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Sample records for affecting women worldwide

  1. Campaigning for women's health rights worldwide.

    PubMed

    Doyal, L

    In this paper, the author takes a look at the women's health movement worldwide and lists some of its many achievements. The information provided is set in the context of reproductive rights, the most common issue that affects women in both the developed and the developing world. The author discusses access to birth control and the role of the consumer movement in achieving rights for women in childbirth.

  2. Women's Literacy in World-Wide Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limage, Leslie J.

    1994-01-01

    This overview of the special issue includes worldwide statistics on women's literacy, women's role in international decision making, and the role of international aid in increasing or decreasing sex bias. (SK)

  3. Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.; Strachan, Jane; Lazaridou, Angeliki

    2012-01-01

    "Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide" contains evocative portraits of twenty-three women educators and leaders from around the world whose actions are shaping social justice leadership. Woven from words of their own narratives, the women's voices lift off the page into readers' hearts and minds to inspire and…

  4. Technology trends, energy prices affect worldwide rig activity

    SciTech Connect

    Rappold, K.

    1995-09-25

    The major worldwide offshore rig markets have improved slightly this year, while the onshore markets generally lagged slightly. Offshore rig utilization rates have remained strong worldwide, with some areas reaching nearly 100%. Total worldwide offshore rig (jack ups, semisubmersible, drillships, submersibles, and barges) utilization was about 86%. Offshore drilling activity is driven primarily by oil and natural gas price expectations. Natural gas prices tend to drive North American offshore drilling activity, including the shallow waters in the Gulf of Mexico. International offshore drilling activity and deepwater projects in the Gulf of Mexico are more closely tied to oil prices. The paper discusses US rig count, directional drilling activity, jack up rig demand, semisubmersibles demand, rig replacement costs, and new construction.

  5. Towards a feminist global bioethics: addressing women's health concerns worldwide.

    PubMed

    Tong, R

    2001-01-01

    In this paper I argue that a global bioethics is possible. Specifically, I present the view that there are within feminist approaches to bioethics some conceptual and methodological tools necessary to forge a bioethics that embraces the health-related concerns of both developing and developed nations equally. To support my argument I discuss some of the challenges that have historically confronted feminists. If feminists accept the idea that women are entirely the same, then feminists present as fact the fiction of the essential "Woman." Not only does "Woman" not exist, -she" obscures important racial, ethnic, cultural, and class differences among women. However, if feminists stress women's differences too much, feminists lose the power to speak coherently and cogently about gender justice, women's rights, and sexual equality in general. Analyzing the ways in which the idea of difference as well as the idea of sameness have led feminists astray, I ask whether it is possible to avoid the Scylla of absolutism (imperialism, colonialism, hegemony) on the one hand and the Charybdis of relativism (postmodernism, fragmentation, Balkanization) on the other. Finally, after reflecting upon the work of Uma Narayan, Susan Muller Okin, and Martha Nussbaum, I conclude that there is a way out of this ethical bind. By focusing on women's, children's, and men's common human needs, it is possible to lay the foundation for a just and caring global bioethics.

  6. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Young Women: Lifestyle-related factors that increase heart disease risk ...

  7. The Worldwide Incorporation of Women and Women's Rights Discourse in Social Science Textbooks, 1970-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakagawa, Mana; Wotipka, Christine Min

    2016-01-01

    The invisibility of women in educational curricula and the effect this has on perpetuating women's marginal status in society has been well documented. This article examines (1) whether and how mentions of women and women's rights have expanded and changed in textbooks cross-nationally and over time and (2) to what extent these outcomes are driven…

  8. The Role of Science and Technology in the Advancement of Women Worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, I.; Farhar, B.

    2000-10-12

    Participants at the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China, created a Platform for Action focusing on 12 critical areas of concern (poverty, education and training, health, violence, armed conflict, economy, decision-making, institutional mechanisms, human rights, the media, environment, and the girl child) and the serious barriers to women's health and well-being in each area. Subsequently, the Department of Energy funded a study, described here, that shows, in a literature review and in interviews with 15 women experts, how science and technology can be integral to women's advancement in each of the 12 critical areas. Among the study's conclusions are that differing perspectives exist (pro-science, relativist, and skeptical) on the role of science and technology in women's lives and that these differing perspectives may explain why communication is difficult among policy makers and with scientists about the role science and technology may play in the advancem ent of women worldwide. Recommendations call for women's involvement in the ethics of science; removal of institutional barriers to advancing women; greater accountability in use of resources; changes in science education; and increased dialogue among those with differing perspectives on the role of science and technology in the advancement of women.

  9. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. October 2008 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Millennium Project, WFUNA http://www.millennium-project.org WORLDWIDE EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AFFECTING THE U.S. MILITARY Control No. (TCN...Resolution on Arctic Governance……………..…….9 8.8 Rights of Forest Peoples Need to Be Observed in Anti- deforestation Efforts…..….10 8.9 Coral Triangle May...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. October 2008 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  10. The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics: Global Perspectives, Common Concerns, Worldwide Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastavker, Yevgeniya V.

    2009-03-01

    The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics (ICWIP), held in Seoul, Korea, in October 2008, brought together 300 participants from 57 countries, including a diverse 22-member U.S. Delegation, for a 3-day summit of stimulating discussions, thought-provoking presentations, inspirational posters, and networking. Held under the auspices of the Working Group on Women in Physics of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), this meeting built on the successes of the 1^st (Paris, 2002) and 2^nd (Rio de Janeiro, 2005) Conferences and further clarified the importance of diversifying the field of physics worldwide. Although considerable progress has been made since 2002, it was clear that the global scientific workforce is still under-utilizing a large percentage of the available female talent pool. If human society is to benefit to its fullest from various contributions that the field of physics can offer in addressing global issues of economic crisis, energy, environment, water, health, poverty, and hunger, women of all races and nationalities need to become fully included and engaged in the national and international physical community. To address these and many other issues, the ICWIP unanimously approved a five-part resolution to IUPAP recommending actions to promote the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in physics and related fields.

  11. How family planning use affects women's lives.

    PubMed

    Williamson, N

    1998-01-01

    Family Health International's Women's Studies Project, launched in 1993, conducted 26 field studies in 10 diverse developing countries on the impact of family planning use on women's lives. Advisory committees in the participating countries established the research agenda, monitored the research process, and planned dissemination of research results. One of the goals of the project was to encourage the use of research findings to improve the quality of women's reproductive health services. The completed studies confirmed that women's family planning experiences are shaped by factors such as age, culture, place of residence, socioeconomic class, religion, and gender norms. However, two general themes emerged: 1) gender roles play a significant role in influencing women's family planning experiences; 2) family planning affects multiple domains of women's lives--domestic, economic, and community. The research confirmed that women perceive many benefits of family planning use. At the same time, they experience negative consequences such as family disapproval, method side effects, and the uncertainty associated with a redefinition of traditional sex roles. Women are generally satisfied with family planning services, but want more female providers, more emotional support, help with side effects, and more information on contraceptive methods.

  12. Vaginitis: How Many Women Are Affected/at Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How many women are affected/at risk? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content How many women are affected by vaginitis? Most women will have ...

  13. ENIGMA and the individual: Predicting factors that affect the brain in 35 countries worldwide.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul M; Andreassen, Ole A; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Bearden, Carrie E; Boedhoe, Premika S; Brouwer, Rachel M; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Cannon, Dara M; Cohen, Ronald A; Conrod, Patricia J; Dale, Anders M; Deary, Ian J; Dennis, Emily L; de Reus, Marcel A; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Dima, Danai; Donohoe, Gary; Fisher, Simon E; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Francks, Clyde; Frangou, Sophia; Franke, Barbara; Ganjgahi, Habib; Garavan, Hugh; Glahn, David C; Grabe, Hans J; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hibar, Derrek P; Holland, Dominic; Hoogman, Martine; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff; Hosten, Norbert; Jahanshad, Neda; Kelly, Sinead; Kochunov, Peter; Kremen, William S; Lee, Phil H; Mackey, Scott; Martin, Nicholas G; Mazoyer, Bernard; McDonald, Colm; Medland, Sarah E; Morey, Rajendra A; Nichols, Thomas E; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shen, Li; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smit, Dirk J A; Smoller, Jordan W; Stein, Dan J; Stein, Jason L; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van den Heuvel, Odile L; van Erp, Theo G M; van Rooij, Daan; Veltman, Dick J; Walter, Henrik; Wang, Yalin; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Whelan, Christopher D; Wright, Margaret J; Ye, Jieping

    2017-01-15

    In this review, we discuss recent work by the ENIGMA Consortium (http://enigma.ini.usc.edu) - a global alliance of over 500 scientists spread across 200 institutions in 35 countries collectively analyzing brain imaging, clinical, and genetic data. Initially formed to detect genetic influences on brain measures, ENIGMA has grown to over 30 working groups studying 12 major brain diseases by pooling and comparing brain data. In some of the largest neuroimaging studies to date - of schizophrenia and major depression - ENIGMA has found replicable disease effects on the brain that are consistent worldwide, as well as factors that modulate disease effects. In partnership with other consortia including ADNI, CHARGE, IMAGEN and others(1), ENIGMA's genomic screens - now numbering over 30,000 MRI scans - have revealed at least 8 genetic loci that affect brain volumes. Downstream of gene findings, ENIGMA has revealed how these individual variants - and genetic variants in general - may affect both the brain and risk for a range of diseases. The ENIGMA consortium is discovering factors that consistently affect brain structure and function that will serve as future predictors linking individual brain scans and genomic data. It is generating vast pools of normative data on brain measures - from tens of thousands of people - that may help detect deviations from normal development or aging in specific groups of subjects. We discuss challenges and opportunities in applying these predictors to individual subjects and new cohorts, as well as lessons we have learned in ENIGMA's efforts so far.

  14. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. December 2008 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) will be established January 26th in Bonn, Germany, as an intergovernmental organization to promote... renewable energy worldwide. It will assist member countries in matters of technology transfer, assessment and dissemination of information on new...technologies and best practices, and will help support projects related to renewable energy and tackling global warming. All interested UN member states

  15. How Does Heroin Use Affect Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Naloxone Pain Prevention Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research Post-Award Concerns General Information Grant & Contract Application ...

  16. "Improve the Women": Mass Schooling, Female Literacy, and Worldwide Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVine, Robert A.; LeVine, Sarah E.; Schnell, Beatrice

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that schooling leads to social change by fostering individual changes that alter participation; suggests that girls acquire proficiency in language used by bureaucracies such as health care. Demonstrates with data from Nepal and Venezuela how women's literacy skills influence reproductive and health outcomes for themselves and their…

  17. Addressing poverty, education, and gender equality to improve the health of women worldwide.

    PubMed

    Tyer-Viola, Lynda A; Cesario, Sandra K

    2010-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) that target alleviating poverty, improving primary education, and fostering gender equity are important as a foundation to promote world health. Achieving these goals will create an environment for healthy lives for women and children. Poverty, education, and gender equality, although undeniably linked, need to be addressed individually. Nurses have the capacity and political will to address MDGs and to contribute to the health and well-being of the world population.

  18. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. December 2007 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    almost completely decomposed after seven weeks, while the unmodified version was barely affected. However, bioplastics definition and recycling...releases/2007/12/071203120115.htm ’ Bioplastic ’ may become third option to paper or plastic http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/1219/p15s01-sten.html

  19. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. November 2007 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Environment and Security On November 30, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) agreed on a Ministerial Declaration on...www.stopclustermunitions.org/news.asp?id=103 7.3 Middle East Biosecurity Assessed Experts from more than 30 countries from the Middle East, Europe ...prices, expansion of biofuels , instability of financial markets, and other economic factors dramatically affect agricultural commodity prices

  20. Scientific literature on infectious diseases affecting livestock animals, longitudinal worldwide bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Christian; Gautret, Marjolaine; Pineau, Thierry; Jestin, André

    2016-03-14

    The objectives of this bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature were to describe the research subjects and the international collaborations in the field of research on infectious diseases in livestock animals including fishes and honeybees. It was based on articles published worldwide from 2006 through 2013. The source of data was the Web of Science, Core collection(®) and only papers fully written in English were considered. Queries were built that combined 130 descriptors related to animal species and 1213 descriptors related to diseases and pathogens. To refine and assess the accuracy of the extracted database, supplementary filters were applied to discard non-specific terms and neighbouring topics, and numerous tests were carried out on samples. For pathogens, annotation was done using a thematic terminology established to link each disease with its corresponding pathogen, which was in turn classified according to its family. A total of 62,754 articles were published in this field during this 8-year period. The average annual growth rate of the number of papers was 5%. This represents the reference data to which we compared the average annual growth rate of articles produced in each of the sub-categories that we defined. Thirty-seven percent of the papers were dedicated to ruminant diseases. Poultry, pigs and fishes were covered by respectively 21, 13 and 14% of the total. Thirty-seven percent of papers concerned bacteria, 33% viruses, 19% parasites, 2% prions, the remaining being multi-pathogens. Research on virology, especially on pigs and poultry, is increasing faster than the average. There also is increasing interest in monogastric species, fish and bees. The average annual growth rate for Asia was 10%, which is high compared to 3% for Europe and 2% for the Americas, indicating that Asia is currently playing a leading role in this field. There is a well established network of international collaborations. For 75% of the papers, the co

  1. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. February 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    about 2,500 miles of Arctic Seafloor…………………………...….10 7.7 European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission to Help Improve Water...Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission to Help Improve Water Management ESA’s SMOS is consistently mapping soil moisture in land and salinity in...of national security,” says Mohammed al-Raey of the Regional Disaster Response Centre. In Niger , food insecurity affecting more than 7 million

  2. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

  3. The reproduction in women affected by cooley disease

    PubMed Central

    Pafumi, Carlo; Leanza, Vito; Coco, Luana; Vizzini, Stefania; Ciotta, Lilliana; Messina, Alessandra; Leanza, Gianluca; Zarbo, Giuseppe; D'Agati, Alfio; Palumbo, Marco Antonio; Iemmola, Alessandra; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Teodoro, Maria Cristina; Attard, Matthew; Plesca, Alina Cristina; Soares, Catarina; Kouloubis, Nina; Chammas, Mayada

    2011-01-01

    The health background management and outcomes of 5 pregnancies in 4 women affected by Cooley Disease, from Paediatric Institute of Catania University, are described, considering the preconceptual guidances and cares for such patients. These patients were selected among a group of 100 thalassemic women divided into three subgroups, according to their first and successive menstruation characteristics: i) patients with primitive amenorrhoea, ii) patients with secondary amenorrhoea and iii) patients with normal menstruation. Only one woman, affected by primitive amenorrhoea, needed the induction of ovulation. A precise and detailed pre-pregnancy assessment was effected before each conception. This was constituted by a series of essays, including checks for diabetes and hypothyroidism, for B and C hepatitis and for blood group antibodies. Moreover were evaluated: cardiac function, rubella immunity and transaminases. Other pregnancy monitoring, and cares during labour and delivery were effected according to usual obstetrics practice. All the women were in labour when she were 38 week pregnant, and the outcome were five healthy babies born at term, weighting between 2600 and 3200gs. The only complication was the Caesarean section. The improvements of current treatments, especially in the management of iron deposits, the prolongation of survival rate, will result in a continuous increase of pregnancies in thalassemic women. Pregnancy is now a real possibility for women affected by such disease. We are furthermore studying the possibility to collect the fetus' umbilical cord blood, after the delivery, to attempt eterologus transplantation to his mother trying to get a complete marrow reconstitution. PMID:22184526

  4. Dream-associated Behaviors Affecting Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore; Paquette, Tyna

    2007-01-01

    Study objectives: Evaluate the prevalence and phenomenology of dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum mothers. Episodes consist of anxious dreams and nightmares about the new infant that are accompanied by complex behaviors (motor activity, speaking, expressing emotion). Design: Three-group design (postpartum, pregnant, null gravida), self-report, and repeated measures. Setting: Pregnancy and postpartum groups: completion of questionnaires in hospital room within 48 hours of giving birth and home telephone interviews; null gravida group: completion of questionnaires and interview in person or by telephone. Participants: Two hundred seventy-three women in 3 groups: postpartum: n = 202 (mean age = 29.7 ± 4.94 years; 95 primiparas, 107 multiparas); pregnant: n = 50 (mean age = 31.1 ± 5.44 years); null gravida: n = 21 (mean age = 28.5 ± 6.34 years). Interventions: Subjects completed questionnaires about pregnancy and birth factors, personality, and sleep and participated in interviews concerning the prevalence of recent infant dreams and nightmares, associated behaviors, anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologic factors. Measurements and Results: Most women in all groups recalled dreams (88%-91%). Postpartum and pregnant women recalled infant dreams and nightmares with equal prevalence, but more postpartum women reported they contained anxiety (75%) and the infant in peril (73%) than did pregnant women (59%, P < 0.05 and 42%, P < 0.0001). More postpartum (63%) than pregnant (40%) women reported dream-associated behaviors (P < 0.01), but neither group differed from null gravida women (56%). This was due to different distributions over groups of the behavior subtypes. Motor activity was present in twice as many postpartum (57%) as pregnant (24%) or null gravida (25%) women (all P < 0.0001). Expressing emotion was more prevalent among null gravida (56%) than postpartum women (27%) (P < 0.05) but was not different from pregnant women (37

  5. In vitro growth inhibition by Hypericum extracts and isolated pure compounds of Paenibacillus larvae, a lethal disease affecting honeybees worldwide.

    PubMed

    Hernández-López, Javier; Crockett, Sara; Kunert, Olaf; Hammer, Elfe; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Bauer, Rudolf; Crailsheim, Karl; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    The in vitro inhibitory potential of 50 extracts from various species of the flowering plant genus Hypericum was investigated using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test against Paenibacillus larvae, a spore-forming, Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that causes American foulbrood (AFB), a lethal disease affecting honeybee brood worldwide. Of the tested extracts, 14 were identified as highly active against P. larvae as compared to the activity of the positive control, indicating the presence of highly potent antibacterial compounds in the extracts. Examination of these extracts using TLC and HPLC/MS analyses revealed the presence of acylphloroglucinol and filicinic-acid derivatives. Six pure compounds isolated from these extracts, viz., hyperforin (1), uliginosin B (2), uliginosin A (3), 7-epiclusianone (4), albaspidin AA (5), and drummondin E (6), displayed strong antibacterial activity against the vegetative form of P. larvae (MIC ranging from 0.168-220 μM). Incubation of P. larvae spores with the lipophilic extract of Hypericum perforatum and its main acylphloroglucinol constituent 1 led to the observation of significantly fewer colony forming units as compared to the negative control, indicating that the acylphloroglucinol scaffold represents an interesting lead structure for the development of new AFB control agents.

  6. Factors Affecting Women's Autonomous Decision Making In Research Participation Amongst Yoruba Women Of Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Princewill, Chitu Womehoma; Jegede, Ayodele S; Nordström, Karin; Lanre-Abass, Bolatito; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2017-04-01

    Research is a global enterprise requiring participation of both genders for generalizable knowledge; advancement of science and evidence based medical treatment. Participation of women in research is necessary to reduce the current bias that most empirical evidence is obtained from studies with men to inform health care and related policy interventions. Various factors are assumed to limit autonomy amongst the Yoruba women of western Nigeria. This paper seeks to explore the experience and understanding of autonomy by the Yoruba women in relation to research participation. Focus is on factors that affect women's autonomous decision making in research participation. An exploratory qualitative approach comprising four focus group discussions, 42 in-depth interviews and 14 key informant interviews was used. The study permits a significant amount of triangulation, as opinions of husbands and religious leaders are also explored. Interviews and discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Content analysis was employed for data analysis. Findings show that concepts of autonomy varied amongst the Yoruba women. Patriarchy, religion and culture are conceived to have negative impact on the autonomy of women in respect to research participation. Among the important findings are: 1) male dominance is strongly emphasized by religious leaders who should teach equality, 2) while men feel that by making decisions for women, they are protecting them, the women on the other hand see this protection as a way of limiting their autonomy. We recommend further studies to develop culturally appropriate and workable recruitment methods to increase women's participation in research.

  7. Affective decision making in women with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    LeGris, Jeannette; Toplak, Maggie; Links, Paul S

    2014-10-01

    The affective decision making of 41 recently treated outpatient women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) was compared to 41 healthy controls using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Non-affective executive functions (EF) of working memory, interference control, and motor inhibition were also compared. Associations among affective and non-affective EF were examined. Despite normal range intelligence, Stroop interference, motor inhibition, and working memory, women with BPD made significantly more disadvantageous IGT decisions than controls (Cohen's d = .72) that were unrelated to substance abuse history, education, psychotropic use, or attentional deficits. Correlates of EF and IGT performance varied by group. Intellect, BPD, and intact behavioral control explained 35% of the adjusted variance in net IGT performance. Disadvantageous IGT decision making was the only EF to predict BPD. IGT deficits in BPD may be separable from IQ and other EF as supported by the somatic marker hypothesis and suggest a stable, trait-like vulnerability favoring immediate reward over long-term gain in women with the disorder.

  8. Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation and Its Association with Positive Affect in Working Women: A Day Reconstruction Study.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lili; Yang, Ying; Yang, Huijing; Huebner, E Scott

    2017-01-01

    The suicide rate for females in China is the second highest worldwide, and China is the only country in the world in which the rate of suicides is higher for women than men. Affective instability has been shown to be a strong predictor of suicidal ideation, particularly among women. However, prior research has mainly focused on the impact of women's negative affect on suicidal ideation, ignoring the influence of positive affect on suicidal ideation. Studies have revealed that hopelessness, which is 1.3 times more important than depression for explaining suicidal ideation, is driven more by low levels of positive affect than by high levels of negative affect. Although positive affect has also been found to be related to suicidal ideation, and it demonstrates independent, beneficial effects on mental health, much remains to be learned about the association between positive affective instability and suicidal ideation. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Chinese working women and explored the differences between working women with and without suicidal ideation in the intensity and daily variability of positive affect. A total of 222 young working women of ages 22-36 years (M = 27.64, SD = 3.73) were recruited from a free weekend psychology lecture. The women subsequently completed a daily diary Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) as well as a suicidal ideation questionnaire. We used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to analyze the data, and the results showed that: (1) 10.81% of participates reported suicidal ideation, the intensity of positive affect (happiness, warmth/friendliness, interest and relaxation/calmness) was significantly lower for women with suicidal ideation compared to women without suicidal ideation; (2) differing diurnal patterns of positive emotions were observed between women with and without suicidal ideation; women with suicidal ideation demonstrated a significantly lower trend of growth and a higher volatility in

  9. Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation and Its Association with Positive Affect in Working Women: A Day Reconstruction Study

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lili; Yang, Ying; Yang, Huijing; Huebner, E. Scott

    2017-01-01

    The suicide rate for females in China is the second highest worldwide, and China is the only country in the world in which the rate of suicides is higher for women than men. Affective instability has been shown to be a strong predictor of suicidal ideation, particularly among women. However, prior research has mainly focused on the impact of women's negative affect on suicidal ideation, ignoring the influence of positive affect on suicidal ideation. Studies have revealed that hopelessness, which is 1.3 times more important than depression for explaining suicidal ideation, is driven more by low levels of positive affect than by high levels of negative affect. Although positive affect has also been found to be related to suicidal ideation, and it demonstrates independent, beneficial effects on mental health, much remains to be learned about the association between positive affective instability and suicidal ideation. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Chinese working women and explored the differences between working women with and without suicidal ideation in the intensity and daily variability of positive affect. A total of 222 young working women of ages 22–36 years (M = 27.64, SD = 3.73) were recruited from a free weekend psychology lecture. The women subsequently completed a daily diary Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) as well as a suicidal ideation questionnaire. We used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to analyze the data, and the results showed that: (1) 10.81% of participates reported suicidal ideation, the intensity of positive affect (happiness, warmth/friendliness, interest and relaxation/calmness) was significantly lower for women with suicidal ideation compared to women without suicidal ideation; (2) differing diurnal patterns of positive emotions were observed between women with and without suicidal ideation; women with suicidal ideation demonstrated a significantly lower trend of growth and a higher volatility in

  10. Factors affecting the views and experiences of women living in the city centre of Manisa, Turkey, regarding domestic violence.

    PubMed

    2015-09-21

    Domestic violence against women is an important social and public health problem worldwide resulting from unequal power relationships between men and women. The purpose of the present cross-sectional descriptive study was to determine the factors affecting the views and experiences of women living in the city centre of Manisa, Turkey, regarding domestic violence. The data were collected from a representative sample of women (n = 873) in 2012. The socio-demographic questionnaire and the World Health Organization's Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Against Women were used for data collection. The study results revealed that of the women, 14.8% were exposed to physical violence, 7.9% to sexual violence, 20.2% to emotional violence/abuse and 11.2% to economic violence/abuse within the last 12 months. Lower income level, lower social status, lower educational level, unemployment, being exposed to parental violence during childhood and being married to husbands exposed to parental violence during childhood were associated risk factors with domestic violence. The study results indicate that domestic violence against women is a common phenomenon in Manisa.

  11. Adult Antisocial Behavior and Affect Regulation among Primary Crack/Cocaine-Using Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Lisa Caren; Hien, Denise A.; Levin, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between deficits in affect regulation and Adult Antisocial Behavior (ASB) in primary crack/cocaine-using women was explored in a sample of 80 inner-city women. Narrative early memories were coded for two components of affect regulation, Affect Tolerance and Affect Expression, using the Epigenetic Assessment Rating Scale (EARS;…

  12. Postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional gist and detail in naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Ahmed, Imran; Cahill, Larry

    2014-08-01

    Sex differences in emotional memory have received increasing interest over the past decade. However, to date, no work has explored how a postlearning stressor might modulate the influence of sex hormone status on memory for gist and peripheral detail in an emotional versus neutral context. Here, we tested 3 predictions. First, compared with naturally cycling (NC) women in the luteal phase, women on hormonal contraception (HC) would have significantly blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity to physical stress. Second, postlearning stress would enhance detail and gist memory from an emotional story in NC women, and finally, postlearning stress would not affect emotional memory for details or gist in HC women. Healthy NC and HC women viewed a brief, narrated story containing neutral or emotionally arousing elements. Immediately after, cold pressor stress (CPS) or a control procedure was administered. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test for story elements. NC women exhibited significantly greater cortisol increases to CPS compared with HC women. NC women who viewed the emotional story and were administered CPS recalled the most peripheral details overall and more gist from the emotional compared with the neutral story. In HC women, however, the postlearning cortisol release did not affect memory for gist or peripheral details from the emotional or neutral story in any way. Additionally, NC and HC women performed similarly on measures of attention and arousal. These findings suggest that in women, postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional information depending on their hormonal contraceptive status.

  13. Labor Laws Affecting Women--Ohio; A Capsule Summary (as of May 1, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet summarizes the labor laws affecting women working in Ohio. Descriptions of the various state laws and a listing of the relevant Federal laws are included. These laws cover wages, hours, and working conditions for women. (BH)

  14. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. Summarizing Environmental Security Monthly Scanning. July 2008 - June 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    print1.asp?id=131610 Are we ready to deal with world food crisis? http://www.lankanewspapers.com/news/2008/8/31640.html Climate change to hit SA crops ...of the Geneva Conventions, “this protection is often violated during war and armed conflict. Water wells are polluted, crops torched, forests cut...main crops – maize, millet and sorghum – would probably not tolerate the conditions. The six most affected nations will probably be Senegal, Chad, Mali

  15. What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to have treatment to control their cholesterol levels. Mental health Women are more likely to show signs of ... men are. Depression is the most common women’s mental health problem, 5 and more women than men are ...

  16. Asian Women in Transitions: How Modernization Affects Their Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Linda H.

    East Asia is the region which has experienced unprecedented growth in the past few decades. This growth resulted in the increase in education opportunities and the empowerment of women. Modernization and globalization provided opportunities for many women in China, Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan. Modern Asian women can obtain…

  17. Has ADVANCE Affected Senior Compared to Junior Women Scientists Differently?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists to demonstrate that the NSF ADVANCE Inititiative has made a positive impact upon institutions. Since it began in 2001, ADVANCE has changed the conversation, policies, and practices in ways to remove obstacles and systemic barriers preventing success for academic women scientists and engineers. Results from ADVANCE projects on campuses have facilitated consensus nationally about policies and practices that institutions may implement to help to alleviate issues, particularly for junior women scientists.Although getting women into senior and leadership positions in STEM constituted an initial impetus for ADVANCE, less emphasis was placed upon the needs of senior women scientists. Surveys of academic women scientists indicate that the issues faced by junior and senior women scientists differ significantly. The focus of ADVANCE on junior women in many ways seemed appropriate--the senior cohort of women scinetists is fed by the junior cohort of scientists; senior women serve as mentors, role models, and leaders for the junior colleagues, while continuing to struggle to achieve full status in the profession. This presentation will center on the differences in issues faced by senior compared to junior women scientists to explore whether a next step for ADVANCE should be to address needs of senior academic women scientists.

  18. Clothing preference affects vitamin D status of young women.

    PubMed

    Buyukuslu, Nihal; Esin, Kubra; Hizli, Hilal; Sunal, Nihal; Yigit, Pakize; Garipagaoglu, Muazzez

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with several chronic diseases, which include cardiovascular, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Several factors such as exposure to sunlight, skin color, dietary habits, and cultural factors affect serum vitamin D levels. We hypothesized that serum vitamin D levels in young women are associated with clothing styles and investigated this via a cross-sectional study that included 100 female students at Istanbul Medipol University. Our study used a questionnaire in order to collect demographic information. Serum calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone levels were determined via standard laboratory tests. We deployed bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure body composition, and we then determined the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and total body fat values. The mean age was 20.9 ± 2.1 years. Subjects' data were divided into 2 groups based on their clothing styles: covered (Muslim style clothing) and uncovered. Muslim style clothing, which covers the whole body but leaves the face and hands exposed, was worn by 40.0% of the undergraduate students. The mean BMI (in kilograms per meter squared) of the subjects was 23.0 ± 3.6. The BMI value for the covered students was 24.0 ± 4.0, and that for the uncovered students was 22.3 ± 3.1. Of the subjects, 28.0% had a BMI of at least 25 kg/m(2) (overweight). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (in nanograms per milliliter), parathyroid hormone (in picograms per milliliter), alkaline phosphatase (in units per liter), and calcium levels (in milligrams per deciliter) were 21.1 ± 6.7, 27.5 ± 9.2, 65.9 ± 10.9, and 9.0 ± 0.2 for covered students, respectively, and 29.7 ± 3.1, 24.3 ± 6.1, 62.8 ± 13.2, and 9.0 ± 0.4, respectively, for uncovered students. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiencies was 55.0% for covered and 20.0% for uncovered students. The vitamin D status was found to be statistically significant and had a negative correlation with the

  19. Does Polyvictimization Affect Incarcerated and Non-Incarcerated Adult Women Differently? An Exploration Into Internalizing Problems.

    PubMed

    Radatz, Dana L; Wright, Emily M

    2015-06-10

    In this study, we used data from life histories of 424 non-incarcerated (n = 266) and incarcerated (n = 158) women to examine the extent to which women are exposed to multiple forms of victimization, including child abuse, intimate partner violence, sexual assault, and traumatic life events. We assessed the effects of polyvictimization (e.g., multiple victimizations) on women's health-related outcomes (e.g., attempted suicide, drug and alcohol problems) as well as whether the prevalence rates and effects of victimization were significantly different between the subsamples of women. Results indicate that incarcerated women experience significantly more victimization than non-incarcerated women, and while polyvictimization was associated with a higher likelihood of alcohol problems, drug problems, and attempted suicide among non-incarcerated women, it was only marginally associated with an increased likelihood of alcohol problems among incarcerated women. Finally, low levels of polyvictimization affected alcohol and drug problems among incarcerated and non-incarcerated women differently.

  20. Affect Configurations and Changes in Women Who Threaten Suicide following a Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuringer, Charles

    1982-01-01

    Studied whether intense negative affect states linked to suicidal behavior exist. Gathered Personal Feeling Scales data from high, moderate, and low serious suicide-threatening women and from a disturbed but nonsuicidal group. Results indicated that a particular configuration of intensely negative affects exist for highly serious suicidal women.…

  1. Cultural Crisis? An Analysis of the Issues Affecting the Ascension of Women in the Australian Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    publication of The Army Wife Handbook.92 In spite of the author’s attempt to downplay the stereotyped title, it clearly portrays the role of women ...CULTURAL CRISIS? AN ANALYSIS OF THE ISSUES AFFECTING THE ASCENSION OF WOMEN IN THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY A thesis presented to the...To) AUG 2013 – JUNE 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cultural Crisis? An Analysis of the Issues Affecting the Ascension of Women in the Australian

  2. Factors affecting outcomes in patients reaching end-stage kidney disease worldwide: differences in access to renal replacement therapy, modality use, and haemodialysis practices.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Bruce M; Akizawa, Tadao; Jager, Kitty J; Kerr, Peter G; Saran, Rajiv; Pisoni, Ronald L

    2016-07-16

    More than 2 million people worldwide are being treated for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). This Series paper provides an overview of incidence, modality use (in-centre haemodialysis, home dialysis, or transplantation), and mortality for patients with ESKD based on national registry data. We also present data from an international cohort study to highlight differences in haemodialysis practices that affect survival and the experience of patients who rely on this therapy, which is both life-sustaining and profoundly disruptive to their quality of life. Data illustrate disparities in access to renal replacement therapy of any kind and in the use of transplantation or home dialysis, both of which are widely considered preferable to in-centre haemodialysis for many patients with ESKD in settings where infrastructure permits. For most patients with ESKD worldwide who are treated with in-centre haemodialysis, overall survival is poor, but longer in some Asian countries than elsewhere in the world, and longer in Europe than in the USA, although this gap has reduced. Commendable haemodialysis practice includes exceptionally high use of surgical vascular access in Japan and in some European countries, and the use of longer or more frequent dialysis sessions in some countries, allowing for more effective volume management. Mortality is especially high soon after ESKD onset, and improved preparation for ESKD is needed including alignment of decision making with the wishes of patients and families.

  3. Does caregiving stress affect cognitive function in older women?

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunmin; Kawachi, Ichiro; Grodstein, Francine

    2004-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women provide care to their ill spouses; however, no studies have examined possible effects of caregiving stress on cognitive function. We administered 6 tests of cognitive function to 13740 Nurses' Health Study participants aged 70-79 years. We collected information on caregiving and numerous potential confounding variables via biennial mailed questionnaires. After adjustment for potential confounders (age, education, mental health index, vitality index, use of antidepressants, and history of high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease), we found modest but significantly increased risks of low cognitive function on three of the cognitive tests among women who provided care to a disabled or ill spouse compared with women who did not provide any care. For example, on the TICS, a test of general cognition, the risk of a low score was 31% higher in women who provided care compared with women who did not (RR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.10, 1.56). We found a moderately increased risk of poor performance on several cognitive tests among women who provided care to their disabled or ill husbands.

  4. Iron and zinc nutriture affect cognition of premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell. L.S.; Sandstead, H.H. )

    1991-03-15

    Effects of changes in iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) status on cognition of premenopausal women were studied. Research in animals and humans shows that Fe and Zn influence brain function. Effects of mild Fe or Zn deficiencies on cognition of women have received limited attention. Therefore, using a double-blind randomized controlled treatment design the authors supplemented 34 sideropenic non-anemic women, ages 18-40 years, with micronutrients plus Fe, Zn, Fe+Zn, or micronutrients only. The micronutrient supplement was based on NRC guidelines. Eleven nonsideropenic women were also given the micronutrient supplement. Subjects were examined with the Weschler Memory Quotient (MQ) and Booklets Categories (BC) tests before and after treatment. After 8 weeks, significant improvement in MQ was displayed by the Fe, Zn and Fe+Zn groups, but no improvement occurred in the sideropenic subjects who were given only micronutrients. The nonsideropenic group displayed improved MQ when given only micronutrients. In contrast, all but the Fe group improved with the BC Test. The findings suggest that Fe and Zn repletion of sideropenic women improved certain cognitive functions of the women.

  5. Determination of factors affecting relapse of vaginitis among reproductive-aged women: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Parsapour, Roxana; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Rahimiforoushani, Abbas; Sadeghi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Vaginitis is a common problem for women, especially in reproductive-aged women. It is a worldwide health problem with many side effects but could be prevented by a health-promoting lifestyle related to vagina health. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting relapse of vaginitis. Methods In this experimental study, 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis were selected from 10 health centers in Kermanshah (Iran) during 2015 and were equally included in the intervention and control groups. To collect data, a researcher-created questionnaire, which included sociodemographic and health-promoting lifestyle questions, was used. The educational intervention was performed over 20 sessions, each lasting 25–35 minutes. An intervention group was educated by face-to-face education, pamphlets, phone contacts, text messages, and social media. Another group continued the routine clinic education and treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were analyzed through chi-square and a logistics regression model using IBM-SPSS version 20. Results The results of the study indicated a significant relation between sociodemographic characteristics such as women and their husbands’ literacy, job, family size, income, area for each member of family, tendency of pregnancy, body mass index (BMI), and caesarean experience (p<0.001) and vaginitis. In addition, significant relationships between health-promoting lifestyle dimensions and prevention of vaginitis were identified. Relapse after intervention in the intervention group was 27.7% and 72.3% in the control group. According to the logistic regression analysis, chance for relapse of vaginitis in the group that did not receive intervention was more than the same chance in the intervention group (OR=5.14). Conclusion Health-promoting lifestyle intervention influences prevention of vaginitis. Health-promoting lifestyle, literacy promotion, prevention of caesarian, and obesity are beneficial

  6. Factors affecting abnormal Pap smear follow-up among HIV-infected women.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, Priscilla D

    2003-01-01

    Women with HIV infection are at least 10 times more likely to have an abnormal Pap smear than women who are HIV negative. Unfortunately, many women with HIV do not return for care after an abnormal Pap smear. Through the use of focus groups and individual interviews, HIV-positive women's experiences with abnormal Pap smears and the factors that affected whether they returned for care were explored. Two thirds of the 18 participants were minority women, and the average age was 40. Using techniques of constant comparative analysis, five factors were identified that affected whether women came back for care. These factors included fear, the asymptomatic nature of the problem, life circumstances, the participant's perspectives on health, and the health care provider. The findings from this study have implications for clinical practice and future research regarding adherence and abnormal Pap smear follow-up among women with HIV.

  7. Stress differentially affects fear conditioning in men and women.

    PubMed

    Merz, Christian Josef; Wolf, Oliver Tobias; Schweckendiek, Jan; Klucken, Tim; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2013-11-01

    Stress and fear conditioning processes are both important vulnerability factors in the development of psychiatric disorders. In behavioral studies considerable sex differences in fear learning have been observed after increases of the stress hormone cortisol. But neuroimaging experiments, which give insights into the neurobiological correlates of stress × sex interactions in fear conditioning, are lacking so far. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we tested whether a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) compared to a control condition influenced subsequent fear conditioning in 48 men and 48 women taking oral contraceptives (OCs). One of two pictures of a geometrical figure was always paired (conditioned stimulus, CS+) or never paired (CS-) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus). BOLD responses as well as skin conductance responses were assessed. Sex-independently, stress enhanced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the hippocampus in early acquisition but attenuated conditioned responses in the medial frontal cortex in late acquisition. In early acquisition, stress reduced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the nucleus accumbens in men, but enhanced it in OC women. In late acquisition, the same pattern (reduction in men, enhancement in OC women) was found in the amygdala as well as in the anterior cingulate. Thus, psychosocial stress impaired the neuronal correlates of fear learning and expression in men, but facilitated them in OC women. A sex-specific modulation of fear conditioning after stress might contribute to the divergent prevalence of men and women in developing psychiatric disorders.

  8. Factors Affecting Women's Response Choices to Dating and Social Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Viken, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a sexual victimization history, trait disinhibition, alcohol use history, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the contextual features of dating and social events (i.e., sexual activity and alcohol use) on women's response choices to a set of vignettes describing diverse social situations. A total of 170…

  9. Black Women in Nursing Education Completion Programs: Issues Affecting Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Lolita Chappel; Cervero, Ronald M.; Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 10 black women enrolled in or graduated from baccalaureate nursing programs identified intrapersonal and cultural factors encouraging their participation. Hindrances were classified as the experience of being the "other" and the culture of racism. Findings show that individual and institutional racism is a barrier in registered…

  10. Revisiting psychopathy in women: Cleckley/Hare conceptions and affective response.

    PubMed

    Verona, Edelyn; Bresin, Konrad; Patrick, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    Despite increased interest in female psychopathy, more work is needed to establish commonalities between the nomological networks for psychopathy in men and women. The current study sought to advance understanding of affective deficits in female psychopathy, as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Forty-eight female inmates were tested in an affect-startle paradigm involving passive viewing of emotional and neutral picture stimuli. Results showed that women scoring high on PCL-R psychopathy exhibited deficits in startle reactivity to unpleasant pictures, especially with regard to victim-distress scenes, highlighting a specific insensitivity to the vicarious distress of others. The deficient affective modulation was specific to interpersonal-affective features and not adult/child antisocial features. These data confirm deficits in affective responding among women high on psychopathy, with implications for fear- versus empathy-related conceptualizations of psychopathic women.

  11. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    PubMed

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists.

  12. (Un)Disciplined futures: Women of color feminism as a disruptive to white affect studies.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rojas, Claudia

    2016-09-09

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate how women of color feminism predates and disrupts dominant dialogues in the field of White affect studies. I introduce the concept of White affect studies as an arena of inquiry that draws from Western-European theories and literatures and architects a sociopolitical structure of affect that positions White affects as universal. Scholars contributing to the field of White affect studies posit theories of affect, embodiment, subjectivity, phenomenology, violence, war, and more, while disregarding the theoretical contributions made by women of color feminism in thinking through these notions and social issues. This is done by engaging in a citational practice that results in an epistemic erasure of women of color feminist thought. The voices of women of color feminists are thus disqualified, and their theoretical contributions are not acknowledged as significant or relevant in conceptualizing affect, affective economies, and the social. By turning to the writings of women of color feminists, I demonstrate how their theories on embodiment, subjectivity, and social structures predate the institutionalization of White affect studies. Feminists of color from the past and present have and continue to theorize through a language of self their experiences as subjects embedded within matrices of violence, power, and pleasure. Lorde, Martinez, and Chinchilla write about the ways in which lesbian and queer women of color institute different affects that counter dominant structures of emotion, systems of power, and heterosexual modes of being. In developing conceptual methodologies, Lorde, Martinez, and Chinchilla are able to weave into the dominant discursive logic a language of self that both introduces new queer subjectivities, while reinterpreting existing forms of thought, thereby contesting mainstream economies of White affects and White affect studies. It is through a language of self that Lorde, Martinez, and Chinchilla develop

  13. Fitting in to Move Forward: How Belonging Affects Women in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    This talk will consider different factors that have been shown to negatively affect women in physics and other STEM fields by decreasing their subjective sense of belonging, fit, and acceptance. I will discuss recent studies documenting gender disparities in belonging and the negative effect this has on women's persistence. I will also consider the effects of gender composition within group problem-solving tasks on women's belonging, behavior, and perceived competency. Finally, I will discuss potential interventions and changes in classroom context that may serve to encourage women and members of other underrepresented groups.

  14. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    PubMed

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms) and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women) participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states.

  15. Factors affecting breastfeeding practices among working women in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Soomro, J A; Shaikh, Z N; Bijarani, S A; Saheer, T B

    2017-02-01

    In urban areas of Pakistan, women's return to work after giving birth has frequently been found to be a main contributor to the early termination of breastfeeding. This study aimed to assess workplace breastfeeding support provided to working mothers in Pakistan. In a cross-sectional survey in 2014, mothers and employers from a representative sample of 297 workplaces were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire. Mothers from 36 (12.1%) sites reported receiving breastfeeding breaks, and 86% of the mothers had received 3 months paid maternity leave. Provision of a lighter job and information about breastfeeding options on return to work were reported from 15% and 5% of the workplaces, respectively. Only two sites had designated breastfeeding corners. Significantly different results were found between types of employer (government or private) and type of organization (national or multinational) with regard to breastfeeding breaks, breastfeeding corners, lighter jobs and paid maternity leave. Public and multinational companies were slightly better than private and national ones in providing breastfeeding facilities.

  16. Positive Affect as a Source of Resilience for Women in Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zautra, Alex J.; Johnson, Lisa M.; Davis, Mary C.

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis or fibromyalgia, or both, completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10-12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases…

  17. Women's sun protection cognitions in response to UV photography: the role of age, cognition, and affect.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Laura A; Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Gerrard, Meg

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the impact of ultraviolet (UV) photography, cognition versus affect, and age on women's sun-related cognitions and a proxy measure of sun protection behavior. Participants (N = 114) were recruited via public advertisements and came to the lab to view a photo showing their UV damage. In addition, some participants received instructions to focus on either their thoughts (cognition) or feelings (affect) about their photograph before completing the survey. Women in the affect condition reported the lowest perceived vulnerability to skin cancer and highest absent/exempt beliefs (beliefs that one is unlikely to develop skin cancer if she hasn't already). Condition by age interactions showed that, among those in the cognition and control (no instructions) conditions, older women reported higher perceived vulnerability and lower absent/exempt beliefs, and took more sunscreen than younger women. However, older women reported higher absent/exempt beliefs and higher sun-risk willingness than younger women in the affect condition.

  18. An attachment insecurity model of negative affect among women seeking treatment for an eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Kowal, John; Balfour, Louise; Ritchie, Kerri; Virley, Barbara; Bissada, Hany

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of attachment insecurity in a clinical sample of 268 eating disordered women. Structural relationships among attachment insecurity, BMI, perceived pressure to diet, body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, and negative affect were assessed. A heterogeneous sample of treatment seeking women with a diagnosed eating disorder completed psychometric tests prior to receiving treatment. The data were analysed using structural equation modeling. Fit indices indicated that the hypothesized model fit adequately to the data. Although cross-sectional in nature, the data suggested that attachment insecurity may lead to negative affect. As well, attachment insecurity may lead to body dissatisfaction, which in turn may lead to restrained eating among women with eating disorders. Attachment insecurity could be a possible vulnerability factor for the development of eating disorder symptoms among women.

  19. Attentional and affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Marieke; van Leeuwen, Matthijs; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Heiman, Julia R; Laan, Ellen

    2012-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem in women. From an incentive motivation perspective, HSDD may be the result of a weak association between sexual stimuli and rewarding experiences. As a consequence, these stimuli may either lose or fail to acquire a positive meaning, resulting in a limited number of incentives that have the capacity to elicit a sexual response. According to current information processing models of sexual arousal, sexual stimuli automatically activate meanings and if these are not predominantly positive, processes relevant to the activation of sexual arousal and desire may be interrupted. Premenopausal U.S. and Dutch women with acquired HSDD (n = 42) and a control group of sexually functional women (n = 42) completed a single target Implicit Association Task and a Picture Association Task assessing automatic affective associations with sexual stimuli and a dot detection task measuring attentional capture by sexual stimuli. Results showed that women with acquired HSDD displayed less positive (but not more negative) automatic associations with sexual stimuli than sexually functional women. The same pattern was found for self-reported affective sex-related associations. Participants were slower to detect targets in the dot detection task that replaced sexual images, irrespective of sexual function status. As such, the findings point to the relevance of affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with HSDD, and imply that the treatment of HSDD might benefit from a stronger emphasis on the strengthening of the association between sexual stimuli and positive meaning and sexual reward.

  20. Improving STD services worldwide.

    PubMed

    Frahn, A L

    1998-01-01

    The number of new sexually transmitted disease (STD) cases worldwide continues to rise annually. Many people, however, do not know that they are infected with a STD because STD infection may often remain asymptomatic until the disease reaches an advanced stage. Up to half of STD-infected women either have no symptoms of infection or do not realize that the symptoms they have indicate a need to seek medical care. Many people are uncomfortable discussing STDs. AVSC is helping providers of family planning and other health care services to become more comfortable discussing STDs with their clients and more skilled in diagnosing and treating them. AVSC has been organizing training activities, developing training materials, and conducting research around the world to help improve the quality and availability of STD services. Examples of AVSC work in Bangladesh and the development of training materials to improve STD service providers' counseling and clinical skills are cited. AVSC's STD-related research is designed to help improve the quality and safety of family planning and STD services worldwide. Activities are noted in Russia, South Africa, and some other developing countries.

  1. Automatic and deliberate affective associations with sexual stimuli in women with superficial dyspareunia.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Marieke; de Jong, Peter J; Huijding, Jorg; Laan, Ellen; ter Kuile, Moniek M

    2009-08-01

    Current views suggest that in women with superficial dyspareunia the prospect of penile-vaginal intercourse automatically activates fear-related associations. The automatic activation of negative associations is assumed to interfere with the development of sexual arousal. In turn, this may further aggravate the dyspareunia-related complaints. To assess whether automatic negative associations are involved in this sexual pain disorder, women with superficial dyspareunia (n = 35) and a control group (n = 35) completed a modified pictorial Affective Simon Task (AST). Questioning the role of dysfunctional automatic associations in superficial dyspareunia, the AST indicated that symptomatic women displayed relatively positive rather than negative automatic associations with sexual stimuli. At the self-report level, however, affective associations with sex cues were significantly more negative for women with dyspareunia than for controls. This discrepancy between "reflective" and "reflexive" affective associations with sexual stimuli in women with dyspareunia points to the relevance of conscious appraisal and deliberate rather than automatic processes in the onset and maintenance of dyspareunia.

  2. The role of absorption in women's sexual response to erotica: a cognitive-affective investigation.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Jade; Koukounas, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of absorption on women's emotional and cognitive processing of erotic film. Absorption was experimentally manipulated using 2 different sets of test session instructions. The first, participant-oriented, instruction set directed participants to absorb themselves in the erotic film presentation, imagining that they were active participants in the sexual activities depicted. The second, spectator-oriented, instruction set directed participants to observe and assess the erotic film excerpt as impartial spectators. The participant-oriented instruction set was found to elicit greater subjective absorption in women than the spectator-oriented instruction set, and women reported greater subjective sexual arousal in the former set compared with the latter. Thus, it appears that the degree to which a woman becomes absorbed in an erotic stimulus may affect her subsequent subjective sexual arousal. Also, women reported greater degrees of positive affect when they took a participant-oriented perspective than when they viewed the erotic materials as impartial spectators. Thus, participants who were highly absorbed in the erotic film excerpt were more likely to view the stimulus favorably. By contrast, the degree to which women became absorbed in the stimulus had no effect on their reported negative affect. Future directions for examining female response patterns are suggested.

  3. An Overview of Federal Court Decisions Affecting Equal Rights for Women in Education. Report No. 70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, William

    This publication is a study of federal court decisions as they affect the equal rights of women in education. Because the majority of such cases have involved employment, the main focus of the study is on that area. Primary objective of the study is to derive from relevant federal cases the basic judicial principles applicable to the concept of…

  4. A Handbook of State Laws and Policies Affecting Equal Rights for Women in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Jessica

    This booklet is a state-by-state compilation of information on state laws, executive orders, regulations, guidelines, administrative structures, and procedures affecting equal rights for women in education. Within the section devoted to each state, separate short passages discuss state labor laws, fair employment practices legislation, state…

  5. Resistance exercise training does not affect postexercise hypotension and wave reflection in women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, J Derek; McMillan, Victor; Figueroa, Arturo

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of resistance exercise training (RET) on aortic wave reflection and hemodynamics during recovery from acute resistance exercise in women with fibromyalgia (FM) and healthy women (HW). Nine women with FM (aged 42 ± 5 years; mean ± SD) and 14 HW (aged 45 ± 5 years) completed testing at baseline and after 12 weeks of whole-body RET that consisted of 3 sets of 5 exercises. Heart rate (HR), digital blood pressure (BP, plethysmography), aortic BP, and wave reflection (radial tonometry) were assessed before and 20 min after acute leg resistance exercise. Aortic and digital diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) and aortic and digital pulse pressures (PP) were significantly increased (p < 0.05) after acute exercise before RET. Acute resistance exercise had no effect on HR, wave reflection (augmentation index and reflection time), digital, or aortic systolic BP. RET improved muscle strength without affecting acute DBP and PP responses. Acute resistance exercise produces postexercise diastolic hypotension without affecting systolic blood pressure, HR, and wave reflection responses in women with and without FM. RET does not alter resting and postexercise hemodynamics and aortic wave reflection in premenopausal women.

  6. Identification with Stimuli Moderates Women's Affective and Testosterone Responses to Self-Chosen Erotica.

    PubMed

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2016-11-01

    Sexual thoughts are sufficient to increase testosterone (T) in women, yet erotic films are not. A key confound in past studies is autonomy in stimulus selection: women choose the content of their sexual thoughts but films have been selected by researchers. We hypothesized that self-chosen erotic films, compared to researcher-chosen erotic films, would (1) increase women's self-reported arousal, enjoyment, and identification with stimuli, and decrease negative affect; and (2) increase T. Participants (N = 116 women) were randomly assigned to a neutral documentary condition or one of three erotic film conditions: high choice (self-chosen erotica from participants' own sources), moderate choice (self-chosen erotica from films preselected by sexuality researchers), or no choice (researcher-chosen erotica). Participants provided saliva samples for T before and after viewing the film in the privacy of their homes. Compared to researcher-chosen erotica, self-chosen erotica increased self-reported arousal and enjoyment, but also unexpectedly disgust, guilt, and embarrassment. Self-chosen erotica only marginally increased identification with stimuli compared to researcher-chosen erotica. Overall, film condition did not affect T, but individual differences in identification moderated T responses: among women reporting lower levels of identification, the moderate choice condition decreased T compared to the no choice condition, but this difference was not observed among women with higher identification. These results highlight the importance of cognitive/emotional factors like identification for sexually modulated T. However, self-chosen erotica results in more ambivalent rather than unequivocally positive cognitive/emotional responses, perhaps because stigma associated with viewing erotica for women becomes more salient when choosing stimuli.

  7. The Experience of Women Affected by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Qualitative Study From Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri Amiri, Fatemeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Montazeri, Ali; Mohammadpour Thamtan, Reza Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common chronic endocrine disorder. It has significant and diverse clinical consequences including reproductive, metabolic, and psychological morbidities as well as predisposition to malignancies. It is unclear how women with PCOS experience symptoms of this syndrome. Objectives: The aim of this study was to clarify the dimensions and components of quality of life in iranian women with PCOS. Patients and Methods: This study was a qualitative study to explore and document perceptions of women with PCOS about their disorder and quality of life. Semi-structured interviews with open ended questions were conducted with 23 women with PCOS. The interviews were continued to reach data saturation. The study was conducted in the Reproductive Endocrinology Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. Constant comparative analysis of the data was conducted manually according to the Strauss and Corbin analysis method. Results: The study revealed that the most important factors affecting quality of life in women with PCOS were the role functioning items as well as physical, mental, emotional, cognitive, and social dimensions. Conclusions: Comprehensive cares concerning various mental, emotional, cognitive, and social dimensions of quality of life should be planned for women with PCOS. PMID:24829583

  8. Factors affecting decision making of low-income young women with unplanned pregnancies in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Naravage, Wanapa; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Sakulbumrungsil, Rungpetch C; Van der Putten, Marc

    2005-05-01

    Unplanned pregnancy is one of the most difficult life experiences for young women. Women are often confused and seek help and support. When the problem occurs, a woman has three choices: parenting the baby, planning for adoption, or terminating the pregnancy. Choosing one of these three options is often difficult. This study aimed to identify the factors (variables) influencing women's decision making when choosing the options available to them. The study was conducted in five shelters and low-income communities in the Bangkok area. Data were collected for five months, November 2003 to March 2004. Young women, age 13-24, who experienced an unplanned pregnancy at least once, or currently experiencing an unplanned pregnancy, were recruited into the study. One hundred and twenty volunteer cases were recruited. Discriminant analysis was used to determine the factors that affecting the choices of young women with unplanned pregnancies. There were 6 potential influencing variables, in three broad categories of factors that influenced their choices. In this study, the influencing factors from the personal history variables were, age of the most recent unplanned pregnancy. The individual psychosocial variables were: attitude towards unplanned pregnancy, attitude towards contraception, and making a decision without consultation. The relationship variables were: relationship with partner, and consulting partner when having a problem. The results from discriminant analysis yielded 68.3% predictive accuracy. This result was satisfactory compared with a 33% chance of accuracy (classified as chance alone would yield a 33% accuracy). Knowing the influencing factors for the choices of young women with unplanned pregnancies allows us to understand the women's decisions and their utilization of services with some degree of confidence. The program managers or implementers should do as much as possible to support the decision making process in these young women in order to provide

  9. The worldwide obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    James, P T; Leach, R; Kalamara, E; Shayeghi, M

    2001-11-01

    The recent World Health Organization (WHO) agreement on the standardized classification of overweight and obese, based on body mass index (BMI), allows a comparable analysis of prevalence rates worldwide for the first time. In Asia, however, there is a demand for a more limited range for normal BMIs (i.e., 18.5 to 22.9 kg/m(2) rather than 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)) because of the high prevalence of comorbidities, particularly diabetes and hypertension. In children, the International Obesity Task-Force age-, sex-, and BMI-specific cutoff points are increasingly being used. We are currently evaluating BMI data globally as part of a new millennium analysis of the Global Burden of Disease. WHO is analyzing data in terms of 20 or more principal risk factors contributing to the primary causes of disability and lost lives in the 191 countries within the WHO. The prevalence rates for overweight and obese people are different in each region, with the Middle East, Central and Eastern Europe, and North America having higher prevalence rates. In most countries, women show a greater BMI distribution with higher obesity rates than do men. Obesity is usually now associated with poverty, even in developing countries. Relatively new data suggest that abdominal obesity in adults, with its associated enhanced morbidity, occurs particularly in those who had lower birth weights and early childhood stunting. Waist measurements in nationally representative studies are scarce but will now be needed to estimate the full impact of the worldwide obesity epidemic.

  10. Affective states and racial identity among African-American women with trichotillomania.

    PubMed Central

    Neal-Barnett, Angela; Stadulis, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Affective correlates of hair pulling were investigated in a sample of 43 African-American women with trichotillomania. The relationship among affective correlates and dimensions of racial identity was also examined. Via phone interview, participants completed the hair-pulling survey on which they rated the intensity of 10 different affective states across three different points in the hair-pulling episode (before, during and after). Participants also completed the Multidimensional Inventory of Racial Identity, which assesses racial identity across the dimensions of centrality, regard and ideology. Univariate analyses identified the feelings of being bored, happy, anxious, guilty and relieved as reflecting a time difference. Negative correlations were found among the racial identity dimension of private regard and the affective correlates of happy and relief that were experienced during and after pulling. Negative correlations were found between the racial identity dimension of humanist ideology and relieved affect as well as humanist ideology and relieved affect during a pulling episode. In light of the results, the importance of understanding and assessing cultural factors in the affective experience of African-American women with trichotillomania is discussed. PMID:16749651

  11. Cognitive-affective predictors of women's readiness to end domestic violence relationships.

    PubMed

    Shurman, Lauren A; Rodriguez, Christina M

    2006-11-01

    A model of women's readiness to terminate an abusive relationship was examined, using cognitive and emotional factors to predict readiness to change as conceptualized in the transtheoretical model. Factors previously identified in the domestic violence literature were selected to represent cognitive predictors (attribution and attachment style) and affective predictors (depression, hopelessness, anxiety, and anger) of readiness to end a domestic violence relationship. Responses by 85 female victims of intimate partner violence indicated that their overall readiness to terminate a relationship was predicted by a preoccupied attachment style and high emotional arousal. However, women's low level of anger predicted their precontemplation of change, the earliest stage of readiness, whereas internalizing emotional difficulties and preoccupation with their batterer predicted maintenance, the final stage of readiness to persist in their decision to leave their abuser. Implications of these findings for working with women considering leaving their partner are discussed.

  12. How discrimination and stress affects self-esteem among Dominican immigrant women: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Panchanadeswaran, Subadra; Dawson, Beverly Araujo

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the health disparities among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States is very important given the growing Latina population. Although researchers have investigated the health and mental health status among Latinas, the relationship between mental health and self-esteem has not been given a lot of attention. Given that self-esteem is a proxy for mental health status, investigations exploring the factors that can negatively affect self-esteem are needed. Therefore, the current study examined the influence of discrimination and stress on self-esteem among Dominican immigrant women. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 235 immigrant Dominican women in New York City. Women (age 18-49 years) and in the United States for fewer than 20 years were more likely to report experiencing discrimination compared to women older than age 50 years and in the United States for more than 20 years. After controlling for age, time in the United States, educational level, and income, high levels of discrimination (-0.09, p < 0.01) and stress (-0.69, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with reduced self-esteem. Interventions with Latino/a populations, especially women, need to acknowledge their individual evaluations of the discriminatory and stressful experiences that negatively influence their self-esteem and subsequently their mental health status.

  13. Women in Leadership: Factors That Affect the Achievement of Women in Higher Education Administration at Four-Year Public and Private Universities in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Dawn Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the factors that affect women administrators in higher education at four-year public and private universities in Texas. By comparing private and public universities, the research provided an assessment of similarities and differences of the factors impacting achievement of women in higher…

  14. Women's sexual responses to heterosexual and lesbian erotica: the role of stimulus intensity, affective reaction, and sexual history.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Zoë D; Janssen, Erick; Laan, Ellen

    2010-08-01

    Past research has demonstrated that women do not show a "category-specific" genital response to erotic stimuli. That is, on average, heterosexual and lesbian women are indistinguishable in terms of their physiological genital responses to heterosexual versus lesbian erotica. In two studies with heterosexual women (n = 28 for Study 1; n = 30 for Study 2) and lesbians (n = 24 for Study 1; n = 25 for Study 2), results confirmed that, on average, women did not show category-specific genital responses or category-specific subjective sexual arousal. However, there was evidence of notable within-group variability; many women did respond to the stimuli in a category-specific manner. Heterosexual women were more likely than lesbian women to demonstrate category-specificity. Findings also revealed that category-specificity was associated with multiple factors, including affective responses to the erotic stimuli and sexual history. Results of this study highlight the complexity of women's sexual identities and sexual responses.

  15. Variation in NGFB is Associated with Primary Affective Disorders in Women

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Donghong; Zhang, Huiping; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Listman, Jennifer B.; Li, Dawei; Price, Lawrence H.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Anton, Raymond F.; Kranzler, Henry R.; Gelernter, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Affective disorders (AFDs) are highly comorbid with substance dependence (SD) and both are genetically influenced. However, the specific etiology of the comorbidity is not well understood. We genotyped an array of 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near 130 genes in 868 European-Americans (EAs), including 182 individuals with primary AFDs (PAFDs), 214 with SD comorbid with AFD (CAFD), and 472 screened controls. NGFB, which encodes nerve growth factor β and was represented in the array by 15 SNPs, showed the strongest evidence of association, but only among women with PAFDs. Six of the SNPs showed a nominally significant association with PAFDs in women (Ps = 0.0007–0.01); three (rs2856813, rs4332358, and rs10776799) were empirically significant based on 1,000,000 permutations (Ps = 0.008–0.015). Seven haplotypes were significantly associated with PAFDs in women (Ps = 0.0014–0.01), of which six were significant based on empirical permutation analysis (minimal P = 0.0045). Four diplotypes were significantly associated with PAFDs in women (global Ps = 0.001–0.01). The specific diplotype GG-TC, reconstructed from rs2856813 and rs6678788, showed the strongest evidence of association with PAFDs in women (OR = 4.07, P = 4.2E-05). No SNPs or haplotypes were associated with PAFDs in men or with CAFDs in either sex. We conclude that variation in NGFB is a risk factor for PAFDs in women, but not for CAFD. PMID:21294249

  16. Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  17. Effect of a 12-week aerobic training program on perceptual and affective responses in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Luís Alberto Garcia; Ferreira, Sandro dos Santos; Freitas, Rosemari Queiroz; Henrique de Souza, Carlos; Garcia, Erick Doner Santos de Abreu; Gregorio da Silva, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to observe the effect of self-selected intensity or imposed intensity during aerobic training on perceptual and affective responses in obese women. [Subjects] The study included 26 obese women aged 30–60 years. [Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, with 13 subjects in each group: self-selected intensity and imposed intensity (10% above ventilatory threshold) groups. All subjects completed an intervention program that lasted 12 weeks, with three exercise sessions a week. The rating of perceived exertion and affective responses (Feeling Scale and Felt Arousal Scale) were monitored in the first, sixth, and twelfth weeks. [Results] Significant differences were observed between groups in heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. The affective responses during exercise were more negative in the imposed intensity group. [Conclusion] Use of a self-selected exercise intensity can promote smaller negative affective responses during exercise and provide a sufficient stimulus for improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:26311958

  18. The interplay between daily affect and sleep: a 2-week study of young women.

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L

    2014-12-01

    Little attention has been paid to the relation between daily affect and sleep, as most prior studies have focused instead on the role of pathological mood in the context of sleep disturbance. However, understanding the transaction between normal variations in emotional experiences and sleep can shed light on the premorbid vulnerabilities that trigger the evolution of affect and sleep into more problematic states. The present study used a 2-week daily sampling approach to examine the impact of day-to-day variations in positive and negative affect on nightly self-reported sleep-onset latency, sleep duration and sleep quality in a sample of young women. Hierarchical linear modelling revealed temporal relations between positive and negative affect states and sleep parameters. Specifically, different aspects of both positive and negative affect were uniquely predictive of sleep indices, with sadness and serenity acting as the most consistent predictors. Additionally, better sleep quality was predictive of greater happiness the following day. These results highlight the importance of how our daily emotional experiences influence our nightly sleep and, in turn, how our sleep has an impact on our daily affect. Moreover, our findings may offer insight into the progression of normative levels of affect and sleep as they develop into comorbid depression, anxiety and insomnia.

  19. Influence of negative affect on decision making in women with restrictive and binge-purge type anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Danner, Unna N; Sternheim, Lot; Bijsterbosch, Jojanneke M; Dingemans, Alexandra E; Evers, Catharine; van Elburg, Annemarie A

    2016-05-30

    The present study aims to examine the influence of negative affect on decision making in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) compared to healthy control women and, secondly, to assess differences between the restrictive (ANR) and binge-purge (ANBP) subtypes. One hundred four women (32 with ANR, 32 with ANBP, and 40 healthy controls) participated. All women were asked to watch either a negative or a control film fragment, both followed by the Bechara Gambling Task (BGT). Before and after the fragments negative affect was measured. Additionally, relevant characteristics (e.g., overall depressive symptoms) were assessed. Differences in negative affect did not influence decision making performance. Independent of affective state, decision making was found to be impaired in women with ANBP (no learning effect on the BGT), but not in women with ANR. These findings highlight the importance of considering different AN subtypes when examining decision making processes. However, the role of negative affect on decision making remains uncertain. Since other affect related factors such as affect dysregulation may also play a role, future studies on decision making in AN should take the role of affect into account.

  20. From Victim to Offender: How Nuisance Property Laws Affect Battered Women.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Gretchen W

    2016-05-04

    Nuisance property laws, which fine people for excessive 911 calls, have become increasingly popular in cities of all sizes. However, research into how these laws affect battered women is still in its early stages. This research study was designed to address the question of whether nuisance property laws harm battered women and, if so, how. Using a qualitative research design, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 primarily low-income African American battered women in St. Louis metropolitan area who had come into contact with a nuisance property law because of domestic violence. Interviews addressed circumstances of contact with a nuisance law, the response of law enforcement officials, and how the law affected the participant's housing, ability to call 911, sense of safety, finances, access to health care, and family stability. Using a multi-stage qualitative analytic procedure, each transcript was coded for themes and then descriptive categories developed for each theme. The data demonstrate that nuisance property laws harm victims of domestic violence in several ways, including by hindering their access to safe and secure housing, discouraging them from calling 911, increasing their vulnerability to violence, and compounding the trauma of the intimate partner violence. This research also reveals ways in which nuisance laws reinforce gender, race, and class inequality. The findings show that nuisance property laws enhance the abuser's power over his victim, hold victims accountable for the abuse, exacerbate the class- and race-based risks many battered women already face, and obscure the real crime of domestic violence. Policy makers need to be informed of these consequences so that they can take action to reform nuisance laws.

  1. Pharmacogenetic testing affects choice of therapy among women considering tamoxifen treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic testing holds major promise in allowing physicians to tailor therapy to patients based on genotype. However, there is little data on the impact of pharmacogenetic test results on patient and clinician choice of therapy. CYP2D6 testing among tamoxifen users offers a potential test case of the use of pharmacogenetic testing in the clinic. We evaluated the effect of CYP2D6 testing in clinical practice to determine whether genotype results affected choice of hormone therapy in a prospective cohort study. Methods Women planning to take or currently taking tamoxifen were considered eligible. Participants were enrolled in an informational session that reviewed the results of studies of CYP2D6 genotype on breast cancer recurrence. CYP2D6 genotyping was offered to participants using the AmpliChip CYP450 Test. Women were classified as either poor, intermediate, extensive or ultra-rapid metabolizers. Results were provided to clinicians without specific treatment recommendations. Follow-up was performed with a structured phone interview 3 to 6 months after testing to evaluate changes in medication. Results A total of 245 women were tested and 235 completed the follow-up survey. Six of 13 (46%) women classified as poor metabolizers reported changing treatment compared with 11 of 218 (5%) classified as intermediate, extensive or ultra-rapid metabolizers (P < 0.001). There was no difference in treatment choices between women classified as intermediate and extensive metabolizers. In multi-variate models that adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, educational status, method of referral into the study, prior knowledge of CYP2D6 testing, the patients' CYP2D6 genotype was the only significant factor that predicted a change in therapy (odds ratio 22.8; 95% confidence interval 5.2 to 98.8). Genetic testing did not affect use of co-medications that interact with CYP2D6. Conclusions CYP2D6 genotype testing led to changes in therapy among poor metabolizers, even in

  2. Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health.

    PubMed

    Cambronero-Saiz, Belén

    2013-01-01

    Background The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on people's health, with a particular focus on women. Objective To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1) political debates about abortion, (2) gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3) pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Design Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1) gender is the basis of social norms and (2) gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Results Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male-female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Conclusions Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens' health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance of women as the target

  3. Examining affect and perfectionism in relation to eating disorder symptoms among women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler B; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-30

    This study examined personality and affective variables in relation to eating disorder symptoms in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=118) with DSM-IV AN completed baseline questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and interviews (Eating Disorder Examination, Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale), followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving multiple daily reports of affective states and eating disorder behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using eating disorder symptoms as dependent variables (i.e., EMA binge eating, EMA self-induced vomiting, eating disorder rituals, eating disorder preoccupations, dietary restraint). Predictor variables were maladaptive perfectionism (baseline), depressive symptoms (baseline), and affect lability (EMA). Results revealed that affect lability was independently associated with binge eating, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with self-induced vomiting. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with eating disorder rituals, whereas both depressive symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism were independently associated with eating disorder preoccupations. Finally, maladaptive perfectionism and affect lability were both independently associated with dietary restraint. This pattern of findings suggests the importance of affective and personality constructs in relation to eating disorder symptoms in AN and may highlight the importance of targeting these variables in the context of treatment.

  4. Verbal versus Numerical Probabilities: Does Format Presentation of Probabilistic Information regarding Breast Cancer Screening Affect Women's Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test whether the format in which women receive probabilistic information about breast cancer and mammography affects their comprehension. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women received pre-assembled randomized packages containing a breast health information brochure, with probabilities presented in either verbal or numeric…

  5. Nonclinical factors affecting women's access to trial of labor after cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Korst, Lisa M; Gregory, Kimberly D; Fridman, Moshe; Phelan, Jeffrey P

    2011-06-01

    The use of trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) has declined in the last decade, and the clinical risks of TOLAC remain low. Nonclinical factors continue to affect women's access to TOLAC. This article considers 5 categories of factors that seem to be influencing rates of TOLAC and vaginal birth after cesarean: opinion leaders and professional guidelines, hospital facilities and cesarean availability, reimbursement for providing TOLAC, medical liability, and patient-level factors. An evidence base and strategies to provide guidance to create a safe environment for vaginal birth after cesarean are needed. Obstetric information systems are critical to this effort.

  6. Facial beauty affects implicit and explicit learning of men and women differently

    PubMed Central

    Ziori, Eleni; Dienes, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    The present work explores the unconscious and/or conscious nature of learning attractive faces of same and opposite sex, that is, of stimuli that experimental and neuroimaging research has shown to be rewarding and thus highly motivating. To this end, we examined performance of men and women while classifying strings of average and attractive faces for grammaticality in the experimental task of artificial grammar learning (AGL), which reflects both conscious and unconscious processes. Subjective measures were used to assess participants’ conscious and unconscious knowledge. It was found that female attractiveness impaired performance in male participants. In particular, male participants demonstrated the lowest accuracy while classifying beautiful faces of women. Conversely, female attractiveness facilitated performance in female participants. The pattern was similar for conscious and unconscious knowledge. Presumably, objects with high incentive salience, as are beautiful faces, captured resources, which were used in task relevant versus task irrelevant ways by women versus men. The present findings shed light on the relation of conscious and unconscious processing with affective and reward-related stimuli, as well as on gender differences underlying this relation. PMID:26300819

  7. Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health

    PubMed Central

    Cambronero-Saiz, Belén

    2013-01-01

    Background The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on people's health, with a particular focus on women. Objective To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1) political debates about abortion, (2) gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3) pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Design Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1) gender is the basis of social norms and (2) gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Results Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male–female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Conclusions Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens’ health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance of women as the

  8. Personality, social support and affective states during simulated microgravity in healthy women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Michel

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the time-course of stress and recovery states and their relations to social support and personality traits in healthy women during a long-term head-down tilt bed rest. Personality, social support and affective states were assessed in 16 women exposed to simulated microgravity for a 60-day duration involving three stages: a 20-day baseline control period (BDC), a 60-day head-down tilt bed rest (HDT) and a 20-day post-HDT ambulatory recovery period (R+). Participants were divided into two groups: an exercise (Exe, n = 8) and a control group (Ctl, n = 8). All the participants experienced significantly more stress during the HDT period. But exercise did not improve the impaired effects of simulated microgravity. The Exe group perceived more stress and less recovery than the Ctl group during the HDT period. Among the five major personality factors, only Neuroticism was related to both social and affective variables. Neuroticism was positively associated with stress and negatively associated with recovery and social support (S-SSQ). Practical implications in psychological countermeasures for better dealing with the key human factor in spaceflights are discussed.

  9. Misreporting of dietary intake affects estimated nutrient intakes in low-income Spanish-speaking women.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-07-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue.

  10. An externally oriented style of thinking as a moderator of responses to affective films in women.

    PubMed

    Davydov, Dmitry M; Luminet, Olivier; Zech, Emmanuelle

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that differences in alexithymia would moderate coupling in physiological and subjective-experiential responses to two affective films, which were shown to induce a common negative (sad) feeling, but to provoke different hyper- or hypo-arousal physiological responses (e.g., heart rate acceleration or deceleration) associated with antipathic or empathic context, respectively (Davydov et al., 2011). Only women were studied as persons showing more reactivity to sad films than men. Reactivity was evaluated for facial behavior, physiological arousal, and subjective experience. Some other affective and cognitive disposition factors (e.g., depression and defensiveness) were considered for evaluating their probable mediation of the alexithymia's effects. While subjective experience was not affected by alexithymia, high scorers on the externally-oriented thinking factor showed reduced physiological reactivity in both film conditions. These effects were mediated through different disposition factors: either low affectivity (low depressed mood), which mediated alexithymia's effect on hyper-arousal responses (e.g., decrease of heart rate acceleration), or impression management (other-deception), which mediated alexithymia's effect on hypo-arousal responses (e.g., decrease of heart rate deceleration).

  11. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  12. 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

  13. Preservation of fertility in women affected by cancer. An audit of the cryopreservation services provided for women at Human Assisted Reproduction Ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, M; Harrison, R F

    2005-10-01

    There has been a remarkable improvement in survival rates for adult and childhood cancers, due to progress in cancer treatments. However multiagent chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with gonadal failure. Whereas sperm banking is commonly performed, female gametes are not so amenable to cryopreservation. Options available to women for fertility preservation include, embryo and oocyte cryopreservation. Our unit established an oocyte/embryo cryopreservation service for women affected by cancer in October 2003. Ninteen women have been referred and five (26%) women have had oocytes cryopreserved. The mean age of women in the group cryopreserved was 34 years (range 21-41). Their mean day 3 FSH was 6.2 IU (range 5.5-6.8). The mean dose of rFSH used was 1870 units (range 1500-2600). The mean number of oocytes cryopreserved was 8 (range 3-16). Preservation of fertility is of major concern to women affected by cancer. This service offers them hope for their future fertility.

  14. Parity as a factor affecting the white-coat effect in pregnant women: the BOSHI study.

    PubMed

    Ishikuro, Mami; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Iwama, Noriyuki; Katagiri, Mikiko; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Narikawa, Yoko; Yagihashi, Katsuyo; Kikuya, Masahiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Masakuni; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Imai, Yutaka

    2015-11-01

    Parity has previously been reported to affect the difference in blood pressure (BP) measured in the office and at home, also known as the white-coat effect, during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to identify possible factors that cause the white-coat effect during pregnancy, focusing on parity. In total, 530 pregnant women (31.3±4.7 years old) who delivered at a maternal clinic were eligible for the study. The association between parity and the white-coat effect (clinic BP compared with home BP) was investigated for each trimester of pregnancy by multivariate analysis of covariance adjusted for age, body mass index, family history of hypertension and smoking habits. The magnitudes of the white-coat effect for systolic BP in the first, second and third trimesters were 4.1±9.8, 3.4±7.1 and 1.8±6.0 mm Hg, respectively and those for diastolic BP were 3.8±7.4, 1.6±5.8 and 2.4±4.9 mm Hg, respectively. Parity was significantly and negatively associated with the white-coat effect for systolic BP in the first trimester of pregnancy (nulliparous women: 5.07±0.61 mm Hg and multiparous women: 2.78±0.74 mm Hg, P=0.02) as well as for diastolic BP in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Age, body mass index, family history of hypertension and smoking were not significantly associated with the white-coat effect in any trimester of pregnancy. Parity may have an influence on the white-coat effect in pregnancy; however, the observed effect, on average 1-2 mm Hg, was small.

  15. Women are more strongly affected by dizziness in static magnetic fields of magnetic resonance imaging scanners.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Angela; Szostek, Anne; Meyer, Patric; Reinhard, Iris; Gilles, Maria; Paslakis, Georgios; Rauschenberg, Jaane; Gröbner, Jens; Semmler, Wolfhard; Deuschle, Michael; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Flor, Herta; Nees, Frauke

    2014-10-01

    Increasing field strengths in MRI necessitate the examination of potential side effects. Previously reported results have been contradictory, possibly caused by imbalanced samples. We aimed to examine whether special groups of people are more prone to develop side effects that might have led to contradictory results in previous studies. We examined the occurrence of sensory side effects in static magnetic fields of MRI scanners of 1.5, 3, and 7 T and a mock scanner in 41 healthy participants. The contribution of field strength, sex, age, and attention to bodily processes, and stress hormone levels to the sensation of dizziness was examined in separate univariate analyses and in a joint analysis that included all variables. Field strength and sex were significant factors in the joint analysis (P=0.001), with women being more strongly affected than men by dizziness in higher static magnetic fields. This effect was not mediated by the other variables such as attention to bodily symptoms or stress hormones. Further research needs to elucidate the underlying factors of increased dizziness in women in static magnetic fields in MRI. We hypothesize that imbalanced samples of earlier studies might be one reason for previous contradictory results on the side effects of static magnetic fields.

  16. Evaluation of reproductive health indicators in women affected by East Azarbaijan earthquake on August 2012

    PubMed Central

    Bahmanjanbeh, Farideh; Kohan, Shahnaz; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Haghshenas, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ignoring reproductive health services during natural disasters leads to some negative consequences such as reduced access to contraceptive methods, sexual disorders, and pregnancy complications. Despite previous researches, there is still more need for research on this area of health. This study attempts to identify the indicators of reproductive health in the women affected by the East Azarbaijan earthquake on August 2012. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, reproductive health information pertaining to the years before, during, and after the earthquake were collected and compared in the health centers of the three affected cities including Ahar, Heriss, and Varzaghan as well as the health and forensics centers of the East Azarbaijan province in Iran by census method. Results: Findings indicated a decrease in live birth rate, general marriage fertility rate, stillbirth rate, contraceptive methods coverage, and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases during and after the earthquake. Moreover, important indicators such as neonatal mortality rate and percentage of infants screened for breast milk, decreased during the disaster year in comparison with the years before and after. Other indicators such as preconception care, pregnancy first visit, rate of caesarian delivery, and under 1-year formula milk-fed infants’ percentages increased during the year of disaster in comparison with the years before and after. Conclusions: During the earthquake, some indicators of reproductive health have been reported to decrease whereas some others have gone through negative changes. Despite the partly favorable status of services, decision-makers and health service providers should pay more attention to the needs of women during disasters. PMID:27904635

  17. Factors associated with dietary habits and mood states affecting taste sensitivity in Japanese college women.

    PubMed

    Karita, Kanae; Harada, Matsuko; Yoshida, Masao; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey to evaluate the factors associated with dietary habits and mood states affecting taste sensitivity in 127 Japanese college women with a mean age of 19.2 y. Differential thresholds for the four basic tastes on the tongue were determined by the filter paper disc method, while dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Psychological mood states were evaluated by the Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire. Differential thresholds for saltiness and bitterness in alcohol drinkers were higher than those in alcohol non drinkers, whereas differential thresholds for the other tastes did not differ significantly between any of the stratified groups. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that among the five POMS mood states, POMS fatigue scores showed relatively stronger association with combined variables of taste thresholds. Logistic regression analysis revealed significant involvement of zinc and iron intake, and that POMS fatigue and anger scores affected the differential threshold for sourness. Specific mood and dietary factors were shown to be associated with sensitivity to sourness and bitterness. Among the five POMS mood states, high POMS fatigue scores and low POMS anger scores appeared to be associated with decreased taste sensitivity.

  18. In the mood for love or vice versa? Exploring the relations among sexual activity, physical affection, affect, and stress in the daily lives of mid-aged women.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Mary H; Trevathan, Wenda R; Todd, Michael

    2007-06-01

    How do physical affection, sexual activity, mood, and stress influence one another in the daily lives of mid-aged women? Fifty-eight women (M age, 47.6 yrs) recorded physical affection, several different sexual behaviors, stressful events, and mood ratings every morning for 36 weeks. Using multilevel modeling, we determined that physical affection or sexual behavior with a partner on one day significantly predicted lower negative mood and stress and higher positive mood on the following day. The relation did not hold for orgasm without a partner. Additionally, positive mood on one day predicted more physical affection and sexual activity with a partner, but fewer solo orgasms the following day. Negative mood was mostly unrelated to next-day sexual activity or physical affection. Sexual orientation, living with a partner, and duration of relationship moderated some of these effects. Results support a bidirectional causal model in which dyadic sexual interaction and physical affection improve mood and reduce stress, with improved mood and reduced stress in turn increasing the likelihood of future sex and physical affection.

  19. Children Worldwide, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Each of the three journal issues comprising volume 19 (1992) of "Children Worldwide" focuses on a specific theme. Issue 1 contains six articles about refugee children, including essays about a community self-help approach in Pakistan, unaccompanied minors in Hong Kong, and refugee families raising children in a new culture; guidelines…

  20. Can decision-making skills affect responses to psychological stress in healthy women?

    PubMed

    Santos-Ruiz, Ana; Garcia-Rios, M Carmen; Fernandez-Sanchez, José Carlos; Perez-Garcia, Miguel; Muñoz-García, Miguel Angel; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel

    2012-12-01

    In recent studies showing how stress can affect an individual's decision-making process, the cognitive component of decision-making could also be considered a coping resource available to individuals when faced with a stressful situation. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) constitutes the standard test for the assessment of decision-making skills under conditions of uncertainty. Responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to psychosocial stress, in turn, have been estimated by means of cortisol measurements. Our main objective in this study was to test if good and bad IGT performers show distinct HPA axis responses, when challenged in a classic psychosocial stress test. Because women have been shown to outperform men on the IGT under the influence of psychosocial stress, we chose a sample of 40 women to take the IGT before they were exposed to a public speaking task in a virtual environment. The activation of the HPA axis, involved in the stress response, was assessed by examining the levels of cortisol in the subjects' saliva at the following four stages: before the challenge, after the challenge, and 10 and 20 min after the task. Participants were divided into two groups according to their level of performance, good or poor, on the IGT. Results showed statistically significant differences between the groups for pre-exposure cortisol levels and for cortisol levels 20 min after exposure. Overall cortisol levels were significantly higher in the group with poor performance on the IGT. It appears that good decision-making, which may be an important resource for coping with stress, is associated with a lower HPA axis response to a psychosocial stressor.

  1. Addiction Vulnerability and Binge Eating in Women: Exploring Reward Sensitivity, Affect Regulation, Impulsivity & Weight/Shape Concerns.

    PubMed

    Eichen, Dawn M; Chen, Eunice Y; Schmitz, Mark F; Arlt, Jean; McCloskey, Michael S

    2016-10-01

    Almost 40% of individuals with eating disorders have a comorbid addiction. The current study examined weight/shape concerns as a potential moderator of the relation between the hypothesized latent factor "addiction vulnerability" (i.e., impairments in reward sensitivity, affect regulation and impulsivity) and binge eating. Undergraduate women (n=272) with either high or low weight/shape concerns completed self-report measures examining reward sensitivity, emotion regulation, impulsivity and disordered (binge) eating. Results showed that (1) reward sensitivity, affect regulation and impulsivity all loaded onto a latent "addiction vulnerability" factor for both women with high and with low weight/shape concerns, (2) women with higher weight/shape concerns reported more impairment in these areas, and (3) weight/shape concerns moderated the relation between addiction vulnerability and binge eating. These findings suggest that underlying processes identified in addiction are present in individuals who binge eat, though weight/shape concerns may be a unique characteristic of disordered eating.

  2. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-023 11 March 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ...ARMS Soviet Journal Reviews SIPRI Books on Arms Race in Outer Space (I. Kuznetsova, Yu. Orlov; Moscow INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, No 12, Dec 85) 1...Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 8 Feb 86) 59 TASS: INF Accord Possible Without Space Arms Connection (Moscow TASS, 7 Feb 86) 62 TASS: U.S. Officials

  3. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-85-065 16 December 1985 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ARMS French...34U.S.-USSR Geneva Talks" for "European Conferences". JPRS-TAO85-065 16 December 1985 SDI AND SPACE ARMS FRENCH PRIME MINISTER DISCUSSES SDI...imbalances in conventional weapons can really be discussed. As far as space is concerned, we want to avoid the emergence of weapons which are highly

  4. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    on nuclear and space arms cannot be described as "equitable" even with most unrestrained imagination. ’Gray Hawk’ PM131006 Moscow IZVESTIYA in...WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ARMS Effectiveness of U.S. SDI Effort Downplayed ’ (Peter Bretschneider; Karl-Marx-Stadt...MEZHDUNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA, No 7, Jul 85) 53 - b - JPRS-TAO85-064 13 December 1985 SDI AND SPACE ARMS EFFECTIVENESS OF U.S. SDI EFFORT

  5. [Worldwide eradication of poliomyelitis].

    PubMed

    Rasch, G; Schreier, E; Kiehl, W; Kurth, R

    2001-10-30

    Poliomyelitis, an infectious disease with acute and persistent flaccid paralysis is caused by poliovirus (types 1, 2 or 3), an enterovirus. The infection is asymptomatic in 95% of infected subjects. Most of the paralytic cases occur in adolescents or adults in the course of polio type 1 infection. In the prevaccination era, in countries with poor hygienic conditions, infection in early childhood was common, mostly asymptomatic, and immunity in the population prevailed. In developed countries polio often struck adolescents and adults taking its toll in paralytic disease. The introduction of vaccination with the Salk vaccine (IPV Inactivated Polio Vaccine) in the USA and in Europe in 1956 and with the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) developed by Sabin worldwide in the early sixties made it possible to control the epidemic in large geographic areas, but it could not eliminate the disease worldwide. Poliomyelitis is still endemic in Central Africa and in the Indian sub-continent. Acts of war led to the reduction in the vaccination rate in different geographic areas, and smaller epidemics with wild virus but also with reverted vaccine strains occurred. In some parts of the world the rate of vaccination also declined due to elimination of poliomyelitis, and it came to small epidemics of paralytic polio mainly caused by reverted vaccine strains circulating in the population. Reverted vaccine strains also remain a central problem in the eradication of poliomyelitis projected for 2005 by the World Health Organisation. A high vaccination rate, preferably with 3 doses of OPV in infancy or early childhood, and exact worldwide monitoring of cases is indispensable for the eradication. For the complete eradication of poliovirus the live vaccine OPV would have to be changed to an inactivated vaccine IPV worldwide. However, this is presently unachieveable, because of logistic problems and high costs.

  6. Toward worldwide data sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Raymond; Joy, Steven; King, Todd

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decade the nature of space science research has changed dramatically. Earlier investigators could carry out meaningful research by looking at observations from a single instrument on a single spacecraft. Today that is rapidly changing and researchers regularly use data from multiple instruments on multiple spacecraft as well as observations from ground observatories. Increasingly those observations come from missions flown by many countries. Recent advances in distributed data management have made it possible for researchers located around the world to access and use data from multiple nations. By using virtual observatory technology it no longer matters where data are housed they can be freely accessed wherever they reside. In this presentation we will discuss two initiatives designed to make space science data access worldwide. One is the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) and the other is the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC). In both cases the key to worldwide data sharing is adopting common metadata standards. In this talk we will review how these two groups are addressing the worldwide data sharing and their progress in achieving their goals. IPDA and HDMC are two of several efforts to promote broad based data sharing. Talks in the remainder of the symposium will discuss this is more detail.

  7. Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Cynthia M.

    Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

  8. Bargaining for Equality. A Guide to Legal and Collective Bargaining Solutions for Workplace Problems that Particularly Affect Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkin, Mary; Ross, Diane

    This is a guide to legal and collective bargaining solutions for workplace problems that particularly affect women. The first section of the guide presents a survey of legal remedies for discrimination including information on: (1) Title VII; (2) Equal Pay Act; (3) Executive Order 11246; (4) Age Discrimination in Employment Act; and (5) State Fair…

  9. An integrative affect regulation process model of internalized weight bias and intuitive eating in college women.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Hardin, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    The present study extended the weight stigma and well-being process model (Tylka et al., 2014) by examining three affect regulation pathways that may help simultaneously explain the predicted inverse association between internalized weight bias and intuitive eating. A weight-diverse sample of 333 college women completed an online survey assessing internalized weight stigma, intuitive eating, body shame, body image flexibility, and self-compassion. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures were computed to ascertain the presence of the indirect effects of internalized weight bias on intuitive eating via the three hypothesized mediators controlling for BMI in a combined model. Results demonstrated that body image flexibility significantly and self-compassion marginally contributed unique variance in accounting for this relationship. Our preliminary cross-sectional findings contribute to a nascent body of scholarship seeking to provide a theoretically-driven understanding of how negative and positive forms of experiencing and relating to the body may co-occur within individuals. Results also point to potential target variables to consider incorporating in later-stage efforts to promote more adaptive ways of eating amidst internalized weight stigma.

  10. [Do the physical discomforts from breast cancer treatments affect the sexuality of women who underwent mastectomy?].

    PubMed

    Cesnik, Vanessa Monteiro; Dos Santos, Manoel Antônio

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this integrative review is to analyze the scientific production addressing the sexuality of women with breast cancer following mastectomy, focused on the effects that the physical discomfort due to cancer treatments have on their sex life. The search included articles published in the period between 2000 and 2009 on the MEDLINE, LILACS and PsycINFO databases, using the following descriptors: mastectomy, breast neoplasms, sexuality, sexual behavior, amputation, psychosexual development, and marital relations. Nine articles were selected, which addressed the effects of the physical discomfort from cancer treatments on the patients' sexuality. The findings revealed that, even when the patient's sex life is intense and fulfilling before the disease, factors such as stress, pain, fatigue, insult to body image, and low self-esteem due to the treatments may alter the sexual functioning of the affected woman. Healthcare professionals must be sensitized in order to welcome and include the topic in policies as well as in preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic strategies.

  11. Don't take another bite: how sociocultural norms for appearance affect women's eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Strahan, Erin J; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P

    2007-12-01

    Four studies tested the impact of exposure to thin images on women's eating behavior. In Study 1, women who were exposed to commercials containing thin models ate less in a taste test than women exposed to neutral commercials. The next two studies revealed that the impact of the thin images could be reduced by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance. In Study 2, including images of relatively heavier women who have been successful in life (an indirect challenge to the norm) attenuated the impact of the thin images on women's eating behavior. Study 3 demonstrated that convincing women that their peers do not endorse the sociocultural norms also reduced the impact of the thin images. In Study 4, we found that exposure to thin images led to activation of an association between heaviness and rejection and that the more this association was activated, the less participants ate.

  12. Worldwide Report: Epidemiology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Rangpur Goiter Cases BARBADOS National Health Service Changes Spark Dispute (Bridgetown BARBADOS ADVOCATE, 20 Jun 85) Medical Practitioners...English 16 Jun 85 p 1] JPRS-TEP-85-013 9 August 1985 RANGPUR GOITER CASES—Lalmonirhat, June 16—About 8,000 people, specially women, are suffering

  13. Self-efficacy and affect as mediators between pain dimensions and emotional symptoms and functional limitation in women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Peñacoba Puente, Cecilia; Velasco Furlong, Lilian; Écija Gallardo, Carmen; Cigarán Méndez, Margarita; Bedmar Cruz, Dolores; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of self-efficacy and affect as mediators of the relationship between pain and several fibromyalgia (FM) symptoms (functional limitation, depression, and anxiety). We evaluated 144 women with FM for self-reported pain (numerical pain scale), pressure pain sensitivity (pressure pain thresholds), functional limitation (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), self-efficacy (Chronic Pain Self-Efficacy Scale), depression-anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and positive-negative affect (Positive-Negative Affect Scale). Mediating analyses were conducted with ordinary least squares multiple regression analysis. The results demonstrated that self-reported pain and pressure pain sensitivity exhibited significant relationships with functional limitation, anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, and affect. Affect mediated the relationship between pressure pain sensitivity and anxiety, whereas self-efficacy was the mediating variable between self-reported pain and functional limitation and depression. Our results support a complex nature of pain in women presenting with FM, as cognitive and emotional variables have different mediator relationships between pain dimensions and functional and emotional outcomes in women with FM.

  14. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    n r JPRS-TAC-85-057 25 November 1985 Worldwide Report ARMS CONTROL f-—*lf^ S ;.řS », ;r%^V; ,*’ \\i.*? 19980728 ■£*V’:: FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST...why he had decided to extend a programme launched last year of aid to penetration techniques. He had asked the Atomic Energy Commisariat (CEA) for...ICBM s , i.e. for those systems which constitute the basis of the strategic potential of the USSR. No though restrictions are set for the systems in

  15. Obesity Epidemiology Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Johnson, Cassandra; Mincey, Krista D

    2016-12-01

    Obesity continues to be a public health concern across the globe. Obesity has a demonstrated association with health behaviors and health outcomes, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. Over the past 2 decades, obesity has increased worldwide and remains highest in the United States. It is critical to understand the definition of obesity, using body mass index appropriately, recent estimates, and risk factors as a framework within which clinicians should work to help reduce the burden of obesity. This framework, including the Healthy People 2020 place-based approach to social determinants of health, is described in this article.

  16. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-013 1 February 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ...ARMS LE SOIR on Possible European Space Defense (Pierre Lefevre; Brussels LE SOIR, 12 Dec 85) 1 SALT/START ISSUES USSR Hits U.S. Accusations of...PRS«TAO86*013 1 February 1986 SDI AND SPACE ARMS LE SOIR ON POSSIBLE EUROPEAN SPACE DEFENSE Brussels LE SOIR in French 12 Dec 85 p 8 [Article by

  17. Worldwide lubricant trends

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on lubricating oils for internal combustion engines. Topics considered at the conference included worldwide environmental regulations and their impact on lubricant additives, passenger car gasoline engine oils in Japan, valve train wear, the field performance of super premium engine oils, wear resistance, deposits, scale control, oil thickening, low-phosphorus engine oils, bore polishing, the Tornado test, the coordination of international needs for lubricant quality,and the corrosive wear of cast iron under reciprocating lubrication.

  18. Worldwide Report Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-04

    GMT 4 Jan 87 LD] /9738 CSO: 5200/1128 11 U.S.«-USSR NUCLEAR AND SPACE ARMS TALKS GORBACHEV, REAGAN NEW YEAR MESSAGES ON DISARMAMENT Reagan to...Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 28 Dec 86 First Edition p 4 [Vitaliy Korionov "International Review"] [Excerpts] Only a few days remain until the New Year...105063 JPRS-TAC-87-OlO 4 FEBRUARY 1987 Worldwide Report ARMS CONTROL ’DUO QUALITY BFSPSSTEP * 19980515 022 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST■1NFORMAtlÖN

  19. Some Affects of Women's Rights Demonstrations Upon Attitudes of Nonfeminist Mormons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franck, Loren; Carlson, Stephen D.

    Forty-nine introductory psychology students (28 female, 21 male) at the Mormon Church's Brigham Young University in Utah were tested to determine the effects of a pro-feminist, pro-Equal Rights Amendment demonstration by the Utah Women's Rights Movement on attitudes toward the women's movement, civil demonstrations, and Mormon Church leaders.…

  20. Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Hans P

    2002-01-01

    Since the discovery of the aflatoxins in the 1960s, regulations have been established in many countries to protect the consumer from the harmful effects of mycotoxins that may contaminate foodstuffs. Various factors play a role in the decision-making process of setting limits for mycotoxins. These include scientific factors such as the availability of toxicological data, survey data, knowledge about the distribution of mycotoxins in commodities, and analytical methodology. Economical and political factors such as commercial interests and sufficiency of food supply have their impact as well. International enquiry's on existing mycotoxin legislation in foodstuffs and animal feedstuffs have been carried out several times in the 1980s and 1990s and details about tolerances, legal basis, responsible authorities, official protocols of analysis and sampling have been published. Recently a comprehensive update on worldwide regulations was published as FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 64. It appeared that at least 77 countries now have specific regulations for mycotoxins, 13 countries are known to have no specific regulations, whereas no data are available for about 50 countries, many of them in Africa. Over the years, a large diversity in tolerance levels for mycotoxins has remained. Some free trade zones (EU, MERCOSUR) are in the process of harmonizing the limits and regulations for mycotoxins in their respective member states, but it is not likely that worldwide harmonized limits for mycotoxins will soon be within reach.

  1. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    PubMed

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  2. The Impact of Uterine Leiomyomas: A National Survey of Affected Women

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Bijan J.; Nicholson, Wanda K.; Bradley, Linda; Stewart, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the impact of uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) in a racially diverse sample of women in the United States. Study Design A total of 968 women (573 White, 268 African-American, 127 other races) aged 29–59 with self-reported symptomatic uterine leiomyomas participated in a national survey. We assessed diagnosis, information seeking, attitudes about fertility, impact on work, and treatment preferences. Frequencies and percentages were summarized. Chi-square test was used to compare age groups. Results Women waited an average of 3.6 years before seeking treatment for leiomyomas, and 41% saw two or more healthcare providers for diagnosis. Almost a third of employed respondents (28%) reported missing work due to leiomyoma symptoms, and 24% felt that their symptoms prevented them from reaching their career potential. Women expressed desire for treatments that do not involve invasive surgery (79%), preserve the uterus (51%), and preserve fertility (43% of women under 40). Conclusions Uterine leiomyomas cause significant morbidity. When considering treatment, women are most concerned about surgical options, especially women under 40 who want to preserve fertility. PMID:23891629

  3. Microparasites of worldwide mullets.

    PubMed

    Ovcharenko, Mykola

    2015-01-01

    The present review is focus on parasitic organisms, previously considered as protozoans. Viral, prokaryotic and fungal parasites caused diseases and disorders of worldwide mullets were also observed. Most of the known viruses associated with a high mortality of mullets were detected in Mugil cephalus. Prokaryotic microparasites were registered in M. cephalus, Moolgarda cunnesiu, Liza ramada and Mugil liza. Fungal pathogens were associated with representatives of the genera Aphanomyces, Achlya, Phialemonium, Ichthyophonus. Ichthyophonus sp. can be considered as a potential threat for marine fish aquaculture, especially in culture conditions. A new hyperparasitic microsporidium like organism was recorded in myxozoan Myxobolus parvus infecting grey mullet Liza haematocheilus in the Russian coastal zone of the Sea of Japan. The protozoan representatives of the phyla Dinoflagellata, Euglenozoa, Ciliophora and Apicomplexa were reviewed and analyzed. The review of myxosporean parasites from grey mullets includes 64 species belonging to 13 genera and 9 families infecting 16 fish species

  4. IEEE standards worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J. )

    1995-01-01

    This article presents North American views on the development and use of internationally acceptable standards through strengthened ties with global standards organizations. The key ingredient to enhance the international reputation of IEEE standards is, without doubt, greater participation of members around the world. Standards that will really have force are those that are recognized as preeminent and that are sought after by organizations worldwide. it will be necessary to develop enhanced liaisons with standards organizations around the world, such as the IEC. These are some of the issues that will be addressed by panelists representing standards organizations and users from North America, United States, Canada, and Mexico. Also discussed is the importance of standards in the NAFTA and GATT agreements on trade.

  5. Obesity: the worldwide epidemic.

    PubMed

    James, Philip T

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decade, the prevalence of obesity in Western and Westernizing countries has more than doubled. A standardized classification of overweight and obesity, based on the body mass index now allows a comparison of prevalence rates worldwide for the first time. In children, the International Obesity Taskforce age, sex, and BMI specific cut-off points are increasingly being used. BMI data are being evaluated as part of a new analysis of the Global Burden of Disease. Prevalence rates for overweight and obese people are very different in each region with the Middle East, Central and Eastern Europe and North American having higher prevalence rates. Obesity is usually now associated with poverty even in developing countries. Relatively new data suggest that abdominal obesity in adults, with its associated enhanced morbidity, occurs particularly in those who had lower birth weights and early childhood stunting.

  6. Worldwide epidemiology of obesity.

    PubMed

    VanItallie, T B

    1994-01-01

    Average body mass index values and prevalence data for overweight show complex patterns varying with sex, age, socioeconomic circumstances, race, geography, and over time. Differences in the predominant lifestyles and developmental status of nations and regions also influence weight patterns. Estimates of the prevalence of obesity in developed countries vary depending on the definitions used. For example, one recent survey has reported that the prevalence of obesity in the US is 15%, while another survey has found it to be 26%. It appears that overweight and obesity are becoming more prevalent worldwide, not only in developed nations, but also in the populations of developing countries, possibly as a result of urbanisation, migration, new eating habits and recent affluence. Since modernisation appears to be an inevitable process throughout the world, there is every reason to expect that the epidemic of overweight and obesity will extend globally in the future.

