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  1. Affective Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a heterogeneous disorder with lifetime prevalence of "major depressive disorder" estimated to be 16.2%. Although the disorder is common and impairs functioning, it often goes untreated, with less than adequate response even when treated. We review research indicating the likely value of utilizing currently available, well-validated,…

  2. When bad moods may not be so bad: Valuing negative affect is associated with weakened affect-health links.

    PubMed

    Luong, Gloria; Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Bad moods are considered "bad" not only because they may be aversive experiences in and of themselves, but also because they are associated with poorer psychosocial functioning and health. We propose that people differ in their negative affect valuation (NAV; the extent to which negative affective states are valued as pleasant, useful/helpful, appropriate, and meaningful experiences) and that affect-health links are moderated by NAV. These predictions were tested in a life span sample of 365 participants ranging from 14-88 years of age using reports of momentary negative affect and physical well-being (via experience sampling) and assessments of NAV and psychosocial and physical functioning (via computer-assisted personal interviews and behavioral measures of hand grip strength). Our study demonstrated that the more individuals valued negative affect, the less pronounced (and sometimes even nonexistent) were the associations between everyday experiences of negative affect and a variety of indicators of poorer psychosocial functioning (i.e., emotional health problems, social integration) and physical health (i.e., number of health conditions, health complaints, hand grip strength, momentary physical well-being). Exploratory analyses revealed that valuing positive affect was not associated with the analogous moderating effects as NAV. These findings suggest that it may be particularly important to consider NAV in models of affect-health links.

  3. [Affective disorders and eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity.

  4. [Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].

    PubMed

    Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted.

  5. Seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Kurlansik, Stuart L; Ibay, Annamarie D

    2012-12-01

    Seasonal affective disorder is a combination of biologic and mood disturbances with a seasonal pattern, typically occurring in the autumn and winter with remission in the spring or summer. In a given year, about 5 percent of the U.S. population experiences seasonal affective disorder, with symptoms present for about 40 percent of the year. Although the condition is seasonally limited, patients may have significant impairment from the associated depressive symptoms. Treatment can improve these symptoms and also may be used as prophylaxis before the subsequent autumn and winter seasons. Light therapy is generally well tolerated, with most patients experiencing clinical improvement within one to two weeks after the start of treatment. To avoid relapse, light therapy should continue through the end of the winter season until spontaneous remission of symptoms in the spring or summer. Pharmacotherapy with antidepressants and cognitive behavior therapy are also appropriate treatment options and have been shown to be as effective as light therapy. Because of the comparable effectiveness of treatment options, first-line management should be guided by patient preference.

  6. Bad actions or bad outcomes? Differentiating affective contributions to the moral condemnation of harm.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ryan M; Hannikainen, Ivar A; Cushman, Fiery A

    2014-06-01

    Moral condemnation of harmful behavior is influenced by both cognitive and affective processes. However, despite much recent research, the proximate source of affect remains unclear. One obvious contender is empathy; simulating the victim's pain could lead one to judge an action as wrong ("outcome aversion"). An alternative, less obvious source is one's own aversion to performing the action itself ("action aversion"). To dissociate these alternatives, we developed a scale that assessed individual aversions to (a) witnessing others experience painful outcomes (e.g., seeing someone fall down stairs); and (b) performing actions that are harmless yet aversive (e.g., stabbing a fellow actor with a fake stage knife). Across 4 experiments, we found that moral condemnation of both first-person and third-party harmful behavior in the context of moral dilemmas is better predicted by one's aversion to action properties than by an affective response to victim suffering. In a fifth experiment, we manipulated both action aversion and the degree of expected suffering across a number of actions and found that both factors make large, independent contributions to moral judgment. Together, these results suggest we may judge others' actions by imagining what it would feel like to perform the action rather than experience the consequences of the action. Accordingly, they provide a counterpoint to a dominant but largely untested assumption that empathy is the key affective response governing moral judgments of harm.

  7. Breaking Bad: Comparing Gambling Harms Among Gamblers and Affected Others.

    PubMed

    Li, En; Browne, Matthew; Rawat, Vijay; Langham, Erika; Rockloff, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    This article examines gambling harms from both gamblers and affected others' perspectives. Participants (3076 gamblers and 2129 affected others) completed a retrospective survey that elicited information on harms they experienced from gambling across their lifetime. Their responses were analyzed through testing measurement invariance, estimating item-response theoretic parameters, calculating percentages, confidence intervals, and correlations, as well as regressions. The results indicated large commonalities in the experience of harms reported by gamblers and affected others. Further, gamblers appeared to 'export' about half of the harms they experienced to those around them. The findings also provided detailed profiles of evolving harms as problem gambling severity varies.

  8. Phentermine, sibutramine and affective disorders.

    PubMed

    An, Hoyoung; Sohn, Hyunjoo; Chung, Seockhoon

    2013-04-01

    A safe and effective way to control weight in patients with affective disorders is needed, and phentermine is a possible candidate. We performed a PubMed search of articles pertaining to phentermine, sibutramine, and affective disorders. We compared the studies of phentermine with those of sibutramine. The search yielded a small number of reports. Reports concerning phentermine and affective disorders reported that i) its potency in the central nervous system may be comparatively low, and ii) it may induce depression in some patients. We were unable to find more studies on the subject; thus, it is unclear presently whether phentermine use is safe in affective disorder patients. Reports regarding the association of sibutramine and affective disorders were slightly more abundant. A recent study that suggested that sibutramine may have deleterious effects in patients with a psychiatric history may provide a clue for future phentermine research. Three explanations are possible concerning the association between phentermine and affective disorders: i) phentermine, like sibutramine, may have a depression-inducing effect that affects a specific subgroup of patients, ii) phentermine may have a dose-dependent depression-inducing effect, or iii) phentermine may simply not be associated with depression. Large-scale studies with affective disorder patients focusing on these questions are needed to clarify this matter before investigation of its efficacy may be carried out and it can be used in patients with affective disorders.

  9. The FNS-based analyzing the EEG to diagnose the bipolar affective disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panischev, Yu; Panischeva, S. N.; Demin, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Here we demonstrate a capability of method based on the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) in analyzing the manifestation bipolar affective disorder (BAD) in EEG. Generally EEG from BAD patient does not show the visual differences from healthy EEG. Analyzing the behavior of FNS-parameters and the structure of 3D-cross correlators allows to discover the differential characteristics of BAD. The cerebral cortex electric activity of BAD patients have a specific collective dynamics and configuration of the FNS-characteristics in comparison with healthy subjects.

  10. Personal fear of death affects the proper process of breaking bad news

    PubMed Central

    Ciałkowska-Rysz, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Breaking bad news may be affected not only by insufficient knowledge of a physician, but also by his attitude, religious beliefs, fears, lack of experience, etc. This survey was aimed to test the relation between physicians’ fear of own death and philosophy of life and their inclination to break bad news. Material and methods One hundred seventy students of the last year of medical faculty filled in a 4-item questionnaire created by the authors. The participants were asked on their opinion on whether to inform patients on upcoming death, as well as fear of their own death and willingness to receive bad news. The last question was aimed to distinguish the respondents based on their determination in philosophy of life. Results Ninety-three percent of respondents think that patients should be informed about unfavorable prognosis but only 86% would like to be informed about their own upcoming death. There is a negative correlation between determination of philosophy of life and fear of own death (p = 0.024), but no correlation between fear of own death and the degree of religiousness (Fisher’s accurate p = 0.18). Persons determined to receive information on their own upcoming death are more prone to inform patients about their upcoming death (ρ = 0.31; p < 0.0001). Conclusions Personal fear of own death and low level of determination of philosophy of life may restrain medical professionals from breaking bad news to patients. Not only knowledge of the principles, but also personal attitude should be addressed in the curriculum of physician-patient communication education. PMID:23515271

  11. Bad Dream Frequency in Older Adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Prevalence, Correlates, and Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Nadorff, Michael R.; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M.; Greisinger, Anthony J.; Kunik, Mark E.; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety (CBT) to enhanced usual care (EUC), it assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post-treatment (3 months), and 6, 9, 12 and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post-treatment and throughout follow-up compared to EUC. PMID:23470116

  12. Bad dream frequency in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder: prevalence, correlates, and effect of cognitive behavioral treatment for anxiety.

    PubMed

    Nadorff, Michael R; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M; Greisinger, Anthony J; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety to enhanced usual care (EUC) assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post treatment (3 months), and at 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post treatment and throughout follow up compared to EUC.

  13. Anticipation in bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    McInnis, M.G.; McMahon, F.J.; Chase, G.A.; Simpson, S.G.; Ross, C.A.; DePaulo, J.R. Jr. )

    1993-08-01

    Anticipation refers to the increase in disease severity or decrease in age at onset in succeeding generations. This phenomenon, formerly ascribed to observation biases, correlates with the expansion of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TNRs) in some disorders. If present in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), anticipation could provide clues to its genetic etiology. The authors compared age at onset and disease severity between two generations of 34 unilineal families ascertained for a genetic linkage study of BPAD. Life-table analyses showed a significant decrease in survival to first mania or depression from the first to the second generation (P <.001). Intergenerational pairwise comparisons showed both a significantly earlier age at onset (P < .001) and a significantly increased disease severity (P < .001) in the second generation. This difference was significant under each of four data-sampling schemes which excluded probands in the second generation. The second generation experienced onset 8.9-13.5 years earlier and illness 1.8-3.4 times more severe than did the first generation. In additional analyses, drug abuse, deaths of affected individuals prior to interview, decreased fertility, censoring of age at onset, and the cohort effect did not affect our results. The authors conclude that genetic anticipation occurs in this sample of unilineal BPAD families. These findings may implicate genes with expanding TNRs in the genetic etiology of BPAD. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Light Therapy Boxes for Seasonal Affective Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) Light therapy boxes can offer an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder. Features such as light intensity, safety, cost and style are important considerations. ...

  15. Metabolic syndrome - the consequence of lifelong treatment of bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ruzić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja; Petranović, Duska; Graovac, Mirjana; Palijan, Tija Zarković

    2010-06-01

    Mood disturbances are characteristic and dominant feature of Mood disorders. Bipolar Affective Disorder (BAD) is a mood disorder which occurs equally in both sexes. BAD may occur in co morbidity with other mental diseases and disorders such as: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Attention Deficit, Panic Disorder and Social Phobia. However, medical disorders (one or more) can also coexist with BAD. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. A 61-year old female patient has been receiving continuous and systematic psychiatric treatment for Bipolar Affective Disorder for the last 39 years. The first episode was a depressive one and it occurred after a child delivery. Seventeen years ago the patient developed diabetes (diabetes type II), and twelve years ago arterial hypertension was diagnosed. High cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as weight gain were objective findings. During the last nine years she has been treated for lower leg ulcer. Since metabolic syndrome includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, increased cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels, the aforesaid patient can be diagnosed with Metabolic Syndrome. When treating Bipolar Affective Disorder, the antipsychotic drug choice should be careful and aware of its side-effects in order to avoid the development or aggravation of metabolic syndrome.

  16. Nonlinkage of D6S260, a putative schizophrenia locus, to bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, L.J.; Mitchell, P.B.; Salmon, J.

    1996-09-20

    To examine whether genes that predispose to schizophrenia also confer a predisposition to other psychiatric disorders such as bipolar affective disorder (BAD), we tested for linkage between the recently identified schizophrenia susceptibility locus D6S260 and the inheritance of BAD in 12 large Australian pedigrees. We found no evidence for linkage over a region of 12-27 cM from the D6S260 locus, depending on the model used. Our results therefore do not provide support for the continuum theory of psychosis. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Role of serotonin in seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Sharma, P K; Garg, V K; Singh, A K; Mondal, S C

    2013-01-01

    This review was prepared with an aim to show role of serotonin in seasonal affective disorder. Seasonal affective disorder, which is also called as winter depression or winter blues, is mood disorder in which persons with normal mental health throughout most of the year will show depressive symptoms in the winter or, less commonly, in the summer. Serotonin is an important endogenous neurotransmitter which also acts as neuromodulator. The least invasive, natural, and researched treatment of seasonal affective disorder is natural or otherwise is light therapy. Negative air ionization, which acts by liberating charged particles on the sleep environment, has also become effective in treatment of seasonal affective disorder.  

  18. [Affective disorders and neurological comorbidities].

    PubMed

    Tassy, S; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Micoulaud Franchi, J-A; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    Mood disorders occupy a vast area in the field of psychiatry. Advances in the study of the brain, but also epidemiology and genetics allow us to make more solid connections between these disorders and neurological disorders, resuming a process of reconciliation between both specialties. The purpose of this short review is to draw the attention of the psychiatrist to these links, especially with a brief presentation of the psychiatric manifestations of a number of neurodegenerative diseases and more particularly frontotemporal dementia.

  19. Chromosome 18 markers: Linked or not linked to bipolar affective disorders in the Old Order Amish? A reply to Gershon et al.

    SciTech Connect

    Pauls, D.L.; Ott, J.; Fann, C.S.J.; Paul, S.M.

    1996-06-01

    We appreciate the careful review of our paper by examining linkage of bipolar affective disorder (BAD) to markers on chromosome 18. These authors have raised several issues concerning our article and specifically challenge our conclusion concerning the presence or absence of a major susceptibility locus for BAD on chromosome 18 in the Old Order Amish sample. 9 refs.

  20. [Sense and sensibility: bipolar affective disorder as a battlefield of cognitions and emotions--lamotrigine therapy as a peacekeeper].

    PubMed

    Kálmán, János; Kálmán, János

    2010-06-01

    The cortico-limbic dysregulation theory of bipolar affective disorder (BAD) is supported by ample of recent research evidences. This concept is based on the dysharmonic regulation of prefrontal and anterior limbic structures manifested in a strong interaction of cognitive and affective symptoms. The major aim of the present review is to characterize the BAD specific cognitive profile and to describe the cognitive syndrome of BAD during the natural course of the disorder, based on recent findings in neurobiology, neuropathology, neuroradiology, cognitive psychology and neurogenetics. The authors recommend that BAD-associated cognitive symptoms should always be considered during the recognition, follow up and treatment phases of the disorder. The importance of the cognitive syndrome is also emphasized from the aspects of outcome and existing therapeutic regimens of the disorder. The cognitive syndrome-associated perspective of BAD could therefore provide new approaches regarding the long-term management issues of patients. Evidence from recent clinical trials is also summarized regarding the interactions of existing BAD treatment options with cognitive symptoms of the disorder, since all of the recommended antipsychotics and antiepileptics have a certain degree of cognitive toxicity. Based on the overview of the existing clinical trials, it was concluded that lamotrigine has the smallest cognitive toxicity among the mood stabilizers used for the treatment of BAD type-2. Therefore, as far as the cognitive toxicity profile is concerned, lamotrigine is recommended as the most promising therapeutic approach both for the treatment of bipolar depressive phases and relapse prevention. In addition, neuroprotective properties of the same molecule might also be beneficial regarding the proposed pathomechanism of BAD.

  1. Major mental disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. II. Affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Kebede, D; Alem, A

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of affective disorders based on a survey conducted in Addis Ababa between September and December of 1994. An Amharic version of the CIDI was used to collect data from a random community sample of 1420 individuals aged 15 and above. The lifetime prevalence for specific affective disorders was as follows: bipolar disorders 0.3%, depressive episodes 2.7%, recurrent depressive episodes 0.2%, and persistent mood disorders 1.6%. The weighted lifetime prevalence of affective disorders was 5.0% (women 7.7% and men 3.2%). One-month prevalence was 3.8% (women 5.9% and men 2.3%). After adjusting for several potential confounders, the risk of affective disorders was only 29% higher in women compared to men. This difference in risk was not statistically significant. Age was also not associated with risk of affective disorders. On the other hand, education was associated with the risk of disorder, the risk decreasing with increasing educational attainment. This inverse trend was statistically significant (P for trend = 0.02). The risk was also 37% lower in the employed than the unemployed: Odds Ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.63 (0.39, 1.01). There were no statistically significant associations between affective disorders and marital status or ethnicity.

  2. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Bad Breath KidsHealth > For Kids > Bad Breath A A ... visit your dentist or doctor . continue What Causes Bad Breath? Here are three common causes of bad ...

  3. [Affective disorders: endocrine and metabolic comorbidities].

    PubMed

    Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    Links between affective and endocrine-metabolic disorders are numerous and complex. In this review, we explore most frequent endocrine-metabolic comorbidities. On the one hand, these comorbidities imply numerous iatrogenic effects from antipsychotics (metabolic side-effects) or from lithium (endocrine side-effects). On the other hand, these comorbidities are also associated with affective disorders independently from medication. We will successively examine metabolic syndrome, glycemic disturbances, obesity and thyroid disorders among patients with affective disorders. Endocrinemetabolic comorbidities can be individually encountered, but can also be associated. Therefore, they substantially impact morbidity and mortality by increasing cardiovascular risk factors. Two distinct approaches give an account of processes involved in these comorbidities: common environmental factors (iatrogenic effects, lifestyle), and/or shared physiological vulnerabilities. In conclusion, we provide a synthesis of important results and recommendations related to endocrine-metabolic comorbidities in affective disorders : heavy influence on morbidity and mortality, undertreatment of somatic diseases, importance of endocrine and metabolic side effects from main mood stabilizers, impact from sex and age on the prevalence of comorbidities, influence from previous depressive episodes in bipolar disorders, and relevance of systematic screening for subclinical (biological) disturbances.

  4. Involvement of vasopressin in affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Surget, Alexandre; Belzung, Catherine

    2008-04-07

    Affective disorders comprise mood disorders such as unipolar depression and anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, panic, phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The etiology of these disorders is related to stress. Further, they are characterized by alterations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, controlling the endocrine response to stress. Vasopressin is a nonapeptide that is mainly expressed and/or released in the hypothalamus and the pituitary, but also in other brain areas particularly in limbic regions. It strongly contributes to the endocrine and neural response to stress. Therefore, it has been suggested that vasopressin may be involved in affective disorders. Here, we review both clinical and preclinical data that investigated this hypothesis. Several studies show an increased plasmatic level of vasopressin in anxiety disorders as well as in unipolar depression. Further, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the vasopressin V(1b) receptor has been found to protect against depression. Preclinical data are convergent with the clinical findings. For example, Brattleboro rats, that display decreased vasopressin function, show reduced anxiety, reduced depressive-like behavior and decreased HPA function. Rats selected for high anxiety behavior exhibit increased HPA function related to a SNP in the vasopressin locus resulting in an overexpression of vasopressin. Antagonism of the V(1b) receptor decreases anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in rodents, as well as HPA responsivity to stress. Taken together, these data indicate that affective disorders may be related to excessive vasopressin function and consequently that a treatment with vasopressin receptor antagonists may be an effective treatment.

  5. Affective Disorders, Bone Metabolism, and Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between affective disorders, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone metabolism is unresolved, although there is growing evidence that many medications used to treat affective disorders are associated with low BMD or alterations in neuroendocrine systems that influence bone turnover. The objective of this review is to describe the current evidence regarding the association of unipolar and bipolar depression with BMD and indicators of bone metabolism, and to explore potential mediating and confounding influences of those relationships. The majority of studies of unipolar depression and BMD indicate that depressive symptoms are associated with low BMD. In contrast, evidence regarding the relationship between bipolar depression and BMD is inconsistent. There is limited but suggestive evidence to support an association between affective disorders and some markers of bone turnover. Many medications used to treat affective disorders have effects on physiologic systems that influence bone metabolism, and these conditions are also associated with a range of health behaviors that can influence osteoporosis risk. Future research should focus on disentangling the pathways linking psychotropic medications and their clinical indications with BMD and fracture risk. PMID:23874147

  6. Melanopsin Polymorphisms in Seasonal Affective Disorder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Affective Disorder and Melanopsin Pigmentosa (RP), which is a disease characterized by retinal degeneration. Melanopsin is structurally similar to all...abnormal intradiscal disulfide bond in misfolded retinitis pigmentosa mutants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science U S A, 98(9), p4872-4876...in rhodopsin: correct folding and misfolding in two point mutants in the intradiscal domain of rhodopsin identified in retinitis pigmentosa

  7. Neurotrophins: possible role in affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Sandler, M

    2001-01-01

    Various monoamine hypotheses of affective disorders have been unable to provide a complete explanation for the observed clinical findings. Recently Duman et al. (1997) have produced a molecular and cellular theory of depression which seems to be a worthy successor to these hypotheses. Whereas the earlier theories were unable to explain the time lag between antidepressant drug administration and lightening of affect, Duman's group pinpoints intracellular mechanisms, in the right time frame, which decrease or increase the generation of neurotrophic factors necessary for the survival of certain neurons, particularly in the hippocampus. This new concept may lead to novel therapeutic approaches. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Neuromodulation, Emotional Feelings and Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fushun; Pereira, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Affective disorders such as anxiety, phobia and depression are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide. Monoamine neuromodulators are used to treat most of them, with variable degrees of efficacy. Here, we review and interpret experimental findings about the relation of neuromodulation and emotional feelings, in pursuit of two goals: (a) to improve the conceptualisation of affective/emotional states, and (b) to develop a descriptive model of basic emotional feelings related to the actions of neuromodulators. In this model, we hypothesize that specific neuromodulators are effective for basic emotions. The model can be helpful for mental health professionals to better understand the affective dynamics of persons and the actions of neuromodulators - and respective psychoactive drugs - on this dynamics. PMID:28031622

  9. Oxidative stress markers in affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Siwek, Marcin; Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Dudek, Dominika; Styczeń, Krzysztof; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Misztakk, Paulina; Pilc, Agnieszka; Wolak, Małgorzata; Nowak, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Affective disorders are a medical condition with a complex biological pattern of etiology, involving genetic and epigenetic factors, along with different environmental stressors. Increasing numbers of studies indicate that induction of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways, which is accompanied by immune-inflammatory response, might play an important role in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying many major psychiatric disorders, including depression and bipolar disorder. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been shown to impair the brain function by modulating activity of principal neurotransmitter (e.g., glutamatergic) systems involved in the neurobiology of depression. Both preclinical and clinical studies revealed that depression is associated with altered levels of oxidative stress markers and typically reduced concentrations of several endogenous antioxidant compounds, such as glutathione, vitamin E, zinc and coenzyme Q10, or enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase, and with an impairment of the total antioxidant status. These oxidative stress parameters can be normalized by successful antidepressant therapy. On the other hand, some antioxidants (zinc, N-acetylcysteine, omega-3 free fatty acids) may exhibit antidepressant properties or enhance standard antidepressant therapy. These observations introduce new potential targets for the development of therapeutic interventions based on antioxidant compounds. The present paper reviews selected animal and human studies providing evidence that oxidative stress is implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression and bipolar disorder.

  10. Propranolol and the prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder: is it wrong to erase the "sting" of bad memories?

    PubMed

    Henry, Michael; Fishman, Jennifer R; Youngner, Stuart J

    2007-09-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health (Bethesda, MD) reports that approximately 5.2 million Americans experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) each year. PTSD can be severely debilitating and diminish quality of life for patients and those who care for them. Studies have indicated that propranolol, a beta-blocker, reduces consolidation of emotional memory. When administered immediately after a psychic trauma, it is efficacious as a prophylactic for PTSD. Use of such memory-altering drugs raises important ethical concerns, including some futuristic dystopias put forth by the President's Council on Bioethics. We think that adequate informed consent should facilitate ethical research using propranolol and, if it proves efficacious, routine treatment. Clinical evidence from studies should certainly continue to evaluate realistic concerns about possible ill effects of diminishing memory. If memory-attenuating drugs prove effective, we believe that the most immediate social concern is the over-medicalization of bad memories, and its subsequent exploitation by the pharmaceutical industry.

  11. Feeling bad and looking worse: negative affect is associated with reduced perceptions of face-healthiness.

    PubMed

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

    2014-01-01

    Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N = 20) or negative affectivity (N = 20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger's faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger's face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood.

  12. Gene therapy for immune disorders: good news tempered by bad news.

    PubMed

    Puck, Jennifer M; Malech, Harry L

    2006-04-01

    After a dozen years of human gene therapy trials characterized by minimal gene correction and disappointing clinical impact, the field of gene therapy received some good news in 2000. Infants with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency who received retroviral gene addition to cells from their bone marrow developed impressive immune reconstitution. During the following 2 years, additional patients were treated and the news was even better-babies receiving gene therapy had sustained T-cell production and in several cases developed better cell function than most patients treated with standard bone marrow transplants. Unfortunately, bad news followed. Three of the patients experienced leukemic T-cell expansions, found to be associated with retroviral insertions into genomic DNA. Where does the field stand today?

  13. When feeling bad leads to feeling good: guilt-proneness and affective organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Francis J; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

    2012-01-01

    The authors posit that higher levels of guilt-proneness are associated with higher levels of affective organizational commitment. To explain this counterintuitive link, the authors suggest that a dispositional tendency to feel guilt motivates individuals to exert greater effort on their work-related tasks that, in turn, strengthens their affinity for the organization. The authors tested this idea using a laboratory study and field data from 2 samples of working adults. Individuals who are more guilt-prone reported higher levels of organizational attachment compared with less guilt-prone individuals. Furthermore, mediation analyses indicate that the link between guilt-proneness and affective commitment is driven by greater task effort. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the affective drivers of commitment in organizations.

  14. Feeling Bad and Looking Worse: Negative Affect Is Associated with Reduced Perceptions of Face-Healthiness

    PubMed Central

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H.; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

    2014-01-01

    Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N = 20) or negative affectivity (N = 20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger’s faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger’s face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood. PMID:25259802

  15. Comparative analysis of general characteristics of ischemic stroke of BAD and non-BAD CISS subtypes.

    PubMed

    Mei, Bin; Liu, Guang-zhi; Yang, Yang; Liu, Yu-min; Cao, Jiang-hui; Zhang, Jun-jian

    2015-12-01

    Based on the recently proposed Chinese ischemic stroke subclassification (CISS) system, intracranial branch atheromatous disease (BAD) is divided into large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and penetrating artery disease (PAD). In the current retrospective analysis, we compared the general characteristics of BAD-LAA with BAD-PAD, BAD-LAA with non-BAD-LAA and BAD-PAD with non-BAD-PAD. The study included a total of 80 cases, including 45 cases of BAD and 35 cases of non-BAD. Subjects were classified using CISS system: BAD-LAA, BAD-PAD, non-BAD-LAA and non-BAD-PAD. In addition to analysis of general characteristics, the correlation between the factors and the two subtypes of BAD was evaluated. The number of cases included in the analysis was: 32 cases of BAD-LAA, 13 cases of BAD-PAD, 21 cases of non-BAD-LAA, and 14 cases of non-BAD-PAD. Diabetes mellitus affected more non-BAD-LAA patients than BAD-LAA patients (P=0.035). In comparison with non-BAD-PAD, patients with BAD-PAD were younger (P=0.040), had higher initial NIHSS score (P<0.001) and morbidity of ischemic heart disease (P=0.033). Within patients with BAD, the PAD subtype was associated with smoking (OR=0.043; P=0.011), higher low-density lipoprotein (OR=5.339; P=0.029), ischemic heart disease (OR=9.383; P=0.047) and diabetes mellitus (OR=12.59; P=0.020). It was concluded that large artery atherosclerosis was the primary mechanism of BAD. The general characteristics showed no significant differences between the CISS subtypes of LAA and PAD within BAD, as well as between the BAD and non-BAD within LAA subtype. Several differences between PAD subtypes of BAD and non-BAD were revealed.

  16. Treatment of affective disorders in cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Mavrides, Nicole; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2015-06-01

    Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) commonly have syndromal major depression, and depression has been associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Prevalence of depression is between 17% and 47% in CVD patients. Pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions have long been studied, and in general are safe and somewhat efficacious in decreasing depressive symptoms in patients with CVD. The impact on cardiac outcomes remains unclear. The evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials indicates that antidepressants, especially selective serotonin uptake inhibitors, are overwhelmingly safe, and likely to be effective in the treatment of depression in patients with CVD. This review describes the prevalence of depression in patients with CVD, the physiological links between depression and CVD, the treatment options for affective disorders, and the clinical trials that demonstrate efficacy and safety of antidepressant medications and psychotherapy in this patient population. Great progress has been made in understanding potential mediators between major depressive disorder and CVD--both health behaviors and shared biological risks such as inflammation.

  17. Treatment of affective disorders in cardiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Mavrides, Nicole; Nemeroff, Charles B.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) commonly have syndromal major depression, and depression has been associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Prevalence of depression is between 17% and 47% in CVD patients. Pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions have long been studied, and in general are safe and somewhat efficacious in decreasing depressive symptoms in patients with CVD. The impact on cardiac outcomes remains unclear. The evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials indicates that antidepressants, especially selective serotonin uptake inhibitors, are overwhelmingly safe, and likely to be effective in the treatment of depression in patients with CVD. This review describes the prevalence of depression in patients with CVD, the physiological links between depression and CVD, the treatment options for affective disorders, and the clinical trials that demonstrate efficacy and safety of antidepressant medications and psychotherapy in this patient population. Great progress has been made in understanding potential mediators between major depressive disorder and CVD—both health behaviors and shared biological risks such as inflammation. PMID:26246788

  18. Potential animal models of seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Workman, Joanna L; Nelson, Randy J

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by depressive episodes during winter that are alleviated during summer and by morning bright light treatment. Currently, there is no animal model of SAD. However, it may be possible to use rodents that respond to day length (photoperiod) to understand how photoperiod can shape the brain and behavior in humans. As nights lengthen in the autumn, the duration of the nightly elevation of melatonin increase; seasonally breeding animals use this information to orchestrate seasonal changes in physiology and behavior. SAD may originate from the extended duration of nightly melatonin secretion during fall and winter. These similarities between humans and rodents in melatonin secretion allows for comparisons with rodents that express more depressive-like responses when exposed to short day lengths. For instance, Siberian hamsters, fat sand rats, Nile grass rats, and Wistar rats display a depressive-like phenotype when exposed to short days. Current research in depression and animal models of depression suggests that hippocampal plasticity may underlie the symptoms of depression and depressive-like behaviors, respectively. It is also possible that day length induces structural changes in human brains. Many seasonally breeding rodents undergo changes in whole brain and hippocampal volume in short days. Based on strict validity criteria, there is no animal model of SAD, but rodents that respond to reduced day lengths may be useful to approximate the neurobiological phenomena that occur in people with SAD, leading to greater understanding of the etiology of the disorder as well as novel therapeutic interventions.

  19. The blind kidney: disorders affecting kidneys and eyes.

    PubMed

    Russell-Eggitt, Isabelle; Bockenhauer, Detlef

    2013-12-01

    There are many disorders that can affect both the kidneys and the eyes. Awareness of the ocular manifestations of kidney disorders is important as it can guide the diagnosis and facilitate the choice of a specific treatment. Conversely, ophthalmologists need to be aware of potential renal manifestations in disorders presenting initially with visual failure. We review disorders affecting both of these organ systems, based upon cases from our clinical practice to highlight the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration.

  20. The detection of malingered posttraumatic stress disorder with MMPI-2 fake bad indices.

    PubMed

    Elhai, J D; Gold, S N; Sellers, A H; Dorfman, W I

    2001-06-01

    This investigation explored the effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) simulation on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) responses, to detect malingered from genuine PTSD. Sixty-four adult PTSD outpatients at a child sexual abuse (CSA) survivor treatment program were compared with 85 adult college students instructed and trained to malinger PTSD. MMPI-2 overreporting indices examined were F, F-Fb, F-K, F(p), Ds2, O-S, OT, and FBS. A stepwise discriminant analysis identified F(p), F-K, and O-S as the best malingering predictors. A predictive discriminant analysis yielded good hit rates for the model, with impressive cross-validation results. Cutoff scores were assessed for the model's predictors. Clinical implications for detecting malingered PTSD using the MMPI-2 are discussed.

  1. Vitamin D in anxiety and affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Bičíková, M; Dušková, M; Vítků, J; Kalvachová, B; Řípová, D; Mohr, P; Stárka, L

    2015-01-01

    Reduced levels of vitamin or its metabolites have been reported in various psychiatric disorders. Insufficient levels of vitamin D in depressive patients have been confirmed by many authors, but there have been conflicting results in subjects with anxiety disorders. In the present cross-sectional study, levels of calcidiol were determined in groups of depressive men and women and in men and women with anxiety disorders and compared with age matched controls. Significantly lower levels of calcidiol were found in men and women with depression as well as in age matched patients with anxiety disorders.

  2. Oxytocin and Social Cognition in Affective and Psychotic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Rodriguez, M. Mercedes; Mahon, Katie; Russo, Manuela; Ungar, Allison K.; Burdick, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Impairments in social cognition are now recognized as core illness features in psychotic and affective disorders. Despite the significant disability caused by social cognitive abnormalities, treatments for this symptom dimension are lacking. Here, we describe the evidence demonstrating abnormalities in social cognition in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder, as well as the neurobiology of social cognition including the role of oxytocin. We then review clinical trials of oxytocin administration in psychotic and affective disorders and the impact of this agent on social cognition. To date, several studies have demonstrated that oxytocin may improve social cognition in schizophrenia; too few studies have been conducted in affective disorders to determine the effect of oxytocin on social cognition in these disorders. Future work is needed to clarify which aspects of social cognition may be improved with oxytocin treatment in psychotic and affective disorders. PMID:25153535

  3. Oxytocin and social cognition in affective and psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, M; Mahon, Katie; Russo, Manuela; Ungar, Allison K; Burdick, Katherine E

    2015-02-01

    Impairments in social cognition are now recognized as core illness features in psychotic and affective disorders. Despite the significant disability caused by social cognitive abnormalities, treatments for this symptom dimension are lacking. Here, we describe the evidence demonstrating abnormalities in social cognition in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder, as well as the neurobiology of social cognition including the role of oxytocin. We then review clinical trials of oxytocin administration in psychotic and affective disorders and the impact of this agent on social cognition. To date, several studies have demonstrated that oxytocin may improve social cognition in schizophrenia; too few studies have been conducted in affective disorders to determine the effect of oxytocin on social cognition in these disorders. Future work is needed to clarify which aspects of social cognition may be improved with oxytocin treatment in psychotic and affective disorders.

  4. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... breath? Maybe you shouldn't have put extra onions on your hamburger at lunch. What's a kid ... bad breath: foods and drinks, such as garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene ( ...

  5. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... for lunch. But certain strong-smelling foods like onions and garlic can cause bad breath. So can ... leave behind strong smells, like cabbage, garlic, raw onions, and coffee. If you’re trying to lose ...

  6. Comorbid bipolar affective disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder in childhood: a case study and brief review.

    PubMed

    Jana, Amlan K; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder and bipolar affective disorder in the pediatric population show a bidirectional overlap. Few studies that have addressed this issue show that the prevalence of obsessive compulsive disorder in bipolar affective disorder patients ranges from 0 to 54%, and 1.85 to 36% of the obsessive compulsive disorder patients have a comorbid bipolar affective disorder. We report a case of a patient with an onset of obsessive compulsive disorder at two-and-a-half years of age, who developed mania after exposure to escitalopram. We suggest that in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder cases, antidepressants be used with caution, especially in cases with a positive family history of bipolar affective disorder.

  7. Differences in Affective Temperaments in Anxiety Disorders: Comparison of Panic Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    FISTIKÇI, Nurhan; HACIOĞLU, Münevver; EREK, Şakire; TABO, Abdülkadir; ERTEN, Evrim; GÜLER, Ayşegül Selcen; KALKAN, Murat; SAATÇİOĞLU, Ömer

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In this study, probable differences in affective temperament among anxiety disorders were investigated via a comparison of panic disorder (PD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method 44 patients with OCD and 42 patients with PD, who were admitted to Bakirkoy Prof. Dr. Mazhar Osman Research and Training Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery outpatient clinics with complaints of OCD and PD and were diagnosed according to DSM IV criteria, were consecutively included in the study after informed consent was taken. A sociodemographic form, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID I), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Beck Anxiety Inventory, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the temperament evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) were given to the patients. PD and OCD patients were compared in terms of affective temperament characteristics. Results Mean age, educational status and gender distribution of OCD and PD patients were similar (p>0.05). Dominant depressive temperament was more prominent in OCD group than in PD group (p=0.021). Hyperthymic temperament scores were higher in PD group than in OCD group (p=0.002). Dominant hyperthymic temperament was not encountered in either group. Conclusion Dominant depressive temperament was more prominent in OCD group whereas hyperthymic temperament scores were higher in PD group. These findings should be evaluated in studies with larger sample sizes.

  8. Bad origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waitukaitis, Scott

    2014-03-01

    Origami research often assumes rigid plates connected by free hinges, but interesting and useful behaviors emerge if these assumptions are relaxed. I will show how breaking the rules of flat and rigid folding, i . e . making ``bad origami,'' can lead to structures that exhibit mechanical rigidity and bistability.

  9. [Paranoia erotica (de Clerambault syndrome) in affective disorder].

    PubMed

    Debbelt, P; Assion, H J

    2001-11-01

    Erotomania is a rare delusional disorder usually associated with other psychic disorders, especially paranoid schizophrenia. The primary form without comorbidity is very rare. A case report is presented with characteristic features of the pure form of erotomania in a female patient that was nevertheless an affective disorder. A historical review is presented and the division of Clérambault's syndrome into primary and secondary categories critically discussed.

  10. Alcohol badly affects eye movements linked to steering, providing for automatic in-car detection of drink driving.

    PubMed

    Marple-Horvat, Dilwyn E; Cooper, Hannah L; Gilbey, Steven L; Watson, Jessica C; Mehta, Neena; Kaur-Mann, Daljit; Wilson, Mark; Keil, Damian

    2008-03-01

    Driving is a classic example of visually guided behavior in which the eyes move before some other action. When approaching a bend in the road, a driver looks across to the inside of the curve before turning the steering wheel. Eye and steering movements are tightly linked, with the eyes leading, which allows the parts of the brain that move the eyes to assist the parts of the brain that control the hands on the wheel. We show here that this optimal relationship deteriorates with levels of breath alcohol well within the current UK legal limit for driving. The eyes move later, and coordination reduces. These changes lead to bad performance and can be detected by an automated in-car system, which warns the driver is no longer fit to drive.

  11. Preventing the transmission of mitochondrial DNA disorders: selecting the good guys or kicking out the bad guys.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Hubert J M

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial disorders represent the most common group of inborn errors of metabolism. Clinical manifestations can be extremely variable, ranging from single affected tissues to multisystemic syndromes. Maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are a frequent cause, affecting about one in 5000 individuals. The expression of mtDNA mutations differs from nuclear gene defects. Mutations are either homoplasmic or heteroplasmic, and in the latter case disease becomes manifest when the mutation load exceeds a tissue-specific threshold. Mutation load can vary between tissues and in time, and often an exact correlation between mutation load and clinical manifestations is lacking. Because of the possible clinical severity, the lack of treatment and the high recurrence risk of affected offspring for female carriers, couples request prevention of transmission of mtDNA mutations. Previously, choices have been limited due to a segregational bottleneck, which makes the mtDNA mutation load in embryos highly variable and the consequences largely unpredictable. However, recently it was shown that preimplantation genetic diagnosis offers a fair chance of unaffected offspring to carriers of heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations. Technically and ethically challenging possibilities, such maternal spindle transfer and pronuclear transfer, are emerging and providing carriers additional prospects of giving birth to a healthy child.

  12. Melanopsin, photosensitive ganglion cells, and seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Roecklein, Kathryn A; Wong, Patricia M; Miller, Megan A; Donofry, Shannon D; Kamarck, Marissa L; Brainard, George C

    2013-03-01

    In two recent reports, melanopsin gene variations were associated with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and in changes in the timing of sleep and activity in healthy individuals. New studies have deepened our understanding of the retinohypothalamic tract, which translates environmental light received by the retina into neural signals sent to a set of nonvisual nuclei in the brain that are responsible for functions other than sight including circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral regulation. Because this pathway mediates seasonal changes in physiology, behavior, and mood, individual variations in the pathway may explain why approximately 1-2% of the North American population develops mood disorders with a seasonal pattern (i.e., Major Depressive and Bipolar Disorders with a seasonal pattern, also known as seasonal affective disorder/SAD). Components of depression including mood changes, sleep patterns, appetite, and cognitive performance can be affected by the biological and behavioral responses to light. Specifically, variations in the gene sequence for the retinal photopigment, melanopsin, may be responsible for significant increased risk for mood disorders with a seasonal pattern, and may do so by leading to changes in activity and sleep timing in winter. The retinal sensitivity of SAD is hypothesized to be decreased compared to controls, and that further decrements in winter light levels may combine to trigger depression in winter. Here we outline steps for new research to address the possible role of melanopsin in seasonal affective disorder including chromatic pupillometry designed to measure the sensitivity of melanopsin containing retinal ganglion cells.

  13. Seasonal Affective Disorder: An Overview of Assessment and Treatment Approaches.

    PubMed

    Melrose, Sherri

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder or SAD is a recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern usually beginning in fall and continuing into winter months. A subsyndromal type of SAD, or S-SAD, is commonly known as "winter blues." Less often, SAD causes depression in the spring or early summer. Symptoms center on sad mood and low energy. Those most at risk are female, are younger, live far from the equator, and have family histories of depression, bipolar disorder, or SAD. Screening instruments include the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). Typical treatment includes antidepressant medications, light therapy, Vitamin D, and counselling. This paper provides an overview of SAD.

  14. Melanopsin, Photosensitive Ganglion Cells, and Seasonal Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Wong, Patricia M.; Miller, Megan A.; Donofry, Shannon D.; Kamarck, Marissa L.; Brainard, George C.

    2013-01-01

    ROECKLEIN, K.A., WONG, P.M., MILLER, M.A., DONOFRY, S.D., KAMARCK, M.L., BRAINARD, G.C. Melanopsin, Photosensitive Ganglion Cells, and Seasonal Affective Disorder…NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV x(x) XXX-XXX, 2012. In two recent reports, melanopsin gene variations were associated with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and in changes in the timing of sleep and activity in healthy individuals. New studies have deepened our understanding of the retinohypothalamic tract, which translates environmental light received by the retina into neural signals sent to a set of nonvisual nuclei in the brain that are responsible for functions other than sight including circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral regulation. Because this pathway mediates seasonal changes in physiology, behavior, and mood, individual variations in the pathway may explain why approximately 1–2% of the North American population develops mood disorders with a seasonal pattern (i.e., Major Depressive and Bipolar Disorders with a seasonal pattern, also known as seasonal affective disorder/SAD). Components of depression including mood changes, sleep patterns, appetite, and cognitive performance can be affected by the biological and behavioral responses to light. Specifically, variations in the gene sequence for the retinal photopigment, melanopsin, may be responsible for significant increased risk for mood disorders with a seasonal pattern, and may do so by leading to changes in activity and sleep timing in winter. The retinal sensitivity of SAD is hypothesized to be decreased compared to controls, and that further decrements in winter light levels may combine to trigger depression in winter. Here we outline steps for new research to address the possible role of melanopsin in seasonal affective disorder including chromatic pupillometry designed to measure the sensitivity of melanopsin containing retinal ganglion cells. PMID:23286902

  15. Changing psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, G Eric

    2012-12-01

    This article explored the origins and implications of the underdiagnosis of affective disorders in African-Americans. MEDLINE and old collections were searched using relevant key words. Reference lists from the articles that were gathered from this procedure were reviewed. The historical record indicated that the psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders changed significantly during the last 200 years. In the antebellum period, the mental disorders of slaves mostly went unnoticed. By the early 20th century, African-Americans were reported to have high rates of manic-depressive disorder compared with whites. By the mid-century, rates of manic-depressive disorder in African-Americans plummeted, whereas depression remained virtually nonexistent. In recent decades, diagnosed depression and bipolar disorder, whether in clinical or research settings, were inexplicably low in African-Americans compared with whites. Given these findings, American psychiatry needs to appraise the deep-seated effects of historical stereotypes on the diagnosis and treatment of African-Americans.

  16. Cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome presented as severe borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Pesic, Danilo; Peljto, Amir; Lukic, Biljana; Milovanovic, Maja; Svetozarevic, Snezana; Lecic Tosevski, Dusica

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of findings confirm the significance of cerebellum in affecting regulation and early learning. Most consistent findings refer to association of congenital vermis anomalies with deficits in nonmotor functions of cerebellum. In this paper we presented a young woman who was treated since sixteen years of age for polysubstance abuse, affective instability, and self-harming who was later diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Since the neurological and neuropsychological reports pointed to signs of cerebellar dysfunction and dysexecutive syndrome, we performed magnetic resonance imaging of brain which demonstrated partially developed vermis and rhombencephalosynapsis. These findings match the description of cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome and show an overlap with clinical manifestations of borderline personality disorder.

  17. Daily Interpersonal and Affective Dynamics in Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Simms, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    In this naturalistic study we adopt the lens of interpersonal theory to examine between-and within-person differences in dynamic processes of daily affect and interpersonal behaviors among individuals (N = 101) previously diagnosed with personality disorders who completed daily diaries over the course of 100 days. Dispositional ratings of interpersonal problems and measures of daily stress were used as predictors of daily shifts in interpersonal behavior and affect in multilevel models. Results indicate that ~40%–50% of the variance in interpersonal behavior and affect is due to daily fluctuations, which are modestly related to dispositional measures of interpersonal problems but strongly related to daily stress. The findings support conceptions of personality disorders as a dynamic form of psychopathology involving the individuals interacting with and regulating in response to the contextual features of their environment. PMID:26200849

  18. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables--namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature--influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.

  19. [Temperament and affective disorders--historical basis of current discussion].

    PubMed

    Ehrt, U; Brieger, P; Marneros, A

    2003-06-01

    The history of the temperament concept begins in ancient Greece. The humoral theory remained influential over the centuries. At the beginning of the 20 th century, both Wilhelm Wundt and his pupil Emil Kraepelin formulated new aspects. Wundt described two dimensions: "speed of variability of emotions" and "intensity of emotions". Kraepelin observed four fundamental states (depressive, manic, irritable and cyclothymic), which he linked to manic-depressive illness. Since then different lines of temperament research have evolved: (1) psychiatric-psychopathological theories (e. g. Ewald, Kretschmer and Sheldon), which tend to see temperament as a dilution of full-blown affective disorders; (2) neurobiological theories (e. g. Pavlov, Eysenck and Gray), which understand temperament as determined by underlying neurobiological processes - especially levels of arousal; and (3) developmental theories (e. g. Chess & Thomas, Rothbart and Kagan), which derived their temperament concept from early childhood observations. Recent theories (e. g. those of Cloninger or Akiskal) combine different aspects. After reviewing the historical temperament concepts we present underlying factors which are linked to affective disorders (such as emotional reactivity, cyclicity or trait affectivity). Finally, we illustrate the importance of temperament concepts for research in affective disorders.

  20. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables—namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature—influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an affect-processing and thought disorder?

    PubMed

    Günter, Michael

    2014-02-01

    In the literature on child and adolescent psychoanalysis attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as complex syndrome with wide-ranging psychodynamic features. Broadly speaking, the disorder is divided into three categories: 1. a disorder in early object relations leading to the development of a maniform defence organization in which object-loss anxieties and depressed affects are not worked through via symbolization but are organized in a body-near manner; 2. a triangulation disorder in which the cathexis of the paternal position is not stable; structures providing little support alternate with excessive arousal, affect regulation is restricted; 3. current emotional stress or a traumatic experience. I suggest taking a fresh look at ADHD from a psychoanalytic vantage point. With respect to the phenomenology of the disorder, the conflict-dynamic approach should be supplemented by a perspective regarding deficits in α-function as constitutive for ADHD. These deficits cause affect-processing and thought disorders compensated for (though not fully) by the symptomatology. At a secondary level, a vicious circle develops through the mutual reinforcement of defective processing of sense data and affects into potential thought content, on the one hand, and secondary, largely narcissistic defence processes on the other. These considerations have major relevance for the improved understanding of ADHD and for psychoanalytic technique.

  2. Assessing affective variability in eating disorders: affect spins less in anorexia nervosa of the restrictive type.

    PubMed

    Vansteelandt, