Science.gov

Sample records for affecting women worldwide

  1. Breast cancer: a neglected disease for the majority of affected women worldwide.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Ophira M; Love, Richard R

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress with declines in mortality in some high-income countries has obscured the fact that for the majority of women worldwide who are newly diagnosed, breast cancer is a neglected disease in the context of other numerically more frequent health problems. For this growing majority, it is also an orphan disease, in that detailed knowledge about tumor characteristics and relevant host biology necessary to provide even basic care is absent. With the possible exception of nutritional recommendations, current international cancer policy and planning initiatives are irrelevant to breast cancer. The progress that has occurred in high-income countries has come at extraordinary fiscal expense and patient toxicity, which of themselves suggest nonrelevance to women and healthcare practitioners in middle- and low-income countries. The implications of these circumstances appear clear: if the promise of the now 60-year-old Declaration of Human Rights that the fruits of medical science accrue to all mankind is to be realized with respect to breast cancer, a basic and translational global research initiative should be launched. PMID:21410589

  2. Campaigning for women's health rights worldwide.

    PubMed

    Doyal, L

    In this paper, the author takes a look at the women's health movement worldwide and lists some of its many achievements. The information provided is set in the context of reproductive rights, the most common issue that affects women in both the developed and the developing world. The author discusses access to birth control and the role of the consumer movement in achieving rights for women in childbirth.

  3. Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.; Strachan, Jane; Lazaridou, Angeliki

    2012-01-01

    "Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide" contains evocative portraits of twenty-three women educators and leaders from around the world whose actions are shaping social justice leadership. Woven from words of their own narratives, the women's voices lift off the page into readers' hearts and minds to inspire and…

  4. Women neurologist: a worldwide and Brazilian struggle.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota

    2011-10-01

    The main aim of this paper was to present some pioneer women neurologist, their struggle to pursue their career and the barriers mainly encountered at the beginning of their professional lives. It was also presented the progressive increasing of the feminine participation in medicine and in the neurology with study based on data of the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Their composition were analyzed according to gender, class and academic rank. In spite of this feminization, there is lack of a women's parallel advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers ("glass ceiling").

  5. Technology trends, energy prices affect worldwide rig activity

    SciTech Connect

    Rappold, K.

    1995-09-25

    The major worldwide offshore rig markets have improved slightly this year, while the onshore markets generally lagged slightly. Offshore rig utilization rates have remained strong worldwide, with some areas reaching nearly 100%. Total worldwide offshore rig (jack ups, semisubmersible, drillships, submersibles, and barges) utilization was about 86%. Offshore drilling activity is driven primarily by oil and natural gas price expectations. Natural gas prices tend to drive North American offshore drilling activity, including the shallow waters in the Gulf of Mexico. International offshore drilling activity and deepwater projects in the Gulf of Mexico are more closely tied to oil prices. The paper discusses US rig count, directional drilling activity, jack up rig demand, semisubmersibles demand, rig replacement costs, and new construction.

  6. Towards a feminist global bioethics: addressing women's health concerns worldwide.

    PubMed

    Tong, R

    2001-01-01

    In this paper I argue that a global bioethics is possible. Specifically, I present the view that there are within feminist approaches to bioethics some conceptual and methodological tools necessary to forge a bioethics that embraces the health-related concerns of both developing and developed nations equally. To support my argument I discuss some of the challenges that have historically confronted feminists. If feminists accept the idea that women are entirely the same, then feminists present as fact the fiction of the essential "Woman." Not only does "Woman" not exist, -she" obscures important racial, ethnic, cultural, and class differences among women. However, if feminists stress women's differences too much, feminists lose the power to speak coherently and cogently about gender justice, women's rights, and sexual equality in general. Analyzing the ways in which the idea of difference as well as the idea of sameness have led feminists astray, I ask whether it is possible to avoid the Scylla of absolutism (imperialism, colonialism, hegemony) on the one hand and the Charybdis of relativism (postmodernism, fragmentation, Balkanization) on the other. Finally, after reflecting upon the work of Uma Narayan, Susan Muller Okin, and Martha Nussbaum, I conclude that there is a way out of this ethical bind. By focusing on women's, children's, and men's common human needs, it is possible to lay the foundation for a just and caring global bioethics. PMID:11561998

  7. Towards a feminist global bioethics: addressing women's health concerns worldwide.

    PubMed

    Tong, R

    2001-01-01

    In this paper I argue that a global bioethics is possible. Specifically, I present the view that there are within feminist approaches to bioethics some conceptual and methodological tools necessary to forge a bioethics that embraces the health-related concerns of both developing and developed nations equally. To support my argument I discuss some of the challenges that have historically confronted feminists. If feminists accept the idea that women are entirely the same, then feminists present as fact the fiction of the essential "Woman." Not only does "Woman" not exist, -she" obscures important racial, ethnic, cultural, and class differences among women. However, if feminists stress women's differences too much, feminists lose the power to speak coherently and cogently about gender justice, women's rights, and sexual equality in general. Analyzing the ways in which the idea of difference as well as the idea of sameness have led feminists astray, I ask whether it is possible to avoid the Scylla of absolutism (imperialism, colonialism, hegemony) on the one hand and the Charybdis of relativism (postmodernism, fragmentation, Balkanization) on the other. Finally, after reflecting upon the work of Uma Narayan, Susan Muller Okin, and Martha Nussbaum, I conclude that there is a way out of this ethical bind. By focusing on women's, children's, and men's common human needs, it is possible to lay the foundation for a just and caring global bioethics.

  8. [Harmful practices affecting women's health].

    PubMed

    1990-07-01

    The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws. PMID:12342832

  9. The Worldwide Incorporation of Women and Women's Rights Discourse in Social Science Textbooks, 1970-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakagawa, Mana; Wotipka, Christine Min

    2016-01-01

    The invisibility of women in educational curricula and the effect this has on perpetuating women's marginal status in society has been well documented. This article examines (1) whether and how mentions of women and women's rights have expanded and changed in textbooks cross-nationally and over time and (2) to what extent these outcomes are driven…

  10. The Role of Science and Technology in the Advancement of Women Worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, I.; Farhar, B.

    2000-10-12

    Participants at the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China, created a Platform for Action focusing on 12 critical areas of concern (poverty, education and training, health, violence, armed conflict, economy, decision-making, institutional mechanisms, human rights, the media, environment, and the girl child) and the serious barriers to women's health and well-being in each area. Subsequently, the Department of Energy funded a study, described here, that shows, in a literature review and in interviews with 15 women experts, how science and technology can be integral to women's advancement in each of the 12 critical areas. Among the study's conclusions are that differing perspectives exist (pro-science, relativist, and skeptical) on the role of science and technology in women's lives and that these differing perspectives may explain why communication is difficult among policy makers and with scientists about the role science and technology may play in the advancem ent of women worldwide. Recommendations call for women's involvement in the ethics of science; removal of institutional barriers to advancing women; greater accountability in use of resources; changes in science education; and increased dialogue among those with differing perspectives on the role of science and technology in the advancement of women.

  11. The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics: Global Perspectives, Common Concerns, Worldwide Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastavker, Yevgeniya V.

    2009-03-01

    The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics (ICWIP), held in Seoul, Korea, in October 2008, brought together 300 participants from 57 countries, including a diverse 22-member U.S. Delegation, for a 3-day summit of stimulating discussions, thought-provoking presentations, inspirational posters, and networking. Held under the auspices of the Working Group on Women in Physics of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), this meeting built on the successes of the 1^st (Paris, 2002) and 2^nd (Rio de Janeiro, 2005) Conferences and further clarified the importance of diversifying the field of physics worldwide. Although considerable progress has been made since 2002, it was clear that the global scientific workforce is still under-utilizing a large percentage of the available female talent pool. If human society is to benefit to its fullest from various contributions that the field of physics can offer in addressing global issues of economic crisis, energy, environment, water, health, poverty, and hunger, women of all races and nationalities need to become fully included and engaged in the national and international physical community. To address these and many other issues, the ICWIP unanimously approved a five-part resolution to IUPAP recommending actions to promote the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in physics and related fields.

  12. Some Pregnant Women Still Travel to Zika-Affected Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160025.html Some Pregnant Women Still Travel to Zika-Affected Areas 41 New York City moms-to- ... women from New York City are traveling to Zika-affected areas and then getting tested when they ...

  13. Progestin negatively affects hearing in aged women.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Patricia; Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Tadros, Sherif F; Frisina, D Robert; Frisina, Robert D

    2006-09-19

    Female hormone influences on auditory system aging are not completely understood. Because of widespread clinical use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), it is critical to understand HRT effects on sensory systems. The present study retrospectively analyzed and compared hearing abilities among 124 postmenopausal women taking HRT, treated with estrogen and progestin (E+P; n = 32), estrogen alone (E; n = 30), and a third [non-hormone replacement therapy (NHRT; n = 62)] control group. Subjects were 60-86 years old and were matched for age and health status. All had relatively healthy medical histories and no significant noise exposure, middle-ear problems, or major surgeries. Hearing tests included pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), transient otoacoustic emissions, and the hearing-in-noise test (HINT). The HINT tests for speech perception in background noise, the major complaint of hearing-impaired persons. Pure-tone thresholds in both ears were elevated (poorer) for the E+P relative to the E and control groups. For DPOAEs, the E+P group presented with lower (worse) levels than the E and control groups, with significant differences for both ears. For the HINT results, the E+P group had poorer speech perception than the E and control groups across all background noise speaker locations and in quiet. These findings suggest that the presence of P as a component of HRT results in poorer hearing abilities in aged women taking HRT, affecting both the peripheral (ear) and central (brain) auditory systems, and it interferes with the perception of speech in background noise.

  14. "Improve the Women": Mass Schooling, Female Literacy, and Worldwide Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVine, Robert A.; LeVine, Sarah E.; Schnell, Beatrice

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that schooling leads to social change by fostering individual changes that alter participation; suggests that girls acquire proficiency in language used by bureaucracies such as health care. Demonstrates with data from Nepal and Venezuela how women's literacy skills influence reproductive and health outcomes for themselves and their…

  15. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    MedlinePlus

    ... 64 have a heart attack. About half of women who have a heart attack before age 65 die within 8 years. Heart ... have another within 6 years. About half of women who have a heart attack will be disabled with heart failure within 6 ...

  16. Affective reactivity differences in pregnant and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    Rosebrock, Laina; Hoxha, Denada; Gollan, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Reactions to emotional cues, termed affective reactivity, promote adaptation and survival. Shifts in affective reactivity during pregnancy and postpartum may invoke altered responses to environmental and biological changes. The development and testing of affective reactivity tasks, with published normative ratings for use in studies of affective reactivity, has been based on responses provided by healthy college students. A comparison of the healthy norms with ratings provided by peripartum women has yet to be conducted, despite its value in highlighting critical differences in affective reactivity during peripartum phases. This study compared arousal ratings of unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and threat stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang et al., 2008) between three samples: (a) women measured during pregnancy and again at postpartum, (b) age-matched nonpregnant women, and (c) college-aged women from the normative sample used to test the stimuli. Using mixed-design GLMs, results showed that the pregnant and postpartum women and the age-matched women showed suppressed arousal relative to the college-age women. Additionally, postpartum women showed increased arousal to unpleasant/threat images compared to other types of images. The data suggest that future research on peripartum women should include affective reactivity tasks based on norms reflective of this specific population. PMID:25890694

  17. Scientific literature on infectious diseases affecting livestock animals, longitudinal worldwide bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Christian; Gautret, Marjolaine; Pineau, Thierry; Jestin, André

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature were to describe the research subjects and the international collaborations in the field of research on infectious diseases in livestock animals including fishes and honeybees. It was based on articles published worldwide from 2006 through 2013. The source of data was the Web of Science, Core collection(®) and only papers fully written in English were considered. Queries were built that combined 130 descriptors related to animal species and 1213 descriptors related to diseases and pathogens. To refine and assess the accuracy of the extracted database, supplementary filters were applied to discard non-specific terms and neighbouring topics, and numerous tests were carried out on samples. For pathogens, annotation was done using a thematic terminology established to link each disease with its corresponding pathogen, which was in turn classified according to its family. A total of 62,754 articles were published in this field during this 8-year period. The average annual growth rate of the number of papers was 5%. This represents the reference data to which we compared the average annual growth rate of articles produced in each of the sub-categories that we defined. Thirty-seven percent of the papers were dedicated to ruminant diseases. Poultry, pigs and fishes were covered by respectively 21, 13 and 14% of the total. Thirty-seven percent of papers concerned bacteria, 33% viruses, 19% parasites, 2% prions, the remaining being multi-pathogens. Research on virology, especially on pigs and poultry, is increasing faster than the average. There also is increasing interest in monogastric species, fish and bees. The average annual growth rate for Asia was 10%, which is high compared to 3% for Europe and 2% for the Americas, indicating that Asia is currently playing a leading role in this field. There is a well established network of international collaborations. For 75% of the papers, the co

  18. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

  19. The reproduction in women affected by cooley disease

    PubMed Central

    Pafumi, Carlo; Leanza, Vito; Coco, Luana; Vizzini, Stefania; Ciotta, Lilliana; Messina, Alessandra; Leanza, Gianluca; Zarbo, Giuseppe; D'Agati, Alfio; Palumbo, Marco Antonio; Iemmola, Alessandra; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Teodoro, Maria Cristina; Attard, Matthew; Plesca, Alina Cristina; Soares, Catarina; Kouloubis, Nina; Chammas, Mayada

    2011-01-01

    The health background management and outcomes of 5 pregnancies in 4 women affected by Cooley Disease, from Paediatric Institute of Catania University, are described, considering the preconceptual guidances and cares for such patients. These patients were selected among a group of 100 thalassemic women divided into three subgroups, according to their first and successive menstruation characteristics: i) patients with primitive amenorrhoea, ii) patients with secondary amenorrhoea and iii) patients with normal menstruation. Only one woman, affected by primitive amenorrhoea, needed the induction of ovulation. A precise and detailed pre-pregnancy assessment was effected before each conception. This was constituted by a series of essays, including checks for diabetes and hypothyroidism, for B and C hepatitis and for blood group antibodies. Moreover were evaluated: cardiac function, rubella immunity and transaminases. Other pregnancy monitoring, and cares during labour and delivery were effected according to usual obstetrics practice. All the women were in labour when she were 38 week pregnant, and the outcome were five healthy babies born at term, weighting between 2600 and 3200gs. The only complication was the Caesarean section. The improvements of current treatments, especially in the management of iron deposits, the prolongation of survival rate, will result in a continuous increase of pregnancies in thalassemic women. Pregnancy is now a real possibility for women affected by such disease. We are furthermore studying the possibility to collect the fetus' umbilical cord blood, after the delivery, to attempt eterologus transplantation to his mother trying to get a complete marrow reconstitution. PMID:22184526

  20. Exposure to scientific theories affects women's math performance.

    PubMed

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Heine, Steven J

    2006-10-20

    Stereotype threat occurs when stereotyped groups perform worse as their group membership is highlighted. We investigated whether stereotype threat is affected by accounts for the origins of stereotypes. In two studies, women who read of genetic causes of sex differences performed worse on math tests than those who read of experiential causes.

  1. Intimate partner violence affects skilled attendance at most recent delivery among women in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Goo, Leslie; Harlow, Siobán D

    2012-07-01

    Delivery assistance by skilled health personnel is a key progress indicator for Millennium Development Goal 5, which aims to reduce the worldwide maternal mortality ratio by 75% between 1990 and 2015. The role of socio-demographic factors in determining skilled attendance at delivery has been widely explored, but relatively little attention has been paid to the effect of gender power relations on delivery care. This analysis investigated whether women's status in the household, as measured by their experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), affected skilled attendance at most recent delivery among women in Kenya. Cross-sectional data were obtained from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS). 975 ever-married women who had given birth in the past year and completed the KDHS domestic violence module were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between skilled attendance and IPV. In this sample, 46% reported having experienced any type of IPV, with 39% reporting physical violence, 21% emotional violence, and 13% sexual violence. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and number of antenatal visits, lifetime experience of emotional violence was found to decrease the odds of skilled attendance at most recent delivery by 40%, while lifetime experience of physical violence reduced the odds by 29%. Women's experience of IPV may influence receipt of skilled attendance during parturition, and should be addressed as national programs and their international partners align efforts to contribute to the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 5.

  2. Diabetes prevention: Reproductive age women affected by insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Rezai, Shadi; LoBue, Stephen; Henderson, Cassandra E

    2016-07-01

    In the United States, 29.1 million people are affected by diabetes, of which 95% have type 2 diabetes. There has been a fivefold increase in type 2 diabetes in the latter half of the 20th century, an increase strongly linked to the obesity epidemic in the United States. In addition, insulin resistance affects 86 million Americans, or more than one-third of the adult population, as manifested by impaired fasting glucose tolerance with random glucose values ranging from ⩾100 to <126 mg/dL. In all, 90% of those affected by impaired fasting glucose tolerance or pre-diabetes are unaware of their metabolic derangement. Although impaired fasting glucose tolerance increases one's risk of developing type 2 diabetes, once identified, application of lifestyle changes by affected individuals may avoid or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. For reproductive age women who are found to have impaired fasting glucose tolerance, lifestyle changes may be an effective tool to diminish the reproductive health consequences of insulin resistance related diseases. PMID:27638898

  3. Worldwide construction

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, L.

    1993-10-18

    Major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining are tested, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of completion. Total capacity figure in Remarks and completion column includes capacity of project listed. The information is divided into petroleum refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, related fuel plants (cogeneration, coal gasification, combined cycles), and pipeline companies.

  4. Adult Antisocial Behavior and Affect Regulation among Primary Crack/Cocaine-Using Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Lisa Caren; Hien, Denise A.; Levin, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between deficits in affect regulation and Adult Antisocial Behavior (ASB) in primary crack/cocaine-using women was explored in a sample of 80 inner-city women. Narrative early memories were coded for two components of affect regulation, Affect Tolerance and Affect Expression, using the Epigenetic Assessment Rating Scale (EARS;…

  5. Worldwide construction

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, M.

    1994-10-17

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant.

  6. Women and Alcoholism: How a Male-as-Norm Bias Affects Research, Assessment, and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Dina

    1994-01-01

    Contends that comprehensive discussion of women's alcoholism must include understanding of how male-as-norm bias has affected alcoholism research, assessment, and treatment. Summarizes how male-as-norm bias has affected research on women's alcoholism and shaped perceptions of women's alcoholic behavior and their responses to treatment. (Author/NB)

  7. Labor Laws Affecting Women--Ohio; A Capsule Summary (as of May 1, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet summarizes the labor laws affecting women working in Ohio. Descriptions of the various state laws and a listing of the relevant Federal laws are included. These laws cover wages, hours, and working conditions for women. (BH)

  8. A Review of Affecting Factors on Sexual Satisfaction in Women

    PubMed Central

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Gardeshi, Zeinab Hamzeh; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Salehi, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sex is a complex, important and sensitive issue in human being and interwoven with the whole of human existence. Given the serious changes in attitude, function and behavior in sex, the need to address sexual function, especially sexual satisfaction, is felt completely. Sexual satisfaction has a very important role in creating marital satisfaction and any defect in sexual satisfaction is significantly associated with risky sexual behaviors, serious mental illness, social crimes and ultimately divorce. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women based on an overview in scientific database. Methods: In this narrative review the researchers searched MEDLINE database, Google Scholar and Science Direct as well as Persian database like Scientific Information Database with search terms of sexual satisfaction and sexual function, restricted to English/ Persian language, during the 20 years ago. Then those articles written by renowned experts were selected. In this regard, 57 articles have been reviewed, which 30 articles related to this research have been extracted. Results: The findings were divided in to four categories including: Demographic factors, Pathophysiological factors, Psychological factors and Sociocultural factors. Conclusions: Sexuality, especially sexual intimacy is sophisticated and yet elegant affair that the other persons has different definitions and different functions. Discrepancies in the results of the studies show that analysis of factors affecting sexual satisfaction regardless of the women’s’ sociocultural context, religious beliefs, and personal attitudes is undoubtedly inefficient, unscientific and irrational. PMID:25685081

  9. Asian Women in Transitions: How Modernization Affects Their Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Linda H.

    East Asia is the region which has experienced unprecedented growth in the past few decades. This growth resulted in the increase in education opportunities and the empowerment of women. Modernization and globalization provided opportunities for many women in China, Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan. Modern Asian women can obtain…

  10. Has ADVANCE Affected Senior Compared to Junior Women Scientists Differently?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists to demonstrate that the NSF ADVANCE Inititiative has made a positive impact upon institutions. Since it began in 2001, ADVANCE has changed the conversation, policies, and practices in ways to remove obstacles and systemic barriers preventing success for academic women scientists and engineers. Results from ADVANCE projects on campuses have facilitated consensus nationally about policies and practices that institutions may implement to help to alleviate issues, particularly for junior women scientists.Although getting women into senior and leadership positions in STEM constituted an initial impetus for ADVANCE, less emphasis was placed upon the needs of senior women scientists. Surveys of academic women scientists indicate that the issues faced by junior and senior women scientists differ significantly. The focus of ADVANCE on junior women in many ways seemed appropriate--the senior cohort of women scinetists is fed by the junior cohort of scientists; senior women serve as mentors, role models, and leaders for the junior colleagues, while continuing to struggle to achieve full status in the profession. This presentation will center on the differences in issues faced by senior compared to junior women scientists to explore whether a next step for ADVANCE should be to address needs of senior academic women scientists.

  11. Errors Affect Hypothetical Intertemporal Food Choice in Women

    PubMed Central

    Sellitto, Manuela; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the ability to control behavior is enhanced in contexts in which errors are more frequent. Here we investigated whether pairing desirable food with errors could decrease impulsive choice during hypothetical temporal decisions about food. To this end, healthy women performed a Stop-signal task in which one food cue predicted high-error rate, and another food cue predicted low-error rate. Afterwards, we measured participants’ intertemporal preferences during decisions between smaller-immediate and larger-delayed amounts of food. We expected reduced sensitivity to smaller-immediate amounts of food associated with high-error rate. Moreover, taking into account that deprivational states affect sensitivity for food, we controlled for participants’ hunger. Results showed that pairing food with high-error likelihood decreased temporal discounting. This effect was modulated by hunger, indicating that, the lower the hunger level, the more participants showed reduced impulsive preference for the food previously associated with a high number of errors as compared with the other food. These findings reveal that errors, which are motivationally salient events that recruit cognitive control and drive avoidance learning against error-prone behavior, are effective in reducing impulsive choice for edible outcomes. PMID:25244534

  12. Norms Affecting Self-Disclosure in Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derlega, Valerian J.; Chaikin, Alan L.

    1976-01-01

    It was predicted that attributions of mental illness would be based on the extent to which self-disclosure deviates from appropriate sex role behavior for men and women with self-disclosure perceived as appropriate for women and inappropriate for men. The findings supported the hypotheses. (Author/NG)

  13. What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... than women are throughout their lifetime, the health effects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism (when someone shows signs of ... alcohol) are more serious in women. These health effects include an ... disease, and fetal alcohol syndrome, in which infants born to mothers who ...

  14. Mild dehydration affects mood in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Ganio, Matthew S; Casa, Douglas J; Lee, Elaine C; McDermott, Brendon P; Klau, Jennifer F; Jimenez, Liliana; Le Bellego, Laurent; Chevillotte, Emmanuel; Lieberman, Harris R

    2012-02-01

    Limited information is available regarding the effects of mild dehydration on cognitive function. Therefore, mild dehydration was produced by intermittent moderate exercise without hyperthermia and its effects on cognitive function of women were investigated. Twenty-five females (age 23.0 ± 0.6 y) participated in three 8-h, placebo-controlled experiments involving a different hydration state each day: exercise-induced dehydration with no diuretic (DN), exercise-induced dehydration plus diuretic (DD; furosemide, 40 mg), and euhydration (EU). Cognitive performance, mood, and symptoms of dehydration were assessed during each experiment, 3 times at rest and during each of 3 exercise sessions. The DN and DD trials in which a volunteer attained a ≥1% level of dehydration were pooled and compared to that volunteer's equivalent EU trials. Mean dehydration achieved during these DN and DD trials was -1.36 ± 0.16% of body mass. Significant adverse effects of dehydration were present at rest and during exercise for vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, and total mood disturbance scores of the Profile of Mood States and for task difficulty, concentration, and headache as assessed by questionnaire. Most aspects of cognitive performance were not affected by dehydration. Serum osmolality, a marker of hydration, was greater in the mean of the dehydrated trials in which a ≥1% level of dehydration was achieved (P = 0.006) compared to EU. In conclusion, degraded mood, increased perception of task difficulty, lower concentration, and headache symptoms resulted from 1.36% dehydration in females. Increased emphasis on optimal hydration is warranted, especially during and after moderate exercise.

  15. Factors affecting outcomes in patients reaching end-stage kidney disease worldwide: differences in access to renal replacement therapy, modality use, and haemodialysis practices.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Bruce M; Akizawa, Tadao; Jager, Kitty J; Kerr, Peter G; Saran, Rajiv; Pisoni, Ronald L

    2016-07-16

    More than 2 million people worldwide are being treated for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). This Series paper provides an overview of incidence, modality use (in-centre haemodialysis, home dialysis, or transplantation), and mortality for patients with ESKD based on national registry data. We also present data from an international cohort study to highlight differences in haemodialysis practices that affect survival and the experience of patients who rely on this therapy, which is both life-sustaining and profoundly disruptive to their quality of life. Data illustrate disparities in access to renal replacement therapy of any kind and in the use of transplantation or home dialysis, both of which are widely considered preferable to in-centre haemodialysis for many patients with ESKD in settings where infrastructure permits. For most patients with ESKD worldwide who are treated with in-centre haemodialysis, overall survival is poor, but longer in some Asian countries than elsewhere in the world, and longer in Europe than in the USA, although this gap has reduced. Commendable haemodialysis practice includes exceptionally high use of surgical vascular access in Japan and in some European countries, and the use of longer or more frequent dialysis sessions in some countries, allowing for more effective volume management. Mortality is especially high soon after ESKD onset, and improved preparation for ESKD is needed including alignment of decision making with the wishes of patients and families.

  16. Analysis of human serum from women affected by cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Lugo-Melchor, Ofelia Y; Briones-Cerecero, Erika P; Chagolla-López, Alicia; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; Santos, Leticia; Vázquez-Ortiz, Guelaguetza; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the first causes of death in Mexican women population. The plasma proteome has a wide dynamic range concentrations of different protein and their alterations reflect the physiological state of the individual's health. The aim of this study was to characterize the 2D-PAGE serum patterns from healthy women and with different levels of cervical lesions. Changes in haptoglobin, apolipoproteins, and transthyretin, when comparing the serum from healthy women and serum from patients with different levels of cervical lesion were found. The Western blot analysis showed increasing concentrations of metalloproteinases (MMP's), proteins with important biological roles in tumor development and metastasis. Protein profiles in conjunction with MS, bioinformatics, and Western blot analysis, allow us to compile information for the acquisition of results to proposed candidates biomarkers of cervical cancer among Mexican women population.

  17. Iron and zinc nutriture affect cognition of premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell. L.S.; Sandstead, H.H. )

    1991-03-15

    Effects of changes in iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) status on cognition of premenopausal women were studied. Research in animals and humans shows that Fe and Zn influence brain function. Effects of mild Fe or Zn deficiencies on cognition of women have received limited attention. Therefore, using a double-blind randomized controlled treatment design the authors supplemented 34 sideropenic non-anemic women, ages 18-40 years, with micronutrients plus Fe, Zn, Fe+Zn, or micronutrients only. The micronutrient supplement was based on NRC guidelines. Eleven nonsideropenic women were also given the micronutrient supplement. Subjects were examined with the Weschler Memory Quotient (MQ) and Booklets Categories (BC) tests before and after treatment. After 8 weeks, significant improvement in MQ was displayed by the Fe, Zn and Fe+Zn groups, but no improvement occurred in the sideropenic subjects who were given only micronutrients. The nonsideropenic group displayed improved MQ when given only micronutrients. In contrast, all but the Fe group improved with the BC Test. The findings suggest that Fe and Zn repletion of sideropenic women improved certain cognitive functions of the women.

  18. Stress differentially affects fear conditioning in men and women.

    PubMed

    Merz, Christian Josef; Wolf, Oliver Tobias; Schweckendiek, Jan; Klucken, Tim; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2013-11-01

    Stress and fear conditioning processes are both important vulnerability factors in the development of psychiatric disorders. In behavioral studies considerable sex differences in fear learning have been observed after increases of the stress hormone cortisol. But neuroimaging experiments, which give insights into the neurobiological correlates of stress × sex interactions in fear conditioning, are lacking so far. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we tested whether a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) compared to a control condition influenced subsequent fear conditioning in 48 men and 48 women taking oral contraceptives (OCs). One of two pictures of a geometrical figure was always paired (conditioned stimulus, CS+) or never paired (CS-) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus). BOLD responses as well as skin conductance responses were assessed. Sex-independently, stress enhanced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the hippocampus in early acquisition but attenuated conditioned responses in the medial frontal cortex in late acquisition. In early acquisition, stress reduced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the nucleus accumbens in men, but enhanced it in OC women. In late acquisition, the same pattern (reduction in men, enhancement in OC women) was found in the amygdala as well as in the anterior cingulate. Thus, psychosocial stress impaired the neuronal correlates of fear learning and expression in men, but facilitated them in OC women. A sex-specific modulation of fear conditioning after stress might contribute to the divergent prevalence of men and women in developing psychiatric disorders.

  19. Black Women in Nursing Education Completion Programs: Issues Affecting Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Lolita Chappel; Cervero, Ronald M.; Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 10 black women enrolled in or graduated from baccalaureate nursing programs identified intrapersonal and cultural factors encouraging their participation. Hindrances were classified as the experience of being the "other" and the culture of racism. Findings show that individual and institutional racism is a barrier in registered…

  20. Revisiting psychopathy in women: Cleckley/Hare conceptions and affective response.

    PubMed

    Verona, Edelyn; Bresin, Konrad; Patrick, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    Despite increased interest in female psychopathy, more work is needed to establish commonalities between the nomological networks for psychopathy in men and women. The current study sought to advance understanding of affective deficits in female psychopathy, as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Forty-eight female inmates were tested in an affect-startle paradigm involving passive viewing of emotional and neutral picture stimuli. Results showed that women scoring high on PCL-R psychopathy exhibited deficits in startle reactivity to unpleasant pictures, especially with regard to victim-distress scenes, highlighting a specific insensitivity to the vicarious distress of others. The deficient affective modulation was specific to interpersonal-affective features and not adult/child antisocial features. These data confirm deficits in affective responding among women high on psychopathy, with implications for fear- versus empathy-related conceptualizations of psychopathic women. PMID:24364611

  1. Factors affecting university women's basketball coaches' timeout decisions.

    PubMed

    Duke, A; Corlett, J

    1992-12-01

    This study investigated the criteria that coaches of university women's basketball teams used when calling a timeout. Thirty-five of Canada's university coaches of women's basketball responded to Likert scale questions rating the importance of six factors in calling a timeout. Differences due to sex, coaching experience, and team success indicated that some factors were perceived to influence timeout decisions more than others. Specifically, responses from female coaches, coaches with less than 5 years of experience, and coaches whose teams were ranked in the CIAU's top 10 within the last 3 years indicated that they used offensive game events more frequently than their counterparts did. Interactions were also found for Experience x Gender and Experience x Gender x Success in the way that offensive game events were perceived, and for gender and success for the factor attentional state of players.

  2. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    PubMed

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists. PMID:22361794

  3. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    PubMed

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists.

  4. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    PubMed

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms) and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women) participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states.

  5. Hormonal pattern in women affected by rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Valentino, R; Savastano, S; Tommaselli, A P; Riccio, A; Mariniello, P; Pronesti, G; De Divitiis, P M; Lombardi, G

    1993-09-01

    Gonadal sex hormones may account for the sexual dimorphism in the immune response and for the greater incidence of autoimmune disease in females. We have previously reported the presence of progesterone (P) deficiency in female patients with thyroid and ovarian autoimmune disease. In this context, the hormonal profile in 9 women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in 9 age-matched ealthy women, were evaluated to verify the presence of a steroid hormone secretion impairment in a systemic autoimmune disease, further supporting our hypothesis of P deficiency involvement. P and androgen plasma levels, in the luteal phase, were significantly lower (p < 0.05 and 0.005, respectively) in RA patients than in the control group, with a consequent decrease of the free androgen index. Moreover, despite normal cortisol values, corticosterone (B) plasma levels were significantly higher in the RA patients (p < 0.01 and 0.05 in follicular and luteal phase, respectively). Therefore, our present data confirm the androgen deficiency in patients with a systemic autoimmune disease, such as RA and support the immunomodulator effect of P. Finally, the higher B plasma levels in RA patients may suggest the presence of a slight impairment of the immune hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), supporting its role in certain phases of RA pathogenesis. In conclusion, in addition to androgens, the immunomodulator role of P should also be taken into account in the pathogenesis of the systemic autoimmune disease.

  6. Does Stereotype Threat Affect Women in Academic Medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women’s advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including: (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community; (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias; (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders; (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards; and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists. PMID:22361794

  7. Positive Affect as a Source of Resilience for Women in Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zautra, Alex J.; Johnson, Lisa M.; Davis, Mary C.

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis or fibromyalgia, or both, completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10-12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases…

  8. Interpersonal dysfunction and affect-regulation difficulties in disordered eating among men and women.

    PubMed

    Ambwani, Suman; Slane, Jennifer D; Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Grilo, Carlos M

    2014-12-01

    Although several studies suggest that negative affect and interpersonal problems serve as important contributors for eating-related problems, much of this research has been conducted among women and less is known about their roles in precipitating and maintaining eating problems among men. Previous studies with undergraduate men suggest that difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with disordered eating even after controlling for differences in body mass index (BMI) and negative affect. The present study sought to replicate these findings and extend them to assess any unique variance explained by problems in interpersonal functioning among both men and women. Participants were men (n=213) and women (n=521) undergraduates at a large Midwestern university who completed a demographic information form, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex Form (IIP-SC). A series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that DERS and IIP-SC significantly predicted EDE-Q global scores after controlling for variability in BMI and negative affect and that the results were similar for men and women. Our findings offer preliminary support for models that highlight emotional vulnerability and interpersonal problems for disordered eating for young adult men. Future research extending these findings among treatment-seeking samples and employing multi-method assessment would serve to further clarify the tenability of these theoretical models for both men and women. PMID:25194562

  9. Hormonal contraceptive use is associated with neural and affective changes in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Lisofsky, Nina; Riediger, Michaela; Gallinat, Jürgen; Lindenberger, Ulman; Kühn, Simone

    2016-07-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has demonstrated that female gonadal hormones can alter the structure and function of adult women's brains. So far, we do not know how hormonal contraceptives affect female brain structure, in part because within-person longitudinal observations are lacking. Here, we compared 28 young women before and after three months of regular contraceptive intake with 28 naturally cycling women of comparable age. The goal was to explore within-person neural change in women using contraceptives. Neuroimaging, hormonal, cognitive, and affect data were collected at two time points for each participant. A voxel-wise whole-brain comparison of both groups revealed decreased gray matter volume in the left amygdala/anterior parahippocampal gyrus in women using contraceptives as compared to the control group. Resting-state functional connectivity of this region with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex changed from positive to negative connectivity following contraceptive intake whereas the opposite held for the control group. An exploratory analysis revealed that gray matter volume in the left amygdala/anterior parahippocampal gyrus was associated with positive affect at the second time point. There were no systematic differences in cognitive performance change between the groups. These findings provide initial insights into effects of hormonal contraceptives on the human brain and expand previous findings on hormone-related amygdala/hippocampal complex plasticity. The affected brain regions may be related to psychological wellbeing, underlining the importance of future studies on contraceptive-induced brain changes. PMID:27109356

  10. Skewed X-chromosome inactivation in women affected by Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bajic, Vladan; Mandusic, Vesna; Stefanova, Elka; Bozovic, Ana; Davidovic, Radoslav; Zivkovic, Lada; Cabarkapa, Andrea; Spremo-Potparevic, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    X-chromosome instability has been a long established feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Premature centromere division and aneuploidy of the X-chromosome has been found in peripheral blood lymphocytes and neuronal tissue in female AD patients. Interestingly, only one chromosome of the X pair has been affected. These results raised a question, "Is the X-chromosome inactivation pattern altered in peripheral blood lymphocytes of women affected by AD?" To address this question, we analyzed the methylation status of androgen receptor promoter which may show us any deviation from the 50 : 50% X inactivation status in peripheral blood lymphocytes of women with AD. Our results showed skewed inactivation patterns (>90%). These findings suggest that an epigenetic alteration on the inactivation centers of the X-chromosome (or skewing) relates not only to aging, by might be a novel property that could account for the higher incidence of AD in women. PMID:25159673

  11. Considerations in HIV Prevention for Women Affected by the Criminal Justice System

    PubMed Central

    Comfort, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Within the national dialogue of HIV prevention strategies, relatively little consideration is given to the millions of women and girls affected by the criminal justice system either through their own incarceration or that of their partners. Yet statistics indicate that these women and girls are disproportionately infected or at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and much of this risk is directly related to the dynamics and circumstances that led to their incarceration or relationships with incarcerated men. As we look for the link between public health and correctional health within our National HIV/AIDS Strategy, it is imperative that the risks, obstacles, and opportunities facing women and girls affected by incarceration are brought into the discussion. Gender responsive HIV prevention policies and practices must be developed to address the unique risks and opportunities for these women and girls. This paper presents data on HIV risk and other health issues specific to this community of women and girls, discusses key factors for consideration when developing gender-responsive HIV strategies for these communities, and makes recommendations for inclusion in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and other state and local HIV prevention efforts. PMID:21782463

  12. Contraceptive counselling and factors affecting women's contraceptive choices: results of the CHOICE study in Austria.

    PubMed

    Egarter, Christian; Grimm, Christoph; Nouri, Kazem; Ahrendt, Hans-Joachim; Bitzer, Johannes; Cermak, Christine

    2012-06-01

    Empirical evidence of the impact of contraceptive counselling and factors affecting women's contraceptive choices are limited. CHOICE (Contraceptive Health Research Of Informed Choice Experience) was a large-scale study in 11 European countries. Women in Austria aged 15-40 years considering a short-acting, reversible form of combined hormonal contraceptive were eligible to participate. The choices included the combined daily pill, weekly transdermal patch, and monthly vaginal ring. This study assessed and compared 2478 women's original preferences with their post-counselling choices and evaluated their perceptions and criteria for their choice. Women who were 'undecided' decreased from 18.1% pre-counselling to 3.2% post-counselling; significantly more women post-counselling chose the monthly ring (8.7% to 23.8%; difference 15.1%, 95% CI 13.3-16.8%; P<0.0001) or the weekly patch (6.2% to 7.8%; difference 1.7%, 95% CI 0.5-2.9%; P=0.0014). Women's primary reasons for choosing a method included 'easy to use' (daily pill, weekly patch and monthly ring) and 'still effective if I experience vomiting, diarrhoea' (weekly patch and monthly ring). Structured and balanced counselling led to changes in the method chosen.

  13. The Experience of Women Affected by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Qualitative Study From Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri Amiri, Fatemeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Montazeri, Ali; Mohammadpour Thamtan, Reza Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common chronic endocrine disorder. It has significant and diverse clinical consequences including reproductive, metabolic, and psychological morbidities as well as predisposition to malignancies. It is unclear how women with PCOS experience symptoms of this syndrome. Objectives: The aim of this study was to clarify the dimensions and components of quality of life in iranian women with PCOS. Patients and Methods: This study was a qualitative study to explore and document perceptions of women with PCOS about their disorder and quality of life. Semi-structured interviews with open ended questions were conducted with 23 women with PCOS. The interviews were continued to reach data saturation. The study was conducted in the Reproductive Endocrinology Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. Constant comparative analysis of the data was conducted manually according to the Strauss and Corbin analysis method. Results: The study revealed that the most important factors affecting quality of life in women with PCOS were the role functioning items as well as physical, mental, emotional, cognitive, and social dimensions. Conclusions: Comprehensive cares concerning various mental, emotional, cognitive, and social dimensions of quality of life should be planned for women with PCOS. PMID:24829583

  14. Affective states and racial identity among African-American women with trichotillomania.

    PubMed

    Neal-Barnett, Angela; Stadulis, Robert

    2006-05-01

    Affective correlates of hair pulling were investigated in a sample of 43 African-American women with trichotillomania. The relationship among affective correlates and dimensions of racial identity was also examined. Via phone interview, participants completed the hair-pulling survey on which they rated the intensity of 10 different affective states across three different points in the hair-pulling episode (before, during and after). Participants also completed the Multidimensional Inventory of Racial Identity, which assesses racial identity across the dimensions of centrality, regard and ideology. Univariate analyses identified the feelings of being bored, happy, anxious, guilty and relieved as reflecting a time difference. Negative correlations were found among the racial identity dimension of private regard and the affective correlates of happy and relief that were experienced during and after pulling. Negative correlations were found between the racial identity dimension of humanist ideology and relieved affect as well as humanist ideology and relieved affect during a pulling episode. In light of the results, the importance of understanding and assessing cultural factors in the affective experience of African-American women with trichotillomania is discussed. PMID:16749651

  15. Menstrual cycle phase does not affect sympathetic neural activity in women with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Stickford, Abigail SL; VanGundy, Tiffany B; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Patients with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) are primarily premenopausal women, which may be attributed to female sex hormones. We tested the hypothesis that hormonal fluctuations of the menstrual cycle alter sympathetic neural activity and orthostatic tolerance in POTS women. Ten POTS women were studied during the early follicular (EF) and mid-luteal (ML) phases of the menstrual cycle. Haemodynamics and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were measured when supine, during 60 deg upright tilt for 45 min or until presyncope, and during the cold pressor test (CPT) and Valsalva manoeuvres. Blood pressure and total peripheral resistance were higher during rest and tilting in the ML than EF phase; however, heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output were similar between phases. There were no mean ± SD differences in MSNA burst frequency (8 ± 8 EF phase vs. 10 ± 10 bursts min–1 ML phase at rest; 34 ± 15 EF phase vs. 36 ± 16 bursts min–1 ML phase at 5 min tilt), burst incidence or total activity, nor any differences in the cardiovagal and sympathetic baroreflex sensitivities between phases under any condition. The incidence of presyncope was also the same between phases. There were no differences in haemodynamic or sympathetic responses to CPT or Valsalva. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle does not affect sympathetic neural activity but modulates blood pressure and vasoconstriction in POTS women during tilting. Thus, factors other than sympathetic neural activity are probably responsible for the symptoms of orthostatic intolerance across the menstrual cycle in women with POTS. Key points Women with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) report fluctuations in orthostatic tolerance throughout the menstrual cycle. The mechanism(s) underlying blood pressure control across the menstrual cycle in women with POTS are unknown. The findings of the present study indicate that the menstrual

  16. Factors Affecting the Quality of Life and the Illness Acceptance of Pregnant Women with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bień, Agnieszka; Rzońca, Ewa; Kańczugowska, Angelika; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grażyna

    2015-12-22

    The paper contains an analysis of the factors affecting the quality of life (QoL) and the illness acceptance of diabetic pregnant women. The study was performed between January and April, 2013. It included 114 pregnant women with diabetes, hospitalized in the High Risk Pregnancy Wards of several hospitals in Lublin, Poland. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instruments used were: The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). The women's general quality of life was slightly higher than their perceived general health. A higher quality of life was reported by women with a very good financial standing, very good perceived health, moderate self-reported knowledge of diabetes, and also by those only treated with diet and stating that the illness did not interfere with their lives (p < 0.05). Women with a very good financial standing (p < 0.009), high self-reported health (p < 0.002), and those treated with by means of a diet (p < 0.04) had a higher acceptance of illness. A higher acceptance of illness contributes to a higher general quality of life and a better perception of one's health.

  17. Women in Leadership: Factors That Affect the Achievement of Women in Higher Education Administration at Four-Year Public and Private Universities in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Dawn Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the factors that affect women administrators in higher education at four-year public and private universities in Texas. By comparing private and public universities, the research provided an assessment of similarities and differences of the factors impacting achievement of women in higher…

  18. Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  19. Variation in NGFB is Associated with Primary Affective Disorders in Women

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Donghong; Zhang, Huiping; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Listman, Jennifer B.; Li, Dawei; Price, Lawrence H.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Anton, Raymond F.; Kranzler, Henry R.; Gelernter, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Affective disorders (AFDs) are highly comorbid with substance dependence (SD) and both are genetically influenced. However, the specific etiology of the comorbidity is not well understood. We genotyped an array of 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near 130 genes in 868 European-Americans (EAs), including 182 individuals with primary AFDs (PAFDs), 214 with SD comorbid with AFD (CAFD), and 472 screened controls. NGFB, which encodes nerve growth factor β and was represented in the array by 15 SNPs, showed the strongest evidence of association, but only among women with PAFDs. Six of the SNPs showed a nominally significant association with PAFDs in women (Ps = 0.0007–0.01); three (rs2856813, rs4332358, and rs10776799) were empirically significant based on 1,000,000 permutations (Ps = 0.008–0.015). Seven haplotypes were significantly associated with PAFDs in women (Ps = 0.0014–0.01), of which six were significant based on empirical permutation analysis (minimal P = 0.0045). Four diplotypes were significantly associated with PAFDs in women (global Ps = 0.001–0.01). The specific diplotype GG-TC, reconstructed from rs2856813 and rs6678788, showed the strongest evidence of association with PAFDs in women (OR = 4.07, P = 4.2E-05). No SNPs or haplotypes were associated with PAFDs in men or with CAFDs in either sex. We conclude that variation in NGFB is a risk factor for PAFDs in women, but not for CAFD. PMID:21294249

  20. 1986 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The 1986 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory contains names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of the companies in the worldwide petrochemical community. Listed are more than 14,000 key operating personnel at nearly 2,000 plant sites in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, Africa, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East. Among the surveys included in this directory is the Worldwide Petrochemical Survey. This survey details petrochemical plant feedstocks, product and capacities.

  1. The interplay between daily affect and sleep: a 2-week study of young women.

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L

    2014-12-01

    Little attention has been paid to the relation between daily affect and sleep, as most prior studies have focused instead on the role of pathological mood in the context of sleep disturbance. However, understanding the transaction between normal variations in emotional experiences and sleep can shed light on the premorbid vulnerabilities that trigger the evolution of affect and sleep into more problematic states. The present study used a 2-week daily sampling approach to examine the impact of day-to-day variations in positive and negative affect on nightly self-reported sleep-onset latency, sleep duration and sleep quality in a sample of young women. Hierarchical linear modelling revealed temporal relations between positive and negative affect states and sleep parameters. Specifically, different aspects of both positive and negative affect were uniquely predictive of sleep indices, with sadness and serenity acting as the most consistent predictors. Additionally, better sleep quality was predictive of greater happiness the following day. These results highlight the importance of how our daily emotional experiences influence our nightly sleep and, in turn, how our sleep has an impact on our daily affect. Moreover, our findings may offer insight into the progression of normative levels of affect and sleep as they develop into comorbid depression, anxiety and insomnia.

  2. Influence of negative affect on decision making in women with restrictive and binge-purge type anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Danner, Unna N; Sternheim, Lot; Bijsterbosch, Jojanneke M; Dingemans, Alexandra E; Evers, Catharine; van Elburg, Annemarie A

    2016-05-30

    The present study aims to examine the influence of negative affect on decision making in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) compared to healthy control women and, secondly, to assess differences between the restrictive (ANR) and binge-purge (ANBP) subtypes. One hundred four women (32 with ANR, 32 with ANBP, and 40 healthy controls) participated. All women were asked to watch either a negative or a control film fragment, both followed by the Bechara Gambling Task (BGT). Before and after the fragments negative affect was measured. Additionally, relevant characteristics (e.g., overall depressive symptoms) were assessed. Differences in negative affect did not influence decision making performance. Independent of affective state, decision making was found to be impaired in women with ANBP (no learning effect on the BGT), but not in women with ANR. These findings highlight the importance of considering different AN subtypes when examining decision making processes. However, the role of negative affect on decision making remains uncertain. Since other affect related factors such as affect dysregulation may also play a role, future studies on decision making in AN should take the role of affect into account.

  3. Women, men and public health-how the choice of normative theory affects resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Ohman, Ann

    2004-09-01

    Women live longer than men in almost all countries, but men are more privileged in terms of power, influence, resources and probably morbidity. This investigation aims at illustrating how the choice of normative framework affects judgements about the fairness in these sex differences, and about desired societal change. The selected theories are welfare economics, health sector extra-welfarism, justice as fairness and feminist justice. By means of five Swedish proposals aiming at improving the population's health or "sex equity", facts and values are applied to resource allocation. Although we do not claim a specific ethical foundation, it seems to us that the feminist criterion has great potential in public health policy. The overall conclusion is that the normative framework must be explicitly discussed and stated in issues of women's and men's health.

  4. Women, men and public health-how the choice of normative theory affects resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Ohman, Ann

    2004-09-01

    Women live longer than men in almost all countries, but men are more privileged in terms of power, influence, resources and probably morbidity. This investigation aims at illustrating how the choice of normative framework affects judgements about the fairness in these sex differences, and about desired societal change. The selected theories are welfare economics, health sector extra-welfarism, justice as fairness and feminist justice. By means of five Swedish proposals aiming at improving the population's health or "sex equity", facts and values are applied to resource allocation. Although we do not claim a specific ethical foundation, it seems to us that the feminist criterion has great potential in public health policy. The overall conclusion is that the normative framework must be explicitly discussed and stated in issues of women's and men's health. PMID:15276314

  5. Factors Affecting Disclosure in South African HIV-Positive Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Brian W.C.; Visser, Maretha J; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Neufeld, Sharon; Jeffery, Bridget

    2008-01-01

    Abstract To provide understanding of social and psychological factors that affect disclosure of HIV status among women diagnosed HIV-positive in pregnancy, 438 HIV positive women attending antenatal clinics in Pretoria, South Africa were invited to participate in a longitudinal study. A total of 293 (62%) women were enrolled from June 2003 to December 2004. Questionnaires assessing sociodemographics and psychological measures were administered during pregnancy and at 3 months postdelivery. At enrollment, 59% had disclosed to their partners and 42% to others. This rose to 67% and 59%, respectively, by follow-up. Logistic regression analysis identified being married (adjusted odds Ratio [AOR] 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–4.47), prior discussion about testing (AOR 4.19; CI 2.34–7.49), having a partner with tertiary education (AOR 2.76; CI 1.29–5.88) and less experience of violence (AOR 0.48; CI 0.24–0.97) as factors associated with having disclosed to partners prior to enrollment. Better housing (AOR 1.26; CI 1.06–1.49), less financial dependence on partners (AOR 0.46; CI 0.25–0.85), and knowing someone with HIV (AOR 2.13; CI 1.20–3.76) were associated with prior disclosure to others. Increased levels of stigma at baseline decreased the likelihood of disclosure to partners postenrollment (AOR 0.91; CI 0.84–0.98) and increased levels of avoidant coping decreased subsequent disclosure to others (AOR 0.84; CI 0.72–0.97). These results provide understanding of disclosure for women diagnosed as HIV positive in pregnancy, and identify variables that could be used to screen for women who require help. PMID:19025485

  6. Verbal versus Numerical Probabilities: Does Format Presentation of Probabilistic Information regarding Breast Cancer Screening Affect Women's Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test whether the format in which women receive probabilistic information about breast cancer and mammography affects their comprehension. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women received pre-assembled randomized packages containing a breast health information brochure, with probabilities presented in either verbal or numeric…

  7. Examining affect and perfectionism in relation to eating disorder symptoms among women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler B; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-30

    This study examined personality and affective variables in relation to eating disorder symptoms in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=118) with DSM-IV AN completed baseline questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and interviews (Eating Disorder Examination, Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale), followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving multiple daily reports of affective states and eating disorder behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using eating disorder symptoms as dependent variables (i.e., EMA binge eating, EMA self-induced vomiting, eating disorder rituals, eating disorder preoccupations, dietary restraint). Predictor variables were maladaptive perfectionism (baseline), depressive symptoms (baseline), and affect lability (EMA). Results revealed that affect lability was independently associated with binge eating, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with self-induced vomiting. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with eating disorder rituals, whereas both depressive symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism were independently associated with eating disorder preoccupations. Finally, maladaptive perfectionism and affect lability were both independently associated with dietary restraint. This pattern of findings suggests the importance of affective and personality constructs in relation to eating disorder symptoms in AN and may highlight the importance of targeting these variables in the context of treatment.

  8. Examining affect and perfectionism in relation to eating disorder symptoms among women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler B; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-30

    This study examined personality and affective variables in relation to eating disorder symptoms in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=118) with DSM-IV AN completed baseline questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and interviews (Eating Disorder Examination, Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale), followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving multiple daily reports of affective states and eating disorder behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using eating disorder symptoms as dependent variables (i.e., EMA binge eating, EMA self-induced vomiting, eating disorder rituals, eating disorder preoccupations, dietary restraint). Predictor variables were maladaptive perfectionism (baseline), depressive symptoms (baseline), and affect lability (EMA). Results revealed that affect lability was independently associated with binge eating, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with self-induced vomiting. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with eating disorder rituals, whereas both depressive symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism were independently associated with eating disorder preoccupations. Finally, maladaptive perfectionism and affect lability were both independently associated with dietary restraint. This pattern of findings suggests the importance of affective and personality constructs in relation to eating disorder symptoms in AN and may highlight the importance of targeting these variables in the context of treatment. PMID:27208513

  9. Nonclinical factors affecting women's access to trial of labor after cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Korst, Lisa M; Gregory, Kimberly D; Fridman, Moshe; Phelan, Jeffrey P

    2011-06-01

    The use of trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) has declined in the last decade, and the clinical risks of TOLAC remain low. Nonclinical factors continue to affect women's access to TOLAC. This article considers 5 categories of factors that seem to be influencing rates of TOLAC and vaginal birth after cesarean: opinion leaders and professional guidelines, hospital facilities and cesarean availability, reimbursement for providing TOLAC, medical liability, and patient-level factors. An evidence base and strategies to provide guidance to create a safe environment for vaginal birth after cesarean are needed. Obstetric information systems are critical to this effort.

  10. Lifestyle factors affecting fruit and vegetable consumption in the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Pollard, J; Greenwood, D; Kirk, S; Cade, J

    2001-08-01

    The UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS) was originally set up to look at morbidity and mortality data on subjects with a wide range of dietary intakes including vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, non-red meat eaters and red meat eaters. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors that affect fruit and vegetable consumption within this particular cohort of women. Females of ages 35-69 years, taking part in the UK Women's Cohort Study (N=35 367), provided health and lifestyle information including a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. In multiple logistic regression, the strongest predictors of a higher reported level of fruit and vegetable consumption were being a vegetarian or vegan, taking vitamin or mineral supplements, being married, educated to A-level or degree level and belonging to a higher socio-economic group. Conversely, smokers were found to be only half as likely as non-smokers to be high fruit and vegetable consumers. These lifestyle distinctions among three levels of reported fruit and vegetable consumption are relevant to the future targeting of health promotion strategies.

