations for humanitarian applications. The FLDAS, an instance of the NASA Land Information System (LIS), is comprised of land surface models driven by satellite rainfall inputs already familiar to FEWS NET food security analysts. First, we evaluate the quality of model outputs over parts of the Middle East and Africa using remotely sensed soil moisture and vegetation indices. We then describe derived water availability indices that have been identified by analysts as potentially useful sources of information. Specifically, we demonstrate how the Baseline Water Stress and Drought Severity Index detect recent water availability crisis events in the Tigris-Euphrates Basin and the Gaborone Reservoir, Botswana. Finally we discuss ongoing work to deliver this information to FEWS NET analysts in a timely and user-friendly manner, with the ultimate goal of integrating these water availability metrics into regular decision-making activities.

  3. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Zubot, Warren; MacKinnon, Michael D; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2012-06-15

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction.

  4. Analysis of projected water availability with current basin management plan, Pajaro Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, R. T.; Lockwood, B.; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    The projection and analysis of the Pajaro Valley Hydrologic Model (PVHM) 34 years into the future using MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) facilitates assessment of potential future water availability. The projection is facilitated by the integrated hydrologic model, MF-FMP that fully couples the simulation of the use and movement of water from precipitation, streamflow, runoff, groundwater flow, and consumption by natural and agricultural vegetation throughout the hydrologic system at all times. MF-FMP allows for more complete analysis of conjunctive-use water-resource systems than previously possible with MODFLOW by combining relevant aspects of the landscape with the groundwater and surface-water components. This analysis is accomplished using distributed cell-by-cell supply-constrained and demand-driven components across the landscape within “water-balance subregions” (WBS) comprised of one or more model cells that can represent a single farm, a group of farms, watersheds, or other hydrologic or geopolitical entities. Analysis of conjunctive use would be difficult without embedding the fully coupled supply-and-demand into a fully coupled simulation, and are difficult to estimate a priori. The analysis of projected supply and demand for the Pajaro Valley indicate that the current water supply facilities constructed to provide alternative local sources of supplemental water to replace coastal groundwater pumpage, but may not completely eliminate additional overdraft. The simulation of the coastal distribution system (CDS) replicates: 20 miles of conveyance pipeline, managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MARR) system that captures local runoff, and recycled-water treatment facility (RWF) from urban wastewater, along with the use of other blend water supplies, provide partial relief and substitution for coastal pumpage (aka in-lieu recharge). The effects of these Basin Management Plan (BMP) projects were analyzed subject to historical climate variations

  5. Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Dunne, K.A.; Vecchia, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Water availability on the continents is important for human health, economic activity, ecosystem function and geophysical processes. Because the saturation vapour pressure of water in air is highly sensitive to temperature, perturbations in the global water cycle are expected to accompany climate warming. Regional patterns of warming-induced changes in surface hydroclimate are complex and less certain than those in temperature, however, with both regional increases and decreases expected in precipitation and runoff. Here we show that an ensemble of 12 climate models exhibits qualitative and statistically significant skill in simulating observed regional patterns of twentieth-century multidecadal changes in streamflow. These models project 10-40% increases in runoff in eastern equatorial Africa, the La Plata basin and high-latitude North America and Eurasia, and 10-30% decreases in runoff in southern Africa, southern Europe, the Middle East and mid-latitude western North America by the year 2050. Such changes in sustainable water availability would have considerable regional-scale consequences for economies as well as ecosystems. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  6. Carrier detection and prenatal molecular diagnosis in a Duchenne muscular dystrophy family without any affected relative available.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, M A; García-Cavazos, R; Hernández-U, E; González-del Angel, A; Carnevale, A; Orozco, L

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we report a family where the affected DMD patients were not available for study and a molecular strategy was used for female carriers detection and for prenatal diagnosis. Linkage analysis was performed with two markers within the DMD gene, in all family members screened. DMD markers used (pERT87.8/Taq1 and pERT87.15/Xmn1) seemed not to be informative because the propositas mother (II-2) was homozygous for the minor allele at each marker (T2 and X2), however, the proposita and one sister carried only the major allele, which was inherited from the father. These results suggested that a deletion involving both markers could be present, and was inherited from the mother to both daughters. Quantitative multiplex PCR confirmed the deletion in female carriers, involving at least exons 12 to 17. DNA studies of cultured amniotic fluid cells at 14 weeks gestation, by amplification of specific Y-chromosome sequences, followed by multiplex PCR, lead to the diagnosis of a male fetus affected by DMD.

  7. Dietary water affects human skin hydration and biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Lídia; Marques, Liliana Tavares; Bujan, Julia; Rodrigues, Luís Monteiro

    2015-01-01

    It is generally assumed that dietary water might be beneficial for the health, especially in dermatological (age preventing) terms. The present study was designed to quantify the impact of dietary water on major indicators of skin physiology. A total of 49 healthy females (mean 24.5±4.3 years) were selected and characterized in terms of their dietary daily habits, especially focused in water consumption, by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. This allowed two groups to be set – Group 1 consuming less than 3,200 mL/day (n=38), and Group 2 consuming more than 3,200 mL/day (n=11). Approximately 2 L of water were added to the daily diet of Group 2 individuals for 1 month to quantify the impact of this surplus in their skin physiology. Measurements involving epidermal superficial and deep hydration, transepidermal water loss, and several biomechanical descriptors were taken at day 0 (T0), 15 (T1), and 30 (T2) in several anatomical sites (face, upper limb, and leg). This stress test (2 L/day for 30 days) significantly modified superficial and deep skin hydration, especially in Group 1. The same impact was registered with the most relevant biomechanical descriptors. Thus, in this study, it is clear that higher water inputs in regular diet might positively impact normal skin physiology, in particular in those individuals with lower daily water consumptions. PMID:26345226

  8. Evaporation of water between two microspheres: how wetting affects drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kun; Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Jun; Kim, Joon Heon; Weon, Byung Mook

    2016-11-01

    When a small volume of water is confined between microparticles or nanoparticles, its evaporation behavior can be influenced by wettability of particles. This situation frequently appears in coating or printing of colloidal drops in which colloidal particles are uniformly dispersed into a liquid. To explore water evaporation between particles, here we study on evaporation dynamics of water between two microspheres by utilizing high-resolution X-ray microscopy for side views and optical microscopy for bottom views. We find that evaporating water gets pinned on microsphere surfaces, due to a force balance among air, water, and microspheres. Side and bottom views of evaporating water enable us to evaluate water curvature evolution around microspheres before and after pinning. Interestingly curvature evolution is controlled by cooperation of evaporation and wetting dynamics. This study would be useful in identifying and controlling of coating or printing for colloidal drops. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A1B01007133).

  9. Health of domestic mallards (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) following exposure to oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Beck, Elizabeth M; Smits, Judit E G; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2014-01-01

    Bitumen extraction from the oil sands of northern Alberta produces large volumes of process-affected water that contains substances toxic to wildlife. Recent monitoring has shown that tens of thousands of birds land on ponds containing this water annually, creating an urgent need to understand its effects on bird health. We emulated the repeated, short-term exposures that migrating water birds are thought to experience by exposing pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) to recycled oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As indicators of health, we measured a series of physiological (electrolytes, metabolites, enzymes, hormones, and blood cells) and toxicological (metals and minerals) variables. Relative to controls, juvenile birds exposed to OSPW had higher potassium following the final exposure, and males had a higher thyroid hormone ratio (T3/T4). In adults, exposed birds had higher vanadium, and, following the final exposure, higher bicarbonate. Exposed females had higher bile acid, globulin, and molybdenum levels, and males, higher corticosterone. However, with the exception of the metals, none of these measures varied from available reference ranges for ducks, suggesting OSPW is not toxic to juvenile or adult birds after three and six weekly, 1 h exposures, but more studies are needed to know the generality of this result.

  10. Instrumentation availability during severe accidents for a boiling water reactor with a Mark I containment

    SciTech Connect

    Arcieri, W.C.; Hanson, D.J. )

    1992-02-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Accident Management Research Program, the availability of instruments to supply accident management information during a broad range of severe accidents is evaluated for a Boiling Water Reactor with a Mark I containment. Results from this evaluation include: (1) the identification of plant conditions that would impact instrument performance and information needs during severe accidents; (2) the definition of envelopes of parameters that would be important in assessing the performance of plant instrumentation for a broad range of severe accident sequences; and (3) assessment of the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents.

  11. Summary of available ground-water data for the island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miyamoto, S.E.; Miyaji, C.E.; Fukuda, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents, in tabular form, descriptive information and information on the availability of chloride concentration, water level, pumpage, log, pump test and flow data for all wells , shafts and tunnels on Oahu, Hawaii. Descriptive data for each groundwater source include: identification number, map number, depth, diameter, year completed, owner, usage and status. The report is based on data currently available in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and is a compilation of observations made by Survey personnel, and information gathered by other agencies and the private sector. (USGS)

  12. Global patterns of water intake: how intake data affect recommendations.

    PubMed

    Shirreffs, Susan M

    2012-11-01

    Studies to assess water intake have been undertaken in many countries around the world. Some of these have been large-scale studies, whereas others have used a small number of subjects. These studies provide an emerging picture of water and/or fluid consumption in different populations around the world. Studies of this nature have also formed the basis of a number of recommendations published by different organizations, including the US Institute of Medicine and the European Food Safety Authority. The results of these intake studies indicate substantial differences in water and/or fluid intake in different populations, which have translated into different intake recommendations.

  13. Polder Effects on Sediment-to-Soil Conversion: Water Table, Residual Available Water Capacity, and Salt Stress Interdependence

    PubMed Central

    Radimy, Raymond Tojo; Dudoignon, Patrick; Hillaireau, Jean Michel; Deboute, Elise

    2013-01-01

    The French Atlantic marshlands, reclaimed since the Middle Age, have been successively used for extensive grazing and more recently for cereal cultivation from 1970. The soils have acquired specific properties which have been induced by the successive reclaiming and drainage works and by the response of the clay dominant primary sediments, that is, structure, moisture, and salinity profiles. Based on the whole survey of the Marais Poitevin and Marais de Rochefort and in order to explain the mechanisms of marsh soil behavior, the work focuses on two typical spots: an undrained grassland since at least 1964 and a drained cereal cultivated field. The structure-hydromechanical profiles relationships have been established thanks to the clay matrix shrinkage curve. They are confronted to the hydraulic functioning including the fresh-to-salt water transfers and to the recording of tensiometer profiles. The CE1/5 profiles supply the water geochemical and geophysical data by their better accuracy. Associated to the available water capacity calculation they allow the representation of the parallel evolution of the residual available water capacity profiles and salinity profiles according to the plant growing and rooting from the mesophile systems of grassland to the hygrophile systems of drained fields. PMID:23990758

  14. Estimating water availability over India using a bottom-up probabilistic Budyko approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Riddhi; Kumar, Rohini

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying the dependence of future water availability on changing climate remains a challenge for India as long-term streamflow data are scarce and there are significant uncertainties regarding future climate change. Here, we present a framework to estimate long-term water availability and its vulnerability to climate change across India using only three hydro-climatic variables: long-term precipitation (P), potential evapotranspiration (PE) and actual evapotranspiration (AE). We assimilate these variables within a probabilistic Budyko framework that relates aridity index (PE/P) of chosen control volumes to their evaporation ratio (AE/P). For each value of aridity index, the probabilistic framework provides a way to determine uncertainty in the projected values of the evaporation ratio. Then, we explore a large range of possible future climates and identify critical climate thresholds across India. Based on this exploratory analysis, we find that southern India is most susceptible to changing climate with less than 10% decrease in precipitation causing a 25% decrease in water availability.

  15. Asynchronous Amazon Forest Canopy Phenology Indicates Adaptation to Both Water and Light Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. O.; Kimball, J. S.; Nemani, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    Amazon forests represent nearly half of all tropical vegetation biomass and, through photosynthesis and respiration, annually process more than twice the amount of estimated carbon (CO2) from fossil fuel emissions. Yet the seasonality of Amazon canopy cover, and the extent to which seasonal fluctuations in water availability and photosynthetically active radiation influence these processes, is still poorly understood. Implementing six remotely sensed data sets spanning nine years (2003-2011), with reported field and flux tower data, we show that southern equatorial Amazon forests exhibit a distinctive seasonal signal. Seasonal timing of water availability, canopy biomass growth and net leaf flush are asynchronous in regions with short dry seasons and become more synchronous across a west-to-east longitudinal moisture gradient of increasing dry season length. Forest cover is responsive to seasonal disparities in both water and solar radiation availability, temporally adjusting net leaf flush to maximize use of these generally abundant resources, while reducing drought susceptibility. An accurate characterization of this asynchronous behavior allows for improved understanding of canopy phenology across contiguous tropical forests and their sensitivity to climate variability and drought. These insights can also inform land surface models to provide a more accurate representation of seasonal forest carbon allocation strategies responsive to environmental drivers.

  16. [Influence of surface water availability on mammal distributions in Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian-Bo; Sung, Yik-Hei; Bosco Chan, Pui-Lok; Meng, Yuan-Jun; Wan, Pak-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Surface water is a major limiting factor affecting animal activities in karst ecosystems. From March, 2006 to June, 2007 and from October, 2010 to May, 2011, infra-red camera traps were installed along animal trails and temporary rain pools in Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China, to monitor mammal diversity and relative abundance. In total, 19 species from 17 genera, 12 families, and 5 orders were recorded, including two State Key Protection Class I species, the François' langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) and Assam macaque (Macaca assamensis). Although 42% of species only occurred in one of the microhabitats, differences in species assemblages between trails and pools were not significant. The results of our observation indicated that camera trapping was effective in monitoring medium to large sized mammals, and for recording illegal hunting. In addition, our results suggest that authorities should reinforce patrolling, especially at water pools during the dry season, and eradicate unsustainable extraction of underground water. Moreover, based on the advantages of large inhibited environments to animal species, especially to large predators, we also recommend connecting the three isolated sections of the reserve to promote species recovery and dispersal.

  17. Particle water and pH in the eastern Mediterranean: source variability and implications for nutrient availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Nikolaou, Panayiota; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Weber, Rodney; Nenes, Athanasios; Kanakidou, Maria; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    Particle water (liquid water content, LWC) and aerosol pH are important parameters of the aerosol phase, affecting heterogeneous chemistry and bioavailability of nutrients that profoundly impact cloud formation, atmospheric composition, and atmospheric fluxes of nutrients to ecosystems. Few measurements of in situ LWC and pH, however, exist in the published literature. Using concurrent measurements of aerosol chemical composition, cloud condensation nuclei activity, and tandem light scattering coefficients, the particle water mass concentrations associated with the aerosol inorganic (Winorg) and organic (Worg) components are determined for measurements conducted at the Finokalia atmospheric observation station in the eastern Mediterranean between June and November 2012. These data are interpreted using the ISORROPIA-II thermodynamic model to predict the pH of aerosols originating from the various sources that influence air quality in the region. On average, closure between predicted aerosol water and that determined by comparison of ambient with dry light scattering coefficients was achieved to within 8 % (slope = 0.92, R2 = 0.8, n = 5201 points). Based on the scattering measurements, a parameterization is also derived, capable of reproducing the hygroscopic growth factor (f(RH)) within 15 % of the measured values. The highest aerosol water concentrations are observed during nighttime, when relative humidity is highest and the collapse of the boundary layer increases the aerosol concentration. A significant diurnal variability is found for Worg with morning and afternoon average mass concentrations being 10-15 times lower than nighttime concentrations, thus rendering Winorg the main form of particle water during daytime. The average value of total aerosol water was 2.19 ± 1.75 µg m-3, contributing on average up to 33 % of the total submicron mass concentration. Average aerosol water associated with organics, Worg, was equal to 0.56 ± 0.37 µg m-3; thus, organics

  18. Application of locally available materials for the treatment of organic polluted water.

    PubMed

    Salim, M R; Othman, F; Imtiaj Ali, Md; Patterson, J; Hardy, T

    2002-01-01

    Several types of water treatment technologies including adsorption are now being used to treat polluted water. In this paper the removal of phenol by adsorption will be discussed. Activated carbons are successfully applied for purification of potable water and the removal of organic pollutants in wastwater. This paper is concerned with a low cost approach to treating waste water that is significant especially for those countries where oil palm is an available agricultural product like Malaysia, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Thailand, Papua New Guinea. In the coastal region coconut is an available agricultural product and activated carbon prepared using coconut shell is also an economical method of water treatment. The materials used in this study were Commercial Activated Carbon (CAC), prepared from coconut shell and Modified Oil Palm Shell (MOPAS) of 1 to 2 mm diameters. The surface area of CAC and MOPAS was 38.5 m2/g and 38.2 m2/g respectively and the iodine number was determined as 674 and 454 for CAC and MOPAS, respectively. From the study the result shows above 70% removal efficiency for 5 mg/L and 40% removal efficiency for 20 mg/L of phenol solution. The performance efficiency will be discussed based on batch test, following Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The results indicate that CAC exhibits a higher adsorptive capacity (Kf of 0.079) as compared to MOPAS (Kf of 0.048). Hence a better removal efficiency for CAC at lower concentration of phenol. Results from column tests show a better adsorptive capacity for CAC (2.73) as compared to MOPAS (2.48).

  19. Water Availability Is the Main Climate Driver of Neotropical Tree Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Fabien; Rossi, Vivien; Stahl, Clément; Bonal, Damien; Hérault, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    • Climate models for the coming century predict rainfall reduction in the Amazonian region, including change in water availability for tropical rainforests. Here, we test the extent to which climate variables related to water regime, temperature and irradiance shape the growth trajectories of neotropical trees. • We developed a diameter growth model explicitly designed to work with asynchronous climate and growth data. Growth trajectories of 205 individual trees from 54 neotropical species censused every 2 months over a 4-year period were used to rank 9 climate variables and find the best predictive model. • About 9% of the individual variation in tree growth was imputable to the seasonal variation of climate. Relative extractable water was the main predictor and alone explained more than 60% of the climate effect on tree growth, i.e. 5.4% of the individual variation in tree growth. Furthermore, the global annual tree growth was more dependent on the diameter increment at the onset of the rain season than on the duration of dry season. • The best predictive model included 3 climate variables: relative extractable water, minimum temperature and irradiance. The root mean squared error of prediction (0.035 mm.d–1) was slightly above the mean value of the growth (0.026 mm.d–1). • Amongst climate variables, we highlight the predominant role of water availability in determining seasonal variation in tree growth of neotropical forest trees and the need to include these relationships in forest simulators to test, in silico, the impact of different climate scenarios on the future dynamics of the rainforest. PMID:22506012

  20. Effects of amelioration measures concerning water availability, soil physical properties and growth of trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hümann, M.; Schneider, R.

    2009-04-01

    In many countries, surplus agricultural production and ecological problems due to intensive cultivation have increased the interest in afforestation of arable soils. These areas, which are designated for afforestation arrangements, often possess bad basic requirements for an effective growth of plants (marginal earning sites). The available soils are often poor in nutrients, extremely dry or very wet as well as compacted and skeletal. For preparing these territories in terms of an ecological and economic forest growth, as well as changing environmental conditions due to the climatic change (expected dryer summers and wetter winters), amelioration methods are appropriate i.e. increase of water availability, water storage capacity and soil physical properties. Therefore, deep loosening measures were applied in 1993 and 1994 on prospective afforestation sites in the German low mountain range (Eifel and Hunsrück). The plots have been subdivided and arranged by different loosening machines. 14 years after the experimental setup (2008) the areas became reinvestigated concerning the prevailing soil properties including different aspects of the water balance and the resulting plant development. The current deliverables thereby indicate that an afforestation on so called marginal earning sites develop much better through a previous soil physical improvement as on neighbouring plots without a treatment. Bulk densities have been decreased sustainably and water absorption as well as water storage capacity were increased effectively. Hence, positive effects regarding the landscape, the ecology and the economy can be reached by a successful operated deep loosening of the soil and due to that the enhanced fouling of the trees. Additionally the results of the accomplished researches have shown, that against the background of the climate change an adaption to modified environmental conditions could be much more easier for the adolescent trees on plots with improved basic

  1. Terrestrial carbon balance in a drier world: the effects of water availability in southwestern North America.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Joel A; Scott, Russell L; Goulden, Michael L; Vargas, Rodrigo; Litvak, Marcy E; Kolb, Thomas E; Yepez, Enrico A; Oechel, Walter C; Blanken, Peter D; Bell, Tom W; Garatuza-Payan, Jaime; Maurer, Gregory E; Dore, Sabina; Burns, Sean P

    2016-05-01

    Global modeling efforts indicate semiarid regions dominate the increasing trend and interannual variation of net CO2 exchange with the atmosphere, mainly driven by water availability. Many semiarid regions are expected to undergo climatic drying, but the impacts on net CO2 exchange are poorly understood due to limited semiarid flux observations. Here we evaluated 121 site-years of annual eddy covariance measurements of net and gross CO2 exchange (photosynthesis and respiration), precipitation, and evapotranspiration (ET) in 21 semiarid North American ecosystems with an observed range of 100 - 1000 mm in annual precipitation and records of 4-9 years each. In addition to evaluating spatial relationships among CO2 and water fluxes across sites, we separately quantified site-level temporal relationships, representing sensitivity to interannual variation. Across the climatic and ecological gradient, photosynthesis showed a saturating spatial relationship to precipitation, whereas the photosynthesis-ET relationship was linear, suggesting ET was a better proxy for water available to drive CO2 exchanges after hydrologic losses. Both photosynthesis and respiration showed similar site-level sensitivity to interannual changes in ET among the 21 ecosystems. Furthermore, these temporal relationships were not different from the spatial relationships of long-term mean CO2 exchanges with climatic ET. Consequently, a hypothetical 100-mm change in ET, whether short term or long term, was predicted to alter net ecosystem production (NEP) by 64 gCm(-2) yr(-1). Most of the unexplained NEP variability was related to persistent, site-specific function, suggesting prioritization of research on slow-changing controls. Common temporal and spatial sensitivity to water availability increases our confidence that site-level responses to interannual weather can be extrapolated for prediction of CO2 exchanges over decadal and longer timescales relevant to societal response to climate change.