  7. Objectification in Virtual Romantic Contexts: Perceived Discrepancies between Self and Partner Ideals Differentially affect Body Consciousness in Women and Men.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, Nicole M; Quinn, Diane M; Marsh, Kerry L

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined whether exposure to sexually objectifying images in a potential romantic partner's virtual apartment affects discrepancies between people's perception of their own appearance (i.e., self-perceptions) and their perception of the body ideal that is considered desirable to a romantic partner (i.e., partner-ideals). Participants were 114 heterosexual undergraduate students (57 women and 57 men) from a northeastern U.S. university. The study used a 2 (Participant Gender) x 2 (Virtual Environment: Sexualized vs. Non-Sexualized) between-subjects design. We predicted that women exposed to sexually objectifying images in a virtual environment would report greater discrepancies between their self-perceptions and partner-ideals than men, which in turn would contribute to women's body consciousness. Findings support this hypothesis and show that perceived discrepancies account for the relationship between exposure to sexually objectifying images and body consciousness for women but not men. We also found gender asymmetries in objectification responses when each component of perceived discrepancies, i.e., self-perceptions versus perceptions of a romantic partner's body ideal, were examined separately. For men, exposure to muscular sexualized images was significantly associated with their self-perceptions but not their perceptions of the body size that is considered desirable to a romantic partner. For women, exposure to thin sexualized images was significantly associated with their perceptions that a romantic partner preferred a woman with a smaller body size. However, exposure to these images did not affect women's self-perceptions. Implications for gender asymmetries in objectification responses and perceived discrepancies that include a romantic partner's perceptions are discussed.

  8. Objectification in Virtual Romantic Contexts: Perceived Discrepancies between Self and Partner Ideals Differentially affect Body Consciousness in Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Overstreet, Nicole M.; Quinn, Diane M.; Marsh, Kerry L.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether exposure to sexually objectifying images in a potential romantic partner's virtual apartment affects discrepancies between people's perception of their own appearance (i.e., self-perceptions) and their perception of the body ideal that is considered desirable to a romantic partner (i.e., partner-ideals). Participants were 114 heterosexual undergraduate students (57 women and 57 men) from a northeastern U.S. university. The study used a 2 (Participant Gender) x 2 (Virtual Environment: Sexualized vs. Non-Sexualized) between-subjects design. We predicted that women exposed to sexually objectifying images in a virtual environment would report greater discrepancies between their self-perceptions and partner-ideals than men, which in turn would contribute to women's body consciousness. Findings support this hypothesis and show that perceived discrepancies account for the relationship between exposure to sexually objectifying images and body consciousness for women but not men. We also found gender asymmetries in objectification responses when each component of perceived discrepancies, i.e., self-perceptions versus perceptions of a romantic partner's body ideal, were examined separately. For men, exposure to muscular sexualized images was significantly associated with their self-perceptions but not their perceptions of the body size that is considered desirable to a romantic partner. For women, exposure to thin sexualized images was significantly associated with their perceptions that a romantic partner preferred a woman with a smaller body size. However, exposure to these images did not affect women's self-perceptions. Implications for gender asymmetries in objectification responses and perceived discrepancies that include a romantic partner's perceptions are discussed. PMID:26594085

  9. Tamoxifen therapy in breast cancer control worldwide.

    PubMed Central

    Love, R. R.; Koroltchouk, V.

    1993-01-01

    In most developed and many developing countries, breast cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women. At least 50% of all breast cancer patients worldwide would survive longer, however, if public awareness about and early detection of the condition were increased and greater use were made of efficient treatment of proven value. With early-stage, localized breast cancer, local treatment combined with adjuvant hormonal therapy with tamoxifen, a synthetic estrogen, could save the lives of 6 women out of 100 compared with local treatment alone. Tamoxifen has anti-estrogenic effects not only on breast cancer cells but also on liver metabolism and bone, with concomitant decreases in risk factors for chronic skeletal and vascular system diseases. Long-term tamoxifen treatment causes major adverse clinical effects in < 5% of women; menopausal and vasomotor symptoms occur in the majority of treated women, but their severity lessens over time. Tamoxifen is being considered as a standard therapy and is included in the WHO list of essential drugs for the treatment of breast cancer patients in both developing and developed countries. For the control of breast cancer more successfully worldwide, one challenge is to make tamoxifen therapy available to greater numbers of women. PMID:8313498

  10. How Many Women Are Affected by or at Risk of Preeclampsia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preeclampsia is more common among women who have histories of certain health conditions, such as migraine headaches 6 , diabetes 7 , rheumatoid arthritis 8 , lupus 9 , scleroderma 10 , urinary tract infection 11 , gum ...

  11. Signaling threat: how situational cues affect women in math, science, and engineering settings.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mary C; Steele, Claude M; Gross, James J

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the cues hypothesis, which holds that situational cues, such as a setting's features and organization, can make potential targets vulnerable to social identity threat. Objective and subjective measures of identity threat were collected from male and female math, science, and engineering (MSE) majors who watched an MSE conference video depicting either an unbalanced ratio of men to women or a balanced ratio. Women who viewed the unbalanced video exhibited more cognitive and physiological vigilance, and reported a lower sense of belonging and less desire to participate in the conference, than did women who viewed the gender-balanced video. Men were unaffected by this situational cue. The implications for understanding vulnerability to social identity threat, particularly among women in MSE settings, are discussed.

  12. Gender differences affecting vocal health of women in vocally demanding careers

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Eric J.; Smith, Marshall E.; Tanner, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that occupational voice users have a greater incidence of vocal issues than the general population. Women have been found to experience vocal health problems more frequently than men, regardless of their occupation. Traditionally, it has been assumed that differences in the laryngeal system are the cause of this disproportion. Nevertheless, it is valuable to identify other potential gender distinctions which may make women more vulnerable to voice disorders. A search of the literature was conducted for gender-specific characteristics which might impact the vocal health of women. This search can be used by healthcare practitioners to help female patients avoid serious vocal health injuries, as well as to better treat women who already suffer from such vocal health issues. PMID:21722077

  13. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods: Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Results: Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Conclusions: Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway. PMID:26941571

  14. Racial/Ethnic Differences Affecting Adherence to Cancer Screening Guidelines Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Laz, Tabassum Haque; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Race/ethnicity has been shown to modify the effects between obesity and cancer screening among women. The purpose of this article is to update the literature with recent data to examine how the association between different characteristics, including body mass index (BMI), and cancer screening compliance varies by race/ethnicity in a national sample of women. Materials and Methods: Three cycles of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were combined for this cross-sectional study. Weighted descriptive statistics were evaluated using chi-square tests. Multivariable logistic regression evaluated associations between women with underweight or normal (<25), overweight (25–29.9), and obese (>30) BMIs and cancer screening concordant with guidelines (Papanicolaou [Pap] testing ≤3 years, ages 21+ years; mammography ≤2 years, ages 40+ years) in analyses stratified by race/ethnicity. We also assessed variance between racial/ethnic groups in how age, income, and insurance status were associated with cancer screening compliance. Results: This study included 4992 women who were evaluated for Pap testing and 3773 for mammography. In analyses stratified by race/ethnicity, whites with a higher household income were more likely to report having a Pap test (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.16, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.38–3.40) and a mammogram (aPR 1.63, 95% CI 1.04–2.55) compared to lower income white women. Black women with BMIs between 25 and 30 were less likely to receive a Pap test (aPR 0.38, 95% CI 0.19–0.76) than black women with BMIs <25, while no association was observed among the other groups. Insurance was associated with increased likelihood of Pap testing among white and black women. Insurance coverage was positively associated with mammography only among white and Hispanic women. Conclusions: We found variations in adherence to cancer screening guidelines by age, insurance coverage, and income between racial

  15. Women's evaluations of and affective reactions to mainstream violent pornography, nonviolent pornography, and erotica.

    PubMed

    Senn, C Y; Radtke, H L

    1990-01-01

    Women's reactions to three types of sexually explicit materials were examined. Ninety-six female undergraduates completed questionnaires measuring previous exposure to pornography, past history of coercive sexual experiences, attitudes toward feminism, hostility toward men, adversarial sexual beliefs, and rape myth acceptance. They were then randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (a) erotica, (b) nonviolent pornography, (c) violent pornography, and (d) control. They viewed 50 slides during each of two 30-minute sessions, completed a measure of mood disturbance, and evaluated each slide. The erotica was evaluated positively, while the pornography was evaluated negatively, and the violent pornography was evaluated more negatively than the other three conditions. Mood disturbance increased significantly from pre- to postexposure in the violent and nonviolent pornography conditions only. In addition, women with past coercive sexual experiences evaluated pornography more negatively and erotica more positively than women who had no such experience.

  16. Who's responsible for the care of women during and after a pregnancy affected by gestational diabetes?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Shelley A; Lim, Siew S; Upham, Susan; Pennington, Andrew; O'Reilly, Sharleen L; Asproloupos, Dino; McIntyre, H David; Dunbar, James A

    2014-08-04

    Despite its increasing incidence and high conferred risk to women and their children, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is managed inconsistently during and after pregnancy due to an absence of a systemic approach to managing these women. New guidelines for GDM testing and diagnosis are based on stronger evidence, but raise concerns about increased workloads and confusion in a landscape of multiple, conflicting guidelines. Postnatal care and long-term preventive measures are particularly fragmented, with no professional group taking responsibility for this crucial role. Clearer guidelines and assistance from existing frameworks, such as the National Gestational Diabetes Register, could enable general practitioners to take ownership of the management of women at risk of type 2 diabetes following GDM, applying the principles of chronic disease management long term.

  17. [Folate and iron in fertile age women from a Venezuelan community affected by incidence of neural tube defects].

    PubMed

    Mariela, Montilva; Jham, Papale; Nieves, García-Casal María; Yelitza, Berné; Yudith, Ontiveros; Lourdes, Durán

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this transversal study was to determine folate and iron nutritional status of women in fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, Lara State, Venezuela. The sampling was probabilistic by conglomerates from the urban and rural areas, selecting 15 conglomerates from which women between 12 and 45 years (269), were studied. After signing informed consent, participating were interviewed for personal data, antecedents related to folate and iron, socioeconomic data (Graffar-Mendez Castellano method and unsatisfied basic needs). In blood sample was determined Hemoglobin, and Erythrocytic Folate (FE). Serum was obtained to determine Ferritin and Serum Folate (FS). 53.53% of the sample presented low FS levels, 10.78% were FS deficient. Severe FE deficiency was present in 80.7% of the cases, moderate deficiency affected 5.9%. For both tests, median was higher for women in treatment with Acido Fólico or pregnant (p = 0.000), median for FE was higher for adults (p = 0.001) and in non poor women (p = 0.011). There were no significant differences for coffee, alcohol, anticonceptive consumption, urban or rural resident or socioeconomic strata. The prevalence of anemia was 11.2% being significantly more frequent in adults than in adolescents (p = 0.029) and in urban women (p = 0.042). Low ferritin were found in 37.3% of the sample, the effect of different variables was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of iron and folate deficiencies in women of fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, which could constitute a conditioning factor for the appearance of neural tube defects.

  18. Chemicals for worldwide aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnick, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Regulations and therapeutants or other safe chemicals that are approved or acceptable for use in the aquaculture industry in the US, Canada, Europe and Japan are presented, discussing also compounds that are unacceptable for aquaculture. Chemical use practices that could affect public health are considered and details given regarding efforts to increase the number of registered and acceptable chemicals.

  19. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    8217 So, these arebthe three versions. The selection, however, ha& ndt yet been made. The arguments are going on and on in the meantime. Special...ment peace programs affecting the entire earth and all human awareness at a stroke --we propose addressing all this to the idea of peace, the idea of

  20. The worldwide "wildfire" problem.

    PubMed

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2013-03-01

    The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented.

  1. More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at…

  2. A Study of Factors Affecting Attrition Among Women Re-entering Formal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimal, M. William

    A survey of 374 women students, who re-entered formal education at 13 community colleges in Northern California, was conducted to determine whether probability of persistence or non-persistence could be predicted on the basis of selected life antecedents, and which student services were perceived by persisting and non-persisting students as most…

  3. Returning to STEM: Gendered Factors Affecting Employability for Mature Women Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Clem

    2015-01-01

    This paper adds to current discourses around employability by arguing for an explicit recognition of gender, in particular in relation to women's employment in male-dominated sectors such as science, engineering and technology. This is not limited to young first-time graduates but continues and evolves throughout the life course. Mature women…

  4. Spirituality and Religiosity: Factors Affecting Wellness among Low-Income, Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Carman S.; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Myers, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    A study including measures of spirituality, religiosity, and wellness was conducted to identify coping strategies for the multiple challenges to wellness faced by low-income, rural women. Total spirituality and religiosity accounted for 39% of the variance in wellness, with purpose and meaning in life, unifying interconnectedness, and private…

  5. Cognitive-Affective Predictors of Women's Readiness to End Domestic Violence Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurman, Lauren A.; Rodriguez, Christina M.

    2006-01-01

    A model of women's readiness to terminate an abusive relationship was examined, using cognitive and emotional factors to predict readiness to change as conceptualized in the transtheoretical model. Factors previously identified in the domestic violence literature were selected to represent cognitive predictors (attribution and attachment style)…

  6. Presenting Thin Media Models Affects Women's Choice of Diet or Normal Snacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahe, Barbara; Krause, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Our study explored the influence of thin- versus normal-size media models and of self-reported restrained eating behavior on women's observed snacking behavior. Fifty female undergraduates saw a set of advertisements for beauty products showing either thin or computer-altered normal-size female models, allegedly as part of a study on effective…

  7. Factors affecting the choice of nonpermanent contraceptive methods among married women.

    PubMed

    MacDowell, M; Lee, E S

    1984-01-01

    Data from the 1976 US National Survey of Family Growth were used to examine the effect of sociodemographic factors on choice of nonpermanent contraceptive methods among white, fecund, married women aged 15-44 who intend no additional births. A multivariate analysis revealed that age of the respondent had a strong negative relationship to the effectiveness of contraceptive chosen. Being Catholic had a negative effect on the effectiveness of contraceptive chosen, but significant interaction occurred between age and parity and between age and education. 1 explanation may be that increased age may result in reduced perception of risk that an unwanted birth will occur. Another explanation is that concerns about health risks associated with the pill or IUD use may lead to use of other methods among older women. The most probable explanation of the observed relationship is a cohort effect. Older women who began marital contraception at an earlier point in time have continued to use the same methods as were initially available early in their marriage. The lack of a significant association between parity and the effectiveness of contraceptive method chosen based on multivariate analysis is most likely due to the high correlation between parity and age. The lack of a significant effect of education on choice of method may be explained by the nearly universal access to all methods of contraception for married women. Further research on the same lines is strongly urged to shed light on current behavior patterns.

  8. An examination of affect prior to and following episodes of getting drunk in women with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Pisetsky, Emily M; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Mitchell, James E; Engel, Scott G; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-06-30

    The current study examined the association between affect and self-reported alcohol intoxication in women with bulimia nervosa (BN; N=133). Participants completed a two-week ecological momentary assessment protocol. Momentary global positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA), as well as the facets of NA (fear, guilt, hostility and sadness), were measured. Forty-five participants endorsed that they "got drunk" during the study period. Daily mean and variability of global PA and NA were compared between days with self-reported alcohol intoxication and days without self-reported alcohol intoxication. Trajectories of affect were modeled prior to and following episodes of self-reported alcohol intoxication. There were no differences in the mean or variability of PA or NA on days characterized by self-reported alcohol intoxication compared to days with no self-reported alcohol intoxication (ps>0.05). PA decreased significantly prior to self-reported alcohol intoxication and remained stable afterwards. There were no changes in global NA before or after self-reported alcohol intoxication, but an examination of the facets of NA showed that sadness increased following episodes of self-reported alcohol intoxication. These findings showed only partial support for a negative reinforcement model of alcohol use in women with BN.

  9. Worldwide Report: Epidemiology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-17

    the growth of rice plants but harmful diseases and insects, especially army weevils and stem borers, have also developed strongly. According to the...against complicated weather changes at the end of the season, retaining sufficient water to nourish the rice , continually inspecting the fields to...in some places in the north have a shortage of rice seeds and many water buffaloes and oxen have collapsed, which has affected the 10th month

  10. Pregnancy and lactation affect markers of calcium and bone metabolism differently in adolescent and adult women with low calcium intakes.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Flávia F; Laboissière, Fabrícia P; King, Janet C; Donangelo, Carmen M

    2002-08-01

    Physiologic adaptation to the high calcium demand during pregnancy and lactation may be different in adolescents than in adults, particularly at low calcium intake. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare biochemical markers of calcium and bone metabolism between adolescent (14-19 y) and adult (21-35 y) women with calcium intake approximately 500 mg/d, in three different physiologic states, i.e., control (nonpregnant, nonlactating; NPNL), pregnant and lactating. Markers of calcium metabolism [serum Ca, P and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH); urinary Ca and P] and of bone turnover [urinary deoxypyridinoline (D-Pyr) and plasma bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP)] were measured in NPNL (adolescents, n = 12 and adults, n = 25), pregnant (adolescents, n = 30 and adults, n = 36) and lactating (adolescents, n = 19 and adults, n = 26) women. In the NPNL women, iPTH, D-Pyr and BAP were higher (P < 0.001) and urinary Ca was lower (P < 0.001) in adolescents than in adults. Serum iPTH was higher (P < 0.001) and urinary Ca was lower (P < 0.01) in adolescents than in adults also in pregnancy and lactation. Compared with NPNL women, serum Ca decreased (P < 0.001) with pregnancy in adolescents but not in adults. The increase in D-Pyr with pregnancy and lactation was very pronounced in adults ( approximately 130%, P < 0.001) but less in adolescents (<25%, P < 0.01). BAP increased (P < 0.001) with pregnancy and lactation in adults ( approximately 60%) but decreased (P < 0.001) with pregnancy in adolescents ( approximately 13%). Pregnancy and lactation appear to affect bone turnover in adolescent and adult women with low calcium intake differently.

  11. Diabetes distress may adversely affect the eating styles of women with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Laurie; Hacker, Eileen; Park, Hanjong; Kujath, Amber S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships among diabetes distress, fear of hypoglycemia, and eating styles in women with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Fifteen women (mean age 37 ± 13.5 years) with T1DM completed surveys measuring diabetes distress, fear of hypoglycemia (FOH), and eating style. Height, weight, and A1C were obtained, and open-ended comments regarding hypoglycemic concerns and experiences were recorded. Diabetes distress was positively associated with A1C (r = .655, p = .008). High levels of external (73 %), emotional (47 %), and restrained (53 %) eating styles were reported. Emotional and external eating styles were positively associated with diabetes distress (r = .575 and r = .622; p <.05). Those with poorer glycemic control (A1C ≥ 7 %; 53 mmol/mol) had higher levels of restrained eating behavior (F = 10.69, p = .006) and greater interpersonal distress (F = 5.916, p = .03) than those with better glycemic control (A1C < 7 %; 53 mmol/mol). A nonlinear relationship was identified between interpersonal distress and FOH (behavior subscale, p = .0383) indicating that fewer behavioral approaches were employed to avoid hypoglycemia at higher distress levels. The women in this sample were emotionally burdened by their disease. Distress was associated with eating styles linked with overeating and poor glycemic control. High levels of emotional and external eating styles may have important clinical implications for those with T1DM. PMID:24615054

  12. Does aerobic exercise intensity affect health-related parameters in overweight women?

    PubMed

    Botero, João P; Prado, Wagner L; Guerra, Ricardo L F; Speretta, Guilherme F F; Leite, Richard D; Prestes, Jonato; Sanz, Adrián V; Lyons, Scott; de Azevedo, Paulo H S M; Baldissera, Vilmar; Perez, Sergio E A; Dâmaso, Ana; da Silva, Rozinaldo G

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a cycling training programme performed at intensity corresponding to the lowest value of the respiratory quotient (RQ) versus at intensity corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT), on body composition and health-related parameters in overweight women. Thirty-two sedentary obese women (27-42 years old) were studied in a randomized trial of either RQ (n = 17) or VT (n = 15). RQ and VT training sessions were equalized by time (60 min) and performed in a cycloergometer. Anthropometry, body composition, lipid profile, glucose, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and fitness (maximal oxygen uptake) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Body weight, body mass index, fatness and fitness were improved in both groups (P<0·001). Triglycerides (TG) levels decreased only in response to RQ (P<0·001) and fat-free mass (FFM) to VT (P = 0·002). No differences were observed between groups. Both exercise intensities seem to be effective for improving health in overweight women. However, low-intensity compared with the high-intensity exercise training appears to have additional benefits on TG levels and to maintenance of FFM.

  13. Subclinical depressive symptoms affect responses to acute psychosocial stress in healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Benson, S; Arck, P C; Blois, S; Schedlowski, M; Elsenbruch, S

    2011-01-01

    Subclinical depressive symptoms constitute a primary risk factor for major depression as well as for cardiovascular conditions, which may be mediated by endocrine or immune alterations. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the extent of subclinical depressive symptoms and neuroendocrine and immune cell responses to acute psychosocial stress in healthy females. In N = 33 healthy premenopausal women, state anxiety, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and serum cortisol, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration responses to public speaking stress were assessed. Beck depression inventory (BDI) scores were entered as a covariate in the analyses. The IL-6 response was significantly associated with BDI scores (p < 0.05). Secondary analyses revealed that women with more subclinical depressive symptoms demonstrated a reduced stress-induced increase in circulating IL-6 level (p < 0.05). By contrast, stress-induced neuroendocrine activation was not associated with depressive symptoms. Hence, subclinical depressive symptoms were associated with IL-6 responses to stress in young, healthy women. Unexpectedly, there was a reduced increase of serum IL-6 level in response to stress. Effects of depressive symptoms on the IL-6 response to stress may differ between subclinical and major depression.

  14. Is it a baby? Perceived age affects brain processing of faces differently in women and men.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Riva, Federica; Zani, Alberto; Martin, Eleonora

    2011-11-01

    It is known that infant faces stimulate visual and anterior brain regions belonging to the mesocortical limbic system (orbito-frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens) as well as the fusiform gyrus during face coding, suggesting a preferential response to baby schema. In the present investigation, faces of infants, children, and adults were presented to 40 male and female right-handed university students with technological objects (and inanimate scenarios to serve as targets) in a randomly mixed fashion. EEG was recorded from 128 scalp sites. In both sexes, the N1 response to infant faces was larger than the response to adult faces; however, the baby-specific N1 response was much larger in women than in men across the left hemisphere. The anterior N2 response to infants was greater than the response to children only in women, whereas the response to children of any age was larger than the response to adults in men. LORETA identified the intracranial sources of N2 response to infants in the left fusiform gyrus (FG), as well as the uncus, cingulate, and orbito-frontal cortices. The FG, the limbic, and especially the orbito-frontal sources were much larger in women than in men. The data suggest a sex difference in the brain response to faces of different ages and in the preferential response to infants, especially with regard to activation of the mesocorticolimbic system.

  15. Soya isoflavone-enriched cereal bars affect markers of endothelial function in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hallund, J; Bügel, S; Tholstrup, T; Ferrari, M; Talbot, D; Hall, W L; Reimann, M; Williams, C M; Wiinberg, N

    2006-06-01

    Soya isoflavones are thought to be cardioprotective due to their structural similarity to oestrogen. In order to investigate the effect of soya isoflavones on markers of endothelial function we conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study with thirty healthy postmenopausal women. The women consumed cereal bars, with or without soya isoflavones (50 mg/d), for 8 weeks, separated by an 8-week washout period. Systemic arterial compliance (SAC), isobaric arterial compliance (IAC), flow-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation (FMD) and nitroglycerine-mediated endothelium-independent vasodilation (NMD) were measured at the beginning of the study and after each intervention period. Blood pressure (BP) and plasma concentrations of nitrite and nitrate (NOx) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were measured at the beginning and end of each intervention period. NMD was 13.4 (SEM 2.0)% at baseline and 15.5 (SEM 1.1) % after isoflavone treatment compared with 12.4 (SEM 1.0)% after placebo treatment (P=0.03). NOx increased from 27.7 (SEM 2.7) to 31.1 (SEM 3.2) microM after isoflavones treatment compared with 25.4 (SEM 1.5) to 20.4 (SEM 1.1) microM after placebo treatment (P=0.003) and a significant increase in the NOx:ET-1 ratio (P=0.005) was observed after the isoflavone treatment compared with placebo. A significant difference in SAC after the isoflavone and placebo treatment was observed (P=0.04). No significant difference was found in FMD, IAC, BP and ET-1. In conclusion, 8 weeks' consumption of cereals bars enriched with 50 mg soya isoflavones/d increased plasma NOx concentrations and improved endothelium-independent vasodilation in healthy postmenopausal women.

  16. Personality and Psychiatric Disorders in Women Affected by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Scaruffi, Elisabetta; Gambineri, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Stefania; Turra, Jenni; Vettor, Roberto; Mioni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder among fertile women. Studies show reduced quality of life, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder, and sexual dysfunction, but the etiology of these disturbs remains still debated. The aim of our study is to verify whether this hyperandrogenic syndrome characterizes a strong psycho(patho)logical personality. Method: Sixty PCOS subjects (mean age 25.8 ± 4.7 years) were evaluated by anthropometric, metabolic, hormonal, clinical, and psychological parameters. After the certainty of the diagnosis of PCOS, the Rorschach test, according to Exner’s comprehensive system (CS) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) were administered to each patient. The control group, on which the comparison was carried out, was composed by 40 healthy and aged compared women who were exclusively administered the Rorschach test according to CS. Results: MCMI-III evidenced axis II DSM-IV personality disorders [4.1% schizoid, depressive, sadistic, negativistic (passive–aggressive), and masochistic, 6.1% avoiding, 12.2% dependent, 20.4% histrionic, 16.3% narcissistic, 2.0% obsessive–compulsive], and axis I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders: 10.2% anxiety, 2.0% somatoform disorder and bipolar disorder, 16.3% major depressive disorder. Finally, we found 44.9% delusional disorder and 4.1% thought disorder. Rorschach test’s results show 53.1% reduced coping abilities and social skills, 55.1% depression, 30.6% perceptual distortion and cognitive slippage, 24.5% constantly alert and worry, 8.1% at risk for suicide, and finally about 50% of our patients had chronic stress. Conclusion: PCOS women have relevant personality and psychiatric disorders, when compared with normal subjects. PMID:25429283

  17. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ayumi; Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Honda, Sumihisa

    2016-01-01

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work.

  18. The laws that affect abortion in the United States and their impact on women's health.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L K; Naylor, K L

    1991-12-01

    Abortion has been a hotly contested political issue since the mid 1960s, when states began liberalizing their abortion laws. Recent Supreme Court rulings, such as Rust vs. Sullivan, the retirement of two liberal Supreme Court justices and the battle over Louisiana's abortion legislation have created new fervor on both fronts of the battle. All health care providers who care for women need to be cognizant of the current abortion laws and the factors that influence the abortion decision. These factors include the different levels of health risk and financial implications posed by continued pregnancy or abortion. Historically, numerous court cases have influenced women's health care, and reviews of several significant cases are provided. The Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services decision was the first case that directly challenged the Roe vs. Wade decision. The Webster decision enables states to have greater authority in writing their own abortion laws. Individual state laws can vary greatly, so it is vitally important for providers to know and understand the laws of their state.

  19. AAVSO Solar Observers Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, R.

    2013-06-01

    be similar for all low-altitude sites, within the range of 1.5 to 3 arc sec, (typically = 2 arc sec equivalent diameter D = 45-90 mm, the typical solar scope = 70 mm aperture). Where large apertures are more affected by size of turbulent eddies ~8-12 cm, small-aperture telescopes reduce these differences, i.e. large aperture is not always beneficial.

  20. Hostility and social support explain physical activity beyond negative affect among young men, but not women, in college.

    PubMed

    Maier, Karl J; James, Ashley E

    2014-01-01

    We examined social support as a moderator of cynical hostility in relation to physical activity and body mass index among college students (n = 859; M = 18.71 years (SD = 1.22); 60% women, 84% White). After controlling for negative affect in hierarchical linear regression models, greater hostility was associated with lesser physical activity among those with low social support, as expected. Greater hostility was also associated with greater physical activity among those high in social support, ps < .05. Effects were observed for men only. Hostility and social support were unrelated to body mass index, ps > .05. Young men with a hostile disposition and low social support may be at risk for a sedentary lifestyle for reasons other than negative affect.

  1. Drinking Water Sodium and Elevated Blood Pressure of Healthy Pregnant Women in Salinity-Affected Coastal Areas.

    PubMed

    Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas in Southeast Asia are experiencing high sodium concentrations in drinking water sources that are commonly consumed by local populations. Salinity problems caused by episodic cyclones and subsequent seawater inundations are likely (partly) related to climate change and further exacerbated by changes in upstream river flow and local land-use activities. Dietary (food) sodium plays an important role in the global burden of hypertensive disease. It remains unknown, however, if sodium in drinking water-rather than food-has similar effects on blood pressure and disease risk. In this study, we examined the effect of drinking water sodium on blood pressure of pregnant women: increases in blood pressure in this group could severely affect maternal and fetal health. Data on blood pressure, drinking water source, and personal, lifestyle, and environmental confounders was obtained from 701 normotensive pregnant women residing in coastal Bangladesh. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to investigate association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of these-otherwise healthy-women with their water source. After adjustment for confounders, drinkers of tube well and pond water (high saline sources) were found to have significantly higher average systolic (+4.85 and +3.62 mm Hg) and diastolic (+2.30 and +1.72 mm Hg) blood pressures than rainwater drinkers. Drinking water salinity problems are expected to exacerbate in the future, putting millions of coastal people-including pregnant women-at increased risk of hypertension and associated diseases. There is an urgent need to further explore the health risks associated to this understudied environmental health problem and feasibility of possible adaptation strategies.

  2. Supplement use and other characteristics among pregnant women with a previous pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect - United States, 1997-2009.

    PubMed

    Arth, Annelise; Tinker, Sarah; Moore, Cynthia; Canfield, Mark; Agopian, Aj; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-16

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) include anomalies of the brain (anencephaly and encephalocele) and spine (spina bifida). Even with ongoing mandatory folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women of childbearing potential consume a daily supplement containing 400 µg-800 µg of folic acid. Women with a prior NTD-affected pregnancy have an increased risk for having another NTD-affected pregnancy, and if they are planning another pregnancy, the recommendation is that they consume high-dosage folic acid supplements (4.0 mg/day) beginning ≥4 weeks before conception and continuing through the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. To learn whether folic acid supplementation (from multivitamins or single- ingredient supplements) was commonly used during pregnancy by women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy, supplement use was assessed among a convenience sample of women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States. Characteristics of women who previously had an NTD-affected pregnancy and whose index pregnancy (pregnancy included in NBDPS) was either affected by an NTD (N = 17) (i.e., recurrence-cases) or resulted in a live-born infant without a major birth defect (N = 10) (i.e., recurrence-controls) were assessed. Taking a supplement that included folic acid was more common among recurrence-control mothers (80%) than recurrence-case mothers (35%). The recommendation that women should take folic acid supplements just before and during early pregnancy is not being followed by many women and offers an opportunity for NTD prevention, especially among women who are at a higher risk because they have had a previous pregnancy affected by an NTD.

  3. Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide - 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1999-01-01

    The 1990 U.S. Bureau of Mines publication, Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide, has been updated and is now available. The 1998 USGS edition of Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide is published in two parts. Part I—Detail contains information on individual primary smelter capacity, location, ownership, sources of energy, and other miscellaneous information. Part II—Summary summarizes the capacity data by country

  4. Trait anxiety affects decision-making differently in healthy men and women: towards gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety.

    PubMed

    de Visser, L; van der Knaap, L J; van de Loo, A J A E; van der Weerd, C M M; Ohl, F; van den Bos, R

    2010-05-01

    Excessive levels of trait anxiety are a risk factor for psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance abuse. High trait anxiety has been associated with altered cognitive functioning, in particular with an attentional bias towards aversive stimuli. Decision-making is a crucial aspect of cognitive functioning that relies on the correct processing and control of emotional stimuli. Interestingly, anxiety and decision-making share underlying neural substrates, involving cortico-limbic pathways, including the amygdala, striatum and medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between trait anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and complex decision-making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, in healthy male and female volunteers. The main focus of this study was the inclusion of gender as a discriminative factor. Indeed, we found distinct gender-specific effects of trait anxiety: in men, both low and high anxiety groups showed impaired decision-making compared to medium anxiety individuals, whereas in women only high anxiety individuals performed poorly. Furthermore, anxiety affected decision-making in men early in the task, i.e. the exploration phase, as opposed to an effect on performance in women during the second part of the test, i.e. the exploitation phase. These findings were related to different profiles of trait anxiety in men and women, and were independent of performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and cortisol levels. Our data show gender-specific effects of trait anxiety on emotional decision-making. We suggest gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety to exist, that differentially affect cognitive functioning.

  5. Sesame ingestion affects sex hormones, antioxidant status, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Huey; Kang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Nai-Hung; Jou, Hei-Jen; Wang, Tzong-An

    2006-05-01

    Sesame ingestion has been shown to improve blood lipids in humans and antioxidative ability in animals. Sesamin, a sesame lignan, was recently reported to be converted by intestinal microflora to enterolactone, a compound with estrogenic activity and also an enterometabolite of flaxseed lignans, which are known to be phytoestrogens. Whether sesame can be a source of phytoestrogens is unknown. This study was designed to investigate the effect of sesame ingestion on blood sex hormones, lipids, tocopherol, and ex vivo LDL oxidation in postmenopausal women. Twenty-six healthy subjects attended, and 24 completed, this randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Half of them consumed 50 g sesame seed powder daily for 5 wk, followed by a 3-wk washout period, then a 5-wk 50-g rice powder placebo period. The other half received the 2 supplements in reverse order. After sesame treatment, plasma total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in oxidized LDL, and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate decreased significantly by 5, 10, 6, 23, and 18%, respectively. The ratio of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol to TC increased significantly by 18 and 73%, respectively. All of these variables differed significantly between the 2 treatments. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (n = 8) increased significantly by 15 and 72%, respectively, after sesame treatment, and these concentrations tended to differ (P = 0.065 and P = 0.090, respectively) from those after the placebo treatment. These results suggest that sesame ingestion benefits postmenopausal women by improving blood lipids, antioxidant status, and possibly sex hormone status.

  6. The worldwide epidemic of female obesity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sheona; Shaw, Dorothy

    2015-04-01

    The rapidly rising number of individuals who are overweight and obese has been called a worldwide epidemic of obesity with >35% of adults today considered to be overweight or obese. Women are more likely to be overweight and obese than their male counterparts, which has far-reaching effects on reproductive health and specifically pregnancy, with obese women facing an increased risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, operative delivery, fetal macrosomia, and neonatal morbidity. The etiology of obesity is highly complex encompassing genetic, environmental, physiologic, cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors, making it challenging to develop effective interventions on both a local and global scale. This article describes the extent and the cost of the obesity epidemic, which, although historically seen as a disease of high-income countries, is now clearly a global epidemic that impacts low- and middle-income countries and indigenous groups who bear an ever-increasing burden of this disease.

  7. Acute effects of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on affective withdrawal symptoms and cravings among women smokers.

    PubMed

    Williams, David M; Dunsiger, Shira; Whiteley, Jessica A; Ussher, Michael H; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Jennings, Ernestine G

    2011-08-01

    A growing number of laboratory studies have shown that acute bouts of aerobic exercise favorably impact affect and cravings among smokers. However, randomized trials have generally shown exercise to have no favorable effect on smoking cessation or withdrawal symptoms during quit attempts. The purpose of the present study was to explore this apparent contradiction by assessing acute changes in affect and cravings immediately prior to and following each exercise and contact control session during an eight-week smoking cessation trial. Sixty previously low-active, healthy, female smokers were randomized to an eight-week program consisting of brief baseline smoking cessation counseling and the nicotine patch plus either three sessions/week of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or contact control. Findings revealed a favorable impact of exercise on acute changes in positive activated affect (i.e., energy), negative deactivated affect (i.e., tiredness), and cigarette cravings relative to contact control. However, effects dissipated from session to session. Results suggest that aerobic exercise has potential as a smoking cessation treatment, but that it must be engaged in frequently and consistently over time in order to derive benefits. Thus, it is not surprising that previous randomized controlled trials-in which adherence to exercise programs has generally been poor-have been unsuccessful in showing effects of aerobic exercise on smoking cessation outcomes.

  8. Retention and Access Issues Affecting Black Women Attending Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De War, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported experiences of Black, female, undergraduate students at a small, predominantly White, Midwestern college in the United States in order to identify factors affecting retention. Specific attention was paid to how participants perceived the effects of personal and institutional factors in relation to their…

  9. [A sociological study of factors affecting reproductive health of female teenagers and young women].

    PubMed

    Nizamov, I G; Chechulina, O V

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive health of teenagers deserves a special attention and must be regarded from the viewpoint of their future prospects as well as their social and cultural media. The mentioned social-and-cultural factors affecting the teenagers' attitude towards sexuality and preconditioning their access to information and services of healthcare have an impact on the status of their reproductive health and on their general well-being, including the ability of teenagers to avoid an undesired pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases.

  10. The effects of letrozole on ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation in cancer-affected women.

    PubMed

    Checa Vizcaíno, Miguel A; Corchado, Anna Robles; Cuadri, Margalida E Sastre I; Comadran, Mireia Gonzalez; Brassesco, Mario; Carreras, Ramón

    2012-06-01

    Survival rates for fertile women with cancer have increased significantly, lending importance to considering the possibility of motherhood after cancer. This study was a retrospective analysis of a prospective database comparing two groups of patients who underwent fertility preservation after being diagnosed with either breast cancer or a non-hormone-dependent cancer between 2009 and 2011. Nineteen oncology patients were included in the study. The objective was to assess the efficacy of ovarian stimulation with aromatase inhibitors versus a standard antagonist protocol. This study sought to quantify oestradiol concentrations in patients receiving letrozole and to determine the length of time between diagnosis of malignancy and onset of fertility preservation. Number of mature oocytes retrieved in the non-hormone-dependent cancer group was comparable to that in the breast cancer group (15.4±8.19 versus 16.3±7.31). Oestradiol concentrations were higher for patients with non-hormone-dependent cancer (1666.4±739.42 pg/ml versus 829±551.11 pg/ml, P=0.006). There were no differences between the groups in the length of time between diagnosis and fertility preservation (17.4±4.93 versus 16.4±1.74 days). Oestradiol concentrations of breast cancer patients on the letrozole protocol remained much lower than those of patients on the antagonist protocol.

  11. Pregnancy rhinitis in Turkish women: Do gestational week, BMI and parity affect nasal congestion?

    PubMed Central

    Ulkumen, Burak; Ulkumen, Burcu Artunc; Pala, Halil Gursoy; Celik, Onur; Sahin, Nevin; Karaca, Gizem; Demirdag, Meltem

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the cumulative incidence of pregnancy rhinitis along with prevalence in different trimesters and to find out whether gestational age, BMI and parity have any effect on pregnancy related nasal congestion. Methods: In the prospective protocol at the obstetrics outpatient clinic, 167 pregnant women were enrolled consecutively. According to exclusion criteria, 67 of them were excluded. Visual-Analogue-Scale (VAS), Nasal-Obstructive-Symptom-Evaluation (NOSE) scale and Discharge-Inflammation-Polyps/Oedema (DIP) scoring were utilized for diagnosis of pregnancy rhinitis. Besides, weight, length, age, parity and week of pregnancy were recorded. Results: Total prevalence of pregnancy rhinitis was 17.17% and cumulative incidence was 38.89%. Our study revealed significant relation of NOSE score with both gestational week (r=0.474, p=0.001) and BMI (r=0.301, p=0.003). VAS score was significantly related with gestational week (r=0.409, p=0.001) and BMI (r=0.270, p=0.007). DIP score was found to be correlated only with gestational week (r=0.375, p=0.001). Conclusion: Cumulative incidence of pregnancy rhinitis was 38.89%. Nasal congestion was significantly associated with BMI and gestational week. Patients should be informed about unfavorable fetal and maternal outcomes of pregnancy related nasal congestion which is triggered by obesity and excessive weight gain in pregnancy. PMID:27648046

  12. Supplemental barley protein and casein similarly affect serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic women and men.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Srichaikul, Korbua; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Bashyam, Balachandran; Vidgen, Edward; Lamarche, Benoicirct; Rao, A Venketeshwer; Jones, Peter J H; Josse, Robert G; Jackson, Chung-Ja C; Ng, Vivian; Leong, Tracy; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2010-09-01

    High-protein diets have been advocated for weight loss and the treatment of diabetes. Yet animal protein sources are often high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Vegetable protein sources, by contrast, are low in saturated fat and without associated cholesterol. We have therefore assessed the effect on serum lipids of raising the protein intake by 5% using a cereal protein, barley protein, as part of a standard therapeutic diet. Twenty-three hypercholesterolemic men and postmenopausal women completed a randomized crossover study comparing a bread enriched with either barley protein or calcium caseinate [30 g protein, 8374 kJ (2000 kcal)] taken separately as two 1-mo treatment phases with a minimum 2-wk washout. Body weight and diet history were collected weekly during each treatment. Fasting blood samples were obtained at wk 0, 2, and 4. Palatability, satiety, and compliance were similar for both the barley protein- and casein-enriched breads, with no differences between the treatments in effects on serum LDL cholesterol or C-reactive protein, measures of oxidative stress, or blood pressure. Nevertheless, because no adverse effects were observed on cardiovascular risk factors, barley protein remains an additional option for raising the protein content of the diet.

  13. Usual Breakfast Eating Habits Affect the Response to Breakfat Skipping in Overweight Women

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Elizabeth A.; Higgins, Janine; Bessesen, Daniel H.; McNair, Bryan; Cornier, Marc-Andre

    2015-01-01

    Objective This randomized, cross-over trial was designed to investigate the metabolic and appetitive responses to skipping breakfast in overweight women who were habitual breakfast Eaters or Skippers. Design and Methods Nine Eaters and nine Skippers were studied on two separate days during which subjects ate breakfast (B), or had no breakfast (NB), followed by a standard lunch meal 4 hours later. Blood sampling for hormones and metabolites was performed after lunch and appetite was rated throughout the day. Results Interactions between day and habitual breakfast pattern were seen for Area Under the Curve (AUC) for insulin and free fatty acids (FFA). Both insulin (p=0.020) and FFA (p=0.023) AUC were higher on the NB day for Eaters, but similar on both days for Skippers. Eaters had higher pre-lunch hunger AUC on the NB day (p=0.015) as well as lower pre-lunch satiety AUC under both conditions (p=0.019). Conclusion Overall, this study showed that the adverse effects of skipping breakfast (higher insulin and FFA responses to lunch, increased hunger and decreased satiety) were found primarily in habitual breakfast eaters. This suggests that meal skipping may have enhanced effects in habitual Eaters due to entrainment of metabolic and appetitive regulatory systems. PMID:25755093

  14. The sex of the foetus affects maternal blood glucose concentrations in overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Sumudu N; Derraik, José G B; Jiang, Yannan; McCowan, Lesley M E; Gusso, Silmara; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2016-12-26

    There is increasing evidence that the sex of the foetus may alter the maternal metabolic milieu during pregnancy. Following a randomized controlled trial of exercise in overweight and obese pregnant women, we assessed whether the sex of the foetus was associated with changes in maternal metabolism. Data were analysed on 74 randomized participants who completed the trial, including 38 mothers carrying males and 36 mothers carrying females. At 19 weeks of gestation, mothers carrying boys had higher blood glucose concentrations than those carrying girls (5.4 vs 4.9 mmol/l; p = .046). At 36 weeks of gestation, differences were more marked, with blood glucose concentrations 15% higher in mothers carrying females (5.7 vs 5.0 mmol/l; p = .004). In addition, mothers carrying girls had higher concentrations of hs-CRP across pregnancy (5.0 vs 3.6 mg/l; p = .029). Our findings provide further evidence that the sex of the foetus appears to influence maternal metabolism.

  15. Effects of Exercise Intervention on Pain, Shoulder Movement, and Functional Status in Women after Breast Cancer Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Salwa A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is one of the most important types of cancer among women worldwide and is a significant stressor in women's life that may affect functional health status. The present study was aimed to determine the effect of selected exercises program on pain, shoulder disability, and functional outcomes in women after breast cancer…

  16. Effect of Nasal Calcitonin on the Health-Related Quality of Life in Postmenopause Women Affected With Low Bone Density

    PubMed Central

    Shohrati, Majid; Bayat, Noushin; Saburi, Amin; Abbasi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity and mental health could be affected by osteoporosis and various therapeutic options such as calcitonin may influence Quality Of Life (QOL) of these patients with Low Bone Density (LBD). Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nasal calcitonin on QOL in post menopause women with LBD. Patients and Methods: This clinical trial study was performed on one hundred and fifteen menopause women with LBD less than 1 SD in Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD) referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran, Iran, during 2009 - 2010. They were assigned to receive 200 IU calcitonin nasal spray along with calcium (1000 mg) and vitamin D (400 IU) for 6 months. Quality of life was assessed by Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire (Persian-validated version). Results: The mean age (± SD) of the participants was 58.75 ± 8.15 years. Intranasal spray of calcitonin increased QOL scores significantly (88.05 ± 15.63 vs. 92.15 ± 13.22, P value = 0.000). Bone mineral density of spine was increased from 0.834 ± 0.11 to 0.12 ± 0.852 and this difference in BMD of lumbar spine was statistically significant (P value: 0.003) but not significant in femur’s BMD (P value = 0.061). In comparison with BMD indexes, The QOL scores especially Mental Health domain changes had only a significant correlation with the changes of total T score in BMD (P = 0.031, Coefficient Correlation = 0.248). Conclusions: It seems that nasal spray of calcitonin can effectively improve QOL of women with LBD and QOL changes were not influenced by clinical or para-clinical alteration. Mental health domain must be more considered in further studies as a predicting domain for Health-Related Quality of Life (HR-QOL) changes. PMID:26421180

  17. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of oral fluids of women affected by osteoporosis and osteopenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Héctor Jorge; Valentinuzzi, María Cecilia; Grenón, Miram; Abraham, José

    2008-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures; the early stage of decreased bone density is called osteopenia. More than 200 million people are affected and about 50% of post-menopausic women are expected to develop the disease. Osteoporosis, osteopenia and periodontal disease have in common several risk factors, being hyperthyroidism and smoking habits the most important ones. There is scarce information in the literature about the association between periodontal disease and osteoporosis and/or osteopenia. Some works suggest that osteoporotic women are susceptible to a higher loss of periodontal insertion, alveolar bones, and teeth. Thirty adult post-menopausic women were studied; some of them were healthy (control group) and the rest of them were undergoing some stage of osteoporosis or osteopenia. All the subjects were healthy, non-smokers, not having dental implants, and with communitarian periodontal index higher than 1(CPI > 1). Samples of saliva and gingival crevice fluid were extracted with calibrated micro-capillaries and deposited on Si reflectors. Known amounts of Ga were added to the samples in order to act as internal standard for quantification by the total reflection x-ray fluorescence technique. Experimental concentrations of several elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, NI, Cu, and Zn) were determined. The concentration of some elements in saliva showed different behavior as compared to gingival crevice fluid. Some critical elements of bone composition, such as Ca and Zn, present very distinguishable behavior. Improvements in the statistics are required for a better assessment of a routine method and to establish some correlation with periodontal disease. TXRF seems to be a promising method to evaluate the evolution of osteoporosis.

  18. Attitudes and factors affecting the decisions of men and women pediatrics residents toward having children during their residencies.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M D; Carpenter, R O; Radius, S M; Oski, F A

    1991-12-01

    This study examines attitudes and factors affecting the decisions of pediatrics residents of both sexes toward having children during their residencies. In 1987, the authors surveyed by mail all 742 pediatricians who had trained at eight university-based residencies from 1981 to 1987; 417 responded. Of these, the men were significantly more likely than the women to have had children during their residencies (p less than .001). At the time of their residencies, 265 of these pediatricians were married. Of those who were married but did not have children during their residencies (175), the women were significantly more likely than the men to believe that having a child during residency would have had a negative influence on their careers (p less than .001) and would have been associated with difficulties in arranging child care (p less than .001). By contrast, among those pediatricians who were married and did have children during their residencies (90), their perceptions concerning the impacts on their careers of having children and the difficulty in arranging child care did not differ significantly by gender. The authors suggest that programs might explore the possibilities of greater flexibility in scheduling and of making child care more available so that residents could more easily combine their careers with having children.

  19. Can aircraft noise less than or equal 115 to dBA adversely affect reproductive outcome in USAF women?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, P. A.

    1985-06-01

    It has been suggested, mainly through animal studies, that exposure to high noise levels may be associated with lower birth weight, reduced gestational length and other adverse reproductive outcomes. Few studies have been done on humans to show this association. The Air Force employs pregnant women in areas where there is a high potential for exposure to high noise levels. This study proposes a method to determine if there is an association between high frequency noise levels or = 115 dBA and adverse reproductive outcomes through a review of records and self-administered questionnaires in a case-comparison design. Prevelance rates will be calculated and a multiple logistic regression analysis computed for the independent variables that can affect reproduction.

  20. Multilevel dynamic systems affecting introduction of HIV/STI prevention innovations among Chinese women in sex work establishments.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Margaret R; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Zhang, Qingning; Dunn, Jennifer; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei

    2013-10-01

    Social and public health scientists are increasingly interested in applying system dynamics theory to improve understanding and to harness the forces of change within complex, multilevel systems that affect community intervention implementation, effects, and sustainability. Building a system dynamics model based on ethnographic case study has the advantage of using empirically documented contextual factors and processes of change in a real-world and real-time setting that can then be tested in the same and other settings. System dynamics modeling offers great promise for addressing persistent problems like HIV and other sexually transmitted epidemics, particularly in complex rapidly developing countries such as China. We generated a system dynamics model of a multilevel intervention we conducted to promote female condoms for HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention among Chinese women in sex work establishments. The model reflects factors and forces affecting the study's intervention, implementation, and effects. To build this conceptual model, we drew on our experiences and findings from this intensive, longitudinal mixed-ethnographic and quantitative four-town comparative case study (2007-2012) of the sex work establishments, the intervention conducted in them, and factors likely to explain variation in process and outcomes in the four towns. Multiple feedback loops in the sex work establishments, women's social networks, and the health organization responsible for implementing HIV/STI interventions in each town and at the town level directly or indirectly influenced the female condom intervention. We present the conceptual system dynamics model and discuss how further testing in this and other settings can inform future community interventions to reduce HIV and STIs.

  1. Maternal interaction style in affective disordered, physically ill, and normal women.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, E B; Jones, M; Hammen, C

    1993-09-01

    Affective style (AS) and communication deviance (CD) have been suggested as markers of dysfunctional family environments that may be associated with psychiatric illness. Studies have focused mainly on parental responses during family interactions when an offspring is the identified patient. The present study is unique in examining AS and CD in mothers with unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, or chronic physical illness, and in normal controls. The sample consisted of 64 mothers with children ages 8 to 16. Unipolar mothers were more likely to show negative AS than were any other maternal group. There were no group differences for CD. Chronic stress, few positive life events, and single parenting were associated with AS. CD was associated solely with lower socioeconomic status. Results suggest that dysfunctional interactions are determined not only by maternal psychopathology, but also by an array of contextual factors that are related to the quality of the family environment.

