Moschovaki, Eleni; Meadows, Sara; Pellegrini, Anthony
This study examines how teachers' use of affective strategies (voice intonation, dramatization, personal involvement comments) during the reading and discussion of books influence young children's affective reactions (dramatization, personal engagement, language play comments). Twenty kindergarten teachers read four books, two fiction and two…
The statistics of children and families experiencing military life and affected by deployment are astounding. Many children who have an uncle, aunt, brother, or other family member serving in the military live near a military duty station, but others live far from other military families. Caregivers and teachers of young children share a common…
Ebersöhn, Liesel; Eloff, Irma; Finestone, Michelle; Grobler, Adri; Moen, Melanie
"Telling stories and adding scores: Measuring resilience in young children affected by maternal HIV and AIDS", demonstrates how a concurrent mixed method design assisted cross-cultural comparison and ecological descriptions of resilience in young South African children, as well as validated alternative ways to measure resilience in young children. In a longitudinal randomised control trial, which investigated psychological resilience in mothers and children affected by HIV/AIDS, we combined a qualitative projective story-telling technique (Düss Fable) with quantitative data (Child Behaviour Checklist). The children mostly displayed adaptive resilience-related behaviours, although maladaptive behaviours were present. Participating children use internal (resolve/agency, positive future expectations, emotional intelligence) and external protective resources (material resources, positive institutions) to mediate adaptation. Children's maladaptive behaviours were exacerbated by internal (limited problem-solving skills, negative emotions) and external risk factors (chronic and cumulative adversity).
Ebersöhn, Liesel; Eloff, Irma; Finestone, Michelle; Grobler, Adri; Moen, Melanie
"Telling stories and adding scores: Measuring resilience in young children affected by maternal HIV and AIDS", demonstrates how a concurrent mixed method design assisted cross-cultural comparison and ecological descriptions of resilience in young South African children, as well as validated alternative ways to measure resilience in young children. In a longitudinal randomised control trial, which investigated psychological resilience in mothers and children affected by HIV/AIDS, we combined a qualitative projective story-telling technique (Düss Fable) with quantitative data (Child Behaviour Checklist). The children mostly displayed adaptive resilience-related behaviours, although maladaptive behaviours were present. Participating children use internal (resolve/agency, positive future expectations, emotional intelligence) and external protective resources (material resources, positive institutions) to mediate adaptation. Children's maladaptive behaviours were exacerbated by internal (limited problem-solving skills, negative emotions) and external risk factors (chronic and cumulative adversity). PMID:26291644
Howarth, Grace Z.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly
This study presents a novel task examining young children's affective responses to evaluative feedback--specifically, social acceptance and rejection--from peers. We aimed to determine (1) whether young children report their affective responses to hypothetical peer evaluation predictably and consistently, and (2) whether young children's responses…
Although many fathers today spend more time with children than was the case in the past, physical care of young children remains primarily mothers' work. Yet some fathers claim that they do work traditionally seen as the "mother's job" every day. Using subsample data from the male respondent file of the National Survey of Family Growth 2002 (n =…
Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; So, Stephanie A.
In this paper, we utilise an approach drawn from the field of epidemiology to explore what is known and unknown about young children with Down syndrome and their families. After describing what we mean by an epidemiological approach, we review basic findings for children with intellectual disabilities, as well as challenges to performing such…
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2010
Ensuring that young children have safe, secure environments in which to grow, learn, and develop healthy brains and bodies is not only good for the children themselves but also builds a strong foundation for a thriving, prosperous society. Science shows that early exposure to circumstances that produce persistent fear and chronic anxiety can have…
Hayden, Jacqueline; Otaala, Barnabas
This paper describes a recent study conducted jointly by the authors in the Khomas Region of Namibia. The study developed and trialled research and documentation methods regarding very young children who had been infected or affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Because of the stigma attached to the disease, effective methods for assessing "real"…
Blewitt, Pamela; Rump, Keiran M.; Shealy, Stephanie E.; Cook, Samantha A.
Shared book reading, and the conversation that accompanies it, can facilitate young children's vocabulary growth. To identify the features of extratextual questions that help 3-year-olds learn unfamiliar words during shared book reading, two experiments explored the impact of cognitive demand level, placement, and an approximation to scaffolding.…
The Health and Social Care Act comes into force in April 2013. It changes the organisation of the health service and accelerates the integration of health and social care. New relationships between primary and secondary healthcare will develop and the culture of clinical and cost effectiveness will expand into social care; work on children in…
McEvoy, Mary A.; And Others
Affection activities (such as hugging, smiling, and saying positive things) can be added to typical preschool games and songs to encourage interaction between handicapped children and nonhandicapped peers. The intervention can be adapted for use with children with diverse handicapping conditions. Typical activities, modified directions for…
Lam, Virginia; Guerrero, Silvia; Damree, Natasha; Enesco, Ileana
There is a substantial literature documenting pre-schoolers' racial awareness and affect from multiracial societies in North America and a fast-growing body of work from societies that are or were once more racially homogeneous. However, studies in Britain, a racially diverse society, on this developmental period have been curiously rare. This study examined racial awareness and affect of 125 White, Black, and Asian 3--to 5-year-olds in London. Children were tested on cognitive level, person description and classification, race labelling and matching, self-categorization and asked about their racial preference and rejection and inferences about their mothers' preference and rejection. Children were least likely to use race versus other categorical cues to spontaneously describe or classify others, even though the majority correctly sorted others by race labels, matched them to drawings, and categorized themselves by race. With age and increasing cognitive level, children described and categorized others by race more and improved in race matching. White children from age 4 preferred White peers and inferred that their mothers would prefer White children at age 5. Children's own preference and inference about mothers are related. Children did not show race-based rejection, but boys inferred that their mothers would prefer White children and reject Black children. The findings are discussed in relation to racial salience between contexts, previous research, and theories. PMID:21199507
Hodapp, Robert M; Urbano, Richard C; So, Stephanie A
In this paper, we utilise an approach drawn from the field of epidemiology to explore what is known and unknown about young children with Down syndrome and their families. After describing what we mean by an epidemiological approach, we review basic findings for children with intellectual disabilities, as well as challenges to performing such research. In considering the epidemiology of Down syndrome, we note that most studies to date have focused on prevalence, mortality-life expectancy, and rates of diseases and syndrome-related health-physical problems, while neglecting many other important issues. In considering potential advances in the epidemiology of Down syndrome, then, we first overview the process of linking two or more separate administrative records, before reviewing several of our own recent studies. We end this paper by discussing four challenges to future epidemiological studies of children with Down syndrome and their families.
Periss, Virginia; Blasi, Carlos Hernández; Bjorklund, David F
Perceptions of maturational status may play an important role in facilitating caretaking and resources toward children expressing them. Previous work has revealed evidence that cues of cognitive immaturity foster positive perceptions in adults toward young children at a time during their lives when they are most dependent on adult care. In the current series of studies, the authors investigated when during development these biases emerge. They tested American and Spanish adolescents ranging from 10 to 17 years of age. Each participant rated a series of vignettes presenting different expressions of immature and mature thinking attributed to young children. Results revealed that older adolescents performed similarly to adults tested in previous studies (D. F. Bjorklund, C. Hernández Blasi, & V. A. Periss, 2010), rating positively expressions of supernatural thinking (e.g., animism) compared with other forms of immature cognition labeled as natural (e.g., overestimation). Both male and female participants 14 years and older favored children expressing the immature supernatural cognition on traits reflecting positive affect (e.g., endearing, likeable), while associating greater negative affect (e.g., sneaky, impatient with) with children expressing immature natural cognition. However, younger adolescents consistently rated all forms of immature thinking less positively than mature thinking, suggesting that a positive bias for some forms of immature thinking develops during adolescence. Based on an evolutionary developmental framework, the authors suggest that supernatural thinking may have a unique role in humans, fostering positive perceptions of young children in older adolescents (and adults) as they prepare themselves for the possible role of parenthood.
"Can You Hear Me? The Right of Young Children to Participate in Decisions Affecting Them" emphasises that participation enhances children's self-esteem and confidence, promotes their overall capacities, produces better outcomes, strengthens understanding of and commitment to democratic processes and protects children more effectively.…
Dunst, Carl J.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.
Findings from two studies of 11 young children with autism, Down syndrome, or attention deficit disorders investigating the effects of Popchilla, a socially interactive robot, on the children's affective behavior are reported. The children were observed under two conditions, child-toy interactions and child-robot interactions, and ratings of child…
Chisholm, Vivienne; Gonzalez, Andrea; Atkinson, Leslie
Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children's capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D) management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation) and dyadic (joint attention and warmth) behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical relevance.
Chisholm, Vivienne; Gonzalez, Andrea; Atkinson, Leslie
Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children’s capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D) management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation) and dyadic (joint attention and warmth) behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical relevance. PMID
Charles, Kathy; Nason, Rod
Studies knowledge of young children's partitioning strategies by setting out not only to identify new partitioning strategies, but also to develop taxonomy for classifying young children's partitioning strategies in terms of their abilities. Provides taxonomy utilizing children's informal partitioning strategies as the foundation upon which to…
Bensalah, Leïla; Caillies, Stéphanie; Anduze, Marion
The authors investigated the development of the affective, cognitive, and behavioral components of empathy in preschoolers, specifically examining how cognitive empathy is linked to theory of mind and affective perspective taking. Participants were 158 children aged 4-6 years. They listened to narratives and then answered questions about the protagonists' emotions. The affective component was probed with the question, "How do you feel seeing the little girl/boy?"; the cognitive component with the question, "Why do you feel [emotion shared with the character]?"; and the behavioral one with the question, "What would you do if you were next to the little boy/girl [experiencing an emotional scenario]?" Results revealed a developmental sequence in the self-focused attribution of cognitive empathy, and a trend toward a developmental sequence for behavioral empathy, which underwent a slight linear increase between 4 and 6 years old. Affective empathy remained stable. More interestingly, they showed that cognitive empathy is linked to both theory of mind and affective perspective taking.
Concerts designed to introduce young children to music and live performance are staged by a variety of organisations and ensembles across Australia. Shows featuring a wide range of performers are advertised for young children. Such concerts include Babies' Proms, Family Concerts by symphony orchestras, Play School Concerts, performances by…
Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others
The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…
Rice, Kathleen Fitzgerald; Groves, Betsy McAlister
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services reports that close to 1 million children a year are identified as victims of maltreatment. The National Clearinghouse of Child Abuse and Neglect estimates that between 3 and 10 million children a year witness the abuse of a parent or caregiver. In recent years, therapists, educators, and…
Fujioka, Takako; Ross, Bernhard; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo; Trainor, Laurel J
Auditory evoked responses to a violin tone and a noise-burst stimulus were recorded from 4- to 6-year-old children in four repeated measurements over a 1-year period using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Half of the subjects participated in musical lessons throughout the year; the other half had no music lessons. Auditory evoked magnetic fields showed prominent bilateral P100m, N250m, P320m and N450m peaks. Significant change in the peak latencies of all components except P100m was observed over time. Larger P100m and N450m amplitude as well as more rapid change of N250m amplitude and latency was associated with the violin rather than the noise stimuli. Larger P100m and P320m peak amplitudes in the left hemisphere than in the right are consistent with left-lateralized cortical development in this age group. A clear musical training effect was expressed in a larger and earlier N250m peak in the left hemisphere in response to the violin sound in musically trained children compared with untrained children. This difference coincided with pronounced morphological change in a time window between 100 and 400 ms, which was observed in musically trained children in response to violin stimuli only, whereas in untrained children a similar change was present regardless of stimulus type. This transition could be related to establishing a neural network associated with sound categorization and/or involuntary attention, which can be altered by music learning experience.
Fujioka, Takako; Ross, Bernhard; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo; Trainor, Laurel J.
Auditory evoked responses to a violin tone and a noise-burst stimulus were recorded from 4- to 6-year-old children in four repeated measurements over a 1-year period using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Half of the subjects participated in musical lessons throughout the year; the other half had no music lessons. Auditory evoked magnetic fields…
Corona, Rosalie; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Arbelle, Shoshana; Wellington, Peter; Sigman, Marian
Compared attention, behavioral reaction, facial affect, and cardiac responses of 22 autistic and 22 mentally retarded preschoolers to emotional displays. Found that both groups looked more at the experimenter and displayed more interest and concern when the experimenter showed strong distress than when she showed neutral affect. Autistic…
Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Warash, Bobbi Gibson
Techniques for encouraging young children to discover the purpose and use of maps are discussed. Motor activity and topological studies form a base from which the teacher and children can build a mapping program of progressive sophistication. Concepts important to mapping include boundaries, regions, exteriors, interiors, holes, order, point of…
Gao, Shan; Wei, Yonggang; Bai, Junjie; Lin, Chongde; Li, Hong
This research investigated the development of affective decision-making (ADM) during early childhood, in particular role of difficulty in learning a gain/loss schedule. In Experiment 1, we administrated the Children's Gambling Task (CGT) to 60 Chinese children aged 3 and 4, replicating the results obtained by Kerr and Zelazo [Kerr, A., & Zelazo,…
Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1994
This newsletter theme issue deals with the phenomenon of mobility or transience in India, Kenya, Greece, Ireland, Malaysia, Thailand and Israel. The primary focus is on mobility's effect on young children, specifically their health and education; some of the broader concerns also addressed by the newsletter are the causes of mobility and its…
Frank, Mary, Ed.
The special issue of the journal, Children in Contemporary Society, contains 17 brief articles on environmental design for young handicapped and normal children. Articles have the following titles: "Introduction", "Environmental Design and Architecture", "Why Is Environmental Design Important to Young Children", "Children's Hospital National…
Dong, Caixia; Ge, Pengfei; Ren, Xiaolan; Wang, Jie; Fan, Haoqiang; Yan, Xiang; Yin, Shi-an
Objective To prospectively evaluate the efficiency of daily providing complementary food supplements decreasing malnutrition and anemia prevalence in elder infants and young children living in areas affected by Wenchuan Earthquake. Design Using promotional probability sampling method, 250 to 300 children from six-randomized townships (30 to 50 children in each township) in Kang County affected by the Earthquake were randomly chosen for follow up to evaluate intervention effectiveness using anthropometric measurement and hemoglobin level at six, twelve and eighteen months after start of intervention. Setting and Subjects All children from 6 to 18 months of age in Kang County (in North Western China) were daily provided with complementary food supplements containing multiple vitamins and minerals for up to 24 months of age. The intervention period lasted for one and half year. Results At beginning of intervention, malnutrition prevalence, including underweight, stunting and wasting were respectively 4.5%, 8.9% and 3.5%; anemia prevalence was 74.3%. After one and half year intervention, the growth and anemia status were significantly improved; the percentages of wasting, stunting underweight prevalence were decreased from 3.5%, 8.9% and 4.5% to 1.7%, 5.0% and 3.3% respectively, and the anemia rates were significantly decreased. Conclusions Our results indicated that an intervention using complementary food supplements could improve nutritional status and elevate hemoglobin level in elder infants and young children, which would significantly decrease the prevalence of malnutrition and anemia. PMID:24039797
Oliveri, M B; Wittich, A; Mautalen, C; Chaperon, A; Kizlansky, A
Low vitamin D levels in elderly people are associated with reduced bone mass, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and increased fracture risk. Its effect on the growing skeleton is not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of chronic winter vitamin D deficiency and higher winter parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels on bone mass in prepubertal children and young adults. The study was carried out in male and female Caucasian subjects. A total of 163 prepubertal children (X age +/- 1 SD: 8.9 +/- 0.7 years) and 234 young adults (22.9 +/- 3.6 years) who had never received vitamin D supplementation were recruited from two areas in Argentina: (1)Ushuaia (55 degrees South latitude), where the population is known to have low winter 25OHD levels and higher levels of PTH in winter than in summer, and (2)Buenos Aires (34 degrees S), where ultraviolet (UV) radiation and vitamin D nutritional status in the population are adequate all year round. Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the ultradistal and distal radius were measured in the young adults. Only distal radius measurements were taken in the children. Similar results were obtained in age-sex matched groups from both areas. The only results showing significant difference corresponded to comparison among the Ushuaian women: those whose calcium (Ca) intake was below 800 mg/day presented lower BMD and BMC values than those whose Ca intake was above that level (0.469 +/- 0.046 versus 0.498 +/- 0.041 g/cm(2), P < 0.02; 3.131 +/- 0.367 versus 3.339 +/- 0.386 g, P < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, peripheral BMD and BMC were similar in children and young adults from Ushuaia and Buenos Aires in spite of the previously documented difference between both areas regarding UV radiation and winter vitamin D status. BMD of axial skeletal areas as well the concomitant effect of a low Ca diet and vitamin D deficiency on the growing skeleton should be studied further.
Skelton, Sarah C.; Hamilton, Anne C.
This paper examines aspects of the use of puppets with young children and provides guidelines on proper times for puppet use, basic movements, and patterns. The use of puppetry in dramatic play provides young children with opportunities for refining communication skills and defining self. Puppetry provides a means for children to explore their…
Richter, Linda; Louw, Julia; Naicker, Sara
Many programs to support young children and families affected by HIV and AIDS depend substantially on a model of cascaded training from international nongovernmental organizations, through in-country groups and organizations to services on the ground. In this paper, we describe the training and capacity building – as described in proposals, progress reports, and individualized questionnaires – offered by 10 international organizations funded by the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation to provide supportive services for young children and their families in five southern and eastern African countries. We related the findings to effective features of training described in the literature. Training and capacity development were found to be the most substantial activities in rendering services to children and families, both in terms of effort and human and financial resources. A total of 67 trainings were conducted over a period of 18 months. Almost all trainings combine lecture-based instruction, group work/discussions, and role play, but only half of the trainings report some form of mentoring, supervision or coaching following the training. Drawing on the literature, it is likely that more purposeful planning is required in terms of the selection of trainees, local adaptation and development of materials, participatory training approaches, and techniques to develop and sustain skills as well as knowledge. Demonstration and mentorship in the field together with quality assurance procedures, pre-and post-assessment to evaluate training, processes to transfer learning into subsequent practice, as well as certification, are all fundamental steps to ensure that training plays a supportive role in the behavior changes necessary to support young children affected by HIV and AIDS and their families. PMID:26430466
This paper examines shyness--its causes and its impact on children--and presents several strategies based on social learning theory for parents and teachers to help young children overcome shyness. The paper also describes a personal application of these strategies on a young girl. The strategies presented for parents and teachers are: (1) tell…
Chalufour, Ingrid; Worth, Karen
Young children's curiosity about nature and their need to make sense of the world presents an opportunity to incorporate science as a natural and critical part of children's early learning. This guide, part of a preschool science curriculum, uses an inquiry approach to encourage young naturalists to observe life more closely, build an…
Diatkine, R; Bonnafé, M; Roy, J; Camus, C; Brandao, C
Children come into contact very early with the written language. The work of Emilia Ferreiro, a student of Piaget, has shown that from early on, well before they can read, they know that the written word has a meaning. Their successive hypotheses show an elaboration which does not occur by chance. Experience shows that babies have a specific interest for a book as an object. They recognize the value of the pictures, as much representations of their mental representations as are words, whereas these two capacities evolve in a complementary fashion. The capacity to be interested by a narrative introduces a new form of organization in the chain of representations, whether they refer to absent or imaginary objects. A good story has a special place among the narratives the child hears, which actually have the specific structures of the written language. The authors of this work report a number of examples of very young children who are put in contact with books. They see in this a new model for mental health work which can be set up by virtue of meetings outside the school rooms, the mental health services, and even of the libraries, by people of different professional skills, in order to loosen the vice of the children's daily routine, and to give the child time to dream with the books, and to draw the adults in to a salutary disorder.
Fehr, Ernst; Bernhard, Helen; Rockenbach, Bettina
Human social interaction is strongly shaped by other-regarding preferences, that is, a concern for the welfare of others. These preferences are important for a unique aspect of human sociality-large scale cooperation with genetic strangers-but little is known about their developmental roots. Here we show that young children's other-regarding preferences assume a particular form, inequality aversion that develops strongly between the ages of 3 and 8. At age 3-4, the overwhelming majority of children behave selfishly, whereas most children at age 7-8 prefer resource allocations that remove advantageous or disadvantageous inequality. Moreover, inequality aversion is strongly shaped by parochialism, a preference for favouring the members of one's own social group. These results indicate that human egalitarianism and parochialism have deep developmental roots, and the simultaneous emergence of altruistic sharing and parochialism during childhood is intriguing in view of recent evolutionary theories which predict that the same evolutionary process jointly drives both human altruism and parochialism.
Texas Child Care, 2002
Describes the common symptoms of stress exhibited by young children including: (1) social or behavioral; (2) physical; (3) emotional; (4) cognitive; and (5) language. Addresses causes of stress, which typically represent change, fear, or loss in children. Offers strategies for easing children's stress including muscle relaxation, deep breathing,…
Clements, Douglas H.; Swaminathan, Sudha; Hannibal, Mary Anne Zeitler; Sarama, Julie
Investigates, by conducting individual clinical interviews of 97 children ages 3 to 6, the criteria preschool children use to distinguish members of a class of shapes from other figures, emphasizing identification and descriptions of shapes and reasons for these identifications. Concludes that young children initially form schemas on the basis of…
Caballero, Jane A.
This handbook, designed for use with preschool and elementary age children, is based on the premise that the focus of the art program should be upon encouraging children to create art as a way of expressing feelings and communicating ideas. The value of art activities for young children lies in the process of creation rather than in the finished…
Vygotsky (1986) draws attention to the interrelationship between thought and language and other aspects of mind. Although not widely acknowledged, Vygotsky (1999) also drew attention to the search for the relations between cognition and emotions. This paper discusses the findings of a study which examined imaginary scientific situations within the early years. The central research questions examined: What is the emotional nature of scientific learning? and How does affective imagination support early childhood science learning? Video observations were made of the teaching of science from one site in a south-eastern community in Australia (232 h of video observations). The teachers used fairy tales and Slowmation as cultural devices to support the concept formation of 3- and 4-year-old children (n = 53; range of 3.3 to 4.4; mean of 3.8 years). The findings of this under-researched area (e.g. Roth, Mind, Culture, and Activity 15:2-7, 2008) make a contribution to understanding how affective imagination can work in science education in the early years.
Jessee, Peggy O.; Wilson, Heidi; Morgan, Dee
Discusses young children's emotional responses during medical examinations and procedures, developmental changes in how they conceptualize illness causation, and the role of play to reduce stress. Describes how teachers can best facilitate structured dramatic medical play therapeutically. (KB)
Describes how the young children of the Early Learning Center in the Chelsea (Massachusetts) school district learned about Igor Stravinsky's ballet suite, "The Firebird." Explains that children in three kindergarten classes depicted the ballet's characters in a participatory performance. Highlights some qualitative observations. (CMK)
Wood, Frances B.
In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.
Presents suggestions for teaching chess to young children as part of the problem-solving component of a kindergarten mathematics curriculum. Discusses the introduction of pairs of chess characters, playing challenge games with teachers to enhance skill development, and writing down the rules of the game. Notes that children's problem-solving and…
The planning and design of child care centers has been undertaken without sufficient knowledge of children's spatial behavior, resulting in centers not providing appropriate physical conditions for young children's developmental needs. Research suggests that physical environment is important in supporting child development. Child care settings…
Marulis, Loren M.; Neuman, Susan B.
This meta-analysis is designed to build on the existing knowledge base by examining vocabulary interventions specifically for factors associated with child outcomes for at-risk children. Specifically, the authors addressed the following questions: (1) To what extent are vocabulary interventions an effective method for at-risk children prior to…
Krause, Christina Miles
Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:…
Cunningham, Joseph G.
Young children's nonverbal affective expression and communication reveals an emotional complexity and sensitivity which exceeds their verbal abilities. To investigate the development of nonverbal emotional communication in young children, two studies were undertaken. In the first study, equal numbers of 5- and 11-year-old children from two schools…
The purpose of this study was to examine young children's views about shadows. Young children hear references to or are involved in many scientific experiences in their everyday lives, and shadows are a part of children's everyday experiences. Young children may have constructed their knowledge about shadows through their daily experiences.…
Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Merriman, William E.; Barnett, Michelle; Hanba, Jessica; Van Haitsma, Kylee S.
Children tend to choose an entity they cannot already label, rather than one they can, as the likely referent of a novel noun. The effect of input that contradicts this strategy on the interpretation of other novel nouns was investigated. In pre- and posttests, 4-year-olds were asked to judge whether novel nouns referred to "name-similar" familiar…
This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…
Hinton, Stephanie; Cassel, Darlinda
This study researched the experiences of homeless families with young children between the ages of four and eight. Many families experience homelessness every year; therefore, it is important for early childhood educators to have an understanding of how homelessness affects families with young children so that educators can effectively serve the…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…
Parrish, Anne-Maree; Yeatman, Heather; Iverson, Don; Russell, Ken
School break times provide a daily opportunity for children to be active; however, research indicates this time is underutilized. Reasons for low children's playground activity levels have primarily focused on physical barriers. This research aimed to contribute to physical environmental findings affecting children's playground physical activity…
Discusses relationships between parental authority patterns by which children are influenced and the development of socially responsible and independent behavior in young children (especially girls). (NH)
Koblinsky, Sally; And Others
Discusses guidelines (developed by the Oregon State University Early Childhood Sex Education Project) for developing teacher-parent cooperation in providing sex education to young children. The guidelines concern how to talk about body differences and body functions; how to deal with masturbation, sex play and obscene language; and how to involve…
Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.; Goode, Sue, Comp.
This fact sheet provides data on infants, toddlers and young children who are experiencing high stress as a result of a number of risk factors specifically identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), including substantiated abuse or neglect, foster care placement, homelessness, exposure to family…
Honig, Alice Sterling
This paper discusses creativity in young children and what teachers can do to support and promote it. Topics addressed in the paper include: (1) teacher interest in promoting creativity; (2) defining creativity; (3) creativity in the socioemotional domain; (4) the relationship between creativity and empathy for others; (4) bibliotherapy; (5)…
Notes that fear has the potential to interfere with the young child's quality of life, and offers some understanding of the nature and normal developmental course of early childhood fears. Discusses reasons for fearful behavior and different temperament types. Offers suggestions on how adults can help children cope with fear and how teachers can…
WINSOR, CHARLOTTE B.
IT IS SUGGESTED THAT THE CONCEPTS OF THE WORLD MUST BE PRESENTED TO YOUNG CHILDREN IN A DYNAMIC AND TANGIBLE WAY. THE WRITER SPEAKS OF THE SCHOOL AS A COMMUNITY OF MEN IN MICROCOSM. THE ACQUISITION OF THE TOOLS OF LEARNING, THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE SYMBOLISM IN OUR CULTURE, THE PROCESSES OF ABSTRACT LEARNING AND MEANING, AND THE UNDERSTANDING OF…
Kuchner, Joan F.
This paper explores the development of humor, the positive potential of young children's humor, and resources for harnessing the energy of humor. The literature on humor is dominated by two theoretical streams: psychoanalytic theory, which recognizes humor as a vehicle for expressing emotions, particularly unacceptable emotions; and cognitive…
Williams, Cheri; Mayer, Connie
The authors conducted an integrative review of the research literature on the writing development, writing instruction, and writing assessment of young deaf children ages 3 to 8 years (or preschool through third grade) published between 1990 and 2012. A total of 17 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. The analysis examined research…
English, Lyn D.
Fifty children, ranging in age from 4 to 10, were individually administered a series of tasks involving different combinations of 2 items selected from a discrete set of items. Analyses of their performances revealed a series of six, increasingly sophisticated, solution strategies ranging from random number selection of items to a systematic…
IDRA Newsletter, 1998
This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational, cognitive, and brain research with implications for early childhood educators, including those who work with limited-English-proficient, minority, and economically disadvantaged children. "Coming to Grips with Reading Instruction at the Early Grades" (Christie L. Goodman) reports…
Kirkorian, Heather L; Wartella, Ellen A; Anderson, Daniel R
Electronic media, particularly television, have long been criticized for their potential impact on children. One area for concern is how early media exposure influences cognitive development and academic achievement. Heather Kirkorian, Ellen Wartella, and Daniel Anderson summarize the relevant research and provide suggestions for maximizing the positive effects of media and minimizing the negative effects. One focus of the authors is the seemingly unique effect of television on children under age two. Although research clearly demonstrates that well-designed, age-appropriate, educational television can be beneficial to children of preschool age, studies on infants and toddlers suggest that these young children may better understand and learn from real-life experiences than they do from video. Moreover, some research suggests that exposure to television during the first few years of life may be associated with poorer cognitive development. With respect to children over two, the authors emphasize the importance of content in mediating the effect of television on cognitive skills and academic achievement. Early exposure to age-appropriate programs designed around an educational curriculum is associated with cognitive and academic enhancement, whereas exposure to pure entertainment, and violent content in particular, is associated with poorer cognitive development and lower academic achievement. The authors point out that producers and parents can take steps to maximize the positive effects of media and minimize the negative effects. They note that research on children's television viewing can inform guidelines for producers of children's media to enhance learning. Parents can select well-designed, age-appropriate programs and view the programs with their children to maximize the positive effects of educational media. The authors' aim is to inform policymakers, educators, parents, and others who work with young children about the impact of media, particularly
Proctor, Laura J.; Fauchier, Angele; Oliver, Pamella H.; Ramos, Michelle C.; Rios, Martha A.; Margolin, Gayla
Background: Family context can affect children's vulnerability to various stresses, but little is known regarding the role of family variables on children's reactions to natural disaster. This prospective study examined the influence of predisaster observed parenting behaviors and postdisaster parental stress on young children's distress following…
Science News, 1978
Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)
Heller-Rouassant, Solange; Flores-Quijano, María Eugenia
Cow´s milk represents a very important source of proteins of high biological value and calcium in the child´s diet. The aim of this article is to review the available evidences of its role in nutrition of young children and school age children. Its main benefits are related with effects in linear growth, bone health and oral health, as protein source in early severe malnutrition, and it does not appears to influence metabolic syndrome risk and autism. High protein content in cow´s milk and increased protein consumption by children during the complementary feeding period is associated to the risk of developing a high body mass index and obesity in school-age children; therefore, milk consumption should be mildly restricted during the second year of life and to 480-720 ml/day during the first years of life. Its relationship with some diseases has not been confirmed, and milk consumption is associated with iron deficiency. The use of low-fat cow's milk instead of regular milk in young children remains controversial and its introduction is not advised before 2 to 4 years of age. PMID:27603883
Allen, Alexandra Boeving; Finestone, Michelle; Eloff, Irma; Sipsma, Heather; Makin, Jennifer; Triplett, Kelli; Ebersöhn, Liesel; Sikkema, Kathleen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Visser, Maretha; Ferreira, Ronél; Forsyth, Brian W C
Prior investigations suggest that maternal HIV/AIDS poses significant challenges to young children. This study investigates the relationships between mothers' psychological functioning, parenting, and children's behavioral outcomes and functioning in a population of women living with HIV (N = 361) with a child between the ages of 6 and 10 years in Tshwane, South Africa. Utilizing path analysis, findings revealed that maternal depression is related to increased parenting stress and parent-child dysfunction, maternal coping is related to parenting style, and maternal coping, parenting style and stress, and parent-child dysfunction are associated with children's behavior and functioning, with parenting emerging as an important mediator. These findings suggest that interventions for women living with HIV and their children should not only address maternal psychological functioning (depression and coping), but should also focus on parenting, promoting a positive approach.
The use of a porous high-density polyethylene ear implant, rather than a costal cartilage framework, allows ear reconstruction in young children before they enter school. The fact that the growth of the normal ear matures early allows for good symmetry. If the implant is covered completely with a large, well-vascularized superficial parietal fascia flap and appropriately color-matched skin, an ear with excellent projection and definition can be obtained with minimal complications and long-term viability. Ear reconstruction in young children is preferred by the author because the necessary fascial flap coverage is thinner, easier to harvest than in older patients, and can be done in a single outpatient procedure with minimal discomfort or psychological trauma. PMID:26667634
Blum, N J; Williams, G E; Friman, P C; Christophersen, E R
Pediatricians are often asked to advise parents who are having difficulty managing the oppositional behaviors of their toddlers and preschool-age children. A large number of articles provide advice to pediatricians and parents on effective disciplinary strategies. However, despite the fact that verbal explanations, reasoning, and instructions are commonly used by parents, few articles directly address the use of these strategies to affect children's behavior. In this paper, we review studies that explicitly investigate the ability of adults' verbal explanations or instructions to alter the behavior of young children. These studies suggest that under most circumstances, verbal explanations and instructions are not effective in changing young children's problem behaviors. We then discuss how theories in developmental and behavioral psychology help explain the limitations of using verbal reasoning and instructions to change young children's problem behaviors. Finally, we provide some recommendations for parents on the use of verbal explanations and instructions in disciplining young children.
Goodhart, C; Logan, S
Although anaemia is common among young children and may be detrimental to health and development, few blood tests are done in this age group. We found that thumb-prick blood tests were not stressful to most young children and, despite the high mobility of the population, achieved an 81% uptake of screening for anaemia (273 out of 335 eligible children). PMID:10818660
Plowman, Lydia; McPake, Joanna
Parents and educators tend to have many questions about young children's play with computers and other technologies at home. They can find it difficult to know what is best for children because these toys and products were not around when they were young. Some will say that children have an affinity for technology that will be valuable in their…
Quisumbing, Lourdes R.
Highlights the importance of preparing young children to become peacemakers and peace builders. Addresses the steps of moving toward a culture of peace, preparing children for peace, peace education, and values education for peace. Advocates early childhood educators teaching peace to young children. (SD)
Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane
The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With…
Blarney, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.
Storybook reading offers an ideal context for teaching young children new words. Text Talk is one method designed for teaching elementary students new words after reading. However, using the Text Talk vocabulary procedures with young children, the authors observed several challenges both for teachers' implementation and children's learning.…
James, Jean Yahres; Kormanski, James; Kormanski, Luethel M.
Addresses concerns about nurturing positive attitudes in young children toward an ever-increasingly aging population. Discusses five elements of general picture books for young children, and explains characteristics of positive intergenerational relationships as portrayed in popular children's books. Provides an annotated bibliography of 16…
Hale, Judy Ann
Helping young children to cope with stress plays a vital role in today's classroom. It is normal for children to experience stress, which comes from pressures such as family, friends, and school. Some of the indicators of stress in young children are behavioral changes (e.g., mood swings, changes in sleep patterns, and incontinence) and physical…
As states respond to major welfare legislation in providing assistance and other interventions to help adults on welfare become ready to work, the challenge of helping these adults in their parenting skills and in promoting resilience in their children has often been ignored. This issue brief addresses the challenge of promoting resilience in…
Zink, I; Schaerlaekens, A
This article deals with the new challenges put on language diagnosis, and the growing need for good diagnostic instruments for young children. Particularly for Dutch, the original English Reynell Developmental Language Scales were adapted not only to the Dutch idiom, but some general ameliorations and changes in the original scales resulted in a new instrument named the RTOS. The new instrument was standardized on a large population, and psychometrically evaluated. In communicating the experiences with such a language/cultural/psychometric adaptation, we hope that other language-minority groups will be encouraged to undertake similar adaptations.
Fidler, Debbie J; Hepburn, Susan L; Most, David E; Philofsky, Amy; Rogers, Sally J
The hypothesis that young children with Williams syndrome show higher rates of emotional responsivity relative to other children with developmental disabilities was explored. Performance of 23 young children with Williams syndrome and 30 MA-matched children with developmental disabilities of nonspecific etiologies was compared on an adaptation of Repacholi and Gopnik's (1997) "Yummy-Yucky" task. Results show that children with Williams syndrome were more likely to mimic and/or imitate facial affect and vocalizations than children in the mixed comparison group. Yet, this increased emotional responsivity did not substantially improve decision-making based on the affective display; children with Williams syndrome were more likely to attempt to convince the experimenter that the disliked food was likable. Implications of a social profile that includes enhanced emotional responsivity paired with impaired perspective taking are discussed. PMID:17542656
Scorza, C.; Miley, G.; Ödman, C.; Madsen, C.
Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme that will expose economically disadvantaged young children aged between 4 and 10 years to the inspirational aspects of modern astronomy. The programme is motivated by the premise that access to simple knowledge about the Universe is a basic birth right of everybody. These formative ages are crucial in the development of a human value system. This is also the age range in which children can learn to develop a 'feeling' for the vastness of the Universe. Exposing young children to such material is likely to broaden their minds and stimulate their world-view. The goals of Universe Awareness are in accordance with two of the United Nations Millennium goals, endorsed by all 191 UN member states, namely (i) the achievement of universal primary education and (ii) the promotion of gender equality in schools. We propose to commence Universe Awareness with a pilot project that will target disadvantaged regions in about 4 European countries (possibly Spain, France, Germany and The Netherlands) and several non-EU countries (possibly Chile, Colombia, India, Tunisia, South Africa and Venezuela). There will be two distinct elements in the development of the UNAWE program: (i) Creation and production of suitable UNAWE material and delivery techniques, (ii) Training of educators who will coordinate UNAWE in each of the target countries. In addition to the programme, an international network of astronomy outreach will be organised. We present the first results of a pilot project developed in Venezuela, where 670 children from different social environments, their teachers and members of an indigenous tribe called Ye´kuana from the Amazon region took part in a wonderful astronomical and cultural exchange that is now being promoted by the Venezuelan ministry of Education at the national level.
Corsaro, William A.
Discusses young children's conceptions of status and role based on sociolinguistic analyses of spontaneous role play. Links developmental features of social knowledge to contextual features of children's interactive experiences. (Author/CK)
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Zeece, Pauline Davey; Harris, Beatrice; Hayes, Noirin
Well-chosen and wisely shared literature facilitates transitions and builds bridges in the lives of young children. Literature links are discussed and books are reviewed for infant, toddler, preschool, and primary age children and transitional readers.
Allen, Alexandra Boeving; Finestone, Michelle; Sipsma, Heather; Makin, Jennifer; Triplett, Kelli; Ebersöhn, Liesel; Sikkema, Kathleen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Visser, Maretha; Ferreira, Ronél; Forsyth, Brian W. C.
Prior investigations suggest that maternal HIV/AIDS poses significant challenges to young children. This study investigates the relationships between mothers’ psychological functioning, parenting, and children’s behavioral outcomes and functioning in a population of women living with HIV (N = 361) with a child between the ages of 6 and 10 years in Tshwane, South Africa. Utilizing path analysis, findings revealed that maternal depression is related to increased parenting stress and parent–child dysfunction, maternal coping is related to parenting style, and maternal coping, parenting style and stress, and parent–child dysfunction are associated with children’s behavior and functioning, with parenting emerging as an important mediator. These findings suggest that interventions for women living with HIV and their children should not only address maternal psychological functioning (depression and coping), but should also focus on parenting, promoting a positive approach. PMID:23892768
Wyman, Peter A.; And Others
Tested hypotheses from an organizational-developmental model for childhood resilience among 7- to 9-year olds. Found that caregiving factors and early development differentiated children with resilient and stress-affected adaptations. Variables reflecting emotionally responsive, competent parenting were direct, proximal predictors of resilience…
This book is one of a series of four in which issues affecting the organization and work of the British Infant School are considered. The series, "Young Children Learning," is designed to express current educational theory in terms of the practical work of teachers and children in infant schools. The books include recent research into the ways in…
Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Goldman, Sylvie
This study examined the ability of young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to detect affective correspondences between facial and vocal expressions of emotion using an intermodal matching paradigm. Four-year-old children with ASD (n = 18) and their age-matched normally developing peers (n = 18) were presented pairs of videotaped facial…
Virtual worlds for children are becoming increasingly popular, and yet there are few accounts of children's use of these worlds. Young children are spending increasing amounts of time online as technology continues to create significant changes in social and cultural practices in the 21st century. Some of children's online interactions can be…
Honig, Alice Sterling; Nealis, Arlene L.
Young children's dreams can be a way for teachers and caregivers to share with children and an opportunity for children to describe and even draw dreams. In two different preschool settings, in two different geographical locales, 94 children, aged 3-5 years, shared 266 dreams with a trusted, familiar teacher. Dreams were coded anonymously. The…
The versatility of the computer can be expanded considerably for young handicapped children by using input devices other than the typewriter-style keyboard. Input devices appropriate for young children can be classified into four categories: alternative keyboards, contact switches, speech input devices, and cursor control devices. Described are…
Bennett, Neil G.; Li, Jiali; Song, Younghwan; Yang, Keming
This document continues a series of statistical reports from the National Center for Children in Poverty about young child poverty in the United States. The highlights of this update include the current profile of extremely poor, poor, and near poor population of young children; an examination of the changing association between higher education…
Gaut, Berys; Gaut, Morag
Co-written by a professor of philosophy and a practising primary school teacher, "Philosophy for Young Children" is a concise, practical guide for teachers. It contains detailed session plans for 36 philosophical enquiries--enough for a year's work--that have all been successfully tried, tested and enjoyed with young children from the age of three…
Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood Education, 2004
This curriculum, designed for young children ages 3-6, focuses on math, science, and social studies and includes integrated activities to use with over 30 software titles. Young Children as Explorers: Interactive Learning Experiences addresses learning standards established by the National Council for Teachers of Mathematics, National Research…
Finegan, Colleen; Austin, Nancy Jo
Is computer usage appropriate for young children? The manner in which the computer is used can benefit the child, have no effect whatsoever, or actually be detrimental to the child's academic and personal growth. Specific conditions can be instituted to assure that young children benefit from their exposure to or interaction with technology. How…
Osofsky, Joy D., Ed.
Recent years have seen significant advances in knowledge about the effects of exposure to psychological trauma on young children from birth to age 5. This volume brings together leading experts to address practical considerations in working with traumatized young children and their caregivers. State-of-the-art assessment and treatment approaches…
Using works of art with young children is a perfect way to bridge the gap between art activities that are too open or too closed. Teachers of young children sometimes try to find a middle ground by allowing free painting time at an easel in addition to recipe-oriented activities such as putting together precut shapes to create a spider or an apple…
Rivkin, Mary S.
This digest examines the value of outdoor experience for young children, reasons for its decline, ways to enhance school play spaces, and aspects of developmentally appropriate outdoor environments. Young children appear to benefit from being outdoors and especially need the broad experiential base provided by being outdoors. The richness and…
Young children do not consume foods in a structured manner. Their foods contact surfaces (hands, floors, eating surfaces, etc.) that may be contaminated while they are eating them. Thus, dietary exposures of young children are difficult to accurately assess or measure. A recen...
Baker, Betty Ruth
Playing with blocks can facilitate the creative, social, emotional, physical, and cognitive development of young children. This article presents information and activities concerning block play and its role in young children's experience. Topics covered include: (1) types of blocks; (2) selection of blocks and accessories; (3) planning of the…
Valeski, T N; Stipek, D J
This study examined factors associated with young children's feelings about school in kindergarten and first grade, using a new measure, the Feelings about School (FAS). The FAS measures children's perceptions of academic competence, their feelings about the teacher, and their general attitudes toward school. Findings provided support for the reliability and validity of the FAS for kindergartners (N = 225) and first graders (N = 127). Variables presumed to predict children's feelings about school were the classroom structure, academic performance, and relationships with teachers. Feelings about school were expected to predict academic engagement. Correlational analyses indicated that kindergartners' and first graders' feelings about school were associated with their academic skills, as measured by direct assessments and teacher ratings. The evidence for first graders was stronger than for kindergartners. Kindergartners' general attitudes toward school were more negative in highly structured, teacher-directed classroom environments. First graders' perceptions of competence were more negative in classrooms lacking structure and control. First graders', but not kindergartners', perceptions of competence were significantly associated with academic engagement. PMID:11480942
Brodzinsky, David M.; And Others
Focuses on the relationship between conceptual tempo and control of humorous affect in young children. Records the responses of reflective, fast-accurate, impulsive, and slow-accurate fourth-grade children to a videotape of an adult telling a series of jokes, half of which are followed by audience laughter. (CM)
Tang, Connie M.; Bartsch, Karen; Nunez, Narina
This study investigated young children's reports of when learning occurred. A total of 96 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds were recruited from suburban preschools and elementary schools. The children learned an animal fact and a body movement. A week later, children learned another animal fact and another body movement and then answered questions about…
Scott, Marcia S.
The research experiments on relational learning in young children contained in this report were guided by two major goals: (1) to examine the extent of conceptual transfer in preschool children, and (2) to explore the relation of both "acquisition" and "transfer" to chronological development. The performance of preschool children on several oddity…
McMath, Joan S.
Suggests that, rather than exposing young children to media coverage of national tragedies and disasters, caregivers should read aloud to children from picture books that convey stability, calmness, and reassurance. Includes tips for helping children cope with tragedy, guidelines for selecting books, and an annotated list of 25 books that can help…
This qualitative study examined young children's music preferences through group conversations with children, interviews with parents, and non-participant observation of classroom settings in daycare and elementary classrooms. Data were analyzed inductively to generate themes, and revealed that (1) children expressed distinct preferences for an…
Tadesse, Selamawit; Washington, Patsy
Research indicates that there are positive effects when young children read and explore books for pleasure, as such activities help build the skills and knowledge that are critical to schooling. Reading for pleasure is facilitated when children have access to books in their own homes. There are great variations in children's book ownership…
Torrance, E. Paul
Creative methods of communicating with young children are discussed. In order to communicate through talk, adults must realize that children have a "secret world" with their own language and reasoning and must respect it. Self awareness, patience, understanding, and consistency are necessary for adults to truly communicate with children through…
LaCerva, Victor; Siegel, Daniel J.; Stephens, Karen; Zivkovic, Aleksandra Selak; Jacobson (Meyer), Tamar
Workshop examines resilience in young children. Papers are: (1) "Adverse Effects of Witnessing Violence" (Victor LaCerva); (2) "Relationships and the Developing Mind" (Daniel Siegel); (3) "Support Resilience by Connecting Children with Nature" (Karen Stephens); (4) "Stories of Children in Croatia: Resilience and Trauma" (Aleksandra Zivkovic); and…
McCracken, Janet Brown, Ed.
Few adults deliberately set out to cause children stress or to teach them how to deal with it, yet adults do just that with every word, action, and reaction. This book collects work in the field of human development on how adults can help children learn to cope with stress. Each of the 30 chapters previously appeared in "Young Children," the…
Across Europe children's nurses today face many challenges, including rising childhood obesity, the soaring incidence of issues with the mental health of children and young people, the effects of social media, child maltreatment and the impact of poverty, war and conflict on children and families. There are opportunities for children's nurses to undertake new roles and to influence both policy and practice to improve the health outcomes of children and young people, and thereby the future health of the population. PMID:27214410
Scott, Myrtle M.
Describes a program designed to equip persons who will be leaders in the educational field and who have as a main career goal functioning as an interface person in settings which concern young children. (PD)
In the selection of multicultural literature for children and young adults, educators and researchers focus on two main controversial issues--authority and authenticity--that the authors portray in their writing. What type of author can accurately portray realistic pictures of minority cultures in multicultural literature for young adults? Must it…
Wright, June L., Ed.; Shade, Daniel D., Ed.
This book addresses the issues of appropriate use of computers with young children and how children and early childhood educators interact with the computer in early childhood settings. Part 1, "Young Children as Active Learners," contains chapter 1: "Listen to the Children: Observing Young Children's Discoveries with the Microcomputer" (June L.…
Bruns, Deborah A.; Thompson, Stacy D.
Young children often encounter feeding challenges, such as food refusal, an inability to meet nutritional needs, and limited skills to self-feed. Further, overall development can be adversely affected when an infant or a toddler has difficulties with intake of fluid and solid foods. A variety of strategies are available to address these challenges…
Evans, Angela D.; Lee, Kang
Lying is a pervasive human behavior. Evidence to date suggests that from the age of 42 months onward, children become increasingly capable of telling lies in various social situations. However, there is limited experimental evidence regarding whether very young children will tell lies spontaneously. The present study investigated the emergence of…
Cardany, Audrey Berger
Since the airing of "Sesame Street" in 1985, television produced for children has expanded to more television shows and educational media that includes videos, DVDs, and computer products. Viewing screen media is pervasive in the environments of young children, and companies are designing products for our youngest viewers--infants and toddlers.…
Lewit, Eugene M.; Mullahy, John
Focuses on the immunization status of children aged 19 to 35 months. Recommended immunizations are described and contrasted with the actual status of immunization. In response to unacceptably low levels of immunization among very young children, the government is aiming at 90% immunization by the year 2000. (SLD)
Healy, Jane M
In this article, the author believes that computers for young children are often reductive and limiting, rather than expanding their three dimensional sensory, interpersonal, and cognitive experience. Among other points, she discusses the after effects of children's early exposure to technological materials. Moreover, she opines that teachers need…
Lam, Pamela Y. Y.
This study investigated the influence of television commercials for toys and cereals on young children. Forty-four children, ranging in age from 4 to 7 years, were interviewed regarding their television viewing habits, their attitudes toward television commercials, their demands for their mothers to buy cereals and toys, and their interpretation…
Bell, Garry; Henderson, Colleen
Whenever teachers of young children get together there will be differences of opinion about how far children should be taught to count. Some will argue that the focus should be on small numbers to 9, building up the notion of what, say, the name 5 means, what it looks like, and how it can be represented. Others argue that with ice blocks retailing…
Bullock, Janis R.
Loneliness is a significant problem than can predispose young children to immediate and long-term negative consequences. This Digest presents an overview of loneliness, with suggestions for practitioners on how they can apply the research in early childhood settings. Children who feel lonely often experience poor peer relationships and feelings of…
Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Bloom, Paul
Each fictional world that adults create has its own distinct properties, separating it from other fictional worlds. Here we explore whether this separation also exists for young children's pretend game worlds. Studies 1 and 1A set up two simultaneous games and encouraged children to create appropriate pretend identities for coloured blocks. When…
In this study, I gave a group of six to eight very young Chinese Singaporean children (between 2 and 4 years of age) three identical digital video cameras, plus tripods, and tracked their development in moviemaking over a 2-year period. The children were allowed to explore the cameras freely, though the investigators offered advice and support as…
Warner, Laverne; Weiss, Sara
This article explains the importance of alphabet books in early reading development. Alphabet books encourage literacy development in the following ways: (1) unlock the symbols of language; (2) connect knowledge to other sources; (3) provide book usage knowledge to young children; (4) complement children's enjoyment of books; and (5) aid early…
This paper suggests that many children from low-income and minority communities are not taught the skills and knowledge necessary to fully participate in the economic, social, and political life of the United States and that schools need to start early, to recognize the unique nature of how young children learn, and to design software that will…
Power, Des; Elias, Gordon
The paper examines a developmental approach to language acquisition in young disabled children. Issues of form, content, and function are explored, with function of communication seen as central for disabled children. The role of teachers and parents in requiring more sophisiticated language is considered. Questions of competence on either the…
Fallen, Nancy H.
Intended to accompany 15 film components, the manual focuses on the nature and needs of young children with developmental disabilities and the rationale for educational intervention during the formative years. Programs cover the following topics: introduction to developmental disabilities; children at high risk; available services; diagnosis,…
Farish, Jane M.
Young children may experience stress and emotional problems in reaction to natural and other disasters. This brochure presents a number of strategies for teachers and caregivers to use to help children cope with this stress. These strategies include: (1) providing reassurance and physical comfort; (2) being aware of separation anxiety; (3)…
Young children, as compared to adults, are more likely to be exposed after a pesticide application due to potential hand- and object-to-mouth contacts in contaminated areas. However, relatively few studies have specifically evaluated mouthing behavior in children <60 months of...
Young children may be more likely than adults to be exposed to pesticides following a residential application as a result of hand- and object-to-mouth contacts in contaminated areas. However, relatively few studies have specifically evaluated mouthing behavior in children less ...
Salmon, Angela K.; Lucas, Teresa
A growing body of evidence supports the importance of nurturing children's thinking. This article reports on an investigation of the influence of teachers' implementation of the Visible Thinking approach developed within the Harvard Graduate School of Education Project Zero on very young children's concepts of thinking, as measured by the…
Intended for use by parents and teachers of preschool age children, this short booklet provides some guidelines to follow when introducing sex education to young children. It discusses issues such as where to begin, how to encourage the child to ask questions about sex, how to handle sex-related problems, child molestation, nudity and the family,…
Mathews, Judith R.; And Others
Four young children were taught contact lens wear using a shaping procedure, which involved praise and tangibles for compliance and time-outs or restraint for noncompliance. At followup, levels of compliance were high for three children, while a subject with Down's syndrome showed low compliance with need for physical restraint throughout.…
Heyman, Gail D.; Sritanyaratana, Lalida; Vanderbilt, Kimberly E.
The ability of 3- and 4-year-old children to disregard advice from an overtly misleading informant was investigated across five studies (total "n" =212). Previous studies have documented limitations in young children's ability to reject misleading advice. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that these limitations are primarily due to an…
Young Children, 2001
Presents ways parents and other adults can help young children deal with tragedy and violence in the wake of terrorist attacks on the United States. Suggests giving reassurance and physical comfort, providing structure and stability, expecting a range of reactions, helping children to talk if they are ready, turning off the television, and…
American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
Based on the view that violent behavior is learned and often learned early in life, this pamphlet shows parents how they can help protect young children from getting involved with violence and increase that child's chances for a safe and productive future. The pamphlet cautions parents that early learning is powerful and that children learn how to…
Warneken, Felix; Chen, Frances; Tomasello, Michael
Human children 18-24 months of age and 3 young chimpanzees interacted in 4 cooperative activities with a human adult partner. The human children successfully participated in cooperative problem-solving activities and social games, whereas the chimpanzees were uninterested in the social games. As an experimental manipulation, in each task the adult…
Notes that woodworking can be a valuable learning tool for young children because it has both creative and structured sides. Recommends materials for a classroom toolbox, noting the importance of real woodworking tools as opposed to those made just for children. Suggests that teachers work directly with students for safety and to help guide them…
Weisman, Kara; Johnson, Marissa V.; Shutts, Kristin
The present research investigated young children's automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race. Three- to 6-year-old participants learned facts about unfamiliar target children who varied in either gender or race and were asked to remember which facts went with which targets. When participants…
Huttenlocher, Janellen; Vasilyeva, Marina; Waterfall, Heidi R.; Vevea, Jack L.; Hedges, Larry V.
This article examines caregiver speech to young children. The authors obtained several measures of the speech used to children during early language development (14-30 months). For all measures, they found substantial variation across individuals and subgroups. Speech patterns vary with caregiver education, and the differences are maintained over…
It is estimated that 10% of children and young people have mental health problems so significant that they impact not only on their day-to-day life but, if left untreated, they will continue into adulthood. In this article, the author discusses mental health issues affecting children and young people and examines evidence-based early intervention and prevention programmes that have been shown to support better outcomes for children, young people and their families.
Underwood, Kathryn; Chan, Cherry; Koller, Donna; Valeo, Angela
This study examines the efficacy of engaging young children with disabilities in interviews to elicit their perspectives on their own capabilities. Using the theoretical framework of the capability approach, the authors investigated the efficacy of different interview techniques to engage young children with disabilities in research about their…
Brake, Kathryn J.
Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…
Whitin, David J.
Argues that children need to be given regular opportunities to gather, organize, display, and interpret their own data. They should have regular opportunities to pose their own questions and represent the results in their own way. Offers five sample survey questions children can pose to each other and examples of data representation by children.…
Ambrosi, Solène; Lemaire, Patrick; Blaye, Agnès
Dynamic, trial-by-trial modulations of inhibitory control are well documented in adults but rarely investigated in children. Here, we examined whether 5-to-7 year-old children, an age range when inhibitory control is still partially immature, achieve such modulations. Fifty three children took flanker, Simon, and Stroop tasks. Above and beyond classic congruency effects, the present results showed two crucial findings. First, we found evidence for sequential modulations of congruency effects in these young children in the three conflict tasks. Second, our results showed both task specificities and task commonalities. These findings in young children have important implications as they suggest that, to be modulated, inhibitory control does not require full maturation and that the precise pattern of trial-by-trial modulations may depend on the nature of conflict. PMID:27221602
Kirmani, Mubina Hassanali; Davis, Marcia H.; Kalyanpur, Maya
Computers have become an important part of young children's lives, both as a source of entertainment and education. The National Association for the Education of Young Children's (NAEYC) position statement on Technology and Young Children (2006) supports the need for equal access to technology for all children with attention to eliminating gender…
Li, Jing; Wang, Wen; Yu, Jing; Zhu, Liqi
Fairness is one of the most important foundations of morality and may have played a key role in the evolution of cooperation in humans beings. As an important type of fairness concern, inequity aversion is the preference for fairness and the resistance to inequitable outcomes. To examine the early development of fairness preference in young children, sixty 2- and 3-year-old children were recruited to examine young children's preferences for fairness using a forced choice paradigm. We tested how toddlers acted when they took charge of distributing resources (two candies) to themselves and others and when they were the recipients of both other-advantageous distribution and self-advantageous distribution. Different alternative options were paired with the same fair option in the two conditions. In the other-advantageous condition, children had fewer resources in the alternative options than others, whereas their resources in the alternative options were greater than others' in the self-advantageous condition. The results showed that more children displayed fairness preferences when they distributed resources between two friends than when they distributed resources between a friend and themselves. In both scenarios, 3-year-old children were more likely to demonstrate fairness preference than 2-year-old children. The findings suggest that inequity aversion develops in young children and increases with age over the course of early childhood. When they were recipients, there was a trend in young children's preference for fairness in the other-advantageous condition compared with the self-advantageous condition. This suggests that children might tend to be more likely to display inequity aversion when they are in a disadvantageous position. PMID:27625616
Moriguchi, Yusuke; Minato, Takashi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Ikuko; Itakura, Shoji
Previous studies have shown that observing a human model's actions, but not a robot's actions, could induce young children's perseverative behaviors and suggested that children's sociocognitive abilities can lead to perseverative errors ("social transmission of disinhibition"). This study investigated how the social transmission of disinhibition would occur. Specifically, the authors examined whether a robot with human appearance (an android) triggered young children's perseveration and compared the effects of the android with those of a human model. The results revealed that the android induced the social transmission of disinhibition. Also, children were more likely to be affected by the human model than by the android. The results suggested that behavioral cues (biological movement) may be important for the social transmission of disinhibition. PMID:20547394
Ziegert, D I; Kistner, J A; Castro, R; Robertson, B
Three studies were conducted to replicate and extend Dweck's findings regarding young children's responses to challenging achievement situations. Dweck's dichotomous helplessness classification system (i.e., task choice, task choice reason) was replicated with kindergartners, n = 235 (50% male), and first graders, n = 70 (46% male). To test whether individual differences in young children's responses to challenging situations are stable over time, 1- and 5-year follow-ups of the kindergartners were conducted. On the basis of children's responses on age-appropriate behavioral tasks, a composite of cognitive, behavioral, and affective helplessness indices predicted helplessness at 1 and 5 years later, n = 114 (50% male), above and beyond kindergarten task ability and gender, p<.05. Kindergarten helplessness predicted teacher ratings of children's helplessness 5 years later as well, p<.05. The implications of these findings for early intervention are discussed. PMID:11333088
Petzold, A; Sharpe, L T
As first remarked by Charles Darwin (1877), very young children frequently have difficulty when naming or choosing colors. To investigate the cause of this difficulty, we have tested preschoolers (mean age = 4.1) for hue discrimination and hue memory and compared their results with those of preadolescents (mean age = 9.6) and young adults (mean age = 25.8). The tests were designed to minimize the influence of verbal coding on the results. We find that preschoolers are as good as the two older groups in hue discrimination. However, in visual hue memory, they are significantly poorer. The 3-fold increased errors they make, relative to preadolescents and young adults, may be related to the development of visual hue categories and the integration of verbal and visual processes. However, such errors cannot explain why young children often experience extreme difficulty in color naming.
Kalish, C; Weissman, M; Bernstein, D
Research suggests that young children may see a direct and one-way connection between facts about the world and epistemic mental states (e.g., belief). Conventions represent instances of active constructions of the mind that change facts about the world. As such, a mature understanding of convention would seem to present a strong challenge to children's simplified notions of epistemic relations. Three experiments assessed young children's abilities to track behavioral, representational, and truth aspects of conventions. In Experiment 1, 3- and 4-year-old children (N = 30) recognized that conventional stipulations would change people's behaviors. However, participants generally failed to understand how stipulations might affect representations. In Experiment 2, 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children (N = 53) were asked to reason about the truth values of statements about pretenses and conventions. The two younger groups of children often confused the two types of states, whereas older children consistently judged that conventions, but not pretenses, changed reality. In Experiment 3, the same 3- and 5-year-olds (N = 42) participated in tasks assessing their understanding of representational diversity (e.g., false belief). In general, children's performance on false-belief and "false-convention" tasks did not differ, which suggests that conventions were understood as involving truth claims (as akin to beliefs about physical reality). Children's difficulties with the idea of conventional truth seems consistent with current accounts of developing theories of mind.
D'augostino, M; Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M
A participative educational approach, in which children are actively involved in improving their own health, can provide a basis for developing healthful behavior patterns. The International Children's Center has organized an international workshop on the integration of health and diet in the overall development of children 3-6 years of age. This document describes the methodology of programs developed by participants in these workshops and suggests activities for programs related to nutrition, growth, and water. The steps involved are: to make an inventory of local problems related to the health subject selected, to define the educational objectives of the program, to define the criteria for program evaluation, and to establish a varied program of children's activities. The proposed activities should stimulate children to analyze real-life situations and find solutions for themselves, to formulate and check hypotheses, and to plan their actions. The activities, all of which are based on play, make use of locally available materials rather than expensive technology. For example, an activity related to the themes of water and nutrition could be a restaurant day, in which preschool children serve food to other children. The teacher uses this as an opportunity to teach the children to recognize local foods and to serve clean water with meals. Also a part of this activity are mathematical exercises to calculate the amounts of food needed, creative activities to imitate the atmosphere of a restaurant, and code-learning exercises for the preparation of the menu and understanding of recipes.
Teaching science by a process approach is an exciting adventure for both teachers and their students. Process science is an open ended approach, and the direction learning will take place is determined, for the most part, by the children. This method requires that teachers understand how children learn, know the possibilities a topic offers for…
Yau, Jenny; Smetana, Judith G.; Metzger, Aaron
Using multilevel analyses, we examined the influence of domain (moral, conventional, and personal) and the familiarity of different authority figures (mother, teacher, person in charge, and stranger) in public, school, or home settings in 123 four to seven-year-old Chinese children (M = 5.6 years) in Hong Kong. Children affirmed authority more for…
Adams, Polly; Taylor, Michaell K.
Presents a developmental approach to young children's woodworking. Discusses seven developmental stages of children's woodworking and woodworking activities appropriate to each developmental stage. (BB)
Breazeal, Cynthia; Harris, Paul L; DeSteno, David; Kory Westlund, Jacqueline M; Dickens, Leah; Jeong, Sooyeon
Children ranging from 3 to 5 years were introduced to two anthropomorphic robots that provided them with information about unfamiliar animals. Children treated the robots as interlocutors. They supplied information to the robots and retained what the robots told them. Children also treated the robots as informants from whom they could seek information. Consistent with studies of children's early sensitivity to an interlocutor's non-verbal signals, children were especially attentive and receptive to whichever robot displayed the greater non-verbal contingency. Such selective information seeking is consistent with recent findings showing that although young children learn from others, they are selective with respect to the informants that they question or endorse.
Benenson, Joyce F.; Markovits, Henry; Whitmore, Bjorn; Van, Christophe; Margolius, Sara; Wrangham, Richard W.
Many forms of judgments, such as those used in economic games or measures of social comparison, require understanding relative value, as well as the more complex ability to make comparisons between relative values. To examine whether young children can accurately compare relative values, we presented children 4 to 7 years with simple judgments of relative value in two scenarios. Children then were asked to compare the relative values in the two scenarios. Results show that even the youngest children downgraded evaluations of a reward when another has a larger amount, indicating the ability to make relative value judgments. When asked to compare relative values however, only the oldest children were able to make these comparisons consistently. We then extended this analysis to economic game performance. Specifically, previous results using economic games suggest that younger children are more generous than older ones. We replicate this result, and then show that a simple change in procedure, based on the initial study, is sufficient to change young children’s choices. Our results strongly suggest that conclusions regarding young children’s pro-social motives based on relative value comparisons should be viewed cautiously. PMID:25875949
Pelczarski, Kristin M; Yaruss, J Scott
This study investigated phonological memory in 5- and 6-year old children who stutter. Participants were 11 children who stutter matched on general language abilities, maternal education level, and sex to 11 typically fluent children. Participants completed norm-referenced nonword repetition and digit span tasks, as well as measures of expressive and receptive vocabulary and articulation. The nonword repetition task included stimuli that ranged from 1 to 7 syllables, while the digit naming task contained number strings containing 2-10 digits. Standardized tests of vocabulary and articulation abilities were tested as well. Groups were comparable on measures expressive vocabulary, receptive vocabulary, and articulation. Despite the fact that the majority of participants scored within typical limits, young children who stutter still performed significantly less well than children who do not stutter on the nonword repetition task. No between-group differences were revealed in the digit naming task. Typically fluent children demonstrated strong correlations between phonological memory tasks and language measures, while children who stutter did not. These findings indicate that young children who stutter may have sub-clinical differences in nonword repetition. PMID:27280891
Waller, Mary Bellis
Crack-affected children who experience early intervention can be mainstreamed successfully into regular classes. These children can be overwhelmed by stimuli and need stability, routine, and sameness in the intervention classroom. Teachers have discovered effective methods for working with crack-affected children. (16 references) (MLF)
Jones, Liz; MacLure, Maggie; Holmes, Rachel; MacRae, Christina
This paper considers young children's (aged 3-5 years) relations with objects, and in particular objects that are brought from home to school. We begin by considering the place of objects within early years classrooms and their relationship to children's education before considering why some objects are often separated from their owners on entry…
Lieberman, Debra A.; Bates, Cynthia H.; So, Jiyeon
This article reviews a selection of studies on digital media and learning for young children ages 3 to 6. The range of digital media for this age group is growing and includes computer-delivered and online activities; console video games; handheld media, occasionally with GPS or an accelerometer, in cell phones and other wireless mobile devices;…
Bromwich, Rose M.
A modified approach to the development of verbal expression in young children is proposed as an alternative to either the prescriptive-instructional method or the developmental viewpoint which relies on self-initiated learning. The Bereiter-Engelmann method, the method based on operant conditioning, and the Montessori method are representative of…
Visser, John; Daniels, Harry; Macnab, Natasha
This article explores the issue of missing from and missing out on education. It argues that too little is known with regard to the characteristics of children and young people missing from schooling. It postulates that many of these pupils will have social, emotional and behavioural difficulties which are largely unrecognized and thus not…
In 2012, the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) revised its position statement regarding the appropriate use of technology in early childhood classrooms. The increased accessibility of touch screens on tablets and smart phones led to this revision, which moves the conversation from the question of "When shall we…
Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Wang, Chiao-Li; Chiu, Hsiu-Yueh
The ability to delay gratification (DG) in young children is vital to their later development. Such ability should be taught as early as possible. One hundred kindergartners (Mean age = 6.11), randomly assigned to three groups; (a) labeling: received the treatment of being labeled as "patient" kids; (b) story-telling: were read a story about the…
Burns, Marcia V.; Lewis, Alisha L.
In this article, educators at University Primary School in Champaign, Illinois, share examples and understandings of the ways The Project Approach challenges young children to think critically about topics of importance in their world. Project investigations that provoke academic and social challenges for individuals and classroom communities of…
He, Jie; Xu, Qinmei; Degnan, Kathryn Amey
This study investigated anger expression during toy removal (TR) in 92 young Chinese children, two to five years of age, and its relations to their persistence in responding to obstacles during two challenging tasks with highly desirable goals [TR and locked box (LB)] and one challenging task with a less desirable goal [impossible perfect circles…
The articles in this engaging volume, mostly from Young Children, address the purposes of and uses for assessment. Expert commentary from Marian Marion, Gayle Mindes, Richard Clifford, Diane Trister Dodge and others offers an overview of the topic and specific examples to show how assessment informs and improves practice in early childhood…
Kendrick, Abby Shapiro, Ed.; And Others
This manual, which was developed as a reference and resource guide for program directors and teachers of young children, describes high standards for health policies. Also provided are information based on current research and recommendations from experts in health and early childhood education. The manual contains 7 sections and 19 chapters.…
Park, Boyoung; Chae, Jeong-Lim; Boyd, Barbara Foulks
This qualitative study investigated young children's mathematical engagement in play with wooden unit blocks. Two boys, ages 6 and 7, were independently observed completing the task of filling outlined regions with the various sets of blocks. Three major mathematical actions were observed: categorizing geometric shapes, composing a larger shape…
Lee, Tiffany R.
This study explores young children's images of science and scientists, their sources for scientific knowledge, and the nature of their science-related experiences. A cross-sectional design was used to study how students' ideas differ over the first three years of elementary school. A modified version of the Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) and a…
Parker, Robert P., Ed.; Davis, Frances A., Ed.
Recognizing that language itself is not an isolated entity but part of a larger social, cultural, and cognitive context, the papers in this book investigate the relationships among all aspects of language--reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Literacy is dealt with as the development of language in young children. Issues related to this…
Giffard, E. O.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the alleged special difficulties in teaching very young children how to interpret cartographic symbols. Adults too often reduce or temporarily destroy interest by introducing too many complications too fast. There is a vast difference between acceptance of a fact and understanding of the cause of the fact.…
Chenfeld, Mimi Brodsky
Teachers usually enter the early childhood education profession aglow with purpose, drive, and imagination. Sometimes along the way, the inner flames flicker, or even disappear. In Celebrating Young Children and Their Teachers, Mimi Brodsky Chenfeld urges early childhood teachers to keep their lights alive by reflecting on the magic of the…
Edmister, Evette; Staples, Amy; Huber, Beth; Garrett, Jennifer Walz
This article describes an authentic, social, inclusive writing activity for young children (preschool to second grade) with and without disabilities engaged in what the second and third authors called "Big Paper." In addition to detailing the activity, recommendations for maximizing the participation of all students and monitoring…
Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Litman, Jordan A.; Valkenburg, Patti
Epistemic curiosity (EC) is the desire to obtain new knowledge capable of either producing positive experiences of intellectual interest (I-type) or of reducing undesirable conditions of informational deprivation (D-type). Although researchers acknowledge that there are individual differences in young children's epistemic curiosity, there are…
Diezmann, Carmel M.; English, Lyn D.
This article describes a series of enrichment experiences designed to develop young (ages 5 to 8) gifted children's understanding of large numbers, central to their investigation of space travel. It describes activities designed to teach reading of large numbers and exploring numbers to a thousand and then a million. (Contains ten references.) (DB)
How do educators create and nurture environments that respect and meet the developmental needs of gifted children? They know that many young bright youngsters exhibit intense sensitivities from birth, ask many probing questions, and are often verbally sophisticated beyond their years. They may have exceptionally long attention spans within their…
Alerts parents, teachers, and others to some of the leading indoor environmental hazards to young children which are caused by various types of indoor pollutants: cigarette smoke; heating/cooking equipment; asbestos; pesticides; art supplies; radon; and lead. Also suggests ways to reduce these health hazards. (BB)
Ludlow, Barbara L.
The purposes of this study were to assess the attitudes of preschoolers toward two types of handicapping conditions (mental retardation and physical disabilities), and to explore the underlying social reasoning used by young children to formulate/support their perceptions. Sixteen 3- and 4-year-old boys and girls were presented with two 8-1/2" x…
Smith, Terry Fonda
The number of professional ensembles and organizations with dedicated outreach concerts has been steadily increasing over the past decade. More recently, educational concerts pairing chamber music with young children have been documented. The work presented in this article is a study in the efficacy and feasibility of this format. Various music…
Ruble, Diane N.; Nakamura, Charles Y.
The purpose of this study was to examine young Children's tendencies to be task or socially oriented in an experimental situation. On the basis of past research, two independent variables were chosen: field dependence-independence and sex. It was expected that field-dependent subjects and girls would tend to be more socially oriented, while…
Slaughter, Virginia; Griffiths, Maya
The purpose of this study was to test whether the developmental acquisition of a mature concept of death, that is, understanding death as a biological event, affects young children's fear of death. Ninety children between the ages of 4 and 8 participated in an interview study in which their understanding of death and their fear of death were both assessed. Levels of general anxiety were also measured via parent report. A regression analysis indicated that more mature death understanding was associated with lower levels of death fear, when age and general anxiety were controlled. These data provide some empirical support for the widely held belief that discussing death and dying in biological terms is the best way to alleviate fear of death in young children.
The Disabled Children and Young Peoples Participation Project (DCYPPP) was established by Barnardos (Northern Ireland) in 2002 to explore ways of involving children and young people with disabilities in decision-making processes within Children's Services Planning of the Health and Social Services Board. Over 200 young people have participated in…
Christiansen, N; Mora, J O; Herrera, M G
Altogether 164 poor families who had children of normal and subnormal weight and height were studied in Bogota, Colombia. Physical growth was found to be positively associated with expenditure on food, sanitary conditions in the home, mother's age, birth interval between surviving children, level of parental newspaper reading, aspirations for children, and socioeconomic status. Physical growth was negatively associated with crowded living conditions and family size. Only mother's age, family size, spacing of births, and sanitary conditions were related to weight and height, independent of socioeconomic status. Food expenditure, crowding, parental newspaper reading, and aspirations for children all reflected the influence of socioeconomic status upon physical growth. The findings emphasized the importance of within-class social differences as they affect the physical growth of young children. PMID:1182354
Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Bloom, Paul
Each fictional world that adults create has its own distinct properties, separating it from other fictional worlds. Here we explore whether this separation also exists for young children's pretend game worlds. Studies 1 and 1A set up two simultaneous games and encouraged children to create appropriate pretend identities for coloured blocks. When prompted with a situation that required the use of a Game 1 object in Game 2, 3- and 4-year-olds were reluctant to move pretend objects between games, even when the alternative-world object was explicitly highlighted as a possible choice. Study 2 found the same effect when the two game worlds were presented sequentially. This suggests that, even for young children, multiple pretend game worlds are kept psychologically separate.
Kirkorian, Heather L.; Wartella, Ellen A.; Anderson, Daniel R.
Electronic media, particularly television, have long been criticized for their potential impact on children. One area for concern is how early media exposure influences cognitive development and academic achievement. Heather Kirkorian, Ellen Wartella, and Daniel Anderson summarize the relevant research and provide suggestions for maximizing the…
Flohr, John W.; Miller, Daniel C.; deBeus, Roger
Describes how electroencephalogram (EEG) data are collected and how brain function is measured. Discusses studies on the effects of music experiences with adult subjects and studies focusing on the effects of music training on EEG activity of children and adolescents. Considers the implications of the studies and the future directions of this…
Edelman, Murray S.; Omark, Donald R.
This study uses the ethological approach of seeking species characteristics and phylogenetic continuities in an investigation of human behavior. Among primates a striking consistency is the presence of some form of dominance hierarchy in many species. The present study examines peer group dominance hierarchies as they are perceived by children in…
Pile, Naomi F.
This book points out methods and materials that can be used by teachers helping preschoolers express their ideas and emotions through art. Hints on how to create atmosphere conducive to artwork and how to increase children's awareness of the visual world are given, along with hints on buying, using, and storing materials. Specific instructions are…
Learning to count is something that most children start to do by the time they are about two, and parents know from first-hand experience that family members play a big part in helping with this complex process. In this article, the author describes a project involving families sharing effective counting activities. The project called "Getting…
Kalagher, Hilary; Jones, Susan S.
Adults vary their haptic exploratory behavior reliably with variation both in the sensory input and in the task goals. Little is known about the development of these connections between perceptual goals and exploratory behaviors. A total of 36 children ages 3, 4, and 5 years and 20 adults completed a haptic intramodal match-to-sample task.…
Early personality and environmental characteristics that predict later problematic aggression and depression in children were investigated longitudinally. A developmental psychopathology approach was taken. (This approach assumes that patterns of adaptation and maladaptation in development can best be understood when explored simultaneously and…
Handa, Yuichi; Mattman, Thomas
There are many interesting explorations that can be done in knot theory, the study of mathematical knots. This article offers some knot theory activities that are appropriate for elementary grade children. These activities teach some basic concepts from knot theory as a natural extension of commonly-taught geometric ideas. (Contains 10 figures.)
Tang, Connie M; Bartsch, Karen; Nunez, Narina
This study investigated young children's reports of when learning occurred. A total of 96 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds were recruited from suburban preschools and elementary schools. The children learned an animal fact and a body movement. A week later, children learned another animal fact and another body movement and then answered questions about when the different learning events occurred. Responses of children who responded correctly to control questions about time supported the hypothesis that temporal distance questions would elicit more correct responses than would temporal location questions. Partial support was also found for the hypothesis that behavior learning would generate more correct reports than would fact learning. Implications for characterizations of children's developing understanding of knowledge and for applications of those characterizations in education and eyewitness testimony are discussed. PMID:17346740
Sasson, Noah J.; Elison, Jed T.
The rise of accessible commercial eye-tracking systems has fueled a rapid increase in their use in psychological and psychiatric research. By providing a direct, detailed and objective measure of gaze behavior, eye-tracking has become a valuable tool for examining abnormal perceptual strategies in clinical populations and has been used to identify disorder-specific characteristics1, promote early identification2, and inform treatment3. In particular, investigators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have benefited from integrating eye-tracking into their research paradigms4-7. Eye-tracking has largely been used in these studies to reveal mechanisms underlying impaired task performance8 and abnormal brain functioning9, particularly during the processing of social information1,10-11. While older children and adults with ASD comprise the preponderance of research in this area, eye-tracking may be especially useful for studying young children with the disorder as it offers a non-invasive tool for assessing and quantifying early-emerging developmental abnormalities2,12-13. Implementing eye-tracking with young children with ASD, however, is associated with a number of unique challenges, including issues with compliant behavior resulting from specific task demands and disorder-related psychosocial considerations. In this protocol, we detail methodological considerations for optimizing research design, data acquisition and psychometric analysis while eye-tracking young children with ASD. The provided recommendations are also designed to be more broadly applicable for eye-tracking children with other developmental disabilities. By offering guidelines for best practices in these areas based upon lessons derived from our own work, we hope to help other investigators make sound research design and analysis choices while avoiding common pitfalls that can compromise data acquisition while eye-tracking young children with ASD or other developmental difficulties. PMID:22491039
Bartlett, James C.; And Others
Two experiments examined affect-dependent memory in preschool/kindergarten and third-grade children. A two-list intentional learning procedure was used to assess the effects of the congruent versus incongruent relationship between happy versus sad affect during initial list learning and happy versus sad affect during a delayed-recall test.…
Eliassen, Erin K.
Young children depend on their families and teachers to support their well-being and promote positive development, including eating behaviors. Children's food preferences and willingness to try new foods are influenced by the people around them. The eating behaviors children practice early in life affect their health and nutrition--significant…
Historically, research demonstrates that mothers' attitudes and characteristics of their parenting are intertwined. More recently, mothers' perceptions of their children are becoming a new focus of interest. To further understand the relationships among mothers' perceptions of their young children, their parenting behaviors, and their ratings of…
Noting that adults caring for young children often find themselves responding to children's misbehavior in ways contradictory to their overall goals of children's autonomy and self-management, this book provides practical child-centered suggestions for responding to young children's disruptive behavior and suggests behavior management techniques…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Psychosexual development in young children is a topic that early childhood educators often ignore in the belief that children are not sexual beings. This paper discusses psychosexual development in young children, noting that preschoolers are often puzzled by sexual anatomical differences, that children need names for sexual body parts, and that…
Leventhal, Tama; Shuey, Elizabeth A
This study explored how neighborhood social processes and resources, relevant to immigrant families and immigrant neighborhoods, contribute to young children's behavioral functioning and achievement across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a neighborhood-based, longitudinal study with cohorts of children first seen at birth, 3 years, and 6 years of age and followed over 6 years (N = 3,209; 37% Mexican American, 33% Black, 15% White, 9% Puerto Rican, 4% other Latino, and 2% other races/ethnicities; 44% immigrant). Results of multilevel models suggest that the immigrant status of children's families was a more consistent moderator of associations between neighborhood processes and children's development than the immigrant concentration of their neighborhoods, but the nature of these associations depended on the outcome and racial/ethnic group considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Klein, Rachel G.; Angelosante, Aleta; Bar-Haim, Yair; Leibenluft, Ellen; Hulvershorn, Leslie; Dixon, Erica; Dodds, Alice; Spindel, Carrie
Abstract Objective In light of the current controversy about whether severe temper outbursts are diagnostic of mania in young children, we conducted a study to characterize such children, focusing on mania and other mood disorders, emotion regulation, and parental psychiatric history. Methods Study participants included 51 5–9-year-old children with frequent, impairing outbursts (probands) and 24 non-referred controls without outbursts. Parents completed a lifetime clinical interview about their child, and rated their child's current mood and behavior. Teachers completed a behavior rating scale. To assess emotion regulation, children were administered the Balloons Game, which assesses emotion expressivity in response to frustration, under demands of high and low regulation. Parental lifetime diagnoses were ascertained in blind clinical interviews. Results No child had bipolar disorder, bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (NOS), or major depression (MDD). The most prevalent disorder was oppositional defiant disorder (88.2%), followed by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (74.5%), anxiety disorders (49.0%), and non-MDD depressive disorders (33.3%). Eleven probands (21.6%) met criteria for severe mood dysregulation. During the Balloons Game, when there were no demands for self-regulation, children with severe outbursts showed reduced positive expressivity, and also showed significant deficits in controlling negative facial expressions when asked to do so. Anxiety disorders were the only diagnoses significantly elevated in probands' mothers. Conclusions Overall, young children with severe temper outbursts do not present with bipolar disorder. Rather, disruptive behavior disorders with anxiety and depressive mood are common. In children with severe outbursts, deficits in regulating emotional facial expressions may reflect deficits controlling negative affect. This work represents a first step towards elucidating mechanisms underlying severe outbursts in
Locke, Don C.; Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.
Evaluated the effectiveness of the Human Development Program (HDP) and the Developing Understanding of Self and Others (DUSO) program used with visually impaired children. Although HDP and DUSO affected the behavior of visually impaired children, they did not have any effect on children's attitudes toward school. (RC)
Kratochvil, Christopher J.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder common throughout childhood, with recognizable symptoms as early as preschool in many cases. ADHD is often treated in young children by simply implementing strategies proven efficacious and safe in older children and adolescents, as limited data is available in children younger than age six. Research has been extended into this age group by the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS) and other recent trials, providing clinically relevant data on differences in tolerability and efficacy of ADHD pharmacotherapies, primarily methylphenidate. No published data is yet available on the use of atomoxetine in children under age six. Growth is an area of particular interest and concern in the pediatric population, with data demonstrating variability in the long-term rates of growth in height as well as weight. While pharmacotherapy holds the potential for significant benefit in young children with ADHD, concerns with variation in response and tolerability highlight the need for careful evaluation, close monitoring, and an ongoing risk/benefit analysis throughout the implementation and use of medication. PMID:20963194
Rakoczy, Hannes; Ehrling, Christoph; Harris, Paul L; Schultze, Thomas
A rational strategy to update and revise one's uncertain beliefs is to take advice by other agents who are better informed. Adults routinely engage in such advice taking in systematic and selective ways depending on relevant characteristics such as reliability of advisors. The current study merged research in social and developmental psychology to examine whether children also adjust their initial judgment to varying degrees depending on the characteristics of their advisors. Participants aged 3 to 6 years played a game in which they made initial judgments, received advice, and subsequently made final judgments. They systematically revised their judgments in light of the advice, and they did so selectively as a function of advisor expertise. They made greater adjustments to their initial judgment when advised by an apparently knowledgeable informant. This suggests that the pattern of advice taking studied in social psychology has its roots in early development.
Niparko, John K; Blankenhorn, Rebecca
The cochlear implant is best characterized as a device that provides access to the sound environment. The device enables the hearing pathway to respond to environmental and speech sounds, providing informational cues from the surroundings and from others that may escape visual detection. As the developmental effects of a profound hearing loss are multiple, cochlear implants have been applied to ever younger children in an attempt to promote a more normal level of developmental learning through audition. In deafness, transducer elements of the inner ear fail to trigger auditory nerve afferent nerves in the presence of sound input. However, large reserves of afferent fibers exist even in the auditory nerve of a profoundly deaf patient. Furthermore, these nerve fibers retain the ability to respond to prosthetic activation. Through developmental learning in the early, formative years, auditory centers of the brain appear capable of processing information from the implant to provide speech comprehension and oral language development. Multichannel implants have replaced original single channel designs. multichannel devices enable larger percentages of recipients to recognize the spoken word without visual cues because they provide spectral information in addition to temporal and intensity cues. Testing under conditions of auditory (implant)-only input reveals significant open-set speech understanding capabilities in more than 75% of children after three years of device use. The benefit provided by implants may vary with a number of conditions including: hearing history, age of deafness onset, age at implantation, etiology of deafness, linguistic abilities, and the presence of a motivated system of support of oral language development. Patient variables should be given individual consideration in judging candidacy for a cochlear implant and in planning rehabilitative and education services after surgery and activation of the device.
The relaxation response, relaxation with mental imagery/self-hypnosis, and centering are techniques that can be used by the nurse practitioner in a variety of clinical situations to help children and young people manage stress. These approaches also can be used to treat certain common pediatric problems, such as headaches, enuresis, acute and chronic pain, and habit disorders. The techniques and their appropriate use are described. PMID:2647960
The relaxation response, relaxation with mental imagery/self-hypnosis, and centering are techniques that can be used by the nurse practitioner in a variety of clinical situations to help children and young people manage stress. These approaches also can be used to treat certain common pediatric problems, such as headaches, enuresis, acute and chronic pain, and habit disorders. The techniques and their appropriate use are described.
Feinman, Joel A.; Feldman, Robert S.
Mothers' ability to decode the emotional expressions of their male and female children was compared to the decoding ability of non-mothers. Happiness, sadness, fear and anger were induced in children in situations that varied in terms of spontaneous and role-played encoding modes. It was hypothesized that mothers would be more accurate decoders of…
National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington, DC.
Noting that teachers of young children can help protect children from getting involved in violence, this booklet provides research and practice-based information on preventing violence in young children's lives. The booklet asserts that young children need to feel safe and loved, need to watch peace-loving people, need to be protected from…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Early Childhood and Family Education Unit.
This monograph summarizes the issues discussed at an international workshop convened to identify strategies, lines of action, and innovative approaches to respond to the needs of young children faced by the African HIV/AIDS pandemic. The monograph provides background information on the HIV/AIDS pandemic; describes current initiatives and results…
Korn-Bursztyn, Carol, Ed.
Young Children and the Arts: Nurturing Imagination and Creativity examines the place of the arts in the experiences of young and very young children at home and in out-of-home settings at school and in the community. There is great need for development of resources in the arts specifically designed to introduce babies and toddlers to participatory…
Gelman, Susan A; Davidson, Natalie S
An important aspect of human thought is the value we place on unique individuals. Adults place higher value on authentic works of art than exact replicas, and young children at times value their original possessions over exact duplicates. What is the scope of this preference in early childhood, and when do children understand its subjective nature? On a series of trials, we asked three-year-olds (N=36) to choose between two toys for either themselves or the researcher: an old (visibly used) toy vs. a new (more attractive) toy matched in type and appearance (e.g., old vs. brand-new blanket). Focal pairs contrasted the child's own toy with a matched new object; Control pairs contrasted toys the child had never seen before. Children preferred the old toys for Focal pairs only, and treated their own preferences as not shared by the researcher. By 3years of age, young children place special value on unique individuals, and understand the subjective nature of that value. PMID:27395441
Friedman, D E
The competing interests of employers, working parents, and very young children collide in decisions over work schedules, child care arrangements, promotions, children's sicknesses, and overtime hours. With the rising number of women in the labor force, more and more employers are concerned about how their workers balance work and family priorities. This article examines the supports that employers provide to help parents with young children juggle demands on their time and attention. It reviews the availability of traditional benefits, such as vacation and health insurance, and describes family-friendly initiatives. Exciting progress is being made in this arena by leading employers, but coverage remains uneven: Employers say they provide family-friendly policies and programs to improve staff recruitment and retention, reduce absenteeism, and increase job satisfaction and company loyalty. Evaluations demonstrate positive impacts on each of these valued outcomes. Employee benefits and work/family supports seldom reach all layers of the work force, and low-income workers who need assistance the most are the least likely to receive or take advantage of it. Understandably, employer policies seek to maximize productive work time. However, it is often in the best interests of children for a parent to be able to set work aside to address urgent family concerns. The author concludes that concrete work/family supports like on-site child care, paid leave, and flextime are important innovations. Ultimately, the most valuable aid to employees would be a family-friendly workplace culture, with supportive supervision and management practices. PMID:11712457
Stern, H P; Bradley, R H; Prince, M T; Stroh, S E
More than 20 million children between ages 6 and 16 years participate in nonschool sports programs, with increasingly more programs being established for younger-age children. A questionnaire based on previous research with adolescent athletes was developed to determine participation motivation of 6- to 10-year-old children. Three hundred fourteen boys participating in a basketball program were interviewed privately with this instrument. Of the 12 participation motivation items, "learn to do my best," "learn and improve skills," "have a coach to look up to," and "get stronger and healthier" were most highly rated, whereas "win games" and "become popular" were rated least important. When responses of 6 and 7 year olds were compared with those of 9 and 10 year olds, older children rated "feel part of a team", "have fun and excitement" and "be with and make new friends" higher at a statistically significant level (p less than 0.05). Older children rated "win games" and "become popular" lower at a statistically significant level (p less than 0.05). The authors conclude that young children in this recreational sports program make significant distinctions in their participation motivation and that some aspects of participation that motivate them change as they grow older. PMID:2302906
Stern, H P; Bradley, R H; Prince, M T; Stroh, S E
More than 20 million children between ages 6 and 16 years participate in nonschool sports programs, with increasingly more programs being established for younger-age children. A questionnaire based on previous research with adolescent athletes was developed to determine participation motivation of 6- to 10-year-old children. Three hundred fourteen boys participating in a basketball program were interviewed privately with this instrument. Of the 12 participation motivation items, "learn to do my best," "learn and improve skills," "have a coach to look up to," and "get stronger and healthier" were most highly rated, whereas "win games" and "become popular" were rated least important. When responses of 6 and 7 year olds were compared with those of 9 and 10 year olds, older children rated "feel part of a team", "have fun and excitement" and "be with and make new friends" higher at a statistically significant level (p less than 0.05). Older children rated "win games" and "become popular" lower at a statistically significant level (p less than 0.05). The authors conclude that young children in this recreational sports program make significant distinctions in their participation motivation and that some aspects of participation that motivate them change as they grow older.
Johansson, I; Holgerson, P Lif; Kressin, N R; Nunn, M E; Tanner, A C
Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bottle and snacking were collected by questionnaire. Plaque presence, the number of teeth and their caries status (deft) were scored. The children sampled were 61% Black, 27% White and 10% Asian. Of the 1- to 2-, 2- to 3- and 3- to 4-year-old children, 93.8, 82.4 and 77.3% were caries free, and their mean caries scores were 0.16, 0.58 and 0.93, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modelling revealed plaque presence, lowest income, descriptors for tooth exposure time (number of teeth and age) and cariogenic challenge (total intake of sugar-containing snacks and chips/crisps, and chips intake with a sugar-containing drink) to be associated with more caries. These differences were also found in univariate analyses; in addition, children who continued breast-feeding after falling asleep had significantly higher deft values than those who did not. PLS modelling revealed that eating chips clustered with eating many sweet snacks, candies, popcorn and ice cream. We conclude that, in addition to the traditional risk indicators for caries - presence of plaque, sugar intake and socioeconomic status -, consumption of chips was associated with caries in young children. PMID:20720422
Derman-Sparks, Louise; And Others
Young children are aware that color, language, gender, and physical ability are connected to privilege and power. Racism and sexism have a profound influence on children's developing sense of self and others. This book on the creation of anti-bias curriculum can be used to help young children develop anti-bias attitudes, learn to think critically,…
Gross, Carol M.
Water is fascinating, fun, and multifaceted. Children can play with it endlessly. But play, for play's sake, is not water's only value (Crosser, 1994, Tovey, 1993). Indeed, water play is a compelling focus of study for young children (Chalufour & Worth, 2005). The concepts that young children learn from water play are essential for early childhood…
In many schools, classroom teachers are responsible for the music experiences of young children. Children may learn songs, but may not learn "how" to sing. This article outlines simple teaching strategies to help young children develop listening and vocal habits leading to beautiful singing. The article discusses how the kindergarten classes at…
Kourofsky, Carolyn E.; Cole, Robert E.
For more than 15 years, preschool programs nationwide have worked with Fireproof Children/Prevention First, an international center for injury prevention research and education, to bring fire safety education to young children and their families. The "play safe! be safe!"[R] curriculum includes lessons that young children can learn and understand,…
Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Morris, Vivian Gunn; Meredith, Cathy D.; Hicks, Claire
Young children enjoy moving around when they hear music. Children take pleasure in physical activities that contribute to their healthy development. Physical activities are vital to retain healthy bodies, and inactivity is one cause of obesity in young children (Dow, 2010; Izumi-Taylor & Morris, 2007). This article describes how teachers and…
Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Lin, Tzu-Ling; Rogers, Sally J.
Objective: The study was to examine nonverbal communication in young children with autism. Methods: The participants were 23 young children with autism (mean CA = 32.79 months), 23 CA and MA-matched children with developmental delay and 22 18-20-month-old, and 22 13-15-month-old typically developing toddlers and infants. The abbreviated Early…
Bhana, D.; Jewnarain, D.
Responses to AIDS have often neglected children. Drawing on a qualitative study of young children aged 7-9 years, this paper draws attention to their understandings of HIV and AIDS. It is argued that young children are able to give meaning to the disease in ways that link to their social contexts, where gender inequalities and sexual violence are…
Pizzolongo, Peter J.; Hunter, Amy
Every day, young children--around the world and in the United States--experience stress or trauma. Some children are exposed to crises such as natural disasters, community violence, abuse, neglect, and separation from or death of loved ones. These events can cause young children to feel vulnerable, worried, fearful, sad, frustrated, or lonely.…
Jung, Sunhwa; Sainato, Diane M.
Background: Play is critical for the development of young children and is an important part of their daily routine. However, children with autism often exhibit deficits in play skills and engage in stereotypic behaviour. We reviewed studies to identify effective instructional strategies for teaching play skills to young children with autism.…
Haugland, Susan W.
Whether we use technology with young children--and if so, how--are critical issues facing early childhood educators and parents. This Spanish-language digest points out that many researchers do not recommend that children under 3 years old use computers. The digest also notes that many educators use computers with young children in ways that are…
Aunio, Pirjo; Hautamaki, Jarkko; Sajaniemi, Nina; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.
The aim of this study was to explore the early numeracy of low-performing young children. The mean age of the children was six years and four months. The 511 participants belonged to three groups: multi-language children, children with special educational needs and children with average performance. The results showed that there were significant…
Thomason, Nita Davison
Describes how children develop a concept of death, and presents suggestions for classroom experiences to help young children cope with death. Considers children's attendance at funerals and how to answer children's questions about death. Lists 14 children's books about death. (KB)
... Emergencies Prevent Tipping Furniture from Injuring or Killing Young Children The nation’s emergency physicians handle tragic situations ... Emergency Physicians. “Every parent or guardian of a young child should look around their homes and imagine ...
Thomas, Jerry R.; Halliwell, Wayne
There may be many social psychological variables that influence or are influenced by children's behavior in organized sports. The major variable discussed in this paper is the child's motivation to participate. One cognitive theory--the attribution theory-- offers insights into the child's view of his motivation, and the effects upon this…
Zecevic, Cheryl A.; Tremblay, Line; Lovsin, Tanya; Michel, Lariviere
Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA) behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys). Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B = .78, P < .10) and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B = .69, P < .05) were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B = −.08, P < .01), having older parents (B = −.26, P < .01), and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B = 1.55, P < .01) reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B = 1.44, P < .05). Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits. PMID:20671967
Ross, Brian H.; Gelman, Susan A.; Rosengren, Karl S.
Children learn many new categories and make inferences about these categories. Much work has examined how children make inferences on the basis of category knowledge. However, inferences may also affect what is learned about a category. Four experiments examine whether category-based inferences during category learning influence category knowledge…
A deterministic model was used to model dietary exposure of young children. Parameters included pesticide residue on food before handling, surface pesticide loading, transfer efficiencies and children's activity patterns. Three components of dietary pesticide exposure were includ...
Discusses specific steps teachers of young children can take to sustain and increase children's love of poetry. The discussion ranges from the music of Mother Goose, chants, and nonsense verse to implementing a planned program of poetry writing. (RH)
Luke, Sara; Vail, Cynthia O.; Ayres, Kevin M.
A withdrawal design was used to investigate how physical activity affects on-task behavior of young children with significant developmental delays in a special education preschool classroom. Five preschool age children with significant developmental delays engaged in either physical activity or seated center activities for 20 min prior to a 15-min…
Kim, Jin-Ah; Lorsbach, Anthony W.
The intent of this study was to examine young children's perceptions of writing self-efficacy (Grades K-1). Most research studies find a significant relationship between self-efficacy and achievement in older students (Grades 4-16). Research has also shown that children are affected by personal perceived self-efficacy. Therefore, self-efficacy can…
Goulart, Maria Inês Mafra; Roth, Wolff-Michael
In this study we investigate how 5-year-old children in Brazil and their teachers collectively design science curriculum. More specifically, we develop an agency|structure dialectic as a framework to describe this collective praxis in which science curriculum may emerge as the result of children-teacher transactions rather than as a result of being predetermined and controlled by the latter. We draw on a cultural-historical approach and on the theory of structure and agency to analyze the events showing the complexity of the activity inside a classroom of very young children by science education standards. Data were collected in the context of a science unit in an early-childhood education program in Belo Horizonte. Our study suggests that (a) throughout the movement of agency|passivity || schema|resources one can observe participative thinking, a form of collective consciousness that arises in and from lived experience; (b) learning is a process in which a group is invested in searching for solutions while they create schemas and rearrange resources to evolve a new structure; and (c) the emergent curriculum is a powerful form of praxis that develops children's participation from early childhood on.
Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne M
This research examines how family dynamics like interparental conflict, family violence, and quality of parenting are associated with young children's experiences of sibling victimization. We use nationally representative data from interviews with caregivers of 1,726 children aged 2 to 9 years of age. We hypothesized different family dynamics predictors for a composite of common types of sibling victimization (property, psychological, and mild physical aggression) in comparison to severe physical sibling victimization (victimization that includes physical aggression with a weapon and/or injury). Multinomial regression results showed that sibling victimization in general was associated with negative family dynamics but that children in the severe group had even less parental warmth, poor parental supervision, and greater exposure to interparental conflict and family violence than children in the common types victimization group. Different aspects of family dynamics contribute to sibling victimization, but possibly in different ways and with different consequences. The findings underscore the importance of a family systems theory approach to clinical and intervention work. PMID:25111955
This article explores the use of children's photography as a method for conducting mathematics education research with young children. Collected as part of a study focusing on the experiences with measurement children have at the start of schooling, the photographs presented here were taken by children aged five and six years, from two Australian…
Dockett, Sue; Einarsdottir, Johanna; Perry, Bob
Participatory approaches to engaging in research with young children place a great deal of emphasis on children's rights to choose whether or not they wish to be involved. A number of recent studies have reported a range of strategies both to inform children of their research rights and to establish options for checking children's understanding of…
Early childhood is a significant time when children begin to develop their place identity. As they discover their environment, young children claim special places in which to construct their own experiences. In exploring ways to connect children with place, particularly nature, caregivers need to consider children's place perspectives in the…
Read, Marilyn A.; Upington, Deborah
This study focuses on children's color preferences in the interior environment. Previous studies highlight young children's preferences for the colors red and blue. The methods of this study used a rank ordering technique and a semi-structured interview process with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Findings reveal that children prefer the color…
Austin, Keith; Theakston, Anna; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael
Although a fair amount is known about young children's production of negation, little is known about their comprehension. Here, we focus on arguably the most complex basic form, denial, and how young children understand denial, when it is expressed in response to a question with gesture, single word, or sentence. One hundred twenty-six…
Halfon, Neal, Ed.; McLearn, Kathryn Taaffe, Ed.; Schuster, Mark A., Ed.
In the wake of intense national interest in very young children, this volume presents an examination of the findings of the Commonwealth Survey of Parents with Young Children, as analyzed by scholars from diverse disciplines. What emerges from this analysis is a picture of the complex forces that influence families and child rearing in the…
Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Zinsser, Katherine
Young children's emotional competence--regulation of emotional expressiveness and experience when necessary, and knowledge of their own and other's emotions--is crucial for social and academic (i.e., school) success. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms of how young children develop emotional competence. Both parents and teachers are…
Saracho, Olivia N.
Play provides young children with the opportunity to express their ideas, symbolize, and test their knowledge of the world. It provides the basis for inquiry in literacy, science, social studies, mathematics, art, music, and movement. Through play, young children become active learners engaged in explorations about themselves, their community, and…
This paper explores the ways in which young South African school children (aged between seven and eight) in a predominantly white primary school give meanings to HIV/AIDS. Using ethnographic methods and interview data, the analysis of young children's responses shows that their accounts of HIV/AIDS draw from their knowledge of disease more…
Gisolfi, Peter A.
There are three building-design factors vital to young children: protection, interaction, and scale. School and classroom scale (fixtures, cabinets, doorknobs, furniture) should be suited to young children. Sample designs from Scarsdale, New York, and Kansas City, Missouri, are presented. (MLH)
Bruns, Deborah A.; Thompson, Stacy
Many young children with autism exhibit feeding-related difficulties, such as accepting a limited diet, demonstrating texture aversions, or using only specific mealtime utensils. Young children with autism need assistance to acquire skills to improve mealtime behavior, including increased acceptance of a variety of foods (types and textures) at…
Aronson, Susan S., Ed.
Noting that the health component of child care should be planned to respond to the developmental patterns of young children, this manual was developed as a reference and resource guide for program directors and teachers of young children and can be used as a textbook for adult learners. The manual, based on national standards and reviewed by…
In this article, Alison Partridge considers two examples of developing the participation and inclusion of children and young people in public decision-making in Oxfordshire. The projects are compared with research findings focusing on the impact of participation on children, young people, adults and organisations. The author highlights the value…
This document discusses the nature and objective of the Interdisciplinary Doctoral Program on Young Children (IDPYC), which is designed to prepare leaders to function as "interface" (or, catalysts) in settings that concern young children. This program trains them to attain the following characteristics: (a) a sound background and knowledge base in…
van Hoogdalem, Anne-Greth; Singer, Elly; Eek, Anneloes; Heesbeen, Daniëlle
We need methods to measure friendship among very young children to study the beginnings of friendship and the impact of experiences with friendship for later development. This article presents an overview of methods for measuring very young children's friendships. A behavioural sociometric method was constructed to study degrees of friendship…
Murphy, Debra A.; Roberts, Kathleen J.; Hoffman, Dannie
Little is known about the impact of maternal disclosure of HIV-positive serostatus on young children. The objective of this study was to explore this topic, utilizing in-depth qualitative interviews. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 47 mothers who had disclosed to their young, well child, and with the children. The most prevalent child…
Teaching young children remains a generally female occupation in spite of some educators' encouraging men to enter the field. In order to explore the reasons for this imbalance, 10 male school teachers of young children were interviewed at length about their teaching history and plans, their satisfaction with their work, and their attitudes about…
Cheifetz, P N; Stavrakakis, G; Lester, E P
The process of bereavement in children ranges from the absence of grief to symptoms of anxiety and conduct disturbances. Some psychoanalytic opinion holds that the absence of grief, associated with lack of cognitive maturity, leads to the development of psychopathology later in life. Other writers describe a mourning response, taking the form of ambivalence, anxiety, and care giving, which may protect against subsequent depression. This paper describes the affective response in 16 children ages four to 17 years, two to three years following the death of a parent, in order to further characterize developmental aspects of the emotional repertoire of bereavement. Only children aged 12 and over were depressed according to the Poznansky Children's Depression Rating Scale and criteria in the DSM-III. Conduct disturbances were observed in the younger children and some of the older children and were correlated with depression in the group as a whole. This suggests that the expression of depressive affect depends on maturation and that the young child may register grief only through anxiety and negativism. Examples of this spectrum of responses are offered in two case vignettes.
Epstein, Ann S.; Trimis, Eli
Based on the view that art should be a vital component of young childrens experiences, this book examines the High/Scope approach to the visual arts for young children in early care and education settings and highlights an in-depth studio approach to developing art. The book is organized in two parts. Chapters in Part 1 present the High/Scope…
Kubey, Robert; Larson, Reed
Examines the use and experience of music videos, video games, and videocassettes among children and young adolescents. Finds that boys reacted with greater arousal and more positive affective states to new video media as compared to traditional media, while girls reported lower affect and arousal, expecially during video games and music videos.…
The research reviewed and the current responses identified in this paper show that at local, national and international levels there are gaps in programming and policy to engage ideas and mobilise resources to address the needs and experiences of very young children infected/affected by HIV and AIDS. Chapter one identifies some key areas where the…
Noland, M; Danner, F; DeWalt, K; McFadden, M; Kotchen, J M
Two studies were conducted to determine the validity of various measures of physical activity in young children. In Study 1, 21 preschool children were utilized to explore how well measures of children's activity obtained from parents, teachers, and the children predicted observed behavior at school and in the home. Study 2 (n = 51 preschool children) focused on the predictive validity of the Caltrac motion sensor. In both studies, detailed minute-by-minute ratings of children's activity in Study 1 were generally ineffective in predicting observed physical activity. Children's activity preferences, however, were significantly related to the proportion of high intensity physical activity performed. In Study 2, there was a significant relationship (r = .86, p less than .0001) between Caltrac readings and observed physical activity. This correlation was similar for boys and girls, normal and overweight children, and younger and older children. These findings suggest that the Caltrac monitor may provide a valid index of individual differences in physical activity in young children.
DeLoache, J S
The research summarized here shows that young children undergo an abrupt transition in their ability to understand the relation between a scale model and a larger space. Virtually none of our 2.5-year-old subjects seemed to understand the relationship between the model and the room; almost all of the 3-year-olds did understand it. The difference seems to be that the 2.5-year-olds do not respond to the model both as a real thing and as a representation of something else. Its status as a complex, meaningful real object prevents their apprehension of its abstract relation to the room. The resistance to instruction, abrupt developmental shift, and negligible individual differences in the model task suggest the possibility of a strong maturational underpinning (Espenschade & Eckert, 1967). Further research, including a longitudinal study and cross-cultural comparisons, will be addressed to the issue of the role of experience in the development of mastery of the model task. The primary contribution of this research lies in the revelation of a hitherto undocumented abrupt developmental shift in very young children's representational flexibility--in their ability to form and coordinate multiple representations. The ability to think of one thing in two ways is an important aspect of early symbolic development. In Western cultures, where so much of a child's learning occurs via various representational media, this is a crucial step. More generally, the cognitive advance that occurs between 2.5 and 3 years of age provides a foundation for further developments in the understanding of multiple representations. PMID:2480700
Suskind, Diana; Iseghohimhen, Tony Onon; Aondo-Akaa, Patricia Ashi
This study examined the effect of the young child-carrying practices of Nigerian women on gross motor and language development in young children. The data collected were designed to help ascertain if and how these practices affect the child's later development. The data documented a variety of factors, including: general medical background,…
Here is a book that invites teachers to the table--even those of us who don't see ourselves as cooks--to create tasty, wholesome projects with children. Young children certainly love to cook, and cooking experiences give them a chance to see a task through to completion and take pride in a product. As they prepare food, children learn social…
El-Shaieb, Muna; Wurtele, Sandy K.
Two hundred and fourteen (214) parents of young children (M age = 6.75 years) were surveyed about their plans for sexuality discussions with their children. Parents were asked to indicate when they would first discuss sex education with their children for 15 specific topics, how effective they perceived themselves to be at discussing each topic,…
Ellen Wartella, PhD, a leading scholar of the role of media in children's development, responds to questions about the role of media in the lives of very young children. She discusses how technology is having an impact on parents and children and provides some context for how parents and caregivers can make informed decisions about using media…
This longitudinal study investigated self-invented notation systems created by young children aged four to six. The researcher showed the children how to feel various pitches and rhythms through singing, eurhythmy, instrumental playing, rhymes and music appreciation. The children were then provided with opportunities to create music notations and…
Childress, Dana C.
Learning to explore, communicate, and interact with others and the environment through play can be problematic for young children with disabilities, but with parental support, children can learn and interact successfully during play activities. To determine how parents engage their preschool children with disabilities in play and what behaviors…
Favazza, Paddy C.; Phillipsen, Leslie; Kumar, Poonam
Results of two studies indicate the Acceptance Scale for Kindergartners was reliable with a sample of minority, low socioeconomic status children and that children exposed to all of the components of an intervention designed to promote acceptance of young children with disabilities had short-term and long-term gains in acceptance. (Contains…
McCarrick, Katy; Li, Xiaoming; Fish, Angela; Holtrop, Teresa; Bhavnagri, Navaz P.; Stanton, Bonita; Brumitt, Gail A.; Butler, Sheretta; Partridge, Ty
Increasingly, young children are using computers; however, the role of the parent in facilitating this type of learning is not yet clear. This study investigates the relationship between parental involvement in computer use and cognitive development in their children. Parents of Head Start children who owned a computer (n = 136) reported on the…
Ee, Jessie; Wong, Khoon Yoong; Aunio, Pirjo
Young children's number sense is essential for the acquisition of higher number skills in later years. Most recent studies focus on children over 6 years of age only. To extend the scope, this study dealt with the performance of children aged 4-7 years in 3 cities: Singapore, Beijing and Helsinki (This study is an extension of the research of…
Sakr, Mona; Connelly, Vince; Wild, Mary
Digital technologies have material and social properties that have the potential to create new opportunities for children's expressive arts practices. The presence and development of oral narratives in young children's visual art-making on paper has been noted in previous research, but little is known about the narratives children create when they…
This exploratory research project was aimed at developing baseline data on computer habits and behaviours among preschool children in Singapore. Three sets of data were collected from teachers, parents and children which are (1) why and how young children use computers; (2) what are the key physical, social and health habits and behaviours of…
Sackes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Bell, Randy L.
This investigation explores young children's computer skills development from kindergarten to third grade using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) dataset. The sample size of the study was 8642 children. Latent growth curve modeling analysis was used as an analytical tool to examine the development of children's computer…
Anagnostaki, Lida; Wright, Michael J.; Papathanasiou, Athanasia
The authors examined the influence of content and verbal cues on young children's understanding of secret information and of its disclosure. Participants were 209 5- and 6-year-old children in an experiment where a puppet, named Zinc, was the protagonist. Children were asked to whom Zinc would disclose a list of pieces of information, some of…
Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Oetting, Janna B.; Stockman, Ida J.
Purpose: We examined language samples of young children learning African American English (AAE) to determine if and when their use of auxiliaries shows dialect-universal and dialect-specific effects. Method: The data were longitudinal language samples obtained from two children, ages 18 to 36 months, and three children, ages 33 to 51 months.…
Meadan, Hedda; Jegatheesan, Brinda
Many young children have a natural attraction to and curiosity about animals. They like to observe, touch, talk to, and ask questions about them. Teachers and parents both can use this broad interest to facilitate children's development and learning in a variety of domains. Research shows that children across ages find emotional comfort in their…
Children, particularly young children, demonstrate characteristics of giftedness in many different ways. These characteristics manifest themselves based on gender, experiences, cultural identity, personal passions and interests, and family or community. Gifted children develop asynchronously. Morelock (2000) stated that "asynchrony in the gifted…
Mitchell, Christina M.; Croy, Calvin; Spicer, Paul; Frankel, Karen; Emde, Robert N.
Children who begin kindergarten with stronger skills learn faster than do those who enter with lower skills. Minority children tend to enter kindergarten already at a disadvantage, and the gap widens across time. However, little is known about cognitive development among American Indian young children. In this study, 110 American Indian infants…
Pálmadóttir, Hrönn; Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna
This article aims to explore young children's (from one to three years old) perspectives of the role and pedagogy of educators in play in an Icelandic preschool. The intention is to explore the meaning that children put into involving educators in their play and whether the children experience educators' actions as a resource for their play. The…
Fu, Genyue; Evans, Angela D.; Xu, Fen; Lee, Kang
This study investigated whether young children make strategic decisions about whether to lie to conceal a transgression based on the lie recipient's knowledge. In Experiment 1, 168 3- to 5-year-olds were asked not to peek at the toy in the experimenter's absence, and the majority of children peeked. Children were questioned about their…
Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.
There is a need for more comprehensive assessments of young children's emerging print knowledge. Traditional letter and numeral identification assessments score children's responses as either correct or incorrect and this approach can underestimate what children know. The present study tested an assessment scale that scored three- and…
Lamme, Linda Leonard; And Others
The purpose of this book is to provide parents with a variety of ideas for getting young children from infancy until the beginning reading stages involved with literature. An introductory section contains discussions of the literary needs of children and of how children develop a sense of literature, guidelines to use in determining literary…
Currently in the popular and academic press, a debate exists as to the usefulness and the potential harm of praising young children. On one side of this debate, there are professionals who are involved in research and education of children with disabilities, and on the other side, those involved in research and education of children without…
Robson, Sue; Rowe, Victoria
This paper looks at young children's creative thinking as inferred through observations of their activities. A total of 52 episodes of child-initiated and adult-initiated activities in 3- to 4-year-olds in an English Children's Centre were analysed using the Analysing Children's Creative Thinking (ACCT) Framework. Results showed that activities…
Stoddard, Frederick J.; Saxe, Glenn; Ronfeldt, Heidi; Drake, Jennifer E.; Burns, Jennifer; Edgren, Christy; Sheridan, Robert
Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are a focus of much research with older children, but little research has been conducted with young children, who account for about 50% of all pediatric burn injuries. This is a 3-year study of 12- to 48-month-old acutely burned children to assess acute traumatic stress outcomes. The aims were to…
Schimmel, Nancy; Love, Susan
Books can inform, reassure, and give young children the vocabulary to talk about adoption. This article presents and examines the language used to talk about adoption in eleven current children's books. Discusses surrogacy, adoption, "natural" parents, grief, "chosen-baby" stories, age at adoption, international adoption, foster children, and open…
Lee, Hye Jung; Kim, Jihyun
The objective of this study is to examine the structural relationships among variables that predict the mathematical ability of young children, namely young children's mathematical attitude, exposure to private mathematical learning, mothers' view about their children's mathematical learning, and mothers' mathematical attitude. To this end, we…
Tzuriel, David; Shamir, Adina
Peer mediation with young children is a relatively novel approach aimed at teaching young children how to mediate to their peers. The main benefits of peer mediation are in developing children's mediation teaching style and cognitive modifiability. The peer mediation developed recently is based on Vygotsky's sociocultural and Feuerstein's…
Siry, Christina; Kremer, Isabelle
This study examines young children's ideas about natural science phenomena and explores possibilities in starting investigations in kindergarten from their ideas. Given the possibilities inherent in how young children make sense of their experiences, we believe it is critical to take children's perspectives into consideration when designing any…
Osofsky, Joy D.; Lieberman, Alicia F.
A system of care for abused and neglected infants and young children should adopt a comprehensive perspective, with mental health considerations systematically incorporated into policies and decisions affecting children and their families. Children age birth to 5 years have disproportionately high rates of maltreatment, with long-term consequences…
Mellon, Nancy K.; Ouellette, Meredith; Greer, Tracy; Gates-Ulanet, Patricia
Children with hearing loss, with early and appropriate amplification and intervention, demonstrate gains in speech, language, and literacy skills. Despite these improvements many children continue to exhibit disturbances in cognitive, behavioral, and emotional control, self-regulation, and aspects of executive function. Given the complexity of developmental learning, educational settings should provide services that foster the growth of skills across multiple dimensions. Transdisciplinary intervention services that target the domains of language, communication, psychosocial functioning, motor, and cognitive development can promote academic and social success. Educational programs must provide children with access to the full range of basic skills necessary for academic and social achievement. In addition to an integrated curriculum that nurtures speech, language, and literacy development, innovations in the areas of auditory perception, social emotional learning, motor development, and vestibular function can enhance student outcomes. Through ongoing evaluation and modification, clearly articulated curricular approaches can serve as a model for early intervention and special education programs. The purpose of this article is to propose an intervention model that combines best practices from a variety of disciplines that affect developmental outcomes for young children with hearing loss, along with specific strategies and approaches that may help to promote optimal development across domains. Access to typically developing peers who model age-appropriate skills in language and behavior, small class sizes, a co-teaching model, and a social constructivist perspective of teaching and learning, are among the key elements of the model. PMID:20150187
Mellon, Nancy K; Ouellette, Meredith; Greer, Tracy; Gates-Ulanet, Patricia
Children with hearing loss, with early and appropriate amplification and intervention, demonstrate gains in speech, language, and literacy skills. Despite these improvements many children continue to exhibit disturbances in cognitive, behavioral, and emotional control, self-regulation, and aspects of executive function. Given the complexity of developmental learning, educational settings should provide services that foster the growth of skills across multiple dimensions. Transdisciplinary intervention services that target the domains of language, communication, psychosocial functioning, motor, and cognitive development can promote academic and social success. Educational programs must provide children with access to the full range of basic skills necessary for academic and social achievement. In addition to an integrated curriculum that nurtures speech, language, and literacy development, innovations in the areas of auditory perception, social emotional learning, motor development, and vestibular function can enhance student outcomes. Through ongoing evaluation and modification, clearly articulated curricular approaches can serve as a model for early intervention and special education programs. The purpose of this article is to propose an intervention model that combines best practices from a variety of disciplines that affect developmental outcomes for young children with hearing loss, along with specific strategies and approaches that may help to promote optimal development across domains. Access to typically developing peers who model age-appropriate skills in language and behavior, small class sizes, a co-teaching model, and a social constructivist perspective of teaching and learning, are among the key elements of the model. PMID:20150187
Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Gracely, Edward J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Orlin, Margo N.
Background The attainment of walking is a focus of physical therapy intervention in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and may affect their independence in mobility and participation in daily activities. However, knowledge of determinants of independent walking to guide physical therapists' decision making is lacking. Objective The aim of this study was to identify child factors (postural control, reciprocal lower limb movement, functional strength, and motivation) and family factors (family support to child and support to family) that predict independent walking 1 year later in young children with CP at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels II and III. Design A secondary data analysis of an observational cohort study was performed. Methods Participants were 80 children with CP, 2 through 6 years of age. Child factors were measured 1 year prior to the walking outcome. Parent-reported items representing family factors were collected 7 months after study onset. The predictive model was analyzed using backward stepwise logistic regression. Results A measure of functional strength and dynamic postural control in a sit-to-stand activity was the only significant predictor of taking ≥3 steps independently. The positive likelihood ratio for predicting a “walker” was 3.26, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.74. The model correctly identified a walker or “nonwalker” 75% of the time. Limitations Prediction of walking ability was limited by the lack of specificity of child and family characteristics not prospectively selected and measurement of postural control, reciprocal lower limb movement, and functional strength 1 year prior to the walking outcome. Conclusions The ability to transfer from sitting to standing and from standing to sitting predicted independent walking in young children with CP. Prospective longitudinal studies are recommended to determine indicators of readiness for independent walking. PMID:26089044
Stern, P; Prince, M T; Bradley, R H; Stroh, S E
Almost all children participate in sports at some time, and programs are being established for even younger children. Adults who coach the children largely determine what the children's sports experience will be. Coaches' perceptions of what is important for the young children they instruct have not yet been carefully investigated. This study was designed, therefore, to determine coaches' goals for young children. Data were gathered by use of an attitude questionnaire administered to 29 coaches of a recreational basketball program of children ranging in age from 6 to 10 years old. Of the 12 goals, feeling part of a team, learning to do my best, and having fun and excitement were most highly rated as extremely important, while becoming popular was lowest rated as not important. Results revealed that coaches in general are able to clearly define their goals and priorities, and these goals seem developmentally appropriate for the children. However, coaches make little differentiation in goals based on age. PMID:2721095
Stern, P; Prince, M T; Bradley, R H; Stroh, S E
Almost all children participate in sports at some time, and programs are being established for even younger children. Adults who coach the children largely determine what the children's sports experience will be. Coaches' perceptions of what is important for the young children they instruct have not yet been carefully investigated. This study was designed, therefore, to determine coaches' goals for young children. Data were gathered by use of an attitude questionnaire administered to 29 coaches of a recreational basketball program of children ranging in age from 6 to 10 years old. Of the 12 goals, feeling part of a team, learning to do my best, and having fun and excitement were most highly rated as extremely important, while becoming popular was lowest rated as not important. Results revealed that coaches in general are able to clearly define their goals and priorities, and these goals seem developmentally appropriate for the children. However, coaches make little differentiation in goals based on age.