  11. Associations of negative affect and eating behaviour in obese women with and without binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Schulz, S; Laessle, R G

    2010-12-01

    The present study was planned to investigate differences in psychopathological features, eating behaviour and eating habits between obese women with and without BED. It also aimed to identify specific relationships between affective symptoms and eating behaviour in obese women with BED. Eighty-four obese women were studied (40 with BED, 44 non-BED). Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed with the structured diagnostic interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and anxiety with the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). Eating habits (emotional and restrained eating) were assessed by the Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ). Food diaries were used for assessing naturalistic eating behaviour (food intake) and mood before and after food intake. BED subjects exhibited higher levels of comorbidity (in particular mood disorders, anxiety disorders and substance-related disorders), higher depressive symptoms, trait anxiety, external and emotional eating scores than non-BED subjects. Regression analyses revealed that anxiety and emotional eating were significant predictors for BED status. In the BED group, depressive symptoms were significantly related to emotional eating and food intake and negatively related to restraint. Anxiety was significantly related to emotional eating. In general, food intake significantly enhanced mood. Mood was worse on the days with self-reported binge eating episodes than on nonbinge days. These results are discussed with regard to aetiological models for BED and for BED being a distinct diagnostic category separate from obesity. PMID:21406953

  12. Facial beauty affects implicit and explicit learning of men and women differently

    PubMed Central

    Ziori, Eleni; Dienes, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    The present work explores the unconscious and/or conscious nature of learning attractive faces of same and opposite sex, that is, of stimuli that experimental and neuroimaging research has shown to be rewarding and thus highly motivating. To this end, we examined performance of men and women while classifying strings of average and attractive faces for grammaticality in the experimental task of artificial grammar learning (AGL), which reflects both conscious and unconscious processes. Subjective measures were used to assess participants’ conscious and unconscious knowledge. It was found that female attractiveness impaired performance in male participants. In particular, male participants demonstrated the lowest accuracy while classifying beautiful faces of women. Conversely, female attractiveness facilitated performance in female participants. The pattern was similar for conscious and unconscious knowledge. Presumably, objects with high incentive salience, as are beautiful faces, captured resources, which were used in task relevant versus task irrelevant ways by women versus men. The present findings shed light on the relation of conscious and unconscious processing with affective and reward-related stimuli, as well as on gender differences underlying this relation. PMID:26300819

  13. Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health

    PubMed Central

    Cambronero-Saiz, Belén

    2013-01-01

    Background The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on people's health, with a particular focus on women. Objective To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1) political debates about abortion, (2) gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3) pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Design Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1) gender is the basis of social norms and (2) gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Results Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male–female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Conclusions Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens’ health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance of women as the

  14. Worldwide cloud cover model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Sommerville, P. N.

    1979-01-01

    Classifying worldwide cloudiness into homogeneous regions, using a satellite data set containing day IR, night IR, incoming, and absorbed solar radiation measurements on a 2.5-degree latitude-longitude grid is considered. Methods of analysis are presented.

  15. Perceived Health System Causes of Obstetric Fistula from Accounts of Affected Women in Rural Tanzania: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Mselle, Lilian T; Kohi, Thecla W

    2015-03-01

    Obstetric fistula is still a major problem in low income countries. While its main cause is untreated obstructed labour, misconceptions about it still persist. This study aimed at exploring and describing perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula from women affected by it in rural Tanzania. This exploratory qualitative study included twenty-eight women affected by obstetric fistula. Semi structured interviews and focus group discussions were held and thematic analysis used to analyse perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula from women's account. Perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula fundamentally reflected the poor quality of obstetric care women received at health care facilities relating to staff unaccountability, late referral, and torture by nurses. The women's perception emphasizes the importance of improving the quality of obstetric care provided by health care providers in health care facilities. PMID:26103702

  16. 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

  17. Misreporting of dietary intake affects estimated nutrient intakes in low-income Spanish-speaking women.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-07-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue.

  18. Selective CB2 up-regulation in women affected by endometrial inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Iuvone, Teresa; De Filippis, Daniele; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; D'Amico, Alessandra; Simonetti, Sara; Sparice, Stefania; Esposito, Giuseppe; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Insabato, Luigi; Nappi, Carmine; Guida, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Endometritis is defined as an inflammation of the endometrial mucosa of the uterus. In endometritis large amounts of toxic mediators, including nitric oxide (NO) are released by inflammatory cells. As a consequence of nitric oxide-dependent injury, the cells respond by triggering protective mechanisms, by changing the endo-cannabinoid system (ECS) which comprises both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands. The aim of our study was to seek out evidence for the presence of cannabinoid receptors in inflammatory endometrial tissue as well as for their potential role in endometrial inflammation. Our results showed a selective up-regulation of both transcription and expression of CB2 receptors in biopsies from women affected by endometrial inflammation compared to healthy women. The experiments with the nitric oxide-donor S-Nitroso-L-Glutathione (GSNO) suggest that such a selective up-regulation may be related to the nitric oxide release occurring during endometrial inflammation. In addition, we demonstrated an increase in chymase expression, a marker of mast cells, in biopsies of women affected by endometritis. Therefore our results support the hypothesis that the up-regulation of CB2 occurs mainly on mast cells and that it might tend to sensitize these cells to the anti-inflammatory effect exerted by endogenous cannabinoids by binding their receptor and thus preventing the mast cell degranulation and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators. In conclusion, we believe that the selective CB2 up-regulation might play a role as a novel prognostic factor in endometrial inflammation. PMID:18419603

  19. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women

    PubMed Central

    Banna, Jinan C.; Fialkowski, Marie K.; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  20. Personality, social support and affective states during simulated microgravity in healthy women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Michel

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the time-course of stress and recovery states and their relations to social support and personality traits in healthy women during a long-term head-down tilt bed rest. Personality, social support and affective states were assessed in 16 women exposed to simulated microgravity for a 60-day duration involving three stages: a 20-day baseline control period (BDC), a 60-day head-down tilt bed rest (HDT) and a 20-day post-HDT ambulatory recovery period (R+). Participants were divided into two groups: an exercise (Exe, n = 8) and a control group (Ctl, n = 8). All the participants experienced significantly more stress during the HDT period. But exercise did not improve the impaired effects of simulated microgravity. The Exe group perceived more stress and less recovery than the Ctl group during the HDT period. Among the five major personality factors, only Neuroticism was related to both social and affective variables. Neuroticism was positively associated with stress and negatively associated with recovery and social support (S-SSQ). Practical implications in psychological countermeasures for better dealing with the key human factor in spaceflights are discussed.

  1. The Effect of Body Image Threat on Smoking Motivation Among College Women: Mediation by Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Lopez Khoury, Elena N.; Litvin, Erika B.; Brandon, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Previous descriptive, correlational, and quasi-experimental research has established that weight concerns and negative body image are associated with tobacco smoking, cessation, and relapse among young women. A recent experimental study found that activation of negative body image cognitions produced urges to smoke (Lopez, Drobes, Thompson, & Brandon, 2008). The current study intended to replicate and extend these experimental findings by examining the role of negative affect as a mediator of the relationship between body dissatisfaction and smoking urges. Female college smokers (N = 133) were randomly assigned to a body image challenge (trying on a bathing suit) or a control condition (evaluating a purse). State levels of urge to smoke, mood, and body dissatisfaction were assessed both pre- and post-manipulation. Trying on a bathing suit increased body dissatisfaction and reported urges to smoke, particularly those urges related to reducing negative affect. Additionally, state negative affect mediated the relationship between the body image manipulation and smoking urge. This study provides additional support, through an experimental design, that situational challenges to body image influence smoking motivation, and that this effect occurs, at least in part, via increases in negative affect. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed. PMID:19586144

  2. Parity as a factor affecting the white-coat effect in pregnant women: the BOSHI study.

    PubMed

    Ishikuro, Mami; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Iwama, Noriyuki; Katagiri, Mikiko; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Narikawa, Yoko; Yagihashi, Katsuyo; Kikuya, Masahiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Masakuni; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Imai, Yutaka

    2015-11-01

    Parity has previously been reported to affect the difference in blood pressure (BP) measured in the office and at home, also known as the white-coat effect, during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to identify possible factors that cause the white-coat effect during pregnancy, focusing on parity. In total, 530 pregnant women (31.3±4.7 years old) who delivered at a maternal clinic were eligible for the study. The association between parity and the white-coat effect (clinic BP compared with home BP) was investigated for each trimester of pregnancy by multivariate analysis of covariance adjusted for age, body mass index, family history of hypertension and smoking habits. The magnitudes of the white-coat effect for systolic BP in the first, second and third trimesters were 4.1±9.8, 3.4±7.1 and 1.8±6.0 mm Hg, respectively and those for diastolic BP were 3.8±7.4, 1.6±5.8 and 2.4±4.9 mm Hg, respectively. Parity was significantly and negatively associated with the white-coat effect for systolic BP in the first trimester of pregnancy (nulliparous women: 5.07±0.61 mm Hg and multiparous women: 2.78±0.74 mm Hg, P=0.02) as well as for diastolic BP in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Age, body mass index, family history of hypertension and smoking were not significantly associated with the white-coat effect in any trimester of pregnancy. Parity may have an influence on the white-coat effect in pregnancy; however, the observed effect, on average 1-2 mm Hg, was small.

  3. Children Worldwide, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Each of the three journal issues comprising volume 19 (1992) of "Children Worldwide" focuses on a specific theme. Issue 1 contains six articles about refugee children, including essays about a community self-help approach in Pakistan, unaccompanied minors in Hong Kong, and refugee families raising children in a new culture; guidelines for working…

  4. Affective responses to increasing levels of exercise intensity in normal-weight, overweight, and obese middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Lind, Erik; Vazou, Spiridoula

    2010-01-01

    At least 60 min of daily physical activity (PA) are recommended for weight control, a target achieved by only 3% of obese (OB) women. The purposes of this study were to examine (i) the affective responses of normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW), and OB middle-aged sedentary women to exercise of increasing intensity and (ii) the relationship of affective responses to self-efficacy and social physique anxiety. The women participated in a graded treadmill protocol to volitional exhaustion while providing ratings of pleasure-displeasure and perceived activation each minute. The Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD ACL) was also completed before and after exercise. The affective responses of NW and OW women did not differ. However OB women gave lower pleasure ratings during the incremental protocol and reported lower Energy scores immediately after the protocol. Social physique anxiety, but not self-efficacy, was inversely related to pleasure and energy. The lower levels of pleasure and energy experienced by OB than nonobese women could account in part for their dramatically low levels of PA participation. Modifying the cognitive antecedents of social physique anxiety might be a useful intervention strategy.

  5. Diurnal and seasonal variations of melatonin and serotonin in women with seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Danilenko, K V; Putilov, A A; Russkikh, G S; Duffy, L K; Ebbesson, S O

    1994-07-01

    In winters 1990-1991 and 1991-1992 women with and without seasonal affective disorder, winter type, were treated by light at 2500 lux either in the morning (0800h-1000h) or afternoon (1600h-1800h). In winter before light treatment, melatonin levels in serum in daytime (1200h and 1600h) were higher in patients compared to controls (p < 0.05). This difference disappeared in the summer or after light treatment in the winter. Also, light treatment and change in season resulted in a phase advance shift of melatonin rhythm in patients. The decline in melatonin levels correlated with the decline in specific SAD symptoms of hyperphagia and carbohydrate craving. In winter, neither patients nor controls showed significant diurnal variations in levels of whole blood serotonin. In both patients and controls, levels of serotonin were higher in summer as compared with winter, especially at 2000h. Our data suggest that elevated daytime melatonin can be a state marker of winter depression, and that seasonal change of photoperiod may also affect the circadian amplitude and daytime levels of blood serotonin. PMID:7986318

  6. 1988 worldwide petrochemical directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This directory makes available the names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of most of the world's companies which are involved in the petrochemical industry. The directory provides the names of over 14,000 key personnel at over 2,000 plant sites in the United States, Canada, Europe, Latin America, Asia-Pacific, Africa and the Middle East. A company index is provided for easy reference. The Oil and Gas Journal's Worldwide Petrochemical Survey appears in its entirety in this volume.

  7. Can decision-making skills affect responses to psychological stress in healthy women?

    PubMed

    Santos-Ruiz, Ana; Garcia-Rios, M Carmen; Fernandez-Sanchez, José Carlos; Perez-Garcia, Miguel; Muñoz-García, Miguel Angel; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel

    2012-12-01

    In recent studies showing how stress can affect an individual's decision-making process, the cognitive component of decision-making could also be considered a coping resource available to individuals when faced with a stressful situation. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) constitutes the standard test for the assessment of decision-making skills under conditions of uncertainty. Responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to psychosocial stress, in turn, have been estimated by means of cortisol measurements. Our main objective in this study was to test if good and bad IGT performers show distinct HPA axis responses, when challenged in a classic psychosocial stress test. Because women have been shown to outperform men on the IGT under the influence of psychosocial stress, we chose a sample of 40 women to take the IGT before they were exposed to a public speaking task in a virtual environment. The activation of the HPA axis, involved in the stress response, was assessed by examining the levels of cortisol in the subjects' saliva at the following four stages: before the challenge, after the challenge, and 10 and 20 min after the task. Participants were divided into two groups according to their level of performance, good or poor, on the IGT. Results showed statistically significant differences between the groups for pre-exposure cortisol levels and for cortisol levels 20 min after exposure. Overall cortisol levels were significantly higher in the group with poor performance on the IGT. It appears that good decision-making, which may be an important resource for coping with stress, is associated with a lower HPA axis response to a psychosocial stressor.

  8. Latin America: Analysis of the Social Problems Affecting Women in Various Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    The report discusses the conceptual framework of a study, built around three central ideas: the type of social entity in which women predominantly carry out their activities, sexual stereotypes, and cultural norms. The report discusses the class situation of women, and updates the information regarding the situation of women in education,…

  9. Worldwide petrochemical directory, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This directory gives the information on the worldwide petrochemical industry in existence. It makes available the names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of most of the world's companies which are involved in the petrochemical industry. The directory provides the names of over 14,000 key personnel at over 2,000 plant sizes in the United States, Canada, Europe, Latin America, Asia-Pacific, Africa and the Middle East. A company index is provided for easy reference. It details current petrochemical plants' feedstocks, products and capacities. The newly updated petrochemical plant construction survey is also provided.

  10. Related fuels - worldwide construction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-25

    This listing describes major construction projects in related fuels worldwide. Each listing, organized alphabetically within country groups, tells the name of the buyer(s) and project location, capacity, process method, and contractor(s). Countries having listings include the U.S., Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Japan, Morocco, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, South Africa, Sweden, USSR, and Venezuela. Fuel processes included are coal gasification, tar sands upgrading, coal liquefaction, shale oil, synthetic natural gas, syncrude and syngas, methanol synthesis, and heavy oil upgrading.

  11. [Therapeutic plasmas available worldwide].

    PubMed

    Martinaud, C; Cauet, A; Sailliol, A

    2013-05-01

    Therapeutic plasma is a current product; French guidelines were reviewed in 2012. Connections between more or less closed countries are frequent, during relief disasters as well as in war settings. This is associated with the increasing use of plasma in the management of casualties. Additionally, The real possibility of lack of plasma supply in some countries provides a fundamental interest of the knowledge of foreign blood supply organizations. We present here the main divergences and mutual point between plasmas available worldwide. We present the main characteristics of each product.

  12. 1985 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This directory lists names, addresses, phone numbers, and telex listings. The directory includes more than 14,000 key operating personnel at over 1,900 plant locations in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, Africa, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East. Featured is a special survey prepared with the help of the Oil and Gas Journal that details the petrochemical plant feedstocks, product and capacities. This Worldwide-Petrochemical Survey appears only in its entirety in directory. Also included is an updated petrochemical plant construction survey.

  13. An integrative affect regulation process model of internalized weight bias and intuitive eating in college women.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Hardin, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    The present study extended the weight stigma and well-being process model (Tylka et al., 2014) by examining three affect regulation pathways that may help simultaneously explain the predicted inverse association between internalized weight bias and intuitive eating. A weight-diverse sample of 333 college women completed an online survey assessing internalized weight stigma, intuitive eating, body shame, body image flexibility, and self-compassion. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures were computed to ascertain the presence of the indirect effects of internalized weight bias on intuitive eating via the three hypothesized mediators controlling for BMI in a combined model. Results demonstrated that body image flexibility significantly and self-compassion marginally contributed unique variance in accounting for this relationship. Our preliminary cross-sectional findings contribute to a nascent body of scholarship seeking to provide a theoretically-driven understanding of how negative and positive forms of experiencing and relating to the body may co-occur within individuals. Results also point to potential target variables to consider incorporating in later-stage efforts to promote more adaptive ways of eating amidst internalized weight stigma. PMID:26893074

  14. Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Hans P

    2002-01-01

    Since the discovery of the aflatoxins in the 1960s, regulations have been established in many countries to protect the consumer from the harmful effects of mycotoxins that may contaminate foodstuffs. Various factors play a role in the decision-making process of setting limits for mycotoxins. These include scientific factors such as the availability of toxicological data, survey data, knowledge about the distribution of mycotoxins in commodities, and analytical methodology. Economical and political factors such as commercial interests and sufficiency of food supply have their impact as well. International enquiry's on existing mycotoxin legislation in foodstuffs and animal feedstuffs have been carried out several times in the 1980s and 1990s and details about tolerances, legal basis, responsible authorities, official protocols of analysis and sampling have been published. Recently a comprehensive update on worldwide regulations was published as FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 64. It appeared that at least 77 countries now have specific regulations for mycotoxins, 13 countries are known to have no specific regulations, whereas no data are available for about 50 countries, many of them in Africa. Over the years, a large diversity in tolerance levels for mycotoxins has remained. Some free trade zones (EU, MERCOSUR) are in the process of harmonizing the limits and regulations for mycotoxins in their respective member states, but it is not likely that worldwide harmonized limits for mycotoxins will soon be within reach.

  15. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    PubMed

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  16. Don't take another bite: how sociocultural norms for appearance affect women's eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Strahan, Erin J; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P

    2007-12-01

    Four studies tested the impact of exposure to thin images on women's eating behavior. In Study 1, women who were exposed to commercials containing thin models ate less in a taste test than women exposed to neutral commercials. The next two studies revealed that the impact of the thin images could be reduced by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance. In Study 2, including images of relatively heavier women who have been successful in life (an indirect challenge to the norm) attenuated the impact of the thin images on women's eating behavior. Study 3 demonstrated that convincing women that their peers do not endorse the sociocultural norms also reduced the impact of the thin images. In Study 4, we found that exposure to thin images led to activation of an association between heaviness and rejection and that the more this association was activated, the less participants ate. PMID:18089279

  17. Don't take another bite: how sociocultural norms for appearance affect women's eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Strahan, Erin J; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P

    2007-12-01

    Four studies tested the impact of exposure to thin images on women's eating behavior. In Study 1, women who were exposed to commercials containing thin models ate less in a taste test than women exposed to neutral commercials. The next two studies revealed that the impact of the thin images could be reduced by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance. In Study 2, including images of relatively heavier women who have been successful in life (an indirect challenge to the norm) attenuated the impact of the thin images on women's eating behavior. Study 3 demonstrated that convincing women that their peers do not endorse the sociocultural norms also reduced the impact of the thin images. In Study 4, we found that exposure to thin images led to activation of an association between heaviness and rejection and that the more this association was activated, the less participants ate.

  18. Does Body Mass Index in Pregnant Women Affect Laboratory Parameters in the Newborn?

    PubMed Central

    Raguž, Marjana Jerković; Brzica, Jerko

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy in laboratory parameters in the serum of the three groups of pregnant women and in their newborns. Methods This prospective study is comparison between the three groups of pregnant women and their newborns categorized according to their BMI. The study included 128 pregnant women and their newborns. In this study, the concentration of blood count, iron, ferritin, and bilirubin were analyzed in the subjects. Results The pregnant women in the three groups significantly differ in the values of blood count (p < 0.001). Statistically significant difference in iron and ferritin was not found between individual three studied groups of pregnant women (p = 0.947). The newborn of the first group of pregnant women had significantly lower values of ferritin (p < 0.001), leucocytes (p < 0.001), and bilirubin (p < 0.001). Significant positive correlation between BMI of pregnant women and leucocytes, ferritin, and bilirubin of the newborn was found (p < 0.001). Conclusion In this study, the tested pregnant women do not have biochemical signs of anemia, neither do their newborns. It was noted that there was no negative correlation between individual tested biochemical parameters for anemia in pregnant women and their newborns. PMID:27119047

  19. Worldwide activity in IGCC

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, L.

    1994-07-01

    EPRI has pursued the development of integrated gasification-combined-cycle technology because it is the cleanest method available for making electricity from coal. Now, a decade after the establishment of the first IGCC demonstration plant, environmental regulations are encouraging the adoption of this technology in a number of countries. An unexpected innovation is the use of residual oil as an IGCC feedstock, a practice that evolved naturally as a result of market forces. Experts are hopeful that the current momentum in IGCC will trigger the introduction of the technology in developing countries, many of which rely heavily on coal and oil for power generation. Environmental regulations and a market glut of low-grade fossil fuels are spurring an unprecedented number of integrated gasification combined-cycle projects worldwide. These projects are described.

  20. Factors affecting the compliance of Israeli women with screening for intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Ben Natan, Merav; Abramov, Luda; Dhokarker, Avigail; Israelov, Etery

    2013-04-01

    Violence against women has become a frequent occurrence. In Israel, some 200,000 women are subjected to various types of violence by their intimate partners annually. Routine screening for intimate partner violence is endorsed by the Ministry of Health in Israel; however, screening rates in health-care settings remain problematic. This study aimed to examine whether the model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) succeeds in predicting women's intention to comply with screening for intimate partner violence. A questionnaire based on the literature review and research model was administered to a convenience sample of 200 married women. Although only 4.5% (n = 9) of respondents were screened for violence at various health-care institutions over the past year, 75% (n = 150) of women declared that they intend to cooperate with screening. A positive correlation was found between women's marriage duration, beliefs concerning violence, attitudes towards screening, family member support for compliance with screening-and women's intention to comply with screening. The TRA succeeds in partially predicting women's intention to comply with screening. PMID:23577975

  1. Attitude towards genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility: a comparison of affected and unaffected women.

    PubMed

    Bruno, M; Digennaro, M; Tommasi, S; Stea, B; Danese, T; Schittulli, F; Paradiso, A

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate women's awareness and interest in genetic testing for breast cancer risk, to identify socio-demographic factors, to analyse the reasons for wanting or not wanting to be tested and finally to determine whether breast cancer patients and healthy women have different attitudes towards genetic testing. Consecutive series of 879 women without and with breast cancer participated in a 20-item self-completing questionnaire. Among breast cancer patients, 57% answered that they would definitely or probably accept being tested, compared with 84% of women without breast cancer. At the multiple logistic regression analysis only to have a diagnosis of breast cancer conditioned significantly the interest to have genetic testing. Surprisingly, a family history of breast cancer was found to have no significant impact. The most frequently cited reason for being interested in genetic testing was 'to learn about your children's risk'. Although women's awareness about breast cancer genes is inadequate, the interest in genetic testing is substantial and higher both in healthy women and in women with breast cancer. These results provide important indications for the development of educational strategies.

  2. Chemicals for worldwide aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnick, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Regulations and therapeutants or other safe chemicals that are approved or acceptable for use in the aquaculture industry in the US, Canada, Europe and Japan are presented, discussing also compounds that are unacceptable for aquaculture. Chemical use practices that could affect public health are considered and details given regarding efforts to increase the number of registered and acceptable chemicals.

  3. Signaling threat: how situational cues affect women in math, science, and engineering settings.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mary C; Steele, Claude M; Gross, James J

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the cues hypothesis, which holds that situational cues, such as a setting's features and organization, can make potential targets vulnerable to social identity threat. Objective and subjective measures of identity threat were collected from male and female math, science, and engineering (MSE) majors who watched an MSE conference video depicting either an unbalanced ratio of men to women or a balanced ratio. Women who viewed the unbalanced video exhibited more cognitive and physiological vigilance, and reported a lower sense of belonging and less desire to participate in the conference, than did women who viewed the gender-balanced video. Men were unaffected by this situational cue. The implications for understanding vulnerability to social identity threat, particularly among women in MSE settings, are discussed.

  4. Gender differences affecting vocal health of women in vocally demanding careers

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Eric J.; Smith, Marshall E.; Tanner, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that occupational voice users have a greater incidence of vocal issues than the general population. Women have been found to experience vocal health problems more frequently than men, regardless of their occupation. Traditionally, it has been assumed that differences in the laryngeal system are the cause of this disproportion. Nevertheless, it is valuable to identify other potential gender distinctions which may make women more vulnerable to voice disorders. A search of the literature was conducted for gender-specific characteristics which might impact the vocal health of women. This search can be used by healthcare practitioners to help female patients avoid serious vocal health injuries, as well as to better treat women who already suffer from such vocal health issues. PMID:21722077

  5. Gender differences affecting vocal health of women in vocally demanding careers.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Eric J; Tanner, Kristine; Smith, Marshall E

    2011-10-01

    Studies suggest that occupational voice users have a greater incidence of vocal issues than the general population. Women have been found to experience vocal health problems more frequently than men, regardless of their occupation. Traditionally, it has been assumed that differences in the laryngeal system are the cause of this disproportion. Nevertheless, it is valuable to identify other potential gender distinctions which may make women more vulnerable to voice disorders. A search of the literature was conducted for gender-specific characteristics which might impact the vocal health of women. This search can be used by health care practitioners to help female patients avoid serious vocal health injuries, as well as to treat better those women who already suffer from such vocal health issues. PMID:21722077

  6. Does stereotype threat affect test performance of minorities and women? A meta-analysis of experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hannah-Hanh D; Ryan, Ann Marie

    2008-11-01

    A meta-analysis of stereotype threat effects was conducted and an overall mean effect size of |.26| was found, but true moderator effects existed. A series of hierarchical moderator analyses evidenced differential effects of race- versus gender-based stereotypes. Women experienced smaller performance decrements than did minorities when tests were difficult: mean ds = |.36| and |.43|, respectively. For women, subtle threat-activating cues produced the largest effect, followed by blatant and moderately explicit cues: ds = |.24|, |.18|, and |.17|, respectively; explicit threat-removal strategies were more effective in reducing stereotype threat effects than subtle ones: ds = |.14| and |.33|, respectively. For minorities, moderately explicit stereotype threat-activating cues produced the largest effect, followed by blatant and subtle cues: ds = |.64|, |.41|, and |.22|, respectively; explicit removal strategies enhanced stereotype threat effects compared with subtle strategies: ds = |.80| and |.34|, respectively. In addition, stereotype threat affected moderately math-identified women more severely than highly math-identified women: ds = |.52| and |.29|, respectively; low math-identified women suffered the least from stereotype threat: d= |.11|. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. The worldwide "wildfire" problem.

    PubMed

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2013-03-01

    The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented. PMID:23634593

  8. Barriers affecting access to and use of formal social supports among abused immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Guruge, Sepali; Humphreys, Janice

    2009-09-01

    Social support is critical for women dealing with intimate partner violence (IPV).When support from their informal sources, such as family, friends, and neighbours, is limited, women tend to access services provided by health professionals, social workers, and settlement workers. In this qualitative descriptive study, community leaders who were also first-generation immigrants describe the complexities of immigrant women's access to and use of formal supports to deal with IPV in Canada.The findings show that a number of factors negatively shape the experiences of these women: lack of familiarity with services, inappropriate services and intervention strategies, lack of culturally and linguistically appropriate services, lack of portability and coordination of services, confidentiality concerns, and discriminatory and racist practices embedded in services and service delivery. In order to improve care for women dealing with IPV in the post-migration context, health professionals must collaborate with social workers and settlement workers to address structural barriers that limit women's access to and use of formal social support.

  9. Circulating leptin and osteoprotegerin levels affect insulin resistance in healthy premenopausal obese women.

    PubMed

    Ugur-Altun, Betul; Altun, Armagan

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between circulating leptin and osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels and insulin resistance assessed by HOMA-IR in premenopausal obese and normal weight women. Thirty four obese women (age 31 +/- 8 years) (BMI 35 +/- 4 kg/m(2)) with 19 healthy controls (age 31 +/- 7 years) (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) (BMI 21 +/- 2 kg/m(2)) were included in the study. Women were healthy and had no osteoporosis. Circulating leptin levels were significantly higher in obese women (17.11 +/- 2.05 ng/mL vs. 8.38 +/- 4.71 ng/mL, p <0.0001) and decreased OPG levels were found (14.7 +/- 7.15 pg/mL vs. 19.17 +/- 6.37 pg/mL, p = 0.03). Leptin showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.851, p <0.0001), waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.692, p <0.0001), fasting insulin (r = 0.441, p <0.001), HOMA-IR (r = 0.412, p = 0.002), fibrinogen (r = 0.387, p = 0.004), uric acid (r = 0.293, p = 0.033), hematocrit (r = 0.394, p = 0.003), systolic (r = 0.504, p <0.0001), and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.363, p = 0.008). OPG showed a negative correlation with insulin (r = -0.341, p = 0.013) and HOMA-IR (r = -0.324, p = 0.018). In obese women group, the regression equation of HOMA-IR was (HOMA-IR = [0.095 x leptin]-[0.051 x OPG] + 1.71). However, there was no relation between leptin and OPG levels. In conclusion, circulating leptin and OPG levels were related to insulin resistance in premenopausal obese women. However, leptin had no interference in OPG in premenopausal women. PMID:17923273

  10. A qualitative study of factors affecting pregnancy weight gain in African American women.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Kara; Cregger, Mary; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong

    2013-04-01

    African Americans and overweight or obese women are at increased risk for excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention. Interventions are needed to promote healthy GWG in this population; however, research on exercise and nutritional barriers during pregnancy in African American women is limited. The objective of this qualitative study is to better inform intervention messages by eliciting information on perceptions of appropriate weight gain, barriers to and enablers of exercise and healthy eating, and other influences on healthy weight gain during pregnancy in overweight or obese African American women. In-depth interviews were conducted with 33 overweight or obese African American women in Columbia, South Carolina. Women were recruited in early to mid-pregnancy (8-23 weeks gestation, n = 10), mid to late pregnancy (24-36 weeks, n = 15), and early postpartum (6-12 weeks postpartum, n = 8). Interview questions and data analysis were informed using a social ecological framework. Over 50 % of women thought they should gain weight in excess of the range recommended by the Institute of Medicine. Participants were motivated to exercise for personal health benefits; however they also cited many barriers to exercise, including safety concerns for the fetus. Awareness of the maternal and fetal benefits of healthy eating was high. Commonly cited barriers to healthy eating include cravings and availability of unhealthy foods. The majority of women were motivated to engage in healthy behaviors during pregnancy. However, the interviews also uncovered a number of misconceptions and barriers that can serve as future intervention messages and strategies. PMID:22527762

  11. The negative bone effects of the disease and of chronic corticosteroid treatment in premenopausal women affected by rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fassio, A; Idolazzi, L; Jaber, M A; Dartizio, C; Viapiana, O; Rossini, M; Gatti, D

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a well-known extra-articular complication in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The chronic corticosteroid treatment, the functional impairment associated with RA and the disease itself appear to be the most relevant determinants. Most of the previous studies involved postmenopausal women, in whom the estrogenic deficiency might amplify the negative effect towards bone of both RA and corticosteroid therapy. We decided to evaluate bone health in a cohort of premenopausal RA patients. The study population includes 47 premenopausal women attending our outpatient clinic for RA and twice as many healthy age-matched control women selected from the hospital personnel. The bone density at the spine and femoral neck were significantly lower in patients with RA as compared with controls. When spine bone mineral density (BMD) values were adjusted for the cumulative glucocorticoid (GC) dose alone and for the cumulative GC dose plus body mass index (BMI) the mean differences between two groups decreased but they remained statistically significant. We found no difference when the spine BMD was adjusted for cumulative GC dose, BMI and health assessment questionnaire. The difference in femoral neck BMD remained statistically significant also after all the same adjustments. In conclusion, our study shows that a BMD deficiency is frequent also in premenopausal women affected by RA, especially at femoral site and that the main determinants of this bone loss are not only the disease-related weight loss, corticosteroid therapy and functional impairment, but also the systemic effects of the disease itself. PMID:27608794

  12. Returning to STEM: Gendered Factors Affecting Employability for Mature Women Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Clem

    2015-01-01

    This paper adds to current discourses around employability by arguing for an explicit recognition of gender, in particular in relation to women's employment in male-dominated sectors such as science, engineering and technology. This is not limited to young first-time graduates but continues and evolves throughout the life course. Mature women…

  13. How Do Alcohol and Relationship Type Affect Women's Risk Judgment of Partners with Differing Risk Histories?

    PubMed

    Norris, Jeanette; Kiekel, Preston A; Morrison, Diane M; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H; Zawacki, Tina; Abdallah, Devon Alisa; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A

    2013-06-01

    Understanding how women judge male partners' sexual risk is important to developing risk reduction programs. Applying a cognitive mediation model of sexual decision making, our study investigated effects of alcohol consumption (control, low dose, high dose) and relationship type (disrupted vs. new) on women's risk judgments of a male sexual partner in three sexual risk conditions (low, unknown, high). After random assignment to an experimental condition, 328 participants projected themselves into a story depicting a sexual interaction. The story was paused to assess primary appraisals of sexual and relationship potential and secondary appraisals of pleasure, health, and relationship concerns, followed by sexual risk judgments. In all risk conditions, alcohol and disrupted relationship increased sexual potential whereas disrupted relationship increased relationship potential in the low- and high-risk conditions. In the unknown-risk condition, women in the no-alcohol, new relationship condition had the lowest primary sexual appraisals. In all conditions, sexual appraisals predicted all secondary appraisals, but primary relationship appraisals predicted only secondary relationship appraisals. Secondary health appraisals led to increased risk judgments whereas relationship appraisals predicted lower risk judgments. Possible intervention points include helping women to re-evaluate their safety beliefs about past partners, as well as to develop behavioral strategies for decreasing hazardous drinking.

  14. More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at…

  15. A Study of Factors Affecting Attrition Among Women Re-entering Formal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimal, M. William

    A survey of 374 women students, who re-entered formal education at 13 community colleges in Northern California, was conducted to determine whether probability of persistence or non-persistence could be predicted on the basis of selected life antecedents, and which student services were perceived by persisting and non-persisting students as most…

  16. The Outdoor Recreation Experience: Factors Affecting Participation of African American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nina S.; Drogin, Ellen B.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses factors contributing to the nonparticipation of African-American women in outdoor recreation activities including (1) historical oppression and racism; (2) stereotyping by race and gender; (3) lack of role models; (4) insufficient exposure to activity options; (5) limited accessibility to outdoor recreation areas; and (6) oppressive…

  17. Presenting Thin Media Models Affects Women's Choice of Diet or Normal Snacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahe, Barbara; Krause, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Our study explored the influence of thin- versus normal-size media models and of self-reported restrained eating behavior on women's observed snacking behavior. Fifty female undergraduates saw a set of advertisements for beauty products showing either thin or computer-altered normal-size female models, allegedly as part of a study on effective…

  18. An examination of affect prior to and following episodes of getting drunk in women with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Pisetsky, Emily M; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Mitchell, James E; Engel, Scott G; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-06-30

    The current study examined the association between affect and self-reported alcohol intoxication in women with bulimia nervosa (BN; N=133). Participants completed a two-week ecological momentary assessment protocol. Momentary global positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA), as well as the facets of NA (fear, guilt, hostility and sadness), were measured. Forty-five participants endorsed that they "got drunk" during the study period. Daily mean and variability of global PA and NA were compared between days with self-reported alcohol intoxication and days without self-reported alcohol intoxication. Trajectories of affect were modeled prior to and following episodes of self-reported alcohol intoxication. There were no differences in the mean or variability of PA or NA on days characterized by self-reported alcohol intoxication compared to days with no self-reported alcohol intoxication (ps>0.05). PA decreased significantly prior to self-reported alcohol intoxication and remained stable afterwards. There were no changes in global NA before or after self-reported alcohol intoxication, but an examination of the facets of NA showed that sadness increased following episodes of self-reported alcohol intoxication. These findings showed only partial support for a negative reinforcement model of alcohol use in women with BN. PMID:27111214

  19. An examination of affect prior to and following episodes of getting drunk in women with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Pisetsky, Emily M; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Mitchell, James E; Engel, Scott G; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-06-30

    The current study examined the association between affect and self-reported alcohol intoxication in women with bulimia nervosa (BN; N=133). Participants completed a two-week ecological momentary assessment protocol. Momentary global positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA), as well as the facets of NA (fear, guilt, hostility and sadness), were measured. Forty-five participants endorsed that they "got drunk" during the study period. Daily mean and variability of global PA and NA were compared between days with self-reported alcohol intoxication and days without self-reported alcohol intoxication. Trajectories of affect were modeled prior to and following episodes of self-reported alcohol intoxication. There were no differences in the mean or variability of PA or NA on days characterized by self-reported alcohol intoxication compared to days with no self-reported alcohol intoxication (ps>0.05). PA decreased significantly prior to self-reported alcohol intoxication and remained stable afterwards. There were no changes in global NA before or after self-reported alcohol intoxication, but an examination of the facets of NA showed that sadness increased following episodes of self-reported alcohol intoxication. These findings showed only partial support for a negative reinforcement model of alcohol use in women with BN.

  20. AAVSO Solar Observers Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, R.

    2013-06-01

    be similar for all low-altitude sites, within the range of 1.5 to 3 arc sec, (typically = 2 arc sec equivalent diameter D = 45-90 mm, the typical solar scope = 70 mm aperture). Where large apertures are more affected by size of turbulent eddies ~8-12 cm, small-aperture telescopes reduce these differences, i.e. large aperture is not always beneficial.

  1. THROUGH HER EYES: Factors Affecting Women's Perception of and Resestance to Acquaintance Sexual Aggression Threat

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jeanette; Nurius, Paula S.; Dimeff, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    A major component of a woman's ability to resist assaults by strangers versus acquaintances lies in the social and cognitive context in which she is engaged with the perpetrator and within which she must recognize potential threat before engaging in a behavioral response. This paper presents questionnaire and focus group findings of heterosexual college sorority women's social contexts, perceived risks, responses, and psychological barriers to protecting themselves from sexual aggression threat by fraternity acquaintances. Several social and cognitive factors, including alcohol consumption and psychological barriers, were related to projected responses to sexual aggression. Participants in general held a high sense of invulnerability to victimization and an optimistic belief in their ability to resist sexual aggression. Several differences between previously victimized and nonvictimized women also emerged. PMID:25705073

  2. HIV/AIDS programming in the United States: considerations affecting transgender women and girls.

    PubMed

    Sevelius, Jae M; Keatley, Joanne; Gutierrez-Mock, Luis

    2011-11-01

    To be truly gender responsive, HIV/AIDS programming for women and girls also needs to be fully gender inclusive. Gender identity is not necessarily determined by one's sex assigned at birth and not everyone is only or always simply "male" or "female." Transgender women (transwomen) and girls are those individuals whose gender identity and/or expression do not align with the "male" sex they were assigned at birth. This definition is inclusive of a diverse population whose identities, language, communities, and behaviors may vary widely. However, based on recent increases in public health literature that aims to elucidate the social context that puts transwomen and girls at risk for adverse health outcomes, we offer some formative considerations for the implementation of gender-responsive and gender-inclusive HIV/AIDS programming in the United States.

  3. Does aerobic exercise intensity affect health-related parameters in overweight women?

    PubMed

    Botero, João P; Prado, Wagner L; Guerra, Ricardo L F; Speretta, Guilherme F F; Leite, Richard D; Prestes, Jonato; Sanz, Adrián V; Lyons, Scott; de Azevedo, Paulo H S M; Baldissera, Vilmar; Perez, Sergio E A; Dâmaso, Ana; da Silva, Rozinaldo G

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a cycling training programme performed at intensity corresponding to the lowest value of the respiratory quotient (RQ) versus at intensity corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT), on body composition and health-related parameters in overweight women. Thirty-two sedentary obese women (27-42 years old) were studied in a randomized trial of either RQ (n = 17) or VT (n = 15). RQ and VT training sessions were equalized by time (60 min) and performed in a cycloergometer. Anthropometry, body composition, lipid profile, glucose, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and fitness (maximal oxygen uptake) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Body weight, body mass index, fatness and fitness were improved in both groups (P<0·001). Triglycerides (TG) levels decreased only in response to RQ (P<0·001) and fat-free mass (FFM) to VT (P = 0·002). No differences were observed between groups. Both exercise intensities seem to be effective for improving health in overweight women. However, low-intensity compared with the high-intensity exercise training appears to have additional benefits on TG levels and to maintenance of FFM.

  4. Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide - 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1999-01-01

    The 1990 U.S. Bureau of Mines publication, Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide, has been updated and is now available. The 1998 USGS edition of Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide is published in two parts. Part I—Detail contains information on individual primary smelter capacity, location, ownership, sources of energy, and other miscellaneous information. Part II—Summary summarizes the capacity data by country

  5. Personality and Psychiatric Disorders in Women Affected by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Scaruffi, Elisabetta; Gambineri, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Stefania; Turra, Jenni; Vettor, Roberto; Mioni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder among fertile women. Studies show reduced quality of life, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder, and sexual dysfunction, but the etiology of these disturbs remains still debated. The aim of our study is to verify whether this hyperandrogenic syndrome characterizes a strong psycho(patho)logical personality. Method: Sixty PCOS subjects (mean age 25.8 ± 4.7 years) were evaluated by anthropometric, metabolic, hormonal, clinical, and psychological parameters. After the certainty of the diagnosis of PCOS, the Rorschach test, according to Exner’s comprehensive system (CS) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) were administered to each patient. The control group, on which the comparison was carried out, was composed by 40 healthy and aged compared women who were exclusively administered the Rorschach test according to CS. Results: MCMI-III evidenced axis II DSM-IV personality disorders [4.1% schizoid, depressive, sadistic, negativistic (passive–aggressive), and masochistic, 6.1% avoiding, 12.2% dependent, 20.4% histrionic, 16.3% narcissistic, 2.0% obsessive–compulsive], and axis I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders: 10.2% anxiety, 2.0% somatoform disorder and bipolar disorder, 16.3% major depressive disorder. Finally, we found 44.9% delusional disorder and 4.1% thought disorder. Rorschach test’s results show 53.1% reduced coping abilities and social skills, 55.1% depression, 30.6% perceptual distortion and cognitive slippage, 24.5% constantly alert and worry, 8.1% at risk for suicide, and finally about 50% of our patients had chronic stress. Conclusion: PCOS women have relevant personality and psychiatric disorders, when compared with normal subjects. PMID:25429283

  6. Soya isoflavone-enriched cereal bars affect markers of endothelial function in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hallund, J; Bügel, S; Tholstrup, T; Ferrari, M; Talbot, D; Hall, W L; Reimann, M; Williams, C M; Wiinberg, N

    2006-06-01

    Soya isoflavones are thought to be cardioprotective due to their structural similarity to oestrogen. In order to investigate the effect of soya isoflavones on markers of endothelial function we conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study with thirty healthy postmenopausal women. The women consumed cereal bars, with or without soya isoflavones (50 mg/d), for 8 weeks, separated by an 8-week washout period. Systemic arterial compliance (SAC), isobaric arterial compliance (IAC), flow-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation (FMD) and nitroglycerine-mediated endothelium-independent vasodilation (NMD) were measured at the beginning of the study and after each intervention period. Blood pressure (BP) and plasma concentrations of nitrite and nitrate (NOx) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were measured at the beginning and end of each intervention period. NMD was 13.4 (SEM 2.0)% at baseline and 15.5 (SEM 1.1) % after isoflavone treatment compared with 12.4 (SEM 1.0)% after placebo treatment (P=0.03). NOx increased from 27.7 (SEM 2.7) to 31.1 (SEM 3.2) microM after isoflavones treatment compared with 25.4 (SEM 1.5) to 20.4 (SEM 1.1) microM after placebo treatment (P=0.003) and a significant increase in the NOx:ET-1 ratio (P=0.005) was observed after the isoflavone treatment compared with placebo. A significant difference in SAC after the isoflavone and placebo treatment was observed (P=0.04). No significant difference was found in FMD, IAC, BP and ET-1. In conclusion, 8 weeks' consumption of cereals bars enriched with 50 mg soya isoflavones/d increased plasma NOx concentrations and improved endothelium-independent vasodilation in healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:16768834

  7. A Social Ecological Model of Syndemic Risk affecting Women with and At-Risk for HIV in Impoverished Urban Communities.

    PubMed

    Batchelder, A W; Gonzalez, J S; Palma, A; Schoenbaum, E; Lounsbury, D W

    2015-12-01

    Syndemic risk is an ecological construct, defined by co-occurring interdependent socio-environmental, interpersonal and intrapersonal determinants. We posited syndemic risk to be a function of violence, substance use, perceived financial hardship, emotional distress and self-worth among women with and at-risk for HIV in an impoverished urban community. In order to better understand these interrelationships, we developed and validated a system dynamics (SD) model based upon peer-reviewed literature; secondary data analyses of a cohort dataset including women living with and at-risk of HIV in Bronx, NY (N = 620); and input from a Bronx-based community advisory board. Simulated model output revealed divergent levels and patterns of syndemic risk over time across different sample profiles. Outputs generated new insights about how to effectively explore multicomponent multi-level programs in order to strategically develop more effective services for this population. Specifically, the model indicated that effective multi-level interventions might bolster women's resilience by increasing self-worth, which may result in decreased perceived financial hardship and risk of violence. Overall, our stakeholder-informed model depicts how self-worth may be a major driver of vulnerability and a meaningful addition to syndemic theory affecting this population. PMID:26370203

  8. The effect of pre-existing affect on the sexual responses of women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Elinson, Samantha; Janssen, Erick; Meston, Cindy M

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at greater risk for experiencing sexual problems in their adult lives. Yet, little is known about the possible role of cognitive and affective mechanisms in the development of sexual arousal difficulties in this population. This study investigated the role of pre-existing affect (affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli) on genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, and affect elicited during the presentation of erotic film excerpts in a community sample of 25 women with and 25 women without a history of CSA. The CSA group showed greater pre-existing negative affect and smaller genital responses to the erotic film stimuli compared to the NSA group. Findings support a moderating effect of CSA, in that pre-existing negative affect was associated with strength of genital responses in the NSA but not in the CSA group. The results did not support a mediation model of pre-existing negative affect as an explanation for smaller physiological sexual responses in the CSA group. Taken together, the findings suggest that pre-existing affect may be more relevant for women with no history of CSA and call for more research on factors implicated in impaired sexual responses in women with a history of CSA. PMID:21667233

  9. The effect of pre-existing affect on the sexual responses of women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Elinson, Samantha; Janssen, Erick; Meston, Cindy M

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at greater risk for experiencing sexual problems in their adult lives. Yet, little is known about the possible role of cognitive and affective mechanisms in the development of sexual arousal difficulties in this population. This study investigated the role of pre-existing affect (affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli) on genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, and affect elicited during the presentation of erotic film excerpts in a community sample of 25 women with and 25 women without a history of CSA. The CSA group showed greater pre-existing negative affect and smaller genital responses to the erotic film stimuli compared to the NSA group. Findings support a moderating effect of CSA, in that pre-existing negative affect was associated with strength of genital responses in the NSA but not in the CSA group. The results did not support a mediation model of pre-existing negative affect as an explanation for smaller physiological sexual responses in the CSA group. Taken together, the findings suggest that pre-existing affect may be more relevant for women with no history of CSA and call for more research on factors implicated in impaired sexual responses in women with a history of CSA.

  10. The worldwide epidemic of female obesity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sheona; Shaw, Dorothy

    2015-04-01

    The rapidly rising number of individuals who are overweight and obese has been called a worldwide epidemic of obesity with >35% of adults today considered to be overweight or obese. Women are more likely to be overweight and obese than their male counterparts, which has far-reaching effects on reproductive health and specifically pregnancy, with obese women facing an increased risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, operative delivery, fetal macrosomia, and neonatal morbidity. The etiology of obesity is highly complex encompassing genetic, environmental, physiologic, cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors, making it challenging to develop effective interventions on both a local and global scale. This article describes the extent and the cost of the obesity epidemic, which, although historically seen as a disease of high-income countries, is now clearly a global epidemic that impacts low- and middle-income countries and indigenous groups who bear an ever-increasing burden of this disease.

  11. Is endometrial receptivity transcriptomics affected in women with endometriosis? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Velasco, Juan A; Fassbender, Amelie; Ruiz-Alonso, Maria; Blesa, David; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Simon, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Endometrial receptivity is still questioned today in women with endometriosis. The aim of this study was to assess the endometrial receptivity gene signature in patients with different stages of endometriosis by investigating transcriptomic modifications of their endometrium using the endometrial receptivity array (ERA) test. A prospective, interventional multicentre pilot trial was designed and implemented in two university-affiliated infertility units from Belgium and Spain. Gene expression microarray was used to diagnose the receptivity status by quantifying the expression of 238 specific genes directly related to human endometrial receptivity. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed no clustering of samples based on endometriosis stages. Two subgroups of samples clustered together corresponding on the day of the cycle in which the biopsy was taken (day 18 versus days 19-20). None of the 238 genes present in the ERA array were significantly over- or under- expressed in any of different stages of the disease compared with controls. Minimal differences were found when looking at the functional profile, suggesting that the possible effect from a clinical point of view may be meaningless. Endometrial receptivity gene signature during the implantation window does not vary significantly among patients with endometriosis even considering different stages compared with healthy women. PMID:26385059

  12. Tibolone does not affect muscle power and functional ability in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Meeuwsen, Ingrid B A E; Samson, Monique M; Duursma, Sijmen A; Verhaar, Harald J J

    2002-02-01

    Maintenance of neuromuscular function into old age is critical to maintain normal daily activity and functional independence. Maximal muscle strength declines with age, and the age-related loss in power might be even greater. An accelerated loss of muscle strength and power has been observed in women around the time of the menopause. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of tibolone, a synthetic steroid with oestrogenic, progestogenic and androgenic activities, on muscle power, endurance and functional ability. A total of 85 healthy women, between 1 and 15 years postmenopausal, were recruited from local paper advertisements. Participants were randomly assigned to 2.5 mg of tibolone or to placebo pills of identical appearance; pills were taken daily for 12 months, orally in the morning. Muscle power was assessed as explosive leg extensor power. Endurance was measured on a 2 min walk test and a 3.5 m walk. Functional ability was determined with the timed Get Up and Go test and a Postural/Locomotor/Manual test. No significant between-group differences were observed for any of the parameters. Possible explanations for this lack of effect are either the absence of an effect of tibolone on muscle power and functional ability, or that our participants were too far above their strength-related functional limits to derive benefit from intervention. Further research is required to resolve this issue.

  13. Hostility and social support explain physical activity beyond negative affect among young men, but not women, in college.

    PubMed

    Maier, Karl J; James, Ashley E

    2014-01-01

    We examined social support as a moderator of cynical hostility in relation to physical activity and body mass index among college students (n = 859; M = 18.71 years (SD = 1.22); 60% women, 84% White). After controlling for negative affect in hierarchical linear regression models, greater hostility was associated with lesser physical activity among those with low social support, as expected. Greater hostility was also associated with greater physical activity among those high in social support, ps < .05. Effects were observed for men only. Hostility and social support were unrelated to body mass index, ps > .05. Young men with a hostile disposition and low social support may be at risk for a sedentary lifestyle for reasons other than negative affect.

  14. Drinking Water Sodium and Elevated Blood Pressure of Healthy Pregnant Women in Salinity-Affected Coastal Areas.

    PubMed

    Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas in Southeast Asia are experiencing high sodium concentrations in drinking water sources that are commonly consumed by local populations. Salinity problems caused by episodic cyclones and subsequent seawater inundations are likely (partly) related to climate change and further exacerbated by changes in upstream river flow and local land-use activities. Dietary (food) sodium plays an important role in the global burden of hypertensive disease. It remains unknown, however, if sodium in drinking water-rather than food-has similar effects on blood pressure and disease risk. In this study, we examined the effect of drinking water sodium on blood pressure of pregnant women: increases in blood pressure in this group could severely affect maternal and fetal health. Data on blood pressure, drinking water source, and personal, lifestyle, and environmental confounders was obtained from 701 normotensive pregnant women residing in coastal Bangladesh. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to investigate association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of these-otherwise healthy-women with their water source. After adjustment for confounders, drinkers of tube well and pond water (high saline sources) were found to have significantly higher average systolic (+4.85 and +3.62 mm Hg) and diastolic (+2.30 and +1.72 mm Hg) blood pressures than rainwater drinkers. Drinking water salinity problems are expected to exacerbate in the future, putting millions of coastal people-including pregnant women-at increased risk of hypertension and associated diseases. There is an urgent need to further explore the health risks associated to this understudied environmental health problem and feasibility of possible adaptation strategies. PMID:27297000

  15. Consumption of soy isoflavones does not affect plasma total homocysteine or asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Manja; Dierkes, Jutta; Carlsohn, Anja; Talbot, Duncan; Ferrari, Marika; Hallund, Jesper; Hall, Wendy L; Vafeiadou, Katerina; Huebner, Ulrich; Branca, Francesco; Bugel, Susanne; Williams, Christine M; Zunft, H-J Franz; Koebnick, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    Postmenopausal women are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease because many risk factors are aggravated by menopause. Phytoestrogens may modulate risk factors favorably, involving mechanisms similar to estrogen. The effect of phytoestrogens on the atherogenic amino acids homocysteine and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was investigated in a controlled intervention study in healthy postmenopausal women. A multicenter, double-blind, crossover intervention trial in 89 postmenopausal women from Denmark, Germany, and the UK was performed. Subjects consumed fruit cereal bars with or without soy isoflavones (50 mg/d) for 8 wk each with an 8-wk washout period in between. Urinary phytoestrogens increased significantly after isoflavone intervention (P < 0.001). Isoflavone supplementation did not affect plasma total homocysteine or ADMA. For homocysteine, changes from baseline were 0.32 micromol/L (range: -0.31-0.92; 95% CI 0.13-0.72), and 0.29 micromol/L (range: -0.45-1.09; 95% CI 0.01-0.63, P = 0.286) for isoflavone treatment and placebo, respectively. For ADMA concentrations, changes from baseline were -0.02 micromol/L (range: -0.08-0.03; 95% CI -0.04-0.01, and 0.00 micromol/L (range: -0.05-0.03; 95% CI -0.03-0.01, P = 0.397) for isoflavone treatment and placebo, respectively. There was no association between plasma total homocysteine and ADMA. Changes from baseline in plasma ADMA and folate were negatively correlated (r = -0.18, P = 0.017). These results challenge the overall health effect of isoflavone supplementation in healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:16365066

  16. Drinking Water Sodium and Elevated Blood Pressure of Healthy Pregnant Women in Salinity-Affected Coastal Areas.

    PubMed

    Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas in Southeast Asia are experiencing high sodium concentrations in drinking water sources that are commonly consumed by local populations. Salinity problems caused by episodic cyclones and subsequent seawater inundations are likely (partly) related to climate change and further exacerbated by changes in upstream river flow and local land-use activities. Dietary (food) sodium plays an important role in the global burden of hypertensive disease. It remains unknown, however, if sodium in drinking water-rather than food-has similar effects on blood pressure and disease risk. In this study, we examined the effect of drinking water sodium on blood pressure of pregnant women: increases in blood pressure in this group could severely affect maternal and fetal health. Data on blood pressure, drinking water source, and personal, lifestyle, and environmental confounders was obtained from 701 normotensive pregnant women residing in coastal Bangladesh. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to investigate association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of these-otherwise healthy-women with their water source. After adjustment for confounders, drinkers of tube well and pond water (high saline sources) were found to have significantly higher average systolic (+4.85 and +3.62 mm Hg) and diastolic (+2.30 and +1.72 mm Hg) blood pressures than rainwater drinkers. Drinking water salinity problems are expected to exacerbate in the future, putting millions of coastal people-including pregnant women-at increased risk of hypertension and associated diseases. There is an urgent need to further explore the health risks associated to this understudied environmental health problem and feasibility of possible adaptation strategies.