  2. Factors influencing stomatal conductance in response to water availability in grapevine: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lavoie-Lamoureux, Anouk; Sacco, Dario; Risse, Paul-André; Lovisolo, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    The main factors regulating grapevine response to decreasing water availability were assessed under statistical support using published data related to leaf water relations in an extensive range of scion and rootstock genotypes. Matching leaf water potential (Ψleaf ) and stomatal conductance (gs ) data were collected from peer-reviewed literature with associated information. The resulting database contained 718 data points from 26 different Vitis vinifera varieties investigated as scions, 15 non-V. vinifera rootstock genotypes and 11 own-rooted V. vinifera varieties. Linearised data were analysed using the univariate general linear model (GLM) with factorial design including biological (scion and rootstock genotypes), methodological and environmental (soil) fixed factors. The first GLM performed on the whole database explained 82.4% of the variability in data distribution having the rootstock genotype the greatest contribution to variability (19.1%) followed by the scion genotype (16.2%). A classification of scions and rootstocks according to their mean predicted gs in response to moderate water stress was generated. This model also revealed that gs data obtained using a porometer were in average 2.1 times higher than using an infra-red gas analyser. The effect of soil water-holding properties was evaluated in a second analysis on a restricted database and showed a scion-dependant effect, which was dominant over rootstock effect, in predicting gs values. Overall the results suggest that a continuum exists in the range of stomatal sensitivities to water stress in V. vinifera, rather than an isohydric-anisohydric dichotomy, that is further enriched by the diversity of scion-rootstock combinations and their interaction with different soils.

  3. Interactive effects of UV radiation and water availability on seedlings of six woody Mediterranean species.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Meritxell; Llorens, Laura; Badosa, Jordi; Verdaguer, Dolors

    2013-02-01

    To assess the effects of UV radiation and its interaction with water availability on Mediterranean plants, we performed an experiment with seedlings of six Mediterranean species (three mesophytes vs three xerophytes) grown in a glasshouse from May to October under three UV conditions (without UV, with UVA and with UVA+UVB) and two irrigation levels (watered to saturation and low watered). Morphological, physiological and biochemical measures were taken. Exposure to UVA+UVB increased the overall leaf mass per area (LMA) and the leaf carotenoids/chlorophyll a + b ratio of plants in relation to plants grown without UV or with UVA, respectively. In contrast, we did not find a general effect of UV on the leaf content of phenols or UVB-absorbing compounds of the studied species. Regarding plant growth, UV inhibited the above-ground biomass production of well-watered plants of Pistacia lentiscus. Conversely, under low irrigation, UVA tended to abolish the reduction in growth experienced by P. lentiscus plants growing in a UV-free environment, in accordance with UVA-enhanced apparent electron transport rate (ETR) values under drought in this species. UVA also induced an overall increase in root biomass when plants of the studied species were grown under a low water supply. In conclusion, while plant exposition to UVA favored root growth under water shortage, UVB addition only gave rise to photoprotective responses, such as the increase in LMA or in the leaf carotenoids/chlorophyll a + b ratio of plants. Species-specific responses to UV were not related with the xerophytic or mesophytic character of the studied species.

  4. Potential value of operationally available and spatially distributed ensemble soil water estimates for agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, Konstantine P.; Carpenter, Theresa M.

    2006-08-01

    SummaryThe focus of this paper is to develop a methodology to answer the question: do the spatially distributed soil water estimates produced by operational distributed hydrologic models provide potential benefits for agriculture? The formulation quantifies the potential value through a cost-loss analysis, whereby cost for the farmer is associated with the decision to irrigate the field and loss is associated with the decision not to irrigate while damaging soil water deficits occur. Farmer decisions are made in view of the likelihood of damaging events as estimated by the ensemble distributed model simulations of soil water deficit. The ensemble simulations account for parametric and radar rainfall uncertainty. The application area for the economic value analysis is the farmland of the Illinois River watershed in northwestern Arkansas (mainly) and eastern Oklahoma, for which operational-quality distributed model input is available. The land is used to produce hay for feed. The analysis indicates that there is substantial potential economic value in using the ensemble soil water estimates to make decisions regarding irrigation within the watershed for the months of July, August and September, when severe soil water deficits may occur. The benefits are higher for lower cost-loss ratios and for higher yield plants. They exhibit considerable spatial variability within the watershed in agreement with the spatial variability of the incidence of soil water deficits and with the spatial variability of the ability of the ensemble model simulations to reproduce this variability. The results of this study warrant additional analysis of the economic value of distributed model simulations in other regions, different distributed models and for other types of crops. Consideration of forecasts in addition to simulations is also an important next step.

  5. Redox transformation, solid phase speciation and solution dynamics of copper during soil reduction and reoxidation as affected by sulfate availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulda, Beate; Voegelin, Andreas; Ehlert, Katrin; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2013-12-01

    In periodically flooded soils, interactions of Cu with biogenic sulfide formed during soil reduction lead to the precipitation of sparingly soluble Cu-sulfides. In contaminated soils, however, the amounts of Cu can exceed the amount of sulfate available for microbial reduction to sulfide. In laboratory batch experiments, we incubated a paddy soil spiked to ∼4.4 mmol kg-1 (280 mg kg-1) Cu(II) to monitor temporal changes in the concentrations of dissolved Cu and the speciation of solid-phase Cu during 40 days of soil reduction and 28 days of reoxidation as a function of initially available reducible sulfate (0.06, 2.09 or 5.92 mmol kg-1). Using Cu K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy, we found that a large fraction of Cu(II) became rapidly reduced to Cu(I) (23-39%) and Cu(0) (7-17%) before the onset of sulfate reduction. Combination with results from sequential Cu extraction and chromium reducible sulfur (CRS) data suggested that complexation of Cu(I) by reduced organic S groups (Sorg) may be an important process during this early stage. In sulfate-depleted soil, Cu(0) and Cu(I)-Sorg remained the dominant species over the entire reduction period, whereas in soils with sufficient sulfate, initially formed Cu(0) and (remaining) Cu(II) became transformed into Cu-sulfide during continuing sulfate reduction. The formation of Cu(0), Cu(I)-Sorg, and Cu-sulfide led to an effective decrease in dissolved Cu concentrations. Differences in Cu speciation at the end of soil reduction however affected the dynamics of Cu during reoxidation. Whereas Cu(0) was rapidly oxidized to Cu(II), more than half of the S-coordinated Cu fraction persisted over 14 days of aeration. Our results show that precipitation of Cu(0) and complexation of Cu(I) by reduced organic S groups are important processes in periodically flooded soils if sulfide formation is limited by the amount of available sulfate or the duration of soil flooding. The speciation changes of Cu described in this study may also affect the

  6. The Impact of Changes in Water Availability on Geothermal Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassley, W. E.

    2014-12-01

    The conventional geothermal electrical generation capacity potential in the United States is estimated to be as high as 90 GW (USGS, 2008). If Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are included, the estimated capacity soars beyond 800 GW. Current generation capacity in the U.S. is approximately 1,000 GW. With a capacity factor close to 0.9, these numbers suggest that geothermal energy has the potential to be the primary provider of electrical energy in the United States. Realizing that potential is important, since geothermal energy is renewable, has low to no emissions, involves no fuel cycle, has one of the lowest spatial footprints per MW, has one of the lowest levelized costs of energy and the highest energy returned on energy invested values. However, access to water is an important prerequisite for geothermal power generation. It is required in drilling, heat transfer and power production. For EGS applications, water is also needed for stimulation. Much of the water currently utilized in these geothermal applications is groundwater. The impact of climate change on geothermal power generation will be expressed primarily through water availability. The details of potential water change impacts on power generation in existing and future geothermal sites will be presented in three case studies. It will be shown that strategies for mitigating groundwater losses are available, and include: use of degraded water in geothermal systems; use of captured CO2 for heat transfer; expanded use of dry cooling; improved resolution of subsurface permeability mapping; improved efficiencies in power generation; and expanded access to high enthalpy resources. Achieving these benefits will require aggressive research programs. Developing model hybrid technologies that combine geothermal-solar-biomass-wind-small hydro should be part of this research effort. Coupling geothermal resource exploration and mapping with detailed analysis of groundwater resources (recharge sites; climate

  7. Planting the [open quote]seeds[close quote] for increased water availability for hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, D.A. )

    1993-08-01

    Cloud seeding programs are providing some hydro producers with a way of increasing their water reserves on short notice and with relatively low cost. The fundamental formula has been known for half a century: clouds plus cold plus solid particles equal precipitation. What was not certain until more recently is how that relationship could be effectively used to alter the weather in positive ways. Research and practical experience now show that cloud seeding -- adding tiny solid particles to the right clouds at the right temperature -- works. More pertinent, evidence is mounting that hydropower producers can use well-designed, carefully times seeding programs to increase the amount of water available to their systems and thus enhance electricity generation. Cloud seeding has several advantages as a tool to augment hydroelectric production. Seeding programs typically require no capital investment by the utility or other power producer, and can be started and stopped on relatively short notice. Operating costs usually are less than $10 per acre-foot of additional streamflow. More broadly, the additional water produced for hydro generation has the environmental and community relations benefits of being reusable and less expensive than thermal power alternatives. There also normally are the additional benefits of increased water supplies for other users.

  8. Timed food availability affects circadian behavior but not the neuropeptide Y expression in Indian weaverbirds exposed to atypical light environment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Devraj; Trivedi, Neerja; Malik, Shalie; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis whether daily food availability period would restore rhythmicity in individuals with disrupted circadian behavior with no effect on appetite regulation. Particularly, we investigated the effects of timed food availability on activity behavior, and Fos and neuropeptide Y expressions in Indian weaverbirds (Ploceus philippinus) under atypical light conditions. Initially, weaverbirds in 3 groups of 7-8 each were entrained to 7L:17D (25: <0.3lx) with food ad libitum. Thereafter, food availability was restricted for 7h such that it overlapped with the light period. After a week, 7L:17D was replaced with 3.5L: 3.5D (T7, group 1), 3.5L: 20.5D (T24, group 2) or constant dim light, LLdim (<0.3lx, group 3) for 5weeks. Food cycles synchronized the circadian activity behavior, albeit with group differences, but did not affect body mass, blood glucose levels or testis size. Further, Fos, not NPY mRNA or peptide, expression measured at ZT2 and ZT14 (ZT0=time of food given) showed significant group differences in the hippocampus, dorsomedial hypothalamus and infundibular nuclear complex. Another identical experiment examined after-effects of the 3 light conditions on persistence of the circadian rhythms. Weaverbirds exposed for 4weeks to identical food but different light conditions, as above, were released into the free-running condition of food ad libitum and LLdim. Circadian rhythms were decayed in birds previously exposed to T7 LD cycle. Overall, these results show that timed meal restores rhythmicity in individuals with circadian rhythm disruptions without involving neuropeptide Y, the key appetite regulatory molecule.

  9. A humanitarian preparedness toolbox: estimating flood affected figures and exposure of livelihoods to future floods events, using freely available datasets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, Paolo; von Hagen, Craig; Peppino Disperati, Stefano; Hermansyah, Budi; Shaheen, Imra; Jan, Qasim; Berloffa, Andrea; Khan, Ruby; Fakhre, Alam

    2013-04-01

    Pakistan is highly disaster-prone, with three major flood disasters occurred in the past three years, yet major losses are not inevitable. Farming-based families still struggling to recover from 2010 and 2011 floods have again faced another bad monsoon season in 2012. Meanwhile, the likelihood of yet more natural disasters in the future is high as the phenomenon of climate change is increasing the prevalence of extreme weather conditions. Even with less rainfall, the risk of flooding this year remains high, while many villages have not fully recovered from the 2011-2012 floods. It is of utmost importance to support the most vulnerable rural communities to recover their flood-affected livelihoods. In the meantime, prioritizing disaster preparedness through flood hazard and population mapping is crucial to ensure that realistic contingency plans are in place to deliver an effective and timely response and reduce the impact of floods before they strike. To increase preparedness in future floods, an integrated approach that builds the resilience of flood affected community and enhances emergency preparedness based on reliable data is critical. We present here the innovative methodology developed for estimating population and livelihood that could potentially be affected by a future flood scenario, as well as a methodology for knowing where these people are located, along with an overview of their livelihood pattern. This project has used only freely available dataset, due to the urgency of providing a toolbox to the humanitarian community and the absence of readily available detailed information on natural hazards and exposure in Pakistan. The estimated figures resulting from this project, would provide the Food Security stakeholders with adequate information and data for programming a tailored response in case of floods during future monsoon season. For the purpose of preparedness, understanding the risks, and its potential magnitude, is crucial to provide decision

  10. Nitrogen availability impacts oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plant water status and proline production efficiency under water-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin; Le Cahérec, Françoise; Niogret, Marie-Françoise; Faes, Pascal; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Leport, Laurent; Bouchereau, Alain

    2012-08-01

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) fertilizers are used in the production of oilseed rape. However, as low-input methods of crop management are introduced crops will need to withstand temporary N deficiency. In temperate areas, oilseed rape will also be affected by frequent drought periods. Here we evaluated the physiological and metabolic impact of nitrate limitation on the oilseed rape response to water deprivation. Different amounts of N fertilizer were applied to plants at the vegetative stage, which were then deprived of water and rehydrated. Both water and N depletion accelerated leaf senescence and reduced leaf development. N-deprived plants exhibited less pronounced symptoms of wilting during drought, probably because leaves were smaller and stomata were partially closed. Efficiency of proline production, a major stress-induced diversion of nitrogen metabolism, was assessed at different positions along the whole plant axis and related to leaf developmental stage and water status indices. Proline accumulation, preferentially in younger leaves, accounted for 25-85% of the free amino acid pool. This was mainly due to a better capacity for proline synthesis in fully N-supplied plants whether they were subjected to drought or not, as deduced from the expression patterns of the proline metabolism BnP5CS and BnPDH genes. Although less proline accumulated in the oldest leaves, a significant amount was transported from senescing to emerging leaves. Moreover, during rehydration proline was readily recycled. Our results therefore suggest that proline plays a significant role in leaf N remobilization and in N use efficiency in oilseed rape.

  11. Soil water availability and rooting depth as determinants of hydraulic architecture of Patagonian woody species.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabian G; Goldstein, Guillermo; Meinzer, Frederick C; Arce, Maria E

    2009-07-01

    Adaptations of species to capture limiting resources is central for understanding structure and function of ecosystems. We studied the water economy of nine woody species differing in rooting depth in a Patagonian shrub steppe from southern Argentina to understand how soil water availability and rooting depth determine their hydraulic architecture. Soil water content and potentials, leaf water potentials (Psi(Leaf)), hydraulic conductivity, wood density (rho(w)), rooting depth, and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured during two summers. Water potentials in the upper soil layers during a summer drought ranged from -2.3 to -3.6 MPa, increasing to -0.05 MPa below 150 cm. Predawn Psi(Leaf) was used as a surrogate of weighted mean soil water potential because no statistical differences in Psi(Leaf) were observed between exposed and covered leaves. Species-specific differences in predawn Psi(Leaf) were consistent with rooting depths. Predawn Psi(Leaf) ranged from -4.0 MPa for shallow rooted shrubs to -1.0 MPa for deep-rooted shrubs, suggesting that the roots of the latter have access to abundant moisture, whereas shallow-rooted shrubs are adapted to use water deposited mainly by small rainfall events. Wood density was a good predictor of hydraulic conductivity and SLA. Overall, we found that shallow rooted species had efficient water transport in terms of high specific and leaf specific hydraulic conductivity, low rho(w), high SLA and a low minimum Psi(Leaf) that exhibited strong seasonal changes, whereas deeply rooted shrubs maintained similar minimum Psi(Leaf) throughout the year, had stems with high rho(w) and low hydraulic conductivity and leaves with low SLA. These two hydraulic syndromes were the extremes of a continuum with several species occupying different portions of a gradient in hydraulic characteristics. It appears that the marginal cost of having an extensive root system (e.g., high rho(w) and root hydraulic resistance) contributes to low growth rates

  12. Fungal Endophyte (Epichloë festucae) Alters the Nutrient Content of Festuca rubra Regardless of Water Availability

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-de-Aldana, Beatriz R.; García-Ciudad, Antonia; García-Criado, Balbino; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago; Zabalgogeazcoa, Iñigo

    2013-01-01

    Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+) and non-infected (E−) plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB) were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%), Zn (58%) and N (19%) than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands. PMID:24367672

  13. Fungal endophyte (Epichloë festucae) alters the nutrient content of Festuca rubra regardless of water availability.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-de-Aldana, Beatriz R; García-Ciudad, Antonia; García-Criado, Balbino; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago; Zabalgogeazcoa, Iñigo

    2013-01-01

    Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+) and non-infected (E-) plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB) were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%), Zn (58%) and N (19%) than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands.

  14. Summary of hydrologic modeling for the Delaware River Basin using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lant, Jeremiah G.; Claggett, Peter; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Milly, Paul C.D.; Nelson, Hugh L.; Hoffman, Scott A.; Colarullo, Susan J.; Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    2015-11-18

    The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) is a decision support system for the nontidal part of the Delaware River Basin that provides a consistent and objective method of simulating streamflow under historical, forecasted, and managed conditions. In order to quantify the uncertainty associated with these simulations, however, streamflow and the associated hydroclimatic variables of potential evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, and snow accumulation and snowmelt must be simulated and compared to long-term, daily observations from sites. This report details model development and optimization, statistical evaluation of simulations for 57 basins ranging from 2 to 930 km2 and 11.0 to 99.5 percent forested cover, and how this statistical evaluation of daily streamflow relates to simulating environmental changes and management decisions that are best examined at monthly time steps normalized over multiple decades. The decision support system provides a database of historical spatial and climatic data for simulating streamflow for 2001–11, in addition to land-cover and general circulation model forecasts that focus on 2030 and 2060. WATER integrates geospatial sampling of landscape characteristics, including topographic and soil properties, with a regionally calibrated hillslope-hydrology model, an impervious-surface model, and hydroclimatic models that were parameterized by using three hydrologic response units: forested, agricultural, and developed land cover. This integration enables the regional hydrologic modeling approach used in WATER without requiring site-specific optimization or those stationary conditions inferred when using a statistical model.

  15. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lombi, E; Stevens, D P; McLaughlin, M J

    2010-06-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil.

  16. Water Use, Ground-Water Recharge and Availability, and Quality of Water in the Greenwich Area, Fairfield County, Connecticut and Westchester County, New York, 2000-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullaney, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water budgets were developed for 32 small basin-based zones in the Greenwich area of southwestern Connecticut, where crystalline-bedrock aquifers supply private wells, to determine the status of residential ground-water consumption relative to rates of ground-water recharge and discharge. Estimated residential ground-water withdrawals for small basins (averaging 1.7 square miles (mi2) ranged from 0 to 0.16 million gallons per day per square mile (Mgal/d/mi2). To develop these budgets, residential ground-water withdrawals were estimated using multiple-linear regression models that relate water use from public water supply to data on residential property characteristics. Average daily water use of households with public water supply ranged from 219 to 1,082 gallons per day (gal/d). A steady-state finite-difference ground-water-flow model was developed to track water budgets, and to estimate optimal values for hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock (0.05 feet per day) and recharge to the overlying till deposits (6.9 inches) using nonlinear regression. Estimated recharge rates to the small basins ranged from 3.6 to 7.5 inches per year (in/yr) and relate to the percentage of the basin underlain by coarse-grained glacial stratified deposits. Recharge was not applied to impervious areas to account for the effects of urbanization. Net residential ground-water consumption was estimated as ground-water withdrawals increased during the growing season, and ranged from 0 to 0.9 in/yr. Long-term average stream base flows simulated by the ground-water-flow model were compared to calculated values of average base flow and low flow to determine if base flow was substantially reduced in any of the basins studied. Three of the 32 basins studied had simulated base flows less than 3 in/yr, as a result of either ground-water withdrawals or reduced recharge due to urbanization. A water-availability criteria of the difference between the 30-day 2-year low flow and the recharge rate

  17. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD LEVELS AND LEAD NEUROTOXICITY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of nexafluo...