Terra, Vera Cristina; de Paola, Luciano; Silvado, Carlos Eduardo
Childhood-onset epilepsy is associated with psychiatric and cognitive difficulties and with poor social outcomes in adulthood. Some antiepileptic drugs adversely affect behavior in susceptible children with easy-to-control or refractory epilepsies, contributing to a high risk of psychological and psychiatric disturbance. Studies had demonstrated that patients with benign rolandic epilepsy and absence epilepsy had more aggressive behavior, depression, and anxiety disorders than control children. Psychiatric comorbidities are strongly associated with a poor long-term health-related quality of life in childhood-onset epilepsy, which suggests that comprehensive epilepsy care must include screening and long-term treatment for these conditions, even if seizures remit.
Creasey, G; Ottlinger, K; Devico, K; Murray, T; Harvey, A; Hesson-McInnis, M
Although research has linked difficulties in parent mood functioning to developmental problems in children, little work has examined why such a link occurs. Following current social-cognitive perspectives on children's cognitive appraisals to negative parent affect, it was hypothesized that children would show more intense affective responses, less confidence, and less active coping strategies in response to parent, as opposed to peer, negative affect. In the current study, young children (N = 39) were read experimental vignettes portraying peers and parents in either happy, sad, or angry emotional states. Children were then interviewed about their affective responses, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies to each vignette. Beyond experiencing more negative affective responses to parent, compared to peer negative affect, children felt they could do little to help themselves when faced with paternal distress and frequently indicated they would engage in avoidant coping strategies (e.g., hiding) to make themselves feel better when confronted with parent sadness. This study has implications for more industrious future research, as well as intervention projects that involve assisting children who live in households marked by high levels of negative adult affect. PMID:9344486
Jansen, Rianne; Ceulemans, Eva; Grauwels, Jolien; Maljaars, Jarymke; Zink, Inge; Steyaert, Jean; Noens, Ilse
A dimensional approach was used to create bottom-up constructed subgroups that captured the behavioral heterogeneity in 36 Dutch-speaking children with language difficulties. Four subgroups were delineated based upon differences in cognitive ability, symbol understanding, joint attention and autism spectrum disorder related characteristics. Children with a different developmental disorder were found within a single cluster. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that bottom-up constructed subgroups might capture the heterogeneous behavioral profiles of young children with developmental difficulties in a more meaningful way. Furthermore, joint attention and symbol understanding seem important skills to assess in young children presenting with language difficulties.
Wiggins, Lisa D.; Robins, Diana L.; Bakeman, Roger; Adamson, Lauren B.
The purpose of this study was to explore the sensory profile of young children with ASD compared to young children with other developmental delays (DD) at first ASD assessment. Results found that young children with ASD had more tactile and taste/smell sensitivities and difficulties with auditory filtering than young children with other DD.…
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161035.html Suicide Can Strike Children as Young as 5: Study ... 5 years old -- may be at risk of suicide. Black elementary school-age boys seem to have ...
Cramer, Kathryn D.; Erber, Norman P.
An auditory test of 10 spondaic words recorded on Language Master cards was presented monaurally, through insert receivers to 58 hearing-impaired young children to evaluate their ability to recognize familiar speech material. (MYS)
A deterministic model was developed to identify critical input parameters to assess dietary intake of young children. The model was used as a framework for understanding important factors in data collection and analysis. Factors incorporated included transfer efficiencies of pest...
To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...
Yates, Brian T.; Mischel, Walter
Four experiments examine young children's verbal preferences and actual use of different attentional strategies for sustaining delay of gratification. Subjects were 272 preschool and 48 elementary school boys and girls. (MP)
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159656.html Malaria Vaccine Protection Short-Lived in Young Children Kids ... 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The world's most promising malaria vaccine appears to offer short-lived protection, fading ...
Wetherby, Amy M.; Prizant, Barry M.
This article discusses strategies for sampling communication and symbolic abilities in young children who are not yet talking or who are at early language stages, placing emphasis on caregiver involvement. The paper points out that profiling a young child's communication and symbolic abilities can contribute to the early identification of language…
This article extends current research by more closely examining children and young people's uses of the Internet for homework support within the familial context. In particular, it examines how young people find and deploy resources, how levels and quality of access influence use and the participation of other family members in homework support.…
Medeiros, Debra; Vaulton, Wendy
The Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Initiative, funded by the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, aims to improve the housing, health, and development of homeless and at-risk young families. This article describes the services provided in four program sites (Pomona, CA; Antelope Valley, CA; Minneapolis, MN; and Chicago, IL)…
Sheskin, Mark; Bloom, Paul; Wynn, Karen
Young children dislike getting less than others, which might suggest a general preference for equal outcomes. However, young children are typically not averse to others receiving less than themselves. These results are consistent with two alternatives: young children might not have any preferences about others receiving less than themselves, or they might have preferences for others receiving less than themselves. We test these alternatives with 5- to 10-year-old children. We replicate previous findings that children will take a cost to avoid being at a relative disadvantage, but also find that 5- and 6-year-olds will spitefully take a cost to ensure that another’s welfare falls below their own. This result suggests that the development of fairness includes overcoming an initial social comparison preference for others to get less relative to oneself. PMID:24291266
Collins, Chimere C.; Villa-Torres, Laura; Sams, Lattice D.; Zeldin, Leslie P.
Background and Objectives Despite the widespread acknowledgement of the importance of childhood oral health, little progress has been made in preventing early childhood caries. Limited information exists regarding specific daily-life and community-related factors that impede optimal oral hygiene, diet, care, and ultimately oral health for children. We sought to understand what parents of young children consider important and potentially modifiable factors and resources influencing their children’s oral health, within the contexts of the family and the community. Methods This qualitative study employed Photovoice among 10 English-speaking parents of infants and toddlers who were clients of an urban WIC clinic in North Carolina. The primary research question was: “What do you consider as important behaviors, as well as family and community resources to prevent cavities among young children?” Five group sessions were conducted and they were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative research methodology. Inductive analyses were based on analytical summaries, double-coding, and summary matrices and were done using Atlas.ti.7.5.9 software. Findings Good oral health was associated with avoidance of problems or restorations for the participants. Financial constraints affected healthy food and beverage choices, as well as access to oral health care. Time constraints and occasional frustration related to children’s oral hygiene emerged as additional barriers. Establishment of rules/routines and commitment to them was a successful strategy to promote their children’s oral health, as well as modeling of older siblings, cooperation among caregivers and peer support. Community programs and organizations, social hubs including playgrounds, grocery stores and social media emerged as promising avenues for gaining support and sharing resources. Conclusions Low-income parents of young children are faced with daily life struggles that interfere with oral
Alexander, Shona; Brown, Neil; Farmer, Kait; Fraser-Smith, Jenny; McClatchey, Kirstie; McKeown, Vibeke; Sangster, Ali; Shaver, Isabel; Templeton, Jenny
This paper describes the process employed by a psychological service to gather the views of children and young people using guided discussion groups and questionnaires. Pupils in the guided discussion groups were asked to identify issues that affect them and how adults could help. This information was analysed using thematic analysis. Seven themes…
Melson, Gail F.; Hulls, M. Johanna
This paper discusses several studies related to the interplay of verbal and nonverbal communication in young children and presents educational implications of this research. Two areas of nonverbal communication are considered: kinesics, or the use of body movements as displays of affection and emotion and as regulators of communication, and…
McNeilly, Patricia; Macdonald, Geraldine; Kelly, Berni
There is an increasing expectation that children, young people and their parents should participate in decisions that affect them. This includes decisions about their health and social care and collective or public decisions about the way in which such services are designed, delivered and evaluated. Indeed this has become a policy priority across…
This review paper provides pre-service and in-service teachers, principals and other educational professionals with the information needed to understand the concept of resilience to affect positive development in children and young people in their care. It reviews and critiques the most influential literature on resiliency over the last four…
Hayes, Cheryl D.
How early childhood funds are channeled to communities significantly affects what supports and services are available, how they are provided, how well they are linked to other resources in the community, and who benefits from them. As pressure mounts for states and communities to strengthen their commitment to families with young children and meet…
Epley, Pamela; Gotto, George S., IV; Summers, Jean Ann; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Turnbull, Ann P.; Friend, Anna
This article presents findings from two early intervention agencies examining how administrative structures affect providers' ability to serve families of young children with disabilities. Based on previous research identifying three administrative structures (i.e., vision/leadership, organizational climate, and resources), this article…
Odom, Samuel L.; Buysse, Virginia; Soukakou, Elena
Issues affecting inclusion of young children with disabilities over the last 25 years are discussed. A brief history of early childhood inclusion is followed by a discussion of definition, terminology, and models for inclusive services. A summary of synthesis points derived from the research literature focuses on critical outcomes for children…
Cole, Bronwyn; McGuire, Margit
For young children to engage and learn in school, they need to feel safe in the classroom and on the playground right from the first day. They also need learning experiences that are active and meaningful--that engage them cognitively, affectively, and operatively. Feeling safe requires knowledge about places, rules, codes of behavior, and the…
The aim of the study was to examine differences in children's generalised trust and the maternal behaviour, child temperament, and demographic factors on the levels of trust in children. A total of 314 mothers and their children participated in the study. Results showed no evidence of sex differences in children's beliefs. Children…
Estola, Eila; Farquhar, Sandy; Puroila, Anna-Maija
Whereas research on children's well-being in education has largely focused on adult perspectives rather than on children's understandings, recent scholarship argues for a stronger focus on children's experience and perceptions of their own well-being. Adopting a narrative approach, this article puts children's stories centre…
Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.
Noting that young children need early childhood settings supporting the development of the full range of capacities that will serve as a foundation for future school learning, and that adults have an opportunity and an obligation to assist children in becoming active participants in the learning process, this document details foundations to…
Venville, Grady J.; Louisell, Robert D.; Wilhelm, Jennifer A.
The purpose of this research was to use a multidimensional theoretical framework to examine young children's knowledge about the Moon. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and the design was a multiple case study of ten children between the ages of three and eight from the USA and Australia. A detailed, semi-structured interview…
Romano, Hélène; Marty, Jean; Dupuis, Stéphane; Marichez, Héloïse; Cholin, Nathalie; Bernard-Brunel, Laurent; Zeltner, Laure; Moro, Marie Rose; Baubet, Thierry
Children are regularly faced with traumatic events, whether these are disasters (tsunami, floods, earthquakes), accidents (transport, domestic) or intentional acts (war, ill treatment). The care provided for young Haitian children following the earthquake in January 2010 offers an insight into specific intervention methods, the treatment of post-traumatic disorders and the effects of trauma on those working with them.
Recent studies of total dietary ingestion of common indoor contaminants have demonstrated that young children's behaviors while eating can lead to a significant source of food contamination. The difference between children eating their food items with or without their hands wh...
This small-scale study focuses on young children's reported information and communication technology (ICT) experiences in the home and the role of parents in providing technological opportunities, recognition and support. The children of the parents involved were all enrolled in nursery and reception classes (4-5 years of age) in two settings…
Barton, Erin E.; Lawrence, Karen; Deurloo, Florien
Increasing numbers of children with autism receive education services in settings with their typically developing peers. In response to this shift in the location of services, there is a growing body of research identifying evidence-based practices for young children with autism in inclusive early childhood classrooms. The purpose of this paper is…
Moriguchi, Yusuke; Minato, Takashi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Ikuko; Itakura, Shoji
Previous studies have shown that observing a human model's actions, but not a robot's actions, could induce young children's perseverative behaviors and suggested that children's sociocognitive abilities can lead to perseverative errors ("social transmission of disinhibition"). This study investigated how the social transmission of disinhibition…
This article highlights the lack of human rights recognition for arguably one of the most vulnerable groups in our society, children and young people in the care of the state. Currently under New Zealand legislation and policy frameworks these children do not have their rights upheld, as per New Zealand's obligations under the United Nations…
Young children love to investigate the natural world, and they love to take photographs. "Picture Science" goes beyond just documenting class projects. The book shows how to use digital photography to make each step in the scientific process--from posing a question, to gathering data, to showing findings--concrete and fun for children. Keyed…
McGarvey, Lynn M.
A recent emphasis on mathematics learning in the preschool years has sparked a flurry of research in children's thinking; yet, the same attention has not been paid to teaching mathematics in preschools. This paper examines the reciprocal relationship of teaching|learning mathematics with young children and attempts to move discussions beyond…
Ruiter, Selma; Nakken, Han; Janssen, Marleen; Van Der Meulen, Bieuwe; Looijestijn, Paul
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adaptations for children with low vision of the Bayley Scales, a standardized developmental instrument widely used to assess development in young children. Low vision adaptations were made to the procedures, item instructions and play material of the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant…
Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Gatt, Suzanne; Agius, Catherine; Pizzuto, Sue Anne
Young Maltese children have experience and knowledge of animals. We explored the range of animal with which they are familiar and the origin of this knowledge. The children interviewed were in Pre School, aged 4 years, and in the first year of compulsory education, aged 5 years Verb l questions and photographs were used as the probe to access…
Tang, Connie M.; Bartsch, Karen
Two experiments investigated young children's understanding of how and when knowledge was acquired. In Experiment 1, thirty 4- and 5-year-olds were shown or told about various toys hidden in distinctive containers in two sessions a week apart. In the second session, children were asked how and when they learned the containers' contents. They more…
Shulman, Brian B.
The effects of three play contexts on young children's turn taking, topic maintenance, and topic change skills were investigated. Participants were 40 normally-developing, English-speaking Caucasian children of middle-income parents; they ranged in age from approximately 4 years to 6 and one half years. Subjects were subdivided into younger and…
Renton, Zoe; Butcher, Joanne
This article outlines why sustainable development matters for children and young people, and explores the relevant policy context in England and the UK. It asks whether enough is being carried out by central government to secure a more sustainable future for, and with, today's children. More is needed at the national policy level to: embed…
This paper reports on the work in progress undertaken with young children, artists and early childhood education students in an innovative arts education partnership between Windmill Performing Arts, the national performing arts company for children and families, and the University of South Australia. The paper explains how the project was…
Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.
As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…
More, Cori M.
Social Stories are becoming a popular intervention used to improve the social skills of children with disabilities. This article examines the use of Social Stories with young children with disabilities. Social Stories are described, creation guidelines are recommended, and strategies for Social Story implementation in the classroom are discussed.…
Jaudes, Paula Kienberger; Mackey-Bilaver, Lucy
Objective: To examine whether and to what extent specific chronic health conditions place young children at risk of maltreatment. Methods: The study used a sample of Illinois children (born between January 1990 and March 1996) who were through age 3 continuously enrolled in Medicaid, a public health insurance program for low-income families. The…
Strasser, Janis; Seplocha, Holly
This article discusses the importance of using picture books to support young children's literacy. A picture book is different from a children's book, because it contains illustrations. In a picture book, both the picture and text are equally important. The text and illustrations of high-quality picture books weave rich stories that can excite and…
Yopp, Ruth Helen; Yopp, Hallie Kay
Despite arguments for more fully including informational text in early childhood classrooms, research suggests that young children's exposure to the genre is quite limited. This article focuses on the informational books that children do encounter, specifically through read-alouds, and describes the narrow focus of those books. Informational…
Barnes, Susan Kubic
In this era of increased accountability in education, there is a need for tools to use in assessing the abilities and instructional levels of young children. Computers have been used successfully to assess older children and adults. However, there is a dearth of empirical research to provide evidence that computer-based testing (CBT) is…
Essa, Eva L., Ed.; Burnham, Melissa M., Ed.
Best practice is based on knowledge--not on beliefs or guesses--about how children learn and develop. This volume contains 20 overviews of research on aspects of young children's social, emotional, cognitive, or physical development, as well as how the findings can be applied in the classroom. Originally "Research in Review" articles in NAEYC's…
Clements, Douglas; Sarama, Julie
The authors summarize the research on the effects of computer use by young children, concentrating especially on implications for social, emotional, and cognitive development. They cover effects on children's language and reading, creativity, and mathematics learning. They note the importance of teacher planning for appropriate computer use in the…
Starbuck, Sara; Olthof, Marla; Midden, Karen
Children are drawn to nature and the outdoors. This guide details the inclusion of gardening in the preschool curriculum at a university child development program in Illinois. Chapter 1 of the book, "Why Garden?" details the benefits of gardening for young children, describes the project approach used, discusses the role of the teacher, and…
Charlesworth, Rosalind; Leali, Shirley A.
Mathematics problem solving provides a means for obtaining a view of young children's understanding of mathematics as they move through the early childhood concept development sequence. Assessment information can be obtained through observations and interviews as children develop problem solutions. Examples of preschool, kindergarten, and primary…
Daunhauer, Lisa A.; Coster, Wendy J.; Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Cermak, Sharon A.
The relationship between cognitive functioning and play behaviors of children residing in an orphanage was examined. Twenty-six young children (15 boys) between 10 and 38 months of age participated. More developmentally competent play behaviors were highly related to better performance on cognitive functioning as measured by the Bayley Scales of…
Young children's natural processes of language acquisition, the ways they learn a second language, and guides for teaching children a second language are discussed. Topics addressed include social influences on language acquisition, code-switching in bilingual communities, and the relationship of enculturation and acculturation to the development…
Shaw, Jean M.
Noting that children learn through active involvement and concrete experiences as well as through dialogue about these experiences, this book provides instructional guidelines and class activities to assist the cognitive, social, creative, personal, and physical development of young children based on early childhood research and theory. Chapter 1…
Leach, Debra; LaRocque, Michelle
Research and education law support the use of routines-based interventions for young children with disabilities in the children's natural environments. However, systematic training and practice can provide individuals with the strategies and skills that can enhance these interventions. This article provides guidance for implementing intervention…
Kleinman, Jamie M.; Ventola, Pamela E.; Pandey, Juhi; Verbalis, Alyssa D.; Barton, Marianne; Hodgson, Sarah; Green, James; Dumont-Mathieu, Thyde; Robins, Diana L.; Fein, Deborah
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) diagnosis in very young children may be delayed due to doubts about validity. In this study, 77 children received a diagnostic and developmental evaluation between 16 and 35 months and also between 42 and 82 months. Diagnoses based on clinical judgment, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and the Autism Diagnostic…
de Atiles, Julia Reguero; Allexsaht-Snider, Martha
Of the 22 million children currently enrolled in U.S. schools, more than 2 million have limited English proficiency. Preschoolers and elementary-age children make up the greatest proportion of the immigrant student population, and many teachers need support in educating these young, linguistically diverse students. This digest reviews proven…
This study analysed the different types of arithmetic knowledge that young children utilise when solving a multiple-step addition task. The focus of the research was on the procedural and conceptual changes that occur as children develop their overall problem solving approach. Combining qualitative case study with a micro-genetic approach,…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Young Child and the Family Environment Unit.
This document provides information on eleven basic indicators of the well being of young children, their families, and communities worldwide. It consists of two parts: The first summarizes information on the importance of the early childhood period for children, the education system, and parents; describes the organization of efficient early…
This article discusses the use of visual arts activities to help young children cope with separation anxiety and sibling rivalry. Addressed to preschool and elementary school teachers seeking therapeutic classroom activities, the article suggests ways of using children's literature as starting points for drawing activities focused on anxiety…
Harari, Rachel R.; Vukovic, Rose K.; Bailey, Sean P.
This study explored the nature of mathematics anxiety in a sample of 106 ethnically and linguistically diverse first-grade students. Although much is known about mathematics anxiety in older children and adults, little is known about when mathematics anxiety first emerges or its characteristics in young children. Results from exploratory factor…
Kalish, Charles W.; Kim, Sunae; Young, Andrew G.
Three experiments with preschool- and young school-aged children (N = 75 and 53) explored the kinds of relations children detect in samples of instances (descriptive problem) and how they generalize those relations to new instances (inferential problem). Each experiment initially presented a perfect biconditional relation between two features…
Embracing the new sociology of childhood, this paper describes a participatory research method built on a belief in the competency of young children. The paper begins with a critical review of the photo elicitation literature exploring the varied levels of children's participation. Drawing on the strengths of the previous research, a…
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H.; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Ted
The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program…
Bohning, Gerry; Althouse, Jody Kosack
Offers a Tangram Teaching Guide that provides a five-step developmental sequence for teaching tangramming to young children. Includes teaching resources and a checklist summarizing the teaching sequence. Asserts that tangram experiences help children develop positive attitudes toward geometry, further their shape identification and classification…
Broen, Patricia A.; And Others
The study examined the speech production strategies used by 4 young children (30- to 32-months-old) with cleft palate and velopharyngeal inadequacy during the early stages of phonological learning. All the children had had primary palatal surgery and were producing primarily single word utterances with a few 2- and 3-word phrases. Analysis of each…
Shively, Joe E.; And Others
This document contains the plans for conducting the field studies of Appalachian parents of young children which are part of the Appalachia Educational Laboratory's Home-Oriented Preschool Education Program (HOPE). HOPE is an integrated approach to education for preschool and kindergarten children being developed by AEL's Marketable Preschool…
Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre
Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…
Gadeyne, Els; Ghesquiere, Pol; Onghena, Patrick
Background: In this study, psychosocial functioning of different groups of young children with learning problems was investigated using a diverse set of psychosocial variables (including behaviour problems, academic motivation, social preference, and self-concept). Methods: For this purpose, children with low academic achievement, with a specific…
Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.
Two fire education programs for young children are described. The basic principles of both programs are the same: keep it short, make it fun, and get the children involved. The first program addresses what to do if clothes catch fire, teaching about matches, and exiting during a fire (crawling under smoke, raising windows, and unlocking doors).…
Describes features of social pretend play and identifies characteristics of young children's cognitive and social play that may inhibit their participation. Describes approaches for supporting the social pretend play of children with mild to moderate developmental delays and disabilities, including assessment of play skills, use of structured play…
Rossano, Federico; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael
The present work investigated young children's normative understanding of property rights using a novel methodology. Two- and 3-year-old children participated in situations in which an actor (1) took possession of an object for himself, and (2) attempted to throw it away. What varied was who owned the object: the actor himself, the child subject,…
Behne, Tanya; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael
Much is known about young children's use of deictic gestures such as pointing. Much less is known about their use of other types of communicative gestures, especially iconic or symbolic gestures. In particular, it is unknown whether children can create iconic gestures on the spot to inform others. Study 1 provided 27-month-olds with the…
This article explores the role of play in an art museum. Reflecting upon a kindergarten field trip to the Warhol Museum in which children's play was the centerpiece of the museum experience, the author examines what early childhood theorists have written about the value of play in young children's lives. She shows how the Warhol's program for…
Simmons, Betty Jo; Stalsworth, Kelly; Wentzel, Heather
Examines research on television violence and links violence to specific programs commonly watched by young children. Maintains that television violence is related to aggressive behavior, lessened sensitivity to the results of violence, and increased fear. Examines public reactions to children's educational television programs. (Author/KB)
Adomat, Donna Sayers
Learning through drama and other art forms enriches children's learning by expanding the possibilities for how children create and express meaning (Adomat, 2009; Berghoff, Egawa, & Harste, 2000). The arts are rarely suggested as a way of opening up broader understandings for young readers; yet drama has been shown to be beneficial in myriad ways…
Bacmeister, Rhoda W.
This paper discusses preschool teacher competencies and personality traits but makes no attempt to establish a picture of an ideal teacher. Five personal qualities necessary for success with young children--good physical and mental health, fondness and respect for children, a sympathetic understanding of their capacities and ways of growing, an…
Sims, Wendy L.; Lindeman, Carolynn A.
Offers a strategy from the book "Strategies for Teaching Prekindergarten Music" to help young children meet the achievement levels called for in Music Educators National Conference (MENC) Prekindergarten Music Education Standards. Explains that in the lesson provided children will become familiar with music as a medium for changing feelings. (CMK)
Noonan, Mary Jo; McCormick, Linda
With its comprehensive coverage of instruction and intervention practices in natural environments, this is the essential methods textbook for preservice educators and therapists preparing to work with young children who have disabilities. Focusing on children from birth to age 5, this text gives future professionals a wealth of specific, practical…
Gambino, Agatha; Davis, Julie; Rowntree, Noeleen
Field experiences for young children are an ideal medium for environmental education/education for sustainability because of opportunities for direct experience in nature, integrated learning, and high community involvement. This research documented the development--in 4-5 year old Prep children--of knowledge, attitudes and actions/advocacy in…
Madell, Jane R.
Hearing loss in infants and young children can be identified through behavioral observation audiometry, visual reinforcement audiometry, or auditory brainstem response testing. Habilitation may involve amplification with hearing aids, other assistive listening devices, or cochlear implants. Expectations for children with different degrees of…
Gadeyne, Els; Ghesquiere, Pol; Onghena, Patrick
The authors studied the predictive relations between reports of parenting behavior on the one hand and academic achievement and reported behavior problems of young children on the other hand. Data were gathered for 352 children and their parents from kindergarten to 2nd grade. The results indicated that in the academic domain, low supportive and…
This article explores the considerable developments in both early years policy and in the provision of services for young children in England since 1997, noting the role that such services have had in informing the broader "Every child matters" agenda. Many challenges remain, however, not least the numbers of children and families who still live…
Glauert, Esme Bridget
This paper reports findings from a study of young children's views about electric circuits. Twenty-eight children aged 5 and 6 years were interviewed. They were shown examples of circuits and asked to predict whether they would work and explain why. They were then invited to try out some of the circuit examples or make circuits of their own…
Barry, Leasha M.; Haraway, Dana L.
In this paper, self-control strategies are conceptualized as existing on two intersecting continuums of more or less individual control and increasing complexity depending on individual need. Behavioral self-control strategies for young children require external supports to assist children in learning the skills necessary to practice and implement…
Norton, Nadjwa E. L.
In this article, the author combines multicultural feminist critical theories with the voices of Black and Latina/Latino young spiritual children to extend culturally responsive teaching. The author illuminates how children use their hip-hop writing to construct themselves as people who communicate with God, choose spiritual content for their…
Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Conway, Andrew R. A.; Gathercole, Susan E.
The present study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and how these links develop over time. The major aim is to determine which aspect of the working memory system--short-term storage or cognitive control--drives the relationship with fluid intelligence. A sample of 119 children was followed from…
Macklin, M. Carole
In a study that included nonverbal measures, young children indicated little understanding of the selling intent of commercials. Researchers interested in advertising effects on children are urged to consider the necessity and desirability of improved nonverbal measures in dealing with a subject population with limited language facility.…
Jolivette, Kristine; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Morrier, Michael J.; Lambert, Richard
Young children with disabilities acquire behavior problems as a result of many factors. When planning interventions, it is important to remember that all children may display stages of inappropriate behaviors at various times during their early development. In most cases, the problems are short-lived and typically improve with guidance and age.…
Grisham-Brown, Jennifer; Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie
To ensure the best possible outcomes for young children with and without disabilities, early childhood educators must enter the classroom ready to conduct all types of early childhood assessment--including determining if children need additional services, planning and monitoring instruction, and determining program effectiveness. They'll get the…
Huber, Linda K.
Addresses major issues in teachers' reluctance to use woodworking centers with young children: (1) too noisy; (2) too dangerous; (3) just for boys; and (4) too expensive. Explains why woodworking can be beneficial to children and how to begin creating and using a woodworking center. (EV)
Braddock, Barbara A.; Armbrecht, Eric S.
The aim of this study was to examine how early symbolic forms (and their associated communicative functions) are related to change in communication among a sample of 12 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who produced two or fewer spoken words ("M" age = 28.75 months; 11 male, 1 female). Parents reported on children's…
Lim, Eun Mee
When technology integration is accomplished successfully in early childhood education settings, children tend to interact more with one another and exchange information related to computer tasks as well as the overall classroom on-going curriculum themes. Therefore, to explore how young children are interacting in computer areas when using…
Atiles, Julia T.; Dominique-Maikell, Nikole; McKean, Kathleen
The authors investigated the utility and efficacy of using concepts maps as a research tool to assess young children. Pre- and post- concept maps have been used as an assessment and evaluation tool with teachers and with older students, typically children who can read and write; this article summarizes an investigation into the utility of using…
Weiss, Amy L.; Theadore, Geraldine
This article focuses on why and how speech-language pathologists and other professionals can encourage the involvement of parents in teaching social communication skills to their young children. Four main topics are explored: (1) the evidence that many of the children with special needs served by speech-language pathologists and other…
When conducting research with young children it is important to consider not only the data which have been produced as a result of the research, but also the research process itself. This article presents a parallel analysis of data which has been articulated elsewhere from a three-year study of children's understandings about measurement.…
A two-year research project with teachers in nine different early childhood centres was designed to explore and extend opportunities for young children to reflect on their learning. This was described as children becoming "wise" about their learning journeys; the aim was to find ways to assist them to articulate their understanding of what they…
Cheeseman, Jill; McDonough, Andrea; Ferguson, Sarah
This paper reports results of a design experiment regarding young children's concepts of mass measurement. The research built on an earlier study in which a framework of "growth points" in early mathematics learning and a related, task-based, one-to-one interview to assess children's understanding of the measurement of mass…
Jirout, Jamie J.; Newcombe, Nora S.
Games provide important informal learning activities for young children, and spatial game play (e.g., puzzles and blocks) has been found to relate to the development of spatial skills. This study investigates 4- and 5-year-old children's use of scaled and unscaled maps when solving mazes, asking whether an important aspect of spatial…
Pellizzoni, Sandra; Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca
In three experiments involving 207 preschoolers and 28 adults, we investigated the extent to which young children base moral judgments of actions aimed to protect others on utilitarian principles. When asked to judge the rightness of intervening to hurt one person in order to save five others, the large majority of children aged 3 to 5 years…
Amso, Dima; Haas, Sara; Tenenbaum, Elena; Markant, Julie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.
We examined the impact of simultaneous bottom-up visual influences and meaningful social stimuli on attention orienting in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Relative to typically-developing age and sex matched participants, children with ASDs were more influenced by bottom-up visual scene information regardless of whether…
This study aims to examine the developmental changes in young children's perception. A matching completion task consisting of three geometric figures and one bird-like figure were completed by children 3-5 years of age ("N" = 99). The rotation effect, in which the correct response decreased with orientation (45°, 90° 135°, and…
Davidson, Christina; Danby, Susan J.; Given, Lisa M.; Thorpe, Karen J.
Current perspectives on young children's use of digital technology suggest that preschool teachers need to provide more effective guidance for children. There is still little research, however, to inform how guidance might be understood and practiced during interactions with digital technology. This article employs an ethnomethodological…
Shutts, Kristin; Banaji, Mahzarin R.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.
To whom do children look when deciding on their own preferences? To address this question, three-year-old children were asked to choose between objects or activities that were endorsed by unfamiliar people who differed in gender, race (White, Black), or age (child, adult). In Experiment 1, children demonstrated robust preferences for objects and activities endorsed by children of their own gender, but less consistent preferences for objects and activities endorsed by children of their own race. In Experiment 2, children selected objects and activities favored by people of their own gender and age. In neither study did most children acknowledge the influence of these social categories. These findings suggest that gender and age categories are encoded spontaneously and influence children's preferences and choices. For young children, gender and age may be more powerful guides to preferences than race. PMID:20590724
Echols, Jean C.; Kopp, Jaine; Blinderman, Ellen
This book contains a series of playful activities in which young children actively learn about the African elephant's body structure, family life, and social behavior. Children make model elephants out of paper and cardboard, then devise elephant puppets with sock trunks as well as create models of elephant's ears, trunks, tusks, make elephant…
Lovato, Silvia B; Waxman, Sandra R
Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children's lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under 3 years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them. PMID:27486421
Lovato, Silvia B; Waxman, Sandra R
Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children's lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under 3 years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them.
Hannibal, Mary Anne
Presents research findings and suggestions on how children learn to categorize shapes. Discusses specific ways to present developmentally appropriate activities designed to enhance children's understanding of basic shapes. Contains 12 references. (ASK)
Hong, Rathavuth; Betancourt, Jose A; Ruiz-Beltran, Martin
Background Passive smoking unfavorably affects pregnancy, child birth and child health. Passive smoking associates with still-birth, premature birth as well as acute respiratory infection, asthma, disorder in red blood cell metabolism in children. This study examined the effects of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan. Methods The analysis based on the information from 740 children aged 0–35 months that were tested for hemoglobin levels included in the 2002 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey. This study used multivariate logistic regression method to analyze the effect of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan, controlling for a number of risk factors and confounding factors for anemia. Results Results indicated that independent of other risk factors and confounding factors, anemia in young children was strongly positively associated with exposure to passive smoking from both parents (OR= 2.99, p < 0.01). Severely undernourished children were at higher risk of anemia independent of passive smoking and other risk factors (OR= 5.29, p < 0.05). Children age 24–35 months, children born to mothers age 35–49, and children lived in households with a hygienic toilet facility were less likely to suffer from anemia. Conclusion Passive smoking from both parents was strongly positively associated with anemia in young children in Jordan independent of other risk factors and confounding factors. The results support the importance of smoking prevention during and after pregnancy that prevent childhood anemia and others morbidities in young children. PMID:17425780
Tininenko, Jennifer R.; Fisher, Philip A.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.
In the current study, sleep actigraphy and parent-report measures were used to investigate differences in sleeping behavior among four groups of 3- to 7-year-olds (N = 79): children in regular foster care (n = 15); children receiving a therapeutic intervention in foster care (n = 17); low income community children (n = 18); and upper middle income…
Piper, Francesca M.
The director of a not-for-profit nursery school adapted the adult stress management techniques of exercise and relaxation for use with 3- to 5-year-old children. Specifically, children were taught visualization techniques and yoga exercises involving deep breathing. The goal of the practicum was to rechannel children's negative stress-related…
Dagli, Ümmühan Yesil; Halat, Erdogan
This study explored 5-6 year-old children's conceptual understanding of one geometric shape, the triangle. It focused on whether children could draw a triangle from memory, and identify triangles of different types, sizes, and orientations. The data were collected from 82 children attending state preschool programs through a one-on-one interview,…
Alexander, Kristin J.; Miller, Peggy J.; Hengst, Julie A.
Interviewed 32 families concerning their narrative practices, basic information about the children's story attachments, and the mothers' beliefs and practices concerning their children's attachments. Found that story attachments were social in two ways: Children created relationships with story characters, and formed story attachments with…
Mayes, L C
Work with infants and young children is a subspecialty of child psychiatry. Special areas of expertise and clinical skills are required for work in this area and even traditional areas of clinical skills--evaluating mental and developmental competency, collaborations with other professionals, synthesizing information for parents--have an added valence when applied to work with very young children. Furthermore, in the last three decades, there has been a remarkable increase in knowledge about the first years of life. Most recently, understanding about early brain development and the complex interactions among biology, environment, and experience in shaping early development has highlighted the critical nature of psychological interventions in the first years of life. Providing mental health services for very young children requires a multidisciplinary approach, and the field has evolved simultaneously in the disciplines of child psychiatry, pediatrics, psychology, social work, neurology, early childhood education, and nursing. With that range of theoretic and professional background, the resulting evaluative approaches and services are also quite diverse. The agenda for the next decade of work is to bring together these multiple viewpoints around critical areas for the development of the field, including improved diagnostic nosology, a better understanding of the number of young children needing services, pathways for accessing those services, and more explicit descriptions of the important features of a mental health intervention for very young children and their families. PMID:10202586
Mitchell, Stephanie J; Lewin, Amy; Horn, Ivor B; Valentine, Dawn; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Joseph, Jill G
Urban, minority, adolescent mothers are particularly vulnerable to violence exposure, which may increase their children's developmental risk through maternal depression and negative parenting. The current study tests a conceptual model of the effects of community and contextual violence exposure on the mental health and parenting of young, African-American mothers living in Washington, DC. A path analysis revealed significant direct effects of witnessed and experienced violence on mothers' depressive symptoms and general aggression. Experiences of discrimination were also associated with increased depressive symptoms. Moreover, there were significant indirect effects of mothers' violence exposure on disciplinary practices through depression and aggression. These findings highlight the range of violence young African-American mothers are exposed to and how these experiences affect their mental health, particularly depressive symptoms, and thus disciplinary practices.
Lovato, Silvia B.; Waxman, Sandra R.
Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children’s lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under 3 years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them. PMID:27486421
Principe, Gabrielle F.; Schindewolf, Erica
Research on factors that can affect the accuracy of children's autobiographical remembering has important implications for understanding the abilities of young witnesses to provide legal testimony. In this article, we review our own recent research on one factor that has much potential to induce errors in children's event recall, namely natural…
Desoete, Annemie; Gregoire, Jacques
A longitudinal study was conducted on 82 children to investigate, firstly the numerical competence of young children and the predictive value of (pre)-numerical tests in kindergarten, and, secondly, whether children's knowledge of the numerical system and representation of the number size is related to their computation and logical knowledge and…
Dibbets, Pauline; Jolles, Jellemer
Age-related changes in mental flexibility, in the form of task switching, were assessed in 292 children (58-156 months old). Task switching was examined with a new task for young children, the Switch Task for Children (STC). The STC consists of two easy, comparable games and does not require reading skills, which makes it suitable for children…
Our objective was to assess whether using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) to complement the diets of infants and young children affected when they achieved selected developmental milestones. In rural Malawi, 840 6-month-old healthy infants were enrolled to a randomised trial. Control particip...
Melner, Joan; Shackelford, Jo; Hargrove, Elisabeth; Daulton, Deb
This document identifies resources that serve young children and their families affected by alcohol and other drug use. The resources are organized into three sections: National Training and Information Resources, State Programs and Agencies, and Federal Funding Sources. Information on locating grant funds from federal agencies, private…
Weaver, L T; Steiner, H
The bowel habit of 350 preschool children from a single general practice was studied. Eighty five per cent of 1 to 4 year olds eating a predominantly low fibre diet opened their bowels once or twice a day and 96% of the children fell within the range of three times a day to every other day. At all ages most children produced soft stools of about 25 ml volume. Mean intestinal transit time of 35 (10%) randomly selected children was 33 hours. There is a significant correlation between infrequency of bowel action, longer transit time, hard stools, and the passage of blood. PMID:6087745
Modern therapeutic education of young hearing-impaired children is premised on the active use of residual hearing for helping the deaf child learn language and speech. In this case, measurement of degree of the child's hearing loss and proper fitting of hearing aids are indispensable. Today, accurate measurement of hearing can be made even in infancy by the combined use of behavioral audiometry and auditory brain stem response audiometry. Fitting hearing aids for young hearing-impaired children is possible, if there is an experienced clinician. During the period 1973-1991, I conducted a home training program to 1,613 young hearing-impaired children at the Department of Otolaryngology, Teikyo University Hospital. Out of the 1,613 children, 222 were under one year old, 481 one year old, 470 two years old, 246 three years old, 104 four years old, 69 five years old and 21 six years old. In 1983, we made a follow-up study of hearing-impaired children who had received my home training program and were receiving compulsory education at that time. According to the replies of 87 children to our questionnaire, approximately 70 per cent of the children were attending ordinary schools.
Weindler, Peter; Wiltschko, Roswitha; Wiltschko, Wolfgang
WHEN young birds leave on their first migration, they are guided by innate information about their direction of migration. It is generally assumed that this direction is represented twice, namely with respect to celestial rotation and with respect to the Earth's magnetic field1,2. The interactions between the two cue systems have been analysed by exposing hand-raised young birds during the premigratory period to cue-conflict situations, in which celestial rotation and the magnetic field provided different information. Celestial rotation altered the course with respect to the magnetic field3-7, whereas conflicting magnetic information did not seem to affect the course with respect to the stars8,9. Celestial information thus seemed to dominate over magnetic information. Here we report that the interaction between the two cue systems is far more complex than this. Celestial rotation alone seems to provide only a tendency to move away from its centre (towards geographical south), which is then modified by information from the magnetic field to establish the distinctive, population-specific migratory direction.
International and national political agendas have prioritized children's issues in the past decade or so. However the nature of the commitment to children themselves participating in arrangements that affect them and their communities are highly ambiguous. Whilst children's voices have become progressively louder, the extent to which these voices…
Bray, Lucy; Sanders, Caroline
The need to catheterize through the urethra can begin at any age and stage of development in a child's life and may involve different strategies for teaching. Intermittent self-catheterization, as a self-management technique, can be of benefit both physically and psychologically to children and young people. Educational strategies are available to aid health care providers in teaching children and young people self-intermittent catheterization. Use of innovative techniques and resources may assist the practitioner in teaching self-catheterization successfully to this challenging population.
Flohr, John W.
The purpose of this study was to characterize the behavior of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children engaged in improvisational musical tasks. Ten subjects from each of the four age levels participated in the 4-year investigation, which lasted until the 2-year-olds reached 5 years of age. Children met individually with the investigator for 15 minutes…
Metz, Kathleen E.
Though there are political cries for more science instruction, reform efforts have largely been focused at the middle or high school. One problem is that educators believe elementary school children aren't developmentally ready to handle complex science. But children are able to understand much more than is assumed. An experimental curriculum…
Merino, Cristian; Sanmarti, Neus
This paper analyses the perceptions of a group of children aged between 9 and 11 that emerge when they imagine a chemical change and explain it through drawings. Our investigation stems from broader research at primary school level, aimed at developing children's capacities to model changes in the structure of materials through stimulating the use…
Green, Moira D.
This book uses a child-initiated, whole language approach to help children have fun while exploring the world of science. The activities are divided into 23 units. Each unit begins with an "Attention Getter," the purpose of which is to introduce the unit to children in a way that grabs their attention, stimulates their interest, and creates…
Levine, Susan Cohen; And Others
Children aged four through six years were given identical addition and subtraction calculations presented in three problem-type formats: nonverbal problems, story problems, and number-fact problems. Results suggest that children's earliest calculation ability is based on experiences combining and separating sets of objects. Contains 34 references.…
Salmon, Angela K.
During a neighborhood walk, preschool children from Ms. Silvia's class took pictures of buildings, businesses, and people. Back in the classroom, Ms. Silvia displayed their pictures on a large screen and used the "See/Think/Wonder" thinking routine to help the children think and talk about their experiences on the walk. Thinking routines are…
Starkweather, Elizabeth K.
The Starkweather Originality Test is designed to measure the creative potential of children ranging in age from 3 years, 6 months to 6 years, 6 months. Children younger than 3 years, 6 months can be given the Originality Test if their ability to communicate verbally is satisfactorily demonstrated during the pretest. The test is individually…
Missakian, Elizabeth; Hamer, Karen
This study is an attempt to apply ethological tools of observation and analysis to the social behavior of 25 communally-reared children, ages 6 months to 4 years. The focus of this analysis is aggression and dominance relations. Findings indicate that: (1) agonistic behavior reveals stable and linear dominance hierarchies for children from 6…
Costello, Joan; Peyton, Ellice
This report explores the possibility of constructing a conceptual framework to account for variations in learning styles observed among preschool disadvantaged children. It begins with a review of the literature on preschool intervention programs relating to ways disadvantaged children approach new experiences; gather, organize, and process…
Koralek, Derry, Ed.; Mindes, Gayle, Ed.
When engaged in social studies, with guidance and encouragement from adults, children develop awareness of self and family and become active participants in the larger community. The knowledge and skills learned through social studies prepare children to become informed and engaged citizens of their country and the world. In this collection of…
Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.
This article offers suggestions on enhancing emotional vocabulary in early childhood education settings. A schematic of children's emotional literacy is followed by ways to build emotional vocabulary by teaching directly, teaching incidentally, or utilizing special activities. Suggestions also address teaching children to recognize feelings in…
Couchenour, Donna; Chrisman, Kent
Discusses sexuality as encompassing all areas of children's development. Suggests ways to use contextual situations to discuss body functions, body parts, and reproduction to foster healthy understandings of sexuality as children develop. Includes descriptions of best practices in early childhood education matched with developmental expectations…
Outlines the innovative nature of the Sydney Symphony Orchestra's program of concerts designed especially for children ages five through eight that feature children as a participatory audience. The selection of repertoire and the types of support and resources provided for teachers are also discussed. (MDM)
Dodd, Barbara; Carr, Alex
This study with 83 normally developing children (ages 4-6) compared three essential skills in early literacy, letter-sound recognition, letter-sound recall, and letter reproduction. Children performed better in letter-sound recognition than in letter-sound recall and letter reproduction. There were no performance differences due to sex or age.…
Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Evans, Deborah; Barros, Rossana
Before starting school, many children reason logically about concepts that are basic to their later mathematical learning. We describe a measure of quantitative reasoning that was administered to children at school entry (mean age 5.8 years) and accounted for more variance in a mathematical attainment test than general cognitive ability 16 months…
Silva, Katie G; Shimpi, Priya M; Rogoff, Barbara
This chapter examines children' attention to surrounding events in which they are not directly involved, a way of learning that fits with the cultural approach of Learning by Observing and Pitching In. Research in instructional settings has found that attention to surrounding events is more common among Indigenous Guatemalan Mayan and some US Mexican-heritage children than among middle-class children from several ethnic backgrounds. We examine this phenomenon in a quasi-naturalistic setting to see if the cultural variation in young children's attention to surrounding events in which they were not directly involved extends beyond instructional settings. During a home visit focused on their younger sibling, 19 Guatemalan Mayan and 18 middle-class European American 3- to 5-year olds were nearby but not addressed, as their mother helped their toddler sibling operate novel objects. The Guatemalan Mayan children more frequently attended to this nearby interaction and other third-party activities, whereas the middle-class European American children more often attended to their own activities in which they were directly involved or they fussed or showed off. The results support the idea that in some Indigenous communities of the Americas where young children are included in a broad range of family and community endeavors, children may be especially inclined to attend to ongoing events, even if they are not directly involved or addressed, compared to European American children whose families have extensive experience in Western school ways.
Evans, David W; Milanak, Melissa E; Medeiros, Bethany; Ross, Jennifer L
Thirty-one children were administered a structured interview that assessed their beliefs about magic, tricks and wishes. Children were also presented with demonstrations of magic tricks/illusions, and asked to offer explanations as to how they worked. Parents completed the Childhood Routines Inventory (CRI), a 19-item parent report measure that assesses children's rituals, habits and sensory-perceptual experiences that we have termed "compulsive-like" behavior. Results indicated that children's rituals and compulsions were positively related to their magical beliefs, and inversely related to their uses of concrete, physical explanations to describe various phenomena. In particular, children's beliefs about the effects of wishing were most consistently correlated with their compulsive-like rituals and routines. The findings extended the work on magical beliefs and obsessive-compulsive phenomena to the normative manifestation of compulsive behaviors found in typical development.
Sepers, J W; van der Boon, N; Landsmeer-Beker, N E A
An eight-year-old boy with spastic type bilateral cerebral palsy and a two-year-old girl with biliary atresia were referred to a psycho-trauma centre. Both children developed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a result of the medical procedure. Because of their symptoms, they were resisting further medical treatment. The children were given trauma-focused treatment (eye movement and desensitisation reprocessing and cognitive behavioural therapy). This article argues that hypnosis and distraction can play a role in preventing PTSD symptoms after undergoing a medical procedure. If PTSD is unavoidable, it is important to recognise the symptoms and to treat these children. Furthermore, their parents might also be traumatised. PTSD symptoms in children and their parents can be successfully treated. Also children with sub-threshold PTSD can benefit from trauma treatment. PMID:27353156
Thompson, Darcy A.; Sibinga, Erica M.S.; Jennings, Jacky M.; Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Christakis, Dimitri A.
Objective To determine if hours of daily television viewed by varying age groups of young children with Latina mothers differs by maternal language preference (English/Spanish) and to compare these differences to young children with non-Latina white mothers. Design Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2000 from the National Survey of Early Childhood Health. Setting Nationally representative sample. Participants 1,347 mothers of children 4-35 months. Main Exposure Subgroups of self-reported maternal race/ethnicity (non-Latina white (white), Latina) and within Latinas, stratification by maternal language preference (English/Spanish). Outcome Measure Hours of daily television viewed by the child. Results Bivariate analyses showed children of English- versus Spanish-speaking Latinas watch more daily television (1.88 versus 1.31 hours,p<0.01). Multivariable regression analyses stratified by age revealed differences by age group. Among 4-11 month olds, children of English- and Spanish-speaking Latinas watch similar amounts of television. However, among children 12-23 and 24-35 months, children of English-speaking Latinas watched more television than children of Spanish-speaking Latinas (IRR=1.61,CI=1.17-2.22; IRR=1.66,CI=1.10-2.51, respectively). Compared to children of white mothers, children of both Latina subgroups watched similar amounts among the 4-11 month olds. However, among 12-23 month olds, children of English-speaking Latinas watched more compared to children of white mothers (IRR=1.57,CI=1.18-2.11). Among 24-35 month olds, children of English-speaking Latinas watched similar amounts compared to children of white mothers, but children of Spanish-speaking Latinas watched less (IRR=0.69,CI=0.50-0.95). Conclusions Television viewing amounts among young children with Latina mothers vary by child age and maternal language preference supporting the need to explore sociocultural factors that influence viewing in Latino children. PMID:20124147
Williams, Amanda; Steele, Jennifer R.; Lipman, Corey
In the current research, we examined whether the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) could be successfully adapted as an implicit measure of children's attitudes. We tested this possibility in 3 studies with 5- to 10-year-old children. In Study 1, we found evidence that children misattribute affect elicited by attitudinally positive (e.g., cute…
Viaz'menov, E O; Radtsig, E Iu; Bogomil'skiĭ, M R; Vodolazov, S Iu; Poliudov, S A; Myzin, A V
The objective of the present work was to study voice disturbances in young children with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Diagnostic algorithm included direct transnasal examination of the larynx using an Olympus fibroscope (Japan), fibrogastroduodenoscopy, 24-hour potentiometry, biopsy of oesophageal mucosa, and acoustic analysis of the voice. A total of 26 children at the age from 8 months to 3 years with voice disturbances were examined, including 12 children below one year, 5 between 1 and 2 years, and 9 between 2 and 3 years. The main signs of laryngoesophageal reflux were dysphonia, oedema, hyperemia, and altered light reflex of mucous membrane of arytenoid cartilages, interarytenoid space, and vocal cords. It is concluded that voice disturbances are the most common symptoms of laryngoesophageal reflux in young children which necessitates the earliest possible endoscopic study of the larynx in all cases of dysphonia. PMID:20517277
Coleman, Mary Ruth
Hands-on science is the ideal platform for observing young children's ability to solve problems, think deeply, and use their creative ingenuity to explore the world around them. Science is naturally interesting and offers authentic reasons to read for information and use math skills to collect, compile, and analyze data. This chapter will share one approach to nurturing and recognizing young children with high-potential: U-STARS∼PLUS (Using Science, Talents, and Abilities to Recognize Students∼Promoting Learning for Underrepresented Students). Each of the five components (high-end learning environments; teacher's observations of potential; engaging science activities; partnerships with parents; and capacity building for system change) will be explained. Concrete examples will be given for each area showing how it works and why it is important. Special attention will be paid to the needs of educationally vulnerable gifted children who remain underserved: racially, ethnically, and linguistically different; economically disadvantaged, and children who are twice exceptional (2e).
Emotional problems and behavioral patterns of parents who have deaf blind children are described clinically and in short case studies. Deaf blind young children are said to be isolated from their families due to lack of sensory cues; to display behaviors such as back arching and fear of walking; and to experience frequent health crises such as…
Roberts, Yvonne Humenay; Huang, Cindy Y.; Crusto, Cindy A.; Kaufman, Joy S.
Background Childhood trauma is an important public health problem with financial, physical health, and mental health repercussions. Emergency Departments are often the first point of contact for many young children affected by emotionally or psychologically traumatic events (e.g., neglect, separation from primary caregiver, maltreatment, witness to domestic violence within the family, natural disasters). Study Objectives Describe the prevalence of physical health symptoms, ED use and health related problems in young children (birth through 5 years) affected by trauma, and to predict whether or not children experiencing trauma are more likely to be affected by health related problems. Methods Community-based, cross-sectional survey of 208 young children. Traumatic events were assessed by the Traumatic Events Screening Inventory – Parent Report Revised. Child health symptoms and health related problems were measured using the Caregiver Information Questionnaire, developed by ORC Macro. Results Seventy-two percent of children had experienced at least one type of traumatic event. Children exposed to trauma were also experiencing recent health related events, including visits to the ED (32.2%) and the doctor (76.9%) for physical health symptoms, and recurring physical health problems (40.4%). Children previously exposed to high levels of trauma (4 or more types of events) were 2.9 times more likely to report having had recently visited the ED for health purposes. Conclusions Preventing recurrent trauma or recognizing early trauma exposure is difficult but essential if long-term negative consequences are to be mitigated or prevented. Within emergency departments, there are missed opportunities for identification and intervention for trauma-exposed children, as well as great potential for expanding primary and secondary prevention of maltreatment-associated illness, injury and mortality. PMID:24565881
Vredenburgh, Christopher; Kushnir, Tamar
Young children's social learning is a topic of great interest. Here, we examined preschoolers' (M = 52.44 months, SD = 9.7 months) help-seeking as a social information gathering activity that may optimize and support children's opportunities for learning. In a toy assembly task, we assessed each child's competency at assembling toys and the…
Asis, Maruja M.B.; Ruiz-Marave, Cecilia
This article examines the link between parental migration and young children’s education using data from the Philippine country study of the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) Project. The key research question probed here is: what difference does parental migration make to the school outcomes of young children? Specifically, it looks at factors that explain children’s school progression (school pacing) and academic performance (school achievement) using multiple regression analysis. These questions are explored using CHAMPSEA data gathered from a survey of children under 12 years of age and their households in Laguna and Batangas (n=487). The concern that parental absence due to migration can negatively affect the school performance of children is not supported by the study. If parental migration affects school outcomes, it is associated with positive outcomes, or with outcomes which show that children in transnational households are not doing worse than children living with both parents. Positive school outcomes are best associated with a migrant-carer arrangement where fathers work abroad and mothers stay home as carers –children in these households fare very well when it comes to school pacing and school achievement. The study concludes that families and households need to provide both economic and psychological support to enhance the chances that children are at pace with their schooling and are doing well at school. PMID:24954962
Poche, Cheryl; Brouwer, Richard; Swearingen, Michael
Self-protective behaviors were taught to three preschool children in order to prevent the opportunity for abduction. An analogue measure of self-protection was developed in which confederate adults approached and verbally attempted to lure each child from the setting, before, during, and after training. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used. During baseline, all the children displayed susceptibility to the lures. Training procedures included modeling, behavior rehearsal, and social reinforcement. Within 1 week after training began, all children displayed appropriate responses to all of the lures both in the training setting and in the community. PMID:16795643
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H; Reid, M Jamila; Beauchaine, Ted
The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program interventions among 99 children diagnosed with ADHD (ages 4-6). Mother reported significant treatment effects for appropriate and harsh discipline, use of physical punishment, and monitoring, whereas fathers reported no significant parenting changes. Independent observations revealed treatment effects for mothers' praise and coaching, mothers' critical statements, and child total deviant behaviors. Both mothers and fathers reported treatment effects for children's externalizing, hyperactivity, inattentive and oppositional behaviors, and emotion regulation and social competence. There were also significant treatment effects for children's emotion vocabulary and problem-solving ability. At school teachers reported treatment effects for externalizing behaviors and peer observations indicated improvements in treated children's social competence. PMID:21391017
Kishiyama, Mark M.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Jimenez, Amy M.; Perry, Lee M.; Knight, Robert T.
Social inequalities have profound effects on the physical and mental health of children. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds perform below children from higher SES backgrounds on tests of intelligence and academic achievement, and recent findings indicate that low SES (LSES) children are impaired on behavioral measures of…
Williams, P D; Soetjiningsih; Williams, A R
The study examined Balinese mothers' expectations for children's development and mothers' child-rearing practices, as influenced by selected variables (child's gender and ordinal position, mother's education, and rural or urban residence). Rural (n = 100) and urban (n = 100) mothers responded to structured questionnaires read aloud to them by trained interviewers who recorded responses. All children were between 4 and 6 years. Equal numbers of male and female children were included, and the entire economic and educational ranges of families were represented. MANOVA results showed significant interaction effects of residential location and maternal education on mothers' expectations of children's cognitive, F(2, 170) = 4.31, p = .04, and psychosocial development, F(2, 170) = 4.35, p = .01. Significant interaction effects were found for maternal education, residential location, child's ordinal position, and gender, F(3, 170) = 5.92, p = .001, on maternal child-rearing practices. Two developmental timetables were constructed. PMID:11094575
Kasten, Philip; Thomsen, Marc
Myoelectric prostheses have generally been provided for adolescent or adult patients. The availability of smaller-sized electric hands has enabled the introduction of myoelectric prostheses to preschool children, mainly in the Scandinavian countries. This study evaluates the acceptance of myoelectric prostheses in 41 children with unilateral upper limb deficiency between the ages of two and five years. The prosthesis was used for an average time of 5.8 hours per day. The level of amputation was found to influence the acceptance rate. Furthermore, prosthetic use training by an occupational therapist is related to successful use of the prosthesis. The general drop-out rate in preschool children is very low compared to adults. Therefore, infants can profit from myoelectric hand prostheses. Since a correct indication and an intense training program significantly influence the acceptance rate, introduction of myoelectric prostheses to preschool children should take place at specialised centres with an interdisciplinary team. PMID:18636257
Urges early childhood professionals to build partnerships with parents and with other teachers. Points out that agencies and individuals, like children, can demonstrate different cooperative styles. Barriers to collaboration and benefits of cooperative partnerships are discussed. (GH)
Cooper, Patricia M.
Today's emphasis on using children's literature as a tool to teach reading and writing sub-skills distracts teachers' attention from looking to children's books for their historical role in helping children navigate the intellectual, social, and emotional terrains of childhood. This article argues, first, that early childhood educators must remain…
Hushman, GLenn; Morrison, Jaime; Mally, Kristi; McCall, Renee; Corso, Marjorie; Kamla, Jim; Magnotta, John; Chase, Melissa A.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Lorenzi, David G.; Barnd, Sue
This article presents the opinions of several professionals who were asked: "How important is activity in young children (preschool) to a lifetime of physical activity?" These professionals point out the importance of physical activity to young children.
Woolley, J D; Wellman, H M
In 2 studies we uncover some of children's earliest conceptions of various realities, nonrealities, and appearances. In the first study, we investigated children's early understanding by examining their use of the words real and really in spontaneous speech. These natural language data consisted of longitudinal samples of 6 children's speech between the ages of 1 and 6 from the Childes database. Analyses of these samples showed that by age 3 children clearly distinguished between reality and a variety of nonreal contrasts in their everyday speech. For example, young children distinguished between toys, pictures, and pretend actions versus their real natures. We claim that, in making these distinctions, children often are considering appearances, broadly construed. To confirm this, we conducted a second experimental study with 3-year-olds, in which we questioned children about the reality and appearance of a variety of items. Results from this study confirm and clarify our findings from the natural language data. We discuss the implications of these studies for current descriptions of young children's understanding of realities and nonrealities, including their understanding of the distinction between reality and appearance. PMID:2209198
Woolley, J D; Wellman, H M
In 2 studies we uncover some of children's earliest conceptions of various realities, nonrealities, and appearances. In the first study, we investigated children's early understanding by examining their use of the words real and really in spontaneous speech. These natural language data consisted of longitudinal samples of 6 children's speech between the ages of 1 and 6 from the Childes database. Analyses of these samples showed that by age 3 children clearly distinguished between reality and a variety of nonreal contrasts in their everyday speech. For example, young children distinguished between toys, pictures, and pretend actions versus their real natures. We claim that, in making these distinctions, children often are considering appearances, broadly construed. To confirm this, we conducted a second experimental study with 3-year-olds, in which we questioned children about the reality and appearance of a variety of items. Results from this study confirm and clarify our findings from the natural language data. We discuss the implications of these studies for current descriptions of young children's understanding of realities and nonrealities, including their understanding of the distinction between reality and appearance.
Bundy, David G; Muschelli, John; Clemens, Gwendolyn D; Strouse, John J; Thompson, Richard E; Casella, James F; Miller, Marlene R
Preventive services can reduce the morbidity of sickle cell disease (SCD) in children but are delivered unreliably. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children aged 2 to 5 years with SCD, evaluating each child for 14 months and expecting that he/she should receive ≥75% of days covered by antibiotic prophylaxis, ≥1 influenza immunization, and ≥1 transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). We used logistic regression to quantify the relationship between ambulatory generalist and hematologist visits and preventive services delivery. Of 266 children meeting the inclusion criteria, 30% consistently filled prophylactic antibiotic prescriptions. Having ≥2 generalist, non-well child care visits or ≥2 hematologist visits was associated with more reliable antibiotic prophylaxis. Forty-one percent of children received ≥1 influenza immunizations. Children with ≥2 hematologist visits were most likely to be immunized (62% vs. 35% among children without a hematologist visit). Only 25% of children received ≥1 TCD. Children most likely to receive a TCD (42%) were those with ≥2 hematologist visits. One in 20 children received all 3 preventive services. Preventive services delivery to young children with SCD was inconsistent but associated with multiple visits to ambulatory providers. Better connecting children with SCD to hematologists and strengthening preventive care delivery by generalists are both essential. PMID:26950087
Human Resources Development Canada, 2003
When Canadian parents look back on their own lives and the lives of their parents, they see changes across a generation that have profoundly affected their parenting experience, compared to when they themselves were young children. Supports for today's parents must take into consideration these changes that affect the care and nurturing of…
Koriyama, Chihaya; Yamamoto, Megumi; Anan, Ayumi; Shibata, Eiji; Kawamoto, Toshihiro
Background. Previous studies have shown that psychological stress is linked to asthma prevalence. Parental psychological stress may potentially influence inflammatory responses in their allergic children. The purpose of this study is to clarify the association between maternal psychological status and inflammatory response of allergic young children. Methods. The study subjects were 152 young allergic children (median age: 13 months) who had not shown any allergic symptoms in the past one month. mRNA expression levels of the inflammatory response genes IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-22 were quantified by qRT-PCR. Maternal psychological status was assessed by standardized questionnaires: the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for depression and the Japanese Perceived Stress Scale (JPSS) for perceived stress. Results. A significant positive association was observed between maternal CES-D scores and IL-6 mRNA expression in the children with asthma. The JPSS scores were also positively associated with IL-8 mRNA expression in asthmatic children and IL-6 mRNA expression in children with allergic rhinitis. Similar trends were observed among children positive for house dust mite-specific IgE, but these associations were not significant. Conclusion. This study supports the hypothesis that maternal psychological stress affects the inflammatory response in their allergic children. PMID:26819847
Dockett, Sue; Kearney, Emma; Perry, Bob
Since the introduction of the Child Friendly Cities Initiative in 1996, children and young people's participation in consultation has become an increasingly important element of the planning and community development strategies of many government and community organisations throughout Australia. This has been the case in the city of Wodonga,…
Robinson, Adele; Stark, Deborah R.
This guide offers advice on influencing public policy and educational practice to the benefit of young children and the early childhood community. Included is information on the types of advocacy; how to work with others; the basics of federal, state, and local policy; and tips on disseminating information. Following an introduction highlighting…
Dansereau, Diana R.
The purpose of this study was to observe, analyze, and document the range of young children's interactions with sound-producing objects in order to better understand the nature of such interactions. Of particular interest was whether theories of cognitive play, social play, object play, and existing research on musical play could guide…
Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert; Kim, Jaeyil
The National Research Council emphasizes using tools of representation as an essential element of spatial thinking. However, it is debatable at what age the use of spatial representation for spatial thinking skills should begin. This study investigated whether young Korean children possess the potential to understand map-like representation using…
Barton, Marianne L.; Dumont-Mathieu, Thyde; Fein, Deborah
The increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorders as well as emerging evidence of the efficacy of early intervention has focused attention on the need for early identification of young children suspected of having an ASSD. Several studies have suggested that while parents report concerns early in development, it may be months before children…
Few men around the world work in daycare settings, nursery schools or kindergartens. Yet wherever they are found, men who are perceived to have crossed the gender boundary in their choice of profession are widely acclaimed as gifted educators and excellent caregivers. Policy makers who care about providing quality education for young children need…
Henslee, Tish; Jones, Peg
This handbook presents ideas for developing nonsexist early childhood education programs for young children. The book is organized into six sections. Section I presents some background information, including definitions of terms, discussions of current attitudes towards and implications of nonsexist education, traditional and nontraditional roles…
Rogers, Rebecca; Labadie, Meredith; Pole, Kathryn
One of the tensions in conducting participatory literacy research with young children is finding the balance between protection and voice. In this paper, we describe how we sought to create participant-centred research techniques within the evolving design of a yearlong action research study with kindergarten students. Through weekly classroom…
Cameron, Margaret; Hofvander, Yngve
This manual provides information on preventive treatment and improving the health and food of infants, young children, and their mothers in developing nations. The nutrition needs of women during and following pregnancy are outlined, as well as the benefits and problems of breast feeding and weaning techniques. A discussion is presented on the…
Casby, Michael W.
The first of two articles on play reviews the development of play in typically developing infants, toddlers, and young children, including Piaget's observations on the development of play; developmental play research following Piaget (research by Lunzer, Sinclair, Lezine, Lowe, Rosenblatt, Uzgiris and Hunt, Fenson and others, Watson and Fischer,…
Campano, Gerald; Ngo, Lan; Low, David E.; Bartow Jacobs, Katrina
This article, part of a four-year research partnership with a multilingual faith community and its school, explores what happened when we invited young children in an aftercare program to inquire into the university from their perspectives. Through a sociocultural literacy framework and realist theories of identity and experience, we examine the…
Harvill, Leo M.
Five scales designed to measure the attitudes of young children toward arithmetic, reading, and art were developed. Two of the scales (Picture and Forced Choice) were ipsative in nature; the remaining three (Millimeter, Box, and Semantic Differential) allowed the child to express a more absolute attitude about each activity. The scales were…
Lerman, Dorothea C.; Vorndran, Christina; Addison, Laura; Kuhn, Stephanie A.C.
Educational interventions based on the principles of behavior analysis are highly effective for establishing skills in young children with autism. As a first step in program development, the child's current skill level is determined by evaluating performance on tasks drawn from a preestablished curriculum. However, few specific guidelines have…
This summary of the reports and papers presented at a seminar organized by the ABU in collaboration with the Prix Jeunesse Foundation and with the assistance of UNESCO includes reports on television programming for very young children in Europe, Japan, Australia, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran, Korea, New Zealand, Pakistan, Singapore,…
Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Tarrant, Kate, Ed.
Smooth early childhood transitions are key to ensuring positive outcomes for young children the world over--but in today's fragmented early education systems, it's difficult to ensure continuity among programs and services. Early childhood professionals will help change that with this book, the first to propose a comprehensive, practical framework…
The diagnosis and management of asthma in young children is difficult, since there are many different wheezy phenotypes with varying underlying aetiologies and outcomes. This review discusses the different approaches to managing young children with wheezy illnesses presented in recently published global guidelines. Four major guidelines published since 2007 are considered. Helpful approaches are presented to assist the clinician to decide whether a clinical diagnosis of asthma can, or should be made in a young child with a recurrent wheezy illness and which treatments would be appropriate, dependent on risk factors, age of presentation, response to initial treatment and safety considerations. Each of the guidelines provide useful information for clinicians assessing young children with recurrent wheezy illnesses. There are differences in classification of the disease and treatment protocols. Although a firm diagnosis of asthma may only be made retrospectively in some cases and there are several effective guidelines to initiating treatment. Consistent review of the need for ongoing treatment with a particular pharmacological modality is essential, since many children with recurrent wheezing in infancy go into spontaneous remission. It is probable that newer biomarkers of airway inflammation will assist the clinician as to when to initiate and when to continue pharmacological treatment in the future. PMID:20224672
This paper provides an overview of the literature on sensory integration in young children. First it explains the importance of "sensory integration" in child development and normal functioning. It goes on to note signs of a sensory integration dysfunction (such as hyper-or hypo-sensitivity to touch, poor coordination, and poor behavioral…
Marshall, Jennifer; Coulter, Martha L.; Gorski, Peter A.; Ewing, Aldenise
This mixed-methods study examined influences, factors, and processes associated with parental recognition and appraisal of developmental concerns among 23 English- and Spanish-speaking parents of young children with signs of developmental or behavioral problems. Participants shared their experiences through in-depth interviews or focus groups and…
Adalbjornsson, Carola F.; Fischman, Mark G.; Rudisill, Mary E.
The end-state comfort effect has been observed in recent studies of grip selection in adults. The present study investigated whether young children also exhibit sensitivity to end-state comfort. The task was to pick up an overturned cup from a table, turn the cup right side up, and pour water into it. Two age groups (N = 20 per group) were…
A small, pilot field study was conducted to determine the adequacy of protocols for dietary exposure measurements. Samples were collected to estimate the amount of pesticides transferred from contaminated surfaces or hands to foods of young children and to validate a dietary mod...
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
This newsletter issue presents five articles addressing intervention with infants and toddlers having pervasive developmental disabilities. The first article is by Stanley I. Greenspan and is titled "Reconsidering the Diagnosis and Treatment of Very Young Children with Autistic Spectrum or Pervasive Developmental Disorder." This article explains a…
Dodd, Lynda Warren
In this article, Lynda Warren Dodd, who is senior educational psychologist for early years and the Portage Service supervisor in Stockport LEA, discusses the development of a support group for the brothers and sisters of young children with a wide range of disabilities. The group has been running, as an annual event, for eight years and offers a…
Wilks, Judith; Rudner, Julie
A major challenge for researchers and urban planning practitioners is how to obtain meaningful and influential contributions on urban and environmental planning activities from children and young people within the constraints of adult policy and practice. The key elements of this challenge concern traditional methods of communication between…
Sherwood, Elizabeth A.; Williams, Robert A.; Rockwell, Robert E.
This book presents science activities designed for young children. The activities are divided into the following the content areas of chemistry, physics, earth explorations, weather watchers, flight and space, plants, animal adventures, and mathworks. Each activity features sections of language with science, required items, procedures, and…
Parette, Howard P.; Meadan, Hedda; Doubet, Sharon; Hess, Jackie
Research has frequently focused on needs, preferences, and practices of families of young children with disabilities. Surprisingly, relatively little seems to be known about how families use technology to gain information about and support their needs, even though Web-based and other information and communication technology applications have…
Kling, Adria; Campbell, Philippa H.; Wilcox, Jeanne
Caregiver reports of problematic activities/routines with their young children with physical disabilities and types of assistive technology used as solutions were investigated in this study. In addition, caregiver competence with assistive technology use and ways in which caregivers received information and training were also examined. A subset of…
Derevensky, Jeffrey L.
This paper reports on the development and validation of an instrument for recording haptic exploratory behavior through detailed examination of exploratory search strategies of young children. Individual differences within age level were investigated, as well as the extent to which information processing capabilities for haptic perception are…
Eiserman, William; Shisler, Lenore
Hearing loss can too easily be misdiagnosed or overlooked by providers serving young children. Parents and professionals may observe a language delay--an "invisible" condition--while failing to identify the underlying cause. Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) hearing screening technology, used extensively with newborns, is becoming an essential tool,…
Crase, Darrell; Crase, Dixie R.
For adults, fear of death is universal, but young children are exposed to realities of death only infrequently and are often shielded from it by parents. Because parents realize the extent of a child's fear of losing a parent, parents sometimes take precautionary steps, such as avoiding both parents' travelling on the same airplane or designating…
Hayes, Andrew E.; Ellis, Norman E.
Presented is a state-by-state summary of programs and activities for young handicapped children obtained through a 1973 survey of 37 state directors of special education. Each summary includes a brief description of legislation and current programs, plans, and needs. Summarized are general problems common to all states such as a lack of specific…
Rowland, Caroline F.; Pine, Julian M.; Lieven, Elena V.M.; Theaksto, Anna L.
Many current generativist theorists suggest that young children possess the grammatical principles of inversion required for question formation but make errors because they find it difficult to learn language-specific rules about how inversion applies. The present study analyzed longitudinal spontaneous sampled data from twelve 2-3-year-old…
Wolff, Richard P.
This article presents principles of behavior therapy that can be used alone to treat minor feeding problems in young children or in conjunction with other modalities to treat serious disorders. The article discusses assessment methods; variables in feeding, including time, space, child, feeder, food, and treatment; methods to increase or decrease…
Schwab, Jessica F.; Lew-Williams, Casey
Young children who hear more child-directed speech (CDS) tend to have larger vocabularies later in childhood, but the specific characteristics of CDS underlying this link are currently underspecified. The present study sought to elucidate how the structure of language input boosts learning by investigating whether repetition of object labels in…