  17. Increases in physical activity may affect quality of life differently in men and women: The PACE project

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Duncan, Glen E.; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; McTiernan, Anne; Patrick, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Obesity is associated with impaired quality of life (QoL), but less is known about physical activity. We investigated how decreases in body mass index (BMI) and increases in activity affect obesity-specific QoL and potential gender differences in associations. Methods In a large worksite-randomized trial of a multilevel intervention on diet and physical activity behaviors, we conducted a cohort analysis at two years of follow-up. Self-reported activity and Obesity and Weight-Loss Quality Of Life (OWLQOL) were analyzed for individual-level associations using linear mixed models accounting for random worksite effects. Results Gender modified the BMI-OWLQOL relationship, so analyses were conducted for males and females separately. Adjusting for demographic confounders, baseline OWLQOL, and several worksite-level variables including intervention arm, a 1.9 unit decrease in BMI (the interquartile range) was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.2) in males and 3.6 (95% CI: 3.2, 4.0) in females. Similarly, a 23 unit increase in physical activity score was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 0.9 (95% CI: 0.5, 1.4) in males and 1.6 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) in females. Physical activity associations were attenuated when adjusting for change in BMI, but remained significant for women (mean BMI 27.8 kg/m2). Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that increasing physical activity may improve obesity-specific QoL to a greater extent in women, particularly among overweight women, independent of BMI. Results may inform the design of interventions tailored to women targeting well-being through messages of increasing physical activity. PMID:23504523

  18. The role of women in the AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Sher, R

    1993-01-01

    Two aspects of the role of women in the AIDS epidemic are discussed. Firstly, the role of women in the epidemic and secondly how does HIV/AIDS affect women. Currently it is estimated that over four million women are infected with HIV and more attention is increasingly being paid to this group. Women have been functionally socialized in a dual role, namely that of care giver and service provider. The generally low status of women in the developing world needs to be corrected by empowering women to deal with the epidemic through education and equal social and sexual status to men. Epidemiological data concerning women and HIV/AIDS are presented and the possible effect of HIV/AIDS on women is discussed. Candidiasis, pelvic inflammatory diseases and cervical neoplastic lesions require further attention. Finally, a number of recommendations, including human rights, are presented to enable women worldwide successfully to cope with the HIV epidemic.

  19. Supplement use and other characteristics among pregnant women with a previous pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect - United States, 1997-2009.

    PubMed

    Arth, Annelise; Tinker, Sarah; Moore, Cynthia; Canfield, Mark; Agopian, Aj; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-16

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) include anomalies of the brain (anencephaly and encephalocele) and spine (spina bifida). Even with ongoing mandatory folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women of childbearing potential consume a daily supplement containing 400 µg-800 µg of folic acid. Women with a prior NTD-affected pregnancy have an increased risk for having another NTD-affected pregnancy, and if they are planning another pregnancy, the recommendation is that they consume high-dosage folic acid supplements (4.0 mg/day) beginning ≥4 weeks before conception and continuing through the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. To learn whether folic acid supplementation (from multivitamins or single- ingredient supplements) was commonly used during pregnancy by women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy, supplement use was assessed among a convenience sample of women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States. Characteristics of women who previously had an NTD-affected pregnancy and whose index pregnancy (pregnancy included in NBDPS) was either affected by an NTD (N = 17) (i.e., recurrence-cases) or resulted in a live-born infant without a major birth defect (N = 10) (i.e., recurrence-controls) were assessed. Taking a supplement that included folic acid was more common among recurrence-control mothers (80%) than recurrence-case mothers (35%). The recommendation that women should take folic acid supplements just before and during early pregnancy is not being followed by many women and offers an opportunity for NTD prevention, especially among women who are at a higher risk because they have had a previous pregnancy affected by an NTD. PMID:25590679

  20. Supplement use and other characteristics among pregnant women with a previous pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect - United States, 1997-2009.

    PubMed

    Arth, Annelise; Tinker, Sarah; Moore, Cynthia; Canfield, Mark; Agopian, Aj; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-16

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) include anomalies of the brain (anencephaly and encephalocele) and spine (spina bifida). Even with ongoing mandatory folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women of childbearing potential consume a daily supplement containing 400 µg-800 µg of folic acid. Women with a prior NTD-affected pregnancy have an increased risk for having another NTD-affected pregnancy, and if they are planning another pregnancy, the recommendation is that they consume high-dosage folic acid supplements (4.0 mg/day) beginning ≥4 weeks before conception and continuing through the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. To learn whether folic acid supplementation (from multivitamins or single- ingredient supplements) was commonly used during pregnancy by women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy, supplement use was assessed among a convenience sample of women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States. Characteristics of women who previously had an NTD-affected pregnancy and whose index pregnancy (pregnancy included in NBDPS) was either affected by an NTD (N = 17) (i.e., recurrence-cases) or resulted in a live-born infant without a major birth defect (N = 10) (i.e., recurrence-controls) were assessed. Taking a supplement that included folic acid was more common among recurrence-control mothers (80%) than recurrence-case mothers (35%). The recommendation that women should take folic acid supplements just before and during early pregnancy is not being followed by many women and offers an opportunity for NTD prevention, especially among women who are at a higher risk because they have had a previous pregnancy affected by an NTD.

  1. Milk and Protein Intake by Pregnant Women Affects Growth of Foetus

    PubMed Central

    Borazjani, Fatemeh; Kulkarni, Shanuak S.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the effects of the daily intake of milk and protein by pregnant women on foetal growth and determined the growth pattern and velocity of growth. A total of 504 ultrasound observations from 156 respondents were collected following a cross-sectional design in the last trimester of pregnancy; majority of them were in the last month of pregnancy. De facto and purposive sampling was done, and direct interviews of affluent pregnant women were conducted. Kruskal-Wallis test shows that majority of the respondents had tendency to consume 155.65 to 465.17 mL of milk per day, resulting in better and higher foetal growth. Most respondents consumed about 50-70 g of protein per day, and the foetal growth measurements, such as abdomen-circumference, femur length, biparietal diameter, and head-circumference, on an average, were higher in the same group. Quadratic regression model exhibited that all the traits of growth pattern in Model 1 (low milk and protein intake) appeared to have more mode of decline, in contrast to Model 2 (more milk and protein intake), which shows better growth. In addition, velocity of growth pattern was obtained through the first derivative of quadratic regression of growth pattern. Moreover, 95% confidence interval calculated for regression line slope of Model 1 and Model 2 showed that the estimation point (2 B2) of Model 1 does not lay into 95% CI of Model 2; so, statistical significance assorted and also the same trend conversely hold for Model 2. The rate of growth was highly influenced by maternal milk and protein intake. These findings suggest that contribution of common nutrients or other nutritional factors present in milk and protein promote the growth of foetus. PMID:24592584

  2. Acute effects of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on affective withdrawal symptoms and cravings among women smokers.

    PubMed

    Williams, David M; Dunsiger, Shira; Whiteley, Jessica A; Ussher, Michael H; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Jennings, Ernestine G

    2011-08-01

    A growing number of laboratory studies have shown that acute bouts of aerobic exercise favorably impact affect and cravings among smokers. However, randomized trials have generally shown exercise to have no favorable effect on smoking cessation or withdrawal symptoms during quit attempts. The purpose of the present study was to explore this apparent contradiction by assessing acute changes in affect and cravings immediately prior to and following each exercise and contact control session during an eight-week smoking cessation trial. Sixty previously low-active, healthy, female smokers were randomized to an eight-week program consisting of brief baseline smoking cessation counseling and the nicotine patch plus either three sessions/week of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or contact control. Findings revealed a favorable impact of exercise on acute changes in positive activated affect (i.e., energy), negative deactivated affect (i.e., tiredness), and cigarette cravings relative to contact control. However, effects dissipated from session to session. Results suggest that aerobic exercise has potential as a smoking cessation treatment, but that it must be engaged in frequently and consistently over time in order to derive benefits. Thus, it is not surprising that previous randomized controlled trials-in which adherence to exercise programs has generally been poor-have been unsuccessful in showing effects of aerobic exercise on smoking cessation outcomes.

  3. Factors Affecting the Management of Women Groups' Micro and Small Enterprises in Kakamega District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wawire, Nelson H. W.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the main factors that affect the management of the WGs' Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kakamega District and Africa in general. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopted a descriptive research design. This is because the study was concerned about a univariate question in which the…

  4. Beyond Resource Theory: Another Look at Factors Enabling Women to Affect Family Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Marie LaLiberte

    1976-01-01

    The study concerns the interaction of an equalitarian norm and the wife's contribution of resources with her ability to affect the decision-making and the division of labor in the families of recent Cuban immigrants. The study points up the need to focus on sources of norms as influential factors. (Author)

  5. Worldwide actions to combat abuse.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports several developments on the global efforts to combat abuse and violence against women and children. It is noted that in South Africa, Belem, Brazil, and Lesotho, protest actions were conducted against women and child abuse. Although the protests were made separately, the protests generally called for implementation of initiatives from the government to address the issue of child and women abuse. In the context of preventing abusive behaviors, a study by the University of Cape Town in South Africa on the appropriateness and feasibility of short-term community-based group therapy concluded that such an approach might be effective in treating delinquent behavior. In Indonesia, the Rifka Annisa Women's Crisis Centre is working to combat violence against women by providing services to victims; while in Israel, a media campaign is aiming to increase awareness and support for women's help centers. In addition, the government of Bangladesh has established a Cell Against Violence Against Women that provides legal counseling and assistance for civil and criminal cases related to violence against women. Furthermore, the WHO and the International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have collaborated to conduct a joint workshop to explore how violence against women can be eliminated. PMID:12348694

  6. Worldwide actions to combat abuse.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports several developments on the global efforts to combat abuse and violence against women and children. It is noted that in South Africa, Belem, Brazil, and Lesotho, protest actions were conducted against women and child abuse. Although the protests were made separately, the protests generally called for implementation of initiatives from the government to address the issue of child and women abuse. In the context of preventing abusive behaviors, a study by the University of Cape Town in South Africa on the appropriateness and feasibility of short-term community-based group therapy concluded that such an approach might be effective in treating delinquent behavior. In Indonesia, the Rifka Annisa Women's Crisis Centre is working to combat violence against women by providing services to victims; while in Israel, a media campaign is aiming to increase awareness and support for women's help centers. In addition, the government of Bangladesh has established a Cell Against Violence Against Women that provides legal counseling and assistance for civil and criminal cases related to violence against women. Furthermore, the WHO and the International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have collaborated to conduct a joint workshop to explore how violence against women can be eliminated.

  7. Pregnancy rhinitis in Turkish women: Do gestational week, BMI and parity affect nasal congestion?

    PubMed Central

    Ulkumen, Burak; Ulkumen, Burcu Artunc; Pala, Halil Gursoy; Celik, Onur; Sahin, Nevin; Karaca, Gizem; Demirdag, Meltem

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the cumulative incidence of pregnancy rhinitis along with prevalence in different trimesters and to find out whether gestational age, BMI and parity have any effect on pregnancy related nasal congestion. Methods: In the prospective protocol at the obstetrics outpatient clinic, 167 pregnant women were enrolled consecutively. According to exclusion criteria, 67 of them were excluded. Visual-Analogue-Scale (VAS), Nasal-Obstructive-Symptom-Evaluation (NOSE) scale and Discharge-Inflammation-Polyps/Oedema (DIP) scoring were utilized for diagnosis of pregnancy rhinitis. Besides, weight, length, age, parity and week of pregnancy were recorded. Results: Total prevalence of pregnancy rhinitis was 17.17% and cumulative incidence was 38.89%. Our study revealed significant relation of NOSE score with both gestational week (r=0.474, p=0.001) and BMI (r=0.301, p=0.003). VAS score was significantly related with gestational week (r=0.409, p=0.001) and BMI (r=0.270, p=0.007). DIP score was found to be correlated only with gestational week (r=0.375, p=0.001). Conclusion: Cumulative incidence of pregnancy rhinitis was 38.89%. Nasal congestion was significantly associated with BMI and gestational week. Patients should be informed about unfavorable fetal and maternal outcomes of pregnancy related nasal congestion which is triggered by obesity and excessive weight gain in pregnancy. PMID:27648046

  8. The effects of letrozole on ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation in cancer-affected women.

    PubMed

    Checa Vizcaíno, Miguel A; Corchado, Anna Robles; Cuadri, Margalida E Sastre I; Comadran, Mireia Gonzalez; Brassesco, Mario; Carreras, Ramón

    2012-06-01

    Survival rates for fertile women with cancer have increased significantly, lending importance to considering the possibility of motherhood after cancer. This study was a retrospective analysis of a prospective database comparing two groups of patients who underwent fertility preservation after being diagnosed with either breast cancer or a non-hormone-dependent cancer between 2009 and 2011. Nineteen oncology patients were included in the study. The objective was to assess the efficacy of ovarian stimulation with aromatase inhibitors versus a standard antagonist protocol. This study sought to quantify oestradiol concentrations in patients receiving letrozole and to determine the length of time between diagnosis of malignancy and onset of fertility preservation. Number of mature oocytes retrieved in the non-hormone-dependent cancer group was comparable to that in the breast cancer group (15.4±8.19 versus 16.3±7.31). Oestradiol concentrations were higher for patients with non-hormone-dependent cancer (1666.4±739.42 pg/ml versus 829±551.11 pg/ml, P=0.006). There were no differences between the groups in the length of time between diagnosis and fertility preservation (17.4±4.93 versus 16.4±1.74 days). Oestradiol concentrations of breast cancer patients on the letrozole protocol remained much lower than those of patients on the antagonist protocol. PMID:22503276

  9. [A sociological study of factors affecting reproductive health of female teenagers and young women].

    PubMed

    Nizamov, I G; Chechulina, O V

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive health of teenagers deserves a special attention and must be regarded from the viewpoint of their future prospects as well as their social and cultural media. The mentioned social-and-cultural factors affecting the teenagers' attitude towards sexuality and preconditioning their access to information and services of healthcare have an impact on the status of their reproductive health and on their general well-being, including the ability of teenagers to avoid an undesired pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases.

  10. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of oral fluids of women affected by osteoporosis and osteopenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Héctor Jorge; Valentinuzzi, María Cecilia; Grenón, Miram; Abraham, José

    2008-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures; the early stage of decreased bone density is called osteopenia. More than 200 million people are affected and about 50% of post-menopausic women are expected to develop the disease. Osteoporosis, osteopenia and periodontal disease have in common several risk factors, being hyperthyroidism and smoking habits the most important ones. There is scarce information in the literature about the association between periodontal disease and osteoporosis and/or osteopenia. Some works suggest that osteoporotic women are susceptible to a higher loss of periodontal insertion, alveolar bones, and teeth. Thirty adult post-menopausic women were studied; some of them were healthy (control group) and the rest of them were undergoing some stage of osteoporosis or osteopenia. All the subjects were healthy, non-smokers, not having dental implants, and with communitarian periodontal index higher than 1(CPI > 1). Samples of saliva and gingival crevice fluid were extracted with calibrated micro-capillaries and deposited on Si reflectors. Known amounts of Ga were added to the samples in order to act as internal standard for quantification by the total reflection x-ray fluorescence technique. Experimental concentrations of several elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, NI, Cu, and Zn) were determined. The concentration of some elements in saliva showed different behavior as compared to gingival crevice fluid. Some critical elements of bone composition, such as Ca and Zn, present very distinguishable behavior. Improvements in the statistics are required for a better assessment of a routine method and to establish some correlation with periodontal disease. TXRF seems to be a promising method to evaluate the evolution of osteoporosis.

  11. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a systematic review of factors affecting non-western women’s use of prenatal care (both medical care and prenatal classes) in industrialized western countries. Methods Eleven databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, Women’s Studies International, MIDIRS, CINAHL, Scopus and the NIVEL catalogue) were searched for relevant peer-reviewed articles from between 1995 and July 2012. Qualitative as well as quantitative studies were included. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Factors identified were classified as impeding or facilitating, and categorized according to a conceptual framework, an elaborated version of Andersen’s healthcare utilization model. Results Sixteen articles provided relevant factors that were all categorized. A number of factors (migration, culture, position in host country, social network, expertise of the care provider and personal treatment and communication) were found to include both facilitating and impeding factors for non-western women’s utilization of prenatal care. The category demographic, genetic and pregnancy characteristics and the category accessibility of care only included impeding factors. Lack of knowledge of the western healthcare system and poor language proficiency were the most frequently reported impeding factors. Provision of information and care in women’s native languages was the most frequently reported facilitating factor. Conclusion The factors found in this review provide specific indications for identifying non-western women who are at risk of not using prenatal care adequately and for developing interventions and appropriate policy aimed at

  12. Effects of Exercise Intervention on Pain, Shoulder Movement, and Functional Status in Women after Breast Cancer Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Salwa A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is one of the most important types of cancer among women worldwide and is a significant stressor in women's life that may affect functional health status. The present study was aimed to determine the effect of selected exercises program on pain, shoulder disability, and functional outcomes in women after breast cancer…

  13. She left, he left: how employment and satisfaction affect women's and men's decisions to leave marriages.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Liana C; England, Paula; Allison, Paul D; Kangas, Nicole

    2011-05-01

    Studies examining determinants of divorce have largely ignored differences between factors that elevate wives' and husbands' initiation of divorce. The authors use longitudinal data and a latent class model embedded in a competing-risks event history model to assess distinct predictors of wives and husbands leaving marriages. They find that when men are not employed, either spouse is more likely to leave. When wives report better-than-average marital satisfaction, their employment affects neither spouse's exit. However, when wives report below-average marital satisfaction, their employment makes it more likely they will leave. The authors' findings suggest that theories of divorce require "gendering" to reflect asymmetric gender change. PMID:21932472

  14. [A sociological study of factors affecting reproductive health of female teenagers and young women].

    PubMed

    Nizamov, I G; Chechulina, O V

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive health of teenagers deserves a special attention and must be regarded from the viewpoint of their future prospects as well as their social and cultural media. The mentioned social-and-cultural factors affecting the teenagers' attitude towards sexuality and preconditioning their access to information and services of healthcare have an impact on the status of their reproductive health and on their general well-being, including the ability of teenagers to avoid an undesired pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:12882120

  15. Factor structure of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in adult women with fibromyalgia from Southern Spain: the al-Ándalus project

    PubMed Central

    Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Armitage, Christopher J.; Wearden, Alison; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C.; Arrayás-Grajera, Manuel Javier; Girela-Rejón, María J.; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A.; Geenen, Rinie; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by the presence of widespread chronic pain. People with fibromyalgia report lower levels of Positive Affect and higher levels of Negative Affect than non-fibromyalgia peers. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)–a widely used questionnaire to assess two core domains of affect; namely ‘Positive Affect’ and ‘Negative Affect’ –has a controversial factor structure varying across studies. The internal structure of a measurement instrument has an impact on the meaning and validity of its score. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the structural construct validity of the PANAS in adult women with fibromyalgia. Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study included 442 adult women with fibromyalgia (age: 51.3 ± 7.4 years old) from Andalusia (Southern Spain). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the factor structure of the PANAS. Results: A structure with two correlated factors (Positive Affect and Negative Affect) obtained the best fit; S-B χ2 = 288.49, df = 155, p < .001; RMSEA = .04; 90% CI of RMSEA = (.036, .052); the best fit SRMR = .05; CFI = .96; CAIC = −810.66, respectively. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that both Positive Affect and Negative Affect are core dimensions of affect in adult women with fibromyalgia. A structure with two correlated factors of the PANAS emerged from our sample of women with fibromyalgia from Andalusia (Southern Spain). In this model, the amount of variance shared by Positive Affect and Negative Affect was small. Therefore, our findings support to use and interpret the Positive Affect and Negative Affect subscales of the PANAS as separate factors that are associated but distinctive as well. PMID:27047704

  16. Can aircraft noise less than or equal 115 to dBA adversely affect reproductive outcome in USAF women?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, P. A.

    1985-06-01

    It has been suggested, mainly through animal studies, that exposure to high noise levels may be associated with lower birth weight, reduced gestational length and other adverse reproductive outcomes. Few studies have been done on humans to show this association. The Air Force employs pregnant women in areas where there is a high potential for exposure to high noise levels. This study proposes a method to determine if there is an association between high frequency noise levels or = 115 dBA and adverse reproductive outcomes through a review of records and self-administered questionnaires in a case-comparison design. Prevelance rates will be calculated and a multiple logistic regression analysis computed for the independent variables that can affect reproduction.

  17. Multilevel dynamic systems affecting introduction of HIV/STI prevention innovations among Chinese women in sex work establishments.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Margaret R; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Zhang, Qingning; Dunn, Jennifer; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei

    2013-10-01

    Social and public health scientists are increasingly interested in applying system dynamics theory to improve understanding and to harness the forces of change within complex, multilevel systems that affect community intervention implementation, effects, and sustainability. Building a system dynamics model based on ethnographic case study has the advantage of using empirically documented contextual factors and processes of change in a real-world and real-time setting that can then be tested in the same and other settings. System dynamics modeling offers great promise for addressing persistent problems like HIV and other sexually transmitted epidemics, particularly in complex rapidly developing countries such as China. We generated a system dynamics model of a multilevel intervention we conducted to promote female condoms for HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention among Chinese women in sex work establishments. The model reflects factors and forces affecting the study's intervention, implementation, and effects. To build this conceptual model, we drew on our experiences and findings from this intensive, longitudinal mixed-ethnographic and quantitative four-town comparative case study (2007-2012) of the sex work establishments, the intervention conducted in them, and factors likely to explain variation in process and outcomes in the four towns. Multiple feedback loops in the sex work establishments, women's social networks, and the health organization responsible for implementing HIV/STI interventions in each town and at the town level directly or indirectly influenced the female condom intervention. We present the conceptual system dynamics model and discuss how further testing in this and other settings can inform future community interventions to reduce HIV and STIs. PMID:24084394

  18. Multilevel dynamic systems affecting introduction of HIV/STI prevention innovations among Chinese women in sex work establishments.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Margaret R; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Zhang, Qingning; Dunn, Jennifer; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei

    2013-10-01

    Social and public health scientists are increasingly interested in applying system dynamics theory to improve understanding and to harness the forces of change within complex, multilevel systems that affect community intervention implementation, effects, and sustainability. Building a system dynamics model based on ethnographic case study has the advantage of using empirically documented contextual factors and processes of change in a real-world and real-time setting that can then be tested in the same and other settings. System dynamics modeling offers great promise for addressing persistent problems like HIV and other sexually transmitted epidemics, particularly in complex rapidly developing countries such as China. We generated a system dynamics model of a multilevel intervention we conducted to promote female condoms for HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention among Chinese women in sex work establishments. The model reflects factors and forces affecting the study's intervention, implementation, and effects. To build this conceptual model, we drew on our experiences and findings from this intensive, longitudinal mixed-ethnographic and quantitative four-town comparative case study (2007-2012) of the sex work establishments, the intervention conducted in them, and factors likely to explain variation in process and outcomes in the four towns. Multiple feedback loops in the sex work establishments, women's social networks, and the health organization responsible for implementing HIV/STI interventions in each town and at the town level directly or indirectly influenced the female condom intervention. We present the conceptual system dynamics model and discuss how further testing in this and other settings can inform future community interventions to reduce HIV and STIs.

  19. Circulating nitric oxide in women affected by weight loss amenorrhea during pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Valenti, S; Cavallero, D; Fazzuoli, L; Minuto, F; Giusti, M

    2005-10-01

    No specific markers of the severity or prognosis of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis disturbances associated with weight loss amenorrhea (WLA) are currently available. Circulating nitric oxide (NO), which is involved in the control of the reproductive function in women and is correlated with body mass index (BMI), at least in over-weight and obese subjects, might be a marker of the severity and/or progression of WLA. To test this hypothesis, we studied circulating NO levels in 11 women (age 27.1 +/- 1.59 yr) affected by WLA for 5.1 +/- 1.0 yr; in all patients hormonal therapy had been discontinued 10.0 +/- 3.15 months earlier. NO, determined by measuring its stable catabolite nitrite/nitrates (NOx), was compared with some clinical parameters and sex hormone levels. Subsequently, changes in NOx during pulsatile GnRH therapy (120 ng/kg bw sc every 120 min) were compared with the clinical and hormonal data. Fifteen normal women (27.3 +/- 1.6 yr) served as a control group. NOx was significantly lower (p<0.01) in WLA (8.8 +/- 2.0 micromol/l) than in control (18.7 +/- 2.5 micromol/l) subjects. No correlation between NOx and clinical parameters was noted in either WLA or control subjects. As a result of GnRH therapy, ovulatory cycles reappeared in 91% of WLA women. During the 1st cycle, periovulatory 17beta-estradiol levels were 110% higher than those noted in controls. During the 2nd cycle, NOx showed a slight increase in the follicular phase (+12% vs 1st cycle) followed by a drop during the luteal phase (-40% from the follicular phase); indeed, at that time, NOx correlated negatively with progesterone in both WLA (rS -0.32, p<0.05) and control (rS -0.48, p<0.05) subjects. NOx correlated with BMI at the time of the 2nd cycle (rS 0.71, p<0.05). In conclusion, this study shows that in WLA patients: 1) NO is low, as in other conditions of chronic anovulation; 2) it does not correlate with clinical data; 3) it takes longer than sex steroids to increase and show normal

  20. Reproductive Tract Infections in Rural Vietnam, Women's Knowledge, and Health-Seeking Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Anna; Lan, Pham Thi; Marrone, Gaetano; Phuc, Ho Dang; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    We interviewed 1,805 women in a rural setting in Vietnam with the aim of investigating women's knowledge regarding reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and their health-seeking behavior. We found that women's overall knowledge was poor. Furthermore, only one-third of the symptomatic women sought health care. RTIs affect millions of women globally each year. Most vulnerable are women in low- and middle-income countries where poverty and gender inequities affect their access to health care services. Findings from our study can be used in similar rural settings worldwide to understand and manage the widespread problem of RTIs.

  1. Stress and other environmental factors affecting fertility in men and women: overview.

    PubMed Central

    Negro-Vilar, A

    1993-01-01

    To understand how environmental factors contribute to fertility or infertility in humans, it is first necessary to define environment. A view that will guide this review is that environment represents the "external milieu," analogous to the well-defined concept of "internal milieu" first introduced by Claude Bernard. Within this context, the environment provides both positive and adverse influences on reproductive health and development. Environmental factors can then be classified into categories such as physical, chemical, biological, behavioral, and socioeconomic. In many circumstances, multiple environmental factors may contribute to adversely modify human health. It has been suspected and in some cases demonstrated that stress can adversely affect reproductive function. Both animal and human data support this contention; however, the human data are clear in extreme situations (e.g., inmates of concentration camps) but less so under less drastic conditions. In recent years many advances have been made concerning the neurochemical mechanisms that mediate the effects of stress on reproductive functions and on the identification of "stress hormones" that may not only be involved in the stress response but also serve as biochemical markers to identify and correlate stress with different fertility parameters. Nutrition also plays an important role in infertility, and undernutrition or nutrition disorders are associated with stress in infertility. Environmental factors are often invoked as contributing to many cases of unexplained infertility. However, the direct causal relationship between those factors and the ensuing infertility of the couple are seldom well established and remain largely anecdotal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8243408

  2. The Identification of Factors Affecting the Development and Practice of School-Based Counseling in Different National Contexts: A Grounded Theory Study Using a Worldwide Sample of Descriptive Journal Articles and Book Chapters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ian; Lauterbach, Alexandra; Carey, John

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory methodology was used to analyze articles and book chapters describing the development and practice of school-based counseling in 25 different countries in order to identify the factors that affect development and practice. An 11-factor analytic framework was developed. Factors include: Cultural Factors, National Needs, Larger…

  3. Emotion Dysregulation and Affective Intensity Mediate the Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Suicide-Related Behaviors Among Women with Bulimia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Kathryn H; Simonich, Heather; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Dhankikar, Swati; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Kwan, Mun Yee; Mitchell, James E; Engel, Scott G

    2016-02-01

    Self-harm and suicide attempts occur at elevated rates among individuals with bulimia nervosa, particularly among those who have experienced childhood abuse. This study investigated the potential mediating roles of emotion dysregulation and affective intensity in the relationship between these variables in 125 women with bulimia nervosa. Analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between sexual and emotional abuse with both self-harm and suicide attempts. Negative affective intensity mediated the relationship between abuse and suicide attempts. The findings may advance the understanding of mechanisms underlying suicide-related behaviors in women with bulimia nervosa who experienced abuse and suggest potential clinical targets.

  4. Dopamine and light: dissecting effects on mood and motivational states in women with subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cawley, Elizabeth I.; Park, Sarah; Rot, Marije aan het; Sancton, Kimberley; Benkelfat, Chawki; Young, Simon N.; Boivin, Diane B.; Leyton, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that bright light can improve mood, the neurobiology remains poorly understood. Some evidence implicates the catecholamines. In the present study, we measured the effects of transiently decreasing dopamine (DA) synthesis on mood and motivational states in healthy women with mild seasonal mood changes who were tested in either bright or dim light. Methods On 2 test days, participants slept overnight in a light-controlled room. On the morning of each session, half of the participants awoke to gradual increases of bright light, up to 3000 lux, and half to dim light (10 lux). For all participants, DA was reduced on 1 of the test days using the acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method; on the other day, they ingested a nutritionally balanced control mixture (BAL). Beginning 4 hours postingestion, participants completed subjective mood questionnaires, psychological tests and a progressive ratio breakpoint task during which they worked for successive units of $5. Results Thirty-two women participated in our study. The APTD lowered mood, agreeableness, energy and the willingness to work for monetary reward. The effects on energy and motivation were independent of light, while the effects on mood and agreeableness were seen in the dim condition only, being prevented by bright light. Limitations Acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion might affect systems other than DA. The sample size was small. Conclusion These results suggest that increased DA function may be responsible for some of the beneficial effects of light, while adding to the evidence that the neurobiology of mood and motivational states can be dissociated. PMID:23735584

  5. Calcium-Vitamin D Co-supplementation Affects Metabolic Profiles, but not Pregnancy Outcomes, in Healthy Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Asemi, Zatollah; Samimi, Mansooreh; Siavashani, Mehrnush Amiri; Mazloomi, Maryam; Tabassi, Zohreh; Karamali, Maryam; Jamilian, Mehri; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy is associated with unfavorable metabolic profile, which might in turn result in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of calcium plus Vitamin D administration on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in healthy pregnant women. Methods: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 42 pregnant women aged 18–40 years who were at week 25 of gestation. Subjects were randomly allocated to consume either 500 mg calcium-200 IU cholecalciferol supplements (n = 21) or placebo (n = 21) for 9 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at the onset of the study and after 9-week trial to determine related markers. Post-delivery, the newborn's weight, length, and head circumference were measured during the first 24 h after birth. Results: Consumption of calcium-Vitamin D co-supplements resulted in a significant reduction of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels compared with placebo (−1856.8 ± 2657.7 vs. 707.1 ± 3139.4 μg/mL, P = 0.006). We also found a significant elevation of plasma total antioxidant capacity (89.3 ± 118.0 vs. −9.4 ± 164.9 mmol/L, P = 0.03), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (2.5 ± 3.5 vs. −1.7 ± 1.7 ng/mL, P < 0.0001), and calcium levels (0.6 ± 0.6 vs. −0.1 ± 0.4 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). The supplementation led to a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure (−1.9 ± 8.3 vs. 3.1 ± 5.2 mmHg, P = 0.02) compared with placebo. No significant effect of calcium-Vitamin D co-supplements was seen on other metabolic profiles. We saw no significant change of the co-supplementation on pregnancy outcomes as well. Conclusions: Although calcium-Vitamin D co-supplementation for 9 weeks in pregnant women resulted in improved metabolic profiles, it did not affect pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27076887

  6. Worldwide satellite market demand forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.; Frankfort, M.; Steinnagel, K. M.

    1981-01-01

    The forecast is for the years 1981 - 2000 with benchmark years at 1985, 1990 and 2000. Two typs of markets are considered for this study: Hardware (worldwide total) - satellites, earth stations and control facilities (includes replacements and spares); and non-hardware (addressable by U.S. industry) - planning, launch, turnkey systems and operations. These markets were examined for the INTELSAT System (international systems and domestic and regional systems using leased transponders) and domestic and regional systems. Forecasts were determined for six worldwide regions encompassing 185 countries using actual costs for existing equipment and engineering estimates of costs for advanced systems. Most likely (conservative growth rate estimates) and optimistic (mid range growth rate estimates) scenarios were employed for arriving at the forecasts which are presented in constant 1980 U.S. dollars. The worldwide satellite market demand forecast predicts that the market between 181 and 2000 will range from $35 to $50 billion. Approximately one-half of the world market, $16 to $20 billion, will be generated in the United States.

  7. Contraception and sexual health in obese women.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Katharine B; Edelman, Alison B

    2015-05-01

    As the proportion of women with obesity increases worldwide, understanding the influence of body weight on sexual behavior, fertility, and contraceptive effectiveness is critical for health-care professionals and patients. Although many have theorized that obese women are different from normal-weight women regarding sexual health and behavior, current evidence for the most part disproves this. The exception is in adolescents where body image may play a role in riskier behavior, placing them at a greater risk of an unintended pregnancy. Given that most modern contraceptives were not originally evaluated in obese women, understanding how weight affects contraceptive pharmacokinetics and efficacy should be a focus of ongoing research. Evidence is reassuring that most modern contraceptive methods are safe and effective in obese women. This paper reviews what is known about sexual and contraceptive behavior, as well as the effectiveness and pharmacokinetics of modern contraceptives, for overweight and obese women. PMID:25498914

  8. Endocrine disrupters and human health: could oestrogenic chemicals in body care cosmetics adversely affect breast cancer incidence in women?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W; Darbre, Philippa

    2004-01-01

    In the decade that has elapsed since the suggestion that exposure of the foetal/developing male to environmental oestrogens could be the cause of subsequent reproductive and developmental effects in men, there has been little definitive research to provide conclusions to the hypothesis. Issues of exposure and low potency of environmental oestrogens may have reduced concerns. However, the hypothesis that chemicals applied in body care cosmetics (including moisturizers, creams, sprays or lotions applied to axilla or chest or breast areas) may be affecting breast cancer incidence in women presents a different case scenario, not least in the consideration of the exposure issues. The specific cosmetic type is not relevant but the chemical ingredients in the formulations and the application to the skin is important. The most common group of body care cosmetic formulation excipients, namely p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters or parabens, have been shown recently to be oestrogenic in vitro and in vivo and now have been detected in human breast tumour tissue, indicating absorption (route and causal associations have yet to be confirmed). The hypothesis for a link between oestrogenic ingredients in underarm and body care cosmetics and breast cancer is forwarded and reviewed here in terms of: data on exposure to body care cosmetics and parabens, including dermal absorption; paraben oestrogenicity; the role of oestrogen in breast cancer; detection of parabens in breast tumours; recent epidemiology studies of underarm cosmetics use and breast cancer; the toxicology database; the current regulatory status of parabens and regulatory toxicology data uncertainties. Notwithstanding the major public health issue of the causes of the rising incidence of breast cancer in women, this call for further research may provide the first evidence that environmental factors may be adversely affecting human health by endocrine disruption, because exposure to oestrogenic chemicals through application

  9. What Factors Contribute to Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Urban, Conflict-Affected Settings? Qualitative Findings from Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, L F; Gupta, J; Shuman, S; Cole, H; Kpebo, D; Falb, K L

    2016-04-01

    Rapid urbanization is a key driver of the unique set of health risks facing urban populations. One of the most critical health hazards facing urban women is intimate partner violence (IPV). In post-conflict urban areas, women may face an even greater risk of IPV. Yet, few studies have examined the IPV experiences of urban-dwelling, conflict-affected women, including those who have been internally displaced. This study qualitatively examined the social and structural characteristics of the urban environment that contributed to the IPV experiences of women residing in post-conflict Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Ten focus groups were conducted with men and women, both internally displaced (IDPs) and non-displaced. Lack of support networks, changing gender roles, and tensions between traditional gender norms and those of the "modern" city were reported as key contributors to IPV. Urban poverty and with it unemployment, food insecurity, and housing instability also played a role. Finally, IDPs faced heightened vulnerability to IPV as a result of displacement and discrimination. The relationship between economic strains and IPV are similar to other conflict-affected settings, but Abidjan's urban environment presented other unique characteristics contributing to IPV. Understanding these factors is crucial to designing appropriate services for women and for implementing IPV reduction interventions in urban areas. Strengthening formal and informal mechanisms for help-seeking, utilizing multi-modal interventions that address economic stress and challenge inequitable gender norms, as well as tailoring programs specifically for IDPs, are some considerations for IPV program planning focused on conflict-affected women in urban areas. PMID:27000124

  10. What Factors Contribute to Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Urban, Conflict-Affected Settings? Qualitative Findings from Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, L F; Gupta, J; Shuman, S; Cole, H; Kpebo, D; Falb, K L

    2016-04-01

    Rapid urbanization is a key driver of the unique set of health risks facing urban populations. One of the most critical health hazards facing urban women is intimate partner violence (IPV). In post-conflict urban areas, women may face an even greater risk of IPV. Yet, few studies have examined the IPV experiences of urban-dwelling, conflict-affected women, including those who have been internally displaced. This study qualitatively examined the social and structural characteristics of the urban environment that contributed to the IPV experiences of women residing in post-conflict Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Ten focus groups were conducted with men and women, both internally displaced (IDPs) and non-displaced. Lack of support networks, changing gender roles, and tensions between traditional gender norms and those of the "modern" city were reported as key contributors to IPV. Urban poverty and with it unemployment, food insecurity, and housing instability also played a role. Finally, IDPs faced heightened vulnerability to IPV as a result of displacement and discrimination. The relationship between economic strains and IPV are similar to other conflict-affected settings, but Abidjan's urban environment presented other unique characteristics contributing to IPV. Understanding these factors is crucial to designing appropriate services for women and for implementing IPV reduction interventions in urban areas. Strengthening formal and informal mechanisms for help-seeking, utilizing multi-modal interventions that address economic stress and challenge inequitable gender norms, as well as tailoring programs specifically for IDPs, are some considerations for IPV program planning focused on conflict-affected women in urban areas.

  11. Psychological affect at different ratings of perceived exertion in high- and low-active women: a study using a production protocol.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, G; Eston, R; Connolly, D

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine psychological affect at different ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in 15 high- and 15 low-active women. Both groups performed three steady-state exercise bouts on a cycle ergometer at RPEs 9, 13, and 17 and reported their affect in the last 20 sec. of and 5 min. after each work rate. There were no differences between groups in percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (% VO2max) at each RPE. Low-active women reported feeling significantly more negative at RPE 17 than RPE 9 and less positive than the high-active women at RPEs 9, 13, and 17. In addition, all subjects reported more positive feelings 5 min. postexercise than in the last 20 sec. of exercising, especially at RPE 17. These results have implications for exercise prescription in groups differing in habitual activity levels. PMID:8774048

  12. Effects of personal space intrusion in affective contexts: an fMRI investigation with women suffering from borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wabnegger, Albert; Schöngassner, Florian; Leutgeb, Verena

    2015-01-01

    The amygdala and the parietal cortex play a key role in the neural representation of personal space. Although the concept of personal space is clinically very relevant for borderline personality disorder (BPD), especially in affective contexts, it has not been investigated thus far with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this fMRI study, 25 female BPD patients and 25 healthy women were exposed to photos of angry, disgusted and neutral facial expressions. All stimuli were once shown as still photos, and once were zoomed-in in order to simulate intrusion into one’s own personal space. Approaching faces generally provoked activation of the amygdala and the somatosensory cortex. BPD patients showed an increased activation within both regions, but only toward approaching disgusted faces. Their amygdala activation in this specific condition positively correlated with self-disgust scores. Moreover, the clinical group indicated an enhanced personal distance preference, which was associated with parietal activation. The present study revealed altered personal space processing of BPD patients, especially in situations that relate to social contexts involving disgust. Future studies should focus on the temporal stability of personal space processing during the natural course of BPD as well as during therapy. PMID:25809402

  13. Reciprocal associations between negative affect, binge eating, and purging in the natural environment in women with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Utzinger, Linsey M; Cao, Li; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross D

    2016-04-01

    Although negative affect (NA) has been identified as a common trigger for bulimic behaviors, findings regarding NA following such behaviors have been mixed. This study examined reciprocal associations between NA and bulimic behaviors using real-time, naturalistic data. Participants were 133 women with bulimia nervosa (BN) according to the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders who completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment protocol in which they recorded bulimic behaviors and provided multiple daily ratings of NA. A multilevel autoregressive cross-lagged analysis was conducted to examine concurrent, first-order autoregressive, and prospective associations between NA, binge eating, and purging across the day. Results revealed positive concurrent associations between all variables across all time points, as well as numerous autoregressive associations. For prospective associations, higher NA predicted subsequent bulimic symptoms at multiple time points; conversely, binge eating predicted lower NA at multiple time points, and purging predicted higher NA at 1 time point. Several autoregressive and prospective associations were also found between binge eating and purging. This study used a novel approach to examine NA in relation to bulimic symptoms, contributing to the existing literature by directly examining the magnitude of the associations, examining differences in the associations across the day, and controlling for other associations in testing each effect in the model. These findings may have relevance for understanding the etiology and/or maintenance of bulimic symptoms, as well as potentially informing psychological interventions for BN.

  14. Effects of personal space intrusion in affective contexts: an fMRI investigation with women suffering from borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Schienle, Anne; Wabnegger, Albert; Schöngassner, Florian; Leutgeb, Verena

    2015-10-01

    The amygdala and the parietal cortex play a key role in the neural representation of personal space. Although the concept of personal space is clinically very relevant for borderline personality disorder (BPD), especially in affective contexts, it has not been investigated thus far with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this fMRI study, 25 female BPD patients and 25 healthy women were exposed to photos of angry, disgusted and neutral facial expressions. All stimuli were once shown as still photos, and once were zoomed-in in order to simulate intrusion into one's own personal space. Approaching faces generally provoked activation of the amygdala and the somatosensory cortex. BPD patients showed an increased activation within both regions, but only toward approaching disgusted faces. Their amygdala activation in this specific condition positively correlated with self-disgust scores. Moreover, the clinical group indicated an enhanced personal distance preference, which was associated with parietal activation. The present study revealed altered personal space processing of BPD patients, especially in situations that relate to social contexts involving disgust. Future studies should focus on the temporal stability of personal space processing during the natural course of BPD as well as during therapy.

  15. Reciprocal associations between negative affect, binge eating, and purging in the natural environment in women with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Utzinger, Linsey M; Cao, Li; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross D

    2016-04-01

    Although negative affect (NA) has been identified as a common trigger for bulimic behaviors, findings regarding NA following such behaviors have been mixed. This study examined reciprocal associations between NA and bulimic behaviors using real-time, naturalistic data. Participants were 133 women with bulimia nervosa (BN) according to the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders who completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment protocol in which they recorded bulimic behaviors and provided multiple daily ratings of NA. A multilevel autoregressive cross-lagged analysis was conducted to examine concurrent, first-order autoregressive, and prospective associations between NA, binge eating, and purging across the day. Results revealed positive concurrent associations between all variables across all time points, as well as numerous autoregressive associations. For prospective associations, higher NA predicted subsequent bulimic symptoms at multiple time points; conversely, binge eating predicted lower NA at multiple time points, and purging predicted higher NA at 1 time point. Several autoregressive and prospective associations were also found between binge eating and purging. This study used a novel approach to examine NA in relation to bulimic symptoms, contributing to the existing literature by directly examining the magnitude of the associations, examining differences in the associations across the day, and controlling for other associations in testing each effect in the model. These findings may have relevance for understanding the etiology and/or maintenance of bulimic symptoms, as well as potentially informing psychological interventions for BN. PMID:26692122

  16. Energy and protein supplementation does not affect protein and amino acid kinetics or pregnancy outcomes in underweight Indian women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In India, the prevalence of low birth weight is high in women with a low body mass index (BMI), suggesting that underweight women are not capable of providing adequate energy and protein for fetal growth. Furthermore, as pregnancy progresses, there is increased need to provide methyl groups for meth...

  17. Space Research Fortifies Nutrition Worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems program attempted to address basic needs of crews, meet stringent payload and power usage restrictions, and minimize space occupancy, by developing living, regenerative ecosystems that would take care of themselves and their inhabitants. An experiment from this program evolved into one of the most widespread NASA spinoffs of all time-a method for manufacturing an algae-based food supplement that provides the nutrients previously only available in breast milk. Martek Biosciences Corporation, in Columbia, Maryland, now manufactures this supplement, and it can be found in over 90 percent of the infant formulas sold in the United States, as well as those sold in over 65 other countries. With such widespread use, the company estimates that over 24 million babies worldwide have consumed its nutritional additives.

  18. Supplementing chicken broth with monosodium glutamate reduces hunger and desire to snack but does not affect energy intake in women.

    PubMed

    Carter, Brett E; Monsivais, Pablo; Perrigue, Martine M; Drewnowski, Adam

    2011-11-01

    The effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) supplementation in soup or broth on satiety is not well understood. In the present study, the relative effects of four chicken broths with or without added MSG on motivational ratings and energy intakes at the next meal were compared using a double-blinded, within-subject design. A total of thirty-five normal-weight women, aged 20-40 years, took part in four study sessions. The four broths were base chicken broth (63 kJ), broth with added MSG (1.19 g) and nucleotides (0.03 g), broth with added MSG (1.22 g), and broth with added fat (BAF; 681 kJ). The preloads were presented twice at 09.00 and 11.15 hours for a maximum cumulative dose of 2.44 g MSG. Motivational ratings were collected before and at 15 min intervals post-ingestion for a total of 210 min. A test lunch meal was served at 12.00 hours, and plate waste was measured. The addition of MSG to chicken broth did not increase energy intakes at lunch or affect motivational ratings over the entire testing session. Both hunger and desire to snack between the second preload exposure and the test meal were significantly reduced in the MSG condition relative to the base broth condition (both, P = 0.03). However, only the BAF significantly suppressed energy intakes at lunch compared with the base broth control condition. Supplementing chicken broth with MSG can increase subjective ratings for satiety but does not alter energy intake at the next meal relative to an equal energy broth without added MSG.

  19. Worldwide Research, Worldwide Participation: Web-Based Test Logger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the World Wide Web, a new paradigm has been born. ESCORT (steady state data system) facilities can now be configured to use a Web-based test logger, enabling worldwide participation in tests. NASA Lewis Research Center's new Web-based test logger for ESCORT automatically writes selected test and facility parameters to a browser and allows researchers to insert comments. All data can be viewed in real time via Internet connections, so anyone with a Web browser and the correct URL (universal resource locator, or Web address) can interactively participate. As the test proceeds and ESCORT data are taken, Web browsers connected to the logger are updated automatically. The use of this logger has demonstrated several benefits. First, researchers are free from manual data entry and are able to focus more on the tests. Second, research logs can be printed in report format immediately after (or during) a test. And finally, all test information is readily available to an international public.

  20. The critical path of women affected by family violence in Latin America: case studies from 10 countries.

    PubMed

    Sagot, Montserrat

    2005-10-01

    This research examined the critical path followed by women from 10 Latin American countries who suffer family violence. It identified the personal and social processes women experience as a result of their help-seeking actions and the kinds of responses found at local services. The study used an action-oriented qualitative methodology with a standard research protocol that was translated and adapted for the various ethnic groups. The results provided community actors with an understanding of the barriers women face in overcoming the obstacles, humiliation, and inadequate responses they encounter along their critical paths.

  1. A discussion of key values to inform the design and delivery of services for HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy in resource-constrained settings

    PubMed Central

    Heffron, Renee; Davies, Natasha; Cooke, Ian; Kaida, Angela; Mergler, Reid; van der Poel, Sheryl; Cohen, Craig R; Mmeje, Okeoma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV-affected women and couples often desire children and many accept HIV risk in order to attempt pregnancy and satisfy goals for a family. Risk reduction strategies to mitigate sexual and perinatal HIV transmission include biomedical and behavioural approaches. Current efforts to integrate HIV and reproductive health services offer prime opportunities to incorporate strategies for HIV risk reduction during pregnancy attempts. Key client and provider values about services to optimize pregnancy in the context of HIV risk provide insights for the design and implementation of large-scale “safer conception” programmes. Discussion Through our collective experience and discussions at a multi-disciplinary international World Health Organization–convened workshop to initiate the development of guidelines and an algorithm of care to support the delivery of services for HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy, we identified four values that are key to the implementation of these programmes: (1) understanding fertility care and an ability to identify potential fertility problems; (2) providing equity of access to resources enabling informed decision-making about reproductive choices; (3) creating enabling environments that reduce stigma associated with HIV and infertility; and (4) creating enabling environments that encourage disclosure of HIV status and fertility status to partners. Based on these values, recommendations for programmes serving HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy include the following: incorporation of comprehensive reproductive health counselling; training to support the transfer and exchange of knowledge between providers and clients; care environments that reduce the stigma of childbearing among HIV-affected women and couples; support for safe and voluntary disclosure of HIV and fertility status; and increased efforts to engage men in reproductive decision-making at times that align with women's desires

  2. Tuberculosis and HIV infection worldwide.

    PubMed

    Murray, J F

    1995-12-01

    The incidence of HIV-associated tuberculosis is increasing worldwide and will continue to increase during the foreseeable future, especially in developing countries. HIV infection appears to increase the opportunity for M. tuberculosis to succeed in causing infection after inhalation into the lungs. Moreover, there is persuasive evidence that in the presence of HIV infection, new-onset tuberculous infection will progress rapidly to clinically significant disease and the likelihood that latent tuberculous infection will reactivate is enormously increased. The accelerating and amplifying influence of HIV infection is contributing to the increasing incidence of disease caused by multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Neither clinical or radiographic features reliably distinguish the majority of patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis from those who are non-HIV-infected. The remainder, however, may have atypical manifestations and be difficult to diagnose. Six months of chemotherapy with conventional antituberculosis drugs cures most patients, but many die during or after treatment of other AIDS-related complications.

  3. Worldwide Spacecraft Crew Hatch History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.

  4. Euthanasia and related practices worldwide.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, M J; Chambers, D; Corcoran, P; Keeley, H S; Williamson, E

    1998-01-01

    The present paper examines the occurrence of matters relating to the ending of life, including active euthanasia, which is, technically speaking, illegal worldwide. Interest in this most controversial area is drawn from many varied sources, from legal and medical practitioners to religious and moral ethicists. In some countries, public interest has been mobilized into organizations that attempt to influence legislation relating to euthanasia. Despite the obvious international importance of euthanasia, very little is known about the extent of its practice, whether passive or active, voluntary or involuntary. This examination is based on questionnaires completed by 49 national representatives of the International Association for Suicide Prevention (IASP), dealing with legal and religious aspects of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, as well as suicide. A dichotomy between the law and medical practices relating to the end of life was uncovered by the results of the survey. In 12 of the 49 countries active euthanasia is said to occur while a general acceptance of passive euthanasia was reported to be widespread. Clearly, definition is crucial in making the distinction between active and passive euthanasia; otherwise, the entire concept may become distorted, and legal acceptance may become more widespread with the effect of broadening the category of individuals to whom euthanasia becomes an available option. The "slippery slope" argument is briefly considered. PMID:9884456

  5. The worldwide ionospheric data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    1989-01-01

    The worldwide ionospheric data base is scattered over the entire globe. Different data sets are held at different institutions in the U.S., U.S.S.R., Australia, Europe, and Asia. The World Data Centers on the different continents archive and distribute part of the huge data base; the scope and cross section of the individual data holdings depend on the regional and special interest of the center. An attempt is made to pull together all the strings that point toward different ionospheric data holdings. Requesters are provided with the information about what is available and where to get it. An attempt is also made to evaluate the reliability and compatibility of the different data sets based on the consensus in the ionospheric research community. The status and accuracy of the standard ionospheric models are also discussed because they may facilitate first order assessment of ionospheric effects. This is a first step toward an ionospheric data directory within the framework of NSSDC's master directory.

  6. Status of worldwide Landsat archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warriner, Howard W.

    1987-01-01

    In cooperation with the International Landsat community, and through the Landsat Technical Working Group (LTWG), NOAA is assembling information about the status of the Worldwide Landsat Archive. During LTWG 9, member nations agreed to participate in a survey of International Landsat data holding and of their archive experiences with Landsat data. The goal of the effort was two-fold; one, to document the Landsat archive to date, and, two, to ensure that specific nations' experience with long-term Landsat archival problems were available to others. The survey requested details such as amount of data held, the format of the archive holdings by Spacecraft/Sensor, and acquisition years; the estimated costs to accumulated process, and replace the data (if necessary); the storage space required, and any member nation's plans that would establish the insurance of continuing quality. As a group, the LTWG nations are concerned about the characteristics and reliability of long-term magnetic media storage. Each nation's experience with older data retrieval is solicited in the survey. This information will allow nations to anticipate and plan for required changes to their archival holdings. Also solicited were reports of any upgrades to a nation's archival system that are currently planned and all results of attempts to reduce archive holdings including methodology, current status, and the planned access rates and product support that are anticipated for responding to future archival usage.

  7. Prevalence of hospitalized live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women diagnosed with substance abuse at liveborn delivery: United States, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2013-05-01

    To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births.

  8. Worldwide Status of EUV Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Michael P.; Wood, K. S.; Barstow, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The bulk of radiation from million-degree plasmas is emitted at EUV wavelengths, which include critical spectral features containing diagnostic information often not available at other wavelengths (e.g., He II Ly series 228-304 Å). Thus, EUV astrophysics (Barstow & Holberg 2003) presents opportunities for intriguing results obtainable with sensitive high-resolution spectroscopy and particularly applicable to hot plasmas in stellar coronae, white dwarfs and the interstellar medium. The US-built J-PEX spectrometer has flown twice on sounding rockets, observing and publishing results on two white dwarf targets (Cruddace et al. 2002, Barstow et al. 2005, Kowalski et al. 2011). Using multilayer-grating technology, J-PEX delivers both high effective area and the world's highest resolution in EUV, greater than Chandra at adjacent energies, but in a waveband Chandra cannot reach. However, the US program has been stalled by inability to obtain further NASA sounding rocket flights. A high level of technology readiness, plus important questions answerable solely with that technology, does not seem sufficient to win support. Nor is the substantial amount of resources invested into technology development over two decades, supported by NASA, DoD, and European partners. Proposals to turn the instrument or its technology into small satellite-based surveys have been made (results to be described) in the US and Europe, but the overall situation is precarious. The entire EUV astrophysics field is losing out on an opportunity, and is at risk of fading away, with forced discard of established assets. Only mobilization of the international EUV community -- unifying European, US, and perhaps others -- can reverse this situation. Our poster summarizes science quests within reach of proven technology, gives a current snapshot of that technology, and provides a summary of worldwide efforts to obtain necessary space access in NASA, ESA, and elsewhere. A process for building and maintaining

  9. Neither folic acid supplementation nor pregnancy affects the distribution of folate forms in the red blood cells of women.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Brenda A; Fazili, Zia; Pfeiffer, Christine M; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2014-09-01

    It is not known whether folate metabolism is altered during pregnancy to support increased DNA and RNA biosynthesis. By using a state-of-the-art LC tandem mass spectrometry technique, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in RBC folate forms between pregnant and nonpregnant women and between nonpregnant women consuming different concentrations of supplemental folic acid. Forms of folate in RBCs were used to explore potential shifts in folate metabolism during early erythropoiesis. Total RBC folate and folate forms [tetrahydrofolate; 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF); 4α-hydroxy-5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (an oxidation product of 5-methyl-THF); 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate; and 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate] were measured in 4 groups of women (n = 26): pregnant women (PW) (30-36 wk of gestation) consuming 1 mg/d of folic acid, and nonpregnant women consuming 0 mg/d (NPW-0), 1 mg/d (NPW-1), and 5 mg/d (NPW-5) folic acid. The mean ± SD RBC folate concentration of the NPW-0 group (890 ± 530 nmol/L) was lower than the NPW-1 (1660 ± 350 nmol/L) and NPW-5 (1980 ± 570 nmol/L) groups as assessed by microbiologic assay (n = 26, P < 0.0022). No difference was found between the NPW-1 and NPW-5 groups. We detected 5-methyl-THF [limit of detection (LOD) = 0.06 nmol/L] in all groups and tetrahydrofolate (LOD = 0.2 nmol/L) in most women regardless of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype. Most women consuming folic acid supplements had detectable concentrations of 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate (LOD = 0.31 nmol/L). However, there was no difference in the relative distribution of 5-methyl-THF (83-84%), sum of non-methyl folates (0.6-3%), or individual non-methyl folate forms in RBCs across groups. We conclude that although folic acid supplementation in nonpregnant women increases RBC total folate and the concentration of individual folate forms, it does not alter the relative distribution of folate forms. Similarly, distribution of RBC folate forms did

  10. Intersection of Canadian policy parameters affecting women with precarious immigration status: a baseline for understanding barriers to health.

    PubMed

    Oxman-Martinez, Jacqueline; Hanley, Jill; Lach, Lucyna; Khanlou, Nazilla; Weerasinghe, Swarna; Agnew, Vijay

    2005-10-01

    Canadian federal policy provides a framework for the immigration and health experiences of immigrant women. The official immigration category under which a migrant is admitted determines to what degree her right to remain in the country (immigration status) is precarious. Women immigrants fall primarily into the more dependent categories and they experience barriers to access to health services arising from this precarious status. Federal immigration and health policies create direct barriers to health through regulation of immigrants' access to services as well as unintended secondary barriers. These direct and secondary policy barriers intersect with each other and with socio-cultural barriers arising from the migrant's socioeconomic and ethno-cultural background to undermine equitable access to health for immigrant women living in Canada. PMID:19813291

  11. Intermittent Explosive Disorder amongst Women in Conflict Affected Timor-Leste: Associations with Human Rights Trauma, Ongoing Violence, Poverty, and Injustice

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Verdial, Teresa; Tam, Natalino; Savio, Elisa; Fonseca, Zulmira; Thorpe, Rosamund; Liddell, Belinda; Zwi, Anthony; Tay, Kuowei; Brooks, Robert; Steel, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Women in conflict-affected countries are at risk of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. No studies have investigated the association between experiences of abuse and injustice and explosive anger amongst women in these settings, and the impact of anger on women's health, family relationships and ability to participate in development. Methods A mixed methods study including an epidemiological survey (n = 1513, 92.6% response) and qualitative interviews (n = 77) was conducted in Timor-Leste. The indices measured included Intermittent Explosive Disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder; severe distress; days out of role (the number of days that the person was unable to undertake normal activities); gender-specific trauma; conflict/violence; poverty; and preoccupations with injustice. Results Women with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (n = 184, 12.2%) were more disabled than those without the disorder (for >5 days out of role, 40.8% versus 31.5%, X2(2)  = 12.93 p = 0.0016). Multivariable associations with Intermittent Explosive Disorder, controlling for the presence of PTSD, psychological distress and other predictors in the model, included the sense of being sick (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.08–2.77); victimization as a result of helping the resistance movement (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.48–3.68); war-related trauma specific to being a woman (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.09–3.50); ongoing family violence and community conflict (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27–2.77); extreme poverty (OR 1.23, 95%, CI 1.08–1.39); and distressing preoccupations with injustice (relating to 2/3 historical periods, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.35–3.28). In the qualitative study, women elaborated on the determinants of anger and its impact on their health, family and community functioning, child-rearing, and capacity to engage in development. Women reflected on the strategies that might help them overcome their anger. Conclusions Intermittent Explosive Disorder is

  12. Human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Wanders, Niko; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2013-09-01

    Over the past 50 years, human water use has more than doubled and affected streamflow over various regions of the world. However, it remains unclear to what degree human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought (the occurrence of anomalously low streamflow). Here, we quantify over the period 1960-2010 the impact of human water consumption on the intensity and frequency of hydrological drought worldwide. The results show that human water consumption substantially reduced local and downstream streamflow over Europe, North America and Asia, and subsequently intensified the magnitude of hydrological droughts by 10-500%, occurring during nation- and continent-wide drought events. Also, human water consumption alone increased global drought frequency by 27 (±6)%. The intensification of drought frequency is most severe over Asia (35 ± 7%), but also substantial over North America (25 ± 6%) and Europe (20 ± 5%). Importantly, the severe drought conditions are driven primarily by human water consumption over many parts of these regions. Irrigation is responsible for the intensification of hydrological droughts over the western and central US, southern Europe and Asia, whereas the impact of industrial and households’ consumption on the intensification is considerably larger over the eastern US and western and central Europe. Our findings reveal that human water consumption is one of the more important mechanisms intensifying hydrological drought, and is likely to remain as a major factor affecting drought intensity and frequency in the coming decades.

  13. Pathways in STEM: Factors Affecting the Retention and Attrition of Talented Men and Women from the STEM Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbronner, Nancy N.

    2009-01-01

    Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to…

  14. Influence in times of crisis: how social and financial resources affect men's and women's evaluations of glass-cliff positions.

    PubMed

    Rink, Floor; Ryan, Michelle K; Stoker, Janka I

    2012-01-01

    In two scenario-based studies, we found that women and men evaluate glass-cliff positions (i.e., precarious leadership positions at organizations in crisis) differently depending on the social and financial resources available. Female and male participants evaluated a hypothetical leadership position in which they would have both social and financial resources, financial resources but no social resources, or social resources but no financial resources. Women evaluated the position without social resources most negatively, whereas men evaluated the position without financial resources most negatively. In study 2, we found that women and men considered different issues when evaluating these leadership positions. Women's evaluations and expected levels of influence as leaders depended on the degree to which they expected to be accepted by subordinates. In contrast, men's evaluations and expected levels of acceptance by subordinates depended on the degree to which they expected to be influential in the position. Our findings have implications for the understanding of the glass-cliff phenomenon and gendered leadership stereotypes.

  15. Short-term fasting affects luteinizing hormone secretory dynamics but not reproductive function in normal-weight sedentary women.

    PubMed

    Olson, B R; Cartledge, T; Sebring, N; Defensor, R; Nieman, L

    1995-04-01

    Acute food withdrawal reversibly inhibits the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in men and in rhesus monkeys, and it produces defects in LH pulsatility in normal-weight women. However, the clinical effect of short-term nutritional deprivation on the reproductive axis of normally cycling women has not been evaluated. Thus we studied the effect of a 3-day fast during the midfollicular phase on menstrual cycle length, gonadotropin secretory patterns, follicular development, and ovulation. After a baseline ovulatory cycle, 12 women within 15% of ideal body weight were randomized to be fed (n = 7) or fasted (n = 10) on cycle days 7 to 9. Five of the women repeated the study and received the alternate diet. Endocrine and metabolic parameters of fasting and reproductive physiology were measured on cycle days 6 to 12. Fasted physiology was demonstrated by characteristic alterations in growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I, TSH, and T3 levels. During fed cycles, the number of LH pulses remained constant on cycle days 6, 9 and 11, whereas mean LH levels, LH area under the curve, and LH pulse amplitude increased significantly over this time (all P < 0.05). In contrast, fasted cycles were marked by a significant decrease in the number of LH pulses on the last day of the fast (cycle day 9, P < 0.05) and by a lack of increase over time of mean LH values, LH area under the curve, and LH pulse amplitude. Follicle development, as assessed by daily ultrasound examination and estradiol measurements, was similar in all cycles and was followed by ovulation in all women; follicular and luteal phase lengths of fasted and fed cycles were similar. We conclude that the alterations in LH secretory dynamics that occur during a 3-day fast are not sufficient to perturb follicle development and cycle lengths in normal-weight sedentary women. The resilience of the reproductive axis in these healthy women contrasts with the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to acute

  16. Pathways in STEM: Factors affecting the retention and attrition of talented men and women from the STEM pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbronner, Nancy N.

    Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to success, such as the role that gender plays in the underrepresentation of women in certain STEM fields (e.g., computer science and engineering) and changes in recent decades in the process of selecting STEM majors and careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the influences that guide decisions related to the selection of majors and occupations during high school, post-secondary education, and early careers. Survey methodology was used to explore the perceptions of 360 Science Talent Search (STS) semifinalists and finalists during the years 1987-1989 and 1997-1999, and quantitative procedures were used to analyze the data. A majority (74.2%) of STS participants majored in a STEM field in college, and most (68.6%) currently work in a STEM field. A greater percentage of men selected computer science, engineering, physics, and mathematics majors, and a greater percentage of women selected biological science and chemistry. Belief in one's ability to achieve in STEM was a predictor of STEM majors in college and STEM concentrations in graduate school, but differences were found between men's and women's self-efficacy in STEM during high school and in college, as women had lower self-efficacy. Sex was a predictor of STEM majors in college, but perceived quality of academic courses was not. STEM majors also reported more satisfaction with their STEM courses in high school and college than non-STEM majors. In a departure from the results of previous research, the reasons that men and women selected occupations were similar, as were the reasons they chose to leave or not to enter STEM. The most frequently cited reason for

  17. Genetic polymorphisms that affect selenium status and response to selenium supplementation in United Kingdom pregnant women1

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jinyuan; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Perkins, Anthony V; Redman, Christopher WG; Ahmadi, Kourosh R; Rayman, Margaret P

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low selenium status in pregnancy has been associated with a number of adverse conditions. In nonpregnant populations, the selenium status or response to supplementation has been associated with polymorphisms in dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (DMGDH), selenoprotein P (SEPP1) and the glutathione peroxidases [cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) and phospholipid glutathione peroxidase (GPx4)]. Objective: We hypothesized that, in pregnant women, these candidate polymorphisms would be associated with selenium status in early pregnancy, its longitudinal change, and the interindividual response to selenium supplementation at 60 μg/d. Design: With the use of stored samples and data from the United Kingdom Selenium in Pregnancy Intervention (SPRINT) study in 227 pregnant women, we carried out genetic-association studies, testing for associations between selenium status, its longitudinal change, and response to supplementation and common genetic variation in DMGDH (rs921943), SEPP1 (rs3877899 and rs7579), GPx1 (rs1050450) and GPx4 (rs713041). Selenium status was represented by the concentration of whole-blood selenium at 12 and 35 wk of gestation, the concentration of toenail selenium at 16 wk of gestation, and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx3) activity at 12 and 35 wk of gestation. Results: Our results showed that DMGDH rs921943 was significantly associated with the whole-blood selenium concentration at 12 wk of gestation (P = 0.032), which explained ≤2.0% of the variance. This association was replicated with the use of toenail selenium (P = 0.043). In unsupplemented women, SEPP1 rs3877899 was significantly associated with the percentage change in whole-blood selenium from 12 to 35 wk of gestation (P = 0.005), which explained 8% of the variance. In supplemented women, SEPP1 rs3877899 was significantly associated with the percentage change in GPx3 activity from 12 to 35 wk of gestation (P = 0.01), which explained 5.3% of the variance. Selenium status was

  18. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Cognition and Mood in Recently Postmenopausal Women: Findings from the Randomized, Controlled KEEPS–Cognitive and Affective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Carey E.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Wharton, Whitney; Manson, JoAnn E.; Miller, Virginia M.; Atwood, Craig S.; Brinton, Eliot A.; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Lobo, Rogerio A.; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Santoro, Nanette F.; Taylor, Hugh S.; Black, Dennis M.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Hodis, Howard N.; Naftolin, Frederick; Harman, S. Mitchell; Asthana, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) reportedly increases the risk of cognitive decline in women over age 65 y. It is unknown whether similar risks exist for recently postmenopausal women, and whether MHT affects mood in younger women. The ancillary Cognitive and Affective Study (KEEPS-Cog) of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) examined the effects of up to 4 y of MHT on cognition and mood in recently postmenopausal women. Methods and Findings KEEPS, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, was conducted at nine US academic centers. Of the 727 women enrolled in KEEPS, 693 (95.3%) participated in the ancillary KEEPS-Cog, with 220 women randomized to receive 4 y of 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogens (o-CEE) plus 200 mg/d micronized progesterone (m-P) for the first 12 d of each month, 211 women randomized to receive 50 μg/d transdermal estradiol (t-E2) plus 200 mg/d m-P for the first 12 d of each month, and 262 women randomized to receive placebo pills and patches. Primary outcomes included the Modified Mini-Mental State examination; four cognitive factors: verbal learning/memory, auditory attention/working memory, visual attention/executive function, and speeded language/mental flexibility; and a mood measure, the Profile of Mood States (POMS). MHT effects were analyzed using linear mixed-effects (LME) models, which make full use of all available data from each participant, including those with missing data. Data from those with and without full data were compared to assess for potential biases resulting from missing observations. For statistically significant results, we calculated effect sizes (ESs) to evaluate the magnitude of changes. On average, participants were 52.6 y old, and 1.4 y past their last menstrual period. By month 48, 169 (24.4%) and 158 (22.8%) of the 693 women who consented for ancillary KEEPS-Cog were lost to follow-up for cognitive assessment (3MS and cognitive factors) and mood evaluations

  19. Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

    2014-08-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668.

  20. [Psychophysiological mechanisms involved in the affective regulation and food restriction of women at risk of suffering from bulimia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sonia; Mata, José Luis; Moreno, Silvia; Fernández, Maria Carmen; Vila, Jaime

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effect of visualizing food images under different mood states and food restriction conditions on the emotional modulation of two defense reflexes (startle reflex and cardiac defense). 72 women at risk of suffering from bulimia nervosa were assigned to two groups: 1) a group under induced positive, neutral, or negative mood state and, 2) a 6-hour-food-deprived group or a non-deprived group. Second-by-second heart rate and electromyogram activity from the orbiculari oculi region were recorded after the auditory stimulus. The results showed that, while viewing food images, non-deprived women under negative mood state potentiated the cardiac defense response and the startle motor reflex. Results are discussed in the context of emotional eating theories and Peter Lang's motivational priming model. PMID:17295980

  1. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-06-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two commercial breaks consisting of soda or water commercials. Their actual soda consumption while watching the movie clip was examined. An analysis of variance was used to examine the effects of commercial condition on soda consumption. Thirst and first glass consumed before the first commercial break were added as covariates in the analyses. Results indicated that participants assigned to the condition with soda commercials consumed 1.3 ounces more soda than participants in the water commercial condition. Exposure to soda commercials while watching a movie can have a strong influence on increasing sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women.

  2. Excess cardiovascular risk in diabetic women: a case for intensive treatment.

    PubMed

    Recarti, C; Sep, S J S; Stehouwer, C D A; Unger, T

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes is a common and rapidly growing disease that affects more than 380 million people worldwide and is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease with differential effects on women compared to men. While the general population of women, particularly young women, has more favourable cardiovascular risk profiles than men, this protective effect has been shown to be lost or even reversed in diabetic women. Several studies have demonstrated a significant diabetes-associated excess risk of cardiovascular disease in women. Sex-specific differences in risk factors associated with diabetes and their management may be responsible for the relative excess cardiovascular risk in women with diabetes. Diabetic women need intensive treatment in order to optimize management of cardiovascular risk factors. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the excess cardiovascular risk in diabetic women in order to tailor prevention and treatment strategies.

  3. Erythropoiesis in women during 11 days at 4,300 m is not affected by menstrual cycle phase.

    PubMed

    Reeves, J T; Zamudio, S; Dahms, T E; Asmus, I; Braun, B; Butterfield, G E; McCullough, R G; Muza, S R; Rock, P B; Moore, L G

    2001-12-01

    Because the ovarian steroid hormones, progesterone and estrogen, have higher blood levels in the luteal (L) than in the follicular (F) phase of the menstrual cycle, and because of their known effects on ventilation and hematopoiesis, we hypothesized that less hypoxemia and less erythropoiesis would occur in the L than the F phase of the cycle after arrival at altitude. We examined erythropoiesis with menstrual cycle phase in 16 women (age 22.6 +/- 0.6 yr). At sea level, 11 of 16 women were studied during both menstrual cycle phases, and, where comparison within women was available, cycle phase did not alter erythropoietin (n = 5), reticulocyte count (n = 10), and red cell volume (n = 9). When all 16 women were taken for 11 days to 4,300-m altitude (barometric pressure = 462 mmHg), paired comparisons within women showed no differences in ovarian hormone concentrations at sea level vs. altitude on menstrual cycle day 3 or 10 for either the F (n = 11) or the L (n = 5) phase groups. Arterial oxygen saturation did not differ between the F and L groups at altitude. There were no differences by cycle phase on day 11 at 4,300 m for erythropoietin [22.9 +/- 4.7 (L) vs. 18.8 +/- 3.4 mU/ml (F)], percent reticulocytes [1.9 +/- 0.1 (L) vs. 2.1 +/- 0.3% (F)], hemoglobin [13.5 +/- 0.3 (L) vs. 13.7 +/- 0.3 g/100 ml (F)], percent hematocrit [40.6 +/- 1.4 (L) vs. 40.7 +/- 1.0% (F)], red cell volume [31.1 +/- 3.6 (L) vs. 33.0 +/- 1.6 ml/kg (F)], and blood ferritin [8.9 +/- 1.7 (L) vs. 10.2 +/- 0.9 microg/l (F)]. Blood level of erythropoietin was related (r = 0.77) to arterial oxygen saturation but not to the levels of progesterone or estradiol. We conclude that erythropoiesis was not altered by menstrual cycle phase during the first days at 4,300-m altitude.

  4. Global women's health--a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Nour, Nawal M

    2014-01-01

    The burden of disease and public health issues affecting girls and women throughout their lives is significantly greater in resource-poor settings. These women and girls suffer from high rates of maternal mortality, obstetric fistulas, female genital cutting, HIV/AIDS, malaria in pregnancy, and cervical cancer. Although the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are being met in some nations, the majority of the goals will not be reached by 2015. In addition, insufficient attention is given to non-communicable and chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, obesity, and chronic respiratory diseases. A life-course approach that includes improvements in earlier-life factors such as diet and exercise is necessary to improve women's long-term health outcomes. Innovative diagnostic tools and treatment strategies along with cost-effective health service delivery systems are needed to make a significant impact on women's and girls' health worldwide. PMID:25083886

  5. Negative affect-induced food intake in non-dieting women is reward driven and associated with restrained-disinhibited eating subtype.

    PubMed

    Fay, Stephanie H; Finlayson, Graham

    2011-06-01

    In humans the presence of negative affect is thought to promote food intake, although widespread variability surrounds this issue. Susceptibility to negative affect-induced eating may depend on trait eating behaviours, notably 'emotional eating', 'restrained eating' and 'disinhibited eating', but the evidence is not consistent. In the present study, 30 non-obese, non-dieting women were given access to palatable food while in a state of negative or neutral affect, induced by a validated autobiographical recall technique. As predicted, food intake was higher in the presence of negative affect; however, this effect was moderated by the pattern of eating behaviour traits and enhanced wanting for the test food. Specifically, high restraint and high disinhibition in combination with higher scores on emotional eating and food wanting was able to predict negative-affect intake (adjusted R(2)=.61), suggesting that individuals who are both restrained and vulnerable to disinhibited eating are particularly susceptible to negative-affect food intake via stimulation of food wanting. Identification of traits that predispose individuals to overconsume and a more detailed understanding of the specific behaviours driving such overconsumption may help to optimise strategies to prevent weight gain.

  6. The volume of nipple aspirate fluid is not affected by 6 months of treatment with soy foods in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Conroy, Shannon M; Pagano, Ian S; Franke, Adrian A

    2011-04-01

    Based on the hypothesis that soy food consumption may influence breast tissue activity, we examined its effect on the production of nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), a possible indicator of breast cancer risk. Of 310 premenopausal women screened, 112 (36%) produced at least 10 μL of NAF, the minimum for study participation. In a crossover design, we randomized 96 women to 2 groups who, in reverse order, consumed a high-soy diet with 2 soy servings/d (1 serving = 177 mL soy milk, 126 g tofu, or 23 g soy nuts) and a low-soy diet with <3 servings/wk of soy for 6 mo each separated by a 1-mo washout period. During each diet period, 3 NAF samples were obtained (baseline and 3 and 6 mo) using a FirstCyte Aspirator and 4 urine samples (baseline and 1, 3, and 6 mo) were analyzed for isoflavonoids by liquid chromatography tandem MS. Adherence to the study protocol according to 24-h dietary recalls and urinary isoflavonoid excretion was high. The drop-out rate was 15% (n = 14); 82 women completed the intervention. The 2 groups produced similar mean NAF volumes at baseline (P = 0.95) but differed in age and previous soy intake and in their response to the intervention (P = 0.03). In both groups, NAF volume decreased during the first 3 mo of the high-soy diet period and returned to baseline at 6 mo, but there was no effect of the high-soy diet on NAF volume (P = 0.50 for diet; P-interaction = 0.21 for diet with time). Contrary to an earlier report, soy foods in amounts consumed by Asians did not increase breast tissue activity as assessed by NAF volume.

  7. High progesterone levels in women with high ovarian response do not affect clinical outcomes: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potentially detrimental role of progesterone during the follicular phase has been a matter of controversy for several years; however, few studies have analyzed the effects of combined raised estradiol and progesterone levels on pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of high progesterone levels on clinical outcomes in the context of high ovarian response. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study that included 2850 women classified as high responders. The women were subdivided into six groups depending on their progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration: <0.5 ng/ml (1.81 ng/ml (>p90). Ovarian response was classified as high when > =20 oocytes were retrieved or when estradiol was > =3000 pg/ml. Clinical outcomes of each subgroup were analyzed. We also examined data from frozen-thawed embryo transfers. Results were analyzed with Student’s t- test to compare continuous variables and chi-squared test to compare proportions. A p-value of < =0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The progesterone concentration increased with ovarian response, and elevated progesterone did not show a significant clinical impact on implantation rate and pregnancy rates. These data provide evidence that progesterone levels higher than 1.8 ng/ml do not have detrimental effect on oocyte quality or endometrial receptivity. Conclusions These data allow us to conclude that high progesterone levels correlate significantly with high estradiol levels and that in high responder women; progesterone levels do not show a significant clinical impact on results. PMID:25064138

  8. Arsenic in the breast milk of lactating women in arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India and its effect on infants.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Gautam; Das, Dipankar; Mandal, Badal K; Chowdhury, Tarit Roy; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Pal, Arup; Ahamed, Sad

    2007-10-01

    Two hundred and twenty-six breast milk samples were collected from lactating women from 3 blocks of North-24 Paragans, one of the arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal, India. Out of 226 samples, only in 39 samples arsenic was detected. Urine, hair, and nail samples were also analyzed to know the arsenic body burden of the lactating women. Arsenic in drinking water was also analyzed. Principle component analysis (PCA) revealed that hair and nail arsenic was highly correlated with water arsenic concentrations, whereas arsenic in urine and breast milk did not cluster with water arsenic. Our present study indicated that among the lactating women who had high arsenic body burden and arsenical skin lesions, they had elevated level of arsenic in their breast milk. Arsenic in hair, nails, and urine samples of infants were analyzed, and the results showed significantly high-body burden of infants in those areas. PCA showed the age-dependent relationship between the hair and nail arsenic concentrations of the mothers and their babies.

  9. Feasibility and Efficacy of a Physical Activity Intervention Among Pregnant Women: The Behaviors Affecting Baby and You (B.A.B.Y.) Study

    PubMed Central

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Silveira, Marushka; Marcus, Bess H.; Braun, Barry; Stanek, Edward; Markenson, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. However, the majority of pregnant women are inactive and interventions designed to increase exercise during pregnancy are sparse. We evaluated the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an exercise intervention among a diverse sample of pregnant women. Methods The B.A.B.Y. (Behaviors Affecting Baby and You) Study is conducted at a large tertiary care facility in Western Massachusetts. We randomized 110 prenatal care patients (60% Hispanic) to an individually tailored 12-week exercise intervention arm (n = 58) or to a health and wellness control arm (n = 52) at mean = 11.9 weeks gestation. Physical activity was assessed via the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ). Results After the 12-week intervention, the exercise arm experienced a smaller decrease (−1.0 MET-hrs/wk) in total activity vs. the control arm (−10.0 MET-hrs/wk; P = .03), and a higher increase in sports/exercise (0.9 MET-hrs/wk) vs. the control arm (−0.01 MET-hrs/wk; P = .02). Intervention participants (95%) reported being satisfied with the amount of information received and 86% reported finding the study materials interesting and useful. Conclusions Findings support the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a tailored exercise intervention in increasing exercise in a diverse sample of pregnant women. PMID:21918237

  10. Fertility sparing surgery in young women affected by endometrial stromal sarcoma: an oncologic dilemma or a reliable option? review of literature starting from a peculiar case

    PubMed Central

    Noventa, Marco; Gizzo, Salvatore; Conte, Lorena; Dalla Toffola, Angela; Litta, Pietro; Saccardi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Background Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is a term used to define a rare neoplasm that accounts for approximately 0.2%–1% of all uterine malignancies; it is, however, implicated in an estimated 10%–15% of those malignancies with a mesenchymal component. Recent evidence suggests that while the preservation of the ovaries may be considered appropriate in premenopausal women, hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy remains the recommended treatment in postmenopausal women. Currently, only a few case series reporting the treatment of ESS in young women with a desire to preserve fertility and thus subjected to a fertility-sparing surgery are available in the literature. Case presentation We report a peculiar case of early stage ESS treated by laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery and a strict follow-up program (every 3 months) of imaging and clinical evaluation. The patient remained disease free 1 year after primary treatment. Three months after completing oncological follow-up, the patient conceived spontaneously and is, to date, pregnant at 11 weeks of gestation without evidence of recurrent disease or obstetric complications. Conclusion Based on our case report and in accordance with the data available, we suggest that in young patients affected by early stage ESS who wish to preserve reproductive function, fertility-sparing surgery could represent a valid option, though strict oncological follow-up remains mandatory. PMID:25565863

  11. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  12. Sex Hormones Enhance Gingival Inflammation without Affecting IL-1β and TNF-α in Periodontally Healthy Women during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Chen, Shao-Wu; Su, Wei-Lan; Zhu, Hong-Ying; Ouyang, Shu-Yuan; Cao, Ya-Ting; Jiang, Shao-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Hormones (progesterone and estradiol) change greatly during pregnancy; however, the mechanism of hormonal changes on gingival inflammation is still unclear. This study is to evaluate the effects of hormonal changes during pregnancy on gingival inflammation and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). 30 periodontally healthy pregnant women were evaluated in the first, second, and third trimesters. 20 periodontally healthy nonpregnant women were evaluated twice (once per subsequent month). Clinical parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding index (BI), gingival index (GI), clinical attachment level (CAL), and plaque index (PLI) were recorded. GCF levels of IL-1β and TNF-α and serum levels of progesterone and estradiol were measured. From the data, despite low PLI, BI and GI increased significantly during pregnancy; however, no significant changes in PLI, CAL, IL-1β, or TNF-α GCF levels were observed. Although IL-1β, not TNF-α, was higher in pregnant group than in nonpregnant group, they showed no correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. GI and BI showed significant positive correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. This study suggests that sex hormone increase during pregnancy might have an effect on inflammatory status of gingiva, independent of IL-1β and TNF-α in GCF. PMID:27034591

  13. Positive smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between negative affect and smoking urge among women during a quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lam, Cho Y; Chen, Minxing; Adams, Claire E; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Stewart, Diana W; McClure, Jennifer B; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2014-08-01

    Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine associations between negative affect, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and smoking urge during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt. Participants were 302 female smokers who enrolled in an individually tailored smoking cessation treatment study. Multilevel mediation analysis was used to examine the temporal relationship among the following: (a) the effects of negative affect and positive smoking outcome expectancies at 1 assessment point (e.g., time j) on smoking urge at the subsequent time point (e.g., time j + 1) in Model 1; and, (b) the effects of negative affect and smoking urge at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 in Model 2. The results from Model 1 showed a statistically significant effect of negative affect at time j on smoking urge at time j + 1, and this effect was mediated by positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j, both within- and between-participants. In Model 2, the within-participant indirect effect of negative affect at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 through smoking urge at time j was nonsignificant. However, a statistically significant indirect between-participants effect was found in Model 2. The findings support the hypothesis that urge and positive smoking outcome expectancies increase as a function of negative affect, and suggest a stronger effect of expectancies on urge as opposed to the effect of urge on expectancies.

  14. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Within Normal Range Does Not Affect Bone Turnover in Euthyroid Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporotic Fracture - A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Nowacki, Wieslaw; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2011-01-01

    Background Pathogenic role of TSH suppression in the damaged bone tissue, in contrast to increased concentrations of thyroid hormones is still unknown. The aim of study was to evaluate the relationship between serum TSH and biochemical bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with normal thyroid function and to answer whether the differences in TSH concentration within reference range may affect bone metabolism. Material and Methods 34 women (60-93 years old) admitted to the hospital after osteoporotic fracture participated in the study. Serum propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP) as a bone formation marker and crosslinked C-terminal telopeptides (CTX-I), as a bone resorption marker and TSH were assayed. Results Median P1NP (p=0,05) was significantly higher in the 1st tertile of TSH values (0,35-1,88 mlU/mL). In the 3rd tertile of TSH concentrations (3,42-4,94 mlU/mL), the highest CTX-I value was found that exceed the reference range for age. No differences were found in bone markers between a group of euthyroid and a group of subjects with TSH<0,35 mlU/mL. No relationship was observed between TSH and bone formation and resorption markers in the whole group of euthyroid postmenopausal women, however bone formation was found to be in the lower reference range for age in the euthyroid subjects as well as in these with decreased TSH. Weight and BMI correlated negatively with CTX (r=-0,68 p<0,03) in fractured women in the 1st tertile of TSH. Conclusion We found no consistent evidence that TSH concentrations within reference range was associated with changes in bone turnover markers.

  15. Estradiol modulates anhedonia and behavioral despair in rats and negative affect in a subgroup of women at high risk for postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; O'Hara, Michael W; Rubinow, David R; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2013-07-01

    In an effort to address inconsistencies in the literature, we tested a cross-species estrogen withdrawal model of postpartum depression (PPD) with a series of rodent experiments and a prospective, naturalistic human study. All rats were ovariectomized prior to experimentation. The first rat experiment examined the effects of low- and high-dose estradiol administration and withdrawal on lateral-hypothalamic self-stimulation, a behavioral index of anhedonia, in experimental (n=7) and vehicle-only control animals (n=7). The second rat experiment examined the effects of high-dose estradiol withdrawal on activity and immobility during the forced swim test, an index of behavioral despair, in a separate group of experimental (n=8) and vehicle-only control animals (n=8). In the human study, women with (n=8) and without (n=12) a history of PPD completed mood ratings and collected saliva samples (to assess estradiol levels) daily during the third trimester of pregnancy through 10 days postpartum. The presence of PPD was assessed at one month postpartum. In the animal studies, rats in the estradiol withdrawal group demonstrated significantly greater immobility and less swimming than controls. Estradiol withdrawal resulted in reduced responding for electrical stimulation (multiple intensities) relative to estradiol administration. In the human study, there was no significant association between estradiol and negative affect among women with or without a history of PPD. However, there was a correlation between daily estradiol levels and negative affect in the women with incident PPD at one month postpartum. Despite important cross-species differences, both the rat and human studies provided evidence of the effects of estradiol on perinatal depressive symptoms.

  16. n3 PUFAs do not affect adipose tissue inflammation in overweight to moderately obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Mario; Kuzma, Jessica N; Hagman, Derek K; van Yserloo, Brian; Matthys, Colleen C; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have indicated that omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decrease adipose tissue inflammation in rodents and in morbidly obese humans. We investigated whether a diet rich in n3 PUFAs from both marine and plant sources reduces adipose tissue and systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese adults. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, parallel-design, placebo-controlled feeding trial. Healthy men and women with a body mass index between 28 and 33 kg/m(2) consumed a diet rich in n3 PUFAs (3.5% of energy intake; n = 11) from plant and marine sources or a control diet (0.5% of energy intake from n3 PUFAs; n = 13). These diets were consumed for 14 wk (ad libitum for 12 wk). All foods were provided for the entire study period. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and fasting plasma were collected after the first 2 wk with the control diet and again at the end of the 14-wk dietary period. The primary outcome of this ex post analysis was the adipose tissue gene expression of 13 key mediators of inflammation. Adipose tissue gene expression of inflammatory mediators did not differ between the 2 groups, after adjustment for weight change. Furthermore, none of the 5 plasma markers of systemic inflammation differed significantly as an effect of diet treatment. We conclude that a relatively high dose of n3 PUFAs from plant and marine sources did not significantly lower adipose tissue or systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese healthy men and women over 14 wk.

  17. Chronic resistance training does not affect post-exercise blood pressure in normotensive older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gerage, Aline Mendes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; do Nascimento, Matheus Amarante; Pina, Fábio Luiz Cheche; Gonçalves, Cássio Gustavo Santana; Sardinha, Luís B; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

    2015-06-01

    Resistance training has been recommended for maintenance or improvement of the functional health of older adults, but its effect on acute cardiovascular responses remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in normotensive older women. Twenty-eight normotensive and physically inactive women (≥ 60 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG underwent a resistance training program (12 weeks, 8 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions, 3 days/week), while the CG performed stretching exercises (12 weeks, 2 sets, 20 s each, 2 days/week). At baseline and after the intervention, participants were randomly submitted to two experimental sessions: a resistance exercise session (7 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions) and a control session. BP was obtained pre- and post-sessions (90 min), through auscultation. Post-exercise hypotension was observed for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP in the TG (-6.1, -3.4, and -4.3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05) and in the CG (-4.1, -0.7, and -1.8 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). After the intervention period, the magnitude and pattern of this phenomenon for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP were similar between groups (TG -8.8, -4.1, and -5.7 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05 vs CG -11.1, -5.8, and -7.6 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). These results indicate that a single session of resistance exercise promotes reduction in post-exercise BP and 12 weeks of resistance training program do not change the occurrence or magnitude of this hypotension. (ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02346981).

  18. Domestic violence in Iranian infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhan, Zohre; Ozgoli, Giti; Azar, Mahyar; Alavimajd, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Millions of men and women suffer from infertility worldwide. In many cultures, infertile women are at risk of social and emotional problems. Infertility may affect the public health in many countries. Domestic violence is the intentional use of physical force, power or threat against oneself, another person or another group or community which leads to injury, death, mental harm, lack of development or deprivation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of domestic violence against infertile women who referred to the infertility centres of Tehran, Iran in 2011. Methods: This was cross- sectional descriptive study conducted on 400 infertile women who were selected through convenient sampling method. The questionnaire used in this study included two sections: a demographic section with questions about demographic characteristics of the infertile women and their husbands; and the domestic violence questionnaire with questions about physical, emotional and sexual violence. Data were analysed by SPSS16; descriptive statistics, Spearman’s test, t- test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: Four hundred women with the average age of 30.50 ± 6.16 years participated in the study; of whom, 34.7% experienced domestic violence physical violence (5.3%), emotional violence (74.3%) and sexual violence (47.3%). Domestic violence was significantly associated with unwanted marriage, number of IVFs, drug abuse, emotional status of the women, smoking and addiction or drug abuse of the spouse, mental and physical diseases of the husband (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Many of the current problems in this society, particularly in families are due to the transition of the society from a traditional model to a modern one. The majority of the infertile women experience violence in Iran. Domestic violence against infertile women is a problem that should not be ignored. Clinicians should identify abused women. Providing

  19. Multilevel Dynamic Systems Affecting Introduction of HIV/STI Prevention Innovations among Chinese Women in Sex Work Establishments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Zhang, Qingning; Dunn, Jennifer; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei

    2013-01-01

    Social and public health scientists are increasingly interested in applying system dynamics theory to improve understanding and to harness the forces of change within complex, multilevel systems that affect community intervention implementation, effects, and sustainability. Building a system dynamics model based on ethnographic case study has the…

  20. Subtyping Women with Bulimia Nervosa along Dietary and Negative Affect Dimensions: Further Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C. Nathan; Fischer, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Studies have found that individuals with bulimia nervosa can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and that the latter exhibit greater eating pathology, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment; a more protracted clinical course; and a worse treatment response. In this report, the authors describe 2 prospective…

  1. Daytime variation in ambient temperature affects skin temperatures and blood pressure: Ambulatory winter/summer comparison in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Nicolas, Antonio; Meyer, Martin; Hunkler, Stefan; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles; Meyer, Andrea H; Schötzau, Andy; Orgül, Selim; Kräuchi, Kurt

    2015-10-01

    It is widely accepted that cold exposure increases peripheral vascular resistance and arterial blood pressure (BP) and, hence, increases cardiovascular risk primarily in the elderly. However, there is a lack of concomitantly longitudinal recordings at personal level of environmental temperature (PET) and cardiophysiological variables together with skin temperatures (STs, the “interface-variable” between the body core and ambient temperature). To investigate the intra-individual temporal relationships between PET, STs and BP 60 healthy young women (52 completed the entire study) were prospectively studied in a winter/summer design for 26 h under real life conditions. The main hypothesis was tested whether distal ST (Tdist)mediates the effect of PET-changes on mean arterial BP (MAP). Diurnal profiles of cardiophysiological variables (including BP), STs and PET were ambulatory recorded. Daytime variations between 0930 and 2030 h were analyzed in detail by intra-individual longitudinal path analysis. Additionally, time segments before, during and after outdoor exposure were separately analyzed. In both seasons short-term variations in PET were positively associated with short-term changes in Tdist (not proximal ST, Tprox) and negatively with those in MAP. However, long-term seasonal differences in daytime mean levels were observed in STs but not in BP leading to non-significant inter-individual correlation between STs and BP. Additionally, higher individual body mass index (BMI) was significantly associated with lower daytime mean levels of Tprox and higher MAP suggesting Tprox as potential mediator variable for the association of BMI with MAP. In healthy young women the thermoregulatory and BP-regulatory systems are closely linked with respect to short-term, but not long-term changes in PET. One hypothetical explanation could serve recent findings that thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue is activated in a cool environment, which could be responsible for the

  2. How peer conversations about HIV/AIDS media messages affect comprehension and beliefs of young South African women.

    PubMed

    Lubinga, E; Maes, A A; Jansen, C J M

    2016-12-01

    Most existent research on the effects of interpersonal discussions about health campaign messages is based on surveys. In this study, we analysed actual conversations about an HIV/AIDS poster to find out possible effects. Young South African women in 59 dyads (n = 118) participated in conversations about a deliberately puzzling HIV and AIDS poster that cautioned the target group to be faithful to one sexual partner. We measured their comprehension of the poster and beliefs about the message, before and after the conversations. Overall, actual comprehension (AC) was low, and we observed a large discrepancy between actual and perceived comprehension. In general, conversations did not improve AC. It proved to be even more probable that a correct interpretation before a conversation turned into an incorrect interpretation than the other way around. However, having a well-informed conversation partner increased the chance of acquiring adequate subsequent comprehension. We found, in general, that conversations did not decrease undesirable beliefs. One important undesirable belief even became reinforced after the conversations. Conversations among peers might be valuable in health campaigns, but our study shows that intended positive effects do not automatically follow.

  3. Pregnant women's cognitive appraisal of a natural disaster affects DNA methylation in their children 13 years later: Project Ice Storm.

    PubMed

    Cao-Lei, L; Elgbeili, G; Massart, R; Laplante, D P; Szyf, M; King, S

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) can impact a variety of outcomes in the offspring throughout childhood and persisting into adulthood as shown in human and animal studies. Many of the effects of PNMS on offspring outcomes likely reflect the effects of epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, to the fetal genome. However, no animal or human research can determine the extent to which the effects of PNMS on DNA methylation in human offspring is the result of the objective severity of the stressor to the pregnant mother, or her negative appraisal of the stressor or her resulting degree of negative stress. We examined the genome-wide DNA methylation profile in T cells from 34 adolescents whose mothers had rated the 1998 Québec ice storm's consequences as positive or negative (that is, cognitive appraisal). The methylation levels of 2872 CGs differed significantly between adolescents in the positive and negative maternal cognitive appraisal groups. These CGs are affiliated with 1564 different genes and with 408 different biological pathways, which are prominently featured in immune function. Importantly, there was a significant overlap in the differentially methylated CGs or genes and biological pathways that are associated with cognitive appraisal and those associated with objective PNMS as we reported previously. Our study suggests that pregnant women's cognitive appraisals of an independent stressor may have widespread effects on DNA methylation across the entire genome of their unborn children, detectable during adolescence. Therefore, cognitive appraisals could be an important predictor variable to explore in PNMS research. PMID:25710121

  4. Pregnant women's cognitive appraisal of a natural disaster affects DNA methylation in their children 13 years later: Project Ice Storm

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Lei, L; Elgbeili, G; Massart, R; Laplante, D P; Szyf, M; King, S

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) can impact a variety of outcomes in the offspring throughout childhood and persisting into adulthood as shown in human and animal studies. Many of the effects of PNMS on offspring outcomes likely reflect the effects of epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, to the fetal genome. However, no animal or human research can determine the extent to which the effects of PNMS on DNA methylation in human offspring is the result of the objective severity of the stressor to the pregnant mother, or her negative appraisal of the stressor or her resulting degree of negative stress. We examined the genome-wide DNA methylation profile in T cells from 34 adolescents whose mothers had rated the 1998 Québec ice storm's consequences as positive or negative (that is, cognitive appraisal). The methylation levels of 2872 CGs differed significantly between adolescents in the positive and negative maternal cognitive appraisal groups. These CGs are affiliated with 1564 different genes and with 408 different biological pathways, which are prominently featured in immune function. Importantly, there was a significant overlap in the differentially methylated CGs or genes and biological pathways that are associated with cognitive appraisal and those associated with objective PNMS as we reported previously. Our study suggests that pregnant women's cognitive appraisals of an independent stressor may have widespread effects on DNA methylation across the entire genome of their unborn children, detectable during adolescence. Therefore, cognitive appraisals could be an important predictor variable to explore in PNMS research. PMID:25710121

  5. A Systematic Review of Individual and Contextual Factors Affecting ART Initiation, Adherence, and Retention for HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Ian; Plummer, Mary L.; Konopka, Sarah N.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Jonas, Edna; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite progress reducing maternal mortality, HIV-related maternal deaths remain high, accounting, for example, for up to 24 percent of all pregnancy-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective in improving outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women, yet rates of initiation, adherence, and retention remain low. This systematic literature review synthesized evidence about individual and contextual factors affecting ART use among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Searches were conducted for studies addressing the population (HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women), intervention (ART), and outcomes of interest (initiation, adherence, and retention). Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English since January 2008 were included. Individual and contextual enablers and barriers to ART use were extracted and organized thematically within a framework of individual, interpersonal, community, and structural categories. Results Thirty-four studies were included in the review. Individual-level factors included both those within and outside a woman’s awareness and control (e.g., commitment to child’s health or age). Individual-level barriers included poor understanding of HIV, ART, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and difficulty managing practical demands of ART. At an interpersonal level, disclosure to a spouse and spousal involvement in treatment were associated with improved initiation, adherence, and retention. Fear of negative consequences was a barrier to disclosure. At a community level, stigma was a major barrier. Key structural barriers and enablers were related to health system use and engagement, including access to services and health worker attitudes. Conclusions To be successful, programs seeking to expand access to and continued use of ART by integrating maternal health and HIV services must identify and address the relevant barriers and enablers in

  6. Women in Science Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The L'Oréal For Women in Science program is calling for women postdoctoral scientists to submit applications for the L'Oréal USA Women in Science Fellowship. Five women scientists in a variety of fields, including life and physical/material sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics, will receive grants of up to $60,000 each. Since the program began in 1998, more than 2000 women scientists worldwide have been awarded fellowships. Application materials are available at https://lorealfwis.aaas.org/login/indexA.cfm; the deadline to apply is 19 May 2014.

  7. Sowing the seeds or failing to blossom? A feasibility study of a simple ecotherapy-based intervention in women affected by breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Ceri; Butler, Carole; Cousins, Alecia; Hughes, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in nature-based activities is recognised as providing the basis for easily accessible, cost-effective interventions which can have other important physical and psychological health outcomes. The aim of the reported feasibility study was to explore the acceptability and potential psychological benefits of a simple ecotherapy-based intervention for individuals affected by cancer. A total of seven women from an existing breast cancer support group agreed to take part in the study by cultivating and customising a garden bowl for three months, maintaining a diary, and participating in a focus group at the end of the project. The analysis of the focus group data revealed four main themes that suggested that the women found engaging with the intervention to be therapeutic on a number of different levels: reflecting their cancer journey, a source of positivity, making meaning through memories, and a sense of control provided by engagement with the intervention. Engagement with the diary-writing element of the intervention, however, was not as widely endorsed by the group, as participants were even reluctant to make use of an online forum to share experiences of engaging with the intervention. Overall, the study suggests that the flexibility of level of engagement with an intervention is an important factor in developing acceptable interventions, and that the value of targeted recruitment to improve engagement with novel interventions is paramount. PMID:26715939

  8. Reasons for initiation and cessation of eating in obese men and women and the affective consequences of eating in everyday situations.

    PubMed

    Tuomisto, T; Tuomisto, M T; Hetherington, M; Lappalainen, R

    1998-04-01

    Reasons for the initiation and termination of eating were investigated in 78 female and 36 male obese subjects following a weight control programme. Self-monitoring diaries were completed during a 24-h period, in which subjects selected the main reason for starting and stopping an eating episode. Additionally, subjects recorded mood before and after eating using visual analogue scales. Hunger was chosen as a reason to start eating in only 20% of cases. Environmental cues such as mealtime were selected as the main reason for the initiation of the majority of eating episodes. In contrast, self-assessments such as "I felt I had eaten enough" was the main reason for terminating eating (39.4%). Gender differences in the reasons for initiating eating revealed a greater tendency for men to initiate eating for environmental reasons than women, whereas the opposite was found for the termination of eating, with women more likely to stop eating for environmental reasons than men. Changes in affect during eating revealed a significant decline in negative emotions such as tension and tiredness, and in the heavier subjects a trend for increased happiness was observed following eating. As hunger was less commonly reported as a reason to start eating than external reasons, treatment strategies for the obese might benefit by targeting individual reasons for meal initiation.

  9. Epidemiology of foodborne diseases: a worldwide review.

    PubMed

    Todd, E C

    1997-01-01

    the world do show some common elements. Salmonella is still the most important agent causing acute foodborne disease, with Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium being of most concern. Foods of animal origin, particularly, meat and eggs, were most often implicated. Desserts, ice cream and confectionery items were products also mentioned, but some of these would have egg as a raw or incompletely cooked ingredient. Incidents most frequently occurred in homes or restaurants, and the main factors contributing to outbreaks were poor temperature control in preparing, cooking and storing food. Clostridium botulinum, Salmonella and VTEC are more frequently documented in industrialized than in developing countries. ETEC, EPEC, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae and parasites are the main scourges in developing countries, but it is uncertain how many cases are attributed to food, to water or to person-to-person transmission. The apparent decrease of S. aureus and C. perfringens outbreaks in industrialized countries may be related to improved temperature control in the kitchen. An increasing number of illnesses are international in scope, with contamination in a commercial product occurring in one country and affecting persons in several other countries, or tourists being infected abroad and possibly transmitting the pathogen to others at home. For Salmonella, a rapid alert and response coordination is being encouraged through Salm-Net and other international programs. However, unless such a network is worldwide, tracking clusters of illnesses is going to fall on the countries where the first cases occur, and some of these have very limited resources for investigation and control. It was heartening to see funds recently being allocated to foodborne disease surveillance and control in several industrialized countries, but the same commitment is required by the World Health Organization for the international community.

  10. The role of d-dimer as first marker of thrombophilia in women affected by sterility: implications in pathophysiology and diagnosis of thrombophilia induced sterility

    PubMed Central

    Di Micco, Pierpaolo; D'Uva, Maristella; Strina, Ida; Mollo, Antonio; Amato, Valeria; Niglio, Alferio; De Placido, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    Background D-dimer is considered a marker of hypercoagulable state and of endogenous fibrinolysis, so increased d-dimer is detectable in patients affected by thrombosis. Yet, several studies showed that also infertility, in particular secondary infertility due to recurrent fetal losses, has been often related to thrombotic events, in particular in women carrying thrombotic risk factors such as inherited thrombophilia (MTHFRC677T, PTHRA20210G, Factor V Leiden polimorphisms and/or inhAfter this screening we selected 39erited protein C, protein S, AT III deficiency) or acquired thrombophilia (primary antiphospholipid syndrome, acquired protein C, protein S, AT III deficiency, drugs induced thrombophilia). However, because its high predictive negative value in case of suspected thrombosis, increased d-dimer has been often associated to subclinical thrombophilia. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of d-dimer as first marker of thrombophilia in women affected by unexplained infertility and subsequently to search the cause of increased d-dimer, such as inherited and/or acquired thrombophilia. Patients and Methods We selected 79 patients with unexplained primary or secondary infertility. We excluded 40 patients affected by hydrosalpinx, uterine fibroids, uterine malformations, endocrinological and immunological diseases, luteal insufficiency, cytogenetical alterations. All remaining 39 patients were tested for d-dimer and divided in two groups: the patients of group A (25 patients) showed increased plasma d-dimer, in group B were included 14 patients with normal plasma level of d-dimer. After this step all 39 patients were screened for MTHFRC677T, PTHRA20210G, Factor V Leiden polimorphisms, protein C, protein S, AT III, anticardiolipin IgM and IgG, lupus anticoagulant. In the control group were included 15 age matched women without sterility problems referred to our outpatient's section of vascular medicine for suspected deep venous thrombosis. Statistical

  11. Statin adherence and risk of acute cardiovascular events among women: a cohort study accounting for time-dependent confounding affected by previous adherence

    PubMed Central

    Lavikainen, Piia; Helin-Salmivaara, Arja; Eerola, Mervi; Fang, Gang; Hartikainen, Juha; Huupponen, Risto; Korhonen, Maarit Jaana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies on the effect of statin adherence on cardiovascular events in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease have adjusted for time-dependent confounding, but potentially introduced bias into their estimates as adherence and confounders were measured simultaneously. We aimed to evaluate the effect when accounting for time-dependent confounding affected by previous adherence as well as time sequence between factors. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Finnish healthcare registers. Participants Women aged 45–64 years initiating statin use for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in 2001–2004 (n=42 807). Outcomes Acute cardiovascular event defined as a composite of acute coronary syndrome and acute ischaemic stroke was our primary outcome. Low-energy fractures were used as a negative control outcome to evaluate the healthy-adherer effect. Results During the 3-year follow-up, 474 women experienced the primary outcome event and 557 suffered a low-energy fracture. The causal HR estimated with marginal structural model for acute cardiovascular events for all the women who remained adherent (proportion of days covered ≥80%) to statin therapy during the previous adherence assessment year was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.94) when compared with everybody remaining non-adherent (proportion of days covered <80%). The result was robust against alternative model specifications. Statin adherers had a potentially reduced risk of experiencing low-energy fractures compared with non-adherers (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.07). Conclusions Our study, which took into account the time dependence of adherence and confounders, as well as temporal order between these factors, is support for the concept that adherence to statins in women in primary prevention decreases the risk of acute cardiovascular events by about one-fifth in comparison to non-adherence. However, part of the observed effect of statin adherence on acute cardiovascular events

  12. Contemporary use and practice of electroconvulsive therapy worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Leiknes, Kari Ann; Jarosh-von Schweder, Lindy; Høie, Bjørg

    2012-01-01

    To explore contemporary (from 1990) utilization and practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) worldwide. Systematic search (limited to studies published 1990 and after) was undertaken in the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, SveMed, and EBSCO/Cinahl. Primary data-based studies/surveys with reported ECT utilization and practice in psychiatric institutions internationally, nationally, and regionally; city were included. Two reviewers independently checked study titles and abstracts according to inclusion criteria, and extracted ECT utilization and practice data from those retrieved in full text. Seventy studies were included, seven from Australia and New Zealand, three Africa, 12 North and Latin America, 33 Europe, and 15 Asia. Worldwide ECT differences and trends were evident, average number ECTs administered per patient were eight; unmodified (without anesthesia) was used in Asia (over 90%), Africa, Latin America, Russia, Turkey, Spain. Worldwide preferred electrode placement was bilateral, except unilateral at some places (Europe and Australia/New Zealand). Although mainstream was brief-pulse wave, sine-wave devices were still used. Majority ECT treated were older women with depression in Western countries, versus younger men with schizophrenia in Asian countries. ECT under involuntary conditions (admissions), use of ambulatory-ECT, acute first line of treatment, as well as administered by other professions (geriatricians, nurses) were noted by some sites. General trends were only some institutions within the same country providing ECT, training inadequate, and guidelines not followed. Mandatory reporting and overall country ECT register data were sparse. Many patients are still treated with unmodified ECT today. Large global variation in ECT utilization, administration, and practice advocates a need for worldwide sharing of knowledge about ECT, reflection, and learning from each other's experiences. PMID:22741102

  13. Hostility and facial expression in young men and women: is social regulation more important than negative affect?

    PubMed

    Prkachin, Kenneth M; Silverman, Barbara E

    2002-01-01

    Behavioral differences may clarify the link between hostility and health. This study examined facial expression. Seventy-two low- and high-hostile undergraduates underwent the Type A Structured Interview (SI) and a test of social anxiety. Facial behavior was measured with the Facial Action Coding System. Low-hostile participants displayed non-Duchenne smiles more frequently than high-hostile participants during the SI. There were no group differences in the expression of disgust. The results identify differences in the nonverbal behavior of hostile people. Restricted use of non-Duchenne smiles may reflect limited use of appeasement, contributing to uncomfortable interpersonal relations and limited social support. The findings are consistent with a behavioral ecology perspective and suggest that social regulation may be as important as negative affect in determining the consequences of hostility.

  14. Women and cigarette smoking: does amount of weight gain following a failed quit attempt affect social disapproval?

    PubMed

    Knauss, Faye; Martz, Denise; Parker, Amy; Curtin, Lisa; Pai, Shilpa

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the perception of social attractiveness and approval of smoking in a vignette of an American college female smoker after a failed quit attempt. It was hypothesized that she would be perceived more favorably when she was smoking to control her weight, compared to a non-weight related excuse during a failed quit attempt. The design was a 2 (gender: male vs. female)x4 (condition: control, 5, 10, 20 lb gain)x3 (participants' smoking status: never, former, or current smoker) factorial design with the Social Attraction Index and Perception of Smoking Index as dependent variables. Contrary to the hypothesis, perceptions of the female were not affected by her disclosed amount of weight gain. However, consistent with the literature on stigmatization of smokers, smoking participants perceived the female target as most socially attractive and nonsmokers perceived her to be the least attractive. PMID:15833570

  15. Foreshock occurrence rates before large earthquakes worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Global rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured, using earthquakes listed in the Harvard CMT catalog for the period 1978-1996. These rates are similar to rates ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering, which is based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California, and were found to exceed the California model by a factor of approximately 2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, registered a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, measured a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have revealed low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggest the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich.

  16. Complicated intra-abdominal infections worldwide: the definitive data of the CIAOW Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The CIAOW study (Complicated intra-abdominal infections worldwide observational study) is a multicenter observational study underwent in 68 medical institutions worldwide during a six-month study period (October 2012-March 2013). The study included patients older than 18 years undergoing surgery or interventional drainage to address complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). 1898 patients with a mean age of 51.6 years (range 18-99) were enrolled in the study. 777 patients (41%) were women and 1,121 (59%) were men. Among these patients, 1,645 (86.7%) were affected by community-acquired IAIs while the remaining 253 (13.3%) suffered from healthcare-associated infections. Intraperitoneal specimens were collected from 1,190 (62.7%) of the enrolled patients. 827 patients (43.6%) were affected by generalized peritonitis while 1071 (56.4%) suffered from localized peritonitis or abscesses. The overall mortality rate was 10.5% (199/1898). According to stepwise multivariate analysis (PR = 0.005 and PE = 0.001), several criteria were found to be independent variables predictive of mortality, including patient age (OR = 1.1; 95%CI = 1.0-1.1; p < 0.0001), the presence of small bowel perforation (OR = 2.8; 95%CI = 1.5-5.3; p < 0.0001), a delayed initial intervention (a delay exceeding 24 hours) (OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.5-3.7; p < 0.0001), ICU admission (OR = 5.9; 95%CI = 3.6-9.5; p < 0.0001) and patient immunosuppression (OR = 3.8; 95%CI = 2.1-6.7; p < 0.0001). PMID:24883079

  17. Declarative verbal memory impairments in middle-aged women who are caregivers of offspring with autism spectrum disorders: The role of negative affect and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, A; González-Bono, E; Salvador, A; Moya-Albiol, L

    2016-01-01

    Caring for offspring diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is used in research as a model of chronic stress. This chronic stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory. Moreover, such cognitive decline may be mediated by testosterone (T) levels and negative affect, understood as depressive mood together with high anxiety and anger. This study aimed to compare declarative memory function in middle-aged women who were caregivers for individuals with ASD (n = 24; mean age = 45) and female controls (n = 22; mean age = 45), using a standardised memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). It also sought to examine the role of care recipient characteristics, negative mood and T levels in memory impairments. ASD caregivers were highly sensitive to proactive interference and verbal forgetting. In addition, they had higher negative affect and T levels, both of which have been associated with poorer verbal memory performance. Moreover, the number of years of caregiving affected memory performance and negative affect, especially, in terms of anger feelings. On the other hand, T levels in caregivers had a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance; that is, increases in T were associated with improvements in verbal memory performance up to a certain point, but subsequently, memory performance decreased with increasing T. Chronic stress may produce disturbances in mood and hormonal levels, which in turn might increase the likelihood of developing declarative memory impairments although caregivers do not show a generalised decline in memory. These findings should be taken into account for understanding the impact of cognitive impairments on the ability to provide optimal caregiving.

  18. Declarative verbal memory impairments in middle-aged women who are caregivers of offspring with autism spectrum disorders: The role of negative affect and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, A; González-Bono, E; Salvador, A; Moya-Albiol, L

    2016-01-01

    Caring for offspring diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is used in research as a model of chronic stress. This chronic stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory. Moreover, such cognitive decline may be mediated by testosterone (T) levels and negative affect, understood as depressive mood together with high anxiety and anger. This study aimed to compare declarative memory function in middle-aged women who were caregivers for individuals with ASD (n = 24; mean age = 45) and female controls (n = 22; mean age = 45), using a standardised memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). It also sought to examine the role of care recipient characteristics, negative mood and T levels in memory impairments. ASD caregivers were highly sensitive to proactive interference and verbal forgetting. In addition, they had higher negative affect and T levels, both of which have been associated with poorer verbal memory performance. Moreover, the number of years of caregiving affected memory performance and negative affect, especially, in terms of anger feelings. On the other hand, T levels in caregivers had a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance; that is, increases in T were associated with improvements in verbal memory performance up to a certain point, but subsequently, memory performance decreased with increasing T. Chronic stress may produce disturbances in mood and hormonal levels, which in turn might increase the likelihood of developing declarative memory impairments although caregivers do not show a generalised decline in memory. These findings should be taken into account for understanding the impact of cognitive impairments on the ability to provide optimal caregiving. PMID:25915711

  19. 1991 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book ia an authority for immediate information on the industry. You can use it to find new business, analyze market trends, and to stay in touch with existing contacts while making new ones. The possibilities for business applications are numerous. Arranged by country, all listings in the directory include address, phone, fax and telex numbers, a description of the company's activities, names of key personnel and their titles, corporate headquarters, branch offices and plant sites. This newly revised edition lists more than 2000 companies and nearly 3000 branch offices and plant locations. This east-to-use reference also includes several of the most vital and informative surveys of the industry, including the U.S. Refining Survey, the Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association.

  20. Model-based patterns in stomach cancer mortality worldwide.

    PubMed

    Peleteiro, Bárbara; Severo, Milton; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lunet, Nuno

    2014-11-01

    The decrease in stomach cancer mortality was not because of specific interventions, and is likely that different countries follow a similar model of variation. Here, we aimed to identify model-based patterns in the time trends of stomach cancer mortality worldwide. Stomach cancer mortality rates were retrieved for 62 countries from the WHO mortality database. Sex-specific mixed models were used to describe time trends in age-standardized rates between 1980 and 2010 (age group 35-74 years; World standard population). Three patterns, similar for men and women, were identified through model-based clustering. Pattern 1 presented the highest mortality rates in 1980 (median: men, 81.5/100 000; women, 34.4/100 000) and pattern 3 the lowest ones (median: men, 24.4/100 000; women, 12.4/100 000). The decrease in mortality rates was greater in 1980-1995 than during 1996-2010. Assuming that the patterns characterized by the highest rates precede temporally those with lower mortality, the overlap of model predictions supports a 20-year lag between adjacent patterns. We propose a model for the variation in stomach cancer mortality with three stages that develop sequentially through a period of ∼70 years. The countries with the lowest mortality had the highest proportional decrease in mortality rates.

  1. World-Wide Web: The Information Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berners-Lee, Tim; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the World-Wide Web (W3) project, which is designed to create a global information universe using techniques of hypertext, information retrieval, and wide area networking. Discussion covers the W3 data model, W3 architecture, the document naming scheme, protocols, document formats, comparison with other systems, experience with the W3…

  2. Bulletin Board Ideas: Worldwide Scientific Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Maurice K.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a bulletin board activity that identifies scientific phenomena occurring worldwide during the school year. A map of the world is marked with colored pins as students find news information of places and kind of event (e.g.; volcanoes, floods, crop failures, human epidemics). (CS)

  3. WorldWide Web: Hypertext from CERN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Gord

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of software tools for accessing information on the Internet focuses on the WorldWideWeb (WWW) system, which was developed at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland to build a worldwide network of hypertext links using available networking technology. Its potential for use with multimedia documents is also…

  4. 1979 Worldwide Adventure TravelGuide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    Guidebook descriptions of the 3000 worldwide adventure trips open to public participation include highlights, itinerary, level of experience necessary, requirements, location, duration, dates, cost, and addresses and telephone numbers of the operating organizations. The guidebook is organized in four major sections and, within each section, into…

  5. Equipment and services for worldwide applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The report presents a digest of geothermal energy technology. The worldwide distribution of geothermal resources is described, and the degree to which various countries are exploiting their resources estimated. Detailed information about US technologies is presented, from exploration through applications to cost factors. (ACR)

  6. World-wide distribution automation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  7. Expanding Worldwide Awareness of Creative Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellen, Hans G.; Urban, Klaus K.

    1989-01-01

    The article proposes the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production as an appropriate culture-fair assessment to identifying creative potential worldwide. Fifteen sample drawings of children from around the world, all based on the same original stimuli, are provided. (DB)

  8. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop genetic diversity is concentrated within specific geographic regions worldwide. While access to this diversity is critical to continued increases in agricultural productivity, the geopolitical significance of the geography of crop diversity has not been quantified. We assess the degree to which...

  9. Interleukin-6 -174G/C gene polymorphism affects muscle damage response to acute eccentric resistance exercise in elderly obese women.

    PubMed

    Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Prestes, Jonato; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira; Farias, Darlan L; Teixeira, Tatiane G; Vieira, Denis Cesar Leite; Souza, Vinícius C; Sousa, Nuno M F; Navalta, James W; Melo, Gislane F; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    The IL-6 gene polymorphism has been associated with disease prevalence and different physiological responses to exercise. Eccentric resistance exercise (ERE) is considered a nonpharmacological tool to prevent the chronic degenerative profile associated with aging and obesity. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism on acute interleukin-6 (IL-6) and creatine kinase (CK) temporal response to ERE in elderly obese women. Ninety women completed seven sets of ten repetitions (eccentric only) of an acute ERE session at 110% of the ten repetitions maximum (10RM). IL-6 genotypes displayed no difference at baseline. ERE induced changes in CK concentration over time occurred only in the GG group, F(2.619, 136.173)=5.199, p=0.003, with CK activity increased from 106.8±6.9 U/l pre-intervention to 122.7±11.2 U/l at 24 h and 131.9±14.4 U/l at 48 h post-exercise. IL-6 concentration in the GG group was lower than the CC/CG group only at 0 h post-exercise (3.78±0.58 pg/ml versus 6.51±1.91 pg/ml, p=0.030). Only the GG genotype group had higher CK activity 24-48 h following ERE and greater CK integral values, while IL-6 activity over 48 h was higher in the CC/CG genotype group. In conclusion, IL-6 genotype affects CK and IL-6 in response to ERE. It is of interest that the ERE protocol induced an elevation in CK, indicating possible muscle damage without exacerbating IL-6 and CK for the GG genotype.

  10. Lung cancer epidemiology: contemporary and future challenges worldwide.

    PubMed

    Didkowska, Joanna; Wojciechowska, Urszula; Mańczuk, Marta; Łobaszewski, Jakub

    2016-04-01

    Over the last century, lung cancer from the rarest of diseases became the biggest cancer killer of men worldwide and in some parts of the world also of women (North America, East Asia, Northern Europe, Australia and New Zealand). In 2012 over 1.6 million of people died due to lung cancer. The cause-effect relationship between tobacco smoking and lung cancer occurrence has been proven in many studies, both ecological and clinical. In global perspective one can see the increasing tobacco consumption trend followed by ascending trends of lung cancer mortality, especially in developing countries. In some more developed countries, where the tobacco epidemics was on the rise since the beginning of the 20th century and peaked in its mid, in male population lung cancer incidence trend reversed or leveled off. Despite predicted further decline of incidence rates, the absolute number of deaths will continue to grow in these countries. In the remaining parts of the world the tobacco epidemics is still evolving what brings rapid increase of the number of new lung cancer cases and deaths. Number of lung cancer deaths worldwide is expected to grow up to 3 million until 2035. The figures will double both in men (from 1.1 million in 2012 to 2.1 million in 2035) and women (from 0.5 million in 2012 to 0.9 million in 2035) and the two-fold difference between sexes will persist. The most rapid increase is expected in Africa region (AFRO) and East Mediterranean region (EMRO). The increase of the absolute number of lung cancer deaths in more developed countries is caused mostly by population aging and in less developed countries predominantly by the evolving tobacco epidemic.

  11. Lung cancer epidemiology: contemporary and future challenges worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowska, Urszula; Mańczuk, Marta; Łobaszewski, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Over the last century, lung cancer from the rarest of diseases became the biggest cancer killer of men worldwide and in some parts of the world also of women (North America, East Asia, Northern Europe, Australia and New Zealand). In 2012 over 1.6 million of people died due to lung cancer. The cause-effect relationship between tobacco smoking and lung cancer occurrence has been proven in many studies, both ecological and clinical. In global perspective one can see the increasing tobacco consumption trend followed by ascending trends of lung cancer mortality, especially in developing countries. In some more developed countries, where the tobacco epidemics was on the rise since the beginning of the 20th century and peaked in its mid, in male population lung cancer incidence trend reversed or leveled off. Despite predicted further decline of incidence rates, the absolute number of deaths will continue to grow in these countries. In the remaining parts of the world the tobacco epidemics is still evolving what brings rapid increase of the number of new lung cancer cases and deaths. Number of lung cancer deaths worldwide is expected to grow up to 3 million until 2035. The figures will double both in men (from 1.1 million in 2012 to 2.1 million in 2035) and women (from 0.5 million in 2012 to 0.9 million in 2035) and the two-fold difference between sexes will persist. The most rapid increase is expected in Africa region (AFRO) and East Mediterranean region (EMRO). The increase of the absolute number of lung cancer deaths in more developed countries is caused mostly by population aging and in less developed countries predominantly by the evolving tobacco epidemic. PMID:27195268

  12. Exploring the Universe with the Worldwide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Microsoft Research WorldWide Telescope is a software platform for exploring the universe. Whether you are a researcher, student or just a casual explorer WorldWide Telescope uses cutting edge technology to take you anywhere in the universe and visualize data collected by science programs from across the globe, including NASA great observatories and planetary probes. WWT leverages technologies such as Virtual reality headsets, multi-channel full dome projection and HTML5/WebGL to bring the WWT experience to any device and any scale. We will discuss how to use WWT to browse previously curated data, as well as how to process and visualize your own data, using examples from NASA Mars missions.

  13. Worldwide electricity consumption of communication networks.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Sofie; Van Heddeghem, Ward; Vereecken, Willem; Lannoo, Bart; Colle, Didier; Pickavet, Mario

    2012-12-10

    There is a growing research interest in improving the energy efficiency of communication networks. In order to assess the impact of introducing new energy efficient technologies, an up-to-date estimate for the global electricity consumption in communication networks is needed. In this paper we consider the use phase electricity consumption of telecom operator networks, office networks and customer premises equipment. Our results show that the network electricity consumption is growing fast, at a rate of 10 % per year, and its relative contribution to the total worldwide electricity consumption has increased from 1.3% in 2007 to 1.8% in 2012. We estimate the worldwide electricity consumption of communication networks will exceed 350 TWh in 2012.

  14. Data reprocessing on worldwide distributed systems

    SciTech Connect

    Diesburg, Mike; Wicke, Daniel; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The D0 experiment faces many challenges enabling access to large datasets for physicists on 4 continents. The strategy followed is to make use of worldwide distributed computing clusters. Since the begin of Tevatron Run-II (March 2001) all Monte-Carlo simulations are produced outside of Fermilab on remote systems. For analyses a system of regional analysis centres (RACs) was established which supply the associated institutes with the data. This structure which is similar to the Tier structure foreseen for LHC was used in autumn 2003 to reprocess all D0-data with the up-to-date and much improved reconstruction software. With these achievements D0 is the first high energy physics experiment to have implemented and operated all essential computing tasks on non-dedicated, worldwide distributed systems. The experiences gained in D0 can be applied to evaluate the LHC computing model.

  15. Data reprocessing on worldwide distributed systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wicke, Daniel; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The D0 experiment faces many challenges in terms of enabling access to large datasets for physicists on four continents. The strategy for solving these problems on worldwide distributed computing clusters is presented. Since the beginning of Run II of the Tevatron (March 2001) all Monte-Carlo simulations for the experiment have been produced at remote systems. For data analysis, a system of regional analysis centers (RACs) was established which supply the associated institutes with the data. This structure, which is similar to the tiered structure foreseen for the LHC was used in Fall 2003 to reprocess all D0 data with a much improved version of the reconstruction software. This makes D0 the first running experiment that has implemented and operated all important computing tasks of a high energy physics experiment on systems distributed worldwide.

  16. Integrating WorldWide Telescope with Wordpress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sands, Mark; Luebbert, J.; Fay, J.; Gay, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    In this project we unite three major components of astronomy and new media: World Wide Telescope, Wordpress, and user supplied audio. Through an easy to use Wordpress plug-in users can create WorldWide Telescope sky tours that allow: a) astronomers and educators to spread the facts and awareness of astronomy, potentially bringing new and interested individuals into the astronomy community; b) bloggers/podcasters to create dynamic, virtual tours of the universe that are nearly boundless; and, c) readers to benefit from the alluring WorldWide Telescope tours by gaining a new and dramatic outlook on our universe. This software has the potential to augment, and in some cases replace, traditional methods of astronomy centered online lectures. With this plugin, it is possible to combine Wordpress-based website content with audio, and a sky tour that can be paused at any object. This ability to pause a sky tour allows the user to further explore the wealth of data provided within WWT. This fully customizable solution includes all of the necessary features required to reproduce a lecture in a more creative and appealing format then some of the standard, typically non-interactive, movies and podcasts currently found online. Through the creation of effective WorldWide Telescope tours, astronomers and educators can better extend astronomy content to astronomy-interested, but not yet engaged, members of the new media community. These tours will provide a better understanding and appreciation for what our universe has to offer. Through this new media approach of integrating WorldWide Telescope with blogs and podcasts, users can now extend their interest in astronomy by exploring the universe themselves, moving beyond provided content to gain a better understanding all on their own.

  17. World-wide fallout from nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This video explains what is known and what is not known by today's science about the long term consequences of world-wide fallout. In the interest of accuracy, this report is confined to the fallout on which a substantial amount of information is now available. Much has been written and said about this subject both officially and unofficially. The purpose of this film is to correct any factually unsupported statements which have been and continue to be issued from time to time.

  18. Worldwide electricity used in data centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2008-07-01

    The direct electricity used by data centers has become an important issue in recent years as demands for new Internet services (such as search, music downloads, video-on-demand, social networking, and telephony) have become more widespread. This study estimates historical electricity used by data centers worldwide and regionally on the basis of more detailed data than were available for previous assessments, including electricity used by servers, data center communications, and storage equipment. Aggregate electricity use for data centers doubled worldwide from 2000 to 2005. Three quarters of this growth was the result of growth in the number of the least expensive (volume) servers. Data center communications and storage equipment each contributed about 10% of the growth. Total electricity use grew at an average annual rate of 16.7% per year, with the Asia Pacific region (without Japan) being the only major world region with growth significantly exceeding that average. Direct electricity used by information technology equipment in data centers represented about 0.5% of total world electricity consumption in 2005. When electricity for cooling and power distribution is included, that figure is about 1%. Worldwide data center power demand in 2005 was equivalent (in capacity terms) to about seventeen 1000 MW power plants.

  19. Women's labour and economic globalisation: a participatory workshop created by Alternative Women in Development (Alt-WID).

    PubMed

    Barton, C; Nazombei, E

    2000-03-01

    This article describes the aims, methods, materials and topics used in a participatory workshop created by Alternative Women in Development. The organization aims to bridge the gaps in analyzing human rights and economic justice in both North and South from a feminist perspective through a workshop. This workshop considers the varied roles that women play in the global economy and features a series of anecdotes to illustrate the diverse ways in which globalization affects women in all regions worldwide. The workshop runs for a minimum of 3 hours and is structured as follows: introduction; plenary: identifying the human rights of the women; small-group work, plenary: building a group analysis and discussion of alternatives to the existing policies; and individual and plenary evaluations. Furthermore, four anecdotes used at the workshop are presented. Among the outcomes of the workshop included the identification of the problem causes and development of strategies for action.

  20. GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism and GSTM1 deletion do not affect selenium and mercury status in mildly exposed Amazonian women in an urban population.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ariana V; Rita Cardoso, Bárbara; Zavarize, Bruna; Almondes, Kaluce; Bordon, Isabella; Hare, Dominic J; Teixeira Favaro, Déborah Inês; Franciscato Cozzolino, Silvia Maria

    2016-11-15

    Mercury is potent toxicant element, but its toxicity can be reduced by forming a complex with selenium for safe excretion. Considering the impact of mercury exposure in the Amazon region and the possible interaction between these two elements, we aimed to assess the effects of Pro198Leu polymorphism to GPX1 and GSTM1 deletion, on mercury levels in a population from Porto Velho, an urban locality in the Brazilian Amazon region. Two hundred women from the capital city of Rondônia state were recruited for this study with 149 deemed suitable to participate. We assessed dietary intake using 24-hour recall. Selenium levels in plasma and erythrocytes were measured using hydride generation quartz tube atomic absorption spectroscopy and total hair mercury using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Oxidative stress parameters (GPx activity, oxygen radical absorbency capacity [ORAC] and malondialdehyde [MDA]) were also analyzed. All participants were genotyped for Pro198Leu polymorphism and GSTM1 deletion. We observed that this population presented high prevalence of selenium deficiency, and also low levels of mercury, likely due to food habits that did not include selenium-rich food sources or significant consumption of fish (mercury biomagnifiers) regularly. Univariate statistical analysis showed that Pro198Leu and GSTM1 genotypes did not affect selenium and mercury levels in this population. Pro198Leu polymorphism and GSTM1 deletion had no effect on mercury levels in mildly exposed people, suggesting these genetic variants impact mercury levels only in highly exposed populations. PMID:27450956

  1. World-wide fallout from nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This video explains what is known and what is not known by today`s science about the long term consequences of world-wide fallout. In the interest of accuracy, this report is confined to the fallout on which a substantial amount of information is now available. Much has been written and said about this subject both officially and unofficially. The purpose of this film is to correct any factually unsupported statements which have been and continue to be issued from time to time.

  2. The Relationship between the Proportion of Same-Major Friendships and Academic and Affective Outcomes for Women and Men in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Casey Ann Eznekier

    2011-01-01

    The importance of gender equity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has continued to be an area of national concern. Research examining women's experiences in STEM has highlighted several factors, both at the student- and institutional-level, that contribute to women's continued underrepresentation in STEM, especially in…

  3. Treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism does not affect bone mass as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, peripheral quantitative computed tomography and quantitative bone ultrasound in Spanish women

    PubMed Central

    Roncero-Martin, Raul; Calderon-Garcia, Julian F.; Santos-Vivas, Mercedes; Vera, Vicente; Martínez-Alvárez, Mariana; Rey-Sanchez, Purificación

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The results of studies examining the influence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement therapy on bone have generated considerable interest but also controversy. The present research aims to evaluate the effects of L-T4 treatment on different skeletal sites in women. Material and methods A group of 45 premenopausal (mean age: 43.62 ±6.65 years) and 180 postmenopausal (mean age: 59.51 ±7.90 years) women with SCH who were undergoing L-T4 replacement therapy for at least 6 months were compared to 58 pre- and 180 postmenopausal women with SCH (untreated) matched for age. The mean doses of L-T4 were 90.88 ±42.59 µg/day in the premenopausal women and 86.35 ±34.11 µg/day in the postmenopausal women. Bone measurements were obtained using quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) for the phalanx, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the lumbar spine and hip, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) for the non-dominant distal forearm. Results No differences were observed between patients and untreated controls in these bone measurements except in the bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine (p = 0.0214) in postmenopausal women, which was greater in treated women than in untreated controls. Conclusions Our results indicate that adequate metabolic control through replacement treatment with L-T4 in pre- and postmenopausal women does not affect bone mass. PMID:26528344

  4. Minority Women and Advocacy for Women's Health

    PubMed Central

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Morssink, Christiaan B.; Nestle, Marion

    2001-01-01

    US minority health issues involve racial/ethnic disparities that affect both women and men. However, women's health advocacy in the United States does not consistently address problems specific to minority women. The underlying evolution and political strength of the women's health and minority health movements differ profoundly. Women of color comprise only one quarter of women's health movement constituents and are, on average, socioeconomically disadvantaged. Potential alliances may be inhibited by vestiges of historical racial and social divisions that detract from feelings of commonality and mutual support. Nevertheless, insufficient attention to minority women's issues undermines the legitimacy of the women's health movement and may prevent important advances that can be achieved only when diversity is fully considered. PMID:11527764

  5. Minority women and advocacy for women's health.

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, S K; Morssink, C B; Nestle, M

    2001-09-01

    US minority health issues involve racial/ethnic disparities that affect both women and men. However, women's health advocacy in the United States does not consistently address problems specific to minority women. The underlying evolution and political strength of the women's health and minority health movements differ profoundly. Women of color comprise only one quarter of women's health movement constituents and are, on average, socioeconomically disadvantaged. Potential alliances may be inhibited by vestiges of historical racial and social divisions that detract from feelings of commonality and mutual support. Nevertheless, insufficient attention to minority women's issues undermines the legitimacy of the women's health movement and may prevent important advances that can be achieved only when diversity is fully considered.

  6. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  7. Worldwide practice in gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brenkman, Hylke JF; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the current status of gastric cancer surgery worldwide. METHODS: An international cross-sectional survey on gastric cancer surgery was performed amongst international upper gastro-intestinal surgeons. All surgical members of the International Gastric Cancer Association were invited by e-mail to participate. An English web-based survey had to be filled in with regard to their surgical preferences. Questions asked included hospital volume, the use of neoadjuvant treatment, preferred surgical approach, extent of the lymphadenectomy and preferred anastomotic technique. The invitations were sent in September 2013 and the survey was closed in January 2014. RESULTS: The corresponding specific response rate was 227/615 (37%). The majority of respondents: originated from Asia (54%), performed > 21 gastrectomies per year (79%) and used neoadjuvant chemotherapy (73%). An open surgical procedure was performed by the majority of surgeons for distal gastrectomy for advanced cancer (91%) and total gastrectomy for both early and advanced cancer (52% and 94%). A minimally invasive procedure was preferred for distal gastrectomy for early cancer (65%). In Asia surgeons preferred a minimally invasive procedure for total gastrectomy for early cancer also (63%). A D1+ lymphadenectomy was preferred in early gastric cancer (52% for distal, 54% for total gastrectomy) and a D2 lymphadenectomy was preferred in advanced gastric cancer (93% for distal, 92% for total gastrectomy) CONCLUSION: Surgical preferences for gastric cancer surgery vary between surgeons worldwide. Although the majority of surgeons use neoadjuvant chemotherapy, minimally invasive techniques are still not widely adapted. PMID:27099448

  8. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.

  9. Worldwide variability in deceased organ donation registries

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Amanda M; Li, Alvin Ho-Ting; Roels, Leo; Stewart, Bryan; Prakash, Versha; Beitel, Janice; Young, Kimberly; Shemie, Sam; Nickerson, Peter; Garg, Amit X

    2012-01-01

    The variability in deceased organ donation registries worldwide has received little attention. We considered all operating registries, where individual wishes about organ donation were recorded in a computerized database. We included registries which recorded an individual's decision to be a donor (donor registry), and registries which only recorded an individual's objection (non-donor registry). We collected information on 15 characteristics including history, design, use and number of registrants for 27 registries (68%). Most registries are nationally operated and government-owned. Registrations in five nations expire and require renewal. Some registries provide the option to make specific organ selections in the donation decision. Just over half of donor registries provide legally binding authorization to donation. In all national donor registries, except one, the proportion of adults (15+) registered is modest (<40%). These proportions can be even lower when only affirmative decisions are considered. One nation provides priority status on the transplant waiting list as an incentive to affirmative registration, while another nation makes registering a donation decision mandatory to obtain a driver's license. Registered objections in non-donor registries are rare (<0.5%). The variation in organ donor registries worldwide necessitates public discourse and quality improvement initiatives, to identify and support leading practices in registry use. PMID:22507140

  10. Worldwide status of burbot and conservation measures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Jackson, James R.; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Evenson, Matthew J.; Neufeld, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Although burbot (Lota lota Gadidae) are widespread and abundant throughout much of their natural range, there are many populations that have been extirpated, endangered or are in serious decline. Due in part to the species’ lack of popularity as a game and commercial fish, few regions consider burbot in management plans. We review the worldwide population status of burbot and synthesize reasons why some burbot populations are endangered or declining, some burbot populations have recovered and some burbot populations do not recover despite management measures. Burbot have been extirpated in much of Western Europe and the United Kingdom and are threatened or endangered in much of North America and Eurasia. Pollution and habitat change, particularly the effects of dams, appear to be the main causes for declines in riverine burbot populations. Pollution and the adverse effects of invasive species appear to be the main reasons for declines in lacustrine populations. Warmer water temperatures, due either to discharge from dams or climate change, have been noted in declining burbot populations at the southern extent of their range. Currently, fishing pressure does not appear to be limiting burbot populations world-wide. We suggest mitigation measures for burbot population recovery, particularly those impacted by dams and invasive species.

  11. Estimating the worldwide extent of illegal fishing.

    PubMed

    Agnew, David J; Pearce, John; Pramod, Ganapathiraju; Peatman, Tom; Watson, Reg; Beddington, John R; Pitcher, Tony J

    2009-01-01

    Illegal and unreported fishing contributes to overexploitation of fish stocks and is a hindrance to the recovery of fish populations and ecosystems. This study is the first to undertake a world-wide analysis of illegal and unreported fishing. Reviewing the situation in 54 countries and on the high seas, we estimate that lower and upper estimates of the total value of current illegal and unreported fishing losses worldwide are between $10 bn and $23.5 bn annually, representing between 11 and 26 million tonnes. Our data are of sufficient resolution to detect regional differences in the level and trend of illegal fishing over the last 20 years, and we can report a significant correlation between governance and the level of illegal fishing. Developing countries are most at risk from illegal fishing, with total estimated catches in West Africa being 40% higher than reported catches. Such levels of exploitation severely hamper the sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Although there have been some successes in reducing the level of illegal fishing in some areas, these developments are relatively recent and follow growing international focus on the problem. This paper provides the baseline against which successful action to curb illegal fishing can be judged.

  12. [Domestic violence against women and the role of the obstetrician/gynecologist].

    PubMed

    Rabinerson, David; Pollak-Rabinerson, Nataly; Glezerman, Marek

    2006-10-01

    Domestic violence against women is a worldwide phenomenon affecting women of all age groups and socio-economic backgrounds. It may take the form of mental, as well as physical or sexual abuse. Pregnant women are not excluded from being abused. The physical and mental health of women who suffer domestic violence is compromised in comparison with women who are not subjected to violence. These women are reluctant to report their problem to physicians and they, in turn, do not sufficiently investigate the possibility of exposure to domestic violence with their patients. In Israel there is comprehensive protective legislation concerning domestic violence against women and a developed welfare system managed by social workers. Nevertheless, the efforts to protect and help these women will remain futile without early recognition, identification and referral of such women by the attending physicians. Among physicians, the obstetrician/gynecologists have a unique role, since on many occasions they serve as the primary care physicians of women who suffer from domestic violence. They are therefore able to recognize and offer help to these women.

  13. A low glycemic index diet does not affect postprandial energy metabolism but decreases postprandial insulinemia and increases fullness ratings in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Krog-Mikkelsen, Inger; Sloth, Birgitte; Dimitrov, Dimiter; Tetens, Inge; Björck, Inger; Flint, Anne; Holst, Jens J; Astrup, Arne; Elmståhl, Helena; Raben, Anne

    2011-09-01

    At present, it is difficult to determine whether glycemic index (GI) is an important tool in the prevention of lifestyle diseases, and long-term studies investigating GI with diets matched in macronutrient composition, fiber content, energy content, and energy density are still scarce. We investigated the effects of 2 high-carbohydrate (55%) diets with low GI (LGI; 79) or high GI (HGI; 103) on postprandial blood profile, subjective appetite sensations, energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation rates, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) from a corresponding test meal (LGI or HGI) after consuming the diets ad libitum for 10 wk. Two groups of a total of 29 healthy, overweight women (age: 30.5 ± 6.6 y; BMI: 27.6 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)) participated in the 10-wk intervention and a subsequent 4-h meal test. The breakfast test meals differed in GI but were equal in total energy, macronutrient composition, fiber content, and energy density. The LGI meal resulted in lower plasma glucose, serum insulin, and plasma glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and higher plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations than the HGI meal (P ≤ 0.05). Ratings of fullness were slightly higher and the desire to eat something fatty was lower after the test meal in the LGI group (P < 0.05). Postprandial plasma GLP-2, plasma glucagon, serum leptin, plasma ghrelin, EE, substrate oxidation rates, and ad libitum EI at lunch did not differ between groups. In conclusion, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and subjective appetite ratings after a test meal were better after 10-wk ad libitum intake of a LGI compared to a HGI diet. EE and substrate oxidation rates were, however, not affected. These findings give some support to recommendations to consume a LGI diet. PMID:21775528

  14. Perspectives on menopause and women with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Andany, Nisha; Kennedy, V Logan; Aden, Muna; Loutfy, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Since the implementation of effective combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection has been transformed from a life-threatening condition into a chronic disease. As people with HIV are living longer, aging and its associated manifestations have become key priorities as part of HIV care. For women with HIV, menopause is an important part of aging to consider. Women currently represent more than one half of HIV-positive individuals worldwide. Given the vast proportion of women living with HIV who are, and will be, transitioning through age-related life events, the interaction between HIV infection and menopause must be addressed by clinicians and researchers. Menopause is a major clinical event that is universally experienced by women, but affects each individual woman uniquely. This transitional time in women’s lives has various clinical implications including physical and psychological symptoms, and accelerated development and progression of other age-related comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease, neurocognitive dysfunction, and bone mineral disease; all of which are potentially heightened by HIV or its treatment. Furthermore, within the context of HIV, there are the additional considerations of HIV acquisition and transmission risk, progression of infection, changes in antiretroviral pharmacokinetics, response, and toxicities. These menopausal manifestations and complications must be managed concurrently with HIV, while keeping in mind the potential influence of menopause on the prognosis of HIV infection itself. This results in additional complexity for clinicians caring for women living with HIV, and highlights the shifting paradigm in HIV care that must accompany this aging and evolving population. PMID:26834498

  15. Climate Change Impacts on Worldwide Coffee Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, T.; Rising, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) plays a vital role in many countries' economies, providing necessary income to 25 million members of tropical countries, and supporting a $81 billion industry, making it one of the most valuable commodities in the world. At the same time, coffee is at the center of many issues of sustainability. It is vulnerable to climate change, with disease outbreaks becoming more common and suitable regions beginning to shift. We develop a statistical production model for coffee which incorporates temperature, precipitation, frost, and humidity effects using a new database of worldwide coffee production. We then use this model to project coffee yields and production into the future based on a variety of climate forecasts. This model can then be used together with a market model to forecast the locations of future coffee production as well as future prices, supply, and demand.

  16. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    PubMed Central

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments. PMID:25126940

  17. Worldwide patterns of bird colouration on islands.

    PubMed

    Doutrelant, Claire; Paquet, Matthieu; Renoult, Julien P; Grégoire, Arnaud; Crochet, Pierre-André; Covas, Rita

    2016-05-01

    Island environments share distinctive characteristics that offer unique opportunities to investigate parallel evolution. Previous research has produced evidence of an island syndrome for morphological traits, life-history strategies and ecological niches, but little is known about the response to insularity of other important traits such as animal signals. Here, we tested whether birds' plumage colouration is part of the island syndrome. We analysed with spectrophotometry the colouration of 116 species endemic to islands and their 116 closest mainland relatives. We found a pattern of reduced brightness and colour intensity for both sexes on islands. In addition, we found a decrease in the number of colour patches on islands that, in males, was associated with a decrease in the number of same-family sympatric species. These results demonstrate a worldwide pattern of parallel colour changes on islands and suggest that a relaxation of selection on species recognition may be one of the mechanisms involved.

  18. Visually Exploring Worldwide Incidents Tracking System Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chhatwal, Shree D.; Rose, Stuart J.

    2008-01-27

    This paper presents refinements of an existing analytic tool, Juxter, which was developed for the visualization of multi-dimensional categorical data, and explores its application to support exploration and interaction with open source Worldwide Incidents Tracking System (WITS) data. The volume and complexity of data available on terrorism makes it hard to analyze. Information systems that can efficiently and effectively collect, access, analyze, and report terrorist incidents can help in further studies focused on preventing, detecting, and responding to terrorist attacks. Existing interfaces to the WITS data support advanced search capabilities, and geolocation but lack functionality for identifying patterns and trends. To better support efficient browsing we have refined Juxter’s existing capabilities for filtering, selecting, and sorting elements and categories within the visualization.

  19. World-wide aeronautical satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Peter; Smith, Keith

    1988-01-01

    INMARSAT decided to expand the spectrum covered by its new generation of satellites, INMARSAT-2, to include 1 MHz (subsequently increased to 3 MHz) of the spectrum designed for aeronautical use. It began a design study that led to the specifications for the system that is now being implemented. Subsequently, INMARSAT awarded contracts for the design of avionics and high gain antennas to a number of manufactures, while several of the signatories that provide ground equipment for communicating with the INMARSAT satellites are modifying their earth stations to work with the avionic equipment. As a resullt of these activities, a world-wide aeronautical satellite system supporting both voice and data will become operational in 1989.

  20. CMS Centres Worldwide - a New Collaborative Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lucas

    2011-12-01

    The CMS Experiment at the LHC has established a network of more than fifty inter-connected "CMS Centres" at CERN and in institutes in the Americas, Asia, Australasia, and Europe. These facilities are used by people doing CMS detector and computing grid operations, remote shifts, data quality monitoring and analysis, as well as education and outreach. We present the computing, software, and collaborative tools and videoconferencing systems. These include permanently running "telepresence" video links (hardware-based H.323, EVO and Vidyo), Webcasts, and generic Web tools such as CMS-TV for broadcasting live monitoring and outreach information. Being Web-based and experiment-independent, these systems could easily be extended to other organizations. We describe the experiences of using CMS Centres Worldwide in the CMS data-taking operations as well as for major media events with several hundred TV channels, radio stations, and many more press journalists simultaneously around the world.

  1. Cell therapy worldwide: an incipient revolution.

    PubMed

    Rao, Mahendra; Mason, Chris; Solomon, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The regenerative medicine field is large, diverse and active worldwide. A variety of different organizational and product models have been successful, and pioneering entrepreneurs have shown both what can work and, critically, what does not. Evolving regulations, novel funding mechanisms combined with new technological breakthroughs are keeping the field in a state of flux. The field struggles to cope with the lack of infrastructure and investment, it nevertheless has evolved from its roots in human stem cell therapy and tissue and organ transplants to a field composed of a variety of products from multiple cell sources with approval for use in numerous countries. Currently, tens of thousands of patients have been treated with some kind of cell therapy. PMID:25835482

  2. Worldwide clustering of the corruption perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, Michal; Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-06-01

    We inspect a possible clustering structure of the corruption perception among 134 countries. Using the average linkage clustering, we uncover a well-defined hierarchy in the relationships among countries. Four main clusters are identified and they suggest that countries worldwide can be quite well separated according to their perception of corruption. Moreover, we find a strong connection between corruption levels and a stage of development inside the clusters. The ranking of countries according to their corruption perfectly copies the ranking according to the economic performance measured by the gross domestic product per capita of the member states. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one to present an application of hierarchical and clustering methods to the specific case of corruption.

  3. Landfill aeration worldwide: Concepts, indications and findings

    SciTech Connect

    Ritzkowski, M.; Stegmann, R.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different landfill aeration concepts and accordant application areas are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examples of full scale projects are provided for Europe, North-America and Asia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Major project findings are summarised, including prospects and limitations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inconsistencies between laboratory and full scale results have been elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An explanatory approach in connection with the inconsistencies is provided. - Abstract: The creation of sustainable landfills is a fundamental goal in waste management worldwide. In this connection landfill aeration contributes towards an accelerated, controlled and sustainable conversion of conventional anaerobic landfills into a biological stabilized state associated with a minimised emission potential. The technology has been successfully applied to landfills in Europe, North America and Asia, following different strategies depending on the geographical region, the specific legislation and the available financial resources. Furthermore, methodologies for the incorporation of landfill aeration into the carbon trade mechanisms have been developed in recent years. This manuscript gives an overview on existing concepts for landfill aeration; their application ranges and specifications. For all of the described concepts examples from different countries worldwide are provided, including details regarding their potentials and limitations. Some of the most important findings from these aeration projects are summarised and future research needs have been identified. It becomes apparent that there is a great demand for a systematisation of the available results and implications in order to further develop and optimise this very promising technology. The IWWG (International Waste Working Group) Task Group 'Landfill Aeration' contributes towards the achievement of this goal.

  4. Measuring domestic violence in human immunodeficiency virus-positive women

    PubMed Central

    Patrikar, Seema; Verma, AK; Bhatti, VK; Shatabdi, S

    2012-01-01

    Background Violence affects the lives of millions of women worldwide, in all socioeconomic classes. Violence and the fear of violence are emerging as important risk factor contributing to the vulnerability to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection for women. The objective of the present cross sectional study is to compare the experiences of domestic violence between HIV-positive and HIV-negative married women seeking treatment in a tertiary care hospital. Methods The study is conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Pune on a randomly selected 150 married women (75 HIV-positive and 75 HIV-negative). Informed consent was obtained from all the women and also a trained counsellor was present during the process of data collection. The data was collected by interview method by taking precautions as laid down in the World Health Organization's ethical and safety recommendations for research on domestic violence and using modified conflict tactics scale (CTS). The definition of violence followed is as per the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1993. Results The percentage of women reporting domestic violence is 44.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 36.84–52.68). The proportion of physical, emotional and sexual violence reported is 38% (95% CI = 30.49–45.96), 24% (95% CI = 17.67–31.31), and 14.7% (95% CI = 9.66–21.02), respectively. The odds of reporting violence of all forms is significantly higher among HIV-positive women than among HIV-negative women (P<0.05). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression is carried out to examine the possible predictors of domestic violence. Conclusion The findings suggest high proportion of HIV-positive women report violence then HIV-negative women which must be addressed through multilevel prevention approaches. PMID:24669053

  5. Women and political representation.

    PubMed

    Rathod, P B

    1999-01-01

    A remarkable progress in women's participation in politics throughout the world was witnessed in the final decade of the 20th century. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union report, there were only eight countries with no women in their legislatures in 1998. The number of women ministers at the cabinet level worldwide doubled in a decade, and the number of countries without any women ministers dropped from 93 to 48 during 1987-96. However, this progress is far from satisfactory. Political representation of women, minorities, and other social groups is still inadequate. This may be due to a complex combination of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional factors. The view that women's political participation increases with social and economic development is supported by data from the Nordic countries, where there are higher proportions of women legislators than in less developed countries. While better levels of socioeconomic development, having a women-friendly political culture, and higher literacy are considered favorable factors for women's increased political representation, adopting one of the proportional representation systems (such as a party-list system, a single transferable vote system, or a mixed proportional system with multi-member constituencies) is the single factor most responsible for the higher representation of women.

  6. Outlook on a Worldwide Forest Transition

    PubMed Central

    Pagnutti, Chris; Bauch, Chris T.; Anand, Madhur

    2013-01-01

    It is not clear whether a worldwide “forest transition” to net reforestation will ever occur, and the need to address the main driver–agriculture–is compelling. We present a mathematical model of land use dynamics based on the world food equation that explains historical trends in global land use on the millennial scale. The model predicts that a global forest transition only occurs under a small and very specific range of parameter values (and hence seems unlikely) but if it does occur, it would have to occur within the next 70 years. In our baseline scenario, global forest cover continues to decline until it stabilizes within the next two centuries at 22% of global land cover, and wild pasture at 1.4%. Under other scenarios the model predicts unanticipated dynamics wherein a forest transition may relapse, heralding a second era of deforestation; this brings into question national-level forest transitions observed in recent decades, and suggests we need to expand our lexicon of possibilities beyond the simple “forest transition/no forest transition” dichotomy. This research also underscores that the challenge of feeding a growing population while conserving natural habitat will likely continue for decades to come. PMID:24130750

  7. CMS centres worldwide: A new collaborative infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Lucas; Gottschalk, Erik; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Experiment at the LHC is establishing a global network of inter-connected 'CMS Centres' for controls, operations and monitoring. These support: (1) CMS data quality monitoring, detector calibrations, and analysis; and (2) computing operations for the processing, storage and distribution of CMS data. We describe the infrastructure, computing, software, and communications systems required to create an effective and affordable CMS Centre. We present our highly successful operations experiences with the major CMS Centres at CERN, Fermilab, and DESY during the LHC first beam data-taking and cosmic ray commissioning work. The status of the various centres already operating or under construction in Asia, Europe, Russia, South America, and the USA is also described. We emphasise the collaborative communications aspects. For example, virtual co-location of experts in CMS Centres Worldwide is achieved using high-quality permanently-running 'telepresence' video links. Generic Web-based tools have been developed and deployed for monitoring, control, display management and outreach.

  8. Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we have expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g. starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy.

  9. Small world picture of worldwide seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Douglas S. R.; Papa, Andrés R. R.; Menezes, Ronaldo

    2014-08-01

    The understanding of long-distance relations between seismic activities has for long been of interest to seismologists and geologists. In this paper we have used data from the worldwide earthquake catalog for the period between 1972 and 2011 to generate a network of sites around the world for earthquakes with magnitude m≥4.5 in the Richter scale. After the network construction, we have analyzed the results under two viewpoints. First, in contrast to previous works, which have considered just small areas, we showed that the best fitting for networks of seismic events is not a pure power law, but a power law with exponential cutoff; we also have found that the global network presents small-world properties. Second, we have found that the time intervals between successive earthquakes have a cumulative probability distribution well fitted by nontraditional functional forms. The implications of our results are significant because they seem to indicate that seisms around the world are not independent. In this paper we provide evidence to support this argument.

  10. Reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Fiorentini, Giovanni; Mantovani, Fabio; Ricci, Barbara; Strati, Virginia; Xhixha, Gerti

    2015-03-01

    Antineutrinos produced at nuclear reactors constitute a severe source of background for the detection of geoneutrinos, which bring to the Earth's surface information about natural radioactivity in the whole planet. In this framework, we provide a reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors, in view of reactors operational records yearly published by the International Atomic Energy Agency. We evaluate the expected signal from commercial reactors for ongoing (KamLAND and Borexino), planned (SNO +), and proposed (Juno, RENO-50, LENA, and Hanohano) experimental sites. Uncertainties related to reactor antineutrino production, propagation, and detection processes are estimated using a Monte Carlo-based approach, which provides an overall site-dependent uncertainty on the signal in the geoneutrino energy window on the order of 3%. We also implement the off-equilibrium correction to the reference reactor spectra associated with the long-lived isotopes, and we estimate a 2.4% increase of the unoscillated event rate in the geoneutrino energy window due to the storage of spent nuclear fuels in the cooling pools. We predict that the research reactors contribute to less than 0.2% to the commercial reactor signal in the investigated 14 sites. We perform a multitemporal analysis of the expected reactor signal over a time lapse of ten years using reactor operational records collected in a comprehensive database published at www.fe.infn.it/antineutrino.

  11. Registries in systemic sclerosis: a worldwide experience.

    PubMed

    Galluccio, Felice; Walker, Ulrich A; Nihtyanova, Svetlana; Moinzadeh, Pia; Hunzelmann, Nicholas; Krieg, Thomas; Steen, Virginia; Baron, Murray; Sampaio-Barros, Percival; Kayser, Cristiane; Nash, Peter; Denton, Chris P; Tyndall, Alan; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco

    2011-01-01

    SSc is a multisystem disease characterized by an unpredictable course, high mortality and resistance to therapy. The complexity and severity of SSc is a growing burden on the health-care systems. As a result, researchers are seeking new therapeutic strategies for effectively managing these patients. Disease registries are used to support care management efforts for groups of patients with chronic diseases and are meaningful to capture and track key patient information to assist the physicians in managing patients. For these reasons, SSc surveys, research associations and consortiums are pivotal to conduct ongoing research and data collection to enhance disease knowledge and support research projects. Currently, there are several national SSc registries in the UK, Germany, USA, Canada, Brazil and Australia. There is also an international registry established by the European League Against Rheumatism scleroderma trial and research (EUSTAR) called minimal essential data set (MEDS) Online, which collects data from over 8000 patients from 92 centres worldwide, including 21 European centres and 9 centres outside Europe. By collecting, analysing and disseminating data on disease progression and patient responses to long-term disease management strategies, registries help to improve understanding of the disease and keep medical professionals up to date on the latest advances. PMID:21148153

  12. Outlook on a worldwide forest transition.

    PubMed

    Pagnutti, Chris; Bauch, Chris T; Anand, Madhur

    2013-01-01

    It is not clear whether a worldwide "forest transition" to net reforestation will ever occur, and the need to address the main driver--agriculture--is compelling. We present a mathematical model of land use dynamics based on the world food equation that explains historical trends in global land use on the millennial scale. The model predicts that a global forest transition only occurs under a small and very specific range of parameter values (and hence seems unlikely) but if it does occur, it would have to occur within the next 70 years. In our baseline scenario, global forest cover continues to decline until it stabilizes within the next two centuries at 22% of global land cover, and wild pasture at 1.4%. Under other scenarios the model predicts unanticipated dynamics wherein a forest transition may relapse, heralding a second era of deforestation; this brings into question national-level forest transitions observed in recent decades, and suggests we need to expand our lexicon of possibilities beyond the simple "forest transition/no forest transition" dichotomy. This research also underscores that the challenge of feeding a growing population while conserving natural habitat will likely continue for decades to come. PMID:24130750

  13. Worldwide Phylogenetic Relationship of Avian Poxviruses

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups, and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g., starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy. PMID:23408635

  14. Worldwide Geomagnetic Data Collection and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, Mioara; Papitashvili, Vladimir

    2009-11-01

    Geomagnetic data provided by different platforms piece together a global picture of Earth's magnetic field and its interaction with geospace. Furthermore, a great diversity of the geomagnetic field changes, from secular (over decades to centuries) to short time variations (down to minutes and seconds), can be detected only through continued observations. An international effort to watch and record geomagnetic changes first began in the 1830s with a network of scientific observers organized by Karl Friedrich Gauss in Germany, and this effort has continued since then. One of the most remarkable achievements in understanding the geomagnetic field morphology and time behavior was made possible by the International Geophysical Year (IGY), an exploration and research effort that lasted for 18 months, starting on 1 July 1957. The IGY encompassed 11 geoscience disciplines, including geomagnetism. The IGY has represented a giant step forward in the quality and quantity of worldwide geomagnetic measurements, as well as in the widespread interest in magnetic measurements. A half century of probing the geomagnetic field spatial and temporal variations has produced a number of outstanding results, and the interested reader can find recent reviews on various geomagnetic field topics (from measurements to modeling) in Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism [Gubbins and Herrero-Bervera, 2007] or Treatise on Geophysics: Geomagnetism [Kono, 2007].

  15. Worldwide Genetic Analysis of the CFTR Region

    PubMed Central

    Mateu, Eva; Calafell, Francesc; Lao, Oscar; Bonné-Tamir, Batsheva; Kidd, Judith R.; Pakstis, Andrew; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2001-01-01

    Mutations at the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis, the most prevalent severe genetic disorder in individuals of European descent. We have analyzed normal allele and haplotype variation at four short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CFTR in 18 worldwide population samples, comprising a total of 1,944 chromosomes. The rooted phylogeny of the SNP haplotypes was established by typing ape samples. STRP variation within SNP haplotype backgrounds was highest in most ancestral haplotypes—although, when STRP allele sizes were taken into account, differences among haplotypes became smaller. Haplotype background determines STRP diversity to a greater extent than populations do, which indicates that haplotype backgrounds are older than populations. Heterogeneity among STRPs can be understood as the outcome of differences in mutation rate and pattern. STRP sites had higher heterozygosities in Africans, although, when whole haplotypes were considered, no significant differences remained. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) shows a complex pattern not easily related to physical distance. The analysis of the fraction of possible different haplotypes not found may circumvent some of the methodological difficulties of LD measure. LD analysis showed a positive correlation with locus polymorphism, which could partly explain the unusual pattern of similar LD between Africans and non-Africans. The low values found in non-Africans may imply that the size of the modern human population that emerged “Out of Africa” may be larger than what previous LD studies suggested. PMID:11104661

  16. Worldwide Spread of Dengue Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Villabona-Arenas, Christian Julián; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Background DENV-1 is one of the four viral serotypes that causes Dengue, the most common mosquito-borne viral disease of humans. The prevalence of these viruses has grown in recent decades and is now present in more than 100 countries. Limited studies document the spread of DENV-1 over the world despite its importance for human health. Methodology/Principal Findings We used representative DENV-1 envelope gene sequences to unravel the dynamics of viral diffusion under a Bayesian phylogeographic approach. Data included strains from 45 distinct geographic locations isolated from 1944 to 2009. The estimated mean rate of nucleotide substitution was 6.56×10−4 substitutions/site/year. The larger genotypes (I, IV and V) had a distinctive phylogenetic structure and since 1990 they experienced effective population size oscillations. Thailand and Indonesia represented the main sources of strains for neighboring countries. Besides, Asia broadcast lineages into the Americas and the Pacific region that diverged in isolation. Also, a transmission network analysis revealed the pivotal role of Indochina in the global diffusion of DENV-1 and of the Caribbean in the diffusion over the Americas. Conclusions/Significance The study summarizes the spatiotemporal DENV-1 worldwide spread that may help disease control. PMID:23675416

  17. The worldwide costs of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Balmford, Andrew; Gravestock, Pippa; Hockley, Neal; McClean, Colin J; Roberts, Callum M

    2004-06-29

    Declines in marine harvests, wildlife, and habitats have prompted calls at both the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and the 2003 World Parks Congress for the establishment of a global system of marine protected areas (MPAs). MPAs that restrict fishing and other human activities conserve habitats and populations and, by exporting biomass, may sustain or increase yields of nearby fisheries. Here we provide an estimate of the costs of a global MPA network, based on a survey of the running costs of 83 MPAs worldwide. Annual running costs per unit area spanned six orders of magnitude, and were higher in MPAs that were smaller, closer to coasts, and in high-cost, developed countries. Models extrapolating these findings suggest that a global MPA network meeting the World Parks Congress target of conserving 20-30% of the world's seas might cost between 5 billion and 19 billion US dollars annually to run and would probably create around one million jobs. Although substantial, gross network costs are less than current government expenditures on harmful subsidies to industrial fisheries. They also ignore potential private gains from improved fisheries and tourism and are dwarfed by likely social gains from increasing the sustainability of fisheries and securing vital ecosystem services.

  18. Worldwide supercritical power plants: Status and future

    SciTech Connect

    Gorokhov, V.A.; Ramezan, M.; Ruth, L.A.; Kim, S.S.

    1999-07-01

    During the last decade leading industrial countries initiated a new wave of research and development on supercritical (SC) steam power plants. This new interest is accompanied by the jump from SC steam parameters to ultra-supercritical (USC) parameters and was initiated mostly due to the increase in cost of fuel on the world market, and by increased environmental regulations including reduction of greenhouse gases. As a result, a significant number of new pulverized coal (PC) power units with increased efficiency and reduced emissions were installed in the last two decades, and a few more are planned to be installed in the near future. Different driving forces are responsible for development and implementation of highly efficient advanced PC-fired systems: need for new capacity, quality and cost of fuel, level of technology development, environmental requirements, and internal situation with regard to power supply (deregulation). For example, in Europe, Germany in particular, controlling CO{sub 2} is a major issue in any new installation, while in Japan economics is the major issue as the costs of imported fuels are high, and there are greater economic incentives for efficiency improvement. This paper discusses the status of existing and planned SC and USC power plants worldwide and their technical and environmental performance.

  19. Worldwide expansion of transnational tobacco industry.

    PubMed

    Connolly, G N

    1992-01-01

    As smoking rates fall in North America and western Europe, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) from the United States and Great Britain turn to cigarette markets of the developing world to replace those smokers who have quit or died from smoking. The majority of these markets are dominated by state tobacco monopolies that advertise and promote smoking minimally. Few women or adolescents smoke in those nations. The majority of men do, but they smoke far fewer cigarettes per year than their counterparts in developed nations. Trade barriers in the developing world prevent foreign cigarette companies from entering. TTCs employ various techniques to force open those markets, including trade pressure from the US government. Once the market is open, Western cigarette advertising and promotions target nonsmoking women and children. Retail tobacco outlets increase, smoking rates rise, and more death and disease result. Latin America was the TTC target in the 1960s, the newly developed nations of Asia during the 1980s, and, today, the tobacco giants are pushing into eastern Europe, China, and Africa. If nothing is done, emerging national smoking-control programs will be overwhelmed, and state-owned cigarette monopolies will be taken over by the TTCs. Policies and programs to curb smoking exist, but for various reasons many lesser developed countries have not adopted them. The threat of TTC entry into a closed market offers an opportunity to form national coalitions against smoking, educate the public about the dangers of tobacco use, and implement public health policies and programs to restrict marketing and use of cigarettes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1616807

  20. Study of KAP with regard to taking folic acid supplements and factors affecting the recommendation and prescription of those supplements among obstetricians and specialists in women's health in six provinces of Northern China, 2009.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Zhu, Jun; Zeng, Ziqian; Wang, Yanping; Liang, Juan; Yuan, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Taking folic acid (FA) supplements reduces the risks of neural tube defects (NTDs) in early pregnancy. Obstetricians and specialists in women's health play important roles in promoting FA intake. However, surveys on their knowledge of, attitudes toward, and behavior regarding giving FA to pregnant women are limited. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 5,860 obstetricians and specialists in women's health using a self-administered questionnaire to collect information on participants' demographic characteristics and their knowledge of and attitudes toward and practices related to taking FA supplements. Chi-square analysis was used for rate comparison while logistic regression analysis was performed to predict influencing factors. For items on knowledge about FA and taking FA supplements the overall correct response rate was 60.3% (24,235/40,173). Questions about related practices and attitudes were correctly answered for the most part (more than 90%), but participants were less likely to follow the practice of prescribing FA tablets to women planning a pregnancy while working (77.2%). Statistical analysis indicated that the "Level of facility where the participant works" and "Rate of correct responses on a test of knowledge" were the main factors affecting participants' recommendation to take FA while "Job title", "Amount of professional work experience", and "Rate of correct responses on a test of knowledge" were the main factors affecting participants' prescription of FA. In conclusion, participants had a good deal of knowledge about NTDs and FA but the lack of some knowledge possibly led to the relatively low rate of correct behaviors. Therefore, educating obstetricians and specialists in women's health in this regard is crucial.

  1. Affirmative Action Implications for Worldwide Family Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liss, Lora

    This paper views the interrelatedness of political, economic, and family systems as they are being affected by the growing awareness of sex discrimination. The reduction in sex inequalities throughout the world, regardless of political or economic orientation, will necessitate a new perception of the woman's role in the family unit. The hypothesis…

  2. Testosterone increases the muscle protein synthesis rate but does not affect very-low-density lipoprotein metabolism in obese premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuewen; Smith, Gordon I.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Reeds, Dominic N.; Kampelman, Janine; Magkos, Faidon

    2012-01-01

    Men and women with hyperandrogenemia have a more proatherogenic plasma lipid profile [e.g., greater triglyceride (TG) and total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations] than healthy premenopausal women. Furthermore, castration of male rats markedly reduces testosterone availability below normal and decreases plasma TG concentration, and testosterone replacement reverses this effect. Testosterone is, therefore, thought to be an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis. However, little is known about the effect of testosterone on plasma TG concentration and kinetics. Furthermore, testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent in men, but its effect on muscle protein turnover in women is unknown. We measured plasma lipid concentrations, hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates, and the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate in 10 obese women before and after trandermal testosterone (1.25 g of 1% AndroGel daily) treatment for 3 wk. Serum total and free testosterone concentrations increased (P < 0.05) by approximately sevenfold in response to testosterone treatment, reaching concentrations that are comparable to those in women with hyperandrogenemia, but lower than the normal range for eugonadal men. Except for a small (∼10%) decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein particle and cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.04), testosterone therapy had no effect on plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein particle sizes, and hepatic VLDL-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates (all P > 0.05); the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate, however, increased by ∼45% (P < 0.001). We conclude that testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent, but not an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis in obese women. PMID:22252942

  3. Mixed Progress in Worldwide Fight Against HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Mixed Progress in Worldwide Fight Against HIV/AIDS Deaths continue 10-year decline, but new infections ... 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The number of HIV/AIDS deaths worldwide each year has fallen since peaking ...

  4. Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

  5. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treinish, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and

  6. Women's Health. Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health Issues. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report identifies a broad spectrum of issues affecting women's health and is divided into four sections: (1) social factors affecting women's health; (2) women's physical health and well-being; (3) health concerns of older women; and (4) issues related to alcohol, drug use and abuse, and the mental health of women. The Public Health Service…

  7. TeleFood: a worldwide appeal.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    In 1997, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) broadcast its first global television program on the theme of "Food for All" to an audience of approximately 450 million viewers. The objective of "TeleFood" was to raise awareness of the scale of the problem and to encourage solidarity in the fight against hunger. TeleFood raised funds to support the FAO's Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS) and similar grassroots projects that target rural people in developing countries. The SPFS project, now operational in 19 countries and being formulated in 32 more, emphasizes national ownership, farmer participation, environmental awareness, and recognition of the role of women in food production and marketing. The 3-year SPFS pilot phase involves 1) small-scale water harvesting, irrigation, and drainage; 2) sustainable intensification of crop production; 3) diversification of production; and 4) removal of policies that impede food security. Results to date include 1) greatly increased maize and potato yields in Bolivia and more modest increases in Nepal; 2) doubled yields of maize and rice in Tanzania; and 3) expansion of the area under low-cost irrigation in Zambia. South-South cooperation is allowing some developing countries to benefit from experience gained in other developing countries. The pilot activities are being funded with an increasing number of "soft" loans from governments and financial institutions.

  8. Law and Policy Affecting Addicted Women and Their Children. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document contains the text of a one of a series of Congressional hearings called to examine substance abuse among pregnant and parenting women and to explore prevention and treatment strategies. This hearing focuses on federal and state policies designed to address the urgency of perinatal substance abuse. Witnesses provide testimony on state…

  9. Human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; Van Beek, L. P.; Wanders, N.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decades, human water consumption has more than doubled, and reduced streamflow over various regions of the world. However, it remains unclear to what degree human water consumption intensifies hydrological droughts, i.e. the occurrence of anomalously low streamflow. Here, we quantify over the period 1960-2010 the impact of human water consumption on the intensity and frequency of hydrological droughts worldwide. We simulated streamflow by the global hydrological and water resources model PCR-GLOBWB at a 0.5 degree spatial resolution, and reduced the amount of streamflow with different levels of human water consumption over the period 1960-2010. We applied the commonly used variable threshold level method to identify below-normal water availability as the onset of hydrological droughts. We then standardized the deficit volume dividing relative to the threshold level to express the intensity of drought conditions to normal streamflow conditions. The results show that human water consumption substantially reduced local and downstream streamflow in many regions of the world. This subsequently intensified hydrological droughts regionally by 10-500%. Irrigation is responsible for the intensification of hydrological droughts over western and central U.S., southern Europe, Asia, and southeastern Australia, whereas the impact of industrial and households' consumption on the intensification is considerably larger over eastern U.S., and western and central Europe. The results also show that drought frequency increased by more than 27% compared to pristine or natural condition as a result of human water consumption. The intensification of drought frequency is most severe over Asia, but also substantial over North America and Europe. Importantly, global population under severe hydrological droughts considerably increased from 0.7 billion in 1960 to 2.2 billion in 2010 due to rapid population growth. As a limited validation exercise, we compared simulated deficit

  10. Screening outcomes in older US women undergoing multiple mammograms in community practice: does interval, age, or comorbidity score affect tumor characteristics or false positive rates?

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Dejana; Zhu, Weiwei; Hubbard, Rebecca A; O'Meara, Ellen S; Miglioretti, Diana L; Geller, Berta; Dittus, Kim; Moore, Dan; Wernli, Karen J; Mandelblatt, Jeanne; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2013-03-01

    Background Uncertainty exists about the appropriate use of screening mammography among older women because comorbid illnesses may diminish the benefit of screening. We examined the risk of adverse tumor characteristics and false positive rates according to screening interval, age, and comorbidity. Methods From January 1999 to December 2006, data were collected prospectively on 2993 older women with breast cancer and 137 949 older women without breast cancer who underwent mammography at facilities that participated in a data linkage between the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium and Medicare claims. Women were aged 66 to 89 years at study entry to allow for measurement of 1 year of preexisting illnesses. We used logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds of advanced (IIb, III, IV) stage, large (>20 millimeters) tumors, and 10-year cumulative probability of false-positive mammography by screening frequency (1 vs 2 years), age, and comorbidity score. The comorbidity score was derived using the Klabunde approximation of the Charlson score. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Adverse tumor characteristics did not differ statistically significantly by comorbidity, age, or interval. Cumulative probability of a false-positive mammography result was higher among annual screeners than biennial screeners irrespective of comorbidity: 48.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 46.1% to 49.9%) of annual screeners aged 66 to 74 years had a false-positive result compared with 29.0% (95% CI = 28.1% to 29.9%) of biennial screeners. Conclusion Women aged 66 to 89 years who undergo biennial screening mammography have similar risk of advanced-stage disease and lower cumulative risk of a false-positive recommendation than annual screeners, regardless of comorbidity.

  11. Optimizing the Care and Health of Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nee, Judy; Feuerstein, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease is increasing worldwide. Although diagnosis is equally found in men and women, the chronicity of IBD poses a unique impact on the milestones of a woman's life. As the gastroenterologist becomes increasingly important in the health maintenance of patients with IBD, this review stresses the unique gender issues in women with IBD related to menstruation, cervical cancer, sexual health, contraception, and menopause that may affect the course of disease, treatment decisions, and quality of life. PMID:26089868

  12. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Markus A.; Seppelt, Ralf; Witing, Felix; Priess, Joerg A.

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for agricultural and forestry products fundamentally affects regional land-use change associated with environmental impacts (EIs) such as erosion. In contrast to aggregated global metrics such as greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, local/regional EIs of different agricultural and forestry production regions need methods which enable worldwide EI comparisons. The key aspect is to control environmental heterogeneity to reveal man-made differences of EIs between production regions. Environmental heterogeneity is the variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. In the present study, we used three approaches to control environmental heterogeneity: (i) environmental stratification, (ii) potential natural vegetation (PNV), and (iii) regional environmental thresholds to compare EIs of solid biomass production. We compared production regions of managed forests and plantation forests in subtropical (Satilla watershed, Southeastern US), tropical (Rufiji basin, Tanzania), and temperate (Mulde watershed, Central Germany) climates. All approaches supported the comparison of the EIs of different land-use classes between and within production regions. They also standardized the different EIs for a comparison between the EI categories. The EIs for different land-use classes within a production region decreased with increasing degree of naturalness (forest, plantation forestry, and cropland). PNV was the most reliable approach, but lacked feasibility and relevance. The PNV approach explicitly included most of the factors that drive environmental heterogeneity in contrast to the stratification and threshold approaches. The stratification approach allows consistent global application due to available data. Regional environmental thresholds only included arbitrarily selected aspects of environmental heterogeneity; they are only available for few EIs. Especially, the PNV and stratification approaches are options to compare regional EIs of biomass or crop production

  13. Progress toward polio eradication--Worldwide, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Moturi, Edna K; Porter, Kimberly A; Wassilak, Steven G F; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Jafari, Hamid

    2014-05-30

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide, and in 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the completion of global polio eradication a programmatic emergency for public health. By 2013, the annual number of WPV cases had decreased by >99% since 1988, and only three countries remained that had never interrupted WPV transmission: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. This report summarizes global progress toward polio eradication during 2013-2014 and updates previous reports. In 2013, a total of 416 WPV cases were reported globally from eight countries, an 86% increase from the 223 WPV cases reported from five countries in 2012. This upsurge in 2013 was caused by a 60% increase in WPV cases detected in Pakistan, and by outbreaks in five previously polio-free countries resulting from international spread of WPV. In 2014, as of May 20, a total of 82 WPV cases had been reported worldwide, compared with 34 cases during the same period in 2013. Polio cases caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) were detected in eight countries in 2013 and in two countries so far in 2014. To achieve polio eradication in the near future, further efforts are needed to 1) address health worker safety concerns in areas of armed conflict in priority countries, 2) to prevent further spread of WPV and new outbreaks after importation into polio-free countries, and 3) to strengthen surveillance globally. Based on the international spread of WPV to date in 2014, the WHO Director General has issued temporary recommendations to reduce further international exportation of WPV through vaccination of persons traveling from currently polio-affected countries.

  14. Liver fat and SHBG affect insulin resistance in midlife women: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Kylie; Espeland, Mark A.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; El Khoudary, Samar R.; Wildman, Rachel P.

    2012-01-01

    The liver is an insulin-responsive organ that contributes significantly to both whole body insulin sensitivity and availability of sex steroids through the production of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Our objective was to explore whether lower SHBG was associated with ectopic liver fat and mediated its effect on insulin resistance in The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). A subset of midlife African American and Caucasian women from SWAN (n=208; 50.9±0.18 yrs; 71% Caucasian) had computed tomography scans to quantify visceral, subcutaneous and liver fat. Blood samples were collected and assayed for hormonal and metabolic markers. The cohort, while overweight, was generally healthy, and both liver fat and SHBG were unaffected by menopausal stage or race. Both higher liver fat and lower SHBG levels were significantly associated with higher insulin concentrations after adjustment for adiposity (r=−0.25, p<0.001 and r=−0.18, p=0.01). SHBG and liver fat had additive effects on insulin concentrations such that women with the lowest SHBG and the highest fat levels had the highest values (interaction p=0.09). The association between SHBG and insulin was more apparent among women with fattier livers. SHBG and liver fat appear to have independent effects on insulin levels as adjustment for each other did not diminish the strength of either association (p=0.023 and 0.001 respectively). These results confirmed the strong independent associations between increased liver fat and decreased SHBG with increased metabolic risk in midlife women. Further these data underscore the need for additional research into the role of liver fat in modifying SHBG’s influence on insulin levels. PMID:23784907

  15. TREATMENT WITH HORMONE THERAPY AND CALCITRIOL DID NOT AFFECT DEPRESSION IN ELDERLY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN: NO INTERACTION WITH ESTROGEN AND VITAMIN D RECEPTOR GENOTYPE POLYMORPHISMS

    PubMed Central

    YALAMANCHILI, VINOD; GALLAGHER, J. CHRISTOPHER

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of hormone therapy and calcitriol on depression in elderly postmenopausal women and also to determine whether the response was associated with polymorphisms of estrogen receptor-alpha and vitamin D receptor. Methods In a double-blinded placebo controlled prospective trial involving 489 postmenopausal elderly women, a secondary analysis of depression was done. Geriatric Depression Scale was used to screen for depression. We used binary logistic regression to examine the effect of treatment on depression and one-way ANOVA to find relationship between gene polymorphisms and depression. Results There was no effect of hormone therapy (OR 1.65; 95% CI 0.66–4.12; p = 0.277), calcitriol (OR 1.15; 95% CI 0.43–3.11; p = 0.772) or hormone therapy with calcitriol (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.36–2.80; p = 0.979) on depression. Neither polymorphisms of estrogen receptor-alpha (XbaI-beta=0.093, CI −0.337–1.350, p = 0.239 and PvuII-beta=−0.064, CI −1.171-0.491, p = 0.421) nor vitamin D receptor (BsmI-beta=0.044, CI −2.546–3.030, p = 0.865 and TaqI-beta=−0.015, CI −2.900-2.738, p = 0.955) were associated with depression. Conclusion In elderly post-menopausal women there was no effect of hormone therapy and calcitriol either individually or in combination with depression. Estrogen receptor-alpha and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are not associated with depression or the response to intervention in elderly postmenopausal women. Additional trials are required to confirm these findings. PMID:22205149

  16. [ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES AND MOOD/SEXUAL DISORDERS IN WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Sirakov, M; Tomova, E

    2015-01-01

    Oral contraceptives are used since more than 50 years and are very popular due to offering more than 99% confidence in preventing pregnancy. Over 100 million women worldwide use oral contraceptives. In the UK 27% of women between 16 and 49 y. use pills. In the United States they are about 30%, in Germany - 40%, and in The Netherlands - 60%. According to a study by B. Pehlivanov, 2008, in Bulgaria only 4% of women use OC. (1) Despite the convenience and security, in the U.S.A. 29% of women taking OC interrupt prematurely their use (2), while the percentage of adolescents appears to be higher (3) Earlier studies of the reasons for refusal of OC focus on their influence on the menstrual cycle, as well as on some physical side effects such as the appearance of hair growth, weight gain, bloating etc. They paid very little attention to their impact on mood and sexual behavior of women (4). Newer studies suggest that the side effects associated with mood and sexual behavior proved more powerful factor leading to early termination of the use of OC (5). This paper is a review of the literature and evaluation of the facts presented in studies from different countries. They found a high incidence of symptoms such as anxiety, susceptibility to stress, mood changes, incl. depression, anxiety, increased irritability and affection of sexual desire of women. (6) There are many indications that OC-users are at increased risk of suicide and mental illnesses. (9). PMID:26411194

  17. Understanding feminism: considerations for nurses working to end violence against women.

    PubMed

    Fontenot, Holly B; Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2011-03-01

    Violence against women is a pervasive and serious human rights and public health problem worldwide. As interdisciplinary research teams try to address the effects of this health problem of which the effects transcend all women, nurses are at the forefront. Using a feminist philosophy and methodology to explore violence against women is one way to uncover new knowledge to address this health epidemic. In this paper, we will review the basic concepts of feminism and provide examples of viewing violence research and forensic nursing practice through this theoretical lens. These perspectives provide a foundation for understanding feminism and facilitating nurses' awareness as they consider careers in research and practice. Through this lens, nurses who are helping to ease the burden of violence in our global society may affect change in women's lives.

  18. Sharka epidemiology and worldwide management strategies: learning lessons to optimize disease control in perennial plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many plant epidemics that cause major economic losses cannot be controlled with pesticides. Among them, sharka epidemics severely affect prunus trees worldwide. Its causal agent, Plum pox virus (PPV;, genus Potyvirus), has been classified as a quarantine pathogen in numerous countries. As a result, ...

  19. Review of epidemic aminoglycoside resistance worldwide.

    PubMed

    Mayer, K H

    1986-06-30

    Epidemic aminoglycoside resistance may be caused by the spread of a species with distinctive chromosomal genes (e.g., Pseudomonas aeruginosa), or it may be due to the dissemination of plasmids or transposons between genera. Although strains of P. aeruginosa resistant to aminoglycosides because of impermeability may cause nosocomial outbreaks, most of the acute increases in aminoglycoside resistance are due to the spread of inactivating enzymes by plasmids. The index species for intergeneric outbreaks is usually Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying the ANT(2") or AAC(3) gene; however, the distribution of resistance varies greatly by location and species. The AAC(6')-I gene is most common in Serratia marcescens and in East Asian isolates of other species, whereas the AAC(3) gene is common in Chile. In the United States, the ANT(2") and AAC(3) genes are particularly common among Enterobacteriaceae, except for Proteus and Providencia, which often carry the AAC(2') gene. The most common patterns of epidemic resistance lead to the inactivation of gentamicin and, less frequently, tobramycin, but only rarely affect amikacin.

  20. The Broad Scope of Health Effects from Chronic Arsenic Exposure: Update on a Worldwide Public Health Problem

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth; Ahsan, Habibul; Aposhian, H. Vasken; Graziano, Joseph H.; Thompson, Claudia; Suk, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Concerns for arsenic exposure are not limited to toxic waste sites and massive poisoning events. Chronic exposure continues to be a major public health problem worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of persons. Objectives: We reviewed recent information on worldwide concerns for arsenic exposures and public health to heighten awareness of the current scope of arsenic exposure and health outcomes and the importance of reducing exposure, particularly during pregnancy and early life. Methods: We synthesized the large body of current research pertaining to arsenic exposure and health outcomes with an emphasis on recent publications. Discussion: Locations of high arsenic exposure via drinking water span from Bangladesh, Chile, and Taiwan to the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) in drinking water is 10 µg/L; however, concentrations of > 3,000 µg/L have been found in wells in the United States. In addition, exposure through diet is of growing concern. Knowledge of the scope of arsenic-associated health effects has broadened; arsenic leaves essentially no bodily system untouched. Arsenic is a known carcinogen associated with skin, lung, bladder, kidney, and liver cancer. Dermatological, developmental, neurological, respiratory, cardiovascular, immunological, and endocrine effects are also evident. Most remarkably, early-life exposure may be related to increased risks for several types of cancer and other diseases during adulthood. Conclusions: These data call for heightened awareness of arsenic-related pathologies in broader contexts than previously perceived. Testing foods and drinking water for arsenic, including individual private wells, should be a top priority to reduce exposure, particularly for pregnant women and children, given the potential for life-long effects of developmental exposure. PMID:23458756

  1. How does acupuncture affect insulin sensitivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance? Study protocol of a prospective pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yanhua; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Ng, Ernest H Y; Li, Juan; Wu, Xiaoke; Ma, Hongxia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance (IR) are key features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome. The effect of 5 weeks of acupuncture treatment has been investigated in a completed prospective pilot trial (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01457209), and acupuncture with electrical stimulation applied to insulin-resistant rats with dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS was shown to improve insulin sensitivity. Therefore, we now aim to conduct a prospective pilot study to evaluate whether using the same acupuncture treatment protocol given over a longer period of time (6 months) than in the previous pilot trial will improve insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS and IR. Our hypothesis is that acupuncture with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation of the needles will improve insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS and IR. Methods/analysis This is a prospective pilot trial. A total of 112 women with PCOS and IR will be recruited and categorised according to their body mass index (BMI) as normal weight (BMI=18.5−23 kg/m2) or as overweight/obese (BMI>23 kg/m2). Acupuncture will be applied three times per week for 6 months at 30 min per treatment. The primary outcome will be the change in insulin sensitivity before and after 6 months of acupuncture treatment, as measured by an oral glucose tolerance test. Ethics/dissemination Ethical approval of this study has been granted from the ethics committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (No. 2013039). Written and informed consent will be obtained from each patient before any study procedure is performed, according to good clinical practice. The results of this trial will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. Trial registration numbers NCT02026323 and ChiCTR-OCH-13003921. PMID:25941189

  2. Risk for family rejection and associated mental health outcomes among conflict-affected adult women living in rural eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Anjalee; Perrin, Nancy A; Mpanano, Remy Mitima; Mullany, Luke C; Murhula, Clovis Mitima; Binkurhorhwa, Arsène Kajabika; Mirindi, Alfred Bacikengi; Banywesize, Jean Heri; Bufole, Nadine Mwinja; Ntwali, Eric Mpanano; Glass, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Stigma due to sexual violence includes family rejection, a complex outcome including economic, behavioral, and physical components. We explored the relationship among conflict-related trauma, family rejection, and mental health in adult women living in rural eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, who participate in a livestock-based microfinance program, Pigs for Peace. Exposure to multiple and different types of conflict-related trauma, including sexual assault, was associated with increased likelihood of family rejection, which in turn was associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Design of appropriate and effective interventions will require understanding family relationships and exposure to different types of trauma in postconflict environments. PMID:24660941

  3. Women Empowering Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyikwa, Victoria A.; Chiarelli-Helminiak, Christina M.; Hodge, Diane M.; Wells-Wilbon, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    As women in this female-centered profession of social work, we have not effectively advocated for ourselves in terms of leadership in our educational systems. We reexamine the 2008 special section of the "Journal of Social Work Education" on women in the academy and build on information that suggests social work has lost its momentum to…

  4. Analysis of performance and age of the fastest 100-mile ultra-marathoners worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The performance and age of peak ultra-endurance performance have been investigated in single races and single race series but not using worldwide participation data. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in running performance and the age of peak running performance of the best 100-mile ultra-marathoners worldwide. METHOD: The race times and ages of the annual ten fastest women and men were analyzed among a total of 35,956 finishes (6,862 for women and 29,094 for men) competing between 1998 and 2011 in 100-mile ultra-marathons. RESULTS: The annual top ten performances improved by 13.7% from 1,132±61.8 min in 1998 to 977.6±77.1 min in 2011 for women and by 14.5% from 959.2±36.4 min in 1998 to 820.6±25.7 min in 2011 for men. The mean ages of the annual top ten fastest runners were 39.2±6.2 years for women and 37.2±6.1 years for men. The age of peak running performance was not different between women and men (p>0.05) and showed no changes across the years. CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that the fastest female and male 100-mile ultra-marathoners improved their race time by ∼14% across the 1998–2011 period at an age when they had to be classified as master athletes. Future studies should analyze longer running distances (>200 km) to investigate whether the age of peak performance increases with increased distance in ultra-marathon running. PMID:23778421

  5. The Other Side: How does Informed Choice Affect Induced Abortions among Reproductive-Age Immigrant Women in China—A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chuanning; Wu, Junqing; Li, Yuyan; Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Rui; Ji, Honglei; Li, Yi-Ran; Han, Ying; Tong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to explore how informed choice on contraceptive methods influenced induced abortions among reproductive-age immigrant women in China. A total of 3230 participants were recruited in Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing. Information on informed choice was collected by questionnaires. The annual incidence rate (spells) of induced abortions was 0.46 (1500/3230) among the participants. The sequence from the highest score to the lowest was long-term, short-term and natural contraceptive methods (p < 0.0001). Significant differences of rates in induced abortions were found in region, occupation, length of the first immigration up to now (year), purpose for immigration, number of children, marital status, sex preference, contraceptive methods, deciders of contraceptive methods and side effects. In the zero-inflated negative binomial model, the joint impacts showed when a participant with one child employed condoms or family planning service providers as the deciders of contraceptive methods introduced intrauterine devices, the occurrence of induced abortions was more likely to be reduced. Women who underwent side effects using pills were more likely to have had induced abortions. PMID:27783059

  6. Carbonate reservoir plays in the South Atlantic and worldwide analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohriak, Webster

    2015-04-01

    This work presents a summary of the geological, geophysical and petrophysical challenges for interpretation of post-salt and presalt carbonate rocks that constitute one of the main reservoirs in the hydrocarbon accumulations in the South Atlantic, particularly in the Campos and Santos basins offshore Brazil and in the Angola -Gabon conjugate margins. Carbonate rocks associated with salt tectonics constitute one of the main exploratory plays in several basins worldwide, and recently have yielded large petroleum discoveries in the southeastern Brazilian continental margin (Santos Basin) and also in Angola (Kwanza Basin) . The presalt microbialite reservoirs are sealed by evaporites and the origin of these rocks is still controversial. One current of interpretation assumes they are associated with reefs and carbonate buildups formed during periods of sea-level rises in a desiccating basin. Other currents of interpretation assume that these rocks might be associated with hydrothermal fluids and chemical precipitation of carbonates in a basin affected by volcanic episodes, resulting in travertine deposits with secondary biogenic growth. We present examples of post-salt oil fields involving Albian carbonates in the South Atlantic, and also discuss the presalt plays recently drilled in ultradeep waters. The presalt carbonate reservoirs are compared with possible microbialite analogs in the sedimentary basins of Brazil dating from Neoproterozoic to Recent, and their similarities and differences in terms of depositional setting and petrophysical parameters from the Late Aptian presalt carbonate rocks that have been sampled in the Santos and Kwanza basins.

  7. Attitudes and factors affecting acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping as an alternative to Pap testing among multiethnic Malaysian women

    PubMed Central

    Ma'som, Mahirah; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; Bellinson, Jerome; Subramaniam, Shridevi; Ma, Yuntong; Yap, Siew-Hwei; Goh, Pik-Pin; Gravitt, Patti; Woo, Yin Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the attitudes and acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling compared with conventional physician-acquired Papanicolaou (Pap) smear among multiethnic Malaysian women. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out via interviewer-administered surveys from August 2013 through August 2015 at five government-run, urban health clinics in the state of Selangor. Subjects were participants from an ongoing community-based human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study who answered a standard questionnaire before and after self-sampling. The cervicovaginal self-sampling for HPV genotyping was performed using a simple brush (‘Just for Me’; Preventive Oncology International, Hong Kong). Detailed data on sociodemographics, previous Pap smear experience, and attitudes towards self-administered cervicovaginal sampling were collected and analysed. Acceptability was inferred using a five-item Likert scale that included six different subjective descriptives: experience, difficulty, convenience, embarrassment, discomfort or pain, and confidence in collecting one's own sample. Results Of the 839 participants, 47.9% were Malays, followed by 30.8% Indians, 18.8% Chinese and 2.5% from other ethnicities. The median age of the participants was 38 years (IQR 30–48). Some 68.2% of participants indicated a preference for self-sampling over the Pap test, with 95% indicating willingness to follow-up a positive result at the hospital. Age, ethnicity and previous Pap test experience were significant independent factors associated with preference for self-sampling. The older the individual, the less likely they were to prefer self-sampling (adjusted OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.98). The Chinese were less likely to prefer self-sampling (72.6%) than the Malays (85.1%) (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.98, p=0.004). Participants who had never undergone a Pap smear were also more likely to prefer self-sampling (88.5%) than

  8. Global Impressions: Inside UNESCO's First Worldwide Arts Education Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The many worlds of arts education began to grow into one worldwide community in March 2006. Twelve hundred arts education leaders, in delegations from 97 countries, attended the United Nation's Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO's) first-ever worldwide arts education conference, held for four days in Lisbon, Portugal. The…

  9. Out of the Smokescreen: does an anti-smoking advertisement affect young women's perception of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke?

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, C; Harris, W; Cook, D; Bedford, K; Zuo, Y

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of an anti-smoking advertisement on young women's perceptions of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke. Subjects/setting: 2038 females aged 12–17 years attending cinemas in New South Wales, Australia. Design/intervention: Quasi-experimental study of patrons, who were surveyed after having viewed a movie at their local cinema. The control group was surveyed during week 1 and the intervention group, during week 2. Before seeing the movie in week 2, a 30 second anti-smoking advertisement was shown, which featured a well known female actor drawing attention to the prevalence of smoking in movies. Outcomes: Attitude of current smokers and non-smokers to smoking in the movies; intention of current smokers and non-smokers to be smoking in 12 months time. Results: Among non-smokers, 48.2% of the intervention subjects thought that the smoking in the movie they viewed was "not OK" compared with 28.3% of the control subjects (p < 0.0001). However, there was no difference among smokers in the intervention (26.4%) and control (16.9%) groups (p = 0.28). A higher percentage of current smokers in the intervention group indicated they were unlikely to smoke in 12 months time (47.8%) than smokers in the control condition (31.9%) (p = 0.03). For non-smokers, there was no difference in smoking intentions between conditions, with 95% saying they would be unlikely to be smoking in 12 months time. Conclusions: This "real world" study suggests that placing an anti-smoking advertisement before movies containing smoking scenes can help to "immunise" young women against the influences of film stars smoking. PMID:15333884

  10. The risk of arsenic induced skin lesions in Bangladeshi men and women is affected by arsenic metabolism and the age at first exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Persson, Lars-Ake; Vahter, Marie

    2008-07-01

    It is known that a high fraction of methylarsonate (MA) in urine is a risk modifying factor for several arsenic induced health effects, including skin lesions, and that men are more susceptible for developing skin lesions than women. Thus, we aimed at elucidating the interaction between gender and arsenic metabolism for the risk of developing skin lesions. This study is part of a population-based case-referent study concerning the risk for skin lesions in relation to arsenic exposure via drinking water carried out in Matlab, a rural area 53km south-east of Dhaka, Bangladesh. We randomly selected 526 from 1579 referents and all 504 cases for analysis of arsenic metabolites in urine using HPLC coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICPMS). The present study confirm previous studies, with the risk for skin lesions being almost three times higher in the highest tertile of %MA (adjusted OR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.9-4.2, p < 0.001) compared to the lowest tertile. The present study is the first to show that the well documented higher risk for men to develop arsenic-related skin lesions compared to women is mainly explained by the less efficient methylation of arsenic, as defined by a higher fraction of MA and lower fraction of DMA in the urine, among men. Our previously documented lower risk for skin lesions in individuals exposed since infancy, or before, was found to be independent of the observed arsenic methylation efficiency. Thus, it can be speculated that this is due to a programming effect of arsenic in utero.

  11. Bipolar disorder in women

    PubMed Central

    Parial, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder in women is a challenging disorder to treat. It is unique in its presentation in women and characterized by later age of onset, seasonality, atypical presentation, and a higher degree of mixed episodes. Medical and psychiatric co-morbidity adversely affects recovery from the bipolar disorder (BD) more often in women. Co-morbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders occur more frequently in women while substance use disorders are more common in men. Treatment of women during pregnancy and lactation is challenging. Pregnancy neither protects nor exacerbates BD, and many women require continuation of medication during the pregnancy. The postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of BD in women. Prophylaxis with mood stabilizers might be needed. Individualized risk/benefits assessments of pregnant and postpartum women with BD are required to promote the health of the women and to avoid or limit exposure of the fetus or infant to potential adverse effects of medication. PMID:26330643

  12. Migration and women's health.

    PubMed

    Adanu, Richard M K; Johnson, Timothy R B

    2009-08-01

    Women have been migrating at similar rates to men for the past 40 years, and comprised about half of all migrants in 2005. Women and children are most affected by displacement as a result of wars and human trafficking. In some cases, the health of female migrants is improved via integration into better health systems in the host country. More often, however, the health of female migrants is affected negatively. Women are doubly disadvantaged because they are discriminated against as women and as migrants. Female migrants are also highly vulnerable to acts of sexual abuse, rape, and violence. This is especially true for women in refugee camps, whose reproductive health needs are often overlooked. To improve the health of female migrants it is important to develop and implement policies that recognize and insist on the respect of the rights of migrants. PMID:19539929

  13. Women in development.

    PubMed

    White, E H

    1980-01-01

    The author reports on travel in the Philippines, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan, and conditions she found affecting development. Development for women in the Philippines has been hampered by a dichotomy between home economics and agricultural work. Although the majority of students in agriculture are women, many village cooperatives have been formed with less than 10% women members. Malaysia has a high level of education; development projects can easily be implemented. The National Association of Women's Institutes of Peninsular Malaysia (NAWIPM) emphasizes training for rural women. Its activiti include nursuries, poultry raising, home improvement, cooperatives, and income generating projects such as catering and tailoring. As in the Philippines ther is an important Muslim minority; Muslim women lag behind other Sri Lankans in education. The Mahila Samiti is the organization which trains rural women i some 1500 chapters. The women of Pakistan have the greatest need for assistance. Less than 15% Pakistan women are literate; their enrollment in school lags far behind the boys. The All Pakistan Women's Association works on problems of development through its Nutrition Education Training Courses. The centers have begun poultry raising and gardening as parts of its program.

  14. Aspirin-induced increase in intestinal paracellular permeability does not affect the levels of LPS in venous blood of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Gnauck, Anne; Lentle, Roger G; Kruger, Marlena C

    2015-07-01

    The presence of subclinical levels of LPS from Gram-negative bacteria, also referred to as endotoxin, in the circulation may induce a pro-inflammatory immune response that leads to the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent data indicate that high-fat meals may elevate circulating levels of LPS. However, it is currently unclear how the LPS transits from the gut lumen to the general circulation. We determined whether aspirin-induced damage of the small intestinal mucosa, evidenced by an increase in the paracellular permeability, allows greater transit of LPS into the systemic circulation. The 3-h cumulative excretion of lactulose was significantly increased after the consumption of aspirin solution relative to that after the consumption of an equal volume of water in 15 healthy women (median after aspirin 0.09% of dose vs. median after water 0.03% of dose; P = 0.004). Dosage with aspirin also significantly increased the lactulose : mannitol ratio (median after aspirin 0.014 vs. median after water 0.005; P = 0.017). However, serum LPS levels after the consumption of the aspirin solution were not significantly different from those after consumption of the control (plain water). Further, there was no correlation between body fat content and circulating levels of LPS.

  15. Self-harm history predicts resistance to inpatient treatment of body shape aversion in women with eating disorders: The role of negative affect.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Cox, Rebecca; Ebesutani, Chad; Wall, David

    2015-06-01

    Although self-harm has been observed among patients with eating disorders, the effects of such tendencies on treatment outcomes are unclear. The current study employed structural equation modeling to (a) evaluate the relationship between self-harm and changes in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in a large sample of patients (n = 2061) who underwent inpatient treatment, and (b) to examine whether the relationship between self-harm and changes in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness during inpatient treatment remains significant when controlling for change in negative affect during treatment. Results revealed that patients with a history of self-harm reported significantly less reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness following treatment. Patients experiencing less change in negative affect also reported significantly less reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness after discharge from treatment. However, the association between history of self-harm and reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness after treatment became non-significant when controlling for change in negative affect. This pattern of findings was also replicated among patients with a primary diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (n = 845), bulimia nervosa (n = 565), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (n = 651). The implications of these findings for delineating the specific role of self-harm in the nature and treatment of eating disorders are discussed. PMID:25868550

  16. Self-harm history predicts resistance to inpatient treatment of body shape aversion in women with eating disorders: The role of negative affect.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Cox, Rebecca; Ebesutani, Chad; Wall, David

    2015-06-01

    Although self-harm has been observed among patients with eating disorders, the effects of such tendencies on treatment outcomes are unclear. The current study employed structural equation modeling to (a) evaluate the relationship between self-harm and changes in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in a large sample of patients (n = 2061) who underwent inpatient treatment, and (b) to examine whether the relationship between self-harm and changes in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness during inpatient treatment remains significant when controlling for change in negative affect during treatment. Results revealed that patients with a history of self-harm reported significantly less reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness following treatment. Patients experiencing less change in negative affect also reported significantly less reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness after discharge from treatment. However, the association between history of self-harm and reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness after treatment became non-significant when controlling for change in negative affect. This pattern of findings was also replicated among patients with a primary diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (n = 845), bulimia nervosa (n = 565), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (n = 651). The implications of these findings for delineating the specific role of self-harm in the nature and treatment of eating disorders are discussed.

  17. Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: a pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4·4 million participants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background One of the global targets for non-communicable diseases is to halt, by 2025, the rise in the age-standardised adult prevalence of diabetes at its 2010 levels. We aimed to estimate worldwide trends in diabetes, how likely it is for countries to achieve the global target, and how changes in prevalence, together with population growth and ageing, are affecting the number of adults with diabetes. Methods We pooled data from population-based studies that had collected data on diabetes through measurement of its biomarkers. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends in diabetes prevalence—defined as fasting plasma glucose of 7·0 mmol/L or higher, or history of diagnosis with diabetes, or use of insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs—in 200 countries and territories in 21 regions, by sex and from 1980 to 2014. We also calculated the posterior probability of meeting the global diabetes target if post-2000 trends continue. Findings We used data from 751 studies including 4 372 000 adults from 146 of the 200 countries we make estimates for. Global age-standardised diabetes prevalence increased from 4·3% (95% credible interval 2·4–7·0) in 1980 to 9·0% (7·2–11·1) in 2014 in men, and from 5·0% (2·9–7·9) to 7·9% (6·4–9·7) in women. The number of adults with diabetes in the world increased from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 (28·5% due to the rise in prevalence, 39·7% due to population growth and ageing, and 31·8% due to interaction of these two factors). Age-standardised adult diabetes prevalence in 2014 was lowest in northwestern Europe, and highest in Polynesia and Micronesia, at nearly 25%, followed by Melanesia and the Middle East and north Africa. Between 1980 and 2014 there was little change in age-standardised diabetes prevalence in adult women in continental western Europe, although crude prevalence rose because of ageing of the population. By contrast, age-standardised adult prevalence rose by 15

  18. Flibanserin, a drug intended for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pre-menopausal women, affects spontaneous motor activity and brain neurochemistry in female rats.

    PubMed

    Ferger, Boris; Shimasaki, Makoto; Ceci, Angelo; Ittrich, Carina; Allers, Kelly A; Sommer, Bernd

    2010-06-01

    Flibanserin, a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist and 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist, is being developed for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in pre-menopausal women. Here, we investigated the effects of acute administration of flibanserin (15 and 45 mg/kg, p.o.) and the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (+)-8-OH-DPAT (1 mg/kg, i.p.) on neurotransmitter levels in brain areas of female rats. Specifically, levels of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) and neurotransmitter metabolites were examined in prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus and brain stem using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection. In addition, spontaneous motor activity was determined in an automated motor activity system. Flibanserin (45 mg/kg) but not (+)-8-OH-DPAT significantly reduced motor activity, when compared to vehicle controls. Specifically, the DA turnover was significantly increased (279%) in the PFC after flibanserin treatment but less pronounced (159%) after 8-OH-DPAT administration. Serotonin tissue levels were not altered in any of the investigated brain regions upon flibanserin treatment. However, flibanserin produced a significant decrease of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and 5-HT turnover in the PFC, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus and brain stem similar to (+)-8-OH-DPAT. In conclusion, the present study indicates that flibanserin is able to modulate dopaminergic and serotonergic activity in distinct brain areas. The observed effects in the PFC on dopaminergic markers are different from those induced by (+)-8-OH-DPAT and may contribute to its therapeutic efficacy in HSDD. The effects of flibanserin on spontaneous motor behaviour are in agreement with its receptor profile and underscore that flibanserin is devoid of any locomotor hyperactivity inducing properties.

  19. Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of dietary triacylglycerols does not affect insulin secretion or glucose homeostasis in healthy men and women

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, A; Teng, K-T; Berry, S E; Sanders, T A B

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives: Dietary triacylglycerols containing palmitic acid in the sn-2 position might impair insulin release and increase plasma glucose. Subjects/Methods: We used a cross-over designed feeding trial in 53 healthy Asian men and women (20–50 years) to test this hypothesis by exchanging 20% energy of palm olein (PO; control) with randomly interesterified PO (IPO) or high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS). After a 2-week run-in period on PO, participants were fed PO, IPO and HOS for 6 week consecutively in randomly allocated sequences. Fasting (midpoint and endpoint) and postprandial blood at the endpoint following a test meal (3.54 MJ, 14 g protein, 85 g carbohydrate and 50 g fat as PO) were collected for the measurement of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, lipids and apolipoproteins; pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes were postprandial changes in C-peptide and plasma glucose. Results: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.3 mmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) 0.1, 0.5; P<0.001) lower on HOS than on PO or IPO as predicted, indicating good compliance to the dietary intervention. There were no significant differences (P=0.58) between diets among the 10 male and 31 female completers in the incremental area under the curve (0–2 h) for C-peptide in nmol.120 min/l: GM (95% CI) were PO 220 (196, 245), IPO 212 (190, 235) and HOS 224 (204, 244). Plasma glucose was 8% lower at 2 h on IPO vs PO and HOS (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position does not adversely impair insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. PMID:25052227

  20. High-Intensity Resistance Exercise Promotes Postexercise Hypotension Greater than Moderate Intensity and Affects Cardiac Autonomic Responses in Women Who Are Hypertensive.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Brito, Aline; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do S; Coutinho de Oliveira, Caio V; Sarmento da Nóbrega, Thereza K; Lúcia de Moraes Forjaz, Cláudia; da Cruz Santos, Amilton

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity resistance exercise (RE) sessions on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac autonomic modulation, and forearm blood flow (FBF). Sixteen trained hypertensive women (n = 16, 56 ± 3 years) completed the following 3 experimental sessions: control (CS), RE at 50% (EX50%), and RE at 80% (EX80%) of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Both EX50% and EX80% comprised a set of 10 repetitions of 10 exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Measurements were taken preintervention and postintervention (at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery). Reductions in systolic/diastolic BP after exercise were greater in EX80% (largest declines, -29 ± 4/-14 ± 5 mm Hg) than EX50% (largest declines, -18 ± 6/-8 ± 5 mm Hg, p ≤ 0.05). Heart rate and cardiac sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) increased more in relation to pre-exercise values in EX80% than EX50% (largest increases 96 ± 3 vs. 90 ± 4 b·min, LF/HF = 1.77 ± 0.25 vs. 1.40 ± 0.20, respectively, p ≤ 0.05). Increases in FBF and hyperemia was also higher in EX80% than EX50% compared with pre-exercise (4.97 ± 0.28 vs. 4.36 ± 0.27 ml·min·100 ml and 5.90 ± 0.20 vs. 5.38 ± 0.25 ml·min·100 ml; p ≤ 0.05, respectively). These results suggest that RE of higher intensity promoted greater postexercise hypotension accompanied by greater increases in FBF, vasodilator response, HR, and cardiac sympathovagal balance. PMID:25992658

  1. Similar photoperiod-related birth seasonalities among professional baseball players and lesbian women with an opposite seasonality among gay men: Maternal melatonin may affect fetal sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Marzullo, Giovanni

    2014-05-30

    Based on pre-mid-20th-century data, the same photoperiod-related birth seasonality previously observed in schizophrenia was also recently found in neural-tube defects and in extreme left-handedness among professional baseball players. This led to a hypothesis implicating maternal melatonin and other mediators of sunlight actions capable of affecting 4th-embryonic-week developments including neural-tube closure and left-right differentiation of the brain. Here, new studies of baseball players suggest that the same sunlight actions could also affect testosterone-dependent male-female differentiation in the 4-month-old fetus. Independently of hand-preferences, baseball players (n=6829), and particularly the stronger hitters among them, showed a unique birth seasonality with an excess around early-November and an equally significant deficit 6 months later around early-May. In two smaller studies, north-American and other northern-hemisphere born lesbians showed the same strong-hitter birth seasonality while gay men showed the opposite seasonality. The sexual dimorphism-critical 4th-fetal-month testosterone surge coincides with the summer-solstice in early-November births and the winter-solstice in early-May births. These coincidences are discussed and a "melatonin mechanism" is proposed based on evidence that in seasonal breeders maternal melatonin imparts "photoperiodic history" to the newborn by direct inhibition of fetal testicular testosterone synthesis. The present effects could represent a vestige of this same phenomenon in man.

  2. Similar photoperiod-related birth seasonalities among professional baseball players and lesbian women with an opposite seasonality among gay men: Maternal melatonin may affect fetal sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Marzullo, Giovanni

    2014-05-30

    Based on pre-mid-20th-century data, the same photoperiod-related birth seasonality previously observed in schizophrenia was also recently found in neural-tube defects and in extreme left-handedness among professional baseball players. This led to a hypothesis implicating maternal melatonin and other mediators of sunlight actions capable of affecting 4th-embryonic-week developments including neural-tube closure and left-right differentiation of the brain. Here, new studies of baseball players suggest that the same sunlight actions could also affect testosterone-dependent male-female differentiation in the 4-month-old fetus. Independently of hand-preferences, baseball players (n=6829), and particularly the stronger hitters among them, showed a unique birth seasonality with an excess around early-November and an equally significant deficit 6 months later around early-May. In two smaller studies, north-American and other northern-hemisphere born lesbians showed the same strong-hitter birth seasonality while gay men showed the opposite seasonality. The sexual dimorphism-critical 4th-fetal-month testosterone surge coincides with the summer-solstice in early-November births and the winter-solstice in early-May births. These coincidences are discussed and a "melatonin mechanism" is proposed based on evidence that in seasonal breeders maternal melatonin imparts "photoperiodic history" to the newborn by direct inhibition of fetal testicular testosterone synthesis. The present effects could represent a vestige of this same phenomenon in man. PMID:24612972

  3. Hidden Voices: Disabled Women's Experiences of Violence and Support Over the Life Course.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sonali; Tsitsou, Lito; Woodin, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Violence against women is a worldwide social and human rights problem that cuts across cultural, geographic, religious, social, and economic boundaries. It affects women in countries around the world, regardless of class, religion, disability, age, or sexual identity. International evidence shows that approximately three in five women experienced physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner. However, across the globe, women and girls with impairments or life-limiting illnesses are more susceptible to different forms of violence across a range of environments and by different perpetrators including professionals and family members as well as partners. However, they are likely to be seriously disadvantaged in gaining information and support to escape the abusive relationships. This article stems from the United Kingdom part of a comparative study with three other countries (Austria, Germany, and Iceland) funded by the European Commission (EC; 2013-2015). It presents preliminary findings, generated from life history interviews, about disabled women's experiences of violence and access to support (both formal and informal) over their life course and their aspirations for the prevention of violence in the future. The article includes examples of impairment-specific violence that non-disabled women do not experience. By bringing the voices of disabled women into the public domain, the article will facilitate a historically marginalized group to contribute to the debate about disability, violence, and support. PMID:26762144

  4. Women's Higher Education in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gail P., Ed.; Slaughter, Sheila, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays on the effect of national policies and practices on women's access to higher education, the type of courses in which women are enrolled, women's roles as academics, and how the outcomes of higher education affect women in the academic workforce and the economy. Various countries are represented in the…

  5. Sex Role Sterotypes and Justice for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Clarice

    1979-01-01

    Sexual sterotyping affects the incarceration of women, their treatment in prisons and jails, and their reception in the community following release. While women's organizations play a major role in improving conditions facing incarcerated women, they have perpetuated the sterotypes. Because of sex role sterotyping, we have denied justice to women.…

  6. Directing gaze: the effect of disclaimer labels on women's visual attention to fashion magazine advertisements.

    PubMed

    Bury, Belinda; Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2014-09-01

    In an effort to combat the known negative effects of exposure to unrealistic thin ideal images, there is increasing worldwide pressure on fashion, media and advertising industries to disclose when images have been digitally altered. The current study used eye tracking technology to investigate experimentally how digital alteration disclaimer labels impact women's visual attention to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 60 female undergraduate students who viewed four thin ideal advertisements with either no disclaimer, a generic disclaimer, or a specific more detailed disclaimer. It was established that women did attend to the disclaimers. The nature of the disclaimer had no effect on time spent looking at particular body parts, but did affect the direction of gaze following reading of the disclaimer. This latter effect was found to be greater for women high on trait appearance comparison. Further research is paramount in guiding effective policy around the use of disclaimer labels. PMID:24997284

  7. Women's Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James E., Ed.; Davis, Hazel K., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The 16 articles in this journal issue deal with women's studies within the English curriculum. Topics discussed in the articles include (1) the feminist challenge to the male-centered curriculum in higher education; (2) the women's movement and women's studies; (3) connotations of the word "girl"; (4) women in English education; (5) the new…

  8. Women Physicists in Academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrah, Nora

    2010-02-01

    The last decade marked the emergence of several important studies and workshops worldwide that focused attention on women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP) of the American Physical Society (APS) is very active in organizing national workshops and follow up ``conversations'' with physics departments and national laboratories [1,2] to address the gender gap in the field of physics. The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) is also very devoted to this issue, and the US is involved by contributing our lesson learned and our plans to increase the number of women in physics. In the US, our goal of doubling the number of women in physics by 2022 is ambitious but could be achieved. I will present the present status on this issue and our plans for the future. [4pt] [1] http://www.aps.org/programs/women/workshops/gender-equity/index.cfm [0pt] [2] Report, ``Gender Equity: Strengthening the Physics Enterprise in Universities and National Laboratories'', 2007. )

  9. “I Always Worry about What Might Happen Ahead”: Implementing Safer Conception Services in the Current Environment of Reproductive Counseling for HIV-Affected Men and Women in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bajunirwe, Francis; Kastner, Jasmine; Sanyu, Naomi; Akatukwasa, Cecilia; Ng, Courtney; Rifkin, Rachel; Milford, Cecilia; Moore, Lizzie; Wilson, Ira B.; Bangsberg, David R.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Kaida, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background. We explored healthcare provider perspectives and practices regarding safer conception counseling for HIV-affected clients. Methods. We conducted semistructured interviews with 38 providers (medical and clinical officers, nurses, peer counselors, and village health workers) delivering care to HIV-infected clients across 5 healthcare centres in Mbarara District, Uganda. Interview transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Results. Of 38 providers, 76% were women with median age 34 years (range 24–57). First, we discuss providers' reproductive counseling practices. Emergent themes include that providers (1) assess reproductive goals of HIV-infected female clients frequently, but infrequently for male clients; (2) offer counseling focused on “family planning” and maternal and child health; (3) empathize with the importance of having children for HIV-affected clients; and (4) describe opportunities to counsel HIV-serodiscordant couples. Second, we discuss provider-level challenges that impede safer conception counseling. Emergent themes included the following: (1) providers struggle to translate reproductive rights language into individualized risk reduction given concerns about maternal health and HIV transmission and (2) providers lack safer conception training and support needed to provide counseling. Discussion. Tailored guidelines and training are required for providers to implement safer conception counseling. Such support must respond to provider experiences with adverse HIV-related maternal and child outcomes and a national emphasis on pregnancy prevention. PMID:27051664

  10. Violence Against Women

    PubMed Central

    Fulu, Emma; Miedema, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Globalization theories have proliferated over the past two decades. However, global developments have yet to be systematically incorporated into theories around violence against women. This article proposes to add a global level to the existing ecological model framework, popularized by Lori Heise in 1998, to explore the relationships between global processes and experiences of violence against women. Data from the Maldives and Cambodia are used to assess how globalized ideologies, economic development and integration, religious fundamentalisms, and global cultural exchange, as components of a larger globalization process, have affected men and women’s experiences and perceptions of violence against women. PMID:26215287

  11. Suicide in women

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a global public health problem. Asia accounts for 60% of the world's suicides, so at least 60 million people are affected by suicide or attempted suicide in Asia each year. The burden of female suicidal behavior, in terms of total burden of morbidity and mortality combined, is more in women than in men. Women's greater vulnerability to suicidal behavior is likely to be due to gender related vulnerability to psychopathology and to psychosocial stressors. Suicide prevention programmes should incorporate woman specific strategies. More research on suicidal behavior in women particularly in developing countries is needed. PMID:26330640

  12. Use of HPV testing for cervical screening in vaccinated women--Insights from the SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated Women) study.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Ramya; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Cubie, Heather Ann; Serrano, Itziar; Wennington, Holli; Hopkins, Mark; Pan, Jiafeng; Pollock, Kevin G; Palmer, Tim J; Cuschieri, Kate

    2016-06-15

    The management of cervical disease is changing worldwide as a result of HPV vaccination and the increasing use of HPV testing for cervical screening. However, the impact of vaccination on the performance of HPV based screening strategies is unknown. The SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated women) projects are designed to gain insight into the impact of vaccination on the performance of clinically validated HPV assays. Samples collated from women attending for first cervical smear who had been vaccinated as part of a national "catch-up" programme were tested with three clinically validated HPV assays (2 DNA and 1 RNA). Overall HR-HPV and type specific positivity was assessed in total population and according to underlying cytology and compared to a demographically equivalent group of unvaccinated women. HPV prevalence was significantly lower in vaccinated women and was influenced by assay-type, reducing by 23-25% for the DNA based assays and 32% for the RNA assay (p = 0.0008). All assays showed over 75% reduction of HPV16 and/or 18 (p < 0.0001) whereas the prevalence of non 16/18 HR-HPV was not significantly different in vaccinated vs unvaccinated women. In women with low grade abnormalities, the proportion associated with non 16/18 HR-HPV was significantly higher in vaccinated women (p < 0.0001). Clinically validated HPV assays are affected differentially when applied to vaccinated women, dependent on assay chemistry. The increased proportion of non HPV16/18 infections may have implications for clinical performance, consequently, longitudinal studies linking HPV status to disease outcomes in vaccinated women are warranted.

  13. Use of HPV testing for cervical screening in vaccinated women--Insights from the SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated Women) study.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Ramya; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Cubie, Heather Ann; Serrano, Itziar; Wennington, Holli; Hopkins, Mark; Pan, Jiafeng; Pollock, Kevin G; Palmer, Tim J; Cuschieri, Kate

    2016-06-15

    The management of cervical disease is changing worldwide as a result of HPV vaccination and the increasing use of HPV testing for cervical screening. However, the impact of vaccination on the performance of HPV based screening strategies is unknown. The SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated women) projects are designed to gain insight into the impact of vaccination on the performance of clinically validated HPV assays. Samples collated from women attending for first cervical smear who had been vaccinated as part of a national "catch-up" programme were tested with three clinically validated HPV assays (2 DNA and 1 RNA). Overall HR-HPV and type specific positivity was assessed in total population and according to underlying cytology and compared to a demographically equivalent group of unvaccinated women. HPV prevalence was significantly lower in vaccinated women and was influenced by assay-type, reducing by 23-25% for the DNA based assays and 32% for the RNA assay (p = 0.0008). All assays showed over 75% reduction of HPV16 and/or 18 (p < 0.0001) whereas the prevalence of non 16/18 HR-HPV was not significantly different in vaccinated vs unvaccinated women. In women with low grade abnormalities, the proportion associated with non 16/18 HR-HPV was significantly higher in vaccinated women (p < 0.0001). Clinically validated HPV assays are affected differentially when applied to vaccinated women, dependent on assay chemistry. The increased proportion of non HPV16/18 infections may have implications for clinical performance, consequently, longitudinal studies linking HPV status to disease outcomes in vaccinated women are warranted. PMID:26845632

  14. Women in Meteorology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized

  15. Women: Support Factors and Persistence in Engineering. Research in Engineering and Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, John R.; Zeng, Yong

    2005-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the factors that promote persistence by women in engineering programs. Stated simply, the problem is that the number of women engineers continues to fall short in comparison to the gender ratio of women to men in the population in the U.S. (BEST, 2002) and worldwide (Hersh, 2000). More women engineers are…

  16. Infectious diseases of the nervous system: pathogenesis and worldwide impact.

    PubMed

    Berkhout, Ben

    2008-11-01

    The 2008 Infectious Diseases of the Nervous System: Pathogenesis and World Impact conference was held at the Pasteur Institute of Paris, and was the first worldwide conference on neuroinfections. While viral encephalitis and bacterial meningitis are being actively studied in the developed world, much less attention is paid to the often fatal nervous system infections caused by neurotropic viruses, parasites and mycobacteria that represent important health problems in tropical regions. This meeting fostered worldwide interactions between scientists and stimulated the exchange of the latest research results on these neglected neurotropic pathogens. PMID:18988120

  17. AIDS in women: epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, A

    1989-09-01

    Several facts concerning the distribution of AIDS in U.S. female populations are clear. This disease has made significant inroads, in a quantitative sense, into the female segment of our society as documented by AIDS surveillance data, information on pregnant women and parturients, and by screening data from the military. The impact on women in the reproductive years, on the reproductive health of these women, and on the reproductive outcome of their pregnancies is of substantial concern. Monitoring epidemiologic trends in certain groups will require clever and creative strategies like those of Hoff and colleagues. Additional data may be derived from the CDC's Family of Surveys that will examine HIV prevalence in five groups (in addition to the newborn infant survey described above): intravenous drug users, patients admitted to hospitals, sexually transmitted disease clinic patients, women's health and reproductive health clinics, and tuberculosis clinics. It is hoped that the data obtained from these studies, as well as data gathered on college students and Job Corps applicants, will contribute additional information on HIV infection in women. Monitoring the progress of the AIDS epidemic in women will be difficult. Even more difficult will be the effort to respond to the epidemic in the women it most frequently affects: the poor, minority, disenfranchised women who may be involved in illegal activities (drug use, prostitution, illegal immigration) who are not well networked into the medical and social services of our society. PMID:2776374

  18. Sharka epidemiology and worldwide management strategies: learning lessons to optimize disease control in perennial plants.

    PubMed

    Rimbaud, Loup; Dallot, Sylvie; Gottwald, Tim; Decroocq, Véronique; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Thébaud, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Many plant epidemics that cause major economic losses cannot be controlled with pesticides. Among them, sharka epidemics severely affect prunus trees worldwide. Its causal agent, Plum pox virus (PPV; genus Potyvirus), has been classified as a quarantine pathogen in numerous countries. As a result, various management strategies have been implemented in different regions of the world, depending on the epidemiological context and on the objective (i.e., eradication, suppression, containment, or resilience). These strategies have exploited virus-free planting material, varietal improvement, surveillance and removal of trees in orchards, and statistical models. Variations on these management options lead to contrasted outcomes, from successful eradication to widespread presence of PPV in orchards. Here, we present management strategies in the light of sharka epidemiology to gain insights from this worldwide experience. Although focused on sharka, this review highlights more general levers and promising approaches to optimize disease control in perennial plants. PMID:26047559

  19. [Women and AIDS in Africa].

    PubMed

    Coll Seck, A M

    1990-10-01

    The theme of "World Aids Day" for 1990 was "Women and AIDS." This theme was chosen because of the devastating effects AIDS has on women. The World Health Organization's (WHO) latest figures state that women represent 1/3 of the estimated 6 million people infected with AIDS worldwide. The majority of these women are in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the Caribbean. The outcomes of a recent study done in a Central African country showed that women were 4 times more susceptible to getting AIDS than men, in spite of the fact that there are more men than women in this area of SSA. The reasons that women are so vulnerable are multiple: illiteracy, lack of access to information, prejudices, sexual taboos, and an economic dependency which have all led women towards prostitution and the growing incidence of hetero sexual transmission of AIDS in SSA. Prostitutes are 88% seropositive in Kigali; 16% in Dakar and 90% in Nairobi. 10% of all AIDS cases in SSA are due to transfusions where the blood banks are not monitored because women are loosing large quantities of blood through abortions, hemorrhages, deliveries and chronic anemia due to continuous pregnancies that are badly spaced. Additional problems for women are transmitting AIDS to their babies -- 25-30% of pediatric AIDS are transmitted from mother to child through "vertical transmission (VT)." This VT is a serious problem in East Africa where a survey in Uganda showed that 24% of pregnant women were infected with AIDS. The WHO estimated that between 1980-1987, 80,000 children were infected with AIDS of which 80% died before age 5. AIDS in SSA is taking its toll on women who face environmental, socio-cultural, political and economic discrimination. Such a loss to AIDS to incalculable to society.

  20. Global aging: implications for women and women's health.

    PubMed

    Tabloski, Patricia A

    2004-01-01

    The world's older population has been growing for centuries; however, the pace of this growth is accelerating rapidly. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, by 2030, more than 60 countries will have 2 million or more older people. Population aging represents a "success story," with increasing numbers of people worldwide enjoying additional years of life. However, the sustained increase in numbers of older people (usually defined as persons over the age of 65) poses many challenges to policy makers and health care providers around the world. As the world population ages, we are just beginning to understand the social, economic, and political implications of the "age wave." The majority of older people are women, thus the implications of population changes for women and women's health are astounding. Nurses can take a national and world leadership role to adequately address the health care needs of increasing numbers of older women. PMID:15495709

  1. Location of robotic surgical systems worldwide and in France.

    PubMed

    Vaessen, C

    2011-10-01

    The advent of robot-assisted surgery is a surgical revolution. However, the costs of installing and using a da Vinci system are impediments to the proliferation of this technology. This article reviews the locations of robotic surgical systems worldwide and in France, in 2010.

  2. Essays on the Future of Continuing Education Worldwide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Warren L., Ed.

    Topics chosen for these eight seminar papers divide basically into three categories: discussions on processes and methods for planning for the future of adult education; attempts to project into the future such worldwide problems as urbanism, conflict, the population explosion, and specific adult education trends; and discussion of the current…

  3. Worldwide Behavioral Research on Major Global Causes of Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dal-Re, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Researchers willing to publish their interventional studies' results must register their studies before starting enrollment. This study aimed to describe all "open" (i.e., recruiting or not yet recruiting) behavioral studies in 16 of 20 top worldwide leading causes of death. Method: Search on Clinicaltrials.gov database (March 2010).…

  4. State-of-the-Art in Open Courseware Initiatives Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vladoiu, Monica

    2011-01-01

    We survey here the state-of-the-art in open courseware initiatives worldwide. First, the MIT OpenCourseWare project is overviewed, as it has been the real starting point of the OCW movement. Usually, open courseware refers to a free and open digital publication of high quality university level educational materials that are organized as courses,…

  5. Worldwide trends in engine coolants, cooling system materials and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on worldwide trends in engine coolants, cooling systems, materials and testings. Topics covered include: Internationalization of the Automotive Industry - Global Responses in the Functional Fluid Area; Analysis of Coolants from Diesel Engines; Cavitation Damage of Diesel Engine Wet- Cylinder Liners; and Development of Test Stand to Measure the Effect of Coolant Composition on Engine Coolant Pump Seal Leakage.

  6. Worldwide Educational Broadcasting: Diversity and Challenge in a New Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodaira, Sachiko Imaizumi

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyzes the state of the world's educational broadcasting community following the rapid changes in the 1980s. The future prospects of educational television and radio broadcasting are discussed based on a summary of the Worldwide Survey of 48 foreign countries which was conducted in 1989, and a review of the presentations given by…

  7. Structures of School Systems Worldwide: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popov, Nikolay

    2012-01-01

    In the past 20 years I have been examining the structures of school systems worldwide. This ongoing research has been enriched by the findings obtained from the lecture course on Comparative Education I have been delivering to students in the Bachelor and Master's Education Programs at Sofia University, Bulgaria. This paper presents some results…

  8. Worldwide Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.J.; Beckler, T.M.

    1993-03-01

    The U.S. Army maintains an environmental compliance program that identifies compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Beginning in 1985, Major Army Commands (MACOMs) were required to conduct comprehensive environmental assessments at all installations on a 4-year cycle. The installations must also conduct a mid-cycle internal assessment. Because each MACOM was developing a separate assessment system, the Army mandated, through Army Regulation 200-1, one unified Army-wide assessment mechanism. The resulting system combines Federal, Department of Defense (DOD), and Army environmental regulations, along with good management practices and risk-management information, into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and which specific items or operations to review. Each assessment protocol lists a point of contact to help assessors review the checklist items as effectively as possible. The Worldwide Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) manual incorporates existing checklists from USEPA and private industry. It also integrates information from the Overseas Environmental Baseline Guidance Document (OEBGD), published by DOD in October 1992. Additionally, Worldwide ECAS includes pertinent information from Army Regulations, DOD Directives and Instructions, and it cites good management practices for an overall environmental review. Worldwide Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS), Worldwide ECAS, Environmental compliance checklists.

  9. Full partnership for women in development.

    PubMed

    Luke, M

    1995-01-01

    The mission of CEDPA (Center for Development and Population Activities) is to empower women to be full partners in development. Empowerment starts with the development of women as leaders and managers through leadership training. There are now 4000 CEDPA alumnae worldwide who have participated in training programs. USAID-funded integrated service programs are geared toward women-managed health services seeking out nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) based in the community that have women as part of their services. Another approach is building the capacity of institutions to broaden their programs to fully utilize external funding and also establish a foundation for sustainability. Another strategy is advocacy and policy. Recently a group of women leaders attended all the preparatory meetings for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) to be sure that input into the Cairo Document came from women who were representatives of family planning programs in their communities. The ICPD document itself is favorable to women's development, women leaders, and training for women, but the challenge is to find financial resources to make the commitment to women's programs on a large scale. The test of the Program of Action is how it is implemented. NGOs do not have enough resources, but women's NGOs have even less resources than other NGOs. The Global Issues Initiative is a significant commitment on the part of the Japanese government. CEDPA's mission is to ensure that women participate in these programs that will be developed and managed by women and NGOs.

  10. Experiences and influences of women with cosmetic tattooing.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Jana C; Armstrong, Myrna L

    2005-02-01

    Cosmetic tattooing (permanent makeup of eyebrows, eyeliner, or lipliner) procedures are flourishing among women worldwide. Recurrent themes provide knowledge and understanding so dermatology nurses can aid in their procedural decision making.

  11. International Women's Day speech.

    PubMed

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts. PMID:12345405

  12. International Women's Day speech.

    PubMed

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts.

  13. Disparities in women's cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, Jean C; Pettey, Christina M; Souder, Elaine; Rhoads, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women, and disparities affect the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of CVD for women. Biology, genetics, and race contribute to these disparities. Obstetric-gynecologic health care providers routinely encounter women who are at risk for developing CVD and are uniquely positioned as a point of access to intervene to improve/prevent CVD by assessing for risks and discussing healthy lifestyle changes during routine visits.

  14. Annual Research Review: A Meta-Analysis of the Worldwide Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Salum, Giovanni A.; Sugaya, Luisa S.; Caye, Arthur; Rohde, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature on the prevalence of mental disorders affecting children and adolescents has expanded significantly over the last three decades around the world. Despite the field having matured significantly, there has been no meta-analysis to calculate a worldwide-pooled prevalence and to empirically assess the sources of…

  15. Another development with Women.

    PubMed

    Ahooja-patel, K

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this discussion of "Another Development with Women" is to add some thoughts to the scientific approach, which combines survey techniques and computer style data analysis (measurability, detachment, and objectivity). Its purpose is to tilt the balance of the development process a bit further towards women, and it proposes to introduce another element into the discussion on development with women--that of experiential knowledge (knowledge based on collective experience). Women researchers have a double consciousness, similar to that of the black or other discriminated minority, an awareness of the motives and strategies of the oppressor as well as the inner view of the oppressed. To find some answers to the question why the development debate is sometimes obscure, sometimes sterile, and usually frustrating, and to understand why the goals of development remain distant oases, it is necessary to turn attention to the actual contribution women are making to development. Fundamentally, most of women's activities seem to fall outside the definition of "gainful employment." The activities are labeled "nonmarket" or "nonmonetized" activities. It is the differential between work and creativity that fundamentally affects women and erodes their economic and social status. Another unperceived dimension to women's work, which further conceals their efforts and prevents them from surfacing, is the fact that until recently socioeconomic series and indicators were not desegregated by sex. Consequently, the available data on key economic and social questions could not answer the fundamental questions of where are women working, in what numbers, in which activities, and at what wage levels. During the last 2 years some global data for an international information base on women has become available, and the new data will make it possible to follow much more closely, and on a comparative basis for a much larger number of countries, new developments concerning women

  16. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  17. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Chai, Tze L.; Chan, Benny B.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Barr, Susan I.; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  18. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  19. Asthma is Different in Women

    PubMed Central

    Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in asthma incidence, prevalence and severity have been reported worldwide. After puberty, asthma becomes more prevalent and severe in women, and is highest in women with early menarche or with multiple gestations, suggesting a role for sex hormones in asthma genesis. However, the impact of sex hormones on the pathophysiology of asthma is confounded by and difficult to differentiate from age, obesity, atopy, and other gender associated environmental exposures. There are also gender discrepancies in the perception of asthma symptoms. Understanding gender differences in asthma is important to provide effective education and personalized management plans for asthmatics across the lifecourse. PMID:26141573

  20. Skeletal alterations in women affected by obesity.

    PubMed

    Migliaccio, Silvia; Greco, Emanuela A; Fornari, Rachele; Donini, Lorenzo M; Di Luigi, Luigi; Lenzi, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    Obesity has always been considered a protective factor for the skeleton and for osteoporosis. However, new epidemiologic and clinical data have shown that high level of fat mass might be a risk factor for osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Further, increasing evidences seem to indicate that the different components of metabolic syndrome (i.e. hypertension, increased triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) are also potential risk factors for the development of low bone mineral density and osteoporosis. PMID:24061852

  1. How Does Heart Disease Affect Women?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video All of Our Stories Are Red: Yaskary's Story 04/ ... part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). All of Our Stories Are Red: Eileen's Story 04/ ...

  2. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-09-01

    The worldwide market for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems in three specific segments of the rural sector were determined. The worldwide market for photovoltaic power systems for village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications were addressed. The objectives of these studies were to: The market potential for small stand-alone photovoltaic power system in specific application areas was assessed. Technical, social and institutional barriers to PV utilization were identified. Funding sources available to potential users was also identified and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector were recommended to PV product manufacturers. The studies were prepared on the basis of data gathered from domestic sources and from field trips to representative countries. Both country-specific and sector-specific results are discussed, and broadly applicable barriers pertinent to international marketing of PV products are presented.

  3. Potential Atmospheric Impact Generated by Space Launches Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, B. B.; Desain, J. D.; Curtiss, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    This paper evaluates the exhaust products generated from launch vehicles worldwide. Information on atmospheric deposition of carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, sulfates, inorganic chlorine and alumina particulates due to launch vehicles is presented. The potential for environmental impact from ozone destruction and global climate change due to space launches from worldwide sources is discussed. The exhaust from launch vehicles contains many components that have the potential to effect atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. These greenhouse gases absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infrared range. The loss or gain of greenhouse gases has the net effect of changing the total global radiative balance. Launch vehicles are different than many other anthropogenic sources of these exhaust components (primarily the burning of fossil fuels), because vehicles deposit these exhaust components at all levels of the Earth’s atmosphere rather than just the lower troposphere.

  4. World-wide increase in tropospheric methane, 1978-1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. R.; Rowland, F. S.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques used to assess methane concentration in the troposphere are described, and data obtained during the period from 1978 to 1983 are presented in detail. Tropospheric methane concentrations in remote locations averaged a yearly world-wide increase of 0.018 + or - 0.002 parts per million by volume (ppmv). Average world-wide tropospheric concentration of methane in dry air was 1.625 ppmv at the end of 1983 measured against an NBS standard certified as 0.97 ppmv. Contributing to this steady increase in methane concentration are increases in the source strengths from cattle and rice fields, which in turn result from CO, CH4 and HO coupling. Among the physical and chemical effects is an increase in greenhouse warming of about 0.04 C per decade.

  5. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The worldwide market for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems in three specific segments of the rural sector were determined. The worldwide market for photovoltaic power systems for village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications were addressed. The objectives of these studies were to: The market potential for small stand-alone photovoltaic power system in specific application areas was assessed. Technical, social and institutional barriers to PV utilization were identified. Funding sources available to potential users was also identified and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector were recommended to PV product manufacturers. The studies were prepared on the basis of data gathered from domestic sources and from field trips to representative countries. Both country-specific and sector-specific results are discussed, and broadly applicable barriers pertinent to international marketing of PV products are presented.

  6. Worldwide refining capacity at 75 million b/d level

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1991-12-23

    While worldwide crude distillation capacity held essentially flat in 1991, there was solid growth in the Asia/Pacific region both in distillation and octane and conversion capacity. Refinery-by-refinery surveys of both U.S. and worldwide capacity appear together. The U.S. refining industry is apparently in a holding pattern, according to the survey, but it is still the largest and most complex refining industry in the world. It is clear, however, that Western European refineries are beginning to pay more attention to the quality of gasoline and its production. This paper indirectly reflects the obsolescence of much of the communist block technology with its weak conversion and upgrading capability.

  7. Global Ionosphere Perturbations Monitored by the Worldwide GPS Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Manucci, A. T.; Lindqwister, U. J.; Pi, X.

    1996-01-01

    For the first time, measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) worldwide network are employed to study the global ionospheric total electron content(TEC) changes during a magnetic storm (November 26, 1994). These measurements are obtained from more than 60 world-wide GPS stations which continuously receive dual-frequency signals. Based on the delays of the signals, we have generated high resolution global ionospheric maps (GIM) of TEC at 15 minute intervals. Using a differential method comparing storm time maps with quiet time maps, we find that significant TEC increases (the positive effect ) are the major feature in the winter hemisphere during this storm (the maximum percent change relative to quiet times is about 150 percent).

  8. Transformational Nurse Leaders Key to Strengthening Health Systems Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Stephanie L

    2015-01-01

    This column, presented by the director of the International Council of Nurses (ICN), discusses the work of the ICN over the past 20 years and into the future in developing nursing leaders across the globe. Dr Ferguson relates this activity to the constructs of the Magnet Recognition Program. The ICN is at the forefront of making sure nurses and nurse executives have the knowledge, skills, and ability to lead effectively worldwide and meet the global health challenges.

  9. Transformational Nurse Leaders Key to Strengthening Health Systems Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Stephanie L

    2015-01-01

    This column, presented by the director of the International Council of Nurses (ICN), discusses the work of the ICN over the past 20 years and into the future in developing nursing leaders across the globe. Dr Ferguson relates this activity to the constructs of the Magnet Recognition Program. The ICN is at the forefront of making sure nurses and nurse executives have the knowledge, skills, and ability to lead effectively worldwide and meet the global health challenges. PMID:26204374

  10. Combined cycle energy production: Overview of worldwide utilization and techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, M.

    1982-06-01

    The worldwide distribution of combined cycle generators using simple recuperation, supercharged boilers, post combustion, and parallel combustion and complex cycles is summarized. Clean energy, fuel oil, coal, fluidized bed, and gasification based processes are discussed. With clean energy systems, up to 46% efficiency is achieved using a single recuperation - double evaporation cycle. Using gas turbine output to feed a higher power steam turbine is also economically attractive, but no one system is an obvious choice. Around 100 combined generators are now operating.

  11. Searching for the corner seismic moment in worldwide data

    SciTech Connect

    Felgueiras, Miguel; Santos, Rui; Martins, João Paulo

    2015-12-31

    In this paper the existence of the corner frequency value for the seismic moment distribution is investigated, analysing worldwide data. Pareto based distributions, usually considered as the most suitable to this type of data, are fitted to the most recent data, available in a global earthquake catalog. Despite the undeniable finite nature of the seismic moment data, we conclude that no corner frequency can be established considering the available data set.

  12. Iridium{reg_sign} worldwide personal communication system

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, J.

    1997-01-01

    The IRIDIUM system is a personal worldwide communication system designed to support portable, low power subscriber units through the use of a constellation of satellites in low earth polar orbit. The satellites are networked together to form a system which provides continuous line-of-sight communications between the IRIDIUM system and any point within 30 km of the earth{close_quote}s surface. The system architecture and operation are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Student-Created Content in WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, M. J.

    2014-07-01

    Using WorldWide Telescope (WWT), the California Academy of Sciences used tour presentations created by Bay Area high school students. These students wrote, programmed, and presented their own fulldome shows utilizing WWT with the support of Academy staff. This allowed the students to create programs that were meaningful and interesting and to help determine the kinds of shows and content for future programs at the Academy. We present here our experiences and our goals for future programs.

  14. International organizations to enable world-wide mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, Richard L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of systems exist or have been proposed to provide world-wide mobile satellite services (MSS). Developers of these systems have formulated institutional structures they consider most appropriate for profitable delivery of these services. MSS systems provide niche services and complement traditional telecommunications networks; they are not integrated into world-wide networks. To be successful, MSS system operators must be able to provide an integrated suite of services to support the increasing globalization, interconnectivity, and mobility of business. The critical issue to enabling 'universal roaming' is securing authority to provide MSS in all of the nations of the world. Such authority must be secured in the context of evolving trends in international telecommunications, and must specifically address issues of standardization, regulation and organization. Today, only one existing organization has such world-wide authority. The question is how proponents of new MSS systems and services can gain similar authority. Securing the appropriate authorizations requires that these new organizations reflect the objectives of the nations in which services are to be delivered.

  15. Progress toward polio eradication - worldwide, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Hagan, José E; Wassilak, Steven G F; Craig, Allen S; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Quddus, Arshad

    2015-05-22

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to eradicate polio worldwide. Wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has been interrupted in all but three countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan). No WPV type 2 cases have been detected worldwide since 1999, and the last WPV type 3 case was detected in Nigeria in November 2012; since 2012, only WPV type 1 has been detected. Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV), usually type 2, continues to cause cases of paralytic polio in communities with low population immunity. In 2012, the World Health Assembly declared global polio eradication "a programmatic emergency for global public health", and in 2014, WHO declared the international spread of WPV to previously polio-free countries to be "a public health emergency of international concern". This report summarizes global progress toward polio eradication during 2014-2015 and updates previous reports. In 2014, a total of 359 WPV cases were reported in nine countries worldwide. Although reported WPV cases increased in Pakistan and Afghanistan, cases in Nigeria decreased substantially in 2014, and encouraging progress toward global WPV transmission interruption has occurred. Overcoming ongoing challenges to interruption of WPV transmission globally will require sustained programmatic enhancements, including improving the quality of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) to interrupt transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan and to prevent WPV exportation to polio-free countries.

  16. The human factor: enhancing women's rights.

    PubMed

    Steinzor, N

    1995-01-01

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the UN in 1948, declares that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights, and that everyone has the right to life, liberty, and security of person. In practice, however, far from everyone has these rights, especially women. Many women worldwide have neither the awareness of nor access to family planning methods with which they could regulate their fertility and childbearing. Thus deprived of their reproductive freedom, these women cannot pursue education, employment, and other life options which would otherwise be readily available to them were they not saddled with poor reproductive health and too many children. Expanded choices enhance the status of women, which in turn helps them to reduce fertility rates and stabilize population growth. The author discusses how the wide range of cultural and social norms, and economic and political systems worldwide make it very difficult and complex to actually implement universal human rights.

  17. Factors Affecting Response to Infertility Treatment: Case of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Peyromusavi, Fatemeh; Barouni, Mohsen; Naderi, Tayebeh; Shahravan, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Infertility affects both women and men in all the countries. Infertility often has profound long-term or short-term impacts on the people involved and puts them at risk of familial and social pressures. According to WHO estimates, between 8% and 12% of all the couples worldwide experience some form of infertility during their reproductive life, i.e. 50–80 million people are affected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to infertility treatment by taking into account factors such as age, hirsutism, menstruation and galactose among women in Kerman. Methodology: Of a total of 300 patient files evaluated 220 cases were flawless, of which the study factors were recorded. These data were estimated by Logit model. The dependent variable was the response to treatment (0 and 1) and the independent variables included age of men and women, hirsutism, menstruation, galactose, duration of the period no preventive measures were used and body mass index. After entering the data, model output was analyzed by using the STATA software. Results: The results showed that of all the model variables, female age (prob=0.0065), menstruation (prob=0.04), hirsutism (prob=0.02), marriage age (in months) (prob=0.02) and BMI were significant and other variables were not significant. McFadden analysis for goodness of fit was 0.92. Conclusion: The study results showed that women should pay more attention to variables such as BMI, menstruation quality (regular and irregular) and aging because clinical disregard of any of the above can have a significant impact on the individual’s fertility. PMID:26234994

  18. Abused women: dispelling myths and encouraging intervention.

    PubMed

    King, M C; Ryan, J

    1989-05-01

    Our society abounds with myths and misperceptions in relation to the battering of women. These myths impede the identification of women who are experiencing violence and abuse, and inhibit appropriate intervention. Abuse is not too private a matter to assess for, nor does abuse affect only poor black or Hispanic women. No woman deserves to be beaten. Women do not like or seek out abuse. Abused women are courageous, competent women; what abused women have in common is that they are threatened and controlled by a male partner and live under the constant fear of violence and abuse. Raising one's consciousness about the victimization and oppression of women in our society, and uncovering the myths which leave practitioners powerless and ineffective agents of change for women are important tasks for health care providers. By focusing attention on this enormous health problem, clinicians can provide a leadership role in using health care responses that actually empower women to take control of their own lives.

  19. [HPV genotypes prevalence in México and worldwide detected by Linear Array].

    PubMed

    Flores-Miramontes, María G; Torres-Reyes, Luis A; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Vallejo-Ruíz, Verónica; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main factor associated with the development of cervical cancer (CC). Knowing about the prevalence of HPVs at different stages in the development of CC is important for determining the HPV oncogenic risk, the development of screening strategies, the evaluation of prevention programs, and also for vaccine designing. This paper is a meta-analysis of HPV prevalence worldwide and in Mexico from studies using the Linear Array® HPV Genotyping Test as a diagnostic test (it is the commercial test that, up to date, identifies the largest number of HPV genotypes in a single sample) in DNA of cervical samples from women with normal cytology, with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL), with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSIL) and with CC. The most prevalent genotypes after HPV-16 and -18 in women with CC varies depending on geographic region, which supports the need to develop detection and prevention strategies according to the characteristics of the population.

  20. Women in the "Old Boy Network."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Samuel M.

    1982-01-01

    The author finds that women will reshape the corporate organization, if only because there will be more women working. He discusses how the basic structure of professions affects and limits women's participation, how the mentor-protege system works, and how style and attitudes toward roles differ between male and female executives. (CT)

  1. Birds of Passage Are also Women ....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morokvasic, Mirjana

    1984-01-01

    Introduces a special issue on women and migration. Discusses immigrant women's participation within the world labor market, the ideologies affecting them, the effects of migration on sex roles and family patterns, and women's reasons for migration. Also discusses sex biases in research and policymaking concerning migration. (KH)

  2. Worldwide dataset of glacier thickness observations compiled by literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naegeli, Kathrin; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Hagg, Wilfried; Huss, Matthias; Machguth, Horst; Zemp, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The volume of glaciers and ice caps is still poorly known, although it is expected to contribute significantly to changes in the hydrological cycle and global sea level rise over the next decades. Studies presenting worldwide estimations are mostly based on modelling and scaling approaches and are usually calibrated with only few measurements. Direct investigations of glacier thickness, a crucial parameter for ice volume calculations, are rather sparse but nevertheless available from all around the globe. This study presents a worldwide compilation of glacier thickness observation data. Literature review revealed mean and/or maximum thickness values from 442 glaciers and ice caps, elevation band information and point measurements for 10 and 14 glaciers, respectively. Resulting in a dataset containing glaciers and ice caps with areas ranging from smaller than 0.1 km2 (e.g. Pizolgletscher, Switzerland) to larger than 10'000 km2 (e.g. Agassiz Ice Cap, Canada), mean ice thicknesses between 4 m (Blaueis, Germany) and 550 m (Aletschgletscher, Switzerland) and 64 values for ice masses with entries from different years. Thickness values are derived from various observation methods and cover a survey period between 1923 and 2011. A major advantage of the database is the included metadata, giving information about specific fields, such as the mean thickness value of Aletschgletscher, which is only valid for the investigation area Konkordiaplatz and not over the entire glacier. The relatively small collection of records in the two more detailed database levels reflects the poor availability of such data. For modelling purposes, where ice thicknesses are implemented to derive ice volumes, this database provides essential information about glacier and ice cap characteristics and enables the comparison between various approaches. However, the dataset offers a great variety of locations, thicknesses and surface areas of glaciers and ice caps and can therefore help to compare

  3. A systematic review of vitamin D status in populations worldwide.

    PubMed

    Hilger, Jennifer; Friedel, Angelika; Herr, Raphael; Rausch, Tamara; Roos, Franz; Wahl, Denys A; Pierroz, Dominique D; Weber, Peter; Hoffmann, Kristina

    2014-01-14

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with osteoporosis and is thought to increase the risk of cancer and CVD. Despite these numerous potential health effects, data on vitamin D status at the population level and within key subgroups are limited. The aims of the present study were to examine patterns of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels worldwide and to assess differences by age, sex and region. In a systematic literature review using the Medline and EMBASE databases, we identified 195 studies conducted in forty-four countries involving more than 168 000 participants. Mean population-level 25(OH)D values varied considerably across the studies (range 4·9-136·2 nmol/l), with 37·3 % of the studies reporting mean values below 50 nmol/l. The highest 25(OH)D values were observed in North America. Although age-related differences were observed in the Asia/Pacific and Middle East/Africa regions, they were not observed elsewhere and sex-related differences were not observed in any region. Substantial heterogeneity between the studies precluded drawing conclusions on overall vitamin D status at the population level. Exploratory analyses, however, suggested that newborns and institutionalised elderly from several regions worldwide appeared to be at a generally higher risk of exhibiting lower 25(OH)D values. Substantial details on worldwide patterns of vitamin D status at the population level and within key subgroups are needed to inform public health policy development to reduce risk for potential health consequences of an inadequate vitamin D status. PMID:23930771

  4. Barriers to Disclosing and Reporting Violence among Women in Pakistan: Findings from a National Household Survey and Focus Group Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M.; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic…

  5. Women in extreme poverty.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Population is estimated to increase from 5.5 billion in 1990 to 10 billion by 2050; the poverty level is expected to increase from 1 billion to 2-3 billion people. Women in development has been promoted throughout the UN and development system, but women in poverty who perform work in the informal sector are still uncounted, and solutions are elusive. The issue of extreme poverty can not be approached as just another natural disaster with immediate emergency relief. Many people live in precarious economic circumstances throughout their lives. Recent research reveals a greater understanding of the underlying causes and the need for inclusion of poor women in sustainable development. Sanitation, water, housing, health facilities need to be improved. Women must have access to education, opportunities for trading, and loans on reasonable terms. UNESCO makes available a book on survival strategies for poor women in the informal sector. The profile shows common problems of illiteracy, broken marriages, and full time involvement in provision of subsistence level existence. Existence is a fragile balance. Jeanne Vickers' "Women and the World" offers simple, low cost interventions for aiding extremely poor women. The 1992 Commission on the Status of Women was held in Vienna. Excerpts from several speeches are provided. The emphasis is on some global responses and an analysis of solutions. The recommendation is for attention to the gender dimension of poverty. Women's dual role contributes to greater disadvantages. Women are affected differently by macroeconomic factors, and that there is intergenerational transfer of poverty. Social services should be viewed as investments and directed to easing the burdens on time and energy. Public programs must be equipped to deal with poverty and to bring about social and economic change. Programs must be aware of the different distribution of resources within households. Women must be recognized as principal economic providers within

  6. Women on the margins.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    In some parts of the world, females are the victims of violence before birth as they are selectively aborted in societies which favor sons. If infant girls survive, they are subject to the same domestic violence which affects their mothers and leaves women more at risk of death by a male partner than from any other kind of assault. This issue was brought to the world's attention by the 1985 Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies and is placed second on the 1995 Beijing women's conference list of "critical concerns." Women are also particularly at risk as they grow older, leave their jobs, and require expensive health care. One way to reintegrate older, retired women into society may be by employing them in child care facilities. Women migrants are also at risk of legal discrimination and physical and mental abuse, yet their plight has gone largely unnoticed as the world community focuses on male migrants. Women labor migrants are in a particularly vulnerable position and may be exploited or forced into prostitution when their legal status expires. The rights of women migrants must be clarified, and women must be informed of these rights. The plight of refugee women is better known, but, although refugee programs are becoming more gender sensitive, it is difficult to overcome old ways of behaving during emergency situations. Women also comprise an increasing number of the victims of AIDS, yet women in many societies are unable to deny having sexual intercourse with their husbands or to insist that their husbands use a condom. These same husbands are free to become infected by prostitutes and to pass this infection on to their wives. The prostitutes are often just as helpless as the wives and usually have been forced into the sex trade by abject poverty. The spread of AIDS, poverty, unemployment, and social disintegration all arise from the relegation of women to secondary status. The upcoming UN conferences will measure their success by how well they incorporate a

  7. A long-term forecast analysis on worldwide land uses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjun; Qi, Yanhong; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2006-08-01

    More and more lands worldwide are being cultivated for food production while forests are disappearing at an unprecedented rate. This paper aims to make a long-term forecast on land uses worldwide and provide the public, researchers, and government officials with a clear profile for land uses in the future. Data of land uses since 1961 were used to fit historical trajectories and make the forecast. The results show that trajectories of land areas can be well fitted with univariate linear regressions. The forecasts of land uses during the coming 25 years were given in detail. Areas of agricultural land, arable land, and permanent pasture land worldwide would increase by 6.6%, 7.2%, and 6.3% respectively in the year 2030 as compared to the current areas. Permanent crops land area all over the world is forecasted to increase 0.64% by 2030. By the year 2030 the areas of forests and woodland, nonarable and nonpermanent land worldwide would decrease by 2.4% and 0.9% against the current areas. All other land area in the world would dramatically decline by 6.4% by the year 2030. Overall the land area related to agriculture would tend to decrease in developed countries, industrialized countries, Europe, and North and Central America. The agriculture related land area would considerably increase in developing countries, least developed countries, low-income countries, Asia, Africa, South America, etc. Developing countries hold larger total land area than developed countries. Dramatic and continuous growth in agricultural land area of developing countries would largely contribute to the expected growth of world agricultural land area in the coming years. Population explosion, food shortage and poverty in the world, especially in developing countries, together caused the excessive cultivation of land for agricultural uses in the past years. Increasing agricultural land area exacerbates the climate changes and degradation of environment. How to limit the growth of human

  8. Internet: Diameter of the World-Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Réka; Jeong, Hawoong; Barabási, Albert-László

    1999-09-01

    Despite its increasing role in communication, the World-Wide Web remains uncontrolled: any individual or institution can create a website with any number of documents and links. This unregulated growth leads to a huge and complex web, which becomes a large directed graph whose vertices are documents and whose edges are links (URLs) that point from one document to another. The topology of this graph determines the web's connectivity and consequently how effectively we can locate information on it. But its enormous size (estimated to be at least 8×108 documents) and the continual changing of documents and links make it impossible to catalogue all the vertices and edges.

  9. Development of a worldwide model for Flayer-produced scintillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fremouw, E. J.; Rino, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    An empirical approach to modeling the electron-density irregularities in the F layer of the earth's ionosphere that are primarily responsible for scintillation of transatmospheric VHF-UHF signals has been devised and tested. The work was directed toward two major goals: first, development of a worldwide model for describing the rms fluctuation in signal strength to be expected on an arbitrary satellite-to-earth communication link under average ionospheric conditions; and, second, investigation of the feasibility of similar modeling for description of the complete first-order distribution of signal strength.

  10. Worldwide status of energy standards for buildings: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Janda, K.B.; Busch, J.F.

    1993-02-01

    This informal survey was designed to gain information about the worldwide status of energy efficiency standards for buildings, particularly non-residential buildings such as offices, schools, and hotels. The project has three goals: 1. To understand and learn from the experience of countries with existing building energy standards; 2. To locate areas where these lessons might be applied and energy standards might be effectively proposed and developed; and 3. To share the information gathered with all participating countries. These appendices include the survey cover letter, the survey, and the details of selected energy standards in 35 countries, thus providing supporting material for the authors` article of the same title.

  11. Introduction: Training in reproductive endocrinology and infertility: meeting worldwide needs.

    PubMed

    de Ziegler, Dominique; Meldrum, David R

    2015-07-01

    Training in reproductive endocrinology (REI) and its male variant, andrology, has been profoundly influenced by the central role captured by assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The marked differences in financial, regulatory, and societal/ethical restrictions on ART in different countries of the world also prominently influence the clinical management of infertility. Training should strive for comprehensive teaching of all medically indicated procedures, even if only to optimize cross-border care. Better international standardization of infertility practices and training would benefit worldwide infertility care and should be promoted by international societies.

  12. Popigai Impact Structure Modeling: Morphology and Worldwide Ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, B. A.; Artemieva, N. A.; Pierazzo, E.

    2004-01-01

    The approx. 100 km in diameter, 35.7 0.2 Ma old Popigai structure [1], northern Siberia (Russia), is the best-preserved of the large terrestrial complex crater structures containing a central-peak ring [2- 4]. Although remotely located, the excellent outcrops, large number of drill cores, and wealth of geochemical data make Popigai ideal for the general study of the cratering processes. It is most famous for its impact-diamonds [2,5]. Popigai is the best candidate for the source crater of the worldwide late Eocene ejecta [6,7].

  13. Black Carbon Concentration from Worldwide Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Gregory L.; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent N.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2006-01-01

    The carbon emissions inventories used to initialize transport models and general circulation models are highly parameterized, and created on the basis of multiple sparse datasets (such as fuel use inventories and emission factors). The resulting inventories are uncertain by at least a factor of 2, and this uncertainty is carried forward to the model output. [Bond et al., 1998, Bond et al., 2004, Cooke et al., 1999, Streets et al., 2001] Worldwide black carbon concentration measurements are needed to assess the efficacy of the carbon emissions inventory and transport model output on a continuous basis.

  14. Factors Affecting Utilization of Maternal Health Care Services in Kombolcha District, Eastern Hararghe Zone, Oromia Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Zelalem Ayele, Desalew; Belayihun, Bekele; Teji, Kedir; Admassu Ayana, Desalegn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. World health organization estimates that more than half a million women lose their lives in the process of reproduction worldwide every year and most of these mortalities are avoidable if mothers have access to maternal health care services. Objectives. This study was conducted with objectives of determining the prevalence of utilization of maternal health care services and identifying factors affecting it. Methodology. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in six kebeles of Kombolcha district. A total of 495 women of reproductive age participated in the study and their selection was made using simple random sampling technique and data was collected using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results. A total of 495 women were included in this study and from these women about 86.1% had at least one ANC visit during their last pregnancy. About 61.7% of mothers had less than four visits which is less than the recommended and 46.2% started it in the second trimester. Only 25.3% of respondents gave birth in health institutions and rural women were less likely to use institutional delivery 20.9% compared to urban women 35.9%. Recommendations. More efforts should be given to educate society in general and mothers in particular, to strengthen community participation and to increase the accessibility of maternal health care services. Moreover, providing accurate information about the services provided in the health institutions is required from the concerned governmental and nongovernmental organizations.

  15. The Use of Contraception by Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H. M. J.; Rook, F.; Maaskant, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, contraception is frequently used by women for the prevention of conception, to regulate or postpone menstrual bleeding. The study aims to determine the use (number and method) of contraception by women with intellectual disabilities (ID), the indications, sources of referrals and relations with level of ID and age of the…

  16. Women in Politics: A Global Review. Worldwatch Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Kathleen

    The changing role of women worldwide and its impact on politics, economic development, and social structures is examined. Inadequate education, lack of access to channels of influence, and prejudice generally hamper women in exercising the political rights they are now given by most countries in the world. Priority should be given to those…

  17. Student Leaders at Women's Postsecondary Institutions: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renn, Kristen A.; Lytle, Jesse H.

    2010-01-01

    The single-sex higher education sector is growing worldwide as more women seek access to postsecondary education. Although positive learning outcomes--including leadership development--of women's colleges are well documented in the United States, less is known internationally. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study of 46 student leaders…

  18. HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers

    PubMed Central

    Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941

  19. The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in women studying nursing and related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Czerwińska-Opara, Wioletta Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a growing problem that affects millions of people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women studying nursing. Respondents completed a questionnaire assessing urinary incontinence, severity of symptoms and quality of life. Short forms to assess symptoms of distress for urinary incontinence and quality of life: UDI-6 and IIQ-7 have been used. The study's conclusions are as follows: 1) among the 113 interviewed women, stress urinary incontinence (SUI) was observed in 25% of respondents; this prevalence is similar to the age-matched population; 2) among the triggering factors mentioned in stress urinary incontinence the most frequent were: coughing, laughing and sneezing; 3) moderate impact of incontinence on quality of life has been shown, but this effect was not statistically significant. PMID:26327826

  20. Effects of chronic parasitosis on women's health.

    PubMed

    Santiso, R

    1997-07-01

    Parasitic diseases are closely related to the lack of sanitation (unavailability of potable water, inadequate disposal of human waste, lack of latrines) or the absence of personal hygiene. They are also closely linked to warm and humid climates, and are therefore considered tropical diseases. This chapter addresses chronic hookworm parasitosis and malaria, and their effect on women's health. Of all Helminthes, hookworms cause the most severe anemia because of iron deficiency due to chronic blood loss. Worldwide, an estimated 51% of pregnant women suffer from anemia-almost twice as many as non-pregnant women. In severe cases (Hb < 70 g/l) the risk of perinatal maternal and child death increases up to 500-fold. Anemia due to maternal deficiency affects the fetus, causes retarded intrauterine growth, and reduces fetal ability to absorb iron provided by the mother. Hookworms are nematodes that infect roughly 1 billion people. Their preferred habitat is the jejunum, where they attach to the mucous tissue to feed, and secrete an anticoagulant causing bleeding. Hookworm infections often begin in childhood. The worm enters the body through the skin and reaches the highest number at the end of adolescence and young adulthood. Little attention has been given to the treatment of pregnant women because of unavailability of safe antiparasitic drugs and fear of teratogenesis. However, there are new treatments, and the anthelminthic drugs may be administered in schools and organized women's groups in communities. During pregnancy anthelminthic treatment can improve maternal, fetal and infant health. Treatment given every 4 months has been shown to interrupt the transmission cycle of the parasite and help to improve the iron status of all women. Therapeutic strategies should be linked to other measures, such as promoting the use of shoes, introduction of potable water, education and treatment of the population at large, especially the school-age population. An estimated 267

  1. [OSTEOPOROSIS IN PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Belovol, A N; Knyazkova, I I; Kuzmonova, N V

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) is a major public health concern that affects millions of women around the world. For many years, OP are among the most common diseases occurring inthe elderly. However, certain parts in the age structure of the disease are persons younger. The rising prevalence of OP is huge damage to human health due to an increase in morbidity and mortality associated with fractures. In this article are discussed OP risk factors, the most frequently detected in young women, knowledge of which will enable patients and training activities on preventing the development of OP. PMID:27089708

  2. A worldwide population information network: status and goals.

    PubMed

    Kolbe, H K

    1978-07-01

    The rapid growth of world population and changes in government policies and programs have brought many changes to the area of population information. These include an increase in the amount of population information and funds devoted to research as well as an increase in awareness of the need to improve access to population information. Population information resources are located mainly in the developed countries, and no adequate information flow has yet been established to and from the developing nations. In response to this need, emerging regional population information networks are already identifiable. Focus is on components of an international population information network; North America and Europe; Latin America; Asia; Africa; and POPINS (worldwide population information system) Proposal, the model, and a counterproposal. It is evident that a strong North American European network is coalescing rapidly. The Latin American Population Documentation Systems (DOCPAL) offers the promise of bringing order to population information in Latin America. In Asia and Africa the situation in regard to population networks looks encouraging. During the next 2-year period the POPINS proposal will be carefully scrutinized. On the basis of these efforts, it seems reasonable to predict that within a 7-10 year period a de facto worldwide population information network will be a reality. PMID:10308566

  3. WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors, a Year 3 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, A. A.; Wong, C.

    2013-01-01

    The WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors (WWTA) Program has a track record of inspiring middle school students and getting them excited about science. The WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is a stunningly beautiful and freely available data visualization environment developed by Microsoft Research in collaboration with professional astronomers. Trained volunteer Ambassadors show teachers and students how to use WWT in their classrooms to explore and learn about our Universe. Our initial study has shown that WWT increases student understanding of astrophysical concepts and interest in astronomy and science. As an example of how excited students feel about learning astronomy with WWT, one middle school boy exclaimed, “This is way cooler than Call of Duty!” Our vision is to capitalize on the demonstrated inspirational and educational potential of WWT to increase the number of students who express interest in STEM fields. In this oral presentation, we provide a status update on the WWTA program, including ongoing results from our work with over 700 middle school students to date, and preliminary results from a new NSF-funded study comparing learning and interest gains for students studying Moon phases with WWT vs with the 2-dimensional simulator activity that accompanies their textbook. More information is available at wwtambassadors.org

  4. Star and Planet Formation through the WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    2013-07-01

    The WorldWide Telescope is a Universe Information System that can display and access nearly all astronomical images and literature available online. In the five years since its initial release, the program has been downloaded more than 10 million times, but only a very tiny fraction of those downloads, so far, are by professional research astronomers. While WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is a fantastic tool for education and outreach (see wwtambassadors.org), it is also a tremendously valuable research tool, especially for putting results into their astronomical context. In this poster, we demonstrate how the WWT can be used to: 1) put surveys into context, on top of more than 40 different all-sky images, spanning the electromagnetic spectrum; 2) perform literature searches from the sky; 3) compare images and catalogs at different wavelenghts, on-the-fly in seconds; 4) show your own online data to the world, in an API that allows users to see it on the sky in their browsers; and 5) communicate to colleagues and learners about the sky using interactive Tours of your data and ideas. Examples of data distribution can be found at http://www.worldwidetelescope.org/COMPLETE/WWTCoverageTool.htm and a star-formation-related educational tour sample is at wwtambassadors.org/wwt/tours/dust-and-us.

  5. Worldwide Overview of Lessons Learned from Decommissioning Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Laraia, Michele

    2008-01-15

    With an increasing number of radioactive facilities and reactors now reaching the end of their useful life and being taken out of service, there is a growing emphasis worldwide on the safe and efficient decommissioning of such plants. There is a wealth of experience already gained in decommissioning projects for all kinds of nuclear facilities. It is now possible to compare and discuss progress and accomplishments worldwide. In particular, rather than on the factual descriptions of projects, technologies and case histories, it is important to focus on lessons learned: in this way, the return of experience is felt to effectively contribute to progress. Key issues - inevitably based on a subjective ranking - are presented in this paper. Through the exchange of lessons learned, it is possible to achieve full awareness of the need for resources for and constraints of safe and cost-effective decommissioning. What remains now is the identification of specific, remaining issues that may hinder or delay the smooth progress of decommissioning. To this end, lessons learned provide the necessary background information; this paper tries to make extensive use of practical experience gained by the international community.

  6. Measurements of Worldwide Radioxenon Backgrounds - The "EU" Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Hayes, James C.; Forrester, Joel B.; Haas, Derek A.; Hansen, Randy R.; Keller, Paul E.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Lidey, Lance S.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Payne, Rosara F.; Saey, Paul R.; Thompson, Robert C.; Woods, Vincent T.; Williams, Richard M.

    2009-09-24

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), radioactive xenon (radioxenon) measurements are one of the principle techniques used to detect nuclear underground nuclear explosions, and specifically, the presence of one or more radioxenon isotopes allows one to determine whether a suspected event was a nuclear explosion or originated from an innocent source. During the design of the International Monitoring System (IMS), which was designed as the verification mechanism for the Treaty, it was determined that radioxenon measurements should be performed at 40 or more stations worldwide. At the time of the design of the IMS, however, very few details about the background of the xenon isotopes was known and it is now recognized that the backgrounds were probably evolving anyhow. This paper lays out the beginning of a study of the worldwide concentrations of xenon isotopes that can be used to detect nuclear explosions and several sources that also release radioxenons, and will have to be accounted for during analysis of atmospheric levels. Although the global concentrations of the xenon isotopes are the scope of a much larger activity that could span over several years, this study measures radioxenon concentrations in locations where there was either very little information or there was a unique opportunity to learn more about emissions from known sources. The locations where radioxenon levels were measured and reported are included.

  7. AMERICAN WOMEN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Commission on the Status of Women, Washington, DC.

    FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE COMMISSION AND SEVEN COMMITTEES WHO ASSESSED THE STATUS OF WOMEN ARE REPORTED. THE COMMITTEES MADE RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE AREAS--WOMEN'S EDUCATION AND COUNSELING, HOME AND COMMUNITY SERVICES, PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT (THAT UNDER FEDERAL CONTRACTS), EMPLOYMENT IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, LABOR STANDARDS, FEDERAL SOCIAL…

  8. Empowering Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Aurelia

    2012-01-01

    Empowering Women is a traveling exhibition of folk art that focuses on ten cooperatives from four continents and ten countries. The exhibition is a window into the ways that cooperatives empower women to: (1) preserve and reinvigorate their country's traditional arts; (2) generate steady livelihoods for their families; (3) send their children to…

  9. Medicine Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiswenger, James N., Ed.; Jeanotte, Holly, Ed.

    Described as a survival manual for Indian women in medicine, this collected work contains diverse pieces offering inspiration and practical advice for Indian women pursuing or considering careers in medicine. Introductory material includes two legends symbolizing the Medicine or Spirit Woman's role in Indian culture and an overview of Indians Into…

  10. Stellar Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, Maria

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1900s, researchers at the Harvard College Observatory conducted an astonishing amount of astronomical research. A handful of women were integral to this research. Describes the professional lives and scientific findings of five of these women scientists at Harvard to inspire students. Classroom activities are included. (PVD)

  11. Health Behaviors, Disparities and Deterring Factors for Breast Cancer Screening of Immigrant Women - A Challenge to Health Care Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Alcazar-Bejerano, Ivy Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Background This literature review was made to provide comprehensive to provide comprehensive understanding of health disparities as well as factors and barriers to cancer screening of immigrant women in multicultural societies. Methods: Published articles from 1990–2013 were searched using databases such as CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed and Science Direct showing evidence of contributing factors and barriers to breast cancer screening practices of immigrant women in developed and developing countries. Based on the inclusion criteria, a total of 45 qualified articles were included in the review process. Results: Articles included were quantitative and qualitative, written in English for publication, and subjects were middle-aged, married immigrant women. The identified influential factors and barriers that prevent immigrant women from cancer screening were categorized as individual, socio-cultural and behavioral factors. Socioeconomic status, education level and knowledge, availability of health insurance and acculturation were among the individual factors. Presence of social support and recommendation from health care professionals were strongly associated with compliance with cancer screening. Cultural beliefs and practices as well as behavioral factors were among the barriers that deter women from participating in cancer screening. Conclusion: To alleviate the negative factors and barriers that affect the participation of high-risk immigrant women, a client-centered assessment and intervention approach with specific regard to cultural beliefs and practices should be considered by health care professionals. Joint effort of individuals, community, health care professionals and government institutions are recommended to further address the continuous rise of breast cancer mortality worldwide. PMID:26064855

  12. International women's movement comes of age at FWCW.

    PubMed

    O'haire, H

    1996-02-01

    This article focuses on what the women's conference achieved for women. The Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) recognized an international women's movement. Governments agreed that women were entitled to full human rights, reproductive rights, and equality in all aspects of life. Women were to become full and equal partners in the development process. Women are likely to demand action based on the paper declarations. The success of the conference is attributed to a powerful network of women's groups. A striking feature was the heading of most national delegations by women. It was recognized that women were full but neglected partners in families and societies. Governments acknowledged that women suffered discrimination within the family and society. Wording was rejected that would have given women the guaranteed right to determine the size and spacing of their families and the information and services to do so. The activity among women's groups in working together to restore this view strengthened the bonds between women's groups and created worldwide awareness and support for women's organizations. Networks that were established at Rio de Janeiro made their presence and position on reproductive health felt at the preparatory meetings to the UN Population Conference in Cairo. It was argued that a target-driven approach had the effect of treating women as reproduction machines. Women's groups also expressed strong positions on how women were to be treated in the formation of population policy and programs. 1) It was insisted that governments and population groups must stop dictating fertility regimes to women. 2) The concept of family planning must include reproductive health. 3) Women should have the freedom to exercise choice in planning their families. 4) Women should also have equal access to education and employment. Women came thus to Beijing with a clear vision of what they wanted. At Beijing domestic violence was for the first time condemned. Beijing

  13. "We will not rest." Filipino women want a fertility management program that respects women's dignity, women's bodies and women's choices.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, R O

    1993-03-01

    The program officer for the Institute for Social Studies and Action presents 1) her views on women's fertility management under different political administrations in the Philippines, 2) the political postures of influential groups, 3) the goals of women's and health groups, and 4) the actions taken by Filipino women. Under Ferdinand Marcos, the official family planning (FP) program emphasized reduction of population growth and established a quota system and incentives for the number of new acceptors. Women, as a result, became victims; e.g. IUDs were inserted without prior knowledge, and inadequate information and follow-up were provided on oral contraceptive use. Efforts were criticized for treating women as program targets and not as individuals capable of making choices. Under Corazon Aquino, the Roman Catholic hierarchy dominated and would have banned all forms of artificial contraception had women's and health groups not blocked the effort. Only in 1989 did President Aquino finally announce that multiple methods of family planning (FP) would be promoted. There was a transition in program services during the transfer to the Department of Health. Currently the government promotes FP within the safe motherhood and child survival context, but adolescents and unmarried women and couples are excluded from FP services. Population control advocates believe FP is a health issue. The Roman Catholic Church accepts only natural methods and believes artificial methods interfere with the natural processes of procreation. Anti-FP groups promote only natural FP methods and wage campaigns to discredit contraceptive methods. Women's and FP groups contend that it is a woman's right to regulate her own fertility. Safe abortion should be made available to those who need it. Women's networks are mobilizing to talk about the issues, to hold public activities to change laws and policies and to encourage women's involvement in decision making affecting their lives, and to conduct

  14. Critiquing Canada's Research Culture: Social, Cultural, and Political Restraints on Women's University Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Women are "starkly underrepresented" as researchers worldwide ("The World's Women 2010," 68). In Canada, for example, men hold over three-quarters of full professorships and top research positions. Dozens of interconnected factors restrain women's research careers. These include "upstream" factors, such as gender, racialization, and class; social…

  15. What Does the United Nations Mean to Women? An NGO View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietila, Hilkka

    Efforts put forth by the United Nations (UN) and specialized agencies and organs of the UN system to improve the status, nutrition, health, and education of women worldwide are the focus of this publication. The first of five sections, "Human Rights for Women," examines women's rights in the job field; UN steps to bring equality to the sexes…

  16. Career Advancement of Women Senior Academic Administrators in Indonesia: Supports and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murniati, Cecilia Titiek

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women have gained access to college and the college teaching profession worldwide. However, women continue to be underrepresented in academic, research, and leadership positions. Women who have aspirations for top leadership positions still encounter numerous internal and external challenges. Existent literature on women…

  17. UN spearheads drive on violence against women.

    PubMed

    To commemorate International Women's Day, more than 1000 victims of violence against women, activists, and celebrities from five continents participated in a video conference. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan declared that violence against women may be the most shameful human rights violation, and the Executive Director of the UN Development Fund for Women called violence against women "the most unpunished crime." Women from around the world described the culturally-sanctioned abuse they suffer, including female genital mutilation, wife murders, and dowry murders. The conference learned that more than 60 million women are missing in Asia because they were subjected to infanticide or were bartered away by their families to a life of domestic servitude or prostitution. Violence against women can take many forms, including domestic abuse, rape as a war crime, traditional practices, dowry and honor killings, and trafficking. In addition, at least 20% of women worldwide have been physically or sexually assaulted. The morbidity and mortality women suffer from violence is equal to that which they suffer from cancer.

  18. Noroviruses: The Principal Cause of Foodborne Disease Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hoonmo L.; Ajami, Nadim; Atmar, Robert L.; DuPont, Herbert L.

    2011-01-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, and may soon eclipse rotaviruses as the most common cause of severe pediatric gastroenteritis, as the use of rotavirus vaccines becomes more widespread. Genetic mutations and recombinations contribute to the broad heterogeneity of noroviruses and the emergence of new epidemic strains. Although typically a self-limited disease, norovirus gastroenteritis can cause significant morbidity and mortality among children, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. The lack of a cell culture or small animal model has hindered norovirus research and the development of novel therapeutic and preventative interventions. However, vaccines based on norovirus capsid protein virus-like particles are promising and may one day become widely available through transgenic expression in plants. PMID:20670600

  19. Towards assessing the potential of peri-urban agriculture worldwide.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Cantu Ros, Anselmo; Kriewald, Steffen; Dunkhorst, Giordana; Sterzel, Till; Kropp, Juegen

    2013-04-01

    On the global scale, urban areas are admonished to increase their food security while reducing CO2 emissions related to the food supply chain, resulting for instance from transportation or land-use change. In this context, urban and peri-urban agriculture may contribute to an increase in the resilience of the food supply system of cities and to reduce their ecological foot-print. Our work focuses on the carrying capacity of peri-urban areas and on the relative suitability conditions for further development of peri-urban agriculture worldwide. Our analysis builds on a combination of high resolution data on land use, demographics and water availability and agriculture model outputs.

  20. Assessing Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security Worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Antle, John; Elliott, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a warming Earth and an increasing population will likely strain the world's food systems in the coming decades. Experts involved with the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) focus on quantifying the changes through time. AgMIP, a program begun in 2010, involves about 800 climate scientists, economists, nutritionists, information technology specialists, and crop and livestock experts. In mid-September 2015, the Aspen Global Change Institute convened an AgMIP workshop to draft plans and protocols for assessing global- and regional-scale modeling of crops, livestock, economics, and nutrition across major agricultural regions worldwide. The goal of this Coordinated Global and Regional Integrated Assessments (CGRA) project is to characterize climate effects on large- and small-scale farming systems.