  18. Using Gypsum to Affect Soil Erosion Processes and Water Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A driving force in soil erosion is the low electrolyte content of rain water. Various electrolyte sources have proven useful in serving as electrolyte sources such as phosphogypsum, lime and various salts, however, each has other potential problems. We performed a number of studies on low cost gypsu...

  19. Effect of reduced soil water availability on productivity of short rotation coppice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orság, Matěj; Fischer, Milan; Mani Tripathi, Abhishek; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    "Wood, in fact, is the unsung hero of the technological revolution that has brought us from a stone and bone culture to our present age.'' Perlin and Journey (1991). Given its high-energy content and versatile use, biomass in a form of wood has been used for energy purposes since millennia and through times has been preferred source of biomass. Ever since, the production and use of woody biomass resources expands globally. Main drivers for its use as a source of energy are diversification and the mitigation of energy related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through partial substitution of fossil fuels. An alternative option for wood biomass sourcing from natural forests is short rotation woody coppice. Its productivity is largely dependent on the environment in terms of climatic conditions. Especially drought is the major constraint of woody biomass production involving serious economic consequences. In the central Europe, increased global radiation and air temperature together with decreased relative humidity increases the reference evapotranspiration resulting in an increased demand for soil water during growing season. For that reason, our field experiment was designed to evaluate impact of decreased soil water availability on productivity of poplar based short rotation coppice plantation during multiple growing seasons. Throughfall exclusion system based on plastic roof strips placed under the canopy was used to drain up to 70 % of the incoming rain water. Usual methods were used to assess the annual above ground biomass increment expressed in dry matter content. Not surprisingly our results show systematic decline in the productivity of plots subjected to decreased soil water availability but also considerable resilience of the drought-stressed trees which will be also discussed. This study was supported by project "Building up a multidisciplinary scientific team focused on drought", No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0248 and PASED - project supported by Czech program

  20. Water availability in +2°C and +4°C worlds.

    PubMed

    Fung, Fai; Lopez, Ana; New, Mark

    2011-01-13

    While the parties to the UNFCCC agreed in the December 2009 Copenhagen Accord that a 2°C global warming over pre-industrial levels should be avoided, current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions reductions from these same parties will lead to a 50 : 50 chance of warming greater than 3.5°C. Here, we evaluate the differences in impacts and adaptation issues for water resources in worlds corresponding to the policy objective (+2°C) and possible reality (+4°C). We simulate the differences in impacts on surface run-off and water resource availability using a global hydrological model driven by ensembles of climate models with global temperature increases of 2°C and 4°C. We combine these with UN-based population growth scenarios to explore the relative importance of population change and climate change for water availability. We find that the projected changes in global surface run-off from the ensemble show an increase in spatial coherence and magnitude for a +4°C world compared with a +2°C one. In a +2°C world, population growth in most large river basins tends to override climate change as a driver of water stress, while in a +4°C world, climate change becomes more dominant, even compensating for population effects where climate change increases run-off. However, in some basins where climate change has positive effects, the seasonality of surface run-off becomes increasingly amplified in a +4°C climate.

  1. Occurrence and availability of ground water in the Athens region, northeastern Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radtke, D.B.; Cressler, C.W.; Perlman, H.A.; Blanchard, H.E.; McFadden, K.W.; Brooks, Rebekah

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the occurrence and availability of groundwater in the crystalline rocks of the Piedmont area in northeastern Georgia and to determine whether groundwater is a viable alternative or supplemental source for industrial, public and private supplies. The area is underlain by a variety of metamorphic and igneous rocks. The quantity of water that a rock unit can supply to wells is determined by the number, capacity, and interconnection of the secondary openings. Of an estimated 10,000 successful wells drilled in the Athens Region, 972 wells are reported by drilling contractors to supply from 20 to 300 gal/min. Studies of well sites revealed that high yielding wells can be developed only where the water bearing units have undergone significant increases in secondary permeability. This occurs mainly in association with (1) contact zones between rock units of contrasting character, (2) contact zones within multilayered rock units, (3) fault zones, (4) stress-relief fractures, and (5) shear zones. Groundwater may be a viable alternative or supplemental source for industrial, public, and private supplies in much of the Athens Region. In 1980, groundwater made up 38% (18 million gal/day) of the total water used in the area. Yields of 20 to more than 200 gal/min are obtained from wells throughout most of the region, and the water is generally of good chemical quality and is suitable for drinking and many other uses. Concentrations of dissolved constituents are fairly consistent throughout the area. Except for iron, manganese, and fluoride, dissolved constituents rarely exceed drinking water standards. (Lantz-PTT)

  2. Effects of water and nutrient availability on fine root growth in eastern Amazonian forest regrowth, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Tâmara Thaiz Santana; Miranda, Izildinha Souza; Vasconcelos, Steel Silva

    2010-08-01

    *Fine root dynamics is widely recognized as an important biogeochemical process, but there are few data on fine root growth and its response to soil resource availability, especially for tropical forests. *We evaluated the response of fine root dynamics to altered availability of soil water and nutrients in a 20-yr-old forest regrowth in eastern Amazonia. In one experiment the dry season reduction in soil moisture was alleviated by irrigation. In the other experiment, nutrient supply was reduced by litter removal. We used the ingrowth core technique to measure fine root mass growth, length growth, mortality and specific root length. *Dry-season irrigation had no significant effect on mass and length of live and dead roots, whereas litter removal reduced mass and length of live roots. For both irrigation and litter removal experiments, root growth was significantly greater in the dry season than in the wet season. *Increased root growth was associated with decreased soil water availability. However, root growth did not increase in response to nutrient reduction in litter removal plots. Overall, our results suggest that belowground allocation may differ according to the type of soil resource limitation.

  3. 43 CFR 404.57 - Does this rule have any affect on state water law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Does this rule have any affect on state water law? 404.57 Section 404.57 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404.57 Does this rule have any affect on state...

  4. 43 CFR 404.57 - Does this rule have any affect on state water law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Does this rule have any affect on state water law? 404.57 Section 404.57 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... this rule have any affect on state water law? No. Neither the Act nor this rule preempts or...

  5. Influence of geologic setting on ground-water availability in the Lawrenceville area, Gwinnett County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Lester J.; Kath, Randy L.; Crawford, Thomas J.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2005-01-01

    Obtaining large quantities of ground water needed for municipal and industrial supply in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge physiographic provinces can be challenging because of the complex geology and the typically low primary permeability of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Areas of enhanced secondary permeability in the bedrock do occur, however, and 'high-yield' wells are not uncommon, particularly where careful site-selection techniques are used prior to test drilling. The U.S. Geological Survey - in cooperation with the City of Lawrenceville, Georgia - conducted this study from 2000 to 2002 to learn more about how different geologic settings influence the availability of ground water in igneous and metamorphic bedrock with the expectation that this knowledge could be used to help identify additional water resources in the area. In compositionally layered-rock settings, wells derive water almost exclusively from lithologically and structurally controlled water-bearing zones formed parallel to foliation and compositional layering. These high-permeability, water-bearing zones - termed foliation-parallel parting systems -combined with high-angle joint systems, are the primary control for the high-yield wells drilled in the Lawrenceville area; yields range from 100 to several hundred gallons per minute (gal/min). Near Lawrenceville, areas with high ground-water yield are present in sequences of amphibolite, biotite gneiss, and button schist where the structural attitude of the rocks is gently dipping, in areas characterized by abundant jointing, and in topographic settings with a continuous source of recharge along these structures. In massive-rock settings, wells derive water mostly from joint systems, although foliation-parallel parting systems also may be important. Wells deriving water primarily from steeply-dipping joint systems typically have low yields ranging from 1 to 5 gal/min. Joint systems in massive-rock settings can be identified and characterized by using

  6. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and catchment size for Florida lakes in mantled karst terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2002-01-01

    In the mantled karst terrain of Florida, the size of the catchment delivering ground-water inflow to lakes is often considerably smaller than the topographically defined drainage basin. The size is determined by a balance of factors that act individually to enhance or diminish the hydraulic connection between the lake and the adjacent surficial aquifer, as well as the hydraulic connection between the surficial aquifer and the deeper limestone aquifer. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and the size of the ground-water catchment for lakes in mantled karst terrain were examined by: (1) reviewing the physical and hydrogeological characteristics of 14 Florida lake basins with available ground-water inflow estimates, and (2) simulating ground-water flow in hypothetical lake basins. Variably-saturated flow modeling was used to simulate a range of physical and hydrogeologic factors observed at the 14 lake basins. These factors included: recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, thickness of the unsaturated zone, size of the topographically defined basin, depth of the lake, thickness of the surficial aquifer, hydraulic conductivity of the geologic units, the location and size of karst subsidence features beneath and onshore of the lake, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Catchment size and the magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with increases in recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, the size of the topographically defined basin, hydraulic conductivity in the surficial aquifer, the degree of confinement of the deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The catchment size and magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with decreases in the number and size of karst subsidence features in the basin, and the thickness of the unsaturated zone near the lake. Model results, although qualitative, provided insights into: (1) the types of lake basins in mantled karst terrain that have the potential to generate small and large

  7. Factors affecting the availability of wood energy from nonindustrial private forest lands in the Northeast. Forest Service Resource Bulletin (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, J.J.; Gilbert, A.H.; Birch, T.W.

    1992-05-01

    The report describes the factors that affect the availability of fuelwood from NIPF lands in the Northeastern United States (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania). It is part of a comprehensive wood-for-energy study entitled 'The Production, Consumption, and Marketing of Wood for Energy in the Northeast (Northeast Regional Study 142).'' The study is designed to: (1) Estimate the demand for wood energy in the Northeast by consuming sectors, state, and region; (2) Analyze the managment and supply of wood for energy processing as well as marketing structures; (3) Identify goals and effectiveness of actual and alternative local, state, and Federal forest policies and contrast these with the objectives of forest owners with regard to the use of wood for energy. The objective of the study is to analyze the supply of wood energy, that is, to identify and describe the factors that influence NIPF owners to harvest, or permit the harvest, of fuelwood from their land.

  8. Hydrogeology and ground-water availability in the carbonate aquifer system of Frederick County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harlow,, George E.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Nelms, David L.; Weary, David J.; Moberg, Roger M.

    2005-01-01

    The carbonate aquifer system of the northern Shenandoah Valley provides an important water supply to local communities, including Frederick County, Va., which depends on ground water as a source of water supply. The county and surrounding area are undergoing increased urbanization, and increased demands on the carbonate aquifer system are expected. A study was conducted between October 2000 and March 2004 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the County of Frederick, Va., to describe the hydrogeology and ground-water availability in the carbonate aquifer system underlying the county. The study area encompasses about 25 percent (105 square miles) of the county that is underlain by carbonate bedrock. The carbonate aquifer system of Frederick County is in the Shenandoah Valley region of the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province. Approximately 10,000 feet of folded and fractured Middle Cambrian to Upper Ordovician sedimentary rocks are exposed and are overlain by Pleistocene (?) and Holocene surficial deposits. All geologic units in the study area are considered to be aquifers. The geologic units are generally unconfined, fractured-rock aquifers that are recharged by precipitation and discharge locally to streams and springs, and by evapotranspiration. Stream density in the carbonate study area is less than in the remainder of the county, which is underlain by siliciclastic rock units. Most streams flow normal to strike (from the northwest towards the southeast) across the study area. These streams are characterized by shallow incisement and are usually limited to a single stream channel. In the southern third of the study area, streams flow parallel to strike (from the northeast towards the southwest) towards the deeply intrenched Cedar Creek. Springs are commonly located at the start of flows for all streams in the carbonate study area, and spring discharges are often a large portion of the streamflow (especially during drought conditions). The

  9. Assessment of Shallow-Water Habitat Availability in Modified Dike Structures, Lower Missouri River, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Johnson, Harold E.

    2004-01-01

    This study documented the effects of wing-dike notching on the availabilit of shallow water habitat in the Lower Missouri River. Five wing dikes were surveyed in late May 2004 after they were notched in early May as part of shallow-water habitat (SWH) rehabilitation activities undertaken by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Surveys included high-resolution hydroacoustic depth, velocity, and substrate mapping. Relations of bottom elevations within the wing dike fields to index discharges and water-surface elevations indicate that little habitat meeting the SWH definition was created immediately following notching. This result is not unexpected, as significant geomorphic adjustment may require large flow events. Depth, velocity, and substrate measurements in the post-rehabilitation time period provide baseline data for monitoring ongoing changes. Differences in elevation and substrate were noted at all sites. Most dike fields showed substantial aggradation and replacement of mud substrate with sandier sediment, although the changes did not result in increased availability of SWH at the index discharge. It is not known how much of the elevation and substrate changes can be attributed directly to notching and how much would result from normal sediment transport variation.

  10. How much water will be available in the upper Colorado River Basin under projected climatic changes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, I. T.; Ficklin, D. L.; Maurer, E. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Colorado River and its tributaries are the principal source of water for urban and agricultural demands in the arid and semi-arid Southwestern United States. Projected climatic changes in the basin suggest some precipitation increases in the very highest regions, and no changes or declines for the middle and low elevations, while air surface temperatures are expected to increase by about 5 degC by the end of the century. We model the effects of these climatic changes on all hydrologic components (snowmelt, ET, surface runoff, subsurface runoff, groundwater, and streamflow) on the subbasin scale to project future changes in water resources using SWAT. We find that spring season flows in most subbasins are likely to decrease by 20-90%, and summer flows by 50-100%. Many subbasins will turn from semi-arid to arid conditions by the 2080's. The role of the individual hydrologic components and the impact on the availability of water resources for urban and agricultural use in the region are quantified.

  11. The Pattern Across the Continental United States of Evapotranspiration Variability Associated with Water Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D.; Salvucci, Guido D.; Rigden, Angela J.; Jung, Martin; Collatz, G. James; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial pattern across the continental United States of the interannual variance of warm season water-dependent evapotranspiration, a pattern of relevance to land-atmosphere feedback, cannot be measured directly. Alternative and indirect approaches to estimating the pattern, however, do exist, and given the uncertainty of each, we use several such approaches here. We first quantify the water dependent evapotranspiration variance pattern inherent in two derived evapotranspiration datasets available from the literature. We then search for the pattern in proxy geophysical variables (air temperature, stream flow, and NDVI) known to have strong ties to evapotranspiration. The variances inherent in all of the different (and mostly independent) data sources show some differences but are generally strongly consistent they all show a large variance signal down the center of the U.S., with lower variances toward the east and (for the most part) toward the west. The robustness of the pattern across the datasets suggests that it indeed represents the pattern operating in nature. Using Budykos hydroclimatic framework, we show that the pattern can largely be explained by the relative strength of water and energy controls on evapotranspiration across the continent.

  12. Does limited data availability prevent adequate water use estimates on farm scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayatz, Benjamin; Kuster, Benjamin; Percy, Barbara; Hillier, Jonathan; Freese, Dirk; Wattenbach, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Increasing food production for a growing world population and at the same time mitigating climate change as well as adapting to its consequences is one of the key global challenges. Therefore producing crops with fewer resources such as water and fertilizers and less emissions of greenhouse gases is an important question that has to be answered on farm scale. The cool farm tool (CFT) is a farm scale emission calculator and was developed in 2010 to help farmers to reduce their carbon footprint. In order to adapt to future climate change an easy to use and at the same time robust water footprinting tool is needed for the CFT to take a more holistic approach on environmental sustainability. However data on farm level is often scarce. We investigated the effect of limited data on actual evapotranspiration using the FAO56 standard to assess the quality of farm water footprint estimates. Calculations are based on various agricultural sites from the Fluxnet database and estimates are compared to eddy covariance measurements. Results show that higher data availability is not directly linked to more accurate estimates of actual evapotranspiration. Estimates based only on temperature and relative humidity are still able to reproduce daily patterns. However cumulative values over one growing season show a considerable offset to eddy covariance observations for all data input levels. Finding the optimum between data requirements and an accuracy that fulfills farmer needs is crucial. Engagement of farmers and using a global network as the Fluxnet database will help to achieve this goal.

  13. The hydration ability of three commercially available sports drinks and water.

    PubMed

    Hill, Rebecca J; Bluck, Leslie J C; Davies, Peter S W

    2008-04-01

    This paper compares the hydration ability of three commercially-available sports drinks with water under conditions of rest and exercise, using a deuterium dilution technique. For the rest group, 0.05g/kg of body weight of deuterium, contained in gelatine capsules, was ingested with one of the test solutions and saliva samples were collected every five minutes for an hour while the subject remained seated. The deuterium was administered as above for the exercise group but sample collection was during one hour of exercise on a treadmill at 55% of the subject's maximum heart rate. The enrichment data for each subject were mathematically modelled to describe the kinetics of hydration and the parameters obtained were compared across drinks using a basic Anova. At rest, significant differences were found for t(1), t(1/2), and the percent of drink absorbed at t(1). The differences between drinks were not significant for t(2) or the maximum absorption rate. For the exercise group, the only significant difference was found between water and the sports drinks at t(1). Therefore, we conclude that labelling with a deuterium tracer is a good measure of the relative rate ingested fluids are absorbed by the body. Because of the lack of differences found at t(2), which is indicative of the 100% absorption time, both at rest and during exercise, it may be speculated that, compared to water, the sports drinks studied in this paper did not hydrate the body at a faster rate.

  14. Projections of Declining Surface-Water Availability for the Southwestern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seager, Richard; Ting, Mingfang; Li, Cuihua; Naik, Naomi; Cook, Benjamin; Nakamura, Jennifer; Liu, Haibo

    2012-01-01

    Global warming driven by rising greenhouse-gas concentrations is expected to cause wet regions of the tropics and mid to high latitudes to get wetter and subtropical dry regions to get drier and expand polewards. Over southwest North America, models project a steady drop in precipitation minus evapotranspiration, P -- E, the net flux of water at the land surface, leading to, for example, a decline in Colorado River flow. This would cause widespread and important social and ecological consequences. Here, using new simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Five, to be assessed in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report Five, we extend previous work by examining changes in P, E, runoff and soil moisture by season and for three different water resource regions. Focusing on the near future, 2021-2040, the new simulations project declines in surface-water availability across the southwest that translate into reduced soil moisture and runoff in California and Nevada, the Colorado River headwaters and Texas.

  15. On alternative energy sources - Wave power availability in water of finite depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamaschi, S.; Cossalter, V.

    1982-03-01

    The theory of wave height variation due to refraction and friction at the sea bottom is adopted to estimate the amount of mechanical power available at depths ranging from 5 to 25 m, where it seems reasonable to place devices to capture and convert wave energy. The refraction theory is mathematically modelled and the computer program for the power estimation is presented. The evaluation of the wave power available at a location near the Italian coast on the southern Adriatic is presented as an application, and is found to be 3.9 kW/m at the selected point, compared to 6.4 kW/m for deep water in the southern Adriatic. The methods of analytic and numerical bathymetry are used to arrive at the result.

  16. Optimizing available water capacity using microwave satellite data for improving irrigation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Manika; Bolten, John; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2015-04-01

    This work addresses the improvement of available water capacity by developing a technique for estimating soil hydraulic parameters through the utilization of satellite-retrieved near surface soil moisture. The prototype involves the usage of Monte Carlo analysis to assimilate historical remote sensing soil moisture data available from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) within the hydrological model. The main hypothesis used in this study is that near-surface soil moisture data contain useful information that can describe the effective hydrological conditions of the basin such that when appropriately In the method followed in this study the hydraulic parameters are derived directly from information on the soil moisture state at the AMSR-E footprint scale and the available water capacity is derived for the root zone by coupling of AMSR-E soil moisture with the physically-based hydrological model. The available capacity water, which refers to difference between the field capacity and wilting point of the soil and represent the soil moisture content at 0.33 bar and 15 bar respectively is estimated from the soil hydraulic parameters using the van Genuchten equation. The initial ranges of soil hydraulic parameters are taken in correspondence with the values available from the literature based on Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database within the particular AMSR-E footprint. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, the ranges are narrowed in the region where simulation shows a good match between predicted and near-surface soil moisture from AMSR-E. In this study, the uncertainties in accurately determining the parameters of the nonlinear soil water retention function for large-scale hydrological modeling is the focus of the development of the Bayesian framework. Thus, the model forecasting has been combined with the observational information to optimize the model state and the soil hydraulic parameters simultaneously. The optimization process is divided into

  17. Factors Affecting Source-Water Quality after Disturbance of Forests by Wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S. F.; Martin, D. A.; McCleskey, R. B.; Writer, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Forests yield high-quality water supplies to communities throughout the world, in part because forest cover reduces flooding and the consequent transport of suspended and dissolved constituents to surface water. Disturbance by wildfire reduces or eliminates forest cover, leaving watersheds susceptible to increased surface runoff during storms and reduced ability to retain contaminants. We assessed water-quality response to hydrologic events for three years after a wildfire in the Fourmile Creek Watershed, near Boulder, Colorado, and found that hydrologic and geochemical responses downstream of a burned area were primarily driven by small, brief convective storms that had relatively high, but not unusual, rainfall intensity. Total suspended sediment, dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, and manganese concentrations were 10-156 times higher downstream of a burned area compared to upstream, and water quality was sufficiently impaired to pose water-treatment concerns. The response in both concentration and yield of water-quality constituents differed depending on source availability and dominant watershed processes controlling the constituent. For example, while all constituent concentrations were highest during storm events, annual sediment yields downstream of the burned area were controlled by storm events and subsequent mobilization, whereas dissolved organic carbon yields were more dependent on spring runoff from upstream areas. The watershed response was affected by a legacy of historical disturbance: the watershed had been recovering from extensive disturbance by mining, railroad and road development, logging, and fires in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and we observed extensive erosion of mine waste in response to these summer storms. Therefore, both storm characteristics and historical disturbance in a burned watershed must be considered when evaluating the role of wildfire on water quality.

  18. Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) for estimating water availability during water scarcity conditions: rainfall-runoff modelling of the ungauged diversion inflows to the Ridracoli water supply reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The Ridracoli reservoir is the main drinking water supply reservoir serving the whole Romagna region, in Northern Italy. Such water supply system has a crucial role in an area where the different characteristics of the communities to be served, their size, the mass tourism and the presence of food industries highlight strong differences in drinking water needs. Its operation allows high quality drinking water supply to a million resident customers, plus a few millions of tourists during the summer of people and it reduces the need for water pumping from underground sources, and this is particularly important since the coastal area is subject also to subsidence and saline ingression into aquifers. The system experienced water shortage conditions thrice in the last decade, in 2002, in 2007 and in autumn-winter 2011-2012, when the reservoir water storage fell below the attention and the pre-emergency thresholds, thus prompting the implementation of a set of mitigation measures, including limitations to the population's water consumption. The reservoir receives water not only from the headwater catchment, closed at the dam, but also from four diversion watersheds, linked to the reservoir through an underground water channel. Such withdrawals are currently undersized, abstracting only a part of the streamflow exceeding the established minimum flows, due to the design of the water intake structures; it is therefore crucial understanding how the reservoir water availability might be increased through a fuller exploitation of the existing diversion catchment area. Since one of the four diversion catchment is currently ungauged (at least at the fine temporal scale needed for keeping into account the minimum flow requirements downstream of the intakes), the study first presents the set up and parameterisation of a continuous rainfall-runoff model at hourly time-step for the three gauged diversion watersheds and for the headwater catchment: a regional parameterisation

  19. Establishing axenic cultures from mature pecan embryo explants on media with low water availability.

    PubMed

    Obeidy, A A; Smith, M A

    1990-12-01

    Endophytic fungi associated with mature pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch) nuts prevented successful, contaminant-free in vitro culture of embryo expiants, even after rigorous surface disinfestation of the nuts and careful aseptic shelling. Disinfestation with sodium hypochlorite after shell removal was also unsuccessful, because even dilute concentrations which were ineffective against the fungal contaminants prevented subsequent growth from the embryo. Explanting media with low water availability which would not sustain growth of fungal contaminants, but supported growth from mature pecan embryos, were developed as an alternative disinfestation method. The explanting media were supplemented with 0.9-1.5% agar, and other media components were selectively omitted to test their influence on water availability and fungal growth. Disinfestation of up to 65% of the cultures was accomplished, depending on the medium formulation, compared to 100% loss to contamination on control medium (0.5% agar). A complete medium (containing sucrose, salts, vitamins, 18 μM BAP, and 5 μM IBA) with 1.5% agar provided control of contamination, and encouraged subsequent regeneration from the embryo expiants, which remained free of contaminant growth through subsequent subcultures.

  20. The Impact of Water Regulation on the Availability of Shale Gas Resources for Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    Visions for a large increase in North American production of natural gas from shale are based heavily on the sharp rise in the estimated available resource. Those estimates are prepared by looking at the underlying geology as well as the cost and availability of technologies for extracting gas. We add to that equation the potential current and future regulation of water injection (subsurface) and runoff (surface). Using the political science theory of "veto points" we show that US water legislation is organized in ways that allow for large numbers of political forces to block (or make costly) access to gas resources. By our estimate, 26% of the shale gas resource will be unavailable-a fraction that could rise if there are strong contagion effects as jurisdictions that have traditionally had industry-friendly regulatory systems apply much stricter rules. This work has potentially large implications for visions of the new natural gas revolution and the price of North American (and potentially world) natural gas.

  1. Water availability and branch length determine delta(13)C in foliage of Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Warren, Charles R.; Adams, Mark A.

    2000-05-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) of foliage integrates signals resulting from environmental and hydraulic constraints on water movement and photosynthesis. We used branch length as a simple predictor of hydraulic constraints to water fluxes and determined the response of delta(13)C to varying water availability. Foliage up to 6 years old was taken from Pinus pinaster Ait. trees growing at four sites differing in precipitation (P; 414-984 mm year(-1)) and potential evaporation (ET; 1091-1750 mm year(-1)). Branch length was the principal determinant of temporal trends in delta(13)C. The strong relationship between delta(13)C and branch length was a function of hydraulic conductance, which was negatively correlated with branch length (r(2) = 0.84). Variation in P and ET among sites was reflected in delta(13)C, which was negatively correlated with P/ET (r(2) = 0.66). However, this analysis was confounded by differences in branch length. If the effects of branch length on delta(13)C were first removed, then the 'residual' delta(13)C was more closely related to P/ET (r(2) = 0.99), highlighting the importance of accounting for variation in hydraulic constraints to water flux between sites and years. For plant species that exhibit considerable phenotypic plasticity in response to changes in environment (e.g., variation in leaf area, branch length and number, or stem form), the environmental effects on delta(13)C in foliage can only be reliably assessed if deconvoluted from hydraulic constraints.

  2. Assessment of commercially available polymeric materials for sorptive microextraction of priority and emerging nonpolar organic pollutants in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Zubiaguirre, Laura; Delgado, Alejandra; Ros, Oihana; Posada-Ureta, Oscar; Vallejo, Asier; Prieto, Ailette; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2014-10-01

    Among the different organic pollutants, persistent organic pollutants and emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) are of particular concern due to their potentially dangerous effects on the ecosystems and on human health. In the framework of the analysis of some of these organic pollutants in water samples, sorptive extraction devices have proven to be adequate for their monitoring. The efficiency of four commercially available and low-cost polymeric materials [polypropylene, poly(ethylene terephthalate), Raffia, and polyethersulfone (PES)] for the simultaneous extraction of 16 organic compounds from five different families from environmental water samples was evaluated in this work. Firstly, the homogeneity of the sorbent materials was confirmed by means of Raman spectroscopy. After the optimization of the parameters affecting the extraction and the liquid desorption steps, it was found that PES showed the largest efficiencies for slightly polar analytes and, to a lesser extent, for nonpolar analytes. Additionally, Raffia rendered good extraction efficiencies for nonpolar compounds. Thus sorptive extraction methods followed by large volume injection-programmable temperature vaporizer-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were validated using PES and Raffia as sorbent materials. The validation of the method provided good linearity (0.978 < r (2) < 0.999 for PES and 0.977 < r (2) < 0.999 for Raffia), adequate repeatability (below 19 % and 14 % for PES and Raffia, respectively), and low method detection limits (low ng · l(-1) level). Finally, these materials were applied to the analysis of contaminants in environmental water samples.

  3. Effects of Surface-Water Diversions on Habitat Availability for Native Macrofauna, Northeast Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Wolff, Reuben H.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of surface-water diversions on habitat availability for native stream fauna (fish, shrimp, and snails) are described for 21 streams in northeast Maui, Hawaii. Five streams (Waikamoi, Honomanu, Wailuanui, Kopiliula, and Hanawi Streams) were chosen as representative streams for intensive study. On each of the five streams, three representative reaches were selected: (1) immediately upstream of major surface-water diversions, (2) midway to the coast, and (3) near the coast. This study focused on five amphidromous native aquatic species (alamoo, nopili, nakea, opae, and hihiwai) that are abundant in the study area. The Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM) System, which incorporates hydrology, stream morphology and microhabitat preferences to explore relations between streamflow and habitat availability, was used to simulate habitat/discharge relations for various species and life stages, and to provide quantitative habitat comparisons at different streamflows of interest. Hydrologic data, collected over a range of low-flow discharges, were used to calibrate hydraulic models of selected transects across the streams. The models were then used to predict water depth and velocity (expressed as a Froude number) over a range of discharges up to estimates of natural median streamflow. The biological importance of the stream hydraulic attributes was then assessed with the statistically derived suitability criteria for each native species and life stage that were developed as part of this study to produce a relation between discharge and habitat availability. The final output was expressed as a weighted habitat area of streambed for a representative stream reach. PHABSIM model results are presented to show the area of estimated usable bed habitat over a range of streamflows relative to natural conditions. In general, the models show a continuous decrease in habitat for all modeled species as streamflow is decreased from natural conditions. The PHABSIM modeling results

  4. High sensitivity of broadleaf trees to water availability in northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, Mathieu; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Pederson, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Broadleaf dominated forests of eastern US cover more than one million km2 and provide ecosystem services to millions of people. High species diversity and a varied sensitivity to drought make it uncertain whether these forests will be carbon sinks or sources under climate change. Ongoing climate change, increased in atmospheric CO2 concentration (ca) and strong reductions in acidic depositions are expected to alter growth and gas exchange of trees, and ultimately forest productivity. Still, the magnitude of these effects is unclear. A better comprehension of the species-specific responses to environmental changes will better inform models and managers on the vulnerability and resiliency of these forests. Here, we combined tree-ring width data with δ13C and δ18O measurements to investigate growth and physiological responses of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) in northeastern US to changes in water availability, ca and acidic depositions for the period 1950-2014. Based on structural equation modeling approaches, we found that summer water availability (June-August) is the main environmental variable driving growth, water-use efficiency and δ18O of broadleaf trees whereas ca and acidic depositions have little effects. This high sensitivity to moisture availability was also supported by the very strong correlations found between summer vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and tree-ring δ13C (r = 0.67 and 0.71), and δ18O series (r = 0.62 and 0.72), for red oak and tulip poplar, respectively. In contrast, tree-ring width was less sensitive to summer VPD (r = -0.44 and-0.31). Since the mid 1980s, pluvial conditions occurring in northeastern US have increased stomatal conductance, carbon uptake, and growth of both species. Further, the strong spatial field correlations found between the tree-ring δ13C and δ18O and summer VPD indicate a greater sensitivity of eastern US broadleaf forests to moisture availability than previously known

  5. Are fire, soil fertility and toxicity, water availability, plant functional diversity, and litter decomposition related in a Neotropical savanna?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo Henrique; Batalha, Marco Antônio; Silva, Igor Aurélio; Cianciaruso, Marcus Vinicius; Petchey, Owen L

    2014-07-01

    Understanding how biodiversity and ecosystem functioning respond to changes in the environment is fundamental to the maintenance of ecosystem function. In realistic scenarios, the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning path may account for only a small share of all factors determining ecosystem function. Here, we investigated the strength to which variations in environmental characteristics in a Neotropical savanna affected functional diversity and decomposition. We sought an integrative approach, testing a number of pairwise hypotheses about how the environment, biodiversity, and functioning were linked. We used structural equation modelling to connect fire frequency, soil fertility, exchangeable Al, water availability, functional diversity of woody plants, tree density, tree height, and litter decomposition rates in a causal chain. We found significant effects of soil nutrients, water availability, and Al on functional diversity and litter decomposition. Fire did not have a significant direct effect on functional diversity or litter decomposition. However, fire was connected to both variables through soil fertility. Functional diversity did not influence rates of litter decomposition. The mediated effects that emerged from pairwise interactions are encouraging not only for predicting the functional consequences of changes in environmental variables and biodiversity, but also to caution against predictions based on only environmental or only biodiversity change.

  6. Exploring the impact of co-varying water availability and energy price on productivity and profitability of Alpine hydropower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Botter, Martina; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Alpine hydropower systems are experiencing dramatic changes both from the point of view of hydrological conditions, e.g., water availability and frequency of extremes events, and of energy market conditions, e.g., partial or total liberalization of the market and increasing share of renewable power sources. Scientific literature has, so far, mostly focused on the analysis of climate change impacts and associated uncertainty on hydropower operation, underlooking the consequences that socio-economic changes, e.g., energy demand and/or price changes, can have on hydropower productivity and profitability. In this work, we analyse how hydropower reservoir operation is affected by changes in both water availability and energy price. We consider stochastically downscaled climate change scenarios of precipitation and temperature to simulate reservoir inflows using a physically explicit hydrological model. We consider different scenarios of energy demand and generation mix to simulate energy prices using an electricity market model, which includes different generation sources, demand sinks, and features of the transmission lines. We then use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to design the operation of hydropower reservoirs for different purposes, e.g. maximization of revenue and/or energy production. The objective of the work is to assess how the tradeoffs between the multiple operating objectives evolve under different co-varying climate change and socio-economic scenarios and to assess the adaptive capacity of the system. The modeling framework is tested on the real-world case study of the Mattmark reservoir in Switzerland.

  7. Ascorbate availability affects tumor implantation-take rate and increases tumor rejection in Gulo−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Elizabeth J; Vissers, Margreet CM; Dachs, Gabi U

    2016-01-01

    In solid tumors, HIF1 upregulates the expression of hundreds of genes involved in cell survival, tumor growth, and adaptation to the hypoxic microenvironment. HIF1 stabilization and activity are suppressed by prolyl and asparagine hydroxylases, which require oxygen as a substrate and ascorbate as a cofactor. This has led us to hypothesize that intracellular ascorbate availability could modify the hypoxic HIF1 response and influence tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of variable intracellular ascorbate levels on HIF1 induction in cancer cells in vitro, and on tumor-take rate and growth in the Gulo−/− mouse. These mice depend on dietary ascorbate, and were supplemented with 3,300 mg/L, 330 mg/L, or 33 mg/L ascorbate in their drinking water, resulting in saturating, medium, or low plasma and tissue ascorbate levels, respectively. In Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LL/2) in culture, optimal ascorbate supplementation reduced HIF1 accumulation under physiological but not pathological hypoxia. LL/2, B16-F10 melanoma, or CMT-93 colorectal cancer cells were implanted subcutaneously into Gulo−/− mice at a range of cell inocula. Establishment of B16-F10 tumors in mice supplemented with 3,300 mg/L ascorbate required an increased number of cancer cells to initiate tumor growth compared with the number of cells required in mice on suboptimal ascorbate intake. Elevated ascorbate intake was also associated with decreased tumor ascorbate levels and a reduction in HIF1α expression and transcriptional activity. Following initial growth, all CMT-93 tumors regressed spontaneously, but mice supplemented with 33 mg/L ascorbate had lower plasma ascorbate levels and grew larger tumors than optimally supplemented mice. The data from this study indicate that improved ascorbate intake is consistent with increased intracellular ascorbate levels, reduced HIF1 activity and reduced tumor initiation and growth, and this may be advantageous in the management of cancer

  8. Methods and concepts in quantifying resistance to drought, salt and freezing, abiotic stresses that affect plant water status.

    PubMed

    Verslues, Paul E; Agarwal, Manu; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Zhu, Jianhua; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2006-02-01

    The abiotic stresses of drought, salinity and freezing are linked by the fact that they all decrease the availability of water to plant cells. This decreased availability of water is quantified as a decrease in water potential. Plants resist low water potential and related stresses by modifying water uptake and loss to avoid low water potential, accumulating solutes and modifying the properties of cell walls to avoid the dehydration induced by low water potential and using protective proteins and mechanisms to tolerate reduced water content by preventing or repairing cell damage. Salt stress also alters plant ion homeostasis, and under many conditions this may be the predominant factor affecting plant performance. Our emphasis is on experiments that quantify resistance to realistic and reproducible low water potential (drought), salt and freezing stresses while being suitable for genetic studies where a large number of lines must be analyzed. Detailed protocols for the use of polyethylene glycol-infused agar plates to impose low water potential stress, assay of salt tolerance based on root elongation, quantification of freezing tolerance and the use of electrolyte leakage experiments to quantify cellular damage induced by freezing and low water potential are also presented.

  9. 76 FR 74057 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... because the applicable numeric water quality standards marine criterion for dissolved oxygen was not... numeric water quality standards marine criterion for dissolved oxygen was not attained in these...

  10. Water availability not fruitfall modulates the dry season distribution of frugivorous terrestrial vertebrates in a lowland Amazon forest

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Omar Stalin Landázuri; Norris, Darren; de Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial vertebrate frugivores constitute one of the major guilds in tropical forests. Previous studies show that the meso-scale distribution of this group is only weakly explained by variables such as altitude and tree basal area in lowland Amazon forests. For the first time we test whether seasonally limiting resources (water and fallen fruit) affect the dry season distribution in 25 species of terrestrial vertebrates. To examine the effects of the spatial availability of fruit and water on terrestrial vertebrates we used a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera-traps within 25km2 of lowland Amazon forest. Generalized linear models (GLMs) were then used to examine the influence of four variables (altitude, distance to large rivers, distance to nearest water, and presence vs absence of fruits) on the number of photos on five functional groups (all frugivores, small, medium, large and very large frugivores) and on seven of the most abundant frugivore species (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina, Mazama americana, Mazama nemorivaga, Myoprocta acouchy, Pecari tajacu and Psophia crepitans). A total of 279 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 900 camera-trap days. For most species and three functional groups, the variation in the number of photos per camera was significantly but weakly explained by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 6.2 to 48.8%). Generally, we found that the presence of water availability was more important than the presence of fallen fruit for the groups and species studied. Medium frugivores, large-bodied frugivores, and two of the more abundant species (C. paca and P. crepitans) were recorded more frequently closer to water bodies; while none of the functional groups nor the most abundant species showed any significant relationship with the presence of fallen fruit. Two functional groups and two of the seven most common frugivore species assessed in the GLMs showed significant results with species

  11. Water availability not fruitfall modulates the dry season distribution of frugivorous terrestrial vertebrates in a lowland Amazon forest.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Omar Stalin Landázuri; Norris, Darren; Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes de; Michalski, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial vertebrate frugivores constitute one of the major guilds in tropical forests. Previous studies show that the meso-scale distribution of this group is only weakly explained by variables such as altitude and tree basal area in lowland Amazon forests. For the first time we test whether seasonally limiting resources (water and fallen fruit) affect the dry season distribution in 25 species of terrestrial vertebrates. To examine the effects of the spatial availability of fruit and water on terrestrial vertebrates we used a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera-traps within 25km2 of lowland Amazon forest. Generalized linear models (GLMs) were then used to examine the influence of four variables (altitude, distance to large rivers, distance to nearest water, and presence vs absence of fruits) on the number of photos on five functional groups (all frugivores, small, medium, large and very large frugivores) and on seven of the most abundant frugivore species (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina, Mazama americana, Mazama nemorivaga, Myoprocta acouchy, Pecari tajacu and Psophia crepitans). A total of 279 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 900 camera-trap days. For most species and three functional groups, the variation in the number of photos per camera was significantly but weakly explained by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 6.2 to 48.8%). Generally, we found that the presence of water availability was more important than the presence of fallen fruit for the groups and species studied. Medium frugivores, large-bodied frugivores, and two of the more abundant species (C. paca and P. crepitans) were recorded more frequently closer to water bodies; while none of the functional groups nor the most abundant species showed any significant relationship with the presence of fallen fruit. Two functional groups and two of the seven most common frugivore species assessed in the GLMs showed significant results with species

  12. Available water modifications by topsoil treatments under mediterranean semiarid conditions: afforestation plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso Gonzalez, Paloma; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose

    2016-04-01

    During dry periods in the Mediterranean area, the lack of water entering the soil matrix reduces organic contributions to the soil. These processes lead to reduced soil fertility and soil vegetation recovery which creates a positive feedback process that can lead to desertification. Restoration of native vegetation is the most effective way to regenerate soil health, and control runoff and sediment yield. In Mediterranean areas, after a forestry proposal, it is highly common to register a significant number of losses for the saplings that have been introduced due to the lack of rainfall. When no vegetation is established, organic amendments can be used to rapidly protect the soil surface against the erosive forces of rain and runoff. In this study we investigated the hydrological effects of five soil treatments in relation to the temporal variability of the available water for plants. Five amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching; mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers; sewage sludge; sheep manure and control. Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. In control plots, during June, July, August and September, soils were registered below the wilting point, and therefore, in the area of water unusable by plants. These months were coinciding with the summer mediterranean drought. This fact justifies the high mortality found on plants after the seeding plan. Similarly, soils have never exceeded the field capacity value measured for control plots. Conversely, in the straw and pinus mulch, soils were above the wilting point during a longer time than in control plots. Thus, the soil moisture only has stayed below the 4.2 pF suction in July, July and August. Regarding the amount of water available was also higher, especially in the months of December, January and February. However, the field capacity

  13. Dissolved and acid available particulate beryllium in eastern UK surface waters.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin

    2003-10-01

    The concentrations of beryllium (Be) in surface waters are presented for major water quality surveys of eastern UK rivers, based on extensive work within a major environmental programme, the Land Ocean Interaction Study (LOIS). Two measurements were made, one for dissolved Be (i.e. the fraction that can pass through 0.45-microm membrane filters) the other for acid available total Be (dissolved Be plus the fraction of particulate Be that can be leached by a 1% v/v concentrated nitric acid solution). Dissolved Be concentrations are generally less than 1 microg l(-1) with a mean of approximately 0.02 microg l(-1), but higher values occur across the eastern UK rivers between 16th October and 7th November 1995 under neutral to alkaline conditions where Be would not be expected to be mobile. The higher values vary from river to river and there is a marked increase from north to south with particularly high concentrations (up to 29 microg l(-1)) for the industrial and urban impacted rivers of the southern Humber basin. The results show a major increase in dissolved Be at a time of exceptional drought conditions and climate instability, which seems to be linked to industrial/urban catchment systems. The average dissolved Be flux is 0.22 gha(-1) year(-1) with a range in mean across the sites of 0.08-0.45 gha(-1) year(-1). Without the period of enhanced Be concentrations, the Be flux through the period would have been approximately 40% less. There is no clear distinction between the dissolved Be flux for the rural and urban/industrial catchment systems. Acid available particulate Be (AAPBe) concentrations are low across the eastern UK rivers, they range between 0 and 1.33 microg l(-1) with a mean of 0.02 microg l(-1) and the highest concentrations occur for the industrial/urban rivers (approximately twice the levels occurring within the rural rivers). The AAPBe concentrations are linearly correlated with the concentrations of suspended sediment, particulate organic carbon

  14. High-resolution prediction of soil available water content within the crop root zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghverdi, Amir; Leib, Brian G.; Washington-Allen, Robert A.; Ayers, Paul D.; Buschermohle, Michael J.