  2. The worldwide use of steroidal contraception.

    PubMed

    Diczfalusy, E

    1989-01-01

    Historically, concerns about rapidly growing populations and resources that could not support them persuaded governments of developing countries to initiate family planning programs. Between the early 1960s and the early 1980s, the number of governments supporting these programs increased from 7 to approximately 120. Today, 52 governments in developing countries provide support to family planning programs because of the demographic rationale, and 65 governments do so because of human rights and health considerations: The effective use of family planning significantly diminishes infant, child, and maternal mortality and morbidity. Forty-five percent of married women of reproductive age worldwide are practicing contraception today; however, 69% do so in East Asia and only 11% in Africa. Female sterilization and use of intrauterine devices are the most popular methods in developing countries, and oral contraceptives and condoms, in developed countries. Of the 400 million women of reproductive age, 140 million (35%) are relying on family planning methods requiring male cooperation and less than 60 million (15%) are using oral contraceptives. More than half of these oral contraceptive users live in four countries: the United States, Brazil, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany. On the other hand, the percentage of currently married women, aged 15 to 19 years, who have never used any form of contraception is as high as 85% to 90% in Bangladesh, Sudan, and Pakistan. In many developing countries, there is a statistically significant correlation between women's use of contraception and years of education. Other important factors influencing contraceptive prevalence include the established or perceived side effects of currently available methods, the status of women, the political climate, and a number of behavioral and social determinants.

  3. Emotion Dysregulation and Affective Intensity Mediate the Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Suicide-Related Behaviors Among Women with Bulimia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Kathryn H; Simonich, Heather; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Dhankikar, Swati; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Kwan, Mun Yee; Mitchell, James E; Engel, Scott G

    2016-02-01

    Self-harm and suicide attempts occur at elevated rates among individuals with bulimia nervosa, particularly among those who have experienced childhood abuse. This study investigated the potential mediating roles of emotion dysregulation and affective intensity in the relationship between these variables in 125 women with bulimia nervosa. Analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between sexual and emotional abuse with both self-harm and suicide attempts. Negative affective intensity mediated the relationship between abuse and suicide attempts. The findings may advance the understanding of mechanisms underlying suicide-related behaviors in women with bulimia nervosa who experienced abuse and suggest potential clinical targets.

  4. The Identification of Factors Affecting the Development and Practice of School-Based Counseling in Different National Contexts: A Grounded Theory Study Using a Worldwide Sample of Descriptive Journal Articles and Book Chapters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ian; Lauterbach, Alexandra; Carey, John

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory methodology was used to analyze articles and book chapters describing the development and practice of school-based counseling in 25 different countries in order to identify the factors that affect development and practice. An 11-factor analytic framework was developed. Factors include: Cultural Factors, National Needs, Larger…

  5. Calcium-Vitamin D Co-supplementation Affects Metabolic Profiles, but not Pregnancy Outcomes, in Healthy Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Asemi, Zatollah; Samimi, Mansooreh; Siavashani, Mehrnush Amiri; Mazloomi, Maryam; Tabassi, Zohreh; Karamali, Maryam; Jamilian, Mehri; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy is associated with unfavorable metabolic profile, which might in turn result in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of calcium plus Vitamin D administration on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in healthy pregnant women. Methods: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 42 pregnant women aged 18–40 years who were at week 25 of gestation. Subjects were randomly allocated to consume either 500 mg calcium-200 IU cholecalciferol supplements (n = 21) or placebo (n = 21) for 9 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at the onset of the study and after 9-week trial to determine related markers. Post-delivery, the newborn's weight, length, and head circumference were measured during the first 24 h after birth. Results: Consumption of calcium-Vitamin D co-supplements resulted in a significant reduction of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels compared with placebo (−1856.8 ± 2657.7 vs. 707.1 ± 3139.4 μg/mL, P = 0.006). We also found a significant elevation of plasma total antioxidant capacity (89.3 ± 118.0 vs. −9.4 ± 164.9 mmol/L, P = 0.03), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (2.5 ± 3.5 vs. −1.7 ± 1.7 ng/mL, P < 0.0001), and calcium levels (0.6 ± 0.6 vs. −0.1 ± 0.4 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). The supplementation led to a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure (−1.9 ± 8.3 vs. 3.1 ± 5.2 mmHg, P = 0.02) compared with placebo. No significant effect of calcium-Vitamin D co-supplements was seen on other metabolic profiles. We saw no significant change of the co-supplementation on pregnancy outcomes as well. Conclusions: Although calcium-Vitamin D co-supplementation for 9 weeks in pregnant women resulted in improved metabolic profiles, it did not affect pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27076887

  6. Analysis of aluminium content and iron homeostasis in nipple aspirate fluids from healthy women and breast cancer-affected patients.

    PubMed

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Tonti, Gaetana A; Medda, Virginia; Simone, Patrizia; Darbre, Philippa D

    2011-04-01

    Aluminium is not a physiological component of the breast but has been measured recently in human breast tissues and breast cyst fluids at levels above those found in blood serum or milk. Since the presence of aluminium can lead to iron dyshomeostasis, levels of aluminium and iron-binding proteins (ferritin, transferrin) were measured in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), a fluid present in the breast duct tree and mirroring the breast microenvironment. NAFs were collected noninvasively from healthy women (NoCancer; n = 16) and breast cancer-affected women (Cancer; n = 19), and compared with levels in serum (n = 15) and milk (n = 45) from healthy subjects. The mean level of aluminium, measured by ICP-mass spectrometry, was significantly higher in Cancer NAF (268.4 ± 28.1 μg l(-1) ; n = 19) than in NoCancer NAF (131.3 ± 9.6 μg l(-1) ; n = 16; P < 0.0001). The mean level of ferritin, measured through immunoassay, was also found to be higher in Cancer NAF (280.0 ± 32.3 μg l(-1) ) than in NoCancer NAF (55.5 ± 7.2 μg l(-1) ), and furthermore, a positive correlation was found between levels of aluminium and ferritin in the Cancer NAF (correlation coefficient R = 0.94, P < 0.001). These results may suggest a role for raised levels of aluminium and modulation of proteins that regulate iron homeostasis as biomarkers for identification of women at higher risk of developing breast cancer. The reasons for the high levels of aluminium in NAF remain unknown but possibilities include either exposure to aluminium-based antiperspirant salts in the adjacent underarm area and/or preferential accumulation of aluminium by breast tissues.

  7. High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide

    MedlinePlus

    ... other ways to control blood pressure, including healthy lifestyle choices and maintaining a normal weight, Roth said. Murray said some of the factors responsible for the worldwide increase in high blood pressure are unhealthy diets and obesity. In addition, in developing countries, more people are ...

  8. What Factors Contribute to Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Urban, Conflict-Affected Settings? Qualitative Findings from Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, L F; Gupta, J; Shuman, S; Cole, H; Kpebo, D; Falb, K L

    2016-04-01

    Rapid urbanization is a key driver of the unique set of health risks facing urban populations. One of the most critical health hazards facing urban women is intimate partner violence (IPV). In post-conflict urban areas, women may face an even greater risk of IPV. Yet, few studies have examined the IPV experiences of urban-dwelling, conflict-affected women, including those who have been internally displaced. This study qualitatively examined the social and structural characteristics of the urban environment that contributed to the IPV experiences of women residing in post-conflict Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Ten focus groups were conducted with men and women, both internally displaced (IDPs) and non-displaced. Lack of support networks, changing gender roles, and tensions between traditional gender norms and those of the "modern" city were reported as key contributors to IPV. Urban poverty and with it unemployment, food insecurity, and housing instability also played a role. Finally, IDPs faced heightened vulnerability to IPV as a result of displacement and discrimination. The relationship between economic strains and IPV are similar to other conflict-affected settings, but Abidjan's urban environment presented other unique characteristics contributing to IPV. Understanding these factors is crucial to designing appropriate services for women and for implementing IPV reduction interventions in urban areas. Strengthening formal and informal mechanisms for help-seeking, utilizing multi-modal interventions that address economic stress and challenge inequitable gender norms, as well as tailoring programs specifically for IDPs, are some considerations for IPV program planning focused on conflict-affected women in urban areas.

  9. Psychological affect at different ratings of perceived exertion in high- and low-active women: a study using a production protocol.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, G; Eston, R; Connolly, D

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine psychological affect at different ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in 15 high- and 15 low-active women. Both groups performed three steady-state exercise bouts on a cycle ergometer at RPEs 9, 13, and 17 and reported their affect in the last 20 sec. of and 5 min. after each work rate. There were no differences between groups in percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (% VO2max) at each RPE. Low-active women reported feeling significantly more negative at RPE 17 than RPE 9 and less positive than the high-active women at RPEs 9, 13, and 17. In addition, all subjects reported more positive feelings 5 min. postexercise than in the last 20 sec. of exercising, especially at RPE 17. These results have implications for exercise prescription in groups differing in habitual activity levels.

  10. Effects of personal space intrusion in affective contexts: an fMRI investigation with women suffering from borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Schienle, Anne; Wabnegger, Albert; Schöngassner, Florian; Leutgeb, Verena

    2015-10-01

    The amygdala and the parietal cortex play a key role in the neural representation of personal space. Although the concept of personal space is clinically very relevant for borderline personality disorder (BPD), especially in affective contexts, it has not been investigated thus far with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this fMRI study, 25 female BPD patients and 25 healthy women were exposed to photos of angry, disgusted and neutral facial expressions. All stimuli were once shown as still photos, and once were zoomed-in in order to simulate intrusion into one's own personal space. Approaching faces generally provoked activation of the amygdala and the somatosensory cortex. BPD patients showed an increased activation within both regions, but only toward approaching disgusted faces. Their amygdala activation in this specific condition positively correlated with self-disgust scores. Moreover, the clinical group indicated an enhanced personal distance preference, which was associated with parietal activation. The present study revealed altered personal space processing of BPD patients, especially in situations that relate to social contexts involving disgust. Future studies should focus on the temporal stability of personal space processing during the natural course of BPD as well as during therapy.

  11. Reciprocal associations between negative affect, binge eating, and purging in the natural environment in women with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Utzinger, Linsey M; Cao, Li; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross D

    2016-04-01

    Although negative affect (NA) has been identified as a common trigger for bulimic behaviors, findings regarding NA following such behaviors have been mixed. This study examined reciprocal associations between NA and bulimic behaviors using real-time, naturalistic data. Participants were 133 women with bulimia nervosa (BN) according to the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders who completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment protocol in which they recorded bulimic behaviors and provided multiple daily ratings of NA. A multilevel autoregressive cross-lagged analysis was conducted to examine concurrent, first-order autoregressive, and prospective associations between NA, binge eating, and purging across the day. Results revealed positive concurrent associations between all variables across all time points, as well as numerous autoregressive associations. For prospective associations, higher NA predicted subsequent bulimic symptoms at multiple time points; conversely, binge eating predicted lower NA at multiple time points, and purging predicted higher NA at 1 time point. Several autoregressive and prospective associations were also found between binge eating and purging. This study used a novel approach to examine NA in relation to bulimic symptoms, contributing to the existing literature by directly examining the magnitude of the associations, examining differences in the associations across the day, and controlling for other associations in testing each effect in the model. These findings may have relevance for understanding the etiology and/or maintenance of bulimic symptoms, as well as potentially informing psychological interventions for BN.

  12. Sexuality and Affection among Elderly German Men and Women in Long-Term Relationships: Results of a Prospective Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Britta; Nienaber, Christoph A.; Reis, Olaf; Kropp, Peter; Meyer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Satisfaction with sexual activity i.e. sexual satisfaction and the importance of sexuality and affection were analysed using data from the German “Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development” (ILSE). At three measurement points, 1993–1995, 1997–1998, and 2004–2006 i.e. subjects' ages of 63, 67, and 74 years, participants' reports about their affection and sexual activity were collected. The sample of completed records used for this study consisted of 194 urban non-institutionalised participants, 68% male, all living with partners. Median levels of sexual satisfaction were reported, fluctuating between the measurement points of ages 63 to 74. Between baseline, first and second follow-up no differences were found in levels of sexual satisfaction, though at measurement points age 63 and 67 women were more satisfied than men. When measured at age 74, affection was given a higher priority than sexual activity. Although men and women reported similar priorities, sexual activity and affection were more important for men than for women. Satisfaction within the relationship can be predicted by the importance of affection, but not by that of sexual activity. Our results confirm the thesis of the ‘second language of sexuality’: for humans in their later years affection seems to be more important than for younger individuals. PMID:25369193

  13. Worldwide satellite market demand forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.; Frankfort, M.; Steinnagel, K. M.

    1981-01-01

    The forecast is for the years 1981 - 2000 with benchmark years at 1985, 1990 and 2000. Two typs of markets are considered for this study: Hardware (worldwide total) - satellites, earth stations and control facilities (includes replacements and spares); and non-hardware (addressable by U.S. industry) - planning, launch, turnkey systems and operations. These markets were examined for the INTELSAT System (international systems and domestic and regional systems using leased transponders) and domestic and regional systems. Forecasts were determined for six worldwide regions encompassing 185 countries using actual costs for existing equipment and engineering estimates of costs for advanced systems. Most likely (conservative growth rate estimates) and optimistic (mid range growth rate estimates) scenarios were employed for arriving at the forecasts which are presented in constant 1980 U.S. dollars. The worldwide satellite market demand forecast predicts that the market between 181 and 2000 will range from $35 to $50 billion. Approximately one-half of the world market, $16 to $20 billion, will be generated in the United States.

  14. Smoking as a risk factor in the health of women.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, V

    2003-09-01

    It is estimated that more than 200 million women smoke worldwide. It is also estimated that if current smoking rates among men and women persist worldwide, by 2025, 9% of the world's deaths and disabilities will be related to tobacco use. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer (lung, cervix, pancreas, kidney, bladder, esophagus, pharynx), pulmonary disorders, cerebrovascular disease, and many other health risks. Smoking also adversely affects fertility and reproductive outcomes. Although a greater percentage of women smoke in developed than in developing countries, women in developing countries appear to be initiating smoking habits in increasing numbers. If current trends persist, the adverse effects of smoking on women's health clearly will continue to escalate.

  15. World-wide projections for hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Gullberg, B; Johnell, O; Kanis, J A

    1997-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the present and future incidence of hip fracture world-wide. From a survey of available data on current incidence, population trends and the secular changes in hip fracture risk, the numbers of hip fractures expected in 2025 and 2050 were computed. The total number of hip fractures in men and women in 1990 was estimated to be 338,000 and 917,000 respectively, a total of 1.26 million. Assuming no change in the age- and sex-specific incidence, the number of hip fractures is estimated to approximately double to 2.6 million by the year 2025, and 4.5 million by the year 2050. The percentage increase will be greater in men (310%) than in women (240%). With modest assumptions concerning secular trends, the number of hip fractures could range between 7.3 and 21.3 million by 2050. The major demographic changes will occur in Asia. In 1990, 26% of all hip fractures occurred in Asia, whereas this figure could rise to 37% in 2025 and to 45% in 2050. We conclude that the socioeconomic impact of hip fractures will increase markedly throughout the world, particularly in Asia, and that there is an urgent need to develop preventive strategies, particularly in the developing countries.

  16. Clinical Profiles of Premenstrual Experiences Among Women Having Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): Affective Changes Predominate and Relate to Social and Occupational Functioning.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Katarina; Ditzen, Beate; Weise, Cornelia; Andersson, Gerhard; Hiller, Wolfgang; Kleinstäuber, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Our objective for this study was to examine symptom severity among women suffering from premenstrual syndrome as well as associations between symptom severity and impairment. In a one-cycle prospective study, various premenstrual symptoms of 91 women were assessed. Tension and irritability were the most severe symptoms. Headache, irritability, self-deprecating thoughts, and depressed mood were the symptoms that were subjectively rated as the most burdensome. Significant correlations were found between the mean premenstrual severity and functional impairment. The severity of premenstrual affective symptoms was related to social impairment. The severity of psychological symptoms was correlated with occupational impairment. These findings confirm the prominent role of premenstrual affective symptoms and support classification guidelines focusing on both affective and physical changes.

  17. Energy and protein supplementation does not affect protein and amino acid kinetics or pregnancy outcomes in underweight Indian women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In India, the prevalence of low birth weight is high in women with a low body mass index (BMI), suggesting that underweight women are not capable of providing adequate energy and protein for fetal growth. Furthermore, as pregnancy progresses, there is increased need to provide methyl groups for meth...

  18. Understanding the increased risk of neural tube defect-affected pregnancies among Mexico-born women in California: immigration and anthropometric factors.

    PubMed

    Velie, Ellen M; Shaw, Gary M; Malcoe, Lorraine H; Schaffer, Donna M; Samuels, Steven J; Todoroff, Karen; Block, Gladys

    2006-05-01

    Mexico-born women in the United States have an unexplained twofold increased risk of neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies. We examined whether immigration characteristics were associated with the NTD risk and whether anthropometric factors contributed to the increased risk among Mexico-born women. Data were derived from a large population-based case-control study in California. In-person interviews were conducted with mothers of 538 (88% of eligible) NTD-affected fetuses/infants and mothers of 539 (88%) randomly selected non-malformed control infants. The crude odds ratio (OR) for NTDs among all Mexico-born women, women residing <2 years in the US, and women >16 years old at immigration compared with non-Hispanic white women was 2.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8, 3.3], 7.2 [95% CI = 3.7, 14.0] and 3.0 [95% CI = 2.0, 4.4], respectively. Risk for second- or third-generation Mexican-Americans was similar to that of white women. The crude OR for all Mexico-born women was reduced from 2.4 to 2.0 [95% CI = 1.3, 3.0] and for those residing <2 years in the US from 8.4 to 7.1 [95% CI = 3.2, 15.3] after adjustment for maternal body mass index (BMI), height, compromised diet, diabetes, and other known risk factors. In term pregnancies, additional adjustment for pregnancy weight gain reduced the OR in all Mexico-born women and recent immigrants by 16% and 25%, respectively. Low pregnancy weight gain (<10 vs. 10-14 kg) was particularly associated with increased NTD risk among Mexico-born women (OR(ADJ) = 5.8; 95% CI = 2.1, 15.8). Findings indicate that recent Mexican immigrants have a sevenfold increased risk for NTDs. Maternal BMI and height contributed very little, and inadequate weight gain contributed modestly to the NTD risk disparity for Mexican immigrants.

  19. Supplementing chicken broth with monosodium glutamate reduces hunger and desire to snack but does not affect energy intake in women.

    PubMed

    Carter, Brett E; Monsivais, Pablo; Perrigue, Martine M; Drewnowski, Adam

    2011-11-01

    The effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) supplementation in soup or broth on satiety is not well understood. In the present study, the relative effects of four chicken broths with or without added MSG on motivational ratings and energy intakes at the next meal were compared using a double-blinded, within-subject design. A total of thirty-five normal-weight women, aged 20-40 years, took part in four study sessions. The four broths were base chicken broth (63 kJ), broth with added MSG (1.19 g) and nucleotides (0.03 g), broth with added MSG (1.22 g), and broth with added fat (BAF; 681 kJ). The preloads were presented twice at 09.00 and 11.15 hours for a maximum cumulative dose of 2.44 g MSG. Motivational ratings were collected before and at 15 min intervals post-ingestion for a total of 210 min. A test lunch meal was served at 12.00 hours, and plate waste was measured. The addition of MSG to chicken broth did not increase energy intakes at lunch or affect motivational ratings over the entire testing session. Both hunger and desire to snack between the second preload exposure and the test meal were significantly reduced in the MSG condition relative to the base broth condition (both, P = 0.03). However, only the BAF significantly suppressed energy intakes at lunch compared with the base broth control condition. Supplementing chicken broth with MSG can increase subjective ratings for satiety but does not alter energy intake at the next meal relative to an equal energy broth without added MSG.

  20. Trends in wheat-flour fortification with folic acid and iron--worldwide, 2004 and 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-01-11

    Consumption of adequate amounts of folic acid by women before pregnancy and during early pregnancy decreases their risk for having a pregnancy affected by neural tube defects (NTDs), the most common preventable type of birth defects worldwide. Consumption of iron ameliorates iron deficiency, the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world, affecting approximately 2 billion persons. Although certain populations consume substantial amounts of rice and corn, worldwide, the consumption of wheat flour is greater than that of any other cereal grain. Fortification of wheat flour is an effective, simple, and inexpensive strategy for supplying folic acid, iron, and other vitamins and minerals to large segments of the world population. To assess the global change from 2004 to 2007 in 1) the percentage of wheat flour being fortified with folic acid and iron; 2) the total number of persons overall and women in particular with access to fortified wheat flour; and 3) the total number of newborns whose mothers had access to fortified wheat flour during pregnancy, CDC analyzed data from the Flour Fortification Initiative (FFI). This report summarizes the results of that assessment, which indicated that the worldwide percentage of wheat-flour fortification increased from 18% in 2004 to 27% in 2007. The estimated number of persons with access to fortified wheat flour increased by approximately 540 million, and the annual number of newborns whose mothers had access to fortified wheat flour during pregnancy increased by approximately 14 million. Nonetheless, approximately two thirds of the world population lacks access to fortified wheat flour. Programs should continue to expand coverage of wheat-flour fortification as a strategy to increase folic acid and iron consumption.

  1. Space Research Fortifies Nutrition Worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems program attempted to address basic needs of crews, meet stringent payload and power usage restrictions, and minimize space occupancy, by developing living, regenerative ecosystems that would take care of themselves and their inhabitants. An experiment from this program evolved into one of the most widespread NASA spinoffs of all time-a method for manufacturing an algae-based food supplement that provides the nutrients previously only available in breast milk. Martek Biosciences Corporation, in Columbia, Maryland, now manufactures this supplement, and it can be found in over 90 percent of the infant formulas sold in the United States, as well as those sold in over 65 other countries. With such widespread use, the company estimates that over 24 million babies worldwide have consumed its nutritional additives.

  2. Worldwide Research, Worldwide Participation: Web-Based Test Logger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the World Wide Web, a new paradigm has been born. ESCORT (steady state data system) facilities can now be configured to use a Web-based test logger, enabling worldwide participation in tests. NASA Lewis Research Center's new Web-based test logger for ESCORT automatically writes selected test and facility parameters to a browser and allows researchers to insert comments. All data can be viewed in real time via Internet connections, so anyone with a Web browser and the correct URL (universal resource locator, or Web address) can interactively participate. As the test proceeds and ESCORT data are taken, Web browsers connected to the logger are updated automatically. The use of this logger has demonstrated several benefits. First, researchers are free from manual data entry and are able to focus more on the tests. Second, research logs can be printed in report format immediately after (or during) a test. And finally, all test information is readily available to an international public.

  3. Prevalence of hospitalized live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women diagnosed with substance abuse at liveborn delivery: United States, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2013-05-01

    To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births.

  4. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-31

    analogous liquids, materials or devices, as well as the use of bullets that expand or flatten in the body. The amendment will enter into force for...Council adopted a resolution affirming that rights to safe drinking water and sanitation are basic human rights contained in existing human rights...Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) give rise to obligations for States parties in relation to access to safe drinking water and sanitation. This action

  5. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Party on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/displaydocument/? cote =env/jm/mono(2010)42&doclang uage=en...medicines. Every effort should be made to improve the states of characterization technology and nano/bio interaction studies. Source: Tiny traits cause

  6. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Pollutants (POPs) took place October 11-15, 2010 in Geneva, Switzerland. It formed a working group to prepare a draft risk management evaluation for...hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), risk management evaluation for endosulfan and recommended its listing in Annex A, with exemptions, risks of combined... Management Program..................................................6 8.2 Biosafety Regulations Reviewed in Context of Worrying Forecasts

  7. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    applicability to hazardous material detection in a variety of situations. Security organizations should also prepare for criminal and terrorist...Related Security Implications: These developments, if/when they reach a level of practical applicability , could make a definite contribution to...reducing the environmental footprint of installation buildings and/or provide power to remote or mobile devices. Their progress should be monitored

  8. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-30

    Kyrgyzstan, and is ready to help the country with post-conflict rehabilitation. The OSCE is working together with the international community to help... ready for a manned mission after 2021. [Related items: Steps for an International Regime for Space Debris and Space Traffic Control System in May 2009...vegetables and crops production. Similar projects are going on in Kuwait, India, Oman, and the UAE. [May 2010. Military Implications, Sources190] “Arab

  9. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Cooperation in Africa to Counter Wildlife Trafficking……………………7 6.6 Bioethics Commission Calls for Enhanced Federal Oversight of Synthetic Biology…...7...6.6 Bioethics Commission Calls for Enhanced Federal Oversight of Synthetic Biology The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues...Commission on Bioethics calls for enhanced federal oversight of synthetic biology http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=19449.php New Directions -The

  10. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    plan to be submitted to the government in 2011, with full regulation expected in five years (more)  Review of the long history of nanosilver usage and...of the Long History of Nanosilver Usage and Regulation, and Implications A recent paper, 120 Years of Nanosilver History: Implications for Policy...Makers, points out that nanosilver in the form of colloidal silver has been used for more than a century and has been registered as a biocidal material

  11. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    nanotechnolgies and nanosciences report has been issued by the Innovation Society Ltd., an independent consulting company, based at the Technology Centre of...foodproductiondaily.com/news/ng.asp?n=67935- nanotechnolgy -fsa-novel Germany Begins Risk Survey on Nanotechnology http://www.foodproductiondaily.com/news

  12. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    concentration phosphate deposits are laced with radioactive elements like uranium and thorium , or heavy metals like cadmium, environmental concerns might...New measures emerge for measuring carbon emissions, both corporate and municipal http://www.smartplanet.com/business/blog/business- brains /new...Production to End of Life o Nanotechnology Regulation: Policies Proposed by Three Organizations for the Reform of the Toxic Substances Control Act

  13. The number of cysteine residues per mole in apolipoprotein E affects systematically synchronous neural interactions in women's healthy brains.

    PubMed

    Leuthold, Arthur C; Mahan, Margaret Y; Stanwyck, John J; Georgopoulos, Angeliki; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2013-05-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is involved in lipid metabolism in the brain, but its effects on brain function are not understood. Three apoE isoforms (E4, E3, and E2) are the result of cysteine-arginine interchanges at two sites: there are zero interchanges in E4, one interchange in E3, and two interchanges in E2. The resulting six apoE genotypes (E4/4, E4/3, E4/2, E3/3, E3/2, E2/2) yield five groups with respect to the number of cysteine residues per mole (CysR/mole), as follows. ApoE4/4 has zero cysteine residues per mole (0-CysR/mole), E4/3 has one (1-CysR/mole), E4/2 and E3/3 each has two (2-CysR/mole), E3/2 has three (3-CysR/mole), and E2/2 has four (4-CysR/mole). The use of the number of CysR/mole to characterize the apoE molecule converts the categorical apoE genotype scale, consisting of 6 distinct genotypes above, to a 5-point continuous scale (0-4 CysR/mole). This allows the use of statistical analyses suitable for continuous variables (e.g. regression) to quantify the relations between various variables and apoE. Using such analyses, here, we show for the first time that apoE affects in a graded and orderly manner neural communication, as assessed by analyzing the relation between the number of CysR/mole and synchronous neural interactions (SNI) measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 130 cognitively healthy women. At the one end of the CysR/mole range, the 4-CysR/mole (E2/2) SNI distribution had the highest mean, lowest variance, lowest range, and lowest coefficient of variation, whereas at the other end, 0-CysR/mole (E4/4) SNI distribution had the lowest mean, highest variance, highest range, and highest coefficient of variation. The special status of the 4-CysR/mole distribution was reinforced by the results of a hierarchical tree analysis where the 4-CysR/mole (E2/2) SNI distribution occupied a separate branch by itself and the remaining CysR/mole SNI distributions were placed at increasing distances from the 4-CysR/mole distribution, according to

  14. Does CenteringPregnancy Group Prenatal Care Affect the Birth Experience of Underserved Women? A Mixed Methods Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rhianon; Chao, Maria T; Jostad-Laswell, Ariana; Duncan, Larissa G

    2017-04-01

    We examined the birth experience of immigrant and minority women and how CenteringPregnancy (Centering), a model of group prenatal care and childbirth education, influenced that experience. In-depth interviews and surveys were conducted with a sample of racially diverse Centering participants about their birth experiences. Interview transcripts were analyzed thematically. Study participants (n = 34) were primarily low-income, Spanish-speaking immigrants with an average age of 29.7. On a scale from 1 (not satisfied) to 10 (very satisfied), women reported high satisfaction with birth (9.0) and care (9.3). In interviews, they expressed appreciation for the choice to labor with minimal medical intervention. Difficulties with communication arose from fragmented labor and delivery care by multiple providers. Centering provided women with pain coping skills, a familiar birth attendant, and knowledge to advocate for themselves. High reported satisfaction may obscure challenges to providing high quality childbirth care for marginalized women. Further study should examine the potential of Centering to positively impact underserved women's birth experiences.

  15. Intersection of Canadian policy parameters affecting women with precarious immigration status: a baseline for understanding barriers to health.

    PubMed

    Oxman-Martinez, Jacqueline; Hanley, Jill; Lach, Lucyna; Khanlou, Nazilla; Weerasinghe, Swarna; Agnew, Vijay

    2005-10-01

    Canadian federal policy provides a framework for the immigration and health experiences of immigrant women. The official immigration category under which a migrant is admitted determines to what degree her right to remain in the country (immigration status) is precarious. Women immigrants fall primarily into the more dependent categories and they experience barriers to access to health services arising from this precarious status. Federal immigration and health policies create direct barriers to health through regulation of immigrants' access to services as well as unintended secondary barriers. These direct and secondary policy barriers intersect with each other and with socio-cultural barriers arising from the migrant's socioeconomic and ethno-cultural background to undermine equitable access to health for immigrant women living in Canada.

  16. Status of worldwide Landsat archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warriner, Howard W.

    1987-01-01

    In cooperation with the International Landsat community, and through the Landsat Technical Working Group (LTWG), NOAA is assembling information about the status of the Worldwide Landsat Archive. During LTWG 9, member nations agreed to participate in a survey of International Landsat data holding and of their archive experiences with Landsat data. The goal of the effort was two-fold; one, to document the Landsat archive to date, and, two, to ensure that specific nations' experience with long-term Landsat archival problems were available to others. The survey requested details such as amount of data held, the format of the archive holdings by Spacecraft/Sensor, and acquisition years; the estimated costs to accumulated process, and replace the data (if necessary); the storage space required, and any member nation's plans that would establish the insurance of continuing quality. As a group, the LTWG nations are concerned about the characteristics and reliability of long-term magnetic media storage. Each nation's experience with older data retrieval is solicited in the survey. This information will allow nations to anticipate and plan for required changes to their archival holdings. Also solicited were reports of any upgrades to a nation's archival system that are currently planned and all results of attempts to reduce archive holdings including methodology, current status, and the planned access rates and product support that are anticipated for responding to future archival usage.

  17. The worldwide ionospheric data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    1989-01-01

    The worldwide ionospheric data base is scattered over the entire globe. Different data sets are held at different institutions in the U.S., U.S.S.R., Australia, Europe, and Asia. The World Data Centers on the different continents archive and distribute part of the huge data base; the scope and cross section of the individual data holdings depend on the regional and special interest of the center. An attempt is made to pull together all the strings that point toward different ionospheric data holdings. Requesters are provided with the information about what is available and where to get it. An attempt is also made to evaluate the reliability and compatibility of the different data sets based on the consensus in the ionospheric research community. The status and accuracy of the standard ionospheric models are also discussed because they may facilitate first order assessment of ionospheric effects. This is a first step toward an ionospheric data directory within the framework of NSSDC's master directory.

  18. Worldwide Spacecraft Crew Hatch History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.

  19. Intermittent Explosive Disorder amongst Women in Conflict Affected Timor-Leste: Associations with Human Rights Trauma, Ongoing Violence, Poverty, and Injustice

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Verdial, Teresa; Tam, Natalino; Savio, Elisa; Fonseca, Zulmira; Thorpe, Rosamund; Liddell, Belinda; Zwi, Anthony; Tay, Kuowei; Brooks, Robert; Steel, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Women in conflict-affected countries are at risk of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. No studies have investigated the association between experiences of abuse and injustice and explosive anger amongst women in these settings, and the impact of anger on women's health, family relationships and ability to participate in development. Methods A mixed methods study including an epidemiological survey (n = 1513, 92.6% response) and qualitative interviews (n = 77) was conducted in Timor-Leste. The indices measured included Intermittent Explosive Disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder; severe distress; days out of role (the number of days that the person was unable to undertake normal activities); gender-specific trauma; conflict/violence; poverty; and preoccupations with injustice. Results Women with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (n = 184, 12.2%) were more disabled than those without the disorder (for >5 days out of role, 40.8% versus 31.5%, X2(2)  = 12.93 p = 0.0016). Multivariable associations with Intermittent Explosive Disorder, controlling for the presence of PTSD, psychological distress and other predictors in the model, included the sense of being sick (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.08–2.77); victimization as a result of helping the resistance movement (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.48–3.68); war-related trauma specific to being a woman (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.09–3.50); ongoing family violence and community conflict (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27–2.77); extreme poverty (OR 1.23, 95%, CI 1.08–1.39); and distressing preoccupations with injustice (relating to 2/3 historical periods, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.35–3.28). In the qualitative study, women elaborated on the determinants of anger and its impact on their health, family and community functioning, child-rearing, and capacity to engage in development. Women reflected on the strategies that might help them overcome their anger. Conclusions Intermittent Explosive Disorder is

  20. Pathways in STEM: Factors Affecting the Retention and Attrition of Talented Men and Women from the STEM Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbronner, Nancy N.

    2009-01-01

    Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to…

  1. Worldwide Report, Epidemiology, No. 325.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-19

    Choco and Antioquia Departments have determined that a high percentage of the population of Indian and peasant communities near the San Juan and Atrato...Rivers in Choco and the Murri River in Antioquia have been affected. Measures are being taken to combat these diseases. [Summary] [PA211624 Bogota

  2. Worldwide Status of EUV Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Michael P.; Wood, K. S.; Barstow, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The bulk of radiation from million-degree plasmas is emitted at EUV wavelengths, which include critical spectral features containing diagnostic information often not available at other wavelengths (e.g., He II Ly series 228-304 Å). Thus, EUV astrophysics (Barstow & Holberg 2003) presents opportunities for intriguing results obtainable with sensitive high-resolution spectroscopy and particularly applicable to hot plasmas in stellar coronae, white dwarfs and the interstellar medium. The US-built J-PEX spectrometer has flown twice on sounding rockets, observing and publishing results on two white dwarf targets (Cruddace et al. 2002, Barstow et al. 2005, Kowalski et al. 2011). Using multilayer-grating technology, J-PEX delivers both high effective area and the world's highest resolution in EUV, greater than Chandra at adjacent energies, but in a waveband Chandra cannot reach. However, the US program has been stalled by inability to obtain further NASA sounding rocket flights. A high level of technology readiness, plus important questions answerable solely with that technology, does not seem sufficient to win support. Nor is the substantial amount of resources invested into technology development over two decades, supported by NASA, DoD, and European partners. Proposals to turn the instrument or its technology into small satellite-based surveys have been made (results to be described) in the US and Europe, but the overall situation is precarious. The entire EUV astrophysics field is losing out on an opportunity, and is at risk of fading away, with forced discard of established assets. Only mobilization of the international EUV community -- unifying European, US, and perhaps others -- can reverse this situation. Our poster summarizes science quests within reach of proven technology, gives a current snapshot of that technology, and provides a summary of worldwide efforts to obtain necessary space access in NASA, ESA, and elsewhere. A process for building and maintaining

  3. Worldwide Report, Epidemiology, No. 332

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-14

    percent for cotton. The rice delphacid—which affected 80,000 hectares—the cotton weevil — which started the crisis—the white potato worm and potato...17 Hard Drinking Water , Cardiovascular Disease Mortalities Discussed (ZHONGHUA YUFANG YIXUE ZAZHI, No 3, May 83) 18 PERU Briefs High...to pinpoint the real sources, it may be affirmed that food and water are normally the main media for affliction. At present the second and third

  4. Pathways in STEM: Factors affecting the retention and attrition of talented men and women from the STEM pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbronner, Nancy N.

    Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to success, such as the role that gender plays in the underrepresentation of women in certain STEM fields (e.g., computer science and engineering) and changes in recent decades in the process of selecting STEM majors and careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the influences that guide decisions related to the selection of majors and occupations during high school, post-secondary education, and early careers. Survey methodology was used to explore the perceptions of 360 Science Talent Search (STS) semifinalists and finalists during the years 1987-1989 and 1997-1999, and quantitative procedures were used to analyze the data. A majority (74.2%) of STS participants majored in a STEM field in college, and most (68.6%) currently work in a STEM field. A greater percentage of men selected computer science, engineering, physics, and mathematics majors, and a greater percentage of women selected biological science and chemistry. Belief in one's ability to achieve in STEM was a predictor of STEM majors in college and STEM concentrations in graduate school, but differences were found between men's and women's self-efficacy in STEM during high school and in college, as women had lower self-efficacy. Sex was a predictor of STEM majors in college, but perceived quality of academic courses was not. STEM majors also reported more satisfaction with their STEM courses in high school and college than non-STEM majors. In a departure from the results of previous research, the reasons that men and women selected occupations were similar, as were the reasons they chose to leave or not to enter STEM. The most frequently cited reason for

  5. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Cognition and Mood in Recently Postmenopausal Women: Findings from the Randomized, Controlled KEEPS–Cognitive and Affective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Carey E.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Wharton, Whitney; Manson, JoAnn E.; Miller, Virginia M.; Atwood, Craig S.; Brinton, Eliot A.; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Lobo, Rogerio A.; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Santoro, Nanette F.; Taylor, Hugh S.; Black, Dennis M.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Hodis, Howard N.; Naftolin, Frederick; Harman, S. Mitchell; Asthana, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) reportedly increases the risk of cognitive decline in women over age 65 y. It is unknown whether similar risks exist for recently postmenopausal women, and whether MHT affects mood in younger women. The ancillary Cognitive and Affective Study (KEEPS-Cog) of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) examined the effects of up to 4 y of MHT on cognition and mood in recently postmenopausal women. Methods and Findings KEEPS, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, was conducted at nine US academic centers. Of the 727 women enrolled in KEEPS, 693 (95.3%) participated in the ancillary KEEPS-Cog, with 220 women randomized to receive 4 y of 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogens (o-CEE) plus 200 mg/d micronized progesterone (m-P) for the first 12 d of each month, 211 women randomized to receive 50 μg/d transdermal estradiol (t-E2) plus 200 mg/d m-P for the first 12 d of each month, and 262 women randomized to receive placebo pills and patches. Primary outcomes included the Modified Mini-Mental State examination; four cognitive factors: verbal learning/memory, auditory attention/working memory, visual attention/executive function, and speeded language/mental flexibility; and a mood measure, the Profile of Mood States (POMS). MHT effects were analyzed using linear mixed-effects (LME) models, which make full use of all available data from each participant, including those with missing data. Data from those with and without full data were compared to assess for potential biases resulting from missing observations. For statistically significant results, we calculated effect sizes (ESs) to evaluate the magnitude of changes. On average, participants were 52.6 y old, and 1.4 y past their last menstrual period. By month 48, 169 (24.4%) and 158 (22.8%) of the 693 women who consented for ancillary KEEPS-Cog were lost to follow-up for cognitive assessment (3MS and cognitive factors) and mood evaluations

  6. Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

    2014-08-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668.

  7. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-06-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two commercial breaks consisting of soda or water commercials. Their actual soda consumption while watching the movie clip was examined. An analysis of variance was used to examine the effects of commercial condition on soda consumption. Thirst and first glass consumed before the first commercial break were added as covariates in the analyses. Results indicated that participants assigned to the condition with soda commercials consumed 1.3 ounces more soda than participants in the water commercial condition. Exposure to soda commercials while watching a movie can have a strong influence on increasing sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women.

  8. The worldwide epidemic of obesity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Michael; Booth, Michael

    2003-02-01

    There is an epidemic of obesity affecting adolescents worldwide. Both in developing and in developed countries, adolescents are increasingly becoming more obese. The number of adolescents exceeding previously identified cut-points as well as the weight and fatness of the most obese individuals is increasing at a progressive rate. Despite their benign appearance, epidemics of noncommunicable disease (or their risk factors) are no less devastating to the health of populations. The two key responses to any epidemic are to discover the causes of the epidemic disease and to characterize the epidemic. The latter needs to occur in relation to prevalence, distribution across the populations (are some population groups more likely to be affected than others?), and secular trends. This chapter reviews what is currently known about the epidemiology of overweight and obesity among adolescents throughout the world. To clarify terms of epidemiology, this chapter first identifies what are considered the most appropriate measures of adiposity and defines how much fat is too much fat.

  9. A hypothesis: interaction between supplemental iron intake and fermentation affecting the risk of colon cancer. The Iowa Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duk-Hee; Jacobs Jr, David R; Folsom, Aaron R

    2004-01-01

    Fermentation in the large intestine can increase absorption of ferrous iron, which is the main form in supplements, because the solubility of ferrous iron is enhanced in the mildly acidic environments caused by fermentation. We therefore hypothesized that higher supplemental iron intake would increase the risk of colon cancer among those who consume large amounts of fermentable substrates, namely, dietary fiber and resistant starch. Among 34,708 postmenopausal women, supplemental iron was unrelated to proximal colon cancer in all women and to distal colon cancer among those consuming below the median of fermentable substrates. However, supplemental iron was positively associated with distal colon cancer among women who consumed above the median of fermentable substrates (P for interaction %lt; 0.01); the adjusted relative risks across categories of supplemental iron (0 g/day, 1-19 g/day, 20-49 g/day, and > or = 50 g/day) were 1.0, 1.24, 1.78, and 3.78 (P for trend < 0.01). This hypothesis needs confirmation in other cohort studies because, despite the significant trend, only nine cases were included in the top category of > or = 50 mg supplemental iron, and this finding could have arisen by chance.

  10. Marine diet and tobacco exposure affects mercury concentrations in pregnant women (I) from Baja California Sur, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bentzen, Rebecca; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Castellini, J. Margaret; Celis, Alfredo; O’Hara, Todd; Celina Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía

    2017-01-01

    Seafood provides essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and other nutrients to pregnant women and their fetus(es) while a diet rich in finfish can be a major pathway of monomethyl mercury (MeHg+) exposure. We measured total mercury concentration ([THg]) in hair samples provided by 75 women in Baja California Sur (BCS) to assess its relationship with age, parity, tobacco smoke exposure, and diet based on survey methodologies. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to explain the possible association of the different variables with [THg] in hair. Median [THg] in hair was 1.52 µgg−1, ranging from 0.12 to 24.19 µgg−1 and varied significantly by segment. Approximately 72% (54/75) of those evaluated exceed 1 µgg−1 [THg] and 8% (6/75) exceed 5 µgg−1 [THg] in hair. Although frequency of fish consumption contributed significantly to explaining hair [THg], fish consumption only explained 43% of [THg] in a GLM incorporating tobacco exposure and body mass index. This study establishes possible relationships among multiple potential sources of exposure and other factors related to [THg] in hair of women in the prenatal period. A more detailed examination of other sources of exposure and factors contributing to [THg] is warranted. PMID:28203532

  11. Marine diet and tobacco exposure affects mercury concentrations in pregnant women (I) from Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bentzen, Rebecca; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Castellini, J Margaret; Celis, Alfredo; O'Hara, Todd; Celina Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía

    2014-01-01

    Seafood provides essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and other nutrients to pregnant women and their fetus(es) while a diet rich in finfish can be a major pathway of monomethyl mercury (MeHg(+)) exposure. We measured total mercury concentration ([THg]) in hair samples provided by 75 women in Baja California Sur (BCS) to assess its relationship with age, parity, tobacco smoke exposure, and diet based on survey methodologies. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to explain the possible association of the different variables with [THg] in hair. Median [THg] in hair was 1.52 µgg(-1), ranging from 0.12 to 24.19 µgg(-1) and varied significantly by segment. Approximately 72% (54/75) of those evaluated exceed 1 µgg(-1) [THg] and 8% (6/75) exceed 5 µgg(-1) [THg] in hair. Although frequency of fish consumption contributed significantly to explaining hair [THg], fish consumption only explained 43% of [THg] in a GLM incorporating tobacco exposure and body mass index. This study establishes possible relationships among multiple potential sources of exposure and other factors related to [THg] in hair of women in the prenatal period. A more detailed examination of other sources of exposure and factors contributing to [THg] is warranted.

  12. Early neonatal death: A challenge worldwide.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Liisa; Gimeno, Ana; Parra-Llorca, Anna; Vento, Máximo

    2017-02-23

    Early neonatal death (ENND), defined as the death of a newborn between zero and seven days after birth, represents 73% of all postnatal deaths worldwide. Despite a 50% reduction in childhood mortality, reduction of ENND has significantly lagged behind other Millennium Developmental Goal achievements and is a growing contributor to overall mortality in children aged <5 years. The etiology of ENND is closely related to the level of a country's industrialization. Hence, prematurity and congenital anomalies are the leading causes in high-income countries. Furthermore, sudden unexpected early neonatal deaths (SUEND) and collapse have only recently been identified as relevant and often preventable causes of death. Concomitantly, perinatal-related events such as asphyxia and infections are extremely relevant in Africa, South East Asia, and Latin America and, together with prematurity, are the principal contributors to ENND. In high-income countries, according to current research evidence, survival may be improved by applying antenatal and perinatal therapies and immediate newborn resuscitation, as well as by centralizing at-risk deliveries to centers with appropriate expertise available around the clock. In addition, resources should be allocated to the close surveillance of newborn infants, especially during the first hours of life. Many of the conditions leading to ENND in low-income countries are preventable with relatively easy and cost-effective interventions such as contraception, vaccination of pregnant women, hygienic delivery at a hospital, training health care workers in resuscitation practices, simplified algorithms that allow for early detection of perinatal infections, and early initiation of breastfeeding and skin-to-skin care. The future is promising. As initiatives undertaken in previous decades have led to substantial reduction in childhood mortality, it is expected that new initiatives targeting the perinatal/neonatal periods are bound to reduce ENND and

  13. High progesterone levels in women with high ovarian response do not affect clinical outcomes: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potentially detrimental role of progesterone during the follicular phase has been a matter of controversy for several years; however, few studies have analyzed the effects of combined raised estradiol and progesterone levels on pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of high progesterone levels on clinical outcomes in the context of high ovarian response. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study that included 2850 women classified as high responders. The women were subdivided into six groups depending on their progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration: <0.5 ng/ml (1.81 ng/ml (>p90). Ovarian response was classified as high when > =20 oocytes were retrieved or when estradiol was > =3000 pg/ml. Clinical outcomes of each subgroup were analyzed. We also examined data from frozen-thawed embryo transfers. Results were analyzed with Student’s t- test to compare continuous variables and chi-squared test to compare proportions. A p-value of < =0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The progesterone concentration increased with ovarian response, and elevated progesterone did not show a significant clinical impact on implantation rate and pregnancy rates. These data provide evidence that progesterone levels higher than 1.8 ng/ml do not have detrimental effect on oocyte quality or endometrial receptivity. Conclusions These data allow us to conclude that high progesterone levels correlate significantly with high estradiol levels and that in high responder women; progesterone levels do not show a significant clinical impact on results. PMID:25064138

  14. Does women's education affect breast cancer risk and survival? Evidence from a population based social experiment in education.

    PubMed

    Palme, Mårten; Simeonova, Emilia

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is a notable exception to the well documented positive education gradient in health. A number of studies have found that highly educated women are more likely to be diagnosed with the disease. Breast cancer is therefore often labeled as a "welfare disease". However, it has not been established whether the strong positive correlation holds up when education is exogenously determined. We estimate the causal effect of education on the probability of being diagnosed with breast cancer by exploiting an education reform that extended compulsory schooling and was implemented as a social experiment. We find that the incidence of breast cancer increased for those exposed to the reform.

  15. 1987 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book delineates an ever-varying aspect of the industry. Personnel names, plant sites, home office locations, sales and relocations - all have been compiled in this book. Inactive refineries have been updated and listed in a special section as well as active major refining and gas processing and construction projects worldwide. This directory also contains several of the most vital and informative surveys of the petroleum industry. It discusses the worldwide Construction Survey, U.S. Refining Survey, Worldwide Gas Processing Plant Survey, Worldwide Refining Survey, Worldwide Survey of Petroleum Derived Sulfur Production, and Worldwide Catalyst Report. Also included in the directory is the National Petroleum Refiners Association's U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Study.

  16. Sex Hormones Enhance Gingival Inflammation without Affecting IL-1β and TNF-α in Periodontally Healthy Women during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Chen, Shao-Wu; Su, Wei-Lan; Zhu, Hong-Ying; Ouyang, Shu-Yuan; Cao, Ya-Ting; Jiang, Shao-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Hormones (progesterone and estradiol) change greatly during pregnancy; however, the mechanism of hormonal changes on gingival inflammation is still unclear. This study is to evaluate the effects of hormonal changes during pregnancy on gingival inflammation and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). 30 periodontally healthy pregnant women were evaluated in the first, second, and third trimesters. 20 periodontally healthy nonpregnant women were evaluated twice (once per subsequent month). Clinical parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding index (BI), gingival index (GI), clinical attachment level (CAL), and plaque index (PLI) were recorded. GCF levels of IL-1β and TNF-α and serum levels of progesterone and estradiol were measured. From the data, despite low PLI, BI and GI increased significantly during pregnancy; however, no significant changes in PLI, CAL, IL-1β, or TNF-α GCF levels were observed. Although IL-1β, not TNF-α, was higher in pregnant group than in nonpregnant group, they showed no correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. GI and BI showed significant positive correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. This study suggests that sex hormone increase during pregnancy might have an effect on inflammatory status of gingiva, independent of IL-1β and TNF-α in GCF.

  17. Common Clinical Conditions – Age, Low BMI, Ritonavir Use, Mild Renal Impairment - Affect Tenofovir Pharmacokinetics in a Large Cohort of HIV-Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    BAXI, Sanjiv M.; GREENBLATT, Ruth M.; BACCHETTI, Peter; SCHERZER, Rebecca; MINKOFF, Howard; HUANG, Yong; ANASTOS, Kathryn; COHEN, Mardge; GANGE, Stephen J.; YOUNG, Mary; SHLIPAK, Michael G.; GANDHI, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tenofovir is used commonly in HIV treatment and prevention settings, but factors that correlate with tenofovir exposure in real-world setting are unknown. Design Intensive pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of tenofovir in a large, diverse cohort of HIV-infected women over 24-hours at steady-state were performed and factors that influenced exposure (assessed by areas-under-the-time-concentration curves, AUCs) identified Methods HIV-infected women (n=101) on tenofovir-based therapy underwent intensive 24-hour PK sampling. Data on race/ethnicity, age, exogenous steroid use, menstrual cycle phase, concomitant medications, recreational drugs and/or tobacco, hepatic and renal function, weight and body mass index (BMI) were collected. Multivariable models using forward stepwise selection identified factors associated with effects on AUC. Glomerular filtration rates (GFR) prior to starting tenofovir were estimated by the CKD-EPI equation using both creatinine and cystatin-C measures Results The median (range) of tenofovir AUCs was 3350 (1031–13,911) ng x h/mL. Higher AUCs were associated with concomitant ritonavir use (1.33-fold increase, p 0.002), increasing age (1.21-fold increase per decade, p=0.0007) and decreasing BMI (1.04-fold increase per 10% decrease in BMI). When GFR was calculated using cystatin-C measures, mild renal insufficiency prior to tenofovir initiation was associated with higher subsequent exposure (1.35-fold increase when pre-tenofovir GFR <70mL/min, p=0.0075). Conclusions Concomitant ritonavir use, increasing age, decreasing BMI and lower GFR prior to tenofovir initiation as estimated by cystatin C were all associated with elevated tenofovir exposure in a diverse cohort of HIV-infected women. Clinicians treating HIV-infected women should be aware of common clinical conditions that affect tenofovir exposure when prescribing this medication. PMID:24275255

  18. Factors Affecting Counseling Services in Social Service Structures Providing Support to Women Who Are Victims of Violence: A Qualitative Research in Greece.

    PubMed

    Flora, Katerina; Argyroudi, Anthi

    2016-12-04

    This qualitative study examines the factors that affect counseling services in structures aimed to provide support to women who are victims of violence. What has created the need to investigate the above issues is the increase in events of violence against women in Greece, and the subsequent development of relevant support and accommodation structures. Despite the clinical experience accumulated, research data from Greece are incomplete. The main research question concerns the factors that affect counseling in violence counseling structures. The participants were 10 professional counselors employed in violence counseling structures. The research data were collected through semi-structured interviews and their analysis followed the interpretative phenomenological method. The results designate two main axes: the personal and that of the others The main categories of factors on the "personal" axis highlighted the importance of prior as well as continuing training for the counselor's work with the specific population; the crucial role of experience, which is characterized as dense and very rich; and the necessary presence of unfailing supervision. Regarding the axis of "the others," the main categories that emerged are cooperation with colleagues-in the light of interdisciplinarity as well as support-and cooperation with the local authorities and the central responsible body, as an important determinant of the operation of the structure. The results are discussed on the basis of the factors' importance and of possible implications for finding solutions.

  19. Vitamin B-12 supplementation of rural Mexican women changes biochemical vitamin B-12 status indicators but does not affect hematology or a bone turnover marker.

    PubMed

    Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Anaya-Loyola, Miriam A; Vergara-Castañeda, Haydé; Rosado, Jorge L; Keyes, William R; Newman, John W; Miller, Joshua W; Allen, Lindsay H

    2012-10-01

    A high prevalence of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations has been reported in studies and surveys in Latin America including Mexico, but the functional consequences are unknown. This randomized controlled trial assessed the response to a high-dose vitamin B-12 supplementation of women in rural Querétaro, Mexico. Participants aged 20-59 y were stratified at baseline to deficient, marginal, and adequate status groups (serum vitamin B-12, 75-148, 149-220, and >220 pmol/L, respectively), and each group was randomized to vitamin B-12 treatment (single dose of 1 mg i.m. then 500 μg/d orally for 3 mo, n = 70) or placebo (n = 62). Measures at baseline and 3 mo included: complete blood count, serum vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), folate, ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), bone alkaline phosphatase, and methylmalonic acid (MMA) and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). At baseline, 11% of the women were vitamin B-12 deficient and 22% had marginal status. HoloTC was low (<35 pmol/L) in 23% and correlated with serum vitamin B-12 (r = 0.7; P < 0.001). Elevated MMA (>271 nmol/L) and tHcy (>12 μmol/L) occurred in 21 and 31%, respectively, and correlated with serum vitamin B-12 (r = -0.28, P < 0.0007 and r = -0.20, P < 0.01, respectively). Supplementation increased serum vitamin B-12 and holoTC and lowered MMA and tHcy, normalizing all values except for elevated tHcy in 21% of the women. Supplementation did not affect hematology or bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. Vitamin B-12 supplementation normalized biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 status in the treatment group but did not affect the functional outcomes measured.

  20. Estradiol Modulates Anhedonia and Behavioral Despair in Rats and Negative Affect in a Subgroup of Women at High Risk for Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; O’Hara, Michael W.; Rubinow, David R.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to address inconsistencies in the literature, we tested a cross-species estrogen withdrawal model of postpartum depression (PPD) with a series of rodent experiments and a prospective, naturalistic human study. All rats were ovariectomized prior to experimentation. The first rat experiment examined the effects of low- and high-dose estradiol administration and withdrawal on lateral-hypothalamic self-stimulation, a behavioral index of anhedonia, in experimental (n=7) and vehicle-only control animals (n=7). The second rat experiment examined the effects of high-dose estradiol withdrawal on activity and immobility during the forced swim test, an index of behavioral despair, in a separate group of experimental (n=8) and vehicle-only control animals (n=8). In the human study, women with (n=8) and without (n=12) a history of PPD completed mood ratings and collected saliva samples (to assess estradiol levels) daily during the third trimester of pregnancy through 10 days postpartum. The presence of PPD was assessed at one month postpartum. In the animal studies, rats in the estradiol withdrawal group demonstrated significantly greater immobility and less swimming than controls. Estradiol withdrawal resulted in reduced responding for electrical stimulation (multiple intensities) relative to estradiol administration. In the human study, there was no significant association between estradiol and negative affect among women with or without a history of PPD. However, there was a correlation between daily estradiol levels and negative affect in the women with incident PPD at one month postpartum. Despite important cross-species differences, both the rat and human studies provided evidence of the effects of estradiol on perinatal depressive symptoms. PMID:23770328

  1. Current Trends of HIV Recombination Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Katherine A.; Wong, Justin J.L.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major characteristics of HIV-1 is its high genetic variability and extensive heterogeneity. This characteristic is due to its molecular traits, which in turn allows it to vary, recombine, and diversify at a high frequency. As such, it generates complex molecular forms, termed recombinants, which evade the human immune system and so survive. There is no sequence constraint to the recombination pattern as it appears to occur at inter-group (between groups M and O), as well as interand intra-subtype within group M. Rapid emergence and active global transmission of HIV-1 recombinants, known as circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs), requires urgent attention. To date, 55 CRFs have been reported around the world. The first CRF01_AE originated from Central Africa but spread widely in Asia. The most recent CRF; CRF55_01B is a recombinant form of CRF01_AE and subtype B, although its origin is yet to be publicly disclosed. HIV-1 recombination is an ongoing event and plays an indispensable role in HIV epidemics in different regions. Africa, Asia and South America are identified as recombination hot-spots. They are affected by continual emergence and cocirculation of newly emerging CRFs and URFs, which are now responsible for almost 20% of HIV-1 infections worldwide. Better understanding of recombinants is necessary to determine their biological and molecular attributes. PMID:24470968

  2. Chronic resistance training does not affect post-exercise blood pressure in normotensive older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gerage, Aline Mendes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; do Nascimento, Matheus Amarante; Pina, Fábio Luiz Cheche; Gonçalves, Cássio Gustavo Santana; Sardinha, Luís B; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

    2015-06-01

    Resistance training has been recommended for maintenance or improvement of the functional health of older adults, but its effect on acute cardiovascular responses remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in normotensive older women. Twenty-eight normotensive and physically inactive women (≥ 60 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG underwent a resistance training program (12 weeks, 8 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions, 3 days/week), while the CG performed stretching exercises (12 weeks, 2 sets, 20 s each, 2 days/week). At baseline and after the intervention, participants were randomly submitted to two experimental sessions: a resistance exercise session (7 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions) and a control session. BP was obtained pre- and post-sessions (90 min), through auscultation. Post-exercise hypotension was observed for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP in the TG (-6.1, -3.4, and -4.3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05) and in the CG (-4.1, -0.7, and -1.8 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). After the intervention period, the magnitude and pattern of this phenomenon for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP were similar between groups (TG -8.8, -4.1, and -5.7 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05 vs CG -11.1, -5.8, and -7.6 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). These results indicate that a single session of resistance exercise promotes reduction in post-exercise BP and 12 weeks of resistance training program do not change the occurrence or magnitude of this hypotension. (ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02346981).

  3. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  4. Worldwide gas-processing growth slows

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R. )

    1990-07-02

    Continued worldwide growth is evident in this report on natural -gas processing and sulfur recovery. But the pace was slower in 1989. Canada and the countries of the Asia-Pacific region were the best performers. U.S. figures were flat, while Canadian NGL production was again up markedly. Canada's lead in worldwide sulfur-recovery capacity and production increased slightly.

  5. Domestic violence in Iranian infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhan, Zohre; Ozgoli, Giti; Azar, Mahyar; Alavimajd, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Millions of men and women suffer from infertility worldwide. In many cultures, infertile women are at risk of social and emotional problems. Infertility may affect the public health in many countries. Domestic violence is the intentional use of physical force, power or threat against oneself, another person or another group or community which leads to injury, death, mental harm, lack of development or deprivation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of domestic violence against infertile women who referred to the infertility centres of Tehran, Iran in 2011. Methods: This was cross- sectional descriptive study conducted on 400 infertile women who were selected through convenient sampling method. The questionnaire used in this study included two sections: a demographic section with questions about demographic characteristics of the infertile women and their husbands; and the domestic violence questionnaire with questions about physical, emotional and sexual violence. Data were analysed by SPSS16; descriptive statistics, Spearman’s test, t- test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: Four hundred women with the average age of 30.50 ± 6.16 years participated in the study; of whom, 34.7% experienced domestic violence physical violence (5.3%), emotional violence (74.3%) and sexual violence (47.3%). Domestic violence was significantly associated with unwanted marriage, number of IVFs, drug abuse, emotional status of the women, smoking and addiction or drug abuse of the spouse, mental and physical diseases of the husband (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Many of the current problems in this society, particularly in families are due to the transition of the society from a traditional model to a modern one. The majority of the infertile women experience violence in Iran. Domestic violence against infertile women is a problem that should not be ignored. Clinicians should identify abused women. Providing

  6. Subtyping Women with Bulimia Nervosa along Dietary and Negative Affect Dimensions: Further Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C. Nathan; Fischer, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Studies have found that individuals with bulimia nervosa can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and that the latter exhibit greater eating pathology, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment; a more protracted clinical course; and a worse treatment response. In this report, the authors describe 2 prospective…

  7. Multilevel Dynamic Systems Affecting Introduction of HIV/STI Prevention Innovations among Chinese Women in Sex Work Establishments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Zhang, Qingning; Dunn, Jennifer; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei

    2013-01-01

    Social and public health scientists are increasingly interested in applying system dynamics theory to improve understanding and to harness the forces of change within complex, multilevel systems that affect community intervention implementation, effects, and sustainability. Building a system dynamics model based on ethnographic case study has the…

  8. Reproductive health policy affecting low-income women: historical precedents and current need for social work action.

    PubMed

    Averitt Taylor, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the historical arguments surrounding reproductive health policy and current policy initiatives. Because reproductive policy itself is a vast subject matter with sometimes blurry boundaries, the struggle concerning the advent of birth control is used to illustrate the historic complexities of policy affecting such a wide array of individuals. The battle over introduction of the birth control pill is pertinent because the very same arguments are used today in debates over reproductive health policy.

  9. Pregnant women's cognitive appraisal of a natural disaster affects DNA methylation in their children 13 years later: Project Ice Storm

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Lei, L; Elgbeili, G; Massart, R; Laplante, D P; Szyf, M; King, S

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) can impact a variety of outcomes in the offspring throughout childhood and persisting into adulthood as shown in human and animal studies. Many of the effects of PNMS on offspring outcomes likely reflect the effects of epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, to the fetal genome. However, no animal or human research can determine the extent to which the effects of PNMS on DNA methylation in human offspring is the result of the objective severity of the stressor to the pregnant mother, or her negative appraisal of the stressor or her resulting degree of negative stress. We examined the genome-wide DNA methylation profile in T cells from 34 adolescents whose mothers had rated the 1998 Québec ice storm's consequences as positive or negative (that is, cognitive appraisal). The methylation levels of 2872 CGs differed significantly between adolescents in the positive and negative maternal cognitive appraisal groups. These CGs are affiliated with 1564 different genes and with 408 different biological pathways, which are prominently featured in immune function. Importantly, there was a significant overlap in the differentially methylated CGs or genes and biological pathways that are associated with cognitive appraisal and those associated with objective PNMS as we reported previously. Our study suggests that pregnant women's cognitive appraisals of an independent stressor may have widespread effects on DNA methylation across the entire genome of their unborn children, detectable during adolescence. Therefore, cognitive appraisals could be an important predictor variable to explore in PNMS research. PMID:25710121

  10. Pregnant women's cognitive appraisal of a natural disaster affects DNA methylation in their children 13 years later: Project Ice Storm.

    PubMed

    Cao-Lei, L; Elgbeili, G; Massart, R; Laplante, D P; Szyf, M; King, S

    2015-02-24

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) can impact a variety of outcomes in the offspring throughout childhood and persisting into adulthood as shown in human and animal studies. Many of the effects of PNMS on offspring outcomes likely reflect the effects of epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, to the fetal genome. However, no animal or human research can determine the extent to which the effects of PNMS on DNA methylation in human offspring is the result of the objective severity of the stressor to the pregnant mother, or her negative appraisal of the stressor or her resulting degree of negative stress. We examined the genome-wide DNA methylation profile in T cells from 34 adolescents whose mothers had rated the 1998 Québec ice storm's consequences as positive or negative (that is, cognitive appraisal). The methylation levels of 2872 CGs differed significantly between adolescents in the positive and negative maternal cognitive appraisal groups. These CGs are affiliated with 1564 different genes and with 408 different biological pathways, which are prominently featured in immune function. Importantly, there was a significant overlap in the differentially methylated CGs or genes and biological pathways that are associated with cognitive appraisal and those associated with objective PNMS as we reported previously. Our study suggests that pregnant women's cognitive appraisals of an independent stressor may have widespread effects on DNA methylation across the entire genome of their unborn children, detectable during adolescence. Therefore, cognitive appraisals could be an important predictor variable to explore in PNMS research.

  11. How peer conversations about HIV/AIDS media messages affect comprehension and beliefs of young South African women.

    PubMed

    Lubinga, E; Maes, A A; Jansen, C J M

    2016-12-01

    Most existent research on the effects of interpersonal discussions about health campaign messages is based on surveys. In this study, we analysed actual conversations about an HIV/AIDS poster to find out possible effects. Young South African women in 59 dyads (n = 118) participated in conversations about a deliberately puzzling HIV and AIDS poster that cautioned the target group to be faithful to one sexual partner. We measured their comprehension of the poster and beliefs about the message, before and after the conversations. Overall, actual comprehension (AC) was low, and we observed a large discrepancy between actual and perceived comprehension. In general, conversations did not improve AC. It proved to be even more probable that a correct interpretation before a conversation turned into an incorrect interpretation than the other way around. However, having a well-informed conversation partner increased the chance of acquiring adequate subsequent comprehension. We found, in general, that conversations did not decrease undesirable beliefs. One important undesirable belief even became reinforced after the conversations. Conversations among peers might be valuable in health campaigns, but our study shows that intended positive effects do not automatically follow.

  12. 1988 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Innumerable revisions in names, addresses, phone numbers, telex numbers, and cable numbers have been made since the publication of the previous edition. This directory also contains several of the most vital and informative surveys of the petroleum industry including the U.S. Refining Survey, The Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Eax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association.

  13. A Systematic Review of Individual and Contextual Factors Affecting ART Initiation, Adherence, and Retention for HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Ian; Plummer, Mary L.; Konopka, Sarah N.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Jonas, Edna; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite progress reducing maternal mortality, HIV-related maternal deaths remain high, accounting, for example, for up to 24 percent of all pregnancy-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective in improving outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women, yet rates of initiation, adherence, and retention remain low. This systematic literature review synthesized evidence about individual and contextual factors affecting ART use among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Searches were conducted for studies addressing the population (HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women), intervention (ART), and outcomes of interest (initiation, adherence, and retention). Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English since January 2008 were included. Individual and contextual enablers and barriers to ART use were extracted and organized thematically within a framework of individual, interpersonal, community, and structural categories. Results Thirty-four studies were included in the review. Individual-level factors included both those within and outside a woman’s awareness and control (e.g., commitment to child’s health or age). Individual-level barriers included poor understanding of HIV, ART, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and difficulty managing practical demands of ART. At an interpersonal level, disclosure to a spouse and spousal involvement in treatment were associated with improved initiation, adherence, and retention. Fear of negative consequences was a barrier to disclosure. At a community level, stigma was a major barrier. Key structural barriers and enablers were related to health system use and engagement, including access to services and health worker attitudes. Conclusions To be successful, programs seeking to expand access to and continued use of ART by integrating maternal health and HIV services must identify and address the relevant barriers and enablers in

  14. Leptin treatment reduces body fat but does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis in lean hypoleptinemic women.

    PubMed

    Brinkoetter, Mary; Magkos, Faidon; Vamvini, Maria; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-07-01

    Animal studies in vivo indicate that leptin treatment in extremely leptin-sensitive ob/ob mice reduces body weight exclusively by reducing fat mass and that it increases muscle mass by downregulating myostatin expression. Data from human trials are limited. Therefore, we aimed at characterizing the effects of leptin administration on fat mass, lean body mass, and circulating regulators of muscle growth in hypoleptinemic and presumably leptin-sensitive human subjects. In an open-label, single-arm trial, seven lean, strenuously exercising, amenorrheic women with low leptin concentrations (≤5 ng/ml) were given recombinant methionyl human leptin (metreleptin; 0.08 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 10 wk. In a separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, seven women were given metreleptin (initial dose: 0.08 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 3 mo, increased thereafter to 0.12 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) if menstruation did not occur), and six were given placebo for 9 mo. Metreleptin significantly reduced total body fat by an average of 18.6% after 10 wk (P < 0.001) in the single-arm trial and by 19.5% after 9 mo (placebo subtracted; P for interaction = 0.025, P for metreleptin = 0.004) in the placebo-controlled trial. There were no significant changes in lean body mass (P ≥ 0.33) or in serum concentrations of myostatin (P ≥ 0.35), follistatin (P ≥ 0.30), and activin A (P ≥ 0.20) whether in the 10-wk trial or the 9-mo trial. We conclude that metreleptin administration in lean hypoleptinemic women reduces fat mass exclusively and does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis.

  15. Facets of negative affect prior to and following binge-only, purge-only, and binge/purge events in women with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Berg, Kelly C; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Peterson, Carol B; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data suggest that global negative affect (NA) increases prior to and decreases following episodes of binge eating and purging, providing support for the affect regulation model of BN. The current study examined whether facets of NA are differentially related to bulimic behaviors. Women with bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 133) completed a 2-week EMA protocol. Momentary assessments of 4 facets of NA (Fear, Guilt, Hostility, and Sadness) were derived from the PANAS subscales. Trajectories of the NA facets were modeled prior to and following binge-only, purge-only, and binge/purge events. Fear, Guilt, Hostility, and Sadness increased prior to and decreased following binge-only and binge/purge events. The same results were found for purge-only events, with the exception that Hostility did not increase significantly prior to purging. Notably, ratings of Guilt were higher than those of Fear, Hostility, and Sadness at the time of binge-only and binge/purge events. Furthermore, post hoc analyses demonstrate that Guilt increased prior to and decreased following the 3 behavior types, even after controlling for Fear, Hostility, and Sadness. These results provide further support for the affect regulation model of BN and also suggest that guilt may be particularly important to the pathology of BN.

  16. Sowing the seeds or failing to blossom? A feasibility study of a simple ecotherapy-based intervention in women affected by breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Ceri; Butler, Carole; Cousins, Alecia; Hughes, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in nature-based activities is recognised as providing the basis for easily accessible, cost-effective interventions which can have other important physical and psychological health outcomes. The aim of the reported feasibility study was to explore the acceptability and potential psychological benefits of a simple ecotherapy-based intervention for individuals affected by cancer. A total of seven women from an existing breast cancer support group agreed to take part in the study by cultivating and customising a garden bowl for three months, maintaining a diary, and participating in a focus group at the end of the project. The analysis of the focus group data revealed four main themes that suggested that the women found engaging with the intervention to be therapeutic on a number of different levels: reflecting their cancer journey, a source of positivity, making meaning through memories, and a sense of control provided by engagement with the intervention. Engagement with the diary-writing element of the intervention, however, was not as widely endorsed by the group, as participants were even reluctant to make use of an online forum to share experiences of engaging with the intervention. Overall, the study suggests that the flexibility of level of engagement with an intervention is an important factor in developing acceptable interventions, and that the value of targeted recruitment to improve engagement with novel interventions is paramount. PMID:26715939

  17. The role of d-dimer as first marker of thrombophilia in women affected by sterility: implications in pathophysiology and diagnosis of thrombophilia induced sterility

    PubMed Central

    Di Micco, Pierpaolo; D'Uva, Maristella; Strina, Ida; Mollo, Antonio; Amato, Valeria; Niglio, Alferio; De Placido, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    Background D-dimer is considered a marker of hypercoagulable state and of endogenous fibrinolysis, so increased d-dimer is detectable in patients affected by thrombosis. Yet, several studies showed that also infertility, in particular secondary infertility due to recurrent fetal losses, has been often related to thrombotic events, in particular in women carrying thrombotic risk factors such as inherited thrombophilia (MTHFRC677T, PTHRA20210G, Factor V Leiden polimorphisms and/or inhAfter this screening we selected 39erited protein C, protein S, AT III deficiency) or acquired thrombophilia (primary antiphospholipid syndrome, acquired protein C, protein S, AT III deficiency, drugs induced thrombophilia). However, because its high predictive negative value in case of suspected thrombosis, increased d-dimer has been often associated to subclinical thrombophilia. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of d-dimer as first marker of thrombophilia in women affected by unexplained infertility and subsequently to search the cause of increased d-dimer, such as inherited and/or acquired thrombophilia. Patients and Methods We selected 79 patients with unexplained primary or secondary infertility. We excluded 40 patients affected by hydrosalpinx, uterine fibroids, uterine malformations, endocrinological and immunological diseases, luteal insufficiency, cytogenetical alterations. All remaining 39 patients were tested for d-dimer and divided in two groups: the patients of group A (25 patients) showed increased plasma d-dimer, in group B were included 14 patients with normal plasma level of d-dimer. After this step all 39 patients were screened for MTHFRC677T, PTHRA20210G, Factor V Leiden polimorphisms, protein C, protein S, AT III, anticardiolipin IgM and IgG, lupus anticoagulant. In the control group were included 15 age matched women without sterility problems referred to our outpatient's section of vascular medicine for suspected deep venous thrombosis. Statistical

  18. Worldwide Report. Telecommunications Policy, Research, and Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    044110 JPRS-TTP-85-027 6 November 1985 Worldwide Report TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY , RESEARCH , AND DEVELOPMENT * DISTRIBUTION STATEl^TT A...Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TTP-85-027 6 November 1985 WORLDWIDE REPORT TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY , RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTENTS ASIA...into an expenditure of 3.25 bil- lion in current lire on research and development —a period that corresponds on the average to 11.5 percent of

  19. Iron-containing micronutrient supplementation of Chinese women with no or mild anemia during pregnancy improved iron status but did not affect perinatal anemia.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zuguo; Serdula, Mary K; Liu, Jian-Meng; Flores-Ayala, Rafael C; Wang, Linlin; Ye, Rongwei; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2014-06-01

    Universal prenatal daily iron-folic acid (IFA) and multiple micronutrient (MM) supplements are recommended to reduce the risk of low birth weight, maternal anemia, and iron deficiency (ID) during pregnancy, but the evidence of their effect on iron status among women with mild or no anemia is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the iron status [serum ferritin (SF), serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron (BI)] before and after micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy. We examined 834 pregnant women with hemoglobin > 100 g/L at enrollment before 20 wk of gestation and with iron measurement data from a subset of a randomized, double-blind trial in China. Women were randomly assigned to take daily 400 μg of folic acid (FA) (control), FA plus 30 mg of iron, or FA, iron, plus 13 additional MMs provided before 20 wk of gestation to delivery. Venous blood was collected in this subset during study enrollment (before 20 wk of gestation) and 28-32 wk of gestation. We found that, at 28-32 wk of gestation, compared with the FA group, both the IFA and MM groups had significantly lower prevalence of ID regardless of which indicator (SF, sTfR, or BI) was used for defining ID. The prevalence of ID at 28-32 wk of gestation for IFA, MM, and FA were 35.3%, 42.7%, and 59.6% by using low SF, 53.6%, 59.9%, and 69.9% by using high sTfR, and 34.5%, 41.2%, and 59.6% by using low BI, respectively. However, there was no difference in anemia prevalence (hemoglobin < 110 g/L) between FA and IFA or MM groups. We concluded that, compared with FA alone, prenatal IFA and MM supplements provided to women with no or mild anemia improved iron status later during pregnancy but did not affect perinatal anemia. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00137744.

  20. Declarative verbal memory impairments in middle-aged women who are caregivers of offspring with autism spectrum disorders: The role of negative affect and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, A; González-Bono, E; Salvador, A; Moya-Albiol, L

    2016-01-01

    Caring for offspring diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is used in research as a model of chronic stress. This chronic stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory. Moreover, such cognitive decline may be mediated by testosterone (T) levels and negative affect, understood as depressive mood together with high anxiety and anger. This study aimed to compare declarative memory function in middle-aged women who were caregivers for individuals with ASD (n = 24; mean age = 45) and female controls (n = 22; mean age = 45), using a standardised memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). It also sought to examine the role of care recipient characteristics, negative mood and T levels in memory impairments. ASD caregivers were highly sensitive to proactive interference and verbal forgetting. In addition, they had higher negative affect and T levels, both of which have been associated with poorer verbal memory performance. Moreover, the number of years of caregiving affected memory performance and negative affect, especially, in terms of anger feelings. On the other hand, T levels in caregivers had a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance; that is, increases in T were associated with improvements in verbal memory performance up to a certain point, but subsequently, memory performance decreased with increasing T. Chronic stress may produce disturbances in mood and hormonal levels, which in turn might increase the likelihood of developing declarative memory impairments although caregivers do not show a generalised decline in memory. These findings should be taken into account for understanding the impact of cognitive impairments on the ability to provide optimal caregiving.

  1. Contribution of Interpersonal Problems to Eating Disorder Psychopathology via Negative Affect in Treatment-seeking Men and Women: Testing the Validity of the Interpersonal Model in an Understudied Population.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Iryna V; Tasca, Giorgio A; Proulx, Geneviève; Bissasda, Hany

    2016-12-28

    Research on the psychosocial correlates and theoretical frameworks of men presenting with eating disorders (ED) psychopathology is limited. This study compared treatment-seeking men and women in terms of their levels of interpersonal functioning (affiliation and dominance), regulation of negative emotions (negative affect and instability) and ED psychopathology. The study also investigated the validity of the interpersonal model of ED in men. Results from the cross-sectional data of 388 participants (137 men and 251 women) demonstrated that the structural models fit and that paths were invariant across men and women. There were significant indirect effects of interpersonal functioning on ED psychopathology, mediated through negative affect and instability, for both men and women. Negative affect and instability partially explain the relationship between interpersonal problems and ED psychopathology in treatment-seeking men and women. Current findings highlight the need to evaluate the validity of the model using longitudinal designs to test whether men and women are likely to benefit equally from interpersonal therapies for ED. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Contemporary use and practice of electroconvulsive therapy worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Leiknes, Kari Ann; Jarosh-von Schweder, Lindy; Høie, Bjørg

    2012-01-01

    To explore contemporary (from 1990) utilization and practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) worldwide. Systematic search (limited to studies published 1990 and after) was undertaken in the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, SveMed, and EBSCO/Cinahl. Primary data-based studies/surveys with reported ECT utilization and practice in psychiatric institutions internationally, nationally, and regionally; city were included. Two reviewers independently checked study titles and abstracts according to inclusion criteria, and extracted ECT utilization and practice data from those retrieved in full text. Seventy studies were included, seven from Australia and New Zealand, three Africa, 12 North and Latin America, 33 Europe, and 15 Asia. Worldwide ECT differences and trends were evident, average number ECTs administered per patient were eight; unmodified (without anesthesia) was used in Asia (over 90%), Africa, Latin America, Russia, Turkey, Spain. Worldwide preferred electrode placement was bilateral, except unilateral at some places (Europe and Australia/New Zealand). Although mainstream was brief-pulse wave, sine-wave devices were still used. Majority ECT treated were older women with depression in Western countries, versus younger men with schizophrenia in Asian countries. ECT under involuntary conditions (admissions), use of ambulatory-ECT, acute first line of treatment, as well as administered by other professions (geriatricians, nurses) were noted by some sites. General trends were only some institutions within the same country providing ECT, training inadequate, and guidelines not followed. Mandatory reporting and overall country ECT register data were sparse. Many patients are still treated with unmodified ECT today. Large global variation in ECT utilization, administration, and practice advocates a need for worldwide sharing of knowledge about ECT, reflection, and learning from each other's experiences. PMID:22741102

  3. [Administration of MICRONIZED PALMITOYLETHANOLAMIDE (PEA)-transpolydatin in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain in women affected by endometriosis: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Lo Monte, G; Soave, I; Marci, R

    2013-03-13

    Aim: Aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of micronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA)-transpolydatin in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain in women affected by endometriosis. Methods: Twenty-four patients with suspected endometriosis affected by severe pelvic pain were enrolled. All patients received two tablets a day of PEA 400 mg and 40 mg polydatin for 90 days consecutively. A Visual Analogic Scale was used for the assessment of the severity of global pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dysuria and dischezia. A second questionnaire was submitted to patients to assess the quality of life. The compilation of a diary lead us to evaluate the monthly assumption of any painkillers. Patients were evaluated at the begin of the treatment and then monthly until the end of the study (90 days). The statistical analysis was performed by using the ANOVA for the analysis of variance. Results: Statistically significant results were found in relation to pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia compared to the initial evaluation of patients. Results related to dysuria and dischezia were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The decrease in pelvic pain leads to an improvement of the quality of life of patients. A decreased assumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was also observed. Conclusion: PEA could be considered an effective supplement to conventional analgesic therapies in the management of pelvic pain related to endometriosis.

  4. Foreshock occurrence rates before large earthquakes worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Global rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured, using earthquakes listed in the Harvard CMT catalog for the period 1978-1996. These rates are similar to rates ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering, which is based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California, and were found to exceed the California model by a factor of approximately 2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, registered a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, measured a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have revealed low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggest the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich.

  5. l-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jen-Yu; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S; Fragala, Maren S; Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Coday, Michael; Häkkinen, Keijo; Maresh, Carl M

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Carnipure tartrate (Lonza, Allendale, NJ) supplementation (total dose of 2 g/d of l-carnitine) on markers of performance and recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women. Normally active and healthy men (n = 9, 45.4 +/- 5.3 years old) and women (n = 9, 51.9 +/- 5.0 years old) volunteered to participate in the investigation. Double-blind, placebo, balanced treatment presentation and crossover design were used with 3 weeks and 3 days of supplementation followed by a 1-week washout period before the other counterbalanced treatment was initiated. After 3 weeks of each supplementation protocol, each participant then performed an acute resistance exercise challenge of 4 sets of 15 repetitions of squat/leg press at 50% 1-repetition maximum and continued supplementation over the recovery period that was evaluated. Blood samples were obtained at preexercise and at 0, 15, 30, and 120 minutes postexercise during the acute resistance exercise challenge and during 4 recovery days as well. Two grams of l-carnitine supplementation had positive effects and significantly (P < or = .05) attenuated biochemical markers of purine metabolism (ie, hypoxanthine, xanthine oxidase), free radical formation (malondialdehyde), muscle tissue disruption (myoglobin, creatine kinase), and muscle soreness after physical exertion. However, markers of physical performance (ie, strength, power, get up and go) were not affected by supplementation. These findings support our previous findings of l-carnitine in younger people that such supplementation can reduce chemical damage to tissues after exercise and optimize the processes of muscle tissue repair and remodeling.

  6. Older women living and coping with domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Lazenbatt, Anne; Devaney, John; Gildea, Aideen

    2013-02-01

    Although domestic violence is seen as a serious public health issue for women worldwide, international evidence suggests that women aged over 50 who are victims are suffering in silence because the problem is often ignored by health professionals. More U.K. research is needed to identify the extent of the problem, and services to meet the needs of older women. This study aims to bridge this gap by gaining a deeper understanding of how 'older women' cope with domestic violence and how it affects their wellbeing. Eighteen older women who were currently, or had been in an abusive relationship were recruited. Semi-structured interview schedules were used to discuss the personal nature of DV and its effects on wellbeing, ways of coping and sources of support. Findings suggest that living in a domestically violent context has extremely negative effects on older women's wellbeing leading to severe anxiety and depression. Three-quarters of the women defined themselves as in 'very poor' mental and physical health and were using pathogenic coping mechanisms, such as excessive and long-term use of alcohol, prescription and non-prescription drugs and cigarettes. This negative coping increased the likelihood of these women experiencing addiction to drugs and alcohol dependence and endangered their health in the longer term. Our findings suggest that health professionals must receive appropriate education to gain knowledge and skills in order to deal effectively and support older women experiencing domestic violence.

  7. Equipment and services for worldwide applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The report presents a digest of geothermal energy technology. The worldwide distribution of geothermal resources is described, and the degree to which various countries are exploiting their resources estimated. Detailed information about US technologies is presented, from exploration through applications to cost factors. (ACR)

  8. WorldWide Web: Hypertext from CERN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Gord

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of software tools for accessing information on the Internet focuses on the WorldWideWeb (WWW) system, which was developed at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland to build a worldwide network of hypertext links using available networking technology. Its potential for use with multimedia documents is also…

  9. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop genetic diversity is concentrated within specific geographic regions worldwide. While access to this diversity is critical to continued increases in agricultural productivity, the geopolitical significance of the geography of crop diversity has not been quantified. We assess the degree to which...

  10. 1979 Worldwide Adventure TravelGuide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    Guidebook descriptions of the 3000 worldwide adventure trips open to public participation include highlights, itinerary, level of experience necessary, requirements, location, duration, dates, cost, and addresses and telephone numbers of the operating organizations. The guidebook is organized in four major sections and, within each section, into…

  11. Bulletin Board Ideas: Worldwide Scientific Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Maurice K.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a bulletin board activity that identifies scientific phenomena occurring worldwide during the school year. A map of the world is marked with colored pins as students find news information of places and kind of event (e.g.; volcanoes, floods, crop failures, human epidemics). (CS)

  12. World-wide distribution automation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  13. Perfectionism, emotion dysregulation, and affective disturbance in relation to clinical impairment in college-age women at high risk for or with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Meghan E; Eichen, Dawn M; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Taylor, C Barr; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-12-01

    Individuals with eating disorders (EDs) demonstrate impaired quality of life; however, less than one-third report severe clinical impairment. Thus, it is important to determine factors that may identify those who are most likely to report marked impairment. Perfectionism, emotion dysregulation, and aspects of affective disturbance, such as anxiety and depression, are independently associated with eating pathology and clinical impairment in eating and other disorders. However, little research has explored these three factors concurrently in relation to eating pathology. It is possible that the combined interaction effect of these constructs could be especially harmful. The current study examined the influence of these constructs and their interactions on clinical impairment in college-aged women at high risk for or with a DSM-5 clinical or subclinical ED. Although the three-way interaction of perfectionism, emotion dysregulation, and affective disturbance (i.e., anxiety or depression) was not significant, the two-way interaction between perfectionism and emotion dysregulation was significant such that those who were high in both perfectionism and emotion dysregulation reported the highest levels of clinical impairment. This suggests that the combination of perfectionism and emotion dysregulation may be especially problematic for those with or at high risk for EDs. Interestingly, perfectionism alone was not a predictor of clinical impairment when accounting for the other constructs, implying that perfectionism may have a greater impact when in conjunction with emotion dysregulation. Understanding the impact of combined perfectionistic tendencies and emotion dysregulation on clinical impairment may better inform treatment and more directly target contributors to impaired quality of life.

  14. GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism and GSTM1 deletion do not affect selenium and mercury status in mildly exposed Amazonian women in an urban population.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ariana V; Rita Cardoso, Bárbara; Zavarize, Bruna; Almondes, Kaluce; Bordon, Isabella; Hare, Dominic J; Teixeira Favaro, Déborah Inês; Franciscato Cozzolino, Silvia Maria

    2016-11-15

    Mercury is potent toxicant element, but its toxicity can be reduced by forming a complex with selenium for safe excretion. Considering the impact of mercury exposure in the Amazon region and the possible interaction between these two elements, we aimed to assess the effects of Pro198Leu polymorphism to GPX1 and GSTM1 deletion, on mercury levels in a population from Porto Velho, an urban locality in the Brazilian Amazon region. Two hundred women from the capital city of Rondônia state were recruited for this study with 149 deemed suitable to participate. We assessed dietary intake using 24-hour recall. Selenium levels in plasma and erythrocytes were measured using hydride generation quartz tube atomic absorption spectroscopy and total hair mercury using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Oxidative stress parameters (GPx activity, oxygen radical absorbency capacity [ORAC] and malondialdehyde [MDA]) were also analyzed. All participants were genotyped for Pro198Leu polymorphism and GSTM1 deletion. We observed that this population presented high prevalence of selenium deficiency, and also low levels of mercury, likely due to food habits that did not include selenium-rich food sources or significant consumption of fish (mercury biomagnifiers) regularly. Univariate statistical analysis showed that Pro198Leu and GSTM1 genotypes did not affect selenium and mercury levels in this population. Pro198Leu polymorphism and GSTM1 deletion had no effect on mercury levels in mildly exposed people, suggesting these genetic variants impact mercury levels only in highly exposed populations.

  15. Lung cancer epidemiology: contemporary and future challenges worldwide.

    PubMed

    Didkowska, Joanna; Wojciechowska, Urszula; Mańczuk, Marta; Łobaszewski, Jakub

    2016-04-01

    Over the last century, lung cancer from the rarest of diseases became the biggest cancer killer of men worldwide and in some parts of the world also of women (North America, East Asia, Northern Europe, Australia and New Zealand). In 2012 over 1.6 million of people died due to lung cancer. The cause-effect relationship between tobacco smoking and lung cancer occurrence has been proven in many studies, both ecological and clinical. In global perspective one can see the increasing tobacco consumption trend followed by ascending trends of lung cancer mortality, especially in developing countries. In some more developed countries, where the tobacco epidemics was on the rise since the beginning of the 20th century and peaked in its mid, in male population lung cancer incidence trend reversed or leveled off. Despite predicted further decline of incidence rates, the absolute number of deaths will continue to grow in these countries. In the remaining parts of the world the tobacco epidemics is still evolving what brings rapid increase of the number of new lung cancer cases and deaths. Number of lung cancer deaths worldwide is expected to grow up to 3 million until 2035. The figures will double both in men (from 1.1 million in 2012 to 2.1 million in 2035) and women (from 0.5 million in 2012 to 0.9 million in 2035) and the two-fold difference between sexes will persist. The most rapid increase is expected in Africa region (AFRO) and East Mediterranean region (EMRO). The increase of the absolute number of lung cancer deaths in more developed countries is caused mostly by population aging and in less developed countries predominantly by the evolving tobacco epidemic.

  16. Lung cancer epidemiology: contemporary and future challenges worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowska, Urszula; Mańczuk, Marta; Łobaszewski, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Over the last century, lung cancer from the rarest of diseases became the biggest cancer killer of men worldwide and in some parts of the world also of women (North America, East Asia, Northern Europe, Australia and New Zealand). In 2012 over 1.6 million of people died due to lung cancer. The cause-effect relationship between tobacco smoking and lung cancer occurrence has been proven in many studies, both ecological and clinical. In global perspective one can see the increasing tobacco consumption trend followed by ascending trends of lung cancer mortality, especially in developing countries. In some more developed countries, where the tobacco epidemics was on the rise since the beginning of the 20th century and peaked in its mid, in male population lung cancer incidence trend reversed or leveled off. Despite predicted further decline of incidence rates, the absolute number of deaths will continue to grow in these countries. In the remaining parts of the world the tobacco epidemics is still evolving what brings rapid increase of the number of new lung cancer cases and deaths. Number of lung cancer deaths worldwide is expected to grow up to 3 million until 2035. The figures will double both in men (from 1.1 million in 2012 to 2.1 million in 2035) and women (from 0.5 million in 2012 to 0.9 million in 2035) and the two-fold difference between sexes will persist. The most rapid increase is expected in Africa region (AFRO) and East Mediterranean region (EMRO). The increase of the absolute number of lung cancer deaths in more developed countries is caused mostly by population aging and in less developed countries predominantly by the evolving tobacco epidemic. PMID:27195268

  17. Exploring the Universe with the Worldwide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Microsoft Research WorldWide Telescope is a software platform for exploring the universe. Whether you are a researcher, student or just a casual explorer WorldWide Telescope uses cutting edge technology to take you anywhere in the universe and visualize data collected by science programs from across the globe, including NASA great observatories and planetary probes. WWT leverages technologies such as Virtual reality headsets, multi-channel full dome projection and HTML5/WebGL to bring the WWT experience to any device and any scale. We will discuss how to use WWT to browse previously curated data, as well as how to process and visualize your own data, using examples from NASA Mars missions.

  18. Integrating WorldWide Telescope with Wordpress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sands, Mark; Luebbert, J.; Fay, J.; Gay, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    In this project we unite three major components of astronomy and new media: World Wide Telescope, Wordpress, and user supplied audio. Through an easy to use Wordpress plug-in users can create WorldWide Telescope sky tours that allow: a) astronomers and educators to spread the facts and awareness of astronomy, potentially bringing new and interested individuals into the astronomy community; b) bloggers/podcasters to create dynamic, virtual tours of the universe that are nearly boundless; and, c) readers to benefit from the alluring WorldWide Telescope tours by gaining a new and dramatic outlook on our universe. This software has the potential to augment, and in some cases replace, traditional methods of astronomy centered online lectures. With this plugin, it is possible to combine Wordpress-based website content with audio, and a sky tour that can be paused at any object. This ability to pause a sky tour allows the user to further explore the wealth of data provided within WWT. This fully customizable solution includes all of the necessary features required to reproduce a lecture in a more creative and appealing format then some of the standard, typically non-interactive, movies and podcasts currently found online. Through the creation of effective WorldWide Telescope tours, astronomers and educators can better extend astronomy content to astronomy-interested, but not yet engaged, members of the new media community. These tours will provide a better understanding and appreciation for what our universe has to offer. Through this new media approach of integrating WorldWide Telescope with blogs and podcasts, users can now extend their interest in astronomy by exploring the universe themselves, moving beyond provided content to gain a better understanding all on their own.

  19. World-wide fallout from nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This video explains what is known and what is not known by today's science about the long term consequences of world-wide fallout. In the interest of accuracy, this report is confined to the fallout on which a substantial amount of information is now available. Much has been written and said about this subject both officially and unofficially. The purpose of this film is to correct any factually unsupported statements which have been and continue to be issued from time to time.

  20. Call to action: improving primary care for women with COPD.

    PubMed

    Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Rodríguez, Miguel Román; Lisspers, Karin; LeeTan, Tze; Infantino, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    In this perspective-based article, which is based on findings from a comprehensive literature search, we discuss the significant and growing burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in women worldwide. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease now affects both men and women almost equally. Despite this, there remains an outdated perception of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a male-dominated disease. Primary care physicians play a central role in overseeing the multidisciplinary care of women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Many women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease delay seeking medical assistance, due to fear of stigmatization or dismissing symptoms as a 'smoker's cough'. Improving awareness is important to encourage women with symptoms to seek advice earlier. Once women do seek help, primary care physicians need to have knowledge of the nuances of female chronic obstructive pulmonary disease disease presentation to avoid mis- or delayed diagnosis, both of which are more common in women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than men. Subsequent management should consider gender-specific issues, such as differential incidences of comorbid conditions, potentially higher symptom burden, and a higher risk of exacerbations. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treatment and smoking cessation management should be specifically tailored to the individual woman and reviewed regularly to optimize patient outcomes. Finally, education should be an integral part of managing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in women as it will help to empower them to take control of their disease.

  1. My Sister, Myself: The Identification of Sociocultural Factors That Affect the Advancement of African-American Women into Senior-Level Administrative Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candia-Bailey, Antoinette Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1800s African-American women have been involved in educational processes in meaningful ways despite challenges to their efforts and advancements. African-American women have made significant strides in breaking the glass ceiling within higher education. This qualitative research study explores and compares the perceptions of challenges…

  2. The Relationship between the Proportion of Same-Major Friendships and Academic and Affective Outcomes for Women and Men in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Casey Ann Eznekier

    2011-01-01

    The importance of gender equity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has continued to be an area of national concern. Research examining women's experiences in STEM has highlighted several factors, both at the student- and institutional-level, that contribute to women's continued underrepresentation in STEM, especially in…

  3. Treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism does not affect bone mass as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, peripheral quantitative computed tomography and quantitative bone ultrasound in Spanish women

    PubMed Central

    Roncero-Martin, Raul; Calderon-Garcia, Julian F.; Santos-Vivas, Mercedes; Vera, Vicente; Martínez-Alvárez, Mariana; Rey-Sanchez, Purificación

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The results of studies examining the influence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement therapy on bone have generated considerable interest but also controversy. The present research aims to evaluate the effects of L-T4 treatment on different skeletal sites in women. Material and methods A group of 45 premenopausal (mean age: 43.62 ±6.65 years) and 180 postmenopausal (mean age: 59.51 ±7.90 years) women with SCH who were undergoing L-T4 replacement therapy for at least 6 months were compared to 58 pre- and 180 postmenopausal women with SCH (untreated) matched for age. The mean doses of L-T4 were 90.88 ±42.59 µg/day in the premenopausal women and 86.35 ±34.11 µg/day in the postmenopausal women. Bone measurements were obtained using quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) for the phalanx, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the lumbar spine and hip, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) for the non-dominant distal forearm. Results No differences were observed between patients and untreated controls in these bone measurements except in the bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine (p = 0.0214) in postmenopausal women, which was greater in treated women than in untreated controls. Conclusions Our results indicate that adequate metabolic control through replacement treatment with L-T4 in pre- and postmenopausal women does not affect bone mass. PMID:26528344

  4. Coronary revascularisation in women

    PubMed Central

    Mikhail, G W

    2006-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in men and women worldwide. It is still considered a disease of men and there has been little recognition of its importance in women. Gender differences exist in acute and chronic ischaemia in terms of clinical manifestations, investigations and treatment. There are clear gender differences in coronary revascularisation with a higher mortality seen in women. At the time a woman presents with coronary artery disease she is older and has more co‐morbid factors. Furthermore, women have smaller coronary arteries making them more difficult to revascularise. In recent years there has been a general trend towards improved outcomes in women undergoing both surgical and percutaneous coronary intervention. The increasing use of drug eluting stents and adjunctive medical treatment as well as the use of off‐pump bypass surgery needs further evaluation in terms of gender differences. This article reviews the current literature on coronary revascularisation in women. PMID:16614263

  5. Sensory-specific appetite is affected by actively smelled food odors and remains stable over time in normal-weight women.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, Mariëlle G; Boesveldt, Sanne; Gort, Gerrit; Lakemond, Catriona M M; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    Understanding overconsumption starts with knowledge of how separate factors influence our eating behavior. Food cues such as food odors are known for their effect on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA). Active sniffing rather than passive exposure may induce satiation over time. The objective of this study was to investigate how actively sniffing banana odors affects general appetite, SSA, and subsequent food intake. In a crossover study, 61 women actively smelled cups containing natural banana, artificial banana odor, or water (no odor) for 10 min. Treatment order was randomly assigned as much as possible. General appetite and SSA were monitored by using 100-mm visual analog scales during the 10 min of active sniffing, followed by ad libitum intake of banana milkshake. Results showed that SSA was consistently high (+12 mm) during actively sniffing natural or artificial banana odors, with no decrease in SSA over time. Sniffing both banana odors increased the appetite for banana (+11 mm) and other sweet products (+4 mm), whereas the appetite for savory products decreased by 7 mm (all P < 0.01) compared with no odor. Actively sniffing banana odor did not significantly influence food intake (P = 0.68) or general appetite scores (P = 0.06). In conclusion, SSA scores during active sniffing were identical to the SSA found in a similar study that used passive smelling, suggesting that SSA is independent of the manner of sniffing and exposure time. Moreover, sweet/savory categorization may suggest that food odors communicate information about the nutrient composition of their associated foods. These data clearly show the appetizing effects of food odors.

  6. A low glycemic index diet does not affect postprandial energy metabolism but decreases postprandial insulinemia and increases fullness ratings in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Krog-Mikkelsen, Inger; Sloth, Birgitte; Dimitrov, Dimiter; Tetens, Inge; Björck, Inger; Flint, Anne; Holst, Jens J; Astrup, Arne; Elmståhl, Helena; Raben, Anne

    2011-09-01

    At present, it is difficult to determine whether glycemic index (GI) is an important tool in the prevention of lifestyle diseases, and long-term studies investigating GI with diets matched in macronutrient composition, fiber content, energy content, and energy density are still scarce. We investigated the effects of 2 high-carbohydrate (55%) diets with low GI (LGI; 79) or high GI (HGI; 103) on postprandial blood profile, subjective appetite sensations, energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation rates, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) from a corresponding test meal (LGI or HGI) after consuming the diets ad libitum for 10 wk. Two groups of a total of 29 healthy, overweight women (age: 30.5 ± 6.6 y; BMI: 27.6 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)) participated in the 10-wk intervention and a subsequent 4-h meal test. The breakfast test meals differed in GI but were equal in total energy, macronutrient composition, fiber content, and energy density. The LGI meal resulted in lower plasma glucose, serum insulin, and plasma glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and higher plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations than the HGI meal (P ≤ 0.05). Ratings of fullness were slightly higher and the desire to eat something fatty was lower after the test meal in the LGI group (P < 0.05). Postprandial plasma GLP-2, plasma glucagon, serum leptin, plasma ghrelin, EE, substrate oxidation rates, and ad libitum EI at lunch did not differ between groups. In conclusion, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and subjective appetite ratings after a test meal were better after 10-wk ad libitum intake of a LGI compared to a HGI diet. EE and substrate oxidation rates were, however, not affected. These findings give some support to recommendations to consume a LGI diet.

  7. Minority women and advocacy for women's health.

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, S K; Morssink, C B; Nestle, M

    2001-09-01

    US minority health issues involve racial/ethnic disparities that affect both women and men. However, women's health advocacy in the United States does not consistently address problems specific to minority women. The underlying evolution and political strength of the women's health and minority health movements differ profoundly. Women of color comprise only one quarter of women's health movement constituents and are, on average, socioeconomically disadvantaged. Potential alliances may be inhibited by vestiges of historical racial and social divisions that detract from feelings of commonality and mutual support. Nevertheless, insufficient attention to minority women's issues undermines the legitimacy of the women's health movement and may prevent important advances that can be achieved only when diversity is fully considered.

  8. Perspectives on menopause and women with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Andany, Nisha; Kennedy, V Logan; Aden, Muna; Loutfy, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Since the implementation of effective combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection has been transformed from a life-threatening condition into a chronic disease. As people with HIV are living longer, aging and its associated manifestations have become key priorities as part of HIV care. For women with HIV, menopause is an important part of aging to consider. Women currently represent more than one half of HIV-positive individuals worldwide. Given the vast proportion of women living with HIV who are, and will be, transitioning through age-related life events, the interaction between HIV infection and menopause must be addressed by clinicians and researchers. Menopause is a major clinical event that is universally experienced by women, but affects each individual woman uniquely. This transitional time in women’s lives has various clinical implications including physical and psychological symptoms, and accelerated development and progression of other age-related comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease, neurocognitive dysfunction, and bone mineral disease; all of which are potentially heightened by HIV or its treatment. Furthermore, within the context of HIV, there are the additional considerations of HIV acquisition and transmission risk, progression of infection, changes in antiretroviral pharmacokinetics, response, and toxicities. These menopausal manifestations and complications must be managed concurrently with HIV, while keeping in mind the potential influence of menopause on the prognosis of HIV infection itself. This results in additional complexity for clinicians caring for women living with HIV, and highlights the shifting paradigm in HIV care that must accompany this aging and evolving population. PMID:26834498

  9. Two Maps and Worldwide Ipod Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machete, Reason L.

    2011-11-01

    There is often a desire to determine if the dynamics of interest are chaotic or not. Since positive Lyapunov exponents are a signature for chaos, they are often used to determine this. Reliable estimates of Lyapunov exponents should demonstrate evidence of convergence; but literature abounds in which this evidence lacks. This paper presents two maps through which it highlights the importance of providing evidence of convergence of Lyapunov exponent estimates. Worldwide ipod interest is then used as a practical example and the results bear semblance to both maps.

  10. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.

  11. Worldwide practice in gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brenkman, Hylke JF; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the current status of gastric cancer surgery worldwide. METHODS: An international cross-sectional survey on gastric cancer surgery was performed amongst international upper gastro-intestinal surgeons. All surgical members of the International Gastric Cancer Association were invited by e-mail to participate. An English web-based survey had to be filled in with regard to their surgical preferences. Questions asked included hospital volume, the use of neoadjuvant treatment, preferred surgical approach, extent of the lymphadenectomy and preferred anastomotic technique. The invitations were sent in September 2013 and the survey was closed in January 2014. RESULTS: The corresponding specific response rate was 227/615 (37%). The majority of respondents: originated from Asia (54%), performed > 21 gastrectomies per year (79%) and used neoadjuvant chemotherapy (73%). An open surgical procedure was performed by the majority of surgeons for distal gastrectomy for advanced cancer (91%) and total gastrectomy for both early and advanced cancer (52% and 94%). A minimally invasive procedure was preferred for distal gastrectomy for early cancer (65%). In Asia surgeons preferred a minimally invasive procedure for total gastrectomy for early cancer also (63%). A D1+ lymphadenectomy was preferred in early gastric cancer (52% for distal, 54% for total gastrectomy) and a D2 lymphadenectomy was preferred in advanced gastric cancer (93% for distal, 92% for total gastrectomy) CONCLUSION: Surgical preferences for gastric cancer surgery vary between surgeons worldwide. Although the majority of surgeons use neoadjuvant chemotherapy, minimally invasive techniques are still not widely adapted. PMID:27099448

  12. Worldwide gas processing enjoys solid 1991

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R. )

    1992-07-20

    This paper reports that worldwide gas-processing operations exhibited growth across the board last year as demand for NGLs, primarily as petrochemical feedstock and gasoline blendstock, pushed operators to increases in capacities, throughput, and production. Most evident were the gains in the U.S., Canada, and Latin America. As has been true for several years, the U.S. continued to lead the rest of the world in gas-processing capacity and NGL production. Outside the U.S., the rest of the world continued to grow, although not as markedly. Canada and the countries of Latin America led others with solid gains in capacities, gas processed, and NGLs produced. These developments are reflected in the exclusive, plant-by-plant, world-wide gas-processing survey along with an international survey of petroleum-derived sulfur recovery. Last year, one major plant in the Caribbean came on stream adding 650 MMcfd of capacity and producing almost 10,000 b/d of product. By the time the next year's report, a major Canadian sour-gas plant near Calgary will be running.

  13. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  14. Worldwide status of burbot and conservation measures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Jackson, James R.; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Evenson, Matthew J.; Neufeld, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Although burbot (Lota lota Gadidae) are widespread and abundant throughout much of their natural range, there are many populations that have been extirpated, endangered or are in serious decline. Due in part to the species’ lack of popularity as a game and commercial fish, few regions consider burbot in management plans. We review the worldwide population status of burbot and synthesize reasons why some burbot populations are endangered or declining, some burbot populations have recovered and some burbot populations do not recover despite management measures. Burbot have been extirpated in much of Western Europe and the United Kingdom and are threatened or endangered in much of North America and Eurasia. Pollution and habitat change, particularly the effects of dams, appear to be the main causes for declines in riverine burbot populations. Pollution and the adverse effects of invasive species appear to be the main reasons for declines in lacustrine populations. Warmer water temperatures, due either to discharge from dams or climate change, have been noted in declining burbot populations at the southern extent of their range. Currently, fishing pressure does not appear to be limiting burbot populations world-wide. We suggest mitigation measures for burbot population recovery, particularly those impacted by dams and invasive species.

  15. Smoking and women's health.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, V

    2000-07-01

    Each year more than 600000 women have deaths associated with cigarette smoking. In addition, cigarette smoking is associated with a wide array of morbidities (such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and adverse pregnancy outcomes). Two hundred million women smoke worldwide, and this number appears to be rising, particularly in developing countries. Obstetrician-gynecologists can play a role in reducing morbidity and mortality from cigarette smoking by educating women about the dangers, advising them not to smoke, and assisting those who do smoke to quit.

  16. Polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity do not affect vascular parameters related to early atherosclerosis in young women without glucose metabolism disturbances, arterial hypertension and severe abnormalities of lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Barcellos, Cristiano Roberto Grimaldi; Lage, Silvia Helena Gelás; Rocha, Michelle Patrocínio; Hayashida, Sylvia Asaka Yamashita; Baracat, Edmund Chade; Romano, Angela; Brito, Vinicius Nahime; Marcondes, José Antonio Miguel

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity on vascular parameters related to early atherosclerosis (VP-EA) [brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid arterial compliance (CAC)] in women with minor cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). Twenty-five young women with PCOS and 23 eumenorrheic women matched for body mass index (BMI) were studied. The women were subdivided according to BMI and PCOS status, and comparisons were done between PCOS and Control group, regardless of BMI, and between Obese and Lean group, regardless of the presence of PCOS. Insulin resistance was higher in PCOS-group than in control-group and in obese-group than in lean-group. The median of all VP-EA evaluated were similar between PCOS-group and Control-group [FMD: 6.6 versus 8.4% (p = NS); CIMT: 48.0 versus 47.0 mm.10-2 (p = NS); CAC: 6.2 versus 5.6N-1.m4.10-10 (p = NS)] and between obese-group and lean-group [FMD: 7.8 versus 6.6% (p = NS); CIMT: 48.0 versus 47.0 mm.10-2 (p = NS); CAC: 5.7 versus 6.3N-1.m4.10-10 (p = NS)]. These results suggest that PCOS and obesity do not affect VP-EA in women with minor CVRFs.

  17. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibition Does Not Adversely Affect Immune or Virological Status in HIV Infected Men And Women: A Pilot Safety Study

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Scott R.; Reeds, Dominic N.; Royal, Michael; Struthers, Heidi; Laciny, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Context: People infected with HIV have a higher risk for developing insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease than the general population. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitors are glucose-lowering medications with pleiotropic actions that may particularly benefit people with HIV, but the immune and virological safety of DPP4 inhibition in HIV is unknown. Objective: DPP4 inhibition will not reduce CD4+ T lymphocyte number or increase HIV viremia in HIV-positive adults. Design: This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind safety trial of sitagliptin in HIV-positive adults. Setting: The study was conducted at an academic medical center. Participants: Twenty nondiabetic HIV-positive men and women (9.8 ± 5.5 years of known HIV) taking antiretroviral therapy and with stable immune (625 ± 134 CD4+ T cells per microliter) and virological (<48 copies HIV RNA per milliliter) status. Intervention: The intervention included sitagliptin (100 mg/d) vs matching placebo for up to 24 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: CD4+ T cell number and plasma HIV RNA were measured every 4 weeks; fasting serum regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), stromal derived factor (SDF)-1α, Soluble TNF receptor II, and oral glucose tolerance were measured at baseline, week 8, and the end of study. ANOVA was used for between-group comparisons; P < .05 was considered significant. Results: Compared with placebo, sitagliptin did not reduce CD4+ T cell count, plasma HIV RNA remained less than 48 copies/mL, RANTES and soluble TNF receptor II concentrations did not increase. SDF1α concentrations declined (P < .0002) in the sitagliptin group. The oral glucose tolerance levels improved in the sitagliptin group at week 8. Conclusions: Despite lowering SDF1α levels, sitagliptin did not adversely affect immune or virological status, or increase immune activation, but did improve glycemia in healthy, nondiabetic HIV-positive adults. These safety data

  18. Worldwide occurrences of arsenic in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D Kirk

    2002-01-01

    Numerous aquifers worldwide carry soluble arsenic at concentrations greater than the World Health Organization--and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency--recommended drinking water standard of 10 mg per liter. Sources include both natural (black shales, young sediments with low flushing rates, gold mineralization, and geothermal environments) and anthropogenic (mining activities, livestock feed additives, pesticides, and arsenic trioxide wastes and stockpiles). Increased solubility and mobility of arsenic is promoted by high pH (>8.5), competing oxyanions, and reducing conditions. In this Policy Forum, Nordstrom argues that human health risks from arsenic in ground water can be minimized by incorporating hydrogeochemical knowledge into water management decisions and by more careful monitoring for arsenic in geologically high-risk areas.

  19. Visually Exploring Worldwide Incidents Tracking System Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chhatwal, Shree D.; Rose, Stuart J.

    2008-01-27

    This paper presents refinements of an existing analytic tool, Juxter, which was developed for the visualization of multi-dimensional categorical data, and explores its application to support exploration and interaction with open source Worldwide Incidents Tracking System (WITS) data. The volume and complexity of data available on terrorism makes it hard to analyze. Information systems that can efficiently and effectively collect, access, analyze, and report terrorist incidents can help in further studies focused on preventing, detecting, and responding to terrorist attacks. Existing interfaces to the WITS data support advanced search capabilities, and geolocation but lack functionality for identifying patterns and trends. To better support efficient browsing we have refined Juxter’s existing capabilities for filtering, selecting, and sorting elements and categories within the visualization.

  20. World-wide aeronautical satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Peter; Smith, Keith

    1988-01-01

    INMARSAT decided to expand the spectrum covered by its new generation of satellites, INMARSAT-2, to include 1 MHz (subsequently increased to 3 MHz) of the spectrum designed for aeronautical use. It began a design study that led to the specifications for the system that is now being implemented. Subsequently, INMARSAT awarded contracts for the design of avionics and high gain antennas to a number of manufactures, while several of the signatories that provide ground equipment for communicating with the INMARSAT satellites are modifying their earth stations to work with the avionic equipment. As a resullt of these activities, a world-wide aeronautical satellite system supporting both voice and data will become operational in 1989.

  1. Climate Change Impacts on Worldwide Coffee Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, T.; Rising, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) plays a vital role in many countries' economies, providing necessary income to 25 million members of tropical countries, and supporting a $81 billion industry, making it one of the most valuable commodities in the world. At the same time, coffee is at the center of many issues of sustainability. It is vulnerable to climate change, with disease outbreaks becoming more common and suitable regions beginning to shift. We develop a statistical production model for coffee which incorporates temperature, precipitation, frost, and humidity effects using a new database of worldwide coffee production. We then use this model to project coffee yields and production into the future based on a variety of climate forecasts. This model can then be used together with a market model to forecast the locations of future coffee production as well as future prices, supply, and demand.

  2. Worldwide patterns of bird colouration on islands.

    PubMed

    Doutrelant, Claire; Paquet, Matthieu; Renoult, Julien P; Grégoire, Arnaud; Crochet, Pierre-André; Covas, Rita

    2016-05-01

    Island environments share distinctive characteristics that offer unique opportunities to investigate parallel evolution. Previous research has produced evidence of an island syndrome for morphological traits, life-history strategies and ecological niches, but little is known about the response to insularity of other important traits such as animal signals. Here, we tested whether birds' plumage colouration is part of the island syndrome. We analysed with spectrophotometry the colouration of 116 species endemic to islands and their 116 closest mainland relatives. We found a pattern of reduced brightness and colour intensity for both sexes on islands. In addition, we found a decrease in the number of colour patches on islands that, in males, was associated with a decrease in the number of same-family sympatric species. These results demonstrate a worldwide pattern of parallel colour changes on islands and suggest that a relaxation of selection on species recognition may be one of the mechanisms involved.

  3. Cell therapy worldwide: an incipient revolution.

    PubMed

    Rao, Mahendra; Mason, Chris; Solomon, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The regenerative medicine field is large, diverse and active worldwide. A variety of different organizational and product models have been successful, and pioneering entrepreneurs have shown both what can work and, critically, what does not. Evolving regulations, novel funding mechanisms combined with new technological breakthroughs are keeping the field in a state of flux. The field struggles to cope with the lack of infrastructure and investment, it nevertheless has evolved from its roots in human stem cell therapy and tissue and organ transplants to a field composed of a variety of products from multiple cell sources with approval for use in numerous countries. Currently, tens of thousands of patients have been treated with some kind of cell therapy.

  4. Worldwide clustering of the corruption perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, Michal; Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-06-01

    We inspect a possible clustering structure of the corruption perception among 134 countries. Using the average linkage clustering, we uncover a well-defined hierarchy in the relationships among countries. Four main clusters are identified and they suggest that countries worldwide can be quite well separated according to their perception of corruption. Moreover, we find a strong connection between corruption levels and a stage of development inside the clusters. The ranking of countries according to their corruption perfectly copies the ranking according to the economic performance measured by the gross domestic product per capita of the member states. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one to present an application of hierarchical and clustering methods to the specific case of corruption.

  5. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    PubMed

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments.

  6. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    PubMed Central

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments. PMID:25126940

  7. Overview and forecast on forestry productions worldwide.

    PubMed

    Wenjun, Zhang

    2007-02-01

    Our world is largely dependent upon the forestry productions. Through the exploitation of forest reserves, we manufacture various industrial products, furniture, and obtain fuel and energy. Forestry productions should be conducted without large-scale deforestation and environmental degradation. In present study we perform a review and forecast analysis on forestry productions worldwide, with the objectives of providing an insight into the trend for several types of forestry productions in the future, and providing referential data for sustainable forestry productions and environmental management. Polynomial functions are used to fit trajectories of forestry productions since 1961 and forecasts during the coming 20 years are given in detail. If the past pattern continues, world fibreboard production would dramatically grow and reach 224,300,000 +/- 44,400,000 m(3) by the year 2020, an increase up to 240.7 to 408.9% as compared to the present level. Roundwood production of the world would change by -55.5 to 70.4% and reach 3,526,600,000 +/- 2,066,800,000 m(3) by 2020. In 2020 world production of sawlogs and veneer logs would change by -100 to 164.6% and reach 1,212,900,000 +/- 1,242,600,000 m(3). Global wood fuel production would change by -68.9 to 1.4% and reach 1,130,900,000 +/- 600,800,000 m(3) by 2020. Forestry productions in developed countries would largely surpass productions in developing countries in the near future. World forestry production grew since 1961 excluding wood fuel. Roundwood and wood fuel account for the critical proportions in the forestry productions. Wood fuel production has being declined and rapid growing of roundwood production has slowed in recent years. Widespread use of regenerative wood substitutes and worldwide afforestation against deforestation will be among the most effective ways to reduce deforestation and environment degradation associated with forestry productions.

  8. Metabolic/bariatric surgery Worldwide 2008.

    PubMed

    Buchwald, Henry; Oien, Danette M

    2009-12-01

    Periodically, the state of bariatric surgery worldwide should be assessed; the most recent prior evaluation was in 2003. An email survey was sent to the leadership of the 36 International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders nations or national groupings, as well as Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Responses were tabulated; calculation of relative prevalence of specific procedures was done by weighted averages. Out of a potential 39, 36 nations or national groupings responded. In 2008, 344,221 bariatric surgery operations were performed by 4,680 bariatric surgeons; 220,000 of these operations were performed in USA/Canada by 1,625 surgeons. The most commonly performed procedures were laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (AGB; 42.3%), laparoscopic standard Roux-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; 39.7%), and total sleeve gastrectomies 4.5%. Over 90% of procedures were performed laparoscopically. Comparing the 5-year trend from 2003 to 2008, all categories of procedures, with the exception of biliopancreatic diversion/duodenal switch, increased in absolute numbers performed. However, the relative percent of all RYGBs decreased from 65.1% to 49.0%; whereas, AGB increased from 24.4% to 42.3%. Markedly, different trends were found for Europe and USA/Canada: in Europe, AGB decreased from 63.7% to 43.2% and RYGB increased from 11.1% to 39.0%; whereas, in USA/Canada, AGB increased from 9.0% to 44.0% and RYGB decreased from 85.0% to 51.0%. The absolute growth rate of bariatric surgery decreased over the past 5 years (135% increase), in comparison to the preceding 5 years (266% increase). Bariatric surgery continues to grow worldwide, but less so than in the past. The types of procedures are in flux; trends in Europe vs USA/Canada are diametrically opposed.

  9. WWT Ambassadors: Worldwide Telescope For Interactive Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, A. A.; Wong, C.

    2012-01-01

    WorldWide Telescope (WWT) offers an unparalleled view of the world's store of online astronomical data. This free software weaves astronomical images from all wavelengths into an interface that resembles their natural context-the Sky-while offering deep opportunities to teach and learn the science behind the images. The WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors Program (WWTA) is an outreach initiative run by researchers at Harvard University and Microsoft Research. WWT Ambassadors are experts on Astronomy and Physics who use WWT to educate the public about astronomy and science. Ambassadors and learners alike use WWT to create dynamic, interactive Tours of the Universe, which are shared in schools, public venues, and online. Ambassador-created Tours are being made freely available and will ultimately form a comprehensive learning resource for Astronomy and Astrophysics. In this poster, we present summary results of WWTA's work in 6th-grade classrooms, reaching 400 students over the past 2 years. The WWTA Pilot compared learning outcomes for 80 students who participated in WWTA and 70 students at the same school and grade who only used traditional learning materials. After the six-week unit, twice as many "WWT” as "non-WWT” students understand complex three dimensional orbital relationships; and tremendous gains are seen in student interest in science overall, and astronomy in particular. In anonymous written surveys, 90% of the 6th-graders described WWT as "awesome,” "cool,” or "a fun way to learn science,” and said they would recommend WWT to their best friend. We outline new plans to develop and field-test WWT-based interactive visualization labs that teach students standards-based middle school space science topics, and we describe the development of an online community that serves as a resource for Ambassadors, teachers, and students across the US and beyond. Learn more about WWTA at: wwtambassadors.org

  10. Landfill aeration worldwide: Concepts, indications and findings

    SciTech Connect

    Ritzkowski, M.; Stegmann, R.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different landfill aeration concepts and accordant application areas are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examples of full scale projects are provided for Europe, North-America and Asia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Major project findings are summarised, including prospects and limitations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inconsistencies between laboratory and full scale results have been elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An explanatory approach in connection with the inconsistencies is provided. - Abstract: The creation of sustainable landfills is a fundamental goal in waste management worldwide. In this connection landfill aeration contributes towards an accelerated, controlled and sustainable conversion of conventional anaerobic landfills into a biological stabilized state associated with a minimised emission potential. The technology has been successfully applied to landfills in Europe, North America and Asia, following different strategies depending on the geographical region, the specific legislation and the available financial resources. Furthermore, methodologies for the incorporation of landfill aeration into the carbon trade mechanisms have been developed in recent years. This manuscript gives an overview on existing concepts for landfill aeration; their application ranges and specifications. For all of the described concepts examples from different countries worldwide are provided, including details regarding their potentials and limitations. Some of the most important findings from these aeration projects are summarised and future research needs have been identified. It becomes apparent that there is a great demand for a systematisation of the available results and implications in order to further develop and optimise this very promising technology. The IWWG (International Waste Working Group) Task Group 'Landfill Aeration' contributes towards the achievement of this goal.

  11. Stroke in women - oral contraception, pregnancy, and hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Kirsi; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is a devastating disease affecting millions of people worldwide every year. Female stroke victims have higher mortality rates and they do not re-cover as well as men. Women's longevity and different vascular risk factor burden like a larger prevalence of atrial fibrillation play a role. Women also have unique risk factors such as oral contraception, pregnancy, estrogen decrease after the menopause and hormone replacement therapy, which should all be evaluated and taken into consideration in treatment decisions both in the acute phase of stroke and in secondary prevention. In this review, the evidence regarding these hormonal aspects and the risk of stroke in women are evaluated. The relevant guidelines are studied and research gaps identified. Future topics for research are recommended and current treatment possibilities and their risks discussed.

  12. [Subfertility in overweight women].

    PubMed

    Kuchenbecker, W K H; Ruifrok, A E; Bolster, J H T; Heineman, M J; Hoek, A

    2006-11-11

    The prevalence of overweight individuals in The Netherlands is increasing sharply as has also been observed in populations worldwide. In addition to the long-term health risks of being overweight, overweight women of reproductive age are more commonly faced with reproductive disorders. Women who are overweight are less fertile than women of normal weight. The chances of both spontaneous conception and conception after ovulation induction and assisted reproduction are lower in women who are overweight. The chance of a live birth is also decreased due to an increased risk of miscarriage. Furthermore pregnancy outcome is compromised by obesity-related complications of pregnancy. Weight loss of 5-15% in subfertile women who are overweight increases the chance of spontaneous conception and conception after fertility treatment and can be achieved through a low-calorie diet, increased exercise and behaviour modification.

  13. Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

  14. Prostacyclin does not affect sweating but induces skin vasodilatation to a greater extent in older versus younger women: roles of NO and KCa channels.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; McNeely, Brendan D; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-03-07

    We previously reported that prostacyclin induces cutaneous vasodilatation, but not sweating, in younger and older men. Further, we demonstrated that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and calcium-activated potassium (KCa ) channels contribute to the prostacyclin-induced cutaneous vasodilatation in younger men, although these contributions are diminished in older men. Given the effects of ageing may differ between men and women, the above results cannot be simply applied to women. In this study, cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate were evaluated in younger (22 ± 3 years) and older (55 ± 7 years) women (10 per group) at four intradermal forearm skin sites treated with either: (1) lactated Ringers without any drug (Control), (2) 10 mm L-NNA, a non-specific NOS inhibitor, (3) 50 mm tetraethylammonium (TEA), a non-specific KCa channel blocker, or (4) 10 mm L-NNA + 50 mm TEA. All four sites were co-administered with prostacyclin in an incremental manner (0.04, 0.4, 4, 40, 400 μm each for 25 min). Surprisingly, increases in CVC in response to 0.04-4 μm prostacyclin were greater in older relative to younger women (all P ≤ 0.05), and these age-related differences were diminished when both L-NNA and TEA were simultaneously administered (all P > 0.05). No effect on sweat rate was observed in either group (all concentrations, P > 0.05). We show that while prostacyclin does not mediate sweating, it induces cutaneous vasodilatation, and this response elicited by lower concentrations of prostacyclin is greater in older relative to younger women. This greater cutaneous vasodilatation in older women is likely due to NOS- and KCa channel-dependent mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Testosterone increases the muscle protein synthesis rate but does not affect very-low-density lipoprotein metabolism in obese premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuewen; Smith, Gordon I.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Reeds, Dominic N.; Kampelman, Janine; Magkos, Faidon

    2012-01-01

    Men and women with hyperandrogenemia have a more proatherogenic plasma lipid profile [e.g., greater triglyceride (TG) and total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations] than healthy premenopausal women. Furthermore, castration of male rats markedly reduces testosterone availability below normal and decreases plasma TG concentration, and testosterone replacement reverses this effect. Testosterone is, therefore, thought to be an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis. However, little is known about the effect of testosterone on plasma TG concentration and kinetics. Furthermore, testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent in men, but its effect on muscle protein turnover in women is unknown. We measured plasma lipid concentrations, hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates, and the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate in 10 obese women before and after trandermal testosterone (1.25 g of 1% AndroGel daily) treatment for 3 wk. Serum total and free testosterone concentrations increased (P < 0.05) by approximately sevenfold in response to testosterone treatment, reaching concentrations that are comparable to those in women with hyperandrogenemia, but lower than the normal range for eugonadal men. Except for a small (∼10%) decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein particle and cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.04), testosterone therapy had no effect on plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein particle sizes, and hepatic VLDL-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates (all P > 0.05); the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate, however, increased by ∼45% (P < 0.001). We conclude that testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent, but not an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis in obese women. PMID:22252942

  16. Women's Health. Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health Issues. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report identifies a broad spectrum of issues affecting women's health and is divided into four sections: (1) social factors affecting women's health; (2) women's physical health and well-being; (3) health concerns of older women; and (4) issues related to alcohol, drug use and abuse, and the mental health of women. The Public Health Service…

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of urticaria and angioedema: a worldwide perspective.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Asero, Riccardo; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Baiardini, Ilaria; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Canonica, G Walter; Gower, Richard; Kahn, David A; Kaplan, Allen P; Katelaris, Connie; Maurer, Marcus; Park, Hae Sim; Potter, Paul; Saini, Sarbjit; Tassinari, Paolo; Tedeschi, Alberto; Ye, Young Min; Zuberbier, Torsten

    2012-11-01

    : Urticaria and angioedema are common clinical conditions representing a major concern for physicians and patients alike. The World Allergy Organization (WAO), recognizing the importance of these diseases, has contributed to previous guidelines for the diagnosis and management of urticaria. The Scientific and Clinical Issues Council of WAO proposed the development of this global Position Paper to further enhance the clinical management of these disorders through the participation of renowned experts from all WAO regions of the world. Sections on definition and classification, prevalence, etiology and pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis are based on the best scientific evidence presently available. Additional sections devoted to urticaria and angioedema in children and pregnant women, quality of life and patient-reported outcomes, and physical urticarias have been incorporated into this document. It is expected that this article will supplement recent international guidelines with the contribution of an expert panel designated by the WAO, increasing awareness of the importance of urticaria and angioedema in medical practice and will become a useful source of information for optimum patient management worldwide.

  18. Diagnosis and Treatment of Urticaria and Angioedema: A Worldwide Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Urticaria and angioedema are common clinical conditions representing a major concern for physicians and patients alike. The World Allergy Organization (WAO), recognizing the importance of these diseases, has contributed to previous guidelines for the diagnosis and management of urticaria. The Scientific and Clinical Issues Council of WAO proposed the development of this global Position Paper to further enhance the clinical management of these disorders through the participation of renowned experts from all WAO regions of the world. Sections on definition and classification, prevalence, etiology and pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis are based on the best scientific evidence presently available. Additional sections devoted to urticaria and angioedema in children and pregnant women, quality of life and patient-reported outcomes, and physical urticarias have been incorporated into this document. It is expected that this article will supplement recent international guidelines with the contribution of an expert panel designated by the WAO, increasing awareness of the importance of urticaria and angioedema in medical practice and will become a useful source of information for optimum patient management worldwide. PMID:23282382

  19. Worldwide Phylogenetic Relationship of Avian Poxviruses

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups, and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g., starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy. PMID:23408635

  20. Worldwide burden of colorectal cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Favoriti, Pasqualino; Carbone, Gabriele; Greco, Marco; Pirozzi, Felice; Pirozzi, Raffaele Emmanuele Maria; Corcione, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health problem, being the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth cause of cancer death worldwide. There is wide variation over time among the different geographic areas due to variable exposure to risk factors, introduction and uptake of screening as well as access to appropriate treatment services. Indeed, a large proportion of the disparities may be attributed to socioeconomic status. Although colorectal cancer continues to be a disease of the developed world, incidence rates have been rising in developing countries. Moreover, the global burden is expected to further increase due to the growth and aging of the population and because of the adoption of westernized behaviors and lifestyle. Colorectal cancer screening has been proven to greatly reduce mortality rates that have declined in many longstanding as well as newly economically developed countries. Statistics on colorectal cancer occurrence are essential to develop targeted strategies that could alleviate the burden of the disease. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of incidence, mortality and survival rates for colorectal cancer as well as their geographic variations and temporal trends.

  1. Small world picture of worldwide seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Douglas S. R.; Papa, Andrés R. R.; Menezes, Ronaldo

    2014-08-01

    The understanding of long-distance relations between seismic activities has for long been of interest to seismologists and geologists. In this paper we have used data from the worldwide earthquake catalog for the period between 1972 and 2011 to generate a network of sites around the world for earthquakes with magnitude m≥4.5 in the Richter scale. After the network construction, we have analyzed the results under two viewpoints. First, in contrast to previous works, which have considered just small areas, we showed that the best fitting for networks of seismic events is not a pure power law, but a power law with exponential cutoff; we also have found that the global network presents small-world properties. Second, we have found that the time intervals between successive earthquakes have a cumulative probability distribution well fitted by nontraditional functional forms. The implications of our results are significant because they seem to indicate that seisms around the world are not independent. In this paper we provide evidence to support this argument.

  2. Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we have expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g. starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy.

  3. The worldwide costs of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Balmford, Andrew; Gravestock, Pippa; Hockley, Neal; McClean, Colin J; Roberts, Callum M

    2004-06-29

    Declines in marine harvests, wildlife, and habitats have prompted calls at both the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and the 2003 World Parks Congress for the establishment of a global system of marine protected areas (MPAs). MPAs that restrict fishing and other human activities conserve habitats and populations and, by exporting biomass, may sustain or increase yields of nearby fisheries. Here we provide an estimate of the costs of a global MPA network, based on a survey of the running costs of 83 MPAs worldwide. Annual running costs per unit area spanned six orders of magnitude, and were higher in MPAs that were smaller, closer to coasts, and in high-cost, developed countries. Models extrapolating these findings suggest that a global MPA network meeting the World Parks Congress target of conserving 20-30% of the world's seas might cost between 5 billion and 19 billion US dollars annually to run and would probably create around one million jobs. Although substantial, gross network costs are less than current government expenditures on harmful subsidies to industrial fisheries. They also ignore potential private gains from improved fisheries and tourism and are dwarfed by likely social gains from increasing the sustainability of fisheries and securing vital ecosystem services.

  4. Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, F.; Brunke, E.-G.; Ebinghaus, R.; Kuss, J.

    2011-05-01

    Concern about the adverse effects of mercury on human health and ecosystems has led to tightening emission controls since the mid 1980s. But the resulting mercury emissions reductions in many parts of the world are believed to be offset or even surpassed by the increasing emissions in rapidly industrializing countries. Consequently, concentrations of atmospheric mercury are expected to remain roughly constant. Here we show that the worldwide atmospheric mercury concentrations have decreased by about 20 to 38 % since 1996 as indicated by long-term monitoring at stations in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres combined with intermittent measurements of latitudinal distribution over the Atlantic Ocean. The total reduction of the atmospheric mercury burden of this magnitude within 14 years is unusually large among most atmospheric trace gases and is at odds with the current mercury emission inventories with nearly constant anthropogenic emissions over this period. This suggests a major shift in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury including oceans and soil reservoirs. Decreasing reemissions from the legacy of historical mercury emissions are the most likely explanation for this decline since the hypothesis of an accelerated oxidation rate of elemental mercury in the atmosphere is not supported by the observed trends of other trace gases. Acidification of oceans, climate change, excess nutrient input and pollution may also contribute by their impact on the biogeochemistry of ocean and soils. Consequently, models of the atmospheric mercury cycle have to include soil and ocean mercury pools and their dynamics to be able to make projections of future trends.

  5. Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, F.; Brunke, E.-G.; Ebinghaus, R.; Kuss, J.

    2011-01-01

    Concern about the adverse effects of mercury on human health and ecosystems has led to tightening emission controls since the mid 1980s. But the resulting mercury emissions reductions in many parts of the world are believed to be offset or even surpassed by the increasing emissions in rapidly industrializing countries. Consequently, concentrations of atmospheric mercury are expected to remain roughly constant. Here we show that the worldwide atmospheric mercury concentration have decreased by about 20 to 38% since 1996 as indicated by long term monitoring at stations in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres combined with intermittent measurements of latitudinal distribution over the Atlantic Ocean. The total reduction of the atmospheric mercury burden of this magnitude within 14 yrs is unprecedented among most of atmospheric trace gases and is at odds with the current mercury emission inventories with nearly constant emissions over the period. It suggests a major shift in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury including oceans and soil reservoirs. Decreasing reemissions from the legacy of historical mercury emissions are the most likely explanation for this decline since the hypothesis of an accelerated oxidation rate of elemental mercury in the atmosphere is not supported by the observed trends of other trace gases. Consequently, models of the atmospheric mercury cycle have to include soil and ocean mercury pools and their dynamics to be able to make projections of future trends.

  6. WWT Ambassadors: Worldwide Telescope For Interactive Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.; Strom, S. E.; Udomprasert, P.; Valva, A.; Wong, C.

    2011-01-01

    The WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors Program (WWTA) is new outreach initiative run by researchers at Harvard University, WGBH, and Microsoft Research. WWT Ambassadors are astrophysically-literate volunteers who are trained to be experts in using WWT as teaching tool. Ambassadors and learners alike use WWT to create dynamic, interactive Tours of the Universe, which are shared in schools, public venues, and online. Ambassador-created Tours are being made freely available and will ultimately form a comprehensive learning resource for Astronomy and Astrophysics. In this short talk, we will describe the results of a Pilot Study where volunteer Ambassadors helped sixth-graders use WWT during their six-week Astronomy unit. The results of the study compare learning outcomes for 80 students who participated in WWTA and 80 students who only used traditional learning materials. In the comparison, we find that, after the six-week unit: twice as many "WWT” as "non-WWT” students understand complex three dimensional orbital relationships; and tremendous gains are seen in student interest in science overall, astronomy in particular, and even in using "real” telescopes. Plans for WWTA include expansion to five US sites within the coming year, and ultimately to an International Program. Online materials will ultimately be available through several sites (at WGBH, Harvard and Microsoft), and will be integrated with existing online curriculum programs such as WGBH's Teachers’ Domain and Microsoft's Partners in Learning. More inormation is presently available at www.cfa.harvard.edu/WWTAmbassadors/.

  7. Neuropathology training worldwide-evolution and comparisons.

    PubMed

    Del Bigio, Marc R; Hainfellner, Johannes A; McLean, Catriona A; Powell, Suzanne Z; Sikorska, Beata; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Weis, Joachim; Xuereb, John H

    2014-04-01

    Training of neuropathologists varies worldwide. Systems range from highly organized specialist and subspecialist education with national certification, to regulated training with diploma recognition, to informal apprenticeships in neurological hospitals and no formal recognition. This overview compiles and summarizes the history of regulated training systems, the status of neuropathology within various countries' medical systems and the manner in which neuropathologists are trained. Anecdotal evidence suggests that countries with regulated systems of neuropathology training and an active professional organization are more likely to have an adequate supply of diagnostic specialists and a vibrant research community. The different training systems reflect the style of medical services delivery in the respective countries. In general, the existence of formal neuropathology training systems occurs only in countries with relatively high levels of per capita health expenditures, reflecting the development of medical specialization overall. Evolving diagnostic technologies and major international research endeavors, whose goals are to understand structure and function of the human brain, demand that neuropathology training is more than simply diagnostic histopathology.

  8. CMS centres worldwide: A new collaborative infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Lucas; Gottschalk, Erik; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Experiment at the LHC is establishing a global network of inter-connected 'CMS Centres' for controls, operations and monitoring. These support: (1) CMS data quality monitoring, detector calibrations, and analysis; and (2) computing operations for the processing, storage and distribution of CMS data. We describe the infrastructure, computing, software, and communications systems required to create an effective and affordable CMS Centre. We present our highly successful operations experiences with the major CMS Centres at CERN, Fermilab, and DESY during the LHC first beam data-taking and cosmic ray commissioning work. The status of the various centres already operating or under construction in Asia, Europe, Russia, South America, and the USA is also described. We emphasise the collaborative communications aspects. For example, virtual co-location of experts in CMS Centres Worldwide is achieved using high-quality permanently-running 'telepresence' video links. Generic Web-based tools have been developed and deployed for monitoring, control, display management and outreach.

  9. Worldwide Genetic Analysis of the CFTR Region

    PubMed Central

    Mateu, Eva; Calafell, Francesc; Lao, Oscar; Bonné-Tamir, Batsheva; Kidd, Judith R.; Pakstis, Andrew; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2001-01-01

    Mutations at the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis, the most prevalent severe genetic disorder in individuals of European descent. We have analyzed normal allele and haplotype variation at four short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CFTR in 18 worldwide population samples, comprising a total of 1,944 chromosomes. The rooted phylogeny of the SNP haplotypes was established by typing ape samples. STRP variation within SNP haplotype backgrounds was highest in most ancestral haplotypes—although, when STRP allele sizes were taken into account, differences among haplotypes became smaller. Haplotype background determines STRP diversity to a greater extent than populations do, which indicates that haplotype backgrounds are older than populations. Heterogeneity among STRPs can be understood as the outcome of differences in mutation rate and pattern. STRP sites had higher heterozygosities in Africans, although, when whole haplotypes were considered, no significant differences remained. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) shows a complex pattern not easily related to physical distance. The analysis of the fraction of possible different haplotypes not found may circumvent some of the methodological difficulties of LD measure. LD analysis showed a positive correlation with locus polymorphism, which could partly explain the unusual pattern of similar LD between Africans and non-Africans. The low values found in non-Africans may imply that the size of the modern human population that emerged “Out of Africa” may be larger than what previous LD studies suggested. PMID:11104661

  10. Talking from 9 to 5: How Women's and Men's Conversational Styles Affect Who Gets Heard, Who Gets Credit, and What Gets Done at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannen, Deborah

    Intended to help individuals as well as companies thrive in a working world made up of increasingly diverse work forces and ever more competitive markets, this book addresses the differences in men's and women's speaking styles, without maintaining the superiority of any one style of speaking. Reinforced with extensive examples drawn from…

  11. "They have already thrown away their chicken": barriers affecting participation by HIV-infected women in care and treatment programs for their infants in Blantyre, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Marie Collins; Dube, Queen; Dow, Anna; Umar, Eric; Van Rie, Annelies

    2012-01-01

    HIV-infected infants and young children are at high risk of serious illness and death. Morbidity and mortality can be greatly reduced through early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV and timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Despite global efforts to scale-up of EID and infant ART, uptake of these services in resource poor, high HIV burden countries remain low. We conducted a qualitative study of 59 HIV-infected women to identify and explore barriers women face in accessing HIV testing and care for their infants. To capture different perspectives, we included mothers whose infants were known positive (n=9) or known negative (n=14), mothers of infants with unknown HIV status (n=13), and pregnant HIV-infected women (n=20). Five important themes emerged: lack of knowledge regarding EID and infant ART, the perception of health care workers as authority figures, fear of disclosure of own and/or child's HIV status, lack of psychosocial support, and intent to shorten the life of the child. A complex array of cultural, economic, and psychosocial factors creates barriers for HIV-infected women to participate in early infant HIV testing and care programs. For optimal impact of EID and infant ART, reasons for poor uptake should be better understood and addressed in a culturally sensitive manner.

  12. Law and Policy Affecting Addicted Women and Their Children. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document contains the text of a one of a series of Congressional hearings called to examine substance abuse among pregnant and parenting women and to explore prevention and treatment strategies. This hearing focuses on federal and state policies designed to address the urgency of perinatal substance abuse. Witnesses provide testimony on state…

  13. MC1R gene polymorphism affects skin color and phenotypic features related to sun sensitivity in a population of French adult women.

    PubMed

    Latreille, Julie; Ezzedine, Khaled; Elfakir, Anissa; Ambroisine, Laurence; Gardinier, Sophie; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Gruber, Florian; Rees, Jonathan; Tschachler, Erwin; Guinot, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is known to play a major role in skin and hair pigmentation and to be highly polymorphic in Caucasians. This study was performed to investigate the relationships between MC1R gene polymorphisms and skin color in a large sample of French middle-aged Caucasian women. The codons 60 to 265 and the codon 294 of the MC1R gene were sequenced in 488 women. The skin color was measured on the inner side of the forearm using a spectrophotometric instrument. Fifteen variants were identified: Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, Arg142His, Asp294His, Ile155Thr, Asp84Glu, Val60Leu, Val92Met, Arg163Gln, Ser83Pro, Thr95Met, Pro256Ser, Val265Ile, Ala166Ala and Gln233Gln. Women carrying Arg151Cys, Asp294His, Arg160Trp and Asp84Glu variants had a significantly higher reflectance in the red region, which indicates a lower level of functional melanin. This association was the most pronounced for women carrying Asp84Glu. In contrast, no significant difference was observed for other variants. Moreover, associations between MC1R polymorphisms and the risks of experiencing sunburn and of having freckles were found independently of skin color. Our findings support the hypothesis that MC1R polymorphisms do not necessarily alter the skin color but should sensitize the skin to UV-induced DNA damage.

  14. Optimizing the Care and Health of Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nee, Judy; Feuerstein, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease is increasing worldwide. Although diagnosis is equally found in men and women, the chronicity of IBD poses a unique impact on the milestones of a woman's life. As the gastroenterologist becomes increasingly important in the health maintenance of patients with IBD, this review stresses the unique gender issues in women with IBD related to menstruation, cervical cancer, sexual health, contraception, and menopause that may affect the course of disease, treatment decisions, and quality of life. PMID:26089868

  15. Worldwide expansion of transnational tobacco industry.

    PubMed

    Connolly, G N

    1992-01-01

    As smoking rates fall in North America and western Europe, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) from the United States and Great Britain turn to cigarette markets of the developing world to replace those smokers who have quit or died from smoking. The majority of these markets are dominated by state tobacco monopolies that advertise and promote smoking minimally. Few women or adolescents smoke in those nations. The majority of men do, but they smoke far fewer cigarettes per year than their counterparts in developed nations. Trade barriers in the developing world prevent foreign cigarette companies from entering. TTCs employ various techniques to force open those markets, including trade pressure from the US government. Once the market is open, Western cigarette advertising and promotions target nonsmoking women and children. Retail tobacco outlets increase, smoking rates rise, and more death and disease result. Latin America was the TTC target in the 1960s, the newly developed nations of Asia during the 1980s, and, today, the tobacco giants are pushing into eastern Europe, China, and Africa. If nothing is done, emerging national smoking-control programs will be overwhelmed, and state-owned cigarette monopolies will be taken over by the TTCs. Policies and programs to curb smoking exist, but for various reasons many lesser developed countries have not adopted them. The threat of TTC entry into a closed market offers an opportunity to form national coalitions against smoking, educate the public about the dangers of tobacco use, and implement public health policies and programs to restrict marketing and use of cigarettes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Factors affecting antiretroviral pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected women with virologic suppression on combination antiretroviral therapy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although some studies show higher antiretroviral concentrations in women compared to men, data are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-positive women to determine if protease inhibitor (PI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) Cmin and Cmax values were significantly different than historical general population (predominantly male) averages and to evaluate correlates of higher concentrations. Methods HIV-positive women with virologic suppression (viral load < 50copies/mL) on their first antiretroviral regimen were enrolled. Timed blood samples for Cmin and Cmax were drawn weekly for 3 weeks. The ratio of each individual’s median Cmin and Cmax to the published population mean values for their PI or NNRTI was calculated and assessed using Wilcoxon sign-rank. Intra- and inter-patient variability of antiretroviral drug levels was assessed using coefficient of variation and intra-class correlation. Linear regression was used to identify correlates of the square root-transformed Cmin and Cmax ratios. Results Data from 82 women were analyzed. Their median age was 41 years (IQR=36-48) and duration of antiretrovirals was 20 months (IQR=9-45). Median antiretroviral Cmin and Cmax ratios were 1.21 (IQR=0.72-1.89, p=0.003) (highest ratios for nevirapine and lopinavir) and 0.82 (IQR=0.59-1.14, p=0.004), respectively. Nevirapine and efavirenz showed the least and unboosted atazanavir showed the most intra- and inter-patient variability. Higher CD4+ count correlated with higher Cmin. No significant correlates for Cmax were found. Conclusions Compared to historical control data, Cmin in the women enrolled was significantly higher whereas Cmax was significantly lower. Antiretroviral Cmin ratios were highly variable within and between participants. There were no clinically relevant correlates of drug concentrations. Trial registration NCT00433979 PMID:23732043

  17. Affirmative Action Implications for Worldwide Family Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liss, Lora

    This paper views the interrelatedness of political, economic, and family systems as they are being affected by the growing awareness of sex discrimination. The reduction in sex inequalities throughout the world, regardless of political or economic orientation, will necessitate a new perception of the woman's role in the family unit. The hypothesis…

  18. Worldwide research productivity in critical care medicine

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, Argyris; Bliziotis, Ioannis A; Rizos, Michael; Falagas, Matthew E

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The number of publications and the impact factor of journals are accepted estimates of the quantity and quality of research productivity. The objective of the present study was to assess the worldwide scientific contribution in the field of critical care medicine. Method All research studies published between 1995 and 2003 in medical journals that were listed in the 2003 Science Citation Index (SCI®) of Journal Citation Reports under the subheading 'critical care' and also indexed in the PubMed database were reviewed in order to identify their geographical origin. Results Of 22,976 critical care publications in 14 medical journals, 17,630 originated from Western Europe and the USA (76.7%). A significant increase in the number of publications originated from Western European countries during the last 5 years of the study period was noticed. Scientific publications in critical care medicine increased significantly (25%) from 1995 to 2003, which was accompanied by an increase in the impact factor of the corresponding journals (47.4%). Canada and Japan had the better performance, based on the impact factor of journals. Conclusion Significant scientific progress in critical care research took place during the period of study (1995–2003). Leaders of research productivity (in terms of absolute numbers) were Western Europe and the USA. Publications originating from Western European countries increased significantly in quantity and quality over the study period. Articles originating from Canada, Japan, and the USA had the highest mean impact factor.. Canada was the leader in productivity when adjustments for gross domestic product and population were made. PMID:15987399

  19. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treinish, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and

  20. Participation and performance trends in 100-km ultra-marathons worldwide.

    PubMed

    Cejka, Nadine; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Lepers, Romuald; Onywera, Vincent; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to (1) investigate the participation trends for the origin of athletes competing in 100-km ultra-marathons and (2) determine the nationalities of athletes achieving the fastest 100-km race times worldwide. Race times and nationality from 112,283 athletes (15,204 women and 97,079 men) from 102 countries who completed a 100-km ultra-marathon worldwide between 1998 and 2011 were investigated using single- and multi-level regression analyses. The number of finishers increased exponentially, both for women and men. Most of the finishers (73.5%) were from Europe, in particular, France (30.4%). The number of finishers from Japan, Germany, Italy, Poland and the United States of America increased exponentially during the studied period. For women, runners from Canada became slower while those from Italy became faster over time. For men, runners from Belgium, Canada and Japan became slower. Between 1998 and 2011, the ten best race times were achieved by Japanese runners for both women with 457.1 (s = 28.8) min and men with 393.4 (s = 9.6) min. To summarise, most of the finishers in 100-km ultra-marathons originated from Europe, but the best performances belong to Japanese runners. Although East African runners dominate running up to a marathon, Japanese were the best in 100 km.

  1. TREATMENT WITH HORMONE THERAPY AND CALCITRIOL DID NOT AFFECT DEPRESSION IN ELDERLY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN: NO INTERACTION WITH ESTROGEN AND VITAMIN D RECEPTOR GENOTYPE POLYMORPHISMS

    PubMed Central

    YALAMANCHILI, VINOD; GALLAGHER, J. CHRISTOPHER

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of hormone therapy and calcitriol on depression in elderly postmenopausal women and also to determine whether the response was associated with polymorphisms of estrogen receptor-alpha and vitamin D receptor. Methods In a double-blinded placebo controlled prospective trial involving 489 postmenopausal elderly women, a secondary analysis of depression was done. Geriatric Depression Scale was used to screen for depression. We used binary logistic regression to examine the effect of treatment on depression and one-way ANOVA to find relationship between gene polymorphisms and depression. Results There was no effect of hormone therapy (OR 1.65; 95% CI 0.66–4.12; p = 0.277), calcitriol (OR 1.15; 95% CI 0.43–3.11; p = 0.772) or hormone therapy with calcitriol (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.36–2.80; p = 0.979) on depression. Neither polymorphisms of estrogen receptor-alpha (XbaI-beta=0.093, CI −0.337–1.350, p = 0.239 and PvuII-beta=−0.064, CI −1.171-0.491, p = 0.421) nor vitamin D receptor (BsmI-beta=0.044, CI −2.546–3.030, p = 0.865 and TaqI-beta=−0.015, CI −2.900-2.738, p = 0.955) were associated with depression. Conclusion In elderly post-menopausal women there was no effect of hormone therapy and calcitriol either individually or in combination with depression. Estrogen receptor-alpha and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are not associated with depression or the response to intervention in elderly postmenopausal women. Additional trials are required to confirm these findings. PMID:22205149

  2. Administration of a multistrain probiotic product (VSL#3) to women in the perinatal period differentially affects breast milk beneficial microbiota in relation to mode of delivery.

    PubMed

    Mastromarino, Paola; Capobianco, Daniela; Miccheli, Alfredo; Praticò, Giulia; Campagna, Giuseppe; Laforgia, Nicola; Capursi, Teresa; Baldassarre, Maria E

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation to a mother during the perinatal period can have a positive impact on the breast milk composition. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3, during late pregnancy and lactation, on breast milk levels of beneficial bacteria and some functional components (oligosaccharides and lactoferrin) potentially able to have a positive influence on the microbiota. Breast milk microbiota was analyzed by conventional and quantitative real-time PCR. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 66 women took daily either the probiotic (n=33) or a placebo (n=33). Intergroup analysis demonstrated that the amounts of both lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were significantly higher in the colostrum and mature milk of the mothers taking VSL#3 in comparison to those taking placebo. The analysis of bacterial strains and species present in breast milk of VSL#3 supplemented mothers indicated that the administered probiotic microorganisms did not pass from maternal gut to mammary gland. In women with vaginal delivery, significantly higher amounts of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were detected in colostrum and mature milk of probiotic treated group in comparison to placebo group, whereas no significant difference was observed between groups in women who had caesarean section, neither in colostrum nor in mature milk. Milk levels of oligosaccharides and lactoferrin were similar in placebo and probiotic supplemented groups at all timepoints and regardless of the mode of delivery. Our results indicate a probiotic-dependent modulation of breast milk microbiota in vaginally delivering women, possibly exerted through a systemic effect.

  3. [ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES AND MOOD/SEXUAL DISORDERS IN WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Sirakov, M; Tomova, E

    2015-01-01

    Oral contraceptives are used since more than 50 years and are very popular due to offering more than 99% confidence in preventing pregnancy. Over 100 million women worldwide use oral contraceptives. In the UK 27% of women between 16 and 49 y. use pills. In the United States they are about 30%, in Germany - 40%, and in The Netherlands - 60%. According to a study by B. Pehlivanov, 2008, in Bulgaria only 4% of women use OC. (1) Despite the convenience and security, in the U.S.A. 29% of women taking OC interrupt prematurely their use (2), while the percentage of adolescents appears to be higher (3) Earlier studies of the reasons for refusal of OC focus on their influence on the menstrual cycle, as well as on some physical side effects such as the appearance of hair growth, weight gain, bloating etc. They paid very little attention to their impact on mood and sexual behavior of women (4). Newer studies suggest that the side effects associated with mood and sexual behavior proved more powerful factor leading to early termination of the use of OC (5). This paper is a review of the literature and evaluation of the facts presented in studies from different countries. They found a high incidence of symptoms such as anxiety, susceptibility to stress, mood changes, incl. depression, anxiety, increased irritability and affection of sexual desire of women. (6) There are many indications that OC-users are at increased risk of suicide and mental illnesses. (9).

  4. Empowerment Needs of Women With Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Taleghani, Fariba; Bahrami, Masoud; Loripoor, Marzeyeh; Yousefi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to the increasing number of women suffering from breast cancer worldwide, promoting the empowerment of these patients is an important factor affecting their survival. Objectives: Few studies have investigated the empowerment needs of the breast cancer women, especially in Iran. Therefore, this study was performed to explain the empowerment needs of women with breast cancer in Iran. Patients and Methods: In this qualitative study, 19 women with breast cancer were interviewed regarding their empowerment needs using the individual open-ended and, in-depth interviews and then the qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis. Results: Three main categories of empowerment needs from the participants’ perspectives were as follows: 1- information: the initial empowerment plans (timely and comprehensive information, coordination and continuity of information, easy and full-time access to information), 2- beliefs: the approval of the empowerment plans for execution (actuality, trust and hope and new beliefs), and 3- skills: efficient execution of the empowerment plans (communication skills, expression the needs, emotions, questions and use of the internet). Conclusions: It seems that promoting the empowerment of women with breast cancer is essential. Factors found in this study and also in similar studies, in which empowerment needs are explained in-depth through the experiences of the patients, should be considered and used in the treatment, educational and counseling programs to promote the empowerment of women with breast cancer. PMID:25763213

  5. Understanding feminism: considerations for nurses working to end violence against women.

    PubMed

    Fontenot, Holly B; Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2011-03-01

    Violence against women is a pervasive and serious human rights and public health problem worldwide. As interdisciplinary research teams try to address the effects of this health problem of which the effects transcend all women, nurses are at the forefront. Using a feminist philosophy and methodology to explore violence against women is one way to uncover new knowledge to address this health epidemic. In this paper, we will review the basic concepts of feminism and provide examples of viewing violence research and forensic nursing practice through this theoretical lens. These perspectives provide a foundation for understanding feminism and facilitating nurses' awareness as they consider careers in research and practice. Through this lens, nurses who are helping to ease the burden of violence in our global society may affect change in women's lives.

  6. Women and cancer.

    PubMed

    Stanley, K; Stjernswärd, J; Koroltchouk, V

    1987-01-01

    The primary cause of death in women in the world is cancer. In most developing countries cancer of the cervix is the most prevalent cancer. Breast cancer has this distinction in Latin America and the developed countries of North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. It is also the most prevalent cancer worldwide. The most common cancer in Japan and the Soviet Union is stomach cancer. Effective early detection programs can reduce both breast and cervical cancer mortality and also the degree and duration of treatment required. In Iceland, cervical cancer mortality declined 60% between the periods of 1959-1970 and 1975-1978. Programs consist of mammography, physician breast and self examination, and Pap smear. The sophisticated early detection equipment and techniques are expensive and largely located in urban areas, however, and not accessible to urban poor women and rural women, especially in developing countries. Tobacco smoking attributes to 80-90% of all lung cancer deaths worldwide and 30% of all cancer deaths. Passive smoking increases the risk of lung cancer to 25-35% in nonsmokers who breathe in tobacco smoke. Since smoking rates of women are skyrocketing, health specialists fear that lung cancer will replace cervical and breast cancers as the most common cancer in women worldwide in 20-30 years. Tobacco use also contributes to the high incidence of oral cancer in Southern and South Eastern Asia. For example, in India, incidence of oral cancer in women is 3-7 times higher than in developed countries with the smoking and chewing of tobacco in betel quid contributing. Techniques already exist to prevent 1/3 of all cancers. If cases can be discovered early enough and adequate treatment applied, another 1/3 of the cases can be cured. In those cases where the cancer cannot be cured, drugs can relieve 80-90% of the pain.

  7. Progress toward polio eradication--Worldwide, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Moturi, Edna K; Porter, Kimberly A; Wassilak, Steven G F; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Jafari, Hamid

    2014-05-30

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide, and in 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the completion of global polio eradication a programmatic emergency for public health. By 2013, the annual number of WPV cases had decreased by >99% since 1988, and only three countries remained that had never interrupted WPV transmission: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. This report summarizes global progress toward polio eradication during 2013-2014 and updates previous reports. In 2013, a total of 416 WPV cases were reported globally from eight countries, an 86% increase from the 223 WPV cases reported from five countries in 2012. This upsurge in 2013 was caused by a 60% increase in WPV cases detected in Pakistan, and by outbreaks in five previously polio-free countries resulting from international spread of WPV. In 2014, as of May 20, a total of 82 WPV cases had been reported worldwide, compared with 34 cases during the same period in 2013. Polio cases caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) were detected in eight countries in 2013 and in two countries so far in 2014. To achieve polio eradication in the near future, further efforts are needed to 1) address health worker safety concerns in areas of armed conflict in priority countries, 2) to prevent further spread of WPV and new outbreaks after importation into polio-free countries, and 3) to strengthen surveillance globally. Based on the international spread of WPV to date in 2014, the WHO Director General has issued temporary recommendations to reduce further international exportation of WPV through vaccination of persons traveling from currently polio-affected countries.

  8. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Markus A.; Seppelt, Ralf; Witing, Felix; Priess, Joerg A.

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for agricultural and forestry products fundamentally affects regional land-use change associated with environmental impacts (EIs) such as erosion. In contrast to aggregated global metrics such as greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, local/regional EIs of different agricultural and forestry production regions need methods which enable worldwide EI comparisons. The key aspect is to control environmental heterogeneity to reveal man-made differences of EIs between production regions. Environmental heterogeneity is the variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. In the present study, we used three approaches to control environmental heterogeneity: (i) environmental stratification, (ii) potential natural vegetation (PNV), and (iii) regional environmental thresholds to compare EIs of solid biomass production. We compared production regions of managed forests and plantation forests in subtropical (Satilla watershed, Southeastern US), tropical (Rufiji basin, Tanzania), and temperate (Mulde watershed, Central Germany) climates. All approaches supported the comparison of the EIs of different land-use classes between and within production regions. They also standardized the different EIs for a comparison between the EI categories. The EIs for different land-use classes within a production region decreased with increasing degree of naturalness (forest, plantation forestry, and cropland). PNV was the most reliable approach, but lacked feasibility and relevance. The PNV approach explicitly included most of the factors that drive environmental heterogeneity in contrast to the stratification and threshold approaches. The stratification approach allows consistent global application due to available data. Regional environmental thresholds only included arbitrarily selected aspects of environmental heterogeneity; they are only available for few EIs. Especially, the PNV and stratification approaches are options to compare regional EIs of biomass or crop production

  9. Sharka epidemiology and worldwide management strategies: learning lessons to optimize disease control in perennial plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many plant epidemics that cause major economic losses cannot be controlled with pesticides. Among them, sharka epidemics severely affect prunus trees worldwide. Its causal agent, Plum pox virus (PPV;, genus Potyvirus), has been classified as a quarantine pathogen in numerous countries. As a result, ...

  10. The obesity epidemic is a worldwide phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Popkin, B M; Doak, C M

    1998-04-01

    Obesity is not just a disease of developed nations. Obesity levels in some lower-income and transitional countries are as high as or higher than those reported for the United States and other developed countries, and those levels are increasing rapidly. Shifts in diet and activity are consistent with these changes, but little systematic work has been done to understand all the factors contributing to these high levels. The goal of this review is to provide an understanding of the patterns and trends of obesity around the world and some of the major forces affecting these trends. Several nationally representative and nationwide surveys are discussed.

  11. A worldwide investigation of tuberculosis epidemics.

    PubMed

    Currie, Christine S M; Hoad, Kathryn A

    2012-09-01

    We analyse the tuberculosis (TB) epidemics of 211 countries with a view to proposing more efficient and targeted TB control strategies. Countries are classified by how their TB case notification rates have evolved over time and the age distribution of those suffering from active TB disease in 2008. Further analysis of key statistics associated with each of the countries shows the impact of different indicators. As expected, HIV is a key driver of TB epidemics and affects their age-distribution and their scale. The level of development of a country and its wealth also vary with the shape and scale of a country's TB epidemic. Immigration has an influence on the shape of TB epidemics, which is particularly pronounced in highly developed countries with low levels of TB disease in the native population. We conclude by proposing how the TB control programme in each country analysed should prioritise its efforts.

  12. The Broad Scope of Health Effects from Chronic Arsenic Exposure: Update on a Worldwide Public Health Problem

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth; Ahsan, Habibul; Aposhian, H. Vasken; Graziano, Joseph H.; Thompson, Claudia; Suk, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Concerns for arsenic exposure are not limited to toxic waste sites and massive poisoning events. Chronic exposure continues to be a major public health problem worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of persons. Objectives: We reviewed recent information on worldwide concerns for arsenic exposures and public health to heighten awareness of the current scope of arsenic exposure and health outcomes and the importance of reducing exposure, particularly during pregnancy and early life. Methods: We synthesized the large body of current research pertaining to arsenic exposure and health outcomes with an emphasis on recent publications. Discussion: Locations of high arsenic exposure via drinking water span from Bangladesh, Chile, and Taiwan to the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) in drinking water is 10 µg/L; however, concentrations of > 3,000 µg/L have been found in wells in the United States. In addition, exposure through diet is of growing concern. Knowledge of the scope of arsenic-associated health effects has broadened; arsenic leaves essentially no bodily system untouched. Arsenic is a known carcinogen associated with skin, lung, bladder, kidney, and liver cancer. Dermatological, developmental, neurological, respiratory, cardiovascular, immunological, and endocrine effects are also evident. Most remarkably, early-life exposure may be related to increased risks for several types of cancer and other diseases during adulthood. Conclusions: These data call for heightened awareness of arsenic-related pathologies in broader contexts than previously perceived. Testing foods and drinking water for arsenic, including individual private wells, should be a top priority to reduce exposure, particularly for pregnant women and children, given the potential for life-long effects of developmental exposure. PMID:23458756

  13. Women and Private Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Helene A.

    This speech focuses on women and private pension plans, such as private pension coverage and smaller benefit amounts. Pension issues affecting women as employees include participation in plans, vesting, break-in service, benefit accruals, integration with Social Security, sex-based actuarial tables, portability, inflation, and individual…

  14. Gifted Latina Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitano, Margie K.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined, as part of a national retrospective study of high achieving women, factors affecting the life-span achievement of 15 Latina women identified as gifted. More than half did not evidence their potential through high grades in school. Participants cited racial or gender bias as a major obstacle but also reported a strong…

  15. The Other Side: How does Informed Choice Affect Induced Abortions among Reproductive-Age Immigrant Women in China—A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chuanning; Wu, Junqing; Li, Yuyan; Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Rui; Ji, Honglei; Li, Yi-Ran; Han, Ying; Tong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to explore how informed choice on contraceptive methods influenced induced abortions among reproductive-age immigrant women in China. A total of 3230 participants were recruited in Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing. Information on informed choice was collected by questionnaires. The annual incidence rate (spells) of induced abortions was 0.46 (1500/3230) among the participants. The sequence from the highest score to the lowest was long-term, short-term and natural contraceptive methods (p < 0.0001). Significant differences of rates in induced abortions were found in region, occupation, length of the first immigration up to now (year), purpose for immigration, number of children, marital status, sex preference, contraceptive methods, deciders of contraceptive methods and side effects. In the zero-inflated negative binomial model, the joint impacts showed when a participant with one child employed condoms or family planning service providers as the deciders of contraceptive methods introduced intrauterine devices, the occurrence of induced abortions was more likely to be reduced. Women who underwent side effects using pills were more likely to have had induced abortions. PMID:27783059

  16. Women Empowering Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyikwa, Victoria A.; Chiarelli-Helminiak, Christina M.; Hodge, Diane M.; Wells-Wilbon, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    As women in this female-centered profession of social work, we have not effectively advocated for ourselves in terms of leadership in our educational systems. We reexamine the 2008 special section of the "Journal of Social Work Education" on women in the academy and build on information that suggests social work has lost its momentum to…

  17. Women's Speech, Women's Strength?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Jennifer

    A discussion of women's oral discourse patterns focuses on the uses made of minimal responses, hedges, and tag questions. The analysis draws on transcriptions of conversations among a group of women friends over a period of months. It is proposed that the conventional treatment of these forms as "weak" is inappropriate in all-female…

  18. Administration of a Multi-Strain Probiotic Product to Women in the Perinatal Period Differentially Affects the Breast Milk Cytokine Profile and May Have Beneficial Effects on Neonatal Gastrointestinal Functional Symptoms. A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Baldassarre, Maria Elisabetta; Di Mauro, Antonio; Mastromarino, Paola; Fanelli, Margherita; Martinelli, Domenico; Urbano, Flavia; Capobianco, Daniela; Laforgia, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Background: Probiotic supplementation to women during pregnancy and lactation can modulate breast milk composition, with immune benefits being transferred to their infants. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of high-dose probiotic supplementation to women during late pregnancy and lactation on cytokine profile and secretory IgA (sIgA) in breast milk and thus to study if differences in breast milk composition can affect lactoferrin and sIgA levels in stool samples of newborns. The safety of maternal probiotic administration on neonatal growth pattern and gastrointestinal symptoms were also evaluated. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 66 women took either the probiotic (n = 33) or a placebo (n = 33) daily. Levels of interleukins (IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and sIgA in breast milk; and the level of sIgA and lactoferrin in newborn stool samples were analyzed at birth and then again at one month of life. Antropometrical evaluation and analysis of gastrointestinal events in newborns was also performed. Results: Probiotic maternal consumption had a significant impact on IL6 mean values in colostrum and on IL10 and TGF-β1 mean values in mature breast milk. Fecal sIgA mean values were higher in newborns whose mothers took the probiotic product than in the control group. Probiotic maternal supplementation seems to decrease incidence of infantile colic and regurgitation in infants. Conclusion: High-dose multi-strain probiotic administration to women during pregnancy influences breast milk cytokines pattern and sIgA production in newborns, and seems to improve gastrointestinal functional symptoms in infants. PMID:27801789

  19. Healthcare for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... man and the woman to use. Still other women may have diflculty with intercourse due to physical restrictions from problems with bones, joints and/or muscles that affect movement of hips and legs. Whether an orgasm is ...

  20. Attitudes and factors affecting acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping as an alternative to Pap testing among multiethnic Malaysian women

    PubMed Central

    Ma'som, Mahirah; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; Bellinson, Jerome; Subramaniam, Shridevi; Ma, Yuntong; Yap, Siew-Hwei; Goh, Pik-Pin; Gravitt, Patti; Woo, Yin Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the attitudes and acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling compared with conventional physician-acquired Papanicolaou (Pap) smear among multiethnic Malaysian women. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out via interviewer-administered surveys from August 2013 through August 2015 at five government-run, urban health clinics in the state of Selangor. Subjects were participants from an ongoing community-based human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study who answered a standard questionnaire before and after self-sampling. The cervicovaginal self-sampling for HPV genotyping was performed using a simple brush (‘Just for Me’; Preventive Oncology International, Hong Kong). Detailed data on sociodemographics, previous Pap smear experience, and attitudes towards self-administered cervicovaginal sampling were collected and analysed. Acceptability was inferred using a five-item Likert scale that included six different subjective descriptives: experience, difficulty, convenience, embarrassment, discomfort or pain, and confidence in collecting one's own sample. Results Of the 839 participants, 47.9% were Malays, followed by 30.8% Indians, 18.8% Chinese and 2.5% from other ethnicities. The median age of the participants was 38 years (IQR 30–48). Some 68.2% of participants indicated a preference for self-sampling over the Pap test, with 95% indicating willingness to follow-up a positive result at the hospital. Age, ethnicity and previous Pap test experience were significant independent factors associated with preference for self-sampling. The older the individual, the less likely they were to prefer self-sampling (adjusted OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.98). The Chinese were less likely to prefer self-sampling (72.6%) than the Malays (85.1%) (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.98, p=0.004). Participants who had never undergone a Pap smear were also more likely to prefer self-sampling (88.5%) than

  1. Analysis of performance and age of the fastest 100-mile ultra-marathoners worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The performance and age of peak ultra-endurance performance have been investigated in single races and single race series but not using worldwide participation data. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in running performance and the age of peak running performance of the best 100-mile ultra-marathoners worldwide. METHOD: The race times and ages of the annual ten fastest women and men were analyzed among a total of 35,956 finishes (6,862 for women and 29,094 for men) competing between 1998 and 2011 in 100-mile ultra-marathons. RESULTS: The annual top ten performances improved by 13.7% from 1,132±61.8 min in 1998 to 977.6±77.1 min in 2011 for women and by 14.5% from 959.2±36.4 min in 1998 to 820.6±25.7 min in 2011 for men. The mean ages of the annual top ten fastest runners were 39.2±6.2 years for women and 37.2±6.1 years for men. The age of peak running performance was not different between women and men (p>0.05) and showed no changes across the years. CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that the fastest female and male 100-mile ultra-marathoners improved their race time by ∼14% across the 1998–2011 period at an age when they had to be classified as master athletes. Future studies should analyze longer running distances (>200 km) to investigate whether the age of peak performance increases with increased distance in ultra-marathon running. PMID:23778421

  2. The risk of arsenic induced skin lesions in Bangladeshi men and women is affected by arsenic metabolism and the age at first exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Persson, Lars-Ake; Vahter, Marie

    2008-07-01

    It is known that a high fraction of methylarsonate (MA) in urine is a risk modifying factor for several arsenic induced health effects, including skin lesions, and that men are more susceptible for developing skin lesions than women. Thus, we aimed at elucidating the interaction between gender and arsenic metabolism for the risk of developing skin lesions. This study is part of a population-based case-referent study concerning the risk for skin lesions in relation to arsenic exposure via drinking water carried out in Matlab, a rural area 53km south-east of Dhaka, Bangladesh. We randomly selected 526 from 1579 referents and all 504 cases for analysis of arsenic metabolites in urine using HPLC coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICPMS). The present study confirm previous studies, with the risk for skin lesions being almost three times higher in the highest tertile of %MA (adjusted OR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.9-4.2, p < 0.001) compared to the lowest tertile. The present study is the first to show that the well documented higher risk for men to develop arsenic-related skin lesions compared to women is mainly explained by the less efficient methylation of arsenic, as defined by a higher fraction of MA and lower fraction of DMA in the urine, among men. Our previously documented lower risk for skin lesions in individuals exposed since infancy, or before, was found to be independent of the observed arsenic methylation efficiency. Thus, it can be speculated that this is due to a programming effect of arsenic in utero.

  3. Molecular Analysis of a Genetic Variants Panel Related to Nutrients and Metabolism: Association with Susceptibility to Gestational Diabetes and Cardiometabolic Risk in Affected Women

    PubMed Central

    Nicolucci, Antonio; Celentano, Claudio; Liberati, Marco; Stuppia, Liborio

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most frequent metabolic disorder in pregnancy. Women with a GDM history are at increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between several genes involved in the metabolic pathway of insulin and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between clinical parameters in GDM and variants in genes involved with nutrients and metabolism. Several variants PPARG2 rs1801282 (C>G); PPARGC1A rs8192678 (C>T); TCF7L2 rs7903146 (C>T); LDLR rs2228671 (C>T); MTHFR rs1801133 (C>T); APOA5 rs662799 (T>C); GCKR rs1260326 (C>T); FTO rs9939609 (T>A); MC4R rs17782313 (T>C) were genotyped in 168 pregnant Caucasian women with or without GDM by High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis. A significant correlation was observed between TT genotype of TCF7L2 gene and increased risk of GDM (OR 5.4 [95% CI 1.5–19.3]). Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between lipid parameters and genetic variations in additional genes, namely, PPARG2 [p = 0,02], APOA5 [p = 0,02], MC4R [p = 0,03], LDLR [p = 0,01], and FTO [p = 0,02]. Our findings support the association between TCF7L2 rs7903146 variant and an increased GDM risk. Results about the investigated genetic variants provide important information about cardiometabolic risk in GDM and help to plan future prevention studies. PMID:28133617

  4. Short-term, daily intake of yogurt containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 (LMG 24384) does not affect colonic transit time in women.

    PubMed

    Merenstein, Daniel J; D'Amico, Frank; Palese, Caren; Hahn, Alexander; Sparenborg, Jessy; Tan, Tina; Scott, Hillary; Polzin, Kayla; Kolberg, Lore; Roberts, Robert

    2014-01-28

    The present study investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 (LMG 24 384) (Bf-6)-supplemented yogurt on colonic transit time (CTT). A triple-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled, two-period cross-over trial was conducted with sixty-eight women with a self-reported history of straining during bowel movements or hard or lumpy stools in the past 2 years. As per regulatory requirements for probiotic studies, eligible women were generally healthy and not actively constipated at the time of enrolment. Participants consumed both Bf-6 and placebo yogurts for 14 d each in a randomised order, with a 6-week washout period between the treatments. The primary outcome, CTT, was assessed via Sitz marker X-rays. The average CTT was 42·1 h for the active period and 43·3 h for the control period (mean difference 1·2 h, 95 % CI - 4·9, 7·4). Since the statistical tests for the cross-over study implied that the mean CTT for the active and control periods in period 2 were biased, the standard protocol suggests examining the results of only period 1 as a traditional randomised controlled trial. This showed that the mean CTT was 35·2 h for the active period v. 52·9 h for the control period (P= 0·015). Bootstrapping demonstrated that both the mean and median differences remained significant (P= 0·016 and P= 0·045, respectively). Few adverse events were noted, with no differences among the active and control periods. The paired analysis showed no differences between the active and control periods during the cross-over trial. Further trials should be conducted in populations with underlying problems associated with disordered transit to determine the potential value of probiotic supplementation more accurately.

  5. Women as torture victims.

    PubMed

    Allodi, F; Stiasny, S

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports a retrospective study of the frequency, severity, modalities and mental health consequences of torture in 28 Latin American refugee women in Toronto. The data on these women and a comparison group of male torture victims were retrieved from case records in a hospital outpatient clinic. The results support the hypotheses implicit in the scanty literature available that the frequency and effects of torture in women differ from those found in men. In female victims, as in their male counterparts, the severity of the torture was related to the degree of their political involvement. However, torture was more frequently sexual, and its consequences more often affected the women's sexual adaptation.

  6. Carbonate reservoir plays in the South Atlantic and worldwide analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohriak, Webster

    2015-04-01

    This work presents a summary of the geological, geophysical and petrophysical challenges for interpretation of post-salt and presalt carbonate rocks that constitute one of the main reservoirs in the hydrocarbon accumulations in the South Atlantic, particularly in the Campos and Santos basins offshore Brazil and in the Angola -Gabon conjugate margins. Carbonate rocks associated with salt tectonics constitute one of the main exploratory plays in several basins worldwide, and recently have yielded large petroleum discoveries in the southeastern Brazilian continental margin (Santos Basin) and also in Angola (Kwanza Basin) . The presalt microbialite reservoirs are sealed by evaporites and the origin of these rocks is still controversial. One current of interpretation assumes they are associated with reefs and carbonate buildups formed during periods of sea-level rises in a desiccating basin. Other currents of interpretation assume that these rocks might be associated with hydrothermal fluids and chemical precipitation of carbonates in a basin affected by volcanic episodes, resulting in travertine deposits with secondary biogenic growth. We present examples of post-salt oil fields involving Albian carbonates in the South Atlantic, and also discuss the presalt plays recently drilled in ultradeep waters. The presalt carbonate reservoirs are compared with possible microbialite analogs in the sedimentary basins of Brazil dating from Neoproterozoic to Recent, and their similarities and differences in terms of depositional setting and petrophysical parameters from the Late Aptian presalt carbonate rocks that have been sampled in the Santos and Kwanza basins.

  7. Therapeutic patient education in atopic dermatitis: worldwide experiences.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Jean-Francois; Bernier, Claire; Ball, Alan; De Raeve, Linda; Gieler, Uwe; Deleuran, Mette; Marcoux, Danielle; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Lio, Peter; Lewis-Jones, Sue; Gelmetti, Carlo; Takaoka, Roberto; Chiaverini, Christine; Misery, Laurent; Barbarot, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic patient education (TPE) has proven effective in increasing treatment adherence and improving quality of life (QoL) for patients with numerous chronic diseases, especially atopic dermatitis (AD). This study was undertaken to identify worldwide TPE experiences in AD treatment. Experts from 23 hospitals, located in 11 countries, responded to a questionnaire on 10 major items. Patients in TPE programs were mainly children and adolescents with moderate to severe AD or markedly affected QoL. Individual and collective approaches were used. Depending on the center, the number of sessions varied from one to six (corresponding to 2 to 12 hours of education), and 20 to 200 patients were followed each year. Each center's education team comprised multidisciplinary professionals (e.g., doctors, nurses, psychologists). Evaluations were based on clinical assessment, QoL, a satisfaction index, or some combination of the three. When funding was obtained, it came from regional health authorities (France), insurance companies (Germany), donations (United States), or pharmaceutical firms (Japan, Italy). The role of patient associations was always highlighted, but their involvement in the TPE process varied from one country to another. Despite the nonexhaustive approach, our findings demonstrate the increasing interest in TPE for managing individuals with AD. In spite of the cultural and financial differences between countries, there is a consensus among experts to integrate education into the treatment of eczema.

  8. Bipolar disorder in women

    PubMed Central

    Parial, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder in women is a challenging disorder to treat. It is unique in its presentation in women and characterized by later age of onset, seasonality, atypical presentation, and a higher degree of mixed episodes. Medical and psychiatric co-morbidity adversely affects recovery from the bipolar disorder (BD) more often in women. Co-morbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders occur more frequently in women while substance use disorders are more common in men. Treatment of women during pregnancy and lactation is challenging. Pregnancy neither protects nor exacerbates BD, and many women require continuation of medication during the pregnancy. The postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of BD in women. Prophylaxis with mood stabilizers might be needed. Individualized risk/benefits assessments of pregnant and postpartum women with BD are required to promote the health of the women and to avoid or limit exposure of the fetus or infant to potential adverse effects of medication. PMID:26330643

  9. Wildfire contribution to world-wide desertification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, D.; Wittenberg, L.; Bautista, S.; Ffolliott, P.

    2009-04-01

    a three-year period (2003 - 2005). In 2005, 338,262 ha of forest land burned. This was a 77% increase over the 10-year burn average of 189,500 ha. Desertification is about the loss of the land's proper hydrologic function, biological productivity, and other ecosystem services as a result of human activities and climate change. It affects one third of the earth's surface and over a billion people. In the past, desertification was considered a problem of only arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas. However, humid zones can undergo desertification with the wrong combination of human impacts. The Amazon region is an example of where forest harvesting, shifting cut and burn agriculture, and large-scale grazing are producing desertification of a tropical rain forest on a large scale. Some of the environmental consequences of wildfires are vegetation destruction, plant species and type shifts, exotic plant invasions, wildlife habitat destruction, soil erosion, floods, watershed function decline, water supply disruption, and air pollution. All of these are immediate impacts. Some impacts will persist beyond the careers and lifetimes of individuals. Small, isolated areas do not produce noticeable desertification. But, the cumulative effect of multiple, large area, and adjacent fires can be landscape-level desertification. This paper examines wildfire contributions to desertification in regions of the world that are prone to wildfire and climate change.

  10. Prevention and management of stroke in women.

    PubMed

    Howe, Matthew D; McCullough, Louise D

    2015-04-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of acquired disability and the third leading cause of death in women worldwide. Sex differences in risk factors, treatment response and quality of life after stroke complicate stroke management in women. Women have an increased lifetime incidence of stroke compared to men, largely due to a sharp increase in stroke risk in older postmenopausal women. Women also have an increased lifetime prevalence of stroke risk factors, including hypertension and atrial fibrillation in postmenopausal women, as well as abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged women. Controversy continues over the risks of oral contraceptives, hormone therapy and surgical intervention for carotid stenosis in women. Pregnancy and the postpartum period represent a time of increased risk, presenting challenges to stroke management. Recognition of these issues is critical to improving acute care and functional recovery after stroke in women.

  11. Global Impressions: Inside UNESCO's First Worldwide Arts Education Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The many worlds of arts education began to grow into one worldwide community in March 2006. Twelve hundred arts education leaders, in delegations from 97 countries, attended the United Nation's Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO's) first-ever worldwide arts education conference, held for four days in Lisbon, Portugal. The…

  12. Substituting whole grains for refined grains in a 6-wk randomized trial favorably affects energy-balance metrics in healthy men and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Karl, J Philip; Meydani, Mohsen; Barnett, Junaidah B; Vanegas, Sally M; Goldin, Barry; Kane, Anne; Rasmussen, Helen; Saltzman, Edward; Vangay, Pajau; Knights, Dan; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Das, Sai Krupa; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Meydani, Simin N; Roberts, Susan B

    2017-03-01

    Background: The effect of whole grains on the regulation of energy balance remains controversial.Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of substituting whole grains for refined grains, independent of body weight changes, on energy-metabolism metrics and glycemic control.Design: The study was a randomized, controlled, parallel-arm controlled-feeding trial that was conducted in 81 men and postmenopausal women [49 men and 32 women; age range: 40-65 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): <35.0]. After a 2-wk run-in period, participants were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 weight-maintenance diets for 6 wk. Diets differed in whole-grain and fiber contents [mean ± SDs: whole grain-rich diet: 207 ± 39 g whole grains plus 40 ± 5 g dietary fiber/d; refined grain-based diet: 0 g whole grains plus 21 ± 3 g dietary fiber/d] but were otherwise similar. Energy metabolism and body-composition metrics, appetite, markers of glycemic control, and gut microbiota were measured at 2 and 8 wk.Results: By design, body weight was maintained in both groups. Plasma alkylresorcinols, which are biomarkers of whole-grain intake, increased in the whole grain-rich diet group (WG) but not in the refined grain-based diet group (RG) (P-diet-by-time interaction < 0.0001). Beta ± SE changes (ΔWG compared with ΔRG) in the resting metabolic rate (RMR) (43 ± 25 kcal/d; P = 0.04), stool weight (76 ± 12 g/d; P < 0.0001), and stool energy content (57 ± 17 kcal/d; P = 0.003), but not in stool energy density, were higher in the WG. When combined, the favorable energetic effects in the WG translated into a 92-kcal/d (95% CI: 28, 156-kcal/d) higher net daily energy loss compared with that of the RG (P = 0.005). Prospective consumption (P = 0.07) and glycemia after an oral-glucose-tolerance test (P = 0.10) trended toward being lower in the WG than in the RG. When nonadherent participants were excluded, between-group differences in stool energy content and glucose tolerance increased, and between

  13. Women's Movements and Human Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Betty

    1975-01-01

    Two strands of futurism share values of equality, development, and peace, and can catalyze each other into potentially transformational forces. The path is re-education: World order thinking provides an appropriate content for adult learning, and women's movements provide the energy of commitment and a worldwide network for communicating policies.…

  14. Vietnamese women in struggle for national independence.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The 30-year struggle for independence in Viet Nam took a huge toll on women, but even in the hardest times, Vietnamese women received support from the world-wide women's movement. As the world prepares to enter the new millennium, it is important to determine what policies can be created to prevent war and guarantee peace. These policies must grow out of international agreement on basic principles such as respect for independence and sovereignty and must not resort to the embargoes and sanctions that have placed a disproportionate burden on women and children. Another challenge of the new millennium is to encourage implementation of national programs, policies, and measures to help women realize their rights while preserving traditional family values. Despite the heightened visibility of the international women's movement, women still suffer from widespread inequalities. In accordance with the goals of the Communist Party of Viet Nam, the 8th Congress of Vietnamese Women in 1997 created a national plan for women that is a blueprint for the women's movement for the years 1997-2000. Among the goals are creating jobs for women, upgrading their standard of living, eliminating hunger, decreasing poverty, and ensuring that women have educational opportunities. Vietnamese women also seek to strengthen their relationship with other women in the international community, and the Vietnamese Women's Union has actively forwarded the objectives of the Federation of International Democratic Women.

  15. A nutritional intervention promoting a Mediterranean food pattern does not affect total daily dietary cost in North American women in free-living conditions.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Julie; Lamarche, Benoît; Lemieux, Simone

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of adopting a Mediterranean diet on dietary cost and energy density in free-living conditions. The 12-wk nutritional intervention consisted of 2 group courses and 7 individual sessions with a dietician in a sample of 73 healthy women. To evaluate the dietary response to the nutritional intervention, a registered dietician administered a FFQ at 0, 6, 12, and 24 wk. Total daily dietary cost was calculated using a price list including all items from the FFQ. Our findings indicated that daily energy cost evaluated at wk 12 vs. wk 0 [1046 +/- 217 vs. 967 +/- 192 kJ/Canadian dollars (CAN$), respectively, P = 0.18] and total daily dietary cost (8.61 +/- 2.13 vs. 8.75 +/- 2.50 CAN$/d per participant, respectively, P = 0.58) did not change. Total daily energy density at wk 12 decreased compared with wk 0 (2.56 +/- 0.76 vs. 2.20 +/- 0.67 kJ/g; P < 0.0001). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet led to increased cost related to vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts and seeds, canola/olive oil, whole grains, poultry, and fish (P < or = 0.01) and to reduced dietary cost for red meat, refined grains, desserts and sweets, and fast food (P < or = 0.008). In conclusion, these data suggest that adherence to a nutritional intervention program promoting the Mediterranean food pattern is not associated with increased daily dietary cost or energy cost but led to a reduction in energy density. Consequently, increased cost should not be considered a barrier to the promotion and adoption of a Mediterranean diet.

  16. Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of dietary triacylglycerols does not affect insulin secretion or glucose homeostasis in healthy men and women

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, A; Teng, K-T; Berry, S E; Sanders, T A B

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives: Dietary triacylglycerols containing palmitic acid in the sn-2 position might impair insulin release and increase plasma glucose. Subjects/Methods: We used a cross-over designed feeding trial in 53 healthy Asian men and women (20–50 years) to test this hypothesis by exchanging 20% energy of palm olein (PO; control) with randomly interesterified PO (IPO) or high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS). After a 2-week run-in period on PO, participants were fed PO, IPO and HOS for 6 week consecutively in randomly allocated sequences. Fasting (midpoint and endpoint) and postprandial blood at the endpoint following a test meal (3.54 MJ, 14 g protein, 85 g carbohydrate and 50 g fat as PO) were collected for the measurement of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, lipids and apolipoproteins; pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes were postprandial changes in C-peptide and plasma glucose. Results: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.3 mmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) 0.1, 0.5; P<0.001) lower on HOS than on PO or IPO as predicted, indicating good compliance to the dietary intervention. There were no significant differences (P=0.58) between diets among the 10 male and 31 female completers in the incremental area under the curve (0–2 h) for C-peptide in nmol.120 min/l: GM (95% CI) were PO 220 (196, 245), IPO 212 (190, 235) and HOS 224 (204, 244). Plasma glucose was 8% lower at 2 h on IPO vs PO and HOS (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position does not adversely impair insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. PMID:25052227

  17. High-Intensity Resistance Exercise Promotes Postexercise Hypotension Greater than Moderate Intensity and Affects Cardiac Autonomic Responses in Women Who Are Hypertensive.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Brito, Aline; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do S; Coutinho de Oliveira, Caio V; Sarmento da Nóbrega, Thereza K; Lúcia de Moraes Forjaz, Cláudia; da Cruz Santos, Amilton

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity resistance exercise (RE) sessions on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac autonomic modulation, and forearm blood flow (FBF). Sixteen trained hypertensive women (n = 16, 56 ± 3 years) completed the following 3 experimental sessions: control (CS), RE at 50% (EX50%), and RE at 80% (EX80%) of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Both EX50% and EX80% comprised a set of 10 repetitions of 10 exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Measurements were taken preintervention and postintervention (at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery). Reductions in systolic/diastolic BP after exercise were greater in EX80% (largest declines, -29 ± 4/-14 ± 5 mm Hg) than EX50% (largest declines, -18 ± 6/-8 ± 5 mm Hg, p ≤ 0.05). Heart rate and cardiac sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) increased more in relation to pre-exercise values in EX80% than EX50% (largest increases 96 ± 3 vs. 90 ± 4 b·min, LF/HF = 1.77 ± 0.25 vs. 1.40 ± 0.20, respectively, p ≤ 0.05). Increases in FBF and hyperemia was also higher in EX80% than EX50% compared with pre-exercise (4.97 ± 0.28 vs. 4.36 ± 0.27 ml·min·100 ml and 5.90 ± 0.20 vs. 5.38 ± 0.25 ml·min·100 ml; p ≤ 0.05, respectively). These results suggest that RE of higher intensity promoted greater postexercise hypotension accompanied by greater increases in FBF, vasodilator response, HR, and cardiac sympathovagal balance.

  18. Similar photoperiod-related birth seasonalities among professional baseball players and lesbian women with an opposite seasonality among gay men: Maternal melatonin may affect fetal sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Marzullo, Giovanni

    2014-05-30

    Based on pre-mid-20th-century data, the same photoperiod-related birth seasonality previously observed in schizophrenia was also recently found in neural-tube defects and in extreme left-handedness among professional baseball players. This led to a hypothesis implicating maternal melatonin and other mediators of sunlight actions capable of affecting 4th-embryonic-week developments including neural-tube closure and left-right differentiation of the brain. Here, new studies of baseball players suggest that the same sunlight actions could also affect testosterone-dependent male-female differentiation in the 4-month-old fetus. Independently of hand-preferences, baseball players (n=6829), and particularly the stronger hitters among them, showed a unique birth seasonality with an excess around early-November and an equally significant deficit 6 months later around early-May. In two smaller studies, north-American and other northern-hemisphere born lesbians showed the same strong-hitter birth seasonality while gay men showed the opposite seasonality. The sexual dimorphism-critical 4th-fetal-month testosterone surge coincides with the summer-solstice in early-November births and the winter-solstice in early-May births. These coincidences are discussed and a "melatonin mechanism" is proposed based on evidence that in seasonal breeders maternal melatonin imparts "photoperiodic history" to the newborn by direct inhibition of fetal testicular testosterone synthesis. The present effects could represent a vestige of this same phenomenon in man.

  19. Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: a pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4·4 million participants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background One of the global targets for non-communicable diseases is to halt, by 2025, the rise in the age-standardised adult prevalence of diabetes at its 2010 levels. We aimed to estimate worldwide trends in diabetes, how likely it is for countries to achieve the global target, and how changes in prevalence, together with population growth and ageing, are affecting the number of adults with diabetes. Methods We pooled data from population-based studies that had collected data on diabetes through measurement of its biomarkers. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends in diabetes prevalence—defined as fasting plasma glucose of 7·0 mmol/L or higher, or history of diagnosis with diabetes, or use of insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs—in 200 countries and territories in 21 regions, by sex and from 1980 to 2014. We also calculated the posterior probability of meeting the global diabetes target if post-2000 trends continue. Findings We used data from 751 studies including 4 372 000 adults from 146 of the 200 countries we make estimates for. Global age-standardised diabetes prevalence increased from 4·3% (95% credible interval 2·4–7·0) in 1980 to 9·0% (7·2–11·1) in 2014 in men, and from 5·0% (2·9–7·9) to 7·9% (6·4–9·7) in women. The number of adults with diabetes in the world increased from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 (28·5% due to the rise in prevalence, 39·7% due to population growth and ageing, and 31·8% due to interaction of these two factors). Age-standardised adult diabetes prevalence in 2014 was lowest in northwestern Europe, and highest in Polynesia and Micronesia, at nearly 25%, followed by Melanesia and the Middle East and north Africa. Between 1980 and 2014 there was little change in age-standardised diabetes prevalence in adult women in continental western Europe, although crude prevalence rose because of ageing of the population. By contrast, age-standardised adult prevalence rose by 15

  20. Directing gaze: the effect of disclaimer labels on women's visual attention to fashion magazine advertisements.

    PubMed

    Bury, Belinda; Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2014-09-01

    In an effort to combat the known negative effects of exposure to unrealistic thin ideal images, there is increasing worldwide pressure on fashion, media and advertising industries to disclose when images have been digitally altered. The current study used eye tracking technology to investigate experimentally how digital alteration disclaimer labels impact women's visual attention to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 60 female undergraduate students who viewed four thin ideal advertisements with either no disclaimer, a generic disclaimer, or a specific more detailed disclaimer. It was established that women did attend to the disclaimers. The nature of the disclaimer had no effect on time spent looking at particular body parts, but did affect the direction of gaze following reading of the disclaimer. This latter effect was found to be greater for women high on trait appearance comparison. Further research is paramount in guiding effective policy around the use of disclaimer labels.

  1. Mad men, women and steroid cocktails: A review of the impact of sex and other factors on anabolic androgenic steroids effects on affective behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Leslie P.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale For several decades, elite athletes and a growing number of recreational consumers have used anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) as performance enhancing drugs. Despite mounting evidence that illicit use of these synthetic steroids has detrimental effects on affective states, information available on sex-specific actions of these drugs is lacking. Objectives The focus of this review is to assess information to date on the importance of sex and its interaction with other environmental factors on affective behaviors, with an emphasis on data derived from non-human studies. Methods The PubMed database was searched for relevant studies in both sexes. Results Studies examining AAS use in females are limited, reflecting the lower prevalence of use in this sex. Data, however, indicate significant sex-specific differences in AAS effects on anxiety-like and aggressive behaviors, interactions with other drugs of abuse, and the interplay of AAS with other environmental factors such as diet and exercise. Conclusions Current methods for assessing AAS use have limitations that suggest biases of both under- and over-reporting, which may be amplified for females who are poorly represented in self-report studies of human subjects and are rarely used in animal studies. Data from animal literature suggest that there are significant sex-specific differences in the impact of AAS on aggression, anxiety, and concomitant use of other abused substances. These results have relevance for human females who take these drugs as performance enhancing substances and for transgender XX individuals who may illicitly self-administer AAS as they transition to a male gender identity. PMID:26758282

  2. Obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes--a worldwide epidemic.

    PubMed

    Seidell, J C

    2000-03-01

    Obesity is now commonly defined in adults as a BMI > 30 kg/m2. The prevalence of obesity in established market economies (Europe, USA, Canada, Australia, etc.) varies greatly, but a weighed estimate suggests an average prevalence in the order of 15-20%. The prevalence in these countries generally shows increasing trends over time. Obesity is also relatively common in Latin America, but much less so in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia where the majority of the world population lives. Nevertheless obesity rates are increasing there as well and, more importantly, rates of diabetes are increasing even more quickly, particularly in Asian countries. The risks of type 2 diabetes mellitus in these countries tend to increase sharply at levels of BMI generally classified as acceptable in European and North American white people. There have been suggestions to adopt specific classifications of obesity in Asians (e.g. BMI 23 for overweight and 25 or 27 kg/m2 for obesity) and this will greatly affect the prevalence estimates of obesity worldwide (currently at about 250 million people). Particularly for health promotion purposes BMI may be replaced by a classification based on waist circumference, but also specific classifications for different ethnic groups may be necessary. The number of diabetics has been projected to increase from 135 million in 1995 to 300 million in 2025. Much of this increase will be seen in Asia. In summary, both obesity and type 2 diabetes are common consequences of changing lifestyles (increased sedentary lifestyles and increased energy density of diets). Both are potentially preventable through lifestyle modification on a population level, but this requires a coherent and multifaceted strategy. Such strategies are not developed or implemented. These developments point toward the great urgency to develop global and national plans for adequate prevention and management of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Women's Higher Education in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gail P., Ed.; Slaughter, Sheila, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays on the effect of national policies and practices on women's access to higher education, the type of courses in which women are enrolled, women's roles as academics, and how the outcomes of higher education affect women in the academic workforce and the economy. Various countries are represented in the…

  4. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. March 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Germany‘s RWE are focusing R&D on zinc - air batteries .) Military Implications: Since the countries holding the bulk of the world‘s lithium may not...growing rapidly. It is the key element of improved batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles, cell phones, laptops, etc. today. Bolivia has nearly...technologies, such as those based on sodium nickel chloride or zinc - air , that do not face resource depletion or restriction issues. (Reportedly, Toyota and

  5. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. May 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    devices can disable the power grid of an entire region; and research on computer-mediated telepathy such as Silent Talk might one day be used to intercept...Pentagon Preps Soldier Telepathy Push http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2009/05/pentagon-preps-soldier- telepathy -push/ Item 2. New International

  6. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. January 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Sources: Worst-hit EU states get least in post-gas crisis plan http://euobserver.com/9/27493/?rk=1 Merkel puts pressure on EU for Russian pipeline...Improves Water Desalination Efficiency Yale University researchers have developed a new energy-saving forward osmosis technique for water...purification. The method, which is claimed to require only 10% as much power as previous ones, uses a new formulation for the “draw solution” in the osmosis

  7. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. July 2006 - December 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Contract No: DAAD19-02-D-0001/ Delivery Order 0456 with Battelle Columbus Operations for the U.S. Army Environmental Policy Institute Summarizing...Cyanogen Halides from Chemical Weapons New Spectroscopy Technique Speeds Up Virus Detection New Production Technique for Nanofiber Filters for...on nature reserves. The nomination comes at a time of growing tensions with neighboring Colombia over spraying of drug crops near the border, which

  8. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. December 2009 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    overwhelming margin, with only India and North Korea voting against, and Bhutan, China, Cuba, France, Iran , Israel, Myanmar and Pakistan abstaining...Emissions Increase Ocean Noise Pollution………………………..13 6.7 Arctic “Pole of Peace” Suggested to Address Arctic Security Issues………………..13 6.8 Nuclear ... Myanmar , Honduras, Vietnam, Nicaragua, Haiti, India, the Dominican Republic, Philippines, and China. The Global Climate Risk Index analyzes the

  9. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. May 2008 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    news126194529.html 7.2.4 Formic Acid Provides New Fuel Cell Medium Matthias Beller and colleagues at the Leibniz Institute for Catalysis , in Rostock, Germany...have developed a technique to convert formic acid into hydrogen at low temperatures (26°C to 40°C). The new process is suitable for low-power fuel...monitoring devices. Source: Hydrogen Fuel from Formic Acid http://www.technologyreview.com/Energy/20778/?a=f 7.2.5 New Insight into Methane

  10. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. May 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    developed a silicon solar cell with a unique and robust geometry of nanoholes having diameters of about 500-600 nm, achieving a power conversion efficiency...improved design for its applicability to power supplies for field equipment. Sources: Silicon nanohole solar cells aim to make photovoltaics cost...Millennium Project High-Performance Silicon Nanohole Solar Cells http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja910082y Item 4. Updates on Previously

  11. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. November 2006 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    10 7.1 World Energy Outlook 2006 Warns on Energy Security and Environmental Implications of Increasing Energy Demands...developing bionic arsenal http://www.smh.com.au/news/Technology/Israel-developing- bionic -arsenal/2006/11/18/11632667 89754.html See a more extended...The World Energy Outlook 2006 reports that China will surpass the U.S. in 2009 as the biggest emitter of carbon dioxide. This is nearly a decade

  12. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. April 2006 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    researchers hope to combine PlyPH with another compound that causes anthrax spores to germinate , and thus become vulnerable to destruction. Military...activity. The 6 to 8 satellite project, equipped with a dual-frequency radar and passive microwave radiometer, will provide a consistent picture of global

  13. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. October 2007 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    renewable resources ; and 10) high fertility rates in the developing world. Demographics, the article argues, can change the way we fight war and add...ecosystems and natural resources long beyond the period of conflict, and often extends beyond the limits of national territories and the present generation...post- natural disaster recovery. Large military posts have both power needs and space for safety buffers that might be required for prototype power

  14. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. June 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Equipment……….…….…….3 Item 6. Technological Advances with Environmental Security Implications………..………3 6.1 Faster and Cheaper Virus Detector Uses...Item 6. Technological Advances with Environmental Security Implications 6.1 Faster and Cheaper Virus Detector Uses Indium Nanowires, Synthetic...Antibodies A more rapid and cheaper type of SARS virus -detector is being developed by a team from the University of Southern California. The active

  15. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. March 2007 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Redeploys Military to Defend Water and Oil ……………………….…….3 Item 6. Technological Breakthroughs with Environmental Security Implications………….4 6.1 Portable...ice sheets and floating sea ice. Military Implications: In view of the increasing importance of the Arctic in military planning and the oil reserves...range oil issues, and possible emerging new policies. Sources: ESA contribution to International Polar Year 2007-2008 http://www.esa.int/esaCP

  16. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. June 2008 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Observatory Proposed for Sahel -Saharan Region…………….………………1 Item 2. North American Environmental Security Action Plan……………………………….2 Item 3. Asian...publications.html?pub_id=698 1.2 Food Security Observatory Proposed for Sahel -Saharan Region Food security was the main theme of the 10th Summit of the...Community of Sahel -Saharan States (CEN-SAD). The Tunisian delegation has submitted a proposal to set up a food security observatory for the Sahel

  17. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. August 2007 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Relief Coordinator on Recent Floods in South Asia http://www.un.org/News/briefings/docs//2007/070809_Wahlstrom.doc.htm Leaf ’sweat glands’ to worsen...future flooding http://environment.newscientist.com/article/dn12559- leaf -sweat-glands-to-worsen-future-flooding.html Rising sea threatens China’s south...Researchers warn that risks of flooding might be higher than expected, if factoring in the “ stomata effect”––reduced ability of plants to suck water out of

  18. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. April 2007 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    cooperation could generate new regulations and marine environmental pollution monitoring systems elsewhere. Sources : New EU rules to crack down on sea... Sources : New road map for establishing marine protected area networks http://www.iucn.org/en/news/archive/2007/04/11_marine_protected_areas.htm...compile environmental health standards regarding electromagnetic fields, the sources said. A working group will be created in June under the Subcommittee

  19. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. February 2008 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Strategy http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11970 6.3. New Technique Might Power Nano-based Environmental Devices Researchers at the Georgia ...central Pacific. A representative of the New England Aquarium , which is advising the Kiribati government, stated, “The new boundary includes extensive

  20. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. September 2007 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    emissions and their activities’ impact on climate change . Military Implications: [Same as previous on similar issues and the implication on item 1 in this...and by region. The “Strategy Policy Issues” chapter includes ‘ Climate Change : Security Implications and Regional Impacts ’ and ‘The Military Use of...energy future and reduced impact on climate change . Rich in indicators on current energy use and CO2 emission patterns, the report is a good tool for

  1. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. July 2005 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    8 6.6 Conclusions on Health and Environmental Impact of 1990-1991 Gulf War……….…8 6.7 GMOs Controversy Continues……………………………………………………...…9 6.8...Governing Council Of United Nations Compensation Commission Has Concluded Its Fifty-Sixth Session http://www2.unog.ch/uncc/pressrel/pr_56c.pdf 6.7 GMOs ...biodiversity. The military should continue to follow the discussions on GMOs and developments of eventual international frameworks. International Environmental

  2. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. April 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    the Marine Environment…………………………...…7 8.3 Genetic Patenting and GMO Face New Challenges………………………………….8 8.4 India Further Loosens Already Lax Rules on...News/Press-Release/tabid/427/language/en-US/ Default.aspx?DocumentID=620&ArticleID=6521&Lang=en 8.3 Genetic Patenting and GMO Face New Challenges...economic and environmental benefits of GMOs use. In the U.S., GM crops account for more than 80% of soybeans, corn, and cotton. The first U.S

  3. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. February 2006 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Conference……8 8.2 Biotechnology and Biodiversity……………………………………………………….9 8.2.1 The Debate over Genetically Modified Organisms ( GMOs ) Continues………..9 8.2.2...of people depends on forests. Military Implications: The International Agreements on Forests and the multi-year work program should be reviewed for...Pacific Countries at Risk because of Rising Sea Levels in January 2006, First People Displaced Due to Rising Sea Levels in December 2005 and other

  4. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. April 2004 - April 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Agency for Internally Displaced People South Asian Environmental Migration AC/UNU Millennium Project www.acunu.org...Goals (MDGs). CSD-12 discussions centered on halving by 2015 the number of people without access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, and...seed is planted in suspected minefields and the plants’ roots come into contact with TNT, their leaves or flowers will change color, alerting people

  5. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. October 2005 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    waste management aspects; water resources; and genetically modified organisms ( GMO ). Along with Italy, Spain and Greece were also sent final...might sometimes hide the real cause of displacement, which might be bad policies and practices. [See also related item Implications of Environmental...international framework concerning this group of people ; continuously reviews the possible causes of refugee flows; and cooperates with civilian

  6. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. November 2005 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    GMOs Controversy Continues in July 2005 and other related items on the same issue in previous environmental security reports.] Military Implications...250,000 and 500,000 people globally each year, but health experts expect a pandemic could emerge that would kill many more. The main threat now is the...virulent H5N1 avian flu virus infecting chickens in parts of Asia and Europe. It has so far infected 123 people and killed half of them. But it could

  7. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. May 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    include lead, mercury , cadmium and several other substances. [See Recycling Regulations in the EU in August 2005 and Two E-waste laws entered into... mercury and cadmium portable batteries may contain (Certain classes, such as those for emergency systems and handheld tools, are excepted.) The new...multiple-exciton generation in other semiconductors, including lead sulphide , lead telluride and cadmium selenide. What’s more, Klimov says his group

  8. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. August 2006 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    materials (such as mercury , lead and cadmium); power requirements; lifespan; and the "end of life" recycling plans offered by the manufacturers. Military...amounts of lead, mercury , cadmium and other hazardous substances, including some nasty materials called brominated flame-retardants (BFRs). To do well...A few experiments suggest that in more acidic conditions, microbes will produce more volatile organic compounds such as dimethyl sulphide , some of

  9. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. November 2008 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    Appendix Biodegradation of carbon nanotubes, through enzymatic catalysis, could mitigate potential toxic effects (more) Microplastics recognized as...http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=8093.php International scientists to discuss effects of ’ microplastics ’ on marine environment http...effects http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=8093.php 7.8.2 Microplastics Recognized as Environmental Threat to Oceans A note has been

  10. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. January 2007 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    environment/eu-seeks-global-mercury-ban/article-160845 Halting the Child Brain Drain. Why we need to tackle global mercury contamination http://www.env...by the Parties. Among them there are 3 NGO representatives: Diana Iskreva- Indigo , NGO "Earth forever", Bulgaria, nominated by Switzerland; Sergey

  11. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. September 2005 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Tiny Batteries Offer Several Promises…………………………………….……….….4 5.4 Bacteria Used to Eliminate Perchlorate from Water…………….………….…………5 Item 6. Plastic Bags ...by subscription only; see alternative at: http://www.bioedonline.org/news/news.cfm?art=1994) Item 6. Plastic Bags Taxed and/or Banned...Several jurisdictions, including Ireland, Taiwan, Bangladesh, and some Indian states are banning or taxing the use of plastic bags because of their

  12. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. January 2010 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    price of some REEs (such as neodymium, praseodymium, dysprosium, and erbium used for wind turbine generators). John Kaiser, a California-based mining...consortium led by Edinburgh Napier University and the Institute of Occupational Medicine published a 426-page final report of the project Engineered

  13. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. June 2007 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    how water use is measured, which in turn will make water use more efficient. It is also working on new storage techniques, including "managed aquifer ...to post-conflict recovery , rather than fueling conflict. Monitoring and certification systems similar to the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme...populated areas––so that the situation got to national crisis proportions. Although equipped with the highest water storage capacity per capita in the

  14. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. June 2010 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    NEWS/6200594/1002/BUSINESS 6.7 Study Shows Deforestation Brings Malaria Epidemics A study based on data collected in Brazil‘s Amazon forests...deforestation is performed (including for potential military bases), not only in the Amazon , but in any malarial region. The Millennium Project...scarcity, drought , and adaptation to climate change, as well as on preparing forests for climate change. The Council stressed inter-linkages of water

  15. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. August 2005 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    climate at the time of the greatest mass extinction in history, at the end of the Permian Era. It reveals that an abrupt and dramatic rise in...Temperatures to Permian Extinction http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=104368 New observations and climate model data confirm recent warming of...atmospheric levels of CO2 triggered the extinction of an estimated 90-95% of all marine species, and about 70% of all terrestrial species. "The results

  16. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. October 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    nuclear arms. Deliberations will take at least until May 2010. Belgium has already banned cluster and depleted uranium munitions. [Related item: UN...dissolve in cold water than warm. Research carried out in the archipelago of Svalbard revealed that seawater could reach corrosive levels within 10 years... corrosively acidic by 2018; 50% by 2050; and entirely by the end of the century. 6.8.2 Food and Water Security The number of hungry people in the

  17. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. February 2007 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c . THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 AC/UNU Millennium Project...them. A fungus normally found in tropical or subtropical regions, Cryptococcus gattii , has suddenly become endemic on Vancouver Island, on the Pacific

  18. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. March 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    larger particles, it may need to be supplemented by a conventional filtration component (e.g. charcoal ) for certain types of pollutants. Military...Platform (more) • First ENPRA (Engineered NanoParticle Risk Assessment) Newsletter is now available (more) • Nano Meets Macro: Social Perspectives on...Nanoscience and Nanotechnology explores the diversity in social perspectives on the emergence of nanotechnologies (more) • Study shows nano damage

  19. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. January 2008 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    2008 5 Sources: ‗Pac-Man‘ molecule chews up uranium contamination http://environment.newscientist.com/article...Sound Orca Recovery Plan Released http://www.physorg.com/news120453628.html Salty shepherds. The Economist, Jan 24th 2008 http://www.economist.com

  20. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military, July-August 2008 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    food crisis. Bangladesh might lose some 30% of its food production by 2050. The island of Mindanao in the Philippines may experience a food crisis...Migration Bangladesh is considered among the countries most vulnerable to rising sea levels as a one-meter rise in sea levels could wipe out 20% of its...are South Africa, Nepal, Morocco, Bangladesh , Tunisia, Paraguay, Yemen, Sudan and Côte d’Ivoire, while water scarcity might possibly increase

  1. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. November 2009 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    to regulate nanosilver (more) • NIEHS awards 13 grants for nanomaterials assessment methods (more) • Australian group releases two workplace...22 The Millennium Project 5.8.8 Petition Filed for EPA to Regulate Nanosilver The International Center for Technology Assessment...ICTA) and a coalition of consumer, health, and environmental groups has filed a petition with EPA, requesting that it regulate all nanosilver

  2. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. April 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Employs a Revolutionary Nanotechnology-Based Biosensor http://www.azonano.com/news.asp?newsID=10982 6.4 Increasing Energy Efficiency Technologies... Animal Health Body Says Swine Flu Wrong Name http://planetark.org/wen/52643 International unity key to tackling swine flu threat, Ban says http...human health and welfare . Similarly, an international team of scientists discovered that sulfuryl fluoride, a fumigant introduced to replace methyl

  3. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. February 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Furthers Environmental Governance ……………………….……1 Item 2. UN Report on the Role of Natural Resources in Conflict and Peacebuilding…….…1 Item 3. South...1 Item 1. UNEP Conference Furthers Environmental Governance The 25 th session of the United Nations Environment...Programme (UNEP) Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum (GC-25/GMEF) took place February 16-20, 2009, at the UN Office in Nairobi, Kenya

  4. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. September 2008 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Assembly Stressed Environment-related Issues…………………...……1 Item 2. UN and Governments of Latin America and the Caribbean Met to Improve Disaster... governments at the 63 rd session of the UN General Assembly were the global food crisis, impacts of climate change, widespread hunger and poverty...ga/63/generaldebate/ Small Islands to World: S.O.S. http://www.avaaz.org/en/sos_small_islands/ Item 2. UN and Governments of Latin America and

  5. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. September 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Heads of State and Government and was convened by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, the Climate Change Summit of the Alliance of Small Island States...concerned with biosecurity should consider actively participating in these discussions, in which, reportedly, no government agency has offered an opinion...current trends continue, most glaciers from the mountains of tropical Africa will disappear by 2030, and those from the Pyrenees by 2050. Similarly

  6. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. July 2006 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    fossil fuel burning is making the oceans more acidic, dramatically altering ocean chemistry and threatening marine biodiversity, mainly causing coral...New Nanotechnology Organizations The Chinese Academy of Science’s National Center for Nanoscience and Technology and Institute of High Energy Physics ... problem . It also is building a large and controversial lab in Frederick, where new bioterrorism threats can be studied and tested. But overall, specific

  7. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. March 2006 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    the two meetings and be prepared to comply with the new requirements, including genetically modified organism ( GMO ) labeling of food containers it...aid. The military should be prepared to have up-to-date information on all the characteristics (including GMO content) of the food it moves around the...Systems to Control GMO Suggested……………………………….………14 9.3 Arctic Observing Integrated Network……………………………………….……….14 Appendix

  8. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. June 2005 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    imports, and Chinese spread of unapproved GMO varieties, might increase other countries’ verification procedures for different varieties of GMO food ...over GMO Bans Continue.……..………………….……………..9 8.9 Ratification began for the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast...Issues––June 2005 8 AC/UNU Millennium Project 8.8 The Controversies over GMO Bans Continue The EU is still divided

  9. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. May 2005 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    dialogue and post-conflict restitution; and cultural, ethical and spiritual values must be fully integrated into strategies of dialogue for peace...needed. The military should look into all the ethical aspects of eventual use of such technologies and be active in designing international...the Convention for extending the role of the public in decisions involving genetically modified organisms ( GMOs ). The declaration adopted by the

  10. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. January 2006 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Detected in Atmosphere……………………………………………4 Item 7. Marine Biodiversity Protection Regulations Need Improvement……………………4 Item 8 New Norwegian Emergency... overfishing , energy efficiency, renewable energy, and CO2 per unit of GDP. Based on the Index, the five top ranked countries are: New Zealand, Sweden...January 4, 2006 http://pubs.acs.org/subscribe/journals/esthag-w/2006/jan/science/kb_dechlorane.html Item 7. Marine Biodiversity Protection

  11. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. December 2005 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    6 7.1 Climate Change……………..………………………………………………………..6 7.1.1 Melting Permafrost Releases Methane Twenty Times More Dangerous for Global Warming than...Dangerous for Global Warming than CO2 Permafrost covers much of Russia, Canada, and Alaska. As it melts, trapped methane gas is released, which is...period of time; however, the phenomenon has not been properly factored into global warming forecasts. With less snow and ice, solar radiation that used

  12. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. October 2006 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Air Act. Over 16 other litigations are pending in U.S. federal and state courts against companies whose emissions are linked to global warming ; more...are expected to come. Swiss Re, the world’s largest reinsurance company, estimates that the annual liability costs of global warming will be $150 billion dollars per year within ten years.

  13. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. March 2011 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    from such sources as West Coast subduction plates and fault zones , the Yellowstone hotspot and overseas oceanic sources, like the Canary Islands and...importance, potential implementation strategies, and challenges for improving EU maritime spatial planning (MSP) and integrated coastal zone ...climate change, and environmental protection. Conclusions about potential further actions will be decided by the end of 2011. Integrated Coastal Zone

  14. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. September 2006 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    ethanol. Each kernel of this self-processing corn contains an enzyme that must otherwise be added separately at the ethanol factory. Just last...Scientists. But proponents of designer fuel crops argue that the risks are small compared with the threat of dependence on foreign oil . Some studies also...Even the village’s palm trees are dying, their roots washed away by inexorably rising seas. The roofs of its thatched huts are leaking, there are

  15. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military, February 2011 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    5 7.1 Waste Management Improvements...5 7.1.1 EU to Introduce Stricter Regulations for E- Waste Management.........................5 7.1.2 International...Partnership to be Established for Improving Local Waste Management

  16. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. July 2010 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    light is removed. Professor Shang has stated that this new technique is both more energy-efficient and more effective than previous UV photocatalysts ...transfer between nanoparticles and visible light photocatalyst http://www.rsc.org/publishing/journals/JM/article.asp?doi=b917239d The Millennium

  17. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. April 2008 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    already begun and is one of the phenomena that could have catastrophic warming effects. Japan plans to extract permafrost methane, which some fear might...6.4.5 Post-Kyoto Negotiations The first session of the post-Kyoto treaty working groups to advance the Bali roadmap was held. Seven more sessions will...32 years. Release of long-stored methane gas from the thawing of the Arctic is one of the phenomena that could have catastrophic warming effects. At

  18. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. August 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    the 1995 Treaty of Bangkok (for Southeast Asia), and the 2006 Treaty of Semipalatinsk (for Central Asia). Military Implications: The Pelindaba...Climate Change (UNFCCC). Among other things, the UN estimates didn‟t include key sectors such as energy, manufacturing, tourism , and natural ecosystems...by 2020. However, average cuts promised so far by the rich total just 10% to16%. The next negotiations will be held in Bangkok , Thailand from

  19. Interaction between BDNF Val66Met and childhood stressful life events is associated to affective memory bias in men but not women.

    PubMed

    van Oostrom, Iris; Franke, Barbara; Rijpkema, Mark; Gerritsen, Lotte; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Fernández, Guillèn; Tendolkar, Indira

    2012-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses point towards a pathogenic role of the Val66Met variant of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in major depressive disorder, specifically in males. We investigated whether BDNF Val66Met shows a male-specific interaction with childhood stressful life events on affective memory bias, a cognitive susceptibility factor for depression. Healthy volunteers (n=430; 272 females and 158 males) were genotyped for BDNF Val66Met (rs6265) and completed the self-referent encoding task and a childhood stressful life events scale. BDNF Met carriers reporting childhood events tended to recall a lower proportion of positive words compared to Val/Val homozygotes reporting childhood events. Sex-specific analyses revealed that the BDNF genotype×childhood events interaction was significant in male participants and not in female participants. The results suggest that in males, BDNF Val66Met interacts with childhood life events, increasing the cognitive susceptibility markers of depression. In females, this effect may be independent of BDNF Val66Met.

  20. Women's Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James E., Ed.; Davis, Hazel K., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The 16 articles in this journal issue deal with women's studies within the English curriculum. Topics discussed in the articles include (1) the feminist challenge to the male-centered curriculum in higher education; (2) the women's movement and women's studies; (3) connotations of the word "girl"; (4) women in English education; (5) the new…

  1. “I Always Worry about What Might Happen Ahead”: Implementing Safer Conception Services in the Current Environment of Reproductive Counseling for HIV-Affected Men and Women in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bajunirwe, Francis; Kastner, Jasmine; Sanyu, Naomi; Akatukwasa, Cecilia; Ng, Courtney; Rifkin, Rachel; Milford, Cecilia; Moore, Lizzie; Wilson, Ira B.; Bangsberg, David R.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Kaida, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background. We explored healthcare provider perspectives and practices regarding safer conception counseling for HIV-affected clients. Methods. We conducted semistructured interviews with 38 providers (medical and clinical officers, nurses, peer counselors, and village health workers) delivering care to HIV-infected clients across 5 healthcare centres in Mbarara District, Uganda. Interview transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Results. Of 38 providers, 76% were women with median age 34 years (range 24–57). First, we discuss providers' reproductive counseling practices. Emergent themes include that providers (1) assess reproductive goals of HIV-infected female clients frequently, but infrequently for male clients; (2) offer counseling focused on “family planning” and maternal and child health; (3) empathize with the importance of having children for HIV-affected clients; and (4) describe opportunities to counsel HIV-serodiscordant couples. Second, we discuss provider-level challenges that impede safer conception counseling. Emergent themes included the following: (1) providers struggle to translate reproductive rights language into individualized risk reduction given concerns about maternal health and HIV transmission and (2) providers lack safer conception training and support needed to provide counseling. Discussion. Tailored guidelines and training are required for providers to implement safer conception counseling. Such support must respond to provider experiences with adverse HIV-related maternal and child outcomes and a national emphasis on pregnancy prevention. PMID:27051664

  2. Iron nutrition and premenopausal women: effects of poor iron status on physical and neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    McClung, James P; Murray-Kolb, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Iron is a nutritionally essential trace element that functions through incorporation into proteins and enzymes, many of which contribute to physical and neuropsychological performance. Poor iron status, including iron deficiency (ID; diminished iron stores) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA; poor iron stores and diminished hemoglobin), affects billions of people worldwide. This review focuses on physical and neuropsychological outcomes associated with ID and IDA in premenopausal women, as the prevalence of ID and IDA is often greater in premenopausal women than other population demographics. Recent studies addressing the physiological effects of poor iron status on physical performance, including work productivity, voluntary activity, and athletic performance, are addressed. Similarly, the effects of iron status on neurological performance, including cognition, affect, and behavior, are summarized. Nutritional countermeasures for the prevention of poor iron status and the restoration of decrements in performance outcomes are described.

  3. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status and cancer family history of Danish women affected with multifocal or bilateral breast cancer at a young age

    PubMed Central

    Bergthorsson, J; Ejlertsen, B; Olsen, J; Borg, A; Nielsen, K; Barkardottir, R; Klausen, S; Mouridsen, H; Winther, K; Fenger, K; Niebuhr, A; Harboe, T; Niebuhr, E

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION—A small fraction of breast cancer is the result of germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 cancer susceptibility genes. Mutation carriers frequently have a positive family history of breast and ovarian cancer, are often diagnosed at a young age, and may have a higher incidence of double or multiple primary breast tumours than breast cancer patients in general.
OBJECTIVES—To estimate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in young Danish patients affected with bilateral or multifocal breast cancer and to determine the relationship of mutation status to family history of cancer.
SUBJECTS—From the files of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), we selected 119 breast cancer patients diagnosed before the age of 46 years with either bilateral (n=59) or multifocal (n=61) disease.
METHODS—DNA from the subjects was screened for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations using single strand conformation analysis (SSCA) and the protein truncation test (PTT). Observed and expected cancer incidence in first degree relatives of the patients was estimated using data from the Danish Cancer Registry.
RESULTS—Twenty four mutation carriers were identified (20%), of whom 13 had a BRCA1 mutation and 11 carried a BRCA2 mutation. Two mutations in BRCA1 were found repeatedly in the material and accounted for seven of the 24 (29%) mutation carriers. The mutation frequency was about equal in patients with bilateral (22%) and multifocal breast cancer (18%). The incidence of breast and ovarian cancer was greatly increased in first degree relatives of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, but to a much lesser degree in relatives of non-carriers. An increased risk of cancer was also noted in brothers of non-carriers.
CONCLUSIONS—A relatively broad spectrum of germline mutations was observed in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and most of the mutations are present in other populations. Our results indicate that a diagnosis of bilateral and multifocal breast

  4. Women: Support Factors and Persistence in Engineering. Research in Engineering and Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, John R.; Zeng, Yong

    2005-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the factors that promote persistence by women in engineering programs. Stated simply, the problem is that the number of women engineers continues to fall short in comparison to the gender ratio of women to men in the population in the U.S. (BEST, 2002) and worldwide (Hersh, 2000). More women engineers are…

  5. Use of HPV testing for cervical screening in vaccinated women--Insights from the SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated Women) study.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Ramya; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Cubie, Heather Ann; Serrano, Itziar; Wennington, Holli; Hopkins, Mark; Pan, Jiafeng; Pollock, Kevin G; Palmer, Tim J; Cuschieri, Kate

    2016-06-15

    The management of cervical disease is changing worldwide as a result of HPV vaccination and the increasing use of HPV testing for cervical screening. However, the impact of vaccination on the performance of HPV based screening strategies is unknown. The SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated women) projects are designed to gain insight into the impact of vaccination on the performance of clinically validated HPV assays. Samples collated from women attending for first cervical smear who had been vaccinated as part of a national "catch-up" programme were tested with three clinically validated HPV assays (2 DNA and 1 RNA). Overall HR-HPV and type specific positivity was assessed in total population and according to underlying cytology and compared to a demographically equivalent group of unvaccinated women. HPV prevalence was significantly lower in vaccinated women and was influenced by assay-type, reducing by 23-25% for the DNA based assays and 32% for the RNA assay (p = 0.0008). All assays showed over 75% reduction of HPV16 and/or 18 (p < 0.0001) whereas the prevalence of non 16/18 HR-HPV was not significantly different in vaccinated vs unvaccinated women. In women with low grade abnormalities, the proportion associated with non 16/18 HR-HPV was significantly higher in vaccinated women (p < 0.0001). Clinically validated HPV assays are affected differentially when applied to vaccinated women, dependent on assay chemistry. The increased proportion of non HPV16/18 infections may have implications for clinical performance, consequently, longitudinal studies linking HPV status to disease outcomes in vaccinated women are warranted.

  6. Violence Against Women

    PubMed Central

    Fulu, Emma; Miedema, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Globalization theories have proliferated over the past two decades. However, global developments have yet to be systematically incorporated into theories around violence against women. This article proposes to add a global level to the existing ecological model framework, popularized by Lori Heise in 1998, to explore the relationships between global processes and experiences of violence against women. Data from the Maldives and Cambodia are used to assess how globalized ideologies, economic development and integration, religious fundamentalisms, and global cultural exchange, as components of a larger globalization process, have affected men and women’s experiences and perceptions of violence against women. PMID:26215287

  7. Migraine in women.

    PubMed

    Lay, Christine L; Broner, Susan W

    2009-05-01

    Of the nearly 32 million Americans with migraine, 24 million are women. It is a disorder affecting women throughout their lifetimes, from childhood and puberty through the postmenopausal years. In childhood, before puberty girls are afflicted with migraine at approximately the same rate as boys, but after puberty, there is an emerging female predominance. Estrogen plays a key role in this epidemiologic variation but is not the only factor. There are numerous times when hormonal influences have an impact on migraine and its pattern, including menarche, oral contraceptive use, pregnancy, perimenopause, and menopause. Hence practitioners treating women with migraine need to have a clear understanding of these special considerations.

  8. Women in Meteorology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized

  9. Women's rights are human rights -- why development has failed women.

    PubMed

    1995-08-01

    Oxfam UK/I believes that all women have the right to a livelihood, reproductive choice, health care, education, and employment. Access to resources, decision-making, political and religious freedom of expression, and freedom from all forms of violence are also equally important. Oxfam UK/I recognizes that women worldwide from a diversity of cultures and religions are arguing for similar rights, but continuing efforts to create women's equality and empowerment have had only limited success. There has been no significant improvement in women's lifestyles, the feminization of poverty is increasing, growing religious fundamentalism threatens advances made toward equality, and there has been an increasing violation of women's individual human rights to development in the last decade. Human rights instruments to tackle gender inequality exist, but they are not implemented. The rights approach to development recognizes that unless inequalities at local, national, and international levels are seen and challenged, women will continue to face poverty, inadequate representation of their needs and views, and policies which are contrary to their interests. The rights approach encompasses all aspects of women's lives, recognizing that women's rights in the civil, political, social, economic, and cultural spheres are indivisible from one another in the realities of daily life. Oxfam UK/I acknowledges the complexity of the rights debate.

  10. Barriers to women's cardiovascular risk knowledge.

    PubMed

    Liewer, Linda; Mains, Douglas A; Lykens, Kristine; René, Antonio A

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for women in the United States, resulting in a greater emphasis on research and methods for addressing issues relating to this health problem both nationally and worldwide. The authors' purpose was to identify barriers to women's cardiovascular risk knowledge, both personal and organizational, through key informant interviews of health leaders at 10 community health organizations. Analysis showed an overall lack of awareness of CVD risk for women. Culture, finance, and lack of awareness and easily accessible programs implicated the importance of physicians as health care providers and educators for women patients.

  11. Overcoming boundaries of worldwide joint arthroplasty registers: the European Arthroplasty Register minimal dataset.

    PubMed

    Sadoghi, Patrick; Leithner, Andreas; Labek, Gerold

    2013-09-01

    Worldwide joint arthroplasty registers are instrumental to screen for complications or implant failures. In order to achieve comparable results a similar classification dataset is essential. The authors therefore present the European Federation of National Associations of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (EFORT) European Arthroplasty Register (EAR) minimal dataset for primary and revision joint arthroplasty. Main parameters include the following: date of operation, country, hospital ID-code, patient's name and prename, birthday, identification code of the implant, gender, diagnosis, preoperations, type of prosthesis (partial, total), side, cementation technique, use of antibiotics in the cement, surgical approach, and others specifically related to the affected joint. The authors believe that using this minimal dataset will improve the chance for a worldwide comparison of arthroplasty registers and ask future countries for implementation.

  12. Sharka epidemiology and worldwide management strategies: learning lessons to optimize disease control in perennial plants.

    PubMed

    Rimbaud, Loup; Dallot, Sylvie; Gottwald, Tim; Decroocq, Véronique; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Thébaud, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Many plant epidemics that cause major economic losses cannot be controlled with pesticides. Among them, sharka epidemics severely affect prunus trees worldwide. Its causal agent, Plum pox virus (PPV; genus Potyvirus), has been classified as a quarantine pathogen in numerous countries. As a result, various management strategies have been implemented in different regions of the world, depending on the epidemiological context and on the objective (i.e., eradication, suppression, containment, or resilience). These strategies have exploited virus-free planting material, varietal improvement, surveillance and removal of trees in orchards, and statistical models. Variations on these management options lead to contrasted outcomes, from successful eradication to widespread presence of PPV in orchards. Here, we present management strategies in the light of sharka epidemiology to gain insights from this worldwide experience. Although focused on sharka, this review highlights more general levers and promising approaches to optimize disease control in perennial plants.

  13. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  14. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Chai, Tze L.; Chan, Benny B.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Barr, Susan I.; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  15. Structures of School Systems Worldwide: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popov, Nikolay

    2012-01-01

    In the past 20 years I have been examining the structures of school systems worldwide. This ongoing research has been enriched by the findings obtained from the lecture course on Comparative Education I have been delivering to students in the Bachelor and Master's Education Programs at Sofia University, Bulgaria. This paper presents some results…

  16. State-of-the-Art in Open Courseware Initiatives Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vladoiu, Monica

    2011-01-01

    We survey here the state-of-the-art in open courseware initiatives worldwide. First, the MIT OpenCourseWare project is overviewed, as it has been the real starting point of the OCW movement. Usually, open courseware refers to a free and open digital publication of high quality university level educational materials that are organized as courses,…

  17. Worldwide Educational Broadcasting: Diversity and Challenge in a New Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodaira, Sachiko Imaizumi

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyzes the state of the world's educational broadcasting community following the rapid changes in the 1980s. The future prospects of educational television and radio broadcasting are discussed based on a summary of the Worldwide Survey of 48 foreign countries which was conducted in 1989, and a review of the presentations given by…

  18. Fluidized-bed boilers achieve commercial status worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1985-02-01

    The author reviews the current status of commercial fluidized-bed boilers worldwide. Particular attention is given to circulating fluidised-bed systems. A number of detailed tables are presented providing details of manufacturers of afb boilers, and information on 88 installed boilers, their fuels, combustion systems and operational data. Less detailed information is given of a further 140 installations.

  19. Worldwide Behavioral Research on Major Global Causes of Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dal-Re, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Researchers willing to publish their interventional studies' results must register their studies before starting enrollment. This study aimed to describe all "open" (i.e., recruiting or not yet recruiting) behavioral studies in 16 of 20 top worldwide leading causes of death. Method: Search on Clinicaltrials.gov database (March 2010).…

  20. Essays on the Future of Continuing Education Worldwide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Warren L., Ed.

    Topics chosen for these eight seminar papers divide basically into three categories: discussions on processes and methods for planning for the future of adult education; attempts to project into the future such worldwide problems as urbanism, conflict, the population explosion, and specific adult education trends; and discussion of the current…

  1. International Women's Day speech.

    PubMed

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts.

  2. Asthma is Different in Women

    PubMed Central

    Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in asthma incidence, prevalence and severity have been reported worldwide. After puberty, asthma becomes more prevalent and severe in women, and is highest in women with early menarche or with multiple gestations, suggesting a role for sex hormones in asthma genesis. However, the impact of sex hormones on the pathophysiology of asthma is confounded by and difficult to differentiate from age, obesity, atopy, and other gender associated environmental exposures. There are also gender discrepancies in the perception of asthma symptoms. Understanding gender differences in asthma is important to provide effective education and personalized management plans for asthmatics across the lifecourse. PMID:26141573

  3. How Does Heart Disease Affect Women?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video All of Our Stories Are Red: Yaskary's Story 04/ ... part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). All of Our Stories Are Red: Eileen's Story 04/ ...

  4. Annual Research Review: A Meta-Analysis of the Worldwide Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Salum, Giovanni A.; Sugaya, Luisa S.; Caye, Arthur; Rohde, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature on the prevalence of mental disorders affecting children and adolescents has expanded significantly over the last three decades around the world. Despite the field having matured significantly, there has been no meta-analysis to calculate a worldwide-pooled prevalence and to empirically assess the sources of…

  5. Population and women's health.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, V

    1994-01-01

    Explanations of cultural patterns can be found in the economic context (carrying capacity) in which they develop. Population pressure explains the abuse of women throughout history and in modern times because overpopulation leads to devaluation of women's reproductive capacity. A cultural response to overpopulation includes practices that limit the numbers of women of reproductive age. Such practices foster son preference, which results in selective abortion, female infanticide, neglect and overwork of girls, dowry deaths, and discrimination against widows. The results of these practices are manifest in sex ratios that are culturally rather than naturally controlled and in demographic facts such as the calculation that 60 million females are missing in Asia alone (and perhaps more than 100 million worldwide). Women are also removed from a reproductive setting by being kidnapped or sold into prostitution or by being forced to adopt prostitution for economic survival. In cases where survival is threatened by environmental degradation and population growth, the most harsh cultural practices will emerge to adapt the population to the resources at hand. This situation creates an ethical dilemma posed by the problem of imposing Western values on a culture that is undertaking adaptive practices to insure its very survival. Ways to help women in these situation include limiting population growth humanely through family planning, provision of paid work to women, and creation of an environment that supports a small family ideal. Prosperity itself, through modernization, sometimes causes family sizes to increase. The most important intervention appears to be the provision of paid employment outside the home for women. On the other hand, large-scale wealth transfers and liberal immigration policies simply send signals that population pressure is a regional problem that can be alleviated by the international community. Increasing immigration to developed countries will place

  6. 1969 Handbook on Women Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Published periodically by the Women's Bureau of the United States Department of Labor, this handbook assembles factual information covering the participation and characteristics of women in the labor force, the patterns of their employment, occupations, income and earnings, education and training, and the federal and state laws affecting their…

  7. Factors Affecting Response to Infertility Treatment: Case of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Peyromusavi, Fatemeh; Barouni, Mohsen; Naderi, Tayebeh; Shahravan, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Infertility affects both women and men in all the countries. Infertility often has profound long-term or short-term impacts on the people involved and puts them at risk of familial and social pressures. According to WHO estimates, between 8% and 12% of all the couples worldwide experience some form of infertility during their reproductive life, i.e. 50–80 million people are affected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to infertility treatment by taking into account factors such as age, hirsutism, menstruation and galactose among women in Kerman. Methodology: Of a total of 300 patient files evaluated 220 cases were flawless, of which the study factors were recorded. These data were estimated by Logit model. The dependent variable was the response to treatment (0 and 1) and the independent variables included age of men and women, hirsutism, menstruation, galactose, duration of the period no preventive measures were used and body mass index. After entering the data, model output was analyzed by using the STATA software. Results: The results showed that of all the model variables, female age (prob=0.0065), menstruation (prob=0.04), hirsutism (prob=0.02), marriage age (in months) (prob=0.02) and BMI were significant and other variables were not significant. McFadden analysis for goodness of fit was 0.92. Conclusion: The study results showed that women should pay more attention to variables such as BMI, menstruation quality (regular and irregular) and aging because clinical disregard of any of the above can have a significant impact on the individual’s fertility. PMID:26234994

  8. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-09-01

    The worldwide market for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems in three specific segments of the rural sector were determined. The worldwide market for photovoltaic power systems for village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications were addressed. The objectives of these studies were to: The market potential for small stand-alone photovoltaic power system in specific application areas was assessed. Technical, social and institutional barriers to PV utilization were identified. Funding sources available to potential users was also identified and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector were recommended to PV product manufacturers. The studies were prepared on the basis of data gathered from domestic sources and from field trips to representative countries. Both country-specific and sector-specific results are discussed, and broadly applicable barriers pertinent to international marketing of PV products are presented.

  9. World-wide increase in tropospheric methane, 1978-1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. R.; Rowland, F. S.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques used to assess methane concentration in the troposphere are described, and data obtained during the period from 1978 to 1983 are presented in detail. Tropospheric methane concentrations in remote locations averaged a yearly world-wide increase of 0.018 + or - 0.002 parts per million by volume (ppmv). Average world-wide tropospheric concentration of methane in dry air was 1.625 ppmv at the end of 1983 measured against an NBS standard certified as 0.97 ppmv. Contributing to this steady increase in methane concentration are increases in the source strengths from cattle and rice fields, which in turn result from CO, CH4 and HO coupling. Among the physical and chemical effects is an increase in greenhouse warming of about 0.04 C per decade.

  10. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The worldwide market for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems in three specific segments of the rural sector were determined. The worldwide market for photovoltaic power systems for village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications were addressed. The objectives of these studies were to: The market potential for small stand-alone photovoltaic power system in specific application areas was assessed. Technical, social and institutional barriers to PV utilization were identified. Funding sources available to potential users was also identified and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector were recommended to PV product manufacturers. The studies were prepared on the basis of data gathered from domestic sources and from field trips to representative countries. Both country-specific and sector-specific results are discussed, and broadly applicable barriers pertinent to international marketing of PV products are presented.

  11. Global Ionosphere Perturbations Monitored by the Worldwide GPS Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Manucci, A. T.; Lindqwister, U. J.; Pi, X.

    1996-01-01

    For the first time, measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) worldwide network are employed to study the global ionospheric total electron content(TEC) changes during a magnetic storm (November 26, 1994). These measurements are obtained from more than 60 world-wide GPS stations which continuously receive dual-frequency signals. Based on the delays of the signals, we have generated high resolution global ionospheric maps (GIM) of TEC at 15 minute intervals. Using a differential method comparing storm time maps with quiet time maps, we find that significant TEC increases (the positive effect ) are the major feature in the winter hemisphere during this storm (the maximum percent change relative to quiet times is about 150 percent).

  12. Searching for the corner seismic moment in worldwide data

    SciTech Connect

    Felgueiras, Miguel; Santos, Rui; Martins, João Paulo

    2015-12-31

    In this paper the existence of the corner frequency value for the seismic moment distribution is investigated, analysing worldwide data. Pareto based distributions, usually considered as the most suitable to this type of data, are fitted to the most recent data, available in a global earthquake catalog. Despite the undeniable finite nature of the seismic moment data, we conclude that no corner frequency can be established considering the available data set.

  13. Worldwide Report, Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, No. 273.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    catering to different forms of appraisal. The system, which is customised for specific companies, has a cost effective spin-off: Efficient...worldwide scale, and the mass media — especially TV —are being used for this purpose with increasing sophistication. You know how often the misuse of...technically, more advanced countries to developing, nations; Furthermore, "the existence of privately owned mass media in some countries such as the

  14. Iridium{reg_sign} worldwide personal communication system

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, J.

    1997-01-01

    The IRIDIUM system is a personal worldwide communication system designed to support portable, low power subscriber units through the use of a constellation of satellites in low earth polar orbit. The satellites are networked together to form a system which provides continuous line-of-sight communications between the IRIDIUM system and any point within 30 km of the earth{close_quote}s surface. The system architecture and operation are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Department of Defense, General/Flag Officer, Worldwide Roster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    USN 9707 970627 3 GENERAL/FLAG OFFICER WORLDWIDE ROSTER DATE DATE OF DUTY TITLE NAME RANK SERVICE ASSIGNED RANK DEP DIR J-8 CARTWRIGHT JAMES E BG* USMC...SIGNAL BRIGADE - SPARTANBURG,SC COMMANDER (RC) SIMPSON DARWIN H BG ARNG 9603 970303 263RD AIR DEFENSE ARTILLERY BRIGADE - ANDERSON,SC COMMANDER (RC...N ................. 27 CARSKADON BRUCE M ................. 28 CARTWRIGHT JAMES E ................ 04 CASCIANO JOHN P ................... 27 CASE

  16. Progress toward polio eradication - worldwide, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Hagan, José E; Wassilak, Steven G F; Craig, Allen S; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Quddus, Arshad

    2015-05-22

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to eradicate polio worldwide. Wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has been interrupted in all but three countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan). No WPV type 2 cases have been detected worldwide since 1999, and the last WPV type 3 case was detected in Nigeria in November 2012; since 2012, only WPV type 1 has been detected. Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV), usually type 2, continues to cause cases of paralytic polio in communities with low population immunity. In 2012, the World Health Assembly declared global polio eradication "a programmatic emergency for global public health", and in 2014, WHO declared the international spread of WPV to previously polio-free countries to be "a public health emergency of international concern". This report summarizes global progress toward polio eradication during 2014-2015 and updates previous reports. In 2014, a total of 359 WPV cases were reported in nine countries worldwide. Although reported WPV cases increased in Pakistan and Afghanistan, cases in Nigeria decreased substantially in 2014, and encouraging progress toward global WPV transmission interruption has occurred. Overcoming ongoing challenges to interruption of WPV transmission globally will require sustained programmatic enhancements, including improving the quality of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) to interrupt transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan and to prevent WPV exportation to polio-free countries.

  17. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review.

    PubMed

    McLean, Joanne L; Lobetti, Remo G; Schoeman, Johan P

    2014-11-14

    Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s) of this common disease is or are not known, and therefore prevention of the disease is not possible. Due to the multiple risk factors that have been described for feline hyperthyroidism, however, it is likely that more than one factor is involved in its pathogenesis. Continuous, lifelong exposure to environmental thyroid-disruptor chemicals or goitrogens in food or water, acting together or in an additive fashion, may lead to euthyroid goitre and ultimately to autonomous adenomatous hyperplasia, thyroid adenoma and hyperthyroidism. This review aims to summarise the available published evidence for the changes observed in the worldwide prevalence of the disease, as well as risk factors that may contribute to development of hyperthyroidism in susceptible cats.

  18. International organizations to enable world-wide mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, Richard L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of systems exist or have been proposed to provide world-wide mobile satellite services (MSS). Developers of these systems have formulated institutional structures they consider most appropriate for profitable delivery of these services. MSS systems provide niche services and complement traditional telecommunications networks; they are not integrated into world-wide networks. To be successful, MSS system operators must be able to provide an integrated suite of services to support the increasing globalization, interconnectivity, and mobility of business. The critical issue to enabling 'universal roaming' is securing authority to provide MSS in all of the nations of the world. Such authority must be secured in the context of evolving trends in international telecommunications, and must specifically address issues of standardization, regulation and organization. Today, only one existing organization has such world-wide authority. The question is how proponents of new MSS systems and services can gain similar authority. Securing the appropriate authorizations requires that these new organizations reflect the objectives of the nations in which services are to be delivered.

  19. Barriers to Disclosing and Reporting Violence among Women in Pakistan: Findings from a National Household Survey and Focus Group Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M.; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic…

  20. The Use of Contraception by Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H. M. J.; Rook, F.; Maaskant, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, contraception is frequently used by women for the prevention of conception, to regulate or postpone menstrual bleeding. The study aims to determine the use (number and method) of contraception by women with intellectual disabilities (ID), the indications, sources of referrals and relations with level of ID and age of the…

  1. Student Leaders at Women's Postsecondary Institutions: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renn, Kristen A.; Lytle, Jesse H.

    2010-01-01

    The single-sex higher education sector is growing worldwide as more women seek access to postsecondary education. Although positive learning outcomes--including leadership development--of women's colleges are well documented in the United States, less is known internationally. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study of 46 student leaders…

  2. Women and Representation: The Case of Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezey, Susan Gluck

    1978-01-01

    Describes a study to investigate attitudes of male and female politicians in Hawaii regarding womens' issues and the role of women in public office. Concludes that the sex of a politician is not a significant factor in individual attitudes toward public policies that affect women. For journal availability, see SO 506 481. (Author/DB)

  3. HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers

    PubMed Central

    Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941

  4. [HPV genotypes prevalence in México and worldwide detected by Linear Array].

    PubMed

    Flores-Miramontes, María G; Torres-Reyes, Luis A; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Vallejo-Ruíz, Verónica; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main factor associated with the development of cervical cancer (CC). Knowing about the prevalence of HPVs at different stages in the development of CC is important for determining the HPV oncogenic risk, the development of screening strategies, the evaluation of prevention programs, and also for vaccine designing. This paper is a meta-analysis of HPV prevalence worldwide and in Mexico from studies using the Linear Array® HPV Genotyping Test as a diagnostic test (it is the commercial test that, up to date, identifies the largest number of HPV genotypes in a single sample) in DNA of cervical samples from women with normal cytology, with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL), with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSIL) and with CC. The most prevalent genotypes after HPV-16 and -18 in women with CC varies depending on geographic region, which supports the need to develop detection and prevention strategies according to the characteristics of the population.

  5. Hormonal changes in menopause: do they contribute to a 'midlife hair crisis' in women?

    PubMed

    Mirmirani, P

    2011-12-01

    Female pattern hair loss is a common problem affecting a large number of women worldwide but beset by a paucity of research. The study of androgens has hitherto dominated the field of hair biology but there is increasing scientific and clinical data to suggest that nonandrogen signals can also affect the folliculosebaceous unit, especially in women. The discovery of oestrogen receptor beta has renewed and redefined prior concepts of oestrogen activity and signalling in hair biology. It is postulated that oestrogens modulate hair growth by their influence on a number of other hormones, growth factors, transcription factors and cytokines. The menopause is a period in which significant changes in oestrogen levels are recorded, and this review discusses studies that help to clarify the link between menopause and the perception of thinning hair. In a study of pre- and postmenopausal women without alopecia, menopausal status significantly influenced hair parameters, specifically hair growth rate, percentage anagen and hair diameter distributions, most notably in the frontal scalp. Hair density decreased with age, but was not correlated with menopausal status. Analyses of hair amount using a model of hair density and hair diameters suggest that the impact of changing hair parameters is most notable in the mid-forties for women.

  6. Is Women's Empowerment Associated With Help-Seeking for Spousal Violence in India?

    PubMed

    Rowan, Kathleen; Mumford, Elizabeth; Clark, Cari Jo

    2015-12-09

    Violence against women by their husbands is a problem for women worldwide. However, the majority of women do not seek help. This article presents findings from a national survey in India on empowerment-related correlates of help-seeking behaviors for currently married women who experienced spousal violence. We examined individual-, relationship-, and state-level measures of empowerment on help-seeking from informal and formal sources. Findings indicate that help-seeking is largely not associated with typical measures of empowerment or socio-economic development, whereas state-level indicators of empowerment may influence help-seeking. Although not a target of this study, we also note that injury from violence and the severity of the violence were among the strongest factors related to seeking help. Taken together, the low prevalence of help-seeking and lack of strong individual-level correlates, apart from severe harm, suggests widespread barriers to seeking help. Interventions that affect social norms and reach women and men across social classes in society are needed in addition to any individual-level efforts to promote seeking help for spousal violence.

  7. The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in women studying nursing and related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Opara, Józef; Czerwińska-Opara, Wioletta Ewa

    2014-03-01

    Urinary incontinence is a growing problem that affects millions of people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women studying nursing. Respondents completed a questionnaire assessing urinary incontinence, severity of symptoms and quality of life. Short forms to assess symptoms of distress for urinary incontinence and quality of life: UDI-6 and IIQ-7 have been used. The study's conclusions are as follows: 1) among the 113 interviewed women, stress urinary incontinence (SUI) was observed in 25% of respondents; this prevalence is similar to the age-matched population; 2) among the triggering factors mentioned in stress urinary incontinence the most frequent were: coughing, laughing and sneezing; 3) moderate impact of incontinence on quality of life has been shown, but this effect was not statistically significant.

  8. The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in women studying nursing and related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Czerwińska-Opara, Wioletta Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a growing problem that affects millions of people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women studying nursing. Respondents completed a questionnaire assessing urinary incontinence, severity of symptoms and quality of life. Short forms to assess symptoms of distress for urinary incontinence and quality of life: UDI-6 and IIQ-7 have been used. The study's conclusions are as follows: 1) among the 113 interviewed women, stress urinary incontinence (SUI) was observed in 25% of respondents; this prevalence is similar to the age-matched population; 2) among the triggering factors mentioned in stress urinary incontinence the most frequent were: coughing, laughing and sneezing; 3) moderate impact of incontinence on quality of life has been shown, but this effect was not statistically significant. PMID:26327826

  9. Tropical parasitic diseases and women.

    PubMed

    Okwa, O O

    2007-12-01

    Tropical parasitic diseases constitute the greatest threat to the health and socio-economic status of women as a gender and social group. There are some gender specific ways in which parasitic diseases affect women in contrast to men due to differences in exposure, occupational risk, sociocultural behavior, gender roles and practices. These parasitic diseases confer some social stigma, which affects the health seeking behavior of women. Women are therefore important in the control of these parasitic diseases and they are key agents of change, if they are included in community control programs. Women need more attention in endemic areas as a group that had been neglected. This deprived and excluded group have got vital role to play, as discussed in this review.

  10. Women in extreme poverty.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Population is estimated to increase from 5.5 billion in 1990 to 10 billion by 2050; the poverty level is expected to increase from 1 billion to 2-3 billion people. Women in development has been promoted throughout the UN and development system, but women in poverty who perform work in the informal sector are still uncounted, and solutions are elusive. The issue of extreme poverty can not be approached as just another natural disaster with immediate emergency relief. Many people live in precarious economic circumstances throughout their lives. Recent research reveals a greater understanding of the underlying causes and the need for inclusion of poor women in sustainable development. Sanitation, water, housing, health facilities need to be improved. Women must have access to education, opportunities for trading, and loans on reasonable terms. UNESCO makes available a book on survival strategies for poor women in the informal sector. The profile shows common problems of illiteracy, broken marriages, and full time involvement in provision of subsistence level existence. Existence is a fragile balance. Jeanne Vickers' "Women and the World" offers simple, low cost interventions for aiding extremely poor women. The 1992 Commission on the Status of Women was held in Vienna. Excerpts from several speeches are provided. The emphasis is on some global responses and an analysis of solutions. The recommendation is for attention to the gender dimension of poverty. Women's dual role contributes to greater disadvantages. Women are affected differently by macroeconomic factors, and that there is intergenerational transfer of poverty. Social services should be viewed as investments and directed to easing the burdens on time and energy. Public programs must be equipped to deal with poverty and to bring about social and economic change. Programs must be aware of the different distribution of resources within households. Women must be recognized as principal economic providers within

  11. Comparison of dietary intake and physical activity between women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Annie W; Lujan, Marla E

    2014-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age worldwide. In addition to deleterious effects on fertility imparted by PCOS, women with PCOS are at increased risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, depression, and certain cancers. Hormonal and metabolic aberrations in PCOS have the potential to influence dietary intake and physical activity levels. There are emerging global data that women with PCOS have different baseline dietary energy intakes compared with women without PCOS. These alterations in diet may exacerbate clinical symptoms and compound risk of chronic disease in patients. Few studies have compared baseline physical activity levels between women with and without PCOS. Although comparisons between studies are confounded by several factors, the data point to no differences in activity levels among PCOS and non-PCOS groups. This review provides an assessment of the current literature on baseline dietary intake and physical activity levels in women with PCOS. Future recommendations to strengthen research in this area are provided, given the implications to aid in the development of effective nutrition-focused interventions for PCOS.

  12. Women's reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, A

    1993-07-01

    Beginning in the mid-1800s, the American Medical Association, antiobscenity crusaders, and even women's groups supported criminalization of abortion. By 1900, it was illegal nationwide. In the late 1960s, women, physicians, and states began questioning abortion laws, since many women had unsafe, often fatal, illegal abortions. By 1973, 4 states had legalized abortion and 15 other states had liberalized abortion laws. A mid-1960 study showed that private patients comprised about 95% of all elective abortions. Poor clinic patients did not have the power to convince 3 physicians to support their request for an abortion. IN 1965, the Supreme Court agreed that a Connecticut Planned Parenthood Affiliate had the right to distribute contraceptives. The 1973 Roe v. Wade Court decision advanced this decision, by confirming a woman's right to abortion during the first 2 semesters of pregnancy. In 1976, the US Congress passed the Hyde amendment forbidding federal funding (e.g., Medicaid) for abortions except to save a mother. 2 1980 Supreme Court decisions supported the Hyde amendment. The Hyde amendment and these court decisions showed discrimination against poor women. Since then there have been other decisions that have whittled away at Roe v. Wade. Contraceptive failure is responsible for about 50% of the 1.6 million abortions/year. About 60% of women having an abortion are under 25 years old. Thus, criminalization of abortion would adversely affect many women as well as society. Many prochoice physicians had cared for women who suffered from botched abortions. Physicians under 45 years old tend to not know how to perform a 2nd trimester abortion because most obstetrician/gynecology residency training programs do not require them to learn it, and they do not want to do them. 2nd trimester abortion should be a required part of residency training. Physicians as preservers of women's health should be advocating safe abortion and not adopt the legal vs. illegal abortion

  13. The experience of chronic illness in women: a comparison between women with endometriosis and women with chronic migraine headaches.

    PubMed

    Barnack, Jessica L; Chrisler, Joan C

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of a chronic illness is a life changing event that affects the biological, psychological, and sociological aspects of a person's life. The purpose of the present study was to compare the experiences of pain, physical and psychological well-being, stress, patient satisfaction, social support, and attitudes toward menstruation of women who suffer from endometriosis and women who suffer from chronic migraine headaches. It was hypothesized that women with endometriosis would have more negative scores than women who have migraines on all measures because endometriosis is not understood by society to be a valid source of pain. Participants were 41 women with endometriosis and 32 women with migraines who were recruited from support groups and online listservs. Women with endometriosis reported significantly more pain, stress, and negative attitudes toward menstruation than did women with migraines. Implications for the differential treatment of women with chronic illnesses related to the menstrual cycle are discussed.

  14. Empowering Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundtland, Gro Harlem

    1994-01-01

    An edited version of Prime Minister of Norway Gro Harlem Brundtland's keynote address to the International Conference on Population and Development in September 1994. This address focuses on the role played by women in population growth and emphasizes the urgency of economic and political rights and education for women. (LZ)

  15. Empowering Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Aurelia

    2012-01-01

    Empowering Women is a traveling exhibition of folk art that focuses on ten cooperatives from four continents and ten countries. The exhibition is a window into the ways that cooperatives empower women to: (1) preserve and reinvigorate their country's traditional arts; (2) generate steady livelihoods for their families; (3) send their children to…

  16. AMERICAN WOMEN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Commission on the Status of Women, Washington, DC.

    FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE COMMISSION AND SEVEN COMMITTEES WHO ASSESSED THE STATUS OF WOMEN ARE REPORTED. THE COMMITTEES MADE RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE AREAS--WOMEN'S EDUCATION AND COUNSELING, HOME AND COMMUNITY SERVICES, PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT (THAT UNDER FEDERAL CONTRACTS), EMPLOYMENT IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, LABOR STANDARDS, FEDERAL SOCIAL…

  17. Stellar Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, Maria

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1900s, researchers at the Harvard College Observatory conducted an astonishing amount of astronomical research. A handful of women were integral to this research. Describes the professional lives and scientific findings of five of these women scientists at Harvard to inspire students. Classroom activities are included. (PVD)

  18. Women's studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    On March 31, 1997, the Association for Women Geoscientists will award two Chrysalis Scholarships to women who have returned to school after an interruption in their education for a year or longer. The $750 awards will be given to geoscience master's or Ph.D. candidates to cover expenses in finishing their theses.The application deadline is February 28, 1997.

  19. Ultraviolet B and Incidence Rates of Leukemia Worldwide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    basics. Gaithersburg MD: Aspen, 2000:141–5. 49. DeanHT, Arnold FA Jr, Jay P, Knutson JW. Studies onmass control of dental caries through fluoridation...Journal of Preventive Medicine.z D m s v t o Introduction Approximately 300,500 new cases and 225,500deaths from leukemia occur annually world-wide.1 In...expo- sure to tobacco smoke,3 electromagnetic fıelds,4 ben- From the Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University

  20. Mapping world-wide science at the paper level.

    SciTech Connect

    Klavans, Richard; Boyack, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes recent improvements in mapping a highly representative set of the world-wide scientific literature. The process described in this article extends existing work in this area in three major ways. First, we argue that a separate structural analysis of current literature vs. reference literature is required for R&D planning. Second, visualization software is used to improve coverage of the literature while maintaining structural integrity. Third, quantitative techniques for measuring the structural integrity of a map are introduced. Maps with high structural integrity, covering far more of the available literature, are presented.