  1. The epidemiology of blood pressure and its worldwide management.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Kazem; Emdin, Connor A; MacMahon, Stephen

    2015-03-13

    Despite the vast amount of evidence on the benefits of blood pressure lowering accumulated to date, elevated blood pressure is still the leading risk factor for disease and disability worldwide. The purpose of this review is to summarize the epidemiological evidence underpinning the association between blood pressure and a range of conditions. This review focuses on the association between systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the risk of cardiovascular and renal disease. Evidence for and against the existence of a J-shaped curve association between blood pressure and cardiovascular risk, and differences in the predictive power of systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure, are described. In addition, global and regional trends in blood pressure levels and management of hypertension are reviewed.

  2. Histoplasmosis infections worldwide: thinking outside of the Ohio River valley

    PubMed Central

    Bahr, Nathan C; Antinori, Spinello; Wheat, L. Joseph; Sarosi, George A.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, histoplasmosis is generally thought to occur mainly in the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys, and the classic map of histoplasmosis distribution reflecting this is second nature to many U.S. physicians. With the advent of the HIV pandemic reports of patients with progressive disseminated histoplasmosis and AIDS came from regions of known endemicity, as well as from regions not thought to be endemic for histoplasmosis throughout the world. In addition, our expanding armamentarium of immunosuppressive medications and biologics has increased the diagnosis of histoplasmosis worldwide. While our knowledge of areas in which histoplasmosis is endemic has improved, it is still incomplete. Our contention is that physicians should consider histoplasmosis with the right constellations of symptoms in any febrile patient with immune suppression, regardless of geographic location or travel history. PMID:26279969

  3. Fragrance contact dermatitis: a worldwide multicenter investigation (Part II).

    PubMed

    Larsen, W; Nakayama, H; Fischer, T; Elsner, P; Frosch, P; Burrows, D; Jordan, W; Shaw, S; Wilkinson, J; Marks, J; Sugawara, M; Nethercott, M; Nethercott, J

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of responses to selected fragrance materials in patients who were fragrance sensitive. 178 patients were evaluated in 8 centers worldwide with a fragrance mix (FM) and 20 other fragrance materials. Reaction to the fragrance mixture (FM) occurred in 78.7% of the subjects. Substances reacting at a rate of 2% or higher included jasmine absolute, geranium oil bourbon, l-citronellol, spearmint oil, 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-gamma-2-benzopyran, omega-6-hexadecenlactone, dimethyltetrahydrobenzaldehyde (isomer mixture), and alpha-amylcinnamaldehyde. These chemicals should be furthur evaluated to corroborate their allergenicity. We are constantly looking for new fragrance allergens to extend the diagnostic capability of the fragrance mix (FM).

  4. Fragrance contact dermatitis - a worldwide multicenter investigation (Part III).

    PubMed

    Larsen, Walter; Nakayama, Hideo; Fischer, Torkil; Elsner, Peter; Frosch, Peter; Burrows, Desmond; Jordan, William; Shaw, Stephanie; Wilkinson, John; Marks, James; Sugawara, M; Nethercott, Marc; Nethercott, James

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of responses to selected fragrance materials in patients who were fragrance sensitive. 218 fragrance sensitive subjects were evaluated in eight centres worldwide with a fragrance mixture (FM) and 17 less well-studied fragrance materials. Reaction to the fragrance mixture (FM) occurred in 76% of the subjects. The (FM) detected all reactions to nerol and hydroxycitronellol and 93% of the reactions to clove bud oil. Ten fragrance materials were not detected by the FM and deserve further study: benzenepropanol, beta, beta, 3-trimethyl, hexyl-salicylate, dl-citronellol, synthetic ylang ylang oil, benzyl mixture, cyclohexyl-acetate, eugenyl methyl ether, isoeugenyl methyl ether, 3-phenyl-1-propanol, and 3, 7-dimethyl-7-methoxyoctan-2-ol.

  5. Ethical pharmaceutical promotion and communications worldwide: codes and regulations.

    PubMed

    Francer, Jeffrey; Izquierdo, Jose Zamarriego; Music, Tamara; Narsai, Kirti; Nikidis, Chrisoula; Simmonds, Heather; Woods, Paul

    2014-03-29

    The international pharmaceutical industry has made significant efforts towards ensuring compliant and ethical communication and interaction with physicians and patients. This article presents the current status of the worldwide governance of communication practices by pharmaceutical companies, concentrating on prescription-only medicines. It analyzes legislative, regulatory, and code-based compliance control mechanisms and highlights significant developments, including the 2006 and 2012 revisions of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA) Code of Practice.Developments in international controls, largely built upon long-established rules relating to the quality of advertising material, have contributed to clarifying the scope of acceptable company interactions with healthcare professionals. This article aims to provide policy makers, particularly in developing countries, with an overview of the evolution of mechanisms governing the communication practices, such as the distribution of promotional or scientific material and interactions with healthcare stakeholders, relating to prescription-only medicines.

  6. Wired World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display

    SciTech Connect

    De Groot, Nicolo

    2003-05-07

    WIRED (World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display) is a framework, written in the Java{trademark} language, for building High Energy Physics event displays. An event display based on the WIRED framework enables users of a HEP collaboration to visualize and analyze events remotely using ordinary WWW browsers, on any type of machine. In addition, event displays using WIRED may provide the general public with access to the research of high energy physics. The recent introduction of the object-oriented Java{trademark} language enables the transfer of machine independent code across the Internet, to be safely executed by a Java enhanced WWW browser. We have employed this technology to create a remote event display in WWW. The combined Java-WWW technology hence assures a world wide availability of such an event display, an always up-to-date program and a platform independent implementation, which is easy to use and to install.

  7. Fragrance contact dermatitis - a worldwide multicenter investigation (Part III).

    PubMed

    Larsen, Walter; Nakayama, Hideo; Fischer, Torkil; Elsner, Peter; Frosch, Peter; Burrows, Desmond; Jordan, William; Shaw, Stephanie; Wilkinson, John; Marks, James; Sugawara, M; Nethercott, Marc; Nethercott, James

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of responses to selected fragrance materials in patients who were fragrance sensitive. 218 fragrance sensitive subjects were evaluated in eight centres worldwide with a fragrance mixture (FM) and 17 less well-studied fragrance materials. Reaction to the fragrance mixture (FM) occurred in 76% of the subjects. The (FM) detected all reactions to nerol and hydroxycitronellol and 93% of the reactions to clove bud oil. Ten fragrance materials were not detected by the FM and deserve further study: benzenepropanol, beta, beta, 3-trimethyl, hexyl-salicylate, dl-citronellol, synthetic ylang ylang oil, benzyl mixture, cyclohexyl-acetate, eugenyl methyl ether, isoeugenyl methyl ether, 3-phenyl-1-propanol, and 3, 7-dimethyl-7-methoxyoctan-2-ol. PMID:12000321

  8. Estimating worldwide solar radiation resources on a 40km grid

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, E.L.; George, R.L.; Brady, E.H.

    1996-11-01

    During 1995, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), initiated the Data Grid Task under the auspices of DOE`s Resource Assessment Program. A data grid is a framework of uniformly spaced locations (grid points) for which data are available. Estimates of monthly averages of direct normal, diffuse horizontal, and global horizontal daily-total solar radiation energy (kWh/m{sup 2}) are being made for each point on a grid covering the US, Mexico, the Caribbean, and southern Canada. The grid points are separated by approximately 40 km. Using interpolation methods, the digital data grid can be used to estimate solar resources at any location. The most encouraging result to date has been the location of sources providing worldwide data for most of the input parameters required for modeling daily total solar radiation. This is a multiyear task expected to continue through the rest of this century.

  9. Affordable Digital Planetariums with WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfield, P.; Connolly, A.; Fay, J.; Sayres, C.; Tofflemire, B.

    2011-09-01

    Digital planetariums can provide a broader range of educational experiences than the more classical planetariums that use star-balls. This is because of their ability to project images, content from current research, and the 3-D distribution of the stars and galaxies. While there are hundreds of planetariums in the country, the reason that few of these are fully digital is the cost. In collaboration with Microsoft Research (MSR), we have developed a way to digitize existing planetariums for approximately $40,000 using freely available software. We describe here how off the shelf equipment, together with a WorldWide Telescope client, can provide a rich and truly interactive experience. This will enable students and the public to pan though multi-wavelength full-sky scientific data sets, explore 3-D visualizations of our Solar System (including trajectories of millions of minor planets), near-by stars, and the SDSS galaxy catalog.

  10. Ethical pharmaceutical promotion and communications worldwide: codes and regulations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The international pharmaceutical industry has made significant efforts towards ensuring compliant and ethical communication and interaction with physicians and patients. This article presents the current status of the worldwide governance of communication practices by pharmaceutical companies, concentrating on prescription-only medicines. It analyzes legislative, regulatory, and code-based compliance control mechanisms and highlights significant developments, including the 2006 and 2012 revisions of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA) Code of Practice. Developments in international controls, largely built upon long-established rules relating to the quality of advertising material, have contributed to clarifying the scope of acceptable company interactions with healthcare professionals. This article aims to provide policy makers, particularly in developing countries, with an overview of the evolution of mechanisms governing the communication practices, such as the distribution of promotional or scientific material and interactions with healthcare stakeholders, relating to prescription-only medicines. PMID:24679064

  11. Has upwelling strengthened along worldwide coasts over 1982-2010?

    PubMed

    Varela, R; Álvarez, I; Santos, F; deCastro, M; Gómez-Gesteira, M

    2015-01-01

    Changes in coastal upwelling strength have been widely studied since 1990 when Bakun proposed that global warming can induce the intensification of upwelling in coastal areas. Whether present wind trends support this hypothesis remains controversial, as results of previous studies seem to depend on the study area, the length of the time series, the season, and even the database used. In this study, temporal and spatial trends in the coastal upwelling regime worldwide were investigated during upwelling seasons from 1982 to 2010 using a single wind database (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) with high spatial resolution (0.3°). Of the major upwelling systems, increasing trends were only observed in the coastal areas of Benguela, Peru, Canary, and northern California. A tendency for an increase in upwelling-favourable winds was also identified along several less studied regions, such as the western Australian and southern Caribbean coasts. PMID:25952477

  12. Has upwelling strengthened along worldwide coasts over 1982-2010?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, R.; Álvarez, I.; Santos, F.; Decastro, M.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.

    2015-05-01

    Changes in coastal upwelling strength have been widely studied since 1990 when Bakun proposed that global warming can induce the intensification of upwelling in coastal areas. Whether present wind trends support this hypothesis remains controversial, as results of previous studies seem to depend on the study area, the length of the time series, the season, and even the database used. In this study, temporal and spatial trends in the coastal upwelling regime worldwide were investigated during upwelling seasons from 1982 to 2010 using a single wind database (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) with high spatial resolution (0.3°). Of the major upwelling systems, increasing trends were only observed in the coastal areas of Benguela, Peru, Canary, and northern California. A tendency for an increase in upwelling-favourable winds was also identified along several less studied regions, such as the western Australian and southern Caribbean coasts.

  13. WorldWide Telescope in High School Astronomy Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Ana-Maria; Goodman, A. A.; Udomprasert, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    This project aims to improve astronomy education at the high school level, and to increase awareness in astronomy for pre-university students, on an international scale. In 2013, the WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors Program began a collaboration with the International Olympiad in Astronomy and Astrophysics (IOAA), which was held in the city of Volos, Greece in August 2013. Now at its VIIth edition, IOAA is the largest annual astronomy competition for high school students, and it consists of one team task and three individual ones - Theoretical, Data Analysis, and Observational. Each of the participating countries (35 in 2013, compared to 21 in 2007) is responsible for selecting up to five representative students for the International round. IOAA is meant to promote future collaborations between these students, and to encourage friendships inside a global scientific community. Ana-Maria Constantin, a current Harvard undergraduate student and a former medalist of IOAA, represented WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors in Greece by giving a talk on the advantages of using WWT as a tool for research and education. As a result, the President and the International Board of the Olympiad have expressed support for including WWT in the competition for future editions. WWTA is working with the Organizing Board for next year’s competition in Romania, to include WWT as a testing tool. This poster will summarize key points from the WWTA presentation in Greece, present ideas for WWT-based activities in future IOAA competitions, and outline plans for new collaborations from representatives of Sri Lanka, Poland, Bangladesh, and Colombia. Given the positive feedback we have received after the presentation in Greece, we are also considering future implementations of WWT in summer research camps for high school students, such as the Summer Science Program.

  14. Human Papillomavirus 18 Genetic Variation and Cervical Cancer Risk Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Alyce A.; Gheit, Tarik; Franceschi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human papillomavirus 18 (HPV18) is the second most carcinogenic HPV type, after HPV16, and it accounts for approximately 12% of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) as well as 37% of adenocarcinoma (ADC) of the cervix worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the worldwide diversity and carcinogenicity of HPV18 genetic variants by sequencing the entire long control region (LCR) and the E6 open reading frame of 711 HPV18-positive cervical samples from 39 countries, taking advantage of the International Agency for Research on Cancer biobank. A total of 209 unique HPV18 sequence variants were identified that formed three phylogenetic lineages (A, B, and C). A and B lineages each divided into four sublineages, including a newly identified candidate B4 sublineage. The distribution of lineages varied by geographical region, with B and C lineages found principally in Africa. HPV18 (sub)lineages were compared between 453 cancer cases and 236 controls, as well as between 81 ADC and 160 matched SCC cases. In region-stratified analyses, there were no significant differences in the distribution of HPV18 variant lineages between cervical cancer cases and controls or between ADC and SCC. In conclusion, our findings do not support the role of HPV18 (sub)lineages for discriminating cancer risk or explaining why HPV18 is more strongly linked with ADC than SCC. IMPORTANCE This is the largest and most geographically/ethnically diverse study of the genetic variation of HPV18 to date, providing a comprehensive reference for phylogenetic classification of HPV18 sublineages for epidemiological and biological studies. PMID:26269181

  15. Dropping dead: causes and consequences of vulture population declines worldwide.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L; Keesing, Felicia; Virani, Munir Z

    2012-02-01

    Vultures are nature's most successful scavengers, and they provide an array of ecological, economic, and cultural services. As the only known obligate scavengers, vultures are uniquely adapted to a scavenging lifestyle. Vultures' unique adaptations include soaring flight, keen eyesight, and extremely low pH levels in their stomachs. Presently, 14 of 23 (61%) vulture species worldwide are threatened with extinction, and the most rapid declines have occurred in the vulture-rich regions of Asia and Africa. The reasons for the population declines are varied, but poisoning or human persecution, or both, feature in the list of nearly every declining species. Deliberate poisoning of carnivores is likely the most widespread cause of vulture poisoning. In Asia, Gyps vultures have declined by >95% due to poisoning by the veterinary drug diclofenac, which was banned by regional governments in 2006. Human persecution of vultures has occurred for centuries, and shooting and deliberate poisoning are the most widely practiced activities. Ecological consequences of vulture declines include changes in community composition of scavengers at carcasses and an increased potential for disease transmission between mammalian scavengers at carcasses. There have been cultural and economic costs of vulture declines as well, particularly in Asia. In the wake of catastrophic vulture declines in Asia, regional governments, the international scientific and donor communities, and the media have given the crisis substantial attention. Even though the Asian vulture crisis focused attention on the plight of vultures worldwide, the situation for African vultures has received relatively little attention especially given the similar levels of population decline. While the Asian crisis has been largely linked to poisoning by diclofenac, vulture population declines in Africa have numerous causes, which have made conserving existing populations more difficult. And in Africa there has been little

  16. Worldwide prevalence of red-green color deficiency.

    PubMed

    Birch, Jennifer

    2012-03-01

    Literature that describes the prevalence of inherited red-green color deficiency in different populations is reviewed. Large random population surveys show that the prevalence of deficiency in European Caucasians is about 8% in men and about 0.4% in women and between 4% and 6.5% in men of Chinese and Japanese ethnicity. However, the male: female prevalence ratio is markedly different in Europeans and Asians. Recent surveys suggest that the prevalence is rising in men of African ethnicity and in geographic areas that have been settled by incoming migrants. It is proposed that founder events and genetic drift, rather than natural selection, are the cause of these differences.

  17. On Campus with Women, Number 33, Winter 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    On Campus with Women, 1982

    1982-01-01

    News concerning developments affecting women at colleges and universities is presented. Among the issues are the following: the Graduate Women's Network at the University of Michigan; a portable campus that provides career help to rural women in Minnesota; reentry programs into the corporate world for women 35 to 45 years old; an increase in…

  18. Contextual Influences on Women's Health Concerns and Attitudes toward Menopause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Judy R.

    2011-01-01

    Social factors that affect women's attitudes toward menopause were examined in a sample of 1,037 baby boomer women who took part in two waves of the Midlife in the United States survey. Survey data were collected in 1996 and 2005 from a nationally representative sample of women born between 1946 and 1964 residing in the United States. Women's…

  19. On Campus with Women, Number 34, Spring 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    On Campus with Women, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Developments concerning women's education and employment, legislation and court cases that affect women, and the latest model programs and resources are presented in this newsletter issue. Specific topics include: sexual harassment and sexual attacks on women on college campuses; the progress of black and white women in science and engineering;…

  20. [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in women].

    PubMed

    de Torres Tajes, Juan Pablo; Macario, Ciro Casanova

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing worldwide, mainly due to the increase in women. In developed countries, COPD in women is mainly a result of exposure to tobacco smoke and in developing countries to inhalation of biomass combustion products. Underdiagnosis of COPD is more common in women since this disease has classically been associated with men. Moreover, COPD in women shows certain differential features, such as a greater expression of aspects related to perception (dyspnea and health-related quality of life), a high prevalence of malnutrition, anxiety and depression, and a distinct distribution of emphysema from that in men. Better phenotypical characterization of COPD in women would allow its impact on the health system to be more accurately evaluated and more individualized therapeutic strategies to be designed.

  1. World-wide parliamentarians join forces to resolve population problems.

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Subjects selected for discussion at the International Conference on Population and Development held from August 28 to September 1, 1979 included world population trends and prospects; government laws and policies; the status of women in family law, literacy and health; employment policies, rural to urban migration and appropriate technology; economic growth with equity and a new economic order; environmental impact and world resources; community participation in motivation and service delivery programs; international coordination of donor policies; research priorities; and governmental responsibilities. The following were among the specific objectives and goals identified: 1) formulate population policies as an integral part of socioeconomic development plans; 2) examine the impact of domestic population trends on health, education, employment, agricultural and industrial development, housing and environmental conditions; 3) strengthen the integration of population programs in all development activities; 4) ensure the basic right of people to decide the number and spacing of their children and ensure that they have the information and means to do so; and 5) promote the role and status of women in the family and society and enhance their access to education, employment, health services and financial credit. A strong commitment was made for implementation of population policies as an integral part of socioeconomic development plans. PMID:12261707

  2. Women's health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast MRI scan Breast ultrasound Genetic testing and counseling for women with a family or personal history ... and imaging tests to monitor ovulation Infertility treatments, Counseling for couples who are dealing with infertility or ...

  3. Women Astronomers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Deborah Jean

    1979-01-01

    Traces the role of women in the scientific community in the United States since the mid-nineteenth century. Specific concern is directed towards the education and career opportunities of female astronomers. (MA)

  4. Employment status and intimate partner violence among Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Terrazas-Carrillo, Elizabeth C; McWhirter, Paula T

    2015-04-01

    Exploring risk factors and profiles of intimate partner violence in other countries provides information about whether existing theories of this phenomenon hold consistent in different cultural settings. This study will present results of a regression analysis involving domestic violence among Mexican women (n = 83,159). Significant predictors of domestic violence among Mexican women included age, number of children in the household, income, education, self-esteem, family history of abuse, and controlling behavior of the husband. Women's employment status was not a significant predictor when all variables were included in the model; however, when controlling behavior of the husband was withdrawn from the model, women's employment status was a significant predictor of domestic violence toward women. Results from this research indicate that spousal controlling behavior may serve as a mediator of the predictive relationship between women's employment status and domestic violence among Mexican women. Findings provide support for continued exploration of the factors that mediate experiences of domestic violence among women worldwide.

  5. Leibniz's women.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2004-12-01

    Enlightenment natural philosophers were linked to one another in an extended correspondence network, but the female participants in this international Republic of Letters are rarely mentioned. Gottfried Leibniz relied on several such women not only for financial patronage, but also for intellectual stimulation. Although this hardworking and underpaid librarian at the Hanoverian Court is now one of the world's most famous mathematical philosophers, the women on whom he depended for ideas as well as support have been largely forgotten.

  6. The ``Real World'' of gasification: Database of worldwide facilities and market drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.

    1999-07-01

    Few coal experts fully appreciate the extensive ``real world'' commercial experience and success of gasification. Many only associate gasification with coal-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) for electric power generation. Many view IGCC as an advanced technology that is not commercial and not competitive with traditional coal-fired central power plants. However, gasification is commercially used without subsidies for manufacture of syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) for chemicals and fuels. Furthermore, the new growth area for gasification is industrial polygeneration (syngas + cogen steam and power) with ``opportunity fuels'' such as residual oil and petroleum coke. The objectives of this project were to collect, organize and maintain facility-specific information necessary to illustrate, characterize and enumerate the worldwide gasification industry; and to conduct an analysis of the public policy, market, and technical drivers and trends that will affect the degree and pace of increasing use of gasification technologies on a worldwide basis. The paper presents some of the data and the results of the analysis.

  7. Puerperal sepsis in the 21st century: progress, new challenges and the situation worldwide.

    PubMed

    Buddeberg, Bigna S; Aveling, Wynne

    2015-10-01

    Puerperal sepsis is one of the five leading causes of maternal mortality worldwide, and accounts for 15% of all maternal deaths. The WHO defined puerperal sepsis in 1992 as an infection of the genital tract occurring at any time between the rupture of membranes or labour and the 42nd day post partum; in which, two or more of the following are present: pelvic pain, fever, abnormal vaginal discharge and delay in the reduction of the size of the uterus. At the same time, the WHO introduced the term puerperal infections, which also include non-genital infections in the obstetric population. Recent epidemiological data shows that puerperal sepsis and non-genital tract infections are a major area of concern. In puerperal sepsis, group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most feared pathogen. Up to 30% of the population are asymptomatic carriers of GAS. GAS commonly causes throat infections. Women who died from GAS-positive sepsis all had signs of a throat infection themselves or one of their family members suffered from a throat infection. The pathway of infection is from the hands of the pregnant women or the mother to her perineum. In non-genital tract infections, influenza viruses and the HIV pandemic in the developing part of the world are responsible for many maternal deaths, and demand our attention. The physiological changes of pregnancy and the puerperium can obscure the signs and symptoms of sepsis in the obstetric population. A high level of suspicion is, therefore, needed in the care for the sick pregnant patient. If sepsis is suspected, timely administration of antibiotics, sepsis care bundles, multidisciplinary discussion and early involvement of senior staff members are important to improve outcome. PMID:26310266

  8. Women's relationship with the environment.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J

    1993-02-01

    In developing countries, all development activities as well as reclamation of degraded areas, pollution reduction, and preservation of biodiversity affect women's environment, especially in rural areas. Women produce most subsistence foods and cash crops, but control only about 1% of the world's land. Lack of land tenure and of access to it keep women from obtaining credit, training, and other supports, thereby preventing them from using their traditional, longterm conservation practices. In many developing countries, commercial producers force women off the most productive lands and onto marginal lands where they grow subsistence crops. They tend to overuse the marginal land and to allow little time for soil recovery. Soil degradation is exacerbated when women need to travel greater distances to collect fuelwood, water, fodder, and food. Almost complete desertification awaits Rajasthan, India, where such events and intensive cash cropping occur. Heavy pesticide use on large commercial farms increases pest resistance, thereby boosting infestation and reducing species diversity. Women are testing sustainable agricultural techniques, for instance, interplanting and crop rotation. Even though women supply water needs, they tend to be excluded from planning, implementing, and maintaining water supplies. Women depend on forests to provide food, fodder, fuel, building materials, medicines, and many materials for income-earning efforts. Commercial logging, migration and resettlement, agricultural development, and cutting for firewood and charcoal destroy these forests. Reforestation schemes do not consider women's needs. Deforestation and desertification increase women's work burdens. Poor women who have migrated to urban areas also experience environmental degradation, deteriorating health, and resource depletion; most live in squatter settlements. Deteriorating economic circumstances in developing countries, reduced flows of official development assistance to developing

  9. Worldwide seismicity in view of non-extensive statistical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chochlaki, Kaliopi; Vallianatos, Filippos; Michas, George

    2014-05-01

    In the present work we study the distribution of worldwide shallow seismic events occurred from 1981 to 2011 extracted from the CMT catalog, with magnitude equal or greater than Mw 5.0. Our analysis based on the subdivision of the Earth surface into seismic zones that are homogeneous with regards to seismic activity and orientation of the predominant stress field. To this direction we use the Flinn-Engdahl regionalization (Flinn and Engdahl, 1965), which consists of 50 seismic zones as modified by Lombardi and Marzocchi (2007), where grouped the 50 FE zones into larger tectonically homogeneous ones, utilizing the cumulative moment tensor method. As a result Lombardi and Marzocchi (2007), limit the initial 50 regions to 39 ones, in which we apply the non- extensive statistical physics approach. The non-extensive statistical physics seems to be the most adequate and promising methodological tool for analyzing complex systems, such as the Earth's interior. In this frame, we introduce the q-exponential formulation as the expression of probability distribution function that maximizes the Sq entropy as defined by Tsallis, (1988). In the present work we analyze the interevent time distribution between successive earthquakes by a q-exponential function in each of the seismic zones defined by Lombardi and Marzocchi (2007).confirming the importance of long-range interactions and the existence of a power-law approximation in the distribution of the interevent times. Our findings supports the ideas of universality within the Tsallis approach to describe Earth's seismicity and present strong evidence on temporal clustering of seismic activity in each of the tectonic zones analyzed. Our analysis as applied in worldwide seismicity with magnitude equal or greater than Mw 5.5 and 6.) is presented and the dependence of our result on the cut-off magnitude is discussed. This research has been funded by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national resources under the

  10. Dropping dead: causes and consequences of vulture population declines worldwide.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L; Keesing, Felicia; Virani, Munir Z

    2012-02-01

    Vultures are nature's most successful scavengers, and they provide an array of ecological, economic, and cultural services. As the only known obligate scavengers, vultures are uniquely adapted to a scavenging lifestyle. Vultures' unique adaptations include soaring flight, keen eyesight, and extremely low pH levels in their stomachs. Presently, 14 of 23 (61%) vulture species worldwide are threatened with extinction, and the most rapid declines have occurred in the vulture-rich regions of Asia and Africa. The reasons for the population declines are varied, but poisoning or human persecution, or both, feature in the list of nearly every declining species. Deliberate poisoning of carnivores is likely the most widespread cause of vulture poisoning. In Asia, Gyps vultures have declined by >95% due to poisoning by the veterinary drug diclofenac, which was banned by regional governments in 2006. Human persecution of vultures has occurred for centuries, and shooting and deliberate poisoning are the most widely practiced activities. Ecological consequences of vulture declines include changes in community composition of scavengers at carcasses and an increased potential for disease transmission between mammalian scavengers at carcasses. There have been cultural and economic costs of vulture declines as well, particularly in Asia. In the wake of catastrophic vulture declines in Asia, regional governments, the international scientific and donor communities, and the media have given the crisis substantial attention. Even though the Asian vulture crisis focused attention on the plight of vultures worldwide, the situation for African vultures has received relatively little attention especially given the similar levels of population decline. While the Asian crisis has been largely linked to poisoning by diclofenac, vulture population declines in Africa have numerous causes, which have made conserving existing populations more difficult. And in Africa there has been little

  11. Black Carbon Concentration from Worldwide Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Greg; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Clothiaux, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide black carbon concentration measurements are needed to assess the efficacy of the carbon emissions inventory and transport model output. This requires long-term measurements in many regions, as model success in one region or season does not apply to all regions and seasons. AERONET is an automated network of more than 180 surface radiometers located throughout the world. The sky radiance measurements obtained by AERONET are inverted to provide column-averaged aerosol refractive indices and size distributions for the AERONET database, which we use to derive column-averaged black carbon concentrations and specific absorptions that are constrained by the measured radiation field. This provides a link between AERONET sky radiance measurements and the elemental carbon concentration of transport models without the need for an optics module in the transport model. Knowledge of both the black carbon concentration and aerosol absorption optical depth (i.e., input and output of the optics module) will enable improvements to the transport model optics module.

  12. European Atlantic: the hottest oil spill hotspot worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieites, David R.; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Palanca, Antonio; Ferrer, Xavier; Vences, Miguel

    2004-11-01

    Oil spills caused by maritime transport of petroleum products are still an important source of ocean pollution, especially in main production areas and along major transport routes. We here provide a historical and geographic analysis of the major oil spills (>700 t) since 1960. Spills were recorded from several key marine ecosystems and marine biodiversity hotspots. The past four decades have been characterized by an overall decrease in the number of accidents and tonnes of oil spilled in the sea, but this trend was less distinct in the European Atlantic area. Recent black tides from the Erika and Prestige vessels provided new evidence for the high risk of accidents with serious ecological impact in this area, which according to our analysis is historically the most important oil spill hotspot worldwide. The English Channel and waters around Galicia in Spain were the areas with most accidents. Maritime transport in European Atlantic waters has been predicted to continue increasing. Together with our own results this suggests that, in addition to measures for increased traffic safety, deployment of emergency capacities in the spill hotspot areas may be crucial for a sustainable conservation of sea resources and ecosystems.

  13. Human Papillomavirus 45 Genetic Variation and Cervical Cancer Risk Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Alyce A.; Heideman, Daniëlle A. M.; Boon, Debby; Gheit, Tarik; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Tommasino, Massimo; Franceschi, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human papillomavirus 45 (HPV45) is a member of the HPV18-related alpha-7 species and accounts for approximately 5% of all cervical cancer cases worldwide. This study evaluated the genetic diversity of HPV45 and the association of HPV45 variants with the risk of cervical cancer by sequencing the entire E6 and E7 open reading frames of 300 HPV45-positive cervical samples from 36 countries. A total of 43 HPV45 sequence variants were identified that formed 5 phylogenetic sublineages, A1, A2, A3, B1, and B2, the distribution of which varied by geographical region. Among 192 cases of cervical cancer and 101 controls, the B2 sublineage was significantly overrepresented in cervical cancer, both overall and in Africa and Europe separately. We show that the sequence analysis of E6 and E7 allows the classification of HPV45 variants and that the risk of cervical cancer may differ by HPV45 variant sublineage. IMPORTANCE This work describes the largest study to date of human papillomavirus 45 (HPV45)-positive cervical samples and provides a comprehensive reference for phylogenetic classification for use in epidemiological studies of the carcinogenicity of HPV45 genetic variants, particularly as our findings suggest that the B2 sublineage of HPV45 is associated with a higher risk of cervical cancer. PMID:24501412

  14. Prevalence of scabies and impetigo worldwide: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Romani, Lucia; Steer, Andrew C; Whitfeld, Margot J; Kaldor, John M

    2015-08-01

    Scabies is a skin disease that, through secondary bacterial skin infection (impetigo), can lead to serious complications such as septicaemia, renal disease, and rheumatic heart disease. Yet the worldwide prevalence of scabies is uncertain. We undertook a systematic review, searching several databases and the grey literature, for population-based studies that reported on the prevalence of scabies and impetigo in a community setting. All included studies were assessed for quality. 2409 articles were identified and 48 studies were included. Data were available for all regions except North America. The prevalence of scabies ranged from 0·2% to 71·4%. All regions except for Europe and the Middle East included populations with a prevalence greater than 10%. Overall, scabies prevalence was highest in the Pacific and Latin American regions, and was substantially higher in children than in adolescents and adults. Impetigo was common, particularly in children, with the highest prevalence in Australian Aboriginal communities (49·0%). Comprehensive scabies control strategies are urgently needed, such as a community-based mass drug administration approach, along with a more systematic approach to the monitoring of disease burden. PMID:26088526

  15. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-11-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  16. Worldwide epidemiology of liver hydatidosis including the Mediterranean area

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Biondi, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Mistretta, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide incidence and prevalence of cystic echinococcosis have fallen dramatically over the past several decades. Nonetheless, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) remains a major public health issue in several countries and regions, even in places where it was previously at low levels, as a result of a reduction of control programmes due to economic problems and lack of resources. Geographic distribution differs by country and region depending on the presence in that country of large numbers of nomadic or semi-nomadic sheep and goat flocks that represent the intermediate host of the parasite, and their close contact with the final host, the dog, which mostly provides the transmission of infection to humans. The greatest prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in human and animal hosts is found in countries of the temperate zones, including several parts of Eurasia (the Mediterranean regions, southern and central parts of Russia, central Asia, China), Australia, some parts of America (especially South America) and north and east Africa. Echinococcosis is currently considered an endemic zoonotic disease in the Mediterranean region. The most frequent strain associated with human cystic echinococcosis appears to be the common sheep strain (G1). This strain appears to be widely distributed in all continents. The purpose of this review is to examine the distribution of E. granulosus and the epidemiology of a re-emerging disease such as cystic echinococcosis. PMID:22509074

  17. Prevalence of scabies and impetigo worldwide: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Romani, Lucia; Steer, Andrew C; Whitfeld, Margot J; Kaldor, John M

    2015-08-01

    Scabies is a skin disease that, through secondary bacterial skin infection (impetigo), can lead to serious complications such as septicaemia, renal disease, and rheumatic heart disease. Yet the worldwide prevalence of scabies is uncertain. We undertook a systematic review, searching several databases and the grey literature, for population-based studies that reported on the prevalence of scabies and impetigo in a community setting. All included studies were assessed for quality. 2409 articles were identified and 48 studies were included. Data were available for all regions except North America. The prevalence of scabies ranged from 0·2% to 71·4%. All regions except for Europe and the Middle East included populations with a prevalence greater than 10%. Overall, scabies prevalence was highest in the Pacific and Latin American regions, and was substantially higher in children than in adolescents and adults. Impetigo was common, particularly in children, with the highest prevalence in Australian Aboriginal communities (49·0%). Comprehensive scabies control strategies are urgently needed, such as a community-based mass drug administration approach, along with a more systematic approach to the monitoring of disease burden.

  18. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    PubMed

    Rivarola, Maximo; Foster, Jeffrey T; Chan, Agnes P; Williams, Amber L; Rice, Danny W; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M J; Khouri, Hoda M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; Allan, Gerard J; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  19. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  20. Canine parvovirus: the worldwide occurrence of antigenic variants.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Carla; Thompson, Gertrude

    2016-09-01

    The most important enteric virus infecting canids is canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). CPV is the aetiologic agent of a contagious disease, mainly characterized by clinical gastroenteritis signs in younger dogs. CPV-2 emerged as a new virus in the late 1970s, which could infect domestic dogs, and became distributed in the global dog population within 2 years. A few years later, the virus's original type was replaced by a new genetic and antigenic variant, called CPV-2a. Around 1984 and 2000, virus variants with the single change to Asp or Glu in the VP2 residue 426 were detected (sometimes termed CPV-2b and -2c). The genetic and antigenic changes in the variants have also been correlated with changes in their host range; in particular, in the ability to replicate in cats and also host range differences in canine and other tissue culture cells. CPV-2 variants have been circulating among wild carnivores and have been well-documented in several countries around the world. Here, we have reviewed and summarized the current information about the worldwide distribution and evolution of CPV-2 variants since they emerged, as well as the host ranges they are associated with. PMID:27389721

  1. Larger trees suffer most during drought in forests worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Amy C.; McDowell, Nathan G.; Allen, Craig D.; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of severe droughts is increasing in many regions around the world as a result of climate change. Droughts alter the structure and function of forests. Site- and region-specific studies suggest that large trees, which play keystone roles in forests and can be disproportionately important to ecosystem carbon storage and hydrology, exhibit greater sensitivity to drought than small trees. Here, we synthesize data on tree growth and mortality collected during 40 drought events in forests worldwide to see whether this size-dependent sensitivity to drought holds more widely. We find that droughts consistently had a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality rates of larger trees. Moreover, drought-related mortality increased with tree size in 65% of the droughts examined, especially when community-wide mortality was high or when bark beetles were present. The more pronounced drought sensitivity of larger trees could be underpinned by greater inherent vulnerability to hydraulic stress, the higher radiation and evaporative demand experienced by exposed crowns, and the tendency for bark beetles to preferentially attack larger trees. We suggest that future droughts will have a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality of larger trees, potentially exacerbating feedbacks to climate change.

  2. Continuing worldwide increase in tropospheric methane, 1978 to 1987.

    PubMed

    Blake, D R; Rowland, F S

    1988-03-01

    The average worldwide tropospheric mixing ratio of methane has increased by 11% from 1.52 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in January 1978 to 1.684 ppmv in September 1987, for an increment of 0.016 +/- 0.001 ppmv per year. Within the limits of our measurements, the global tropospheric mixing ratio for methane over the past decade is consistent either with a linear growth rate of 0.016 +/- 0.001 ppmv per year or with a slight lessening of the rate of growth over the past 5 years. No indications were found of an effect of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation-El Chichon events of 1982-83 on total global methane, although severe reductions were reported in the Pacific Northwest during that time period. The growth in tropospheric methane may have increased the water concentration in the stratosphere by as much as 28% since the 1940s and 45% over the past two centuries and thus could have increased the mass of precipitable water available for formation of polar stratospheric clouds.

  3. Castor Bean Organelle Genome Sequencing and Worldwide Genetic Diversity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes P.; Williams, Amber L.; Rice, Danny W.; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M. J.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Allan, Gerard J.; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade. PMID:21750729

  4. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - second worldwide review

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The first world wide review of the geological problems in radioactive waste isolation was published by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1991. This review was a compilation of reports that had been submitted to a workshop held in conjunction with the 28th International Geological Congress that took place July 9-19, 1989 in Washington, D.C. Reports from 15 countries were presented at the workshop and four countries provided reports after the workshop, so that material from 19 different countries was included in the first review. It was apparent from the widespread interest in this first review that the problem of providing a permanent and reliable method of isolating radioactive waste from the biosphere is a topic of great concern among the more advanced, as well as the developing, nations of the world. This is especially the case in connection with high-level waste (HLW) after its removal from nuclear power plants. The general concensus is that an adequate isolation can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the underground system with its engineered barriers. This document contains the Second Worldwide Review of Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation, dated September 1996.

  5. Progress toward regional measles elimination--worldwide, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Perry, Robert T; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Dabbagh, Alya; Mulders, Mick N; Strebel, Peter M; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Rota, Paul A; Goodson, James L

    2014-11-14

    In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan with the objective to eliminate measles in four World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015. Member states of all six WHO regions have adopted measles elimination goals. In 2010, the World Health Assembly established three milestones for 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) for children aged 1 year to ≥90% nationally and ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to <5 cases per million; and 3) reduce global measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate. This report updates the 2000-2012 report and describes progress toward global control and regional measles elimination during 2000-2013. During this period, annual reported measles incidence declined 72% worldwide, from 146 to 40 per million population, and annual estimated measles deaths declined 75%, from 544,200 to 145,700. Four of six WHO regions have established regional verification commissions (RVCs); in the European (EUR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR), 19 member states successfully documented the absence of endemic measles. Resuming progress toward 2015 milestones and elimination goals will require countries and their partners to raise the visibility of measles elimination, address barriers to measles vaccination, and make substantial and sustained additional investments in strengthening health systems.

  6. [The evolution of surgical arthroscopy in Israel and worldwide].

    PubMed

    Haviv, Barak; Bronak, Shlomo; Thein, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Arthroscopy is a minimal invasive surgical technique to treat joint disorders with the use of fiber optics for indirect vision and small surgical tools. The first endoscopic direct inspection of the knee joint was documented at the beginning of the 20th century; however, the clinical practice of arthroscopy started only fifty years later. The "historical fathers" of surgical arthroscopy were Kenji Takagi from Japan and Eugen Bircher from Switzerland. The arthroscopes had become safer and more dependable since the 1970's with the introduction of fiber optics, while vision became easier with the invention of television. Subsequently, in the 1980's and 90's instruments were refined and arthroscopy evolved from a diagnostic to a therapeutic tool with the advantages of minimal approach, few complications and short rehabilitation. The beginning of knee arthroscopy in Israel followed the development in North America in the1970's. Within a few years, knee arthroscopy in Israel had also evolved to be therapeutic rather than diagnostic and was specifically used for partial meniscectomies. Currently, arthroscopic surgery, particularly of the knee and shoulder, has become common practice worldwide. Arthroscopic procedures constitute more than a third of all orthopedic procedures performed at the Israeli Assuta private hospitals. With the development of various technologies, it is anticipated that arthroscopic techniques will further evolve and play an ever greater role in diagnosing and treating joint pathology. PMID:26065225

  7. Multicore job scheduling in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forti, A.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Hartmann, T.; Alef, M.; Lahiff, A.; Templon, J.; Dal Pra, S.; Gila, M.; Skipsey, S.; Acosta-Silva, C.; Filipcic, A.; Walker, R.; Walker, C. J.; Traynor, D.; Gadrat, S.

    2015-12-01

    After the successful first run of the LHC, data taking is scheduled to restart in Summer 2015 with experimental conditions leading to increased data volumes and event complexity. In order to process the data generated in such scenario and exploit the multicore architectures of current CPUs, the LHC experiments have developed parallelized software for data reconstruction and simulation. However, a good fraction of their computing effort is still expected to be executed as single-core tasks. Therefore, jobs with diverse resources requirements will be distributed across the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), making workload scheduling a complex problem in itself. In response to this challenge, the WLCG Multicore Deployment Task Force has been created in order to coordinate the joint effort from experiments and WLCG sites. The main objective is to ensure the convergence of approaches from the different LHC Virtual Organizations (VOs) to make the best use of the shared resources in order to satisfy their new computing needs, minimizing any inefficiency originated from the scheduling mechanisms, and without imposing unnecessary complexities in the way sites manage their resources. This paper describes the activities and progress of the Task Force related to the aforementioned topics, including experiences from key sites on how to best use different batch system technologies, the evolution of workload submission tools by the experiments and the knowledge gained from scale tests of the different proposed job submission strategies.

  8. Progress report on the Worldwide Earthquake Risk Management (WWERM) Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Algermissen, S.T.; Hays, Walter W.; Krumpe, Paul R.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the Worldwide Earthquake Risk Management (WWERM) Program since its initiation in late 1989 as a cooperative program of the Agency for International Development (AID), Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), and the U.S. Geological Survey. Probabilistic peak acceleration and peak Modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) maps have been prepared for Chile and for Sulawesi province in Indonesia. Earthquake risk (loss) studies for dwellings in Gorontalo, North Sulawesi, have been completed and risk studies for dwellings in selected areas of central Chile are underway. A special study of the effect of site response on earthquake ground motion estimation in central Chile has also been completed and indicates that site response may modify the ground shaking by as much as plus or minus two units of MMI. A program for the development of national probabilistic ground motion maps for the Philippines is now underway and pilot studies of earthquake ground motion and risk are being planned for Morocco.

  9. Worldwide Telescope as an earth and planetary science educational platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatland, D. R.; Rush, K.; van Ingen, C.; Wong, C.; Fay, J.; Xu, Y.; Fay, D.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide Telescope (WWT) -available at no cost from Microsoft Research as both Windows desktop and web browser applications - enables personal computers to function as virtual telescopes for viewing the earth, the solar system and the cosmos across many wavelengths. Bringing together imagery from ground and space-based telescopes as well as photography from Mars rovers and Apollo astronauts, WWT is designed to work as both a research tool and a platform for educational exploration. Central to the latter purpose is the Tour authoring facility which enables a student or educator to create narrative stories with dynamic perspective, voice-over narrative, background sound and superimposed content. We describe here the application of recent developments in WWT, particularly the 2009 updates, towards planetary science education with particular emphasis on WWT earth models. Two core themes informing this development are the notions of enabling social networking through WWT Communities and including the earth as part of the bigger picture, in effect swinging the telescope around from the deep sky to look back at our observatory. moon, earth (WWT solar system view)

  10. Worldwide Estimates Relative to Five Continental-Scale Populations

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Christopher D; Court, Denise Syndercombe; Balding, David J

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the population genetics parameter (also referred to as the fixation index) from short tandem repeat (STR) allele frequencies, comparing many worldwide human subpopulations at approximately the national level with continental-scale populations. is commonly used to measure population differentiation, and is important in forensic DNA analysis to account for remote shared ancestry between a suspect and an alternative source of the DNA. We estimate comparing subpopulations with a hypothetical ancestral population, which is the approach most widely used in population genetics, and also compare a subpopulation with a sampled reference population, which is more appropriate for forensic applications. Both estimation methods are likelihood-based, in which is related to the variance of the multinomial-Dirichlet distribution for allele counts. Overall, we find low values, with posterior 97.5 percentiles when comparing a subpopulation with the most appropriate population, and even for inter-population comparisons we find . These are much smaller than single nucleotide polymorphism-based inter-continental estimates, and are also about half the magnitude of STR-based estimates from population genetics surveys that focus on distinct ethnic groups rather than a general population. Our findings support the use of up to 3% in forensic calculations, which corresponds to some current practice. PMID:26460400

  11. Canine parvovirus: the worldwide occurrence of antigenic variants.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Carla; Thompson, Gertrude

    2016-09-01

    The most important enteric virus infecting canids is canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). CPV is the aetiologic agent of a contagious disease, mainly characterized by clinical gastroenteritis signs in younger dogs. CPV-2 emerged as a new virus in the late 1970s, which could infect domestic dogs, and became distributed in the global dog population within 2 years. A few years later, the virus's original type was replaced by a new genetic and antigenic variant, called CPV-2a. Around 1984 and 2000, virus variants with the single change to Asp or Glu in the VP2 residue 426 were detected (sometimes termed CPV-2b and -2c). The genetic and antigenic changes in the variants have also been correlated with changes in their host range; in particular, in the ability to replicate in cats and also host range differences in canine and other tissue culture cells. CPV-2 variants have been circulating among wild carnivores and have been well-documented in several countries around the world. Here, we have reviewed and summarized the current information about the worldwide distribution and evolution of CPV-2 variants since they emerged, as well as the host ranges they are associated with.

  12. Visualizing Moon Phases with WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia; Goodman, Alyssa; Sunbury, Susan; Zhang, Zhihui Helen; Sadler, Philip; Dussault, Mary; Block, Sarah; Lotridge, Erin; Jackson, Jonathan; Constantin, Ana-Maria

    2014-07-01

    We report preliminary results from an NSF-funded project to build, test, and research the impact of a WorldWide Telescope Visualization Lab (WWT Vizlab), meant to offer learners a deeper physical understanding of the causes of the Moon's phases. The Moon Phases VizLab is designed to promote accurate visualization of the complex, three dimensional Earth-Sun-Moon relationships required to understand the Moon's phases, while also providing opportunities for middle school students to practice critical science skills, like using models, making predictions and observations, and linking them in evidence-based explanations. In the VizLab, students use both computer-based models and lamp + ball physical models. We present findings from the first two phases of the study—one in which we compared learning gains from the WWT VizLab with a traditional two dimensional Moon phases simulator, and another in which we experimented with different ways of blending physical and virtual models in the classroom.

  13. Shape variability and classification of human hair: a worldwide approach.

    PubMed

    De la Mettrie, Roland; Saint-Léger, Didier; Loussouarn, Geneviève; Garcel, Annelise; Porter, Crystal; Langaney, André

    2007-06-01

    Human hair has been commonly classified according to three conventional ethnic human subgroups, that is, African, Asian, and European. Such broad classification hardly accounts for the high complexity of human biological diversity, resulting from both multiple and past or recent mixed origins. The research reported here is intended to develop a more factual and scientific approach based on physical features of human hair. The aim of the study is dual: (1) to define hair types according to specific shape criteria through objective and simple measurements taken on hairs from 1442 subjects from 18 different countries and (2) to define such hair types without referring to human ethnicity. The driving principle is simple: Because hair can be found in many different human subgroups, defining a straight or a curly hair should provide a more objective approach than a debatable ethnicity-based classification. The proposed method is simple to use and requires the measurement of only three easily accessible descriptors of hair shape: curve diameter (CD), curl index (i), and number of waves (w). This method leads to a worldwide coherent classification of hair in eight well-defined categories. The new hair categories, as described, should be more appropriate and more reliable than conventional standards in cosmetic and forensic sciences. Furthermore, the classification can be useful for testing whether hair shape diversity follows the continuous geographic and historical pattern suggested for human genetic variation or presents major discontinuities between some large human subdivisions, as claimed by earlier classical anthropology.

  14. Salt intake, plasma sodium, and worldwide salt reduction.

    PubMed

    He, Feng J; Macgregor, Graham A

    2012-06-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of approximately 9-12 g/d in most countries of the world to the recommended level of 5-6 g/d lowers blood pressure (BP) in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. A further reduction to 3-4 g/d has a greater effect. Prospective studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Cost-effectiveness analyses have documented that salt reduction is more or at the very least just as cost-effective as tobacco control in reducing cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms whereby salt raises blood pressure and increases cardiovascular risk are not fully understood. The existing concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume. Increasing evidence suggests that small increases in plasma sodium may have a direct effect on BP and the cardiovascular system, independent of extracellular volume. All countries should adopt a coherent and workable strategy to reduce salt intake in the whole population. Even a modest reduction in population salt intake will have major beneficial effects on health, along with major cost savings.

  15. Information literacy: using LISTEN project strategies to equip nurses worldwide.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Ramona; Carter-Templeton, Heather; Russell, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    The 21st century presents a major challenge in the form of information overload. In a profession where new knowledge is ever expanding, nurse educators must equip nurses to find the information they need to provide safe evidence-based care. Information literacy and information technology competencies have become a priority in nursing education, but inconsistencies in definitions, frameworks, content, and design, combined with ill-equipped faculty have hindered the development of a transferable model geared toward improving nurses' information literacy. Challenges are compounded for nurses in developing nations, where access to information and training for information literacy are both problematic. This paper describes experiences from the LISTEN project, during the 1st year of a 3-year funded Nurse Education Practice and Retention grant. Designed to improve information literacy competencies of student and workforce nurses, using individualized learning via interactive web-based modules, LISTEN provides on its' website a Did You Know video dramatizing the importance of information literacy to nurses, and offers resources for information literacy, information technology, and evidence-based nursing practice. Preliminary findings from beta testing reveal the module content is realistic, complete, and logical. The website and video have generated worldwide interest. Future possibilities include nationwide implementation and adaptation for the international arena.

  16. Engelhard and IFP/Procatalyse set up worldwide catalysts venture

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.

    1992-12-02

    The new joint venture between Engelhard (Iselin, N) and Procatalyse (Paris), jointly owned by process licenser Institut Francais de Petrole (IFP; Rueil Malmaison, France) and Rhone-Poulenc (RP; Paris), marks the latest episode in the worldwide catalyst industry's restructuring. The operation will combine Engelhard's catalyst line, apart from its fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and emission catalysts, with Procatalyse's offering. To be launched at the beginning of 1993, the venture will have annual sales of about $75 million. Reforming catalysts will be the biggest part of the venture's lineup at the outset, making it number three in the US, behind UOP - which dominates the sector - and Criterion. IFP is starting to establish a presence in North America with its reforming technology. But flat gasoline demand and reductions on aromatics in gasoline limit requirements for new reforming units, comments one competitor. Although lower sulfur specifications are putting some new demand into the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst market, both partners play down their prospects. The sector, whose leaders are Akzo and Crtierion, is continuing to suffer from severe overcapacity. Procatalyse's HDS business is mainly linked to IFP licensees, while Engelhard is due to mothball its Salt Lake City HDS catalyst plant by year-end, transferring output to Elyria.

  17. NDM-1: a local clone emerges with worldwide aspirations.

    PubMed

    Marra, Andrea

    2011-02-01

    Evaluation of: Kumarasamy KK, Toleman MA, Walsh TR et al.: Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study. Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597-602 (2010). Are bacteria always going to outsmart us? With the emergence of the metallo-β-lactamase bla(NDM-1) gene, it certainly seems so. Whereas at one time bacterial clones resided in hospitals or long-term care facilities, it is now apparent that they have the capability of thriving in the community and quickly spreading across countries and continents with few impediments, thanks to accessible, rapid global travel. Thus, under conditions favoring the organism (promiscuous or inappropriate antibiotic use and poor infection control procedures), what was at one time a local problem can rapidly become a worldwide health crisis. Given that the discovery and development of a new antibiotic can take a decade or more, multiply resistant pathogens can have ample time to wreak havoc before a successful novel agent comes to market. At one time a single drug, penicillin, was enough to raise expectations that new antibiotics were unnecessary; we have since seen that bacteria can generate stable resistance to every antibiotic in rapid fashion, with no detrimental effects on their pathogenicity.

  18. Changes in worldwide demand for metals (final). Open File report

    SciTech Connect

    Faucett, J.G.; Chmelynski, H.J.

    1986-08-01

    Worldwide demand for metals was analyzed to identify the important factors that explain differences in the level of demand among world countries. The per capita demand for steel, aluminum, copper, and total nonferrous metals was investigated for 40 to 50 countries over a 22-year period. These countries have been further grouped into four world regions for purposes of making generalizations about the importance of these factors for countries in different stages of development and with dissimilar levels of per capita gross domestic product (GDP). Intercountry and intertemporal differences are explained largely by differences in per capita GDP and changes over time in per capita GDP, oil real prices, and to a lesser extent, metal real prices. The trend in world consumption is dramatically different in the last decade than the previous one. In 1962-73, per capita consumption increased in all areas and consumption intensity (consumption divided by (GDP) increased in most areas). In 1973-84, per capita consumption fell in most areas and intensity fell dramatically, except in developing nations.

  19. European Atlantic: the hottest oil spill hotspot worldwide.

    PubMed

    Vieites, David R; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Palanca, Antonio; Ferrer, Xavier; Vences, Miguel

    2004-11-01

    Oil spills caused by maritime transport of petroleum products are still an important source of ocean pollution, especially in main production areas and along major transport routes. We here provide a historical and geographic analysis of the major oil spills (>700 t) since 1960. Spills were recorded from several key marine ecosystems and marine biodiversity hotspots. The past four decades have been characterized by an overall decrease in the number of accidents and tones of oil spilled in the sea, but this trend was less distinct in the European Atlantic area. Recent black tides from the Erika and Prestige vessels provided new evidence for the high risk of accidents with serious ecological impact in this area, which according to our analysis is historically the most important oil spill hotspot worldwide. The English Channel and waters around Galicia in Spain were the areas with most accidents. Maritime transport in European Atlantic waters has been predicted to continue increasing. Together with our own results this suggests that, in addition to measures for increased traffic safety, deployment of emergency capacities in the spill hotspot areas may be crucial for a sustainable conservation of sea resources and ecosystems. PMID:15490095

  20. Model-based patterns in prostate cancer mortality worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, F; Severo, M; Castro, C; Lourenço, S; Gomes, S; Botelho, F; La Vecchia, C; Lunet, N

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer mortality has been decreasing in several high income countries and previous studies analysed the trends mostly according to geographical criteria. We aimed to identify patterns in the time trends of prostate cancer mortality across countries using a model-based approach. Methods: Model-based clustering was used to identify patterns of variation in prostate cancer mortality (1980–2010) across 37 European, five non-European high-income countries and four leading emerging economies. We characterised the patterns observed regarding the geographical distribution and gross national income of the countries, as well as the trends observed in mortality/incidence ratios. Results: We identified three clusters of countries with similar variation in prostate cancer mortality: pattern 1 (‘no mortality decline'), characterised by a continued increase throughout the whole period; patterns 2 (‘later mortality decline') and 3 (‘earlier mortality decline') depict mortality declines, starting in the late and early 1990s, respectively. These clusters are also homogeneous regarding the variation in the prostate cancer mortality/incidence ratios, while are heterogeneous with reference to the geographical region of the countries and distribution of the gross national income. Conclusion: We provide a general model for the description and interpretation of the trends in prostate cancer mortality worldwide, based on three main patterns. PMID:23660943