    2015-11-01

    A detailed understanding of soil hydraulic properties, particularly soil available water content (AWC) within the effective root zone, is needed to optimally schedule irrigation in fields with substantial spatial heterogeneity. However, it is difficult and time consuming to directly measure soil hydraulic properties. Therefore, easily collected and measured soil properties, such as soil texture and/or bulk density, that are well correlated with hydraulic properties are used as proxies to develop pedotransfer functions (PTF). In this study, multiple modeling scenarios were developed and evaluated to indirectly predict high resolution AWC maps within the effective root zone. The modeling techniques included kriging, co-kriging, regression kriging, artificial neural networks (NN) and geographically weighted regression (GWR). The efficiency of soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) as proximal data in the modeling process was assessed. There was a good agreement (root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.052 cm3 cm-3 and r = 0.88) between observed and point prediction of water contents using pseudo continuous PTFs. We found that both GWR (mean RMSE = 0.062 cm3 cm-3) and regression kriging (mean RMSE = 0.063 cm3 cm-3) produced the best water content maps with these accuracies improved up to 19% when ECa was used as an ancillary soil attribute in the interpolation process. The maps indicated fourfold differences in AWC between coarse- and fine-textured soils across the study site. This provided a template for future investigations for evaluating the efficiency of variable rate irrigation management scenarios in accounting for the spatial heterogeneity of soil hydraulic attributes.

  15. Habitat selection by African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in response to landscape-level fluctuations in water availability on two temporal scales.

    PubMed

    Bennitt, Emily; Bonyongo, Mpaphi Casper; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system doubled between 2008 and 2009, creating a sudden change in the landscape. We used African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) to test the hypotheses that seasonal habitat selection would be related to water availability, that increased floodwater levels would decrease forage abundance and affect habitat selection, and that this would decrease buffalo resting time, reduce reproductive success and decrease body condition. Buffalo selected contrasting seasonal habitats, using habitats far from permanent water during the rainy season and seasonally-flooded habitats close to permanent water during the early and late flood seasons. The 2009 water increase reduced forage availability in seasonally-flooded habitats, removing a resource buffer used by the buffalo during the late flood season, when resources were most limited. In response, buffalo used drier habitats in 2009, although there was no significant change in the time spent moving or resting, or daily distance moved. While their reproductive success decreased in 2009, body condition increased. A protracted period of high water levels could prove detrimental to herbivores, especially to smaller-bodied species that require high quality forage. Stochastic annual fluctuations in water levels, predicted to increase as a result of anthropogenically-induced climate change, are likely to have substantial impacts on the functioning of water-driven tropical ecosystems, affecting environmental conditions within protected areas. Buffer zones around

  16. Habitat Selection by African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Response to Landscape-Level Fluctuations in Water Availability on Two Temporal Scales

    PubMed Central

    Bennitt, Emily; Bonyongo, Mpaphi Casper; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system doubled between 2008 and 2009, creating a sudden change in the landscape. We used African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) to test the hypotheses that seasonal habitat selection would be related to water availability, that increased floodwater levels would decrease forage abundance and affect habitat selection, and that this would decrease buffalo resting time, reduce reproductive success and decrease body condition. Buffalo selected contrasting seasonal habitats, using habitats far from permanent water during the rainy season and seasonally-flooded habitats close to permanent water during the early and late flood seasons. The 2009 water increase reduced forage availability in seasonally-flooded habitats, removing a resource buffer used by the buffalo during the late flood season, when resources were most limited. In response, buffalo used drier habitats in 2009, although there was no significant change in the time spent moving or resting, or daily distance moved. While their reproductive success decreased in 2009, body condition increased. A protracted period of high water levels could prove detrimental to herbivores, especially to smaller-bodied species that require high quality forage. Stochastic annual fluctuations in water levels, predicted to increase as a result of anthropogenically-induced climate change, are likely to have substantial impacts on the functioning of water-driven tropical ecosystems, affecting environmental conditions within protected areas. Buffer zones around

  17. Electrical signals in avocado trees: responses to light and water availability conditions.

    PubMed

    Oyarce, Patricio; Gurovich, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Plant responses to environmental changes are associated with electrical excitability and signaling; automatic and continuous measurements of electrical potential differences (DeltaEP) between plant tissues can be effectively used to study information transport mechanisms and physiological responses that result from external stimuli on plants. The generation and conduction of electrochemical impulses within plant different tissues and organs, resulting from abiotic and biotic changes in environmental conditions is reported. In this work, electrical potential differences are monitored continuously using Ag/AgCl microelectrodes, inserted 5 mm deep into sapwood at two positions in the trunks of several Avocado trees. Electrodes are referenced to a non polarisable Ag/AgCl microelectrode installed 20 cm deep in the soil. Systematic patterns of DeltaEP during absolute darkness, day-night cycles and different conditions of soil water availability are discussed as alternative tools to assess early plant stress conditions.

  18. 77 FR 27770 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... identifying certain water quality limited waterbodies, and the associated pollutant, in Utah to be listed... pollution controls are not stringent enough to attain or maintain State water quality standards and for... applicable water quality criterion for total dissolved solids (TDS) for these waters is being exceeded....

  19. High water availability increases the negative impact of a native hemiparasite on its non-native host

    PubMed Central

    Cirocco, Robert M.; Facelli, José M.; Watling, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors alter the impacts of parasitic plants on their hosts. However, there have been no controlled studies on how water availability modulates stem hemiparasites’ effects on hosts. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate the association between the Australian native stem hemiparasite Cassytha pubescens and the introduced host Ulex europaeus under high (HW) and low (LW) water supply. Cassytha pubescens had a significant, negative effect on the total biomass of U. europaeus, which was more severe in HW than LW. Regardless of watering treatment, infection significantly decreased shoot and root biomass, nodule biomass, nodule biomass per unit root biomass, F v/F m, and nitrogen concentration of U. europaeus. Host spine sodium concentration significantly increased in response to infection in LW but not HW conditions. Host water potential was significantly higher in HW than in LW, which may have allowed the parasite to maintain higher stomatal conductances in HW. In support of this, the δ13C of the parasite was significantly lower in HW than in LW (and significantly higher than the host). C. pubescens also had significantly higher F v/F m and 66% higher biomass per unit host in the HW compared with the LW treatment. The data suggest that the enhanced performance of C. pubescens in HW resulted in higher parasite growth rates and thus a larger demand for resources from the host, leading to poorer host performance in HW compared with LW. C. pubescens should more negatively affect U. europaeus growth under wet conditions rather than under dry conditions in the field. PMID:26703920

  20. Biochar increases plant available water in a sandy soil under an aerobic rice cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo Carvalho, M. T.; de Holanda Nunes Maia, A.; Madari, B. E.; Bastiaans, L.; van Oort, P. A. J.; Heinemann, A. B.; Soler da Silva, M. A.; Petter, F. A.; Meinke, H.

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of biochar rate (0, 8, 16 and 32 t ha-1) on the water retention capacity (WRC) of a sandy Dystric Plinthosol. The applied biochar was a by-product of slow pyrolysis (∼450 °C) of eucalyptus wood, milled to pass through a 2000 μm sieve that resulted in a material with an intrinsic porosity ≤10 μm and a specific surface area of ∼3.2 m2 g-1. The biochar was incorporated into the top 15 cm of the soil under an aerobic rice system. Our study focused on both the effects on WRC and rice yields at 2 and 3 years after application. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from 16 plots in two soil layers (5-10 and 15-20 cm). Soil water retention curves were modelled using a nonlinear mixed model which appropriately accounts for uncertainties inherent of spatial variability and repeated measurements taken within a specific soil sample. We found an increase in plant available water in the upper soil layer proportional to the rate of biochar, with about 0.8% for each t ha-1 of biochar amendment at 2 and 3 years after application. The impact of biochar on soil WRC was most likely related to an increase in overall porosity of the sandy soil, which was evident from an increase in saturated soil moisture and macro porosity with 0.5% and 1.6% for each t ha-1 of biochar applied, respectively. The increment in soil WRC did not translate into an increase in rice yield, essentially because in both seasons the amount of rainfall during critical period for rice production exceeded 650 mm. The use of biochar as a soil amendment can be a worthy strategy to guarantee yield stability under water limited conditions. Our findings raise the importance of assessing the feasibility of very high application rates of biochar and the inclusion of a detailed analysis of its physical and chemical properties as part of future investigations.

  1. Impacts of climate and land use change on ecosystem hydrology and net primary productivity: Linking water availability to food security in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangal, S. R. S.; Tian, H.; Pan, S.; Zhang, B.; Yang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The nexus approach to food, water and energy security in Asia is extremely important and relevant as the region has to feed two-third of the world's population and accounts for 59% of the global water consumption. The distribution pattern of food, water and energy resources have been shaped by the legacy effect of both natural and anthropogenic disturbances and therefore are vulnerable to climate change and human activities including land use/cover change (LUCC) and land management (irrigation and nitrogen fertilization). In this study, we used the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) to examine the effects of climate change, land use/cover change, and land management practices (irrigation and nitrogen fertilization) on the spatiotemporal trends and variability in water availability and its role in limiting net primary productivity (NPP) and food security in the 20th and early 21st centuries. Our specific objectives are to quantify how climate change, LUCC and other environmental changes have interactively affected carbon and water dynamics across the Asian region. In particular, we separated the Asian region into several sub-region based on the primary limiting factor - water, food and energy. We then quantified how changes in environmental factors have altered the water and food resources during the past century. We particularly focused on Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and water cycle (Evapotranspiration, discharge, and runoff) as a measure of available food and water resources, respectively while understanding the linkage between food and water resources in Asia.

  2. An analysis of potential water availability from the Atwood, Leesville, and Tappan Lakes in the Muskingum River Watershed, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koltun, G.F.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to assess potential water availability from the Atwood, Leesville, and Tappan Lakes, located within the Muskingum River Watershed, Ohio. The assessment was based on the criterion that water withdrawals should not appreciably affect maintenance of recreation-season pool levels in current use. To facilitate and simplify the assessment, it was assumed that historical lake operations were successful in maintaining seasonal pool levels, and that any discharges from lakes constituted either water that was discharged to prevent exceeding seasonal pool levels or discharges intended to meet minimum in-stream flow targets downstream from the lakes. It further was assumed that the volume of water discharged in excess of the minimum in-stream flow target is available for use without negatively impacting seasonal pool levels or downstream water uses and that all or part of it is subject to withdrawal. Historical daily outflow data for the lakes were used to determine the quantity of water that potentially could be withdrawn and the resulting quantity of water that would flow downstream (referred to as “flow-by”) on a daily basis as a function of all combinations of three hypothetical target minimum flow-by amounts (1, 2, and 3 times current minimum in-stream flow targets) and three pumping capacities (1, 2, and 3 million gallons per day). Using both U.S. Geological Survey streamgage data and lake-outflow data provided by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers resulted in analytical periods ranging from 51 calendar years for the Atwood Lake to 73 calendar years for the Leesville and Tappan Lakes. The observed outflow time series and the computed time series of daily flow-by amounts and potential withdrawals were analyzed to compute and report order statistics (95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, 10th, and 5th percentiles) and means for the analytical period, in aggregate, and broken down by calendar month. In addition, surplus-water mass curve data

  3. Investigation of ground-water availability and quality in Orange County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, William L.; Daniel, Charles C.

    2001-01-01

    A countywide inventory was conducted of 649 wells in nine hydrogeologic units in Orange County, North Carolina. As a result of this inventory, estimates of ground-water availability and use were calculated, and water-quality results were obtained from 51 wells sampled throughout the County from December 1998 through January 1999. The typical well in Orange County has an average depth of 208 feet, an average casing length of 53.6 feet, a static water level of 26.6 feet, a yield of 17.6 gallons per minute, and a well casing diameter of 6.25 inches. The saturated thickness of the regolith averages 27.0 feet and the yield per foot of total well depth averages 0.119 gallon per minute per foot. Two areas of the County are more favorable for high-yield wells.a west-southwest to east-northeast trending area in the northwestern part of the County, and a southwest to northeast trending area in the southwestern part of the County. Well yields in Orange County show little correlation with topographic or hydrogeologic setting. Fifty-one sampling locations were selected based on (a) countywide areal distribution, (b) weighted distribution among hydrogeologic units, and (c) permission from homeowners. The list of analytes for the sampling program consisted of common anions and cations, metals and trace elements, nutrients, organic compounds, and radon. Samples were screened for the presence of fuel compounds and pesticides by using immuno-assay techniques. Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, specific conductance, and alkalinity were measured in the field. The median pH was 6.9, which is nearly neutral, and the median hardness was 75 milligrams per liter calcium carbonate. The median dissolved solids concentration was 125 milligrams per liter, and the median specific conductance was 175 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius. Orange County ground water is classified as a calcium-bicarbonate type. High nutrient concentrations were not found in samples collected for this

  4. Landscape features impact on soil available water, corn biomass, and gene expression during the late vegetative stage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In rolling landscapes, plant available water can vary drastically by topographic location with growth impaired by too much water in footslope locations and too little water in summit locations. This study examined corn (Zea mays) gene expression and plant productivity differences between two landsc...

  5. Simulation of groundwater conditions and streamflow depletion to evaluate water availability in a Freeport, Maine, watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Martha G.; Locke, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate water availability in the State of Maine, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Maine Geological Survey began a cooperative investigation to provide the first rigorous evaluation of watersheds deemed "at risk" because of the combination of instream flow requirements and proportionally large water withdrawals. The study area for this investigation includes the Harvey and Merrill Brook watersheds and the Freeport aquifer in the towns of Freeport, Pownal, and Yarmouth, Maine. A numerical groundwater- flow model was used to evaluate groundwater withdrawals, groundwater-surface-water interactions, and the effect of water-management practices on streamflow. The water budget illustrates the effect that groundwater withdrawals have on streamflow and the movement of water within the system. Streamflow measurements were made following standard USGS techniques, from May through September 2009 at one site in the Merrill Brook watershed and four sites in the Harvey Brook watershed. A record-extension technique was applied to estimate long-term monthly streamflows at each of the five sites. The conceptual model of the groundwater system consists of a deep, confined aquifer (the Freeport aquifer) in a buried valley that trends through the middle of the study area, covered by a discontinuous confining unit, and topped by a thin upper saturated zone that is a mixture of sandy units, till, and weathered clay. Harvey and Merrill Brooks flow southward through the study area, and receive groundwater discharge from the upper saturated zone and from the deep aquifer through previously unknown discontinuities in the confining unit. The Freeport aquifer gets most of its recharge from local seepage around the edges of the confining unit, the remainder is received as inflow from the north within the buried valley. Groundwater withdrawals from the Freeport aquifer in the study area were obtained from the local water utility and estimated for other categories. Overall

  6. Effect of Straw Amendment on Soil Zn Availability and Ageing of Exogenous Water-Soluble Zn Applied to Calcareous Soil

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanlong; Cui, Juan; Tian, Xiaohong; Zhao, Aiqing; Li, Meng; Wang, Shaoxia; Li, Xiushaung; Jia, Zhou; Liu, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Organic matter plays a key role in availability and transformation of soil Zn (zinc), which greatly controls Zn concentrations in cereal grains and human Zn nutrition level. Accordingly, soils homogenized with the wheat straw (0, 12 g straw kg-1) and Zn fertilizer (0, 7 mg Zn kg-1) were buried and incubated in the field over 210 days to explore the response of soil Zn availability and the ageing of exogenous Zn to straw addition. Results indicated that adding straw alone scarcely affected soil DTPA-Zn concentration and Zn fractions because of the low Zn concentration of wheat straw and the high soil pH, and large clay and calcium carbonate contents. However, adding exogenous Zn plus straw increased the DTPA-Zn abundance by about 5-fold and had the similar results to adding exogenous Zn alone, corresponding to the increased Zn fraction loosely bounded to organic matter, which had a more dominant presence in Zn reaction than soil other constituents such as carbonate and minerals in calcareous soil. The higher relative amount of ineffective Zn (~50%) after water soluble Zn addition also occurred, and at the days of 120–165 and 180–210when the natural temperature and rainfall changed mildly, the ageing process of exogenous Zn over time was well evaluated by the diffusion equation, respectively. Consequently, combining crop residues with exogenous water soluble Zn application is promising strategy to maximize the availability of Zn in calcareous soil, but the higher ageing rate of Zn caused by the higher Zn mobility should be considered. PMID:28081179

  7. Effect of Straw Amendment on Soil Zn Availability and Ageing of Exogenous Water-Soluble Zn Applied to Calcareous Soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanlong; Cui, Juan; Tian, Xiaohong; Zhao, Aiqing; Li, Meng; Wang, Shaoxia; Li, Xiushaung; Jia, Zhou; Liu, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Organic matter plays a key role in availability and transformation of soil Zn (zinc), which greatly controls Zn concentrations in cereal grains and human Zn nutrition level. Accordingly, soils homogenized with the wheat straw (0, 12 g straw kg-1) and Zn fertilizer (0, 7 mg Zn kg-1) were buried and incubated in the field over 210 days to explore the response of soil Zn availability and the ageing of exogenous Zn to straw addition. Results indicated that adding straw alone scarcely affected soil DTPA-Zn concentration and Zn fractions because of the low Zn concentration of wheat straw and the high soil pH, and large clay and calcium carbonate contents. However, adding exogenous Zn plus straw increased the DTPA-Zn abundance by about 5-fold and had the similar results to adding exogenous Zn alone, corresponding to the increased Zn fraction loosely bounded to organic matter, which had a more dominant presence in Zn reaction than soil other constituents such as carbonate and minerals in calcareous soil. The higher relative amount of ineffective Zn (~50%) after water soluble Zn addition also occurred, and at the days of 120-165 and 180-210when the natural temperature and rainfall changed mildly, the ageing process of exogenous Zn over time was well evaluated by the diffusion equation, respectively. Consequently, combining crop residues with exogenous water soluble Zn application is promising strategy to maximize the availability of Zn in calcareous soil, but the higher ageing rate of Zn caused by the higher Zn mobility should be considered.

  8. Plant Litter Submergence Affects the Water Quality of a Constructed Wetland.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xu; Ping, Yunmei; Cui, Lijuan; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Fei-Hai; Prinzing, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Plant litter is an indispensable component of constructed wetlands, but how the submergence of plant litter affects their ecosystem functions and services, such as water purification, is still unclear. Moreover, it is also unclear whether the effects of plant litter submergence depend on other factors such as the duration of litter submergence, water source or litter species identity. Here we conducted a greenhouse experiment by submerging the litter of 7 wetland plant species into three types of water substrates and monitoring changes in water nutrient concentrations. Litter submergence affected water quality positively via decreasing the concentration of nitrate nitrogen and negatively via increasing the concentrations of total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus. The effects of litter submergence depended on the duration of litter submergence, the water source, the litter species identity, and the plant life form. Different plant species had different effects on the water nutrient concentrations during litter submergence, and the effects of floating plants might be more negative than that of emergent plants. These results are novel evidence of how the submergence of different plant (life form) litter may affect the purification function of constructed wetlands. For water at low eutrophication levels, submerging a relative small amount of plant litter might improve water quality, via benefiting the denitrification process in water. These findings emphasized the management of floating plant litter (a potential removal) during the maintenance of human-controlled wetland ecosystems and provided a potential tool to improve the water quality of constructed wetlands via submerging plant litter of different types.

  9. Reactivity of the Bacteria-Water Interface: Linking Nutrient Availability to Bacteria-Metal Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowle, D. A.; Daughney, C. J.; Riley, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    Identifying and quantifying the controls on metal mobilities in geologic systems is critical in order to understand processes such as global element cycling, metal transport in near-surface water-rock systems, sedimentary diagenesis, and mineral formation. Bacteria are ubiquitous in near-surface water-rock systems, and numerous laboratory and field studies have demonstrated that bacteria can facilitate the formation and dissolution of minerals, and enhance or inhibit contaminant transport. However, despite the growing evidence that bacteria play a key role in many geologic processes in low temperature systems, our understanding of the influence of the local nutrient dynamics of the system of interest on bacteria-metal interactions is limited. Here we present data demonstrating the effectiveness of coupling laboratory experiments with geochemical modeling to isolate the effect of nutrient availability on bacterially mediated proton and metal adsorption reactions. Experimental studies of metal-bacteria interactions were conducted in batch reactors as a function of pH, and solid-solute interactions after growth in a variety of defined and undefined media. Media nutrient composition (C,N,P) was quantified before and after harvesting the cells. Surface complexation models (SCM) for the adsorption reactions were developed by combining sorption data with the results of acid-base titrations, and in some cases zeta potential titrations of the bacterial surface. Our results indicate a clear change in both buffering potential and metal binding capacity of the cell walls of Bacillus subtilis as a function of initial media conditions. Combining current studies with our past studies on the effects of growth phase and others work on temperature dependence on metal adsorption we hope to develop a holistic surface complexation model for quantifying bacterial effects on metal mass transfer in many geologic systems.

  10. Vulnerability of water availability in India due to climate change: A bottom-up probabilistic Budyko analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Riddhi; Kumar, Rohini

    2015-11-01

    Quantifying the dependence of future water availability on changing climate is critical for water resources planning and management in water stressed countries like India. However, this remains a challenge as long-term streamflow data are scarce, and there are significant uncertainties regarding future climate change. We present a bottom-up probabilistic Budyko framework that estimates the vulnerability of available water to changing climate using three hydroclimatic variables: long-term precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and actual evapotranspiration. We assimilate these variables within a probabilistic Budyko framework to derive estimates of water availability and associated uncertainty. We then explore a large range of possible future climates to identify critical climate thresholds and their spatial variation across India. Based on this exploratory analysis, we find that southern India is most susceptible to changing climate with less than 10% decrease in precipitation causing a 25% decrease in water availability.

  11. 77 FR 20020 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... numeric water quality standards marine criterion for dissolved oxygen was not attained in these segments... waters for which existing technology-based pollution controls are not stringent enough to attain...

  12. EPA Technology Available for Licensing: Portable Device to Concentrate Water Samples for Microorganism Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Using a computer controlled system, this ultrafiltration device automates the process of concentrating a water sample and can be operated in the field. The system was also designed to reduce human exposure to potentially contaminated water.

  13. 75 FR 71431 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... decisions identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in California to be listed... are not stringent enough to attain or maintain state water quality standards and for which total... not to list several water quality limited segments as impaired and additional associated...

  14. The science, information, and engineering needed to manage water availability and quality in 2050: Chapter 23

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores four water resources issues: 1) hydrologic variability, hazards, water supply and ecosystem preservation; 2) urban landscape design; 3) non-point source water quality, and 4) climate change, resiliency, and nonstationarity. It also considers what science, technology, and engineering practice may be needed in the coming decades to sustain water supplies and ecosystems in the face of increasing stresses from a growing demand for water. Dealing with these four water resource issues in the highly uncertain future would will demand predictive models that are rooted in real-world data. In a non-stationary world, continuity of observations is crucial. All watersheds are influenced by human actions through changes in land use, water use, and climate. The focus of water planning and management between today and 2050 will depend more than ever on collection and analysis of long-term data to learn about the evolving state of the system, understanding ecosystem processes in the water and on the landscape, and finding innovative ways to manage water as a shared resource. This includes sharing water with our neighbors on the landscape, sharing with the other species that depend on water, and sharing with future generations.

  15. Balancing global water availability and use at basin scale in an integrated assessment model

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Son H.; Hejazi, Mohamad; Liu, Lu; Calvin, Katherine; Clarke, Leon; Edmonds, Jae; Kyle, Page; Patel, Pralit; Wise, Marshall; Davies, Evan

    2016-01-22

    Water is essential for the world’s food supply, for energy production, including bioenergy and hydroelectric power, and for power system cooling. Water is already scarce in many regions of the world and could present a critical constraint as society attempts simultaneously to mitigate climate forcing and adapt to climate change, and to provide for a larger and more prosperous human population. Numerous studies have pointed to growing pressures on the world’s scarce fresh water resources from population and economic growth, and climate change. This study goes further. We use the Global Change Assessment Model to analyze interactions between population, economic growth, energy, land, and water resources simultaneously in a dynamically evolving system where competing claims on water resources from all claimants—energy, land, and economy—are reconciled with water resource availability—from renewable water, non-renewable groundwater and desalinated water sources —across 14 geopolitical regions, 151 agriculture-ecological zones, and 235 major river basins. We find that previous estimates of global water withdrawal projections are overestimated. Model simulations show that it is more economical in some basins to alter agricultural and energy activities rather than utilize non-renewable groundwater or desalinated water. Lastly, this study highlights the importance of accounting for water as a binding factor in agriculture, energy and land use decisions in integrated assessment models and implications for global responses to water scarcity, particularly in the trade of agricultural commodities and land-use decisions.

  16. Balancing global water availability and use at basin scale in an integrated assessment model

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Son H.; Hejazi, Mohamad; Liu, Lu; ...

    2016-01-22

    Water is essential for the world’s food supply, for energy production, including bioenergy and hydroelectric power, and for power system cooling. Water is already scarce in many regions of the world and could present a critical constraint as society attempts simultaneously to mitigate climate forcing and adapt to climate change, and to provide for a larger and more prosperous human population. Numerous studies have pointed to growing pressures on the world’s scarce fresh water resources from population and economic growth, and climate change. This study goes further. We use the Global Change Assessment Model to analyze interactions between population, economicmore » growth, energy, land, and water resources simultaneously in a dynamically evolving system where competing claims on water resources from all claimants—energy, land, and economy—are reconciled with water resource availability—from renewable water, non-renewable groundwater and desalinated water sources —across 14 geopolitical regions, 151 agriculture-ecological zones, and 235 major river basins. We find that previous estimates of global water withdrawal projections are overestimated. Model simulations show that it is more economical in some basins to alter agricultural and energy activities rather than utilize non-renewable groundwater or desalinated water. Lastly, this study highlights the importance of accounting for water as a binding factor in agriculture, energy and land use decisions in integrated assessment models and implications for global responses to water scarcity, particularly in the trade of agricultural commodities and land-use decisions.« less

  17. The sensitivity of water availability to aridity changes and other factors - a probabilistic analysis in the Budyko-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Lukas; Greve, Peter

    2016-04-01

    One of the pending questions in the context of global change is (i) whether climatic drivers or (ii) other factors have a stronger influence on water availability. Here we present an idealised approach that allows to estimate the probability that changes in climatological aridity have a larger effect on water availability than other factors. The analysis builds upon a probabilistic extension of the Budyko framework, which is subject to an analytical sensitivity assessment. The results show that changes in water availability are dominated by changes in the aridity index in humid climates. In arid climates other factors are dominating. A global application predicts only little influence of aridity changes on water availability in drylands. This implies that the projected intensification of aridity in dry regions may have less influence on water availability than commonly assumed. Instead other factors, including e.g. land use change, are likely dominating.

  18. User manuals for the Delaware River Basin Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (DRB–WATER) and associated WATER application utilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2015-11-18

    The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) is a decision support system (DSS) for the nontidal part of the Delaware River Basin (DRB) that provides a consistent and objective method of simulating streamflow under historical, forecasted, and managed conditions. WATER integrates geospatial sampling of landscape characteristics, including topographic and soil properties, with a regionally calibrated hillslope-hydrology model, an impervious-surface model, and hydroclimatic models that have been parameterized using three hydrologic response units—forested, agricultural, and developed land cover. It is this integration that enables the regional hydrologic-modeling approach used in WATER without requiring site-specific optimization or those stationary conditions inferred when using a statistical model. The DSS provides a “historical” database, ideal for simulating streamflow for 2001–11, in addition to land-cover forecasts that focus on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities are provided with the DSS and apply change factors for precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration to a 1981–2011 climatic record provided with the DSS. These change factors were derived from a suite of general circulation models (GCMs) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios. These change factors are based on 25-year monthly averages (normals) that are centere on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities also can be used to apply a 2010 snapshot of water use for the DRB; a factorial approach enables scenario testing of increased or decreased water use for each simulation. Finally, the WATER Application Utilities can be used to reformat streamflow time series for input to statistical or reservoir management software. 

  19. Quantifying corn yield and water use efficiency in response to growth-stage based irrigation scheduling and seasonal water availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A calibrated agricultural system model can help optimize limited irrigation water for higher crop yield and water use efficiency (WUE) across a wide range of climate conditions. In this study, the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM2) was calibrated for corn growth under a range of irrigation treat...

  20. Balancing global water availability and use at basin scale in an integrated assessment model

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Son H.; Hejazi, Mohamad; Liu, Lu; Calvin, Katherine; Clarke, Leon; Edmonds, Jae; Kyle, Page; Patel, Pralit; Wise, Marshall; Davies, Evan

    2016-01-22

    Water is essential for the world’s food supply, for energy production, including bioenergy and hydroelectric power, and for power system cooling. Water is already scarce in many regions of the world and could present a critical constraint as society attempts simultaneously to mitigate climate forcing and adapt to climate change, and to provide for a larger and more prosperous human population. Numerous studies have pointed to growing pressures on the world’s scarce fresh water resources from population and economic growth, and climate change. This study goes further. We use the Global Change Assessment Model to analyze interactions between population, economic growth, energy, land and water resources simultaneously in a dynamically evolving system where competing claims on water resources from all claimants—energy, land, and economy—are reconciled with water resource availability—from renewable water, non-renewable groundwater sources and desalinated water—across 14 geopolitical regions, 151 agriculture-ecological zones, and 235 major river basins. We find that previous estimates of global water withdrawal projections are overestimated. Model simulations show that it is more economical in some basins to alter agricultural and energy activities rather than utilize non-renewable groundwater or desalinated water. This study highlights the importance of accounting for water as a binding factor in agriculture, energy and land use decisions in IAMs and implications for global responses to water scarcity, particularly in the trade of agricultural commodities and land-use decisions.

  1. Water Availability and Use Pilot-A multiscale assessment in the U.S. Great Lakes Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Howard W.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 2005, water availability and use were assessed for the U.S. part of the Great Lakes Basin through the Great Lakes Basin Pilot of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) national assessment of water availability and use. The goals of a national assessment of water availability and use are to clarify our understanding of water-availability status and trends and improve our ability to forecast the balance between water supply and demand for future economic and environmental uses. This report outlines possible approaches for full-scale implementation of such an assessment. As such, the focus of this study was on collecting, compiling, and analyzing a wide variety of data to define the storage and dynamics of water resources and quantify the human demands on water in the Great Lakes region. The study focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to highlight not only the abundant regional availability of water but also the potential for local shortages or conflicts over water. Regional studies provided a framework for understanding water resources in the basin. Subregional studies directed attention to varied aspects of the water-resources system that would have been difficult to assess for the whole region because of either data limitations or time limitations for the project. The study of local issues and concerns was motivated by regional discussions that led to recent legislative action between the Great Lakes States and regional cooperation with the Canadian Great Lakes Provinces. The multiscale nature of the study findings challenges water-resource managers and the public to think about regional water resources in an integrated way and to understand how future changes to the system-driven by human uses, climate variability, or land-use change-may be accommodated by informed water-resources management.

  2. Association of root, specific leaf area and SPAD chlorophyll meter reading to water use efficiency of peanut under different available soil water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is the major abiotic constraint affecting peanut productivity and quality worldwide. There is a pressing need to improve the water use efficiency (WUE) of rain-fed peanut production. Breeding varieties with high water use efficiency is seen as providing part of the solution. The objective...

  3. Seedling survival responses to irradiance are differentially influenced by low-water availability in four tree species of the Iberian cool temperate--Mediterranean ecotone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Gómez, David; Zavala, Miguel A.; Valladares, Fernando

    2006-11-01

    Inter-specific differences in seedling survival responses along a sun-shade gradient and the influence of low-water availability were examined for four Iberian tree species (Q uercus robur L., Quercus pyrenaica Willd., Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus pinaster Ait.) typical of the cool temperate-Mediterranean transition zone. Seedlings were grown under controlled conditions in a factorial experiment with four levels of irradiance (1%, 6%, 20% and 100% of full sunlight) and two levels of water availability. Five censuses (from late spring to autumn) leading to four regular intervals (T 0 → T I; T I → T II; T II → T III; T III → T IV) were established. Statistical models of seedling survival as a function of irradiance were calibrated throughout the whole experiment (T 0 → T IV) and also for each time interval and water availability level. Seedling survival responses among different species diverged both in the type of functional response to irradiance and in their response to water stress. Ranking of species according to shade tolerance ( Q. pyrenaica > Q. robur > P. sylvestris > P. pinaster) contrasted with tolerance of high irradiance and conformed to a hypothetical sun-shade trade-off for survival (i.e. species having higher survival in low irradiance—oaks—had poorer survival at high irradiance and vice-versa). Low-water availability also differentially affected each species, with pines being more drought tolerant than oaks. At an intra-specific level, low-water availability decreased survival of Q. pyrenaica under both high and low irradiance. For Q. robur, however, low-water availability exerted a relatively stronger effect under low irradiance. Consequences of the interplay between irradiance and water availability for explaining segregation and coexistence of forest tree species at the ecotone between cool temperate and Mediterranean forests are discussed.

  4. Nonequilibrium water dynamics in the rhizosphere: How mucilage affects water flow in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, Eva; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The flow of water from soil to plant roots is controlled by the properties of the narrow region of soil close to the roots, the rhizosphere. In particular, the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere are altered by mucilage, a polymeric gel exuded by the roots. In this paper we present experimental results and a conceptual model of water flow in unsaturated soils mixed with mucilage. A central hypothesis of the model is that the different drying/wetting rate of mucilage compared to the bulk soil results in nonequilibrium relations between water content and water potential in the rhizosphere. We coupled this nonequilibrium relation with the Richards equation and obtained a constitutive equation for water flow in soil and mucilage. To test the model assumptions, we measured the water retention curve and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of sandy soil mixed with mucilage from chia seeds. Additionally, we used neutron radiography to image water content in a layer of soil mixed with mucilage during drying and wetting cycles. The radiographs demonstrated the occurrence of nonequilibrium water dynamics in the soil-mucilage mixture. The experiments were simulated by numerically solving the nonequilibrium model. Our study provides conceptual and experimental evidences that mucilage has a strong impact on soil water dynamics. During drying, mucilage maintains a greater soil water content for an extended time, while during irrigation it delays the soil rewetting. We postulate that mucilage exudation by roots attenuates plant water stress by modulating water content dynamics in the rhizosphere.

  5. Monitoring natural and anthropogenic induced variations in water availability across Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M.; Sultan, M.; Wahr, J. M.; Yan, E.

    2014-12-01

    Africa, the second-driest continent in the world after Australia, is one of the most vulnerable continents to climate change. Understanding the impacts of climatic and anthropogenic factors on Africa's hydrologic systems is vital for the assessment and utilization of Africa's water resources. In this study, we utilize the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and land surface models (LSM; GLDAS and CLM4.5) in conjunction with other readily-available temporal climatic and remote sensing, geological and hydrological datasets for monitoring the spatial and temporal trends in Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) over a time period of 10 years (01/2003-12/2012) over the African continent and to investigate the nature (e.g., climatic and/or human pressures-related) of, and the controlling factors causing, these variations. Spatial and temporal (i.e., time series analysis) correlations of the trends extracted from GRACE-derived (TWSGRACE) and LSM-derived (TWSLSM) TWS indicate the following: (1) Large (≥ 90 % by area) sectors of Africa are undergoing statistically significant TWSGRACE and TWSLSM variations due to natural and anthropogenic causes; (2) a general correspondence between TWSGRACE and TWSLSM over areas (e.g., Niger and Mozambique NE basins in eastern and western Africa) largely controlled by natural (i.e., increase/decrease in precipitation and/or temperature) causes; (3) discrepancies are observed over areas that witnessed extensive anthropogenic effects measured by TWSGRACE but unaccounted for by TWSLSM. Examples include: (a) strong (compared to that observed by TWSLSM) negative TWSGRACE trends were observed over areas that witnessed heavy groundwater extraction (e.g., Western, Desert, Egypt); (b) strong (compared to that observed by TWSLSM) positive TWSGRACE over Lake Volta reservoir; and (c) strong (compared to that observed by TWSLSM) negative trends over areas undergoing heavy deforestation (e.g., northern and NW Congo Basin); (4) additional

  6. Dietary available phosphorus affected growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qin; Wang, Chunfang; Xie, Congxin; Jin, Jiali; Huang, Yanqing

    2012-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was carried out with juvenile yellow catfish to study the effects of dietary available phosphorus (P) on growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property. Six pellet diets were formulated to contain graded available P levels at 0.33, 0.56, 0.81, 1.15, 1.31, and 1.57% of dry matter, respectively. Triplicate tanks with each tank containing 60 juveniles (3.09 ± 0.03 g) were fed one of the six experimental diets for 8 weeks. Specific growth rate, feeding rate, and protein efficiency ratio were significantly higher at 0.81% dietary available P. Efficiency of P utilization distinctly decreased with increasing P level. Body lipid content significantly decreased while body ash and feces P content significantly increased with increasing P level. Quadratic regression analysis indicated that vertebrae P content was maximized at 1.21% dietary available P. Fish fed 1.57% dietary available P had highest activity of hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase and malonaldehyde content. In conclusion, decreasing dietary available P increased P utilization efficiency and body lipid content while decreased vertebrae P content. Juvenile yellow catfish were subjected to oxidative damage under the condition of high dietary P content (1.57%), and the damage could not be eradicated by their own antioxidant defense system.

  7. Availability of water controls Crassulacean acid metabolism in succulents of the Richtersveld (Namib desert, South Africa).

    PubMed

    von Willert, D J; Brinckmann, E; Scheitler, B; Eller, B M

    1985-05-01

    Features of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) were studied in a variety of different succulents in response to climatic conditions between March 1977 and October 1983 in the southern Namib desert (Richtersveld). A screening in 1977 and 1978 revealed that nearly all investigated succulents performed a CAM, but overnight accumulation of malate declined gradually with decreasing soil water potential, tissue osmotic potential, and leaf water content. This was further substantiated by an extended period of insufficient rainfall in 1979 and 1980 which damaged the evergreen CAM succulents between 80 and 100%. In most of the species still living, neither CO2-gas exchange nor diurnal acid fluctuation, indicative of CAM, could be detected unless an abundant rainfall restored both CAM features. Plants persisted in a stage of latent life.Water supply is one necessary prerequisite for CAM in the Richtersveld. But even well-watered plants with CAM were sensitive to short-term water stress caused by high water-vapour partialpressure deficit (VPD) in the night, which reduced or prevented CO2 uptake and resulted in a linear relation between overnight accumulated malate and VPD. The results do not support the opinion that, for the Namib succulents, CAM is an adaptive mechanism to water stress since long-term and short-term water stress stopped nocturnal malate synthesis, but instead lead to the conclusion that nocuturnal CO2 fixation is only performed when the water status of the plant can be improved simultaneously.

  8. 76 FR 20664 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... because the applicable numeric water quality standards marine criterion for dissolved oxygen was not... quality standards marine criterion for dissolved oxygen was not attained in these segments. EPA...

  9. [Water disinfection by the combined exposure to super-high frequency energy and available chlorine produced during water electrolysis].

    PubMed

    Klimarev, S I; Siniak, Iu E

    2014-01-01

    The article reports the results of studying the effects on polluted water of SHF-energy together with the residual free (active) chlorine as a by-product of electrolysis action on dissolved chlorine-containing salts. Purpose of the studies was to evaluate input of these elements to the water disinfection effect. The synergy was found to kill microorganisms without impacts on the physicochemical properties of processed water or nutrient medium; therefore, it can be used for water treatment, and cultivation of microorganisms in microbiology.

  10. Estimating plant available water for general crop simulations in ALMANAC/APEX/EPIC/SWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process-based simulation models ALMANAC/APEX/EPIC/SWAT contain generalized plant growth subroutines to predict biomass and crop yield. Environmental constraints typically restrict plant growth and yield. Water stress is often an important limiting factor; it is calculated as the sum of water use f...

  11. Prasinovirus distribution in the Northwest Mediterranean Sea is affected by the environment and particularly by phosphate availability.

    PubMed

    Clerissi, Camille; Grimsley, Nigel; Subirana, Lucie; Maria, Eric; Oriol, Louise; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Moreau, Hervé; Desdevises, Yves

    2014-10-01

    Numerous seawater lagoons punctuate the southern coastline of France. Exchanges of seawater between these lagoons and the open sea are limited by narrow channels connecting them. Lagoon salinities vary according to evaporation and to the volume of freshwater arriving from influent streams, whose nutrients also promote the growth of algae. We compared Prasinovirus communities, whose replication is supported by microscopic green algae, in four lagoons and at a coastal sampling site. Using high-throughput sequencing of DNA from a giant virus-specific marker gene, we show that the environmental conditions significantly affect the types of detectable viruses across samples. In spatial comparisons between 5 different sampling sites, higher levels of phosphates, nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and silicates tend to increase viral community richness independently of geographical distances between the sampling sites. Finally, comparisons of Prasinovirus communities at 2 sampling sites over a period of 10 months highlighted seasonal effects and the preponderant nature of phosphate concentrations in constraining viral distribution.

  12. Resource availability affects individual niche variation and its consequences in group-living European badgers Meles meles.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Andrew; McDonald, Robbie A; Delahay, Richard J; Kelly, Simon D; Bearhop, Stuart

    2015-05-01

    Although intra-population variation in niches is a widespread phenomenon with important implications for ecology, evolution and management of a range of animal species, the causes and consequences of this variation remain poorly understood. We used stable isotope analysis to characterise foraging niches and to investigate the causes and consequences of individual niche variation in the European badger, a mustelid mammal that lives in territorial social groups, but forages alone. We found that the degree of individual niche variation within social groups was negatively related to the availability of farmland habitats, which represent an important foraging habitat for badgers; and was positively related to territory size, supporting the idea that resource limitation and ecological opportunity lead to increased individual specialisation. We also found that the degree of individual specialisation related to an individual's body condition and that this effect varied with ecological context; such that specialisation had a stronger positive relationship with body condition in social groups with reduced availability of key farmland habitats. Body condition was also related to the utilisation of specific resources (woodland invertebrates), but again this relationship varied with the availability of farmland foraging habitats. This study supports the idea that resource availability plays an important role in determining patterns of individual niche variation, and identifies the potential adaptive consequences of specialised foraging strategies.

  13. Availability of ground water in parts of the Acoma and Laguna Indian Reservations, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinwiddie, George A.; Motts, Ward Sundt

    1964-01-01

    The need for additional water has increased in recent years on the Acoma and Laguna Indian Reservations in west-central New Mexico because the population and per capita use of water have increased; the tribes also desire water for light industry, for more modern schools, and to increase their irrigation program. Many wells have been drilled in the area, but most have been disappointing because of small yields and poor chemical quality of the water. The topography in the Acoma and Laguna Indian Reservations is controlled primarily by the regional and local dip of alternating beds of sandstone and shale and by the igneous complex of Mount Taylor. The entrenched alluvial valley along the Rio San Jose, which traverses the area, ranges in width from about 0.4 mile to about 2 miles. The climate is characterized by scant rainfall, which occurs mainly in summer, low relative humidity, and large daily fluctuations of temperature. Most of the surface water enters the area through the Rio San Jose. The average annual streamflow past the gaging station Rio San Jose near Grants, N. Mex. is about 4,000 acre-feet. Tributaries to the Rio San Jose within the area probably contribute about 1,000 acre-feet per year. At the present time, most of the surface water is used for irrigation. Ground water is obtained from consolidated sedimentary rocks that range in age from Triassic to Cretaceous, and from unconsolidated alluvium of Quaternary age. The principal aquifers are the Dakota Sandstone, the Tres Hermanos Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale, and the alluvium. The Dakota Sandstone yields 5 to 50 gpm (gallons per minute) of water to domestic and stock wells. The Tres Hermanos sandstone Member generally yields 5 to 20 gpm of water to domestic and stock wells. Locally, beds of sandstone in the Chinle and Morrison Formations, the Entrada Sandstone, and the Bluff Sandstone also yield small supplies of water to domestic and stock wells. The alluvium yields from 2 gpm to as much as 150

  14. Evaluation of available saline water resources in New Mexico for the production of microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Lansford, R.; Hernandez, J.; Enis, P.; Truby, D.; Mapel, C.

    1990-08-01

    Researchers evaluated saline water resources in New Mexico for their suitability as sites for large-scale microalgae production facilities. Production of microalgae could provide a renewable source of fuel, chemicals, and food. In addition, making use of the unused saline water resources would increase the economic activity in the state. After analyzing the 15 billion acre-ft of unused saline water resources in the state, scientists narrowed the locations down to six sites with the most potential. With further analysis, they chose the Tularosa Basin in southern New Mexico as the best-suited area for 100-hectare microalgae production facility. 34 refs., 38 figs., 14 tabs.

  15. Ground-Water Availability in the Wailuku Area, Maui, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.

    2008-01-01

    Most of the public water supply in Maui, Hawai'i, is from a freshwater lens in the Wailuku area of the island. Because of population growth, ground-water withdrawals from wells in this area increased from less than 10 Mgal/d during 1970 to about 23 Mgal/d during 2006. In response to increased withdrawals from the freshwater lens in the Wailuku area, water levels declined, the transition zone between freshwater and saltwater became shallower, and the chloride concentrations of water pumped from wells increased. These responses led to concern over the long-term sustainability of withdrawals from existing and proposed wells. A three-dimensional numerical ground-water flow and transport model was developed to simulate the effects of selected withdrawal and recharge scenarios on water levels, on the transition zone between freshwater and saltwater, and on surface-water/ground-water interactions. The model was constructed using time-varying recharge, withdrawals, and ocean levels. Hydraulic characteristics used to construct the model were initially based on published estimates but ultimately were varied to obtain better agreement between simulated and measured water levels and salinity profiles in the modeled area during the period 1926-2006. Scenarios included ground-water withdrawal at 2006 and 1996 rates and locations with average recharge (based on 2000-04 land use and 1926-2004 rainfall) and withdrawal at redistributed rates and locations with several different recharge scenarios. Simulation results indicate that continuing 1996 and 2006 withdrawal distributions into the future results in decreased water levels, a thinner freshwater lens, increased salinity from pumped wells, and higher salinity at several current withdrawal sites. A redistributed withdrawal condition in which ground-water withdrawal was redistributed to maximize withdrawal and minimize salinities in the withdrawn water was determined. The redistributed withdrawal simulates 27.1 Mgal/d of withdrawal

  16. Putative Membrane-Bound Transporters MFSD14A and MFSD14B Are Neuronal and Affected by Nutrient Availability

    PubMed Central

    Lekholm, Emilia; Perland, Emelie; Eriksson, Mikaela M.; Hellsten, Sofie V.; Lindberg, Frida A.; Rostami, Jinar; Fredriksson, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of orphan transporters is of importance due to their involvement in cellular homeostasis but also in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The tissue and cellular localization, as well as function, is still unknown for many of the solute carriers belonging to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) Pfam clan. Here, we have characterized two putative novel transporters MFSD14A (HIAT1) and MFSD14B (HIATL1) in the mouse central nervous system and found protein staining throughout the adult mouse brain. Both transporters localized to neurons and MFSD14A co-localized with the Golgi marker Giantin in primary embryonic cortex cultures, while MFSD14B staining co-localized with an endoplasmic retention marker, KDEL. Based on phylogenetic clustering analyses, we predict both to have organic substrate profiles, and possible involvement in energy homeostasis. Therefore, we monitored gene regulation changes in mouse embryonic primary cultures after amino acid starvations and found both transporters to be upregulated after 3 h of starvation. Interestingly, in mice subjected to 24 h of food starvation, both transporters were downregulated in the hypothalamus, while Mfsd14a was also downregulated in the brainstem. In addition, in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), upregulation of both transporters was seen in the striatum. Both MFSD14A and MFSD14B were intracellular neuronal membrane-bound proteins, expressed in the Golgi and Endoplasmic reticulum, affected by both starvation and HFD to varying degree in the mouse brain. PMID:28179877

  17. COSMOS soil water sensing affected by crop biomass and water status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water sensing methods are widely used to characterize water content in the root zone and below, but only a few are capable of sensing soil volumes larger than a few hundred liters. Scientists with the USDA-ARS Conservation & Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas, evaluated: a) the Cos...

  18. 76 FR 49787 - Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... for appraisal investigations and feasibility studies for rural water supply projects intended to serve... alternative that warrants a more detailed investigation through a feasibility study. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... address those needs through appraisal investigations and feasibility studies. ] Background The...

  19. Analysis of projected water availability with current basin management plan, Pajaro Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.; Lockwood, Brian; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of projected supply and demand for the Pajaro Valley indicate that the current water supply facilities constructed to provide alternative local sources of supplemental water to replace coastal groundwater pumpage, but may not completely eliminate additional overdraft. The simulation of the coastal distribution system (CDS) replicates: 20 miles of conveyance pipeline, managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MARR) system that captures local runoff, and recycled-water treatment facility (RWF) from urban wastewater, along with the use of other blend water supplies, provide partial relief and substitution for coastal pumpage (aka in-lieu recharge). The effects of these Basin Management Plan (BMP) projects were analyzed subject to historical climate variations and assumptions of 2009 urban water demand and land use. Water supplied directly from precipitation, and indirectly from reuse, captured local runoff, and groundwater is necessary but inadequate to satisfy agricultural demand without coastal and regional storage depletion that facilitates seawater intrusion. These facilities reduce potential seawater intrusion by about 45% with groundwater levels in the four regions served by the CDS projected to recover to levels a few feet above sea level. The projected recoveries are not high enough to prevent additional seawater intrusion during dry-year periods or in the deeper aquifers where pumpage is greater. While these facilities could reduce coastal pumpage by about 55% of the historical 2000–2009 pumpage for these regions, and some of the water is delivered in excess of demand, other coastal regions continue to create demands on coastal pumpage that will need to be replaced to reduce seawater intrusion. In addition, inland urban and agricultural demands continue to sustain water levels below sea level causing regional landward gradients that also drive seawater intrusion. Seawater intrusion is reduced by about 45% but it supplies about 55% of the recovery

  20. Availability of ground water in York County, Nebraska; Contributions to the Hydrology of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keech, Charles Franklin; Dreeszen, V.H.; Emery, Philip A.

    1967-01-01

    York County, an area of 575 square miles, is situated on an upland plain in southeast Nebraska. Although tributaries of the Big Blue River have eroded valleys into this plain, much of the original surface is still intact and is characterized by broad shallow undrained depressions. The economy is based almost wholly on agriculture, and corn is the major crop. More than 111,000 acres of cropland was irrigated in 1964 with water pumped from 1,240 wells. The upland plain is underlain to depths of 100-450 feet by unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age. The upper part of this depositional sequence consists largely of wind-deposited clayey silt, and the lower part consists of stream-deposited sand and gravel. In part of the county, the sequence includes some glacial till also. The unconsolidated Quaternary deposits mantle the eroded surface of marine strata of Cretaceous age. The lower unconsolidated rocks of Quaternary age are saturated and constitute a highly productive aquifer throughout much of the county. Replenishment to this aquifer, derived principally from precipitation, is believed to average about 1.5 inches per year. As the quantity of ground water pumped per year greatly exceeds the average annual quantity of recharge, most of the. water used for irrigation is from storage. Consequently, water levels have been trending downward. A comparison of 1964 water levels in wells with water levels measured in 1953 shows that the water table declined more than 10 feet beneath 42 square miles. The ground water is of the calcium bicarbonate type, and, though hard, is chemically suitable for irrigation use on most soils in the county.

  1. Growth, biomass allocation and nutrient use efficiency in Cladium jamaicense and Typha domingensis as affected by phosphorus and oxygen availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenzen, B.; Brix, H.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; McKee, K.L.; Miao, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of phosphorus (P) and oxygen availability on growth, biomass allocation and nutrient use efficiency in Cladium jamaicense Crantz and Typha domingensis Pers. were studied in a growth facility equipped with steady-state hydroponic rhizotrons. The treatments included four P concentrations (10, 40, 80 and 500 ??g I-1) and two oxygen concentration (8.0 and <0.5 mg O2 I-1) in the culture solutions. In Cladium, no clear relationship was found between P availability and growth rate (19-37 mg g-1 d-1), the above to below ground biomass ratio (A/B) (mean = 4.6), or nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) (mean = 72 g dry weight g-1 N). However, the ratio between root supported tissue (leaves, rhizomes and ramets) and root biomass (S/R) (5.6-8) increased with P availability. In contrast, the growth rate (48-89 mg g-1 d-1) and the biomass ratios A/B (2.4-6.1) and S/R (5.4-10.3) of Typha increased with P availability, while NUE (71-30 g dry weight g-1 N) decreased. The proportion of root laterals was similar in the two species, but Typha had thinner root laterals (diameter = 186 ??m) than Cladium (diameter = 438 ??m) indicating a larger root surface area in Typha. The two species had a similar P use efficiency (PUE) at 10 ??g PI-1 (mean = 1134 g dry weight g-1 P) and at 40 and 80 ??g PI-1 (mean = 482 dry weight g-1 P) but the N/P ratio indicated imbalances in nutrient uptake at a higher P concentration (40 ??g PI-1) in Typha than in Cladium (10 ??g PI-1). The two species had similar root specific P accumulation rate at the two lowest P levels, whereas Typha had 3-13-fold higher P uptake rates at the two highest P levels, indicating a higher nutrient uptake capacity in Typha. The experimental oxygen concentration in the rhizosphere had only limited effect on the growth of the two species and had little effect on biomass partitioning and nutrient use efficiency. The aerenchyma in these species was probably sufficient to maintain adequate root oxygenation under partially oxygen

  2. A preliminary appraisal of the impact of agriculture on ground-water availability in Southwest Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollard, L.D.; Grantham, R.G.; Blanchard, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    Irrigated acreage in the 20-county study area in southwest Georgia increased from 130,000 acres in 1976 to 261,000 in 1977. Acreage irrigated entirely by ground water increased 85 percent for the same period. The largest quantity of ground water used for irrigation was in the Dougherty Plain district, where 92 percent of supplemental irrigation water comes from wells. The total amount of water pumped for irrigation in the Dougherty Plain in 1977 was more than 42 billion gallons, 30 billion gallons more than in 1976. There were no detectable concentrations of selected organic compounds and trace metals used in agricultural chemicals above the recommended limits for public consumption in 19 wells sampled for chemical analyses. Although nitrate concentrations were not above the recommended limits for drinking water, the presence of nitrate in amounts ranging from 0.3 to 7.8 milligrams per liter in wells in the Dougherty Plain possibly indicate the downward movement of soluble nitrate, a byproduct of fertilizer, into the ground-water reservoir. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Availability of fresh ground water, Montauk Point area, Suffolk County, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perlmutter, Nathaniel Matthew; DeLuca, Frank A.

    1963-01-01

    Ground water is the only source of supply at the Montauk Air Force Station n eastern Suffolk County. The water is contained in the upper 200 feet of deposits of late Pleistocene age, which are broadly divided into an upper unit of undifferentiated till and stratified drift and a lower unit of stratified drift. Fresh water in the principal aquifer, which is in the lower unit, is a lens-shaped body, which lies above salty water containing as much as 11,300 ppm of chloride. The fresh water is under artesian pressure and has a head ranging from about sea level to 3.5 feet above sea level. Pumping rates of 50 to 100 gpm cause salty water to move toward the. supply wells from below. The optimum pumping rate of most wells is about 30 gpm. New wells should be drilled as remote as possible from existing wells, and the well screens should be set as high above the zone of diffusion as the deposits permit.

  4. Water consumption patterns and factors contributing to water consumption in arsenic affected population of rural West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Amir; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Murrill, Matthew; Das, Bhaskar; Roy, Bimol; Dey, Shankar; Maity, Debasish; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2013-10-01

    A direct water intake study was conducted for one year, involving 423 individuals from three arsenic (As) affected villages of West Bengal, India. Average direct water intake per person and per unit body weight was found to be 3.12±1.17 L/day and 78.07±47.08 mL/kg/day (± SD), respectively. Average direct water intakes for adult males, adult females and children (age <15 years) were 3.95, 3.03 and 2.14 L/day, respectively. Significant sex differentials were observed between ages 16-55 years. For all participants, a sharp increase in water intake up to 15 years of age was observed followed by a plateau at a higher intake level. Significant monthly, seasonal, regional, and occupational variability was also observed. Another study involving 413 subjects determined the amount of indirect water intake. Average indirect water intake per person was 1.80±0.64 L/day; for adult males, adult females and children, intake was 2.15, 1.81, and 1.10 L/day, respectively. Average total (direct + indirect) water intake was 4.92 L/person/day; for adult males, adult females and children, total intake was 6.10, 4.84, and 3.24 L/person/day, respectively. The overall contribution of indirect water intake to total water consumption was 36.6% for all participants. This study additionally elucidated several factors that contribute to variable water intake, which can lead to better risk characterization of subpopulations and water contaminant ingestion. The study reveals that the water intake rates in the three studied populations in West Bengal are greater than the assumed water intake rates utilized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the establishment of drinking water quality guidelines; therefore, these assumed intake values may be inappropriate for the study population as well as similar ones.

  5. Do soil Fe transformation and secretion of low-molecular-weight organic acids affect the availability of Cd to rice?

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Yang, Yazhou; Liu, Danqing; Zhang, Chunhua; Ge, Ying

    2015-12-01

    The bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) to rice may be complicated by chemical and biological factors in the rhizosphere. The aim of this work is to investigate how soil iron (Fe) redox transformations and low-molecular-weight organic acid (LMWOA) exudation from root affect Cd accumulation in rice. Two soils (a paddy soil and a saline soil) with different physicochemical properties were used in this study. Soil redox conditions were changed by flooding and addition of organic matter (OM). Two days after the soil treatments, rice seedlings were transplanted in a vermiculite-soil system and grown for 10 days. We measured pH and Eh, LMWOA, Fe and Cd contents in rice, and their fractions in the soils and vermiculite. Cadmium accumulation in rice declined in both soils upon the flooding and OM treatment. Iron dissolution in the paddy soil and its deposition in the rhizosphere significantly increased upon the OM addition, but the concentration of Fe plaque on the rice root significantly declined. Conversely, although Fe transformed into less active fractions in the saline soil, Fe accumulation on the surface and in the tissue of root was considerably enhanced. The secretion of LMWOA was remarkably induced when the OM was amended in the saline soil, but the same effect was not observed in the paddy soil. Reduction of Cd uptake by rice could be attributed to different factors in the two soils. For the paddy soil, the lowered Cd bioavailability was likely due to the competition of Fe and Cd for the binding sites on the vermiculite surface. For the saline soil, however, rice responded to the low Fe mobility through more LMWOA exudation and Fe plaque formation, and their increases could explain the decrease of rice Cd.

  6. Availability of ground water in the Branch River basin; Providence County, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, H.E.; Dickerman, D.C.

    1974-01-01

    Stratified glacial drift consisting largely of sand and gravel constitutes the only aquifer capable of supporting continuous yields of 100 gpm (6.3 1/s) or more to individual wells. The aquifer covers about a third of the 79 mi 2 (205 km2) study area, occurring mainly in stream valleys that are less than a mi le wide. Its saturated thickness is commonly 40 to 60ft (12 to 18 m); its transmissivity is commonly 5,000 to 8,000 ft 2/day (460 to 740m2 /day). The aquifer is hydraulically connected to streams that cross it and much of the water from heavily pumped wells will consist of infiltration induced from them. Potential sustained yield from most parts of the aquifer is limited chiefly by the rate at which infiltration can be induced from streams or low streamflow, whichever is smaller. Ground-water withdrawals deplete streamflow; and if large-scale development of ground water is not carefully planned and managed, periods of no streamflow may result during dry weather. Potential sustained yield varies with the scheme of well development, and is evaluated for selected areas by mathematically simulating pumping from assumed schemes of well Is in models of the stream-aquifer system. Results indicate that sustained yields of 5.5, 3.4, 1.6, and 1.3 mgd (0.24, 0.15, 0.07, and 0.06 m3 /s) can be obtained from the stratified-drift aquifer near Slatersville, Oakland, Harrisville, and Chepachet, respectively. Pumping at these rates will not cause streams to go dry, if the water is returned to streams near points of withdrawal. A larger ground-water yield can be obtained, if periods of no streamflow along reaches of principal streams are acceptable. Inorganic chemical quality of water in the stream-aquifer system is suitable for most purposes; the water is soft, slightly acidic, and generally contains less than 100 milligrams per litre of dissolved sol ids. Continued good quality ground water depends on maintenance of good quality of water in streams, because much of the water

  7. Plant Litter Submergence Affects the Water Quality of a Constructed Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lijuan; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Fei-Hai; Prinzing, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Plant litter is an indispensable component of constructed wetlands, but how the submergence of plant litter affects their ecosystem functions and services, such as water purification, is still unclear. Moreover, it is also unclear whether the effects of plant litter submergence depend on other factors such as the duration of litter submergence, water source or litter species identity. Here we conducted a greenhouse experiment by submerging the litter of 7 wetland plant species into three types of water substrates and monitoring changes in water nutrient concentrations. Litter submergence affected water quality positively via decreasing the concentration of nitrate nitrogen and negatively via increasing the concentrations of total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus. The effects of litter submergence depended on the duration of litter submergence, the water source, the litter species identity, and the plant life form. Different plant species had different effects on the water nutrient concentrations during litter submergence, and the effects of floating plants might be more negative than that of emergent plants. These results are novel evidence of how the submergence of different plant (life form) litter may affect the purification function of constructed wetlands. For water at low eutrophication levels, submerging a relative small amount of plant litter might improve water quality, via benefiting the denitrification process in water. These findings emphasized the management of floating plant litter (a potential removal) during the maintenance of human-controlled wetland ecosystems and provided a potential tool to improve the water quality of constructed wetlands via submerging plant litter of different types. PMID:28129405

  8. WATER QUALITY IN THE NEAR COASTAL WATERS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AFFECTED BY HURRICANE KATRINA: BEFORE AND AFTER THE STORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality was assessed following Hurricane Katrina in the affected waters of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. Post-landfall water quality was compared to pre-hurricane conditions using indicators assessed by EPA's National Coastal Assessment program and additional indicat...

  9. Hydrogeology, chemical quality, and availability of ground water in the Upper Floridan aquifer, Albany area, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hicks, D.W.; Gill, H.E.; Longsworth, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Large withdrawals of groundwater in the 1500 sq mi Albany area of southwestern Georgia have lowered water levels in deep aquifers as much as 140 ft. This study was conducted to evaluate the development potential of the shallow Upper Floridan aquifer as an alternate source of groundwater, especially for public supply. The Upper Floridan stores and transmits large quantities of water, mainly in a zone of high permeability in the lower part of the aquifer. The transmissivity of the aquifer ranges from < 10,000 sq ft/day northwest of Albany, to as much as 150 ,000 sq ft/day south and southeast of Albany. Twenty-eight years of agricultural and industrial pumping has not produced a long-term decline of the water level in the Upper Floridan; the aquifer system remains at equilibrium. The Upper Floridan yields hard, calcium bicarbonate-type water but concentrations do not exceed State drinking water standards. In most of the study area , contaminants applied to or spilled on the land surface eventually can be expected to percolate through the overburden and reach the aquifer. Thus, it is important that wells be sited away from areas that have been used for the storage and disposal of potential contaminants and, probably to a lesser extent, the application of agricultural chemicals. In the area of greatest development potential east of the Flint River, wells may penetrate major groundwater conduits. By limiting drawdown during well development and during production, the likelihood of causing sinkholes to form can be minimized. Closed depressions, or sinks, throughout the Dougherty Plain probably are unsuitable as well sites, because (1) they are subject to flooding, (2) they collect water from upgradient areas and could concentrate potential contaminants, (3) water probably percolates through their bottoms and could transport contaminants into the aquifer, and (4) the depressions may overlie limestone cavities filled with sand or clay that could interfere with well yield

  10. Antibiotics and oxygen availability affect the short-term storage of spermatozoa from the critically endangered booroolong frog, Litoria booroolongensis.

    PubMed

    Silla, Aimee J; Keogh, Leesa M; Byrne, Phillip G

    2015-11-01

    Sperm-storage technologies aim to extend sperm longevity and increase the time available to achieve artificial fertilisation. The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects of antibiotic supplementation (4mgmL(-1) gentamicin) and altered gaseous storage environment (100%, 20% and 0% O2) on sperm longevity in the critically endangered booroolong frog, Litoria booroolongensis. A split-sample experimental design was adopted, whereby each sperm suspension (n=10) was evenly divided among six experimental treatments (100% O2 with antibiotic, 20% O2 with antibiotic, 0% O2 with antibiotic, 100% O2 without antibiotic, 20% O2 without antibiotic, 0% O2 without antibiotic). Sperm suspensions were refrigerated at 5°C for the duration of the 21-day storage period. Percentage sperm motility and sperm velocity were quantified every 3 days using a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Treatments aerated with either 100% or 20% oxygen, without the addition of the antibiotic gentamicin, consistently exhibited the highest percentage sperm motility. On Day 21 of storage, sperm suspensions in these two treatments (100% O2 without antibiotic, 20% O2 without antibiotic) maintained 61.3% and 52.0% sperm motility, respectively, whereas all remaining experimental treatments exhibited <30% sperm motility. Sperm velocity did not differ significantly among storage treatments, at any of the sampling periods, with the exception of day 21. Overall, the results from this study indicate that increased oxygen availability is beneficial to sperm longevity, but that gentamicin inhibits sperm motility in L. booroolongensis.

  11. Hydrogeologic framework, availability of water supplies, and saltwater intrusion, Cape May County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, Pierre J.; Carleton, Glen B.

    2002-01-01

    During 1960-90, saltwater intrusion forced the abandonment of at least 10 public-supply wells, 3 industrial-supply wells, and more than 100 domestic-supply wells in Cape May County, N.J. Actual or imminent ground-water contamination caused by land-use practices and human activities has forced the closure of at least six shallow public-supply wells and many domestic-supply wells. Freshwater in Cape May County flows in many small streams and is held in wetlands and natural and artificial ponds. More importantly, freshwater from precipitation passes through and is stored in five aquifers-- Holly Beach water-bearing zone, estuarine sand aquifer, Cohansey aquifer, Rio Grande water-bearing zone, and Atlantic City 800-foot sand. Surface-water discharges were measured at 14 stream sites. The Tuckahoe River is the largest stream in Cape May County. The mean annual discharge for the Tuckahoe River at Head of River was 43.8 ft3/s (cubic feet per second) or 10,800 Mgal/yr (million gallons per year) during the period of record (1969-93). Mean daily discharge ranged from 25 ft3/s or 16 Mgal/d in September to 73 ft3/s or 47 Mgal/d in April. Mean daily discharge at the eight largest streams wholly within the county ranged from 15.9 to 3.05 ft3/s (3,750 to 720 Mgal/yr). Total water use in the county was about 8,600 Mgal/yr in 1990, including about 25 Mgal/yr of surface water, 3,000 Mgal/yr from the Holly Beach water-bearing zone, 1,000 Mgal/yr from the estuarine sand aquifer, 2,200 Mgal/yr from the Cohansey aquifer, 200 Mgal/yr from the Rio Grande water-bearing zone, and 2,200 Mgal/yr from the Atlantic City 800-foot sand. Water-level data collected during April 1991 for more than 200 wells show that in some locations ground-water flow directions and rates have changed when compared with those shown on historical potentiometric-surface maps. In 1991, water levels in the Holly Beach water-bearing zone were nearly identical to levels prior to development. A cone of depression has

  12. Distribution System Water Quality Affects Responses of Opportunistic Pathogen Gene Markers in Household Water Heaters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Masters, Sheldon; Falkinham, Joseph O; Edwards, Marc A; Pruden, Amy

    2015-07-21

    Illustrative distribution system operation and management practices shaped the occurrence and persistence of Legionella spp., nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and two amoebae host (Acanthamoeba spp., Vermamoeba vermiformis) gene markers in the effluent of standardized simulated household water heaters (SWHs). The interplay between disinfectant type (chlorine or chloramine), water age (2.3-5.7 days) and materials (polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cement or iron) in upstream simulated distribution systems (SDSs) profoundly influenced levels of pathogen gene markers in corresponding SWH bulk waters. For example, Legionella spp. were 3-4 log higher in SWHs receiving water from chloraminated vs chlorinated SDSs, because of disinfectant decay from nitrification. By contrast, SWHs fed with chlorinated PVC SDS water not only harbored the lowest levels of all pathogen markers, but effluent from the chlorinated SWHs were even lower than influent levels in several instances (e.g., 2 log less Legionella spp. and NTM for PVC and 3-5 log less P. aeruginosa for cement). However, pathogen gene marker influent levels correlated positively to effluent levels in the SWHs (P < 0.05). Likewise, microbial community structures were similar between SWHs and the corresponding SDS feed waters. This study highlights the importance and challenges of distribution system management/operation to help control opportunistic pathogens.

  13. Availability of ground water in the northern part, Ten Mile and Taunton River basins, southeastern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John R.

    1968-01-01

    This report is based on geologic mapping, records of about 2,200 wells and test borings, seismic records, and discussion of water problems with municipal and corporate officials, drillers, and consulting engineers. Selected test borings and wells, including most municipal and industrial  wells, are located on the map. They indicate areas from which water is pumped, saturated thickness and texture of materials, yield of wells, and areas in which exploratory work has already been done. Additional subsurface data are listed in a separate report (Williams and Willey, 1967).

  14. Hexavalent chromium availability and phytoremediation potential of Cichorium spinosum as affect by manure, zeolite and soil ageing.

    PubMed

    Antoniadis, Vasileios; Polyzois, Theologos; Golia, Evaggelia E; Petropoulos, Spyridon A

    2017-03-01

    Cichorium spinosum (spiny chicory) is a wild edible vegetable, and a possible suitable species for Cr(VI)-phytoremediation. There are three approaches for altering Cr(VI) dynamics: reduction to Cr(III) by organic matter addition, soil ageing, and Cr(VI) retention by high binding capacity materials added to soil, e.g., zeolite. Our aim was to assess spiny chicory as a phytoremediation species in relation to these three methods of altering Cr(VI) soil dynamics. There were 5 treatments: control (C); soil with 100 mg kg(-1) Cr(VI) (S); soil with zeolite plus 100 mg kg(-1) Cr(VI) (Z); soil with manure plus 100 mg kg(-1) Cr(VI) (M); and soil added with 100 mg kg(-1) Cr(VI) one year before this experiment (AS, "aged soil"). In soil, Cr(VI) was higher at S, while Z, M and AS were lower. In plant, Cr(VI) at Z, S, and AS were similar and significantly higher than M. This indicates that added manure decrease Cr(VI) availability to chicory due to the formation of organometallic complexes. However, chicory uptake amounted to 0.26-0.40 kg Cr(VI) ha(-1) for Z, S, and AS, while uptake at M was lower. In conclusion, manure addition was more successful in decreasing Cr(VI) bioavailability, but it also slowed Cr(VI)-phytoremediation process.

  15. Leaf physiology and biomass allocation of backcross hybrid American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedlings in response to light and water availability.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caleb E; Mickelbart, Michael V; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2014-12-01

    Partial canopy cover promotes regeneration of many temperate forest trees, but the consequences of shading on seedling drought resistance are unclear. Reintroduction of blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) into eastern North American forests will often occur on water-limited sites and under partial canopy cover. We measured leaf pre-dawn water potential (Ψpd), leaf gas exchange, and growth and biomass allocation of backcross hybrid American chestnut seedlings from three orchard sources grown under different light intensities (76, 26 and 8% full photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)) and subjected to well-watered or mid-season water-stressed conditions. Seedlings in the water-stress treatment were returned to well-watered conditions after wilting to examine recovery. Seedlings growing under medium- and high-light conditions wilted at lower leaf Ψpd than low-light seedlings. Recovery of net photosynthesis (Anet) and stomatal conductance (gs) was greater in low and medium light than in high light. Seed source did not affect the response to water stress or light level in most cases. Between 26 and 8% full PAR, light became limiting to the extent that the effects of water stress had no impact on some growth and morphological traits. We conclude that positive and negative aspects of shading on seedling drought tolerance and recovery are not mutually exclusive. Partial shade may help American chestnut tolerate drought during early establishment through effects on physiological conditioning.

  16. Ecosystem water availability in juniper versus sagebrush snow-dominated rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western Juniper (J. occidentalis Hook.) now dominates over 3.6 million ha of rangeland in the Intermountain Western US. Critical ecological relationships among snow distribution, water budgets, plant community transitions, and habitat requirements for wildlife, such as sage grouse, remain poorly und...

  17. Availability and quality of water from the Dakota aquifer, northwest Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of water pumped from the aquifer may be altered by induced leakage from the underlying aquifers in Paleozoic age rocks if withdrawals reverse the pattern of natural flow from the Dakota into the Paleozoic aquifers. Evidence for such a reversal exists in the area around the city of LeMars.

  18. The Effect of Groundwater Availability and Quality on Water Consumption of Tamarisk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghvaeian, S.; Neale, C. M.; Osterberg, J.; Costa Dos Santos, C. A.; Watts, D. R.; Sritharan, S. I.

    2010-12-01

    As the demand for fresh water rapidly grows in the Western US, it becomes more important to accurately identify the amount of water that is consumed by phreatophyte species such as Tamarisk (Tamarix Ramosissima). In this study, spatially distributed evapotranspiration (ET) of a Tamarisk-dominated riparian ecosystem along the Lower Colorado River was estimated, using an energy balance model applied to 20 Landsat images acquired between January and November 2008. As the managing organization of the Colorado River, US Bureau of reclamation (BOR) applies a crop coefficient (Kc) approach in estimating water consumption by phreatophytes. Therefore, the results were analyzed to develop new Tamarisk Kc curves and to compare remotely sensed estimates of Kc with the Kc values that are currently used by BOR. In addition, the influence of groundwater elevation and quality (electrical conductivity) on the reduction of ET and on the Kc was evaluated. Groundwater data were measured at 15 observation wells that were selectively installed at three locations in the study area. Linking remotely sensed riparian water consumption to groundwater conditions makes the results of this study transferable to many other arid/semi-arid regions of the world.

  19. Evaluation of several commercially available caitionic polymer flocculants for phosphate sorption in water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although inorganic phosphate is an essential plant nutrient, elevated levels in surface waters may lead to adverse effects in the environment. These effects are attributed to runoff from rain or irrigation events that may cause the sorbed phosphate to be transported from the application sites and mo...

  20. Development and Exchange of Instructional Resources in Water Quality Control Programs, II: Instructional Materials Available.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, John H.

    This document is one in a series of reports which reviews instructional materials and equipment for water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Approximately 900 items are listed in this document along with guidelines for the production of instructional materials. Information is provided regarding the source, type of material, intended…

  1. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-07-08

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P-E). Here, we compute P-E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P-E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P-E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P-E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making.

  2. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-01-01

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P–E). Here, we compute P–E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P–E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P–E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P–E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making. PMID:27388837

  3. A water-budget approach to restoring a sedge fen affected by diking and ditching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Douglas A.; Sweat, Michael J.; Carlson, Martha L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.

    2006-01-01

    A vast, ground-water-supported sedge fen in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA was ditched in the early 1900s in a failed attempt to promote agriculture. Dikes were later constructed to impound seasonal sheet surface flows for waterfowl management. The US Fish and Wildlife Service, which now manages the wetland as part of Seney National Wildlife Refuge, sought to redirect water flows from impounded C-3 Pool to reduce erosion in downstream Walsh Ditch, reduce ground-water losses into the ditch, and restore sheet flows of surface water to the peatland. A water budget was developed for C-3 Pool, which serves as the central receiving and distribution body for water in the affected wetland. Surface-water inflows and outflows were measured in associated ditches and natural creeks, ground-water flows were estimated using a network of wells and piezometers, and precipitation and evaporation/evapotranspiration components were estimated using local meteorological data. Water budgets for the 1999 springtime peak flow period and the 1999 water year were used to estimate required releases of water from C-3 Pool via outlets other than Walsh Ditch and to guide other restoration activities. Refuge managers subsequently used these results to guide restoration efforts, including construction of earthen dams in Walsh Ditch upslope from the pool to stop surface flow, installation of new water-control structures to redirect surface water to sheet flow and natural creek channels, planning seasonal releases from C-3 Pool to avoid erosion in natural channels, stopping flow in downslope Walsh Ditch to reduce erosion, and using constructed earthen dams and natural beaver dams to flood the ditch channel below C-3 Pool. Interactions between ground water and surface water are critical for maintaining ecosystem processes in many wetlands, and management actions directed at restoring either ground- or surface-water flow patterns often affect both of these components of the water budget. This

  4. Assessment of Water Availability Impact on Wetland Management using Multi-temporal Landsat Images and Bayesian-based Learning Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alminagorta, O.; Torres, A. F.

    2013-12-01

    Water availability has a direct impact on the wetland ecosystems. While wetland managers need better information to allocate scarce water to improve wetland services, most monitoring activities of flood areas and vegetation condition on wetlands relies on manual estimation of water depth and use of airboat with GPS devices. This process is costly and time-consuming. Remote sensing techniques have been previously used to characterize vegetation conditions along with hydrological characteristics of the wetlands with excellent results. Nevertheless, limited analysis has been done to relate the resulting wetland characterization with the historical water availability records. The present paper addresses the lack of adequate feedback on wetland conditions upon the available water for the wetland system by making use of multi-temporal Landsat images. These images are processed at wetland unit and system level to extract information about vegetation, soil and water conditions. This information is then correlated with historical water availability records for the wetland system by means of the Relevance Vector Machine, a Bayesian-based algorithm known for its robustness, efficiency, and sparseness. This research is applied at the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge (the Refuge), located on the northeast side of Great Salt Lake, Utah. The Refuge constitutes one of the most important habitats for migratory birds for the Pacific Flyway of North America. Water-discharge records and coverage vegetation collected at the Refuge has been used to calibrate and evaluate the effects on wetland services to the process of flooding and drought in wetland units during different years. The final product of this research is to provide a methodology that wetland managers can use to make informed decisions about water allocation to improve wetland services while avoiding wasting resources, effort, time and money.

  5. Science and Technology to Support Fresh Water Availability in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    QUALITY Department of the Interior Robert Hirsch, U.S. Geological Survey , Co-Chair Dan Ashe, Fish and Wildlife Service Michael R. Gabaldon, Bureau of...Reclamation Sharon Kliwinski, National Park Service Glenn G. Patterson, U.S. Geological Survey , Executive Secretary U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...supplements U.S. Geological Survey information). What should we do? Improve use of existing assets for coordination of water information

  6. Duripan effect on soil water availability: study case in North-Central Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Soils with duripan and other hardpans are frequently disregarded for agriculture. However, in North-Central Namibia, farmers cultivate a type of sandy soil with a developing duripan at few decimetres of depth. This soil is particularly valuable for Pearl Millet cultivation during years with limited rainfall. Understanding the water dynamic and the role of the duripan in the soil moisture dynamic will improve livelihood and secure food production in North-Central Namibia, in Southern Angola and other areas in the world where similar soils appear. We recorded soil water content during five months at different depth in one of these sandy soil. The comparison of the recorded data with values calculated with models based on e.g. texture indicate that the duripan plays a very important role as water reservoir. Our results demonstrate that soils with duripans should not be disregarded for agricultural development, especially in context with irregular rainfall patterns. Understanding the role of duripans based on this study will thus help to anticipate and alleviate the effect of climate change in northern Namibia and other semi-arid regions, where similar soils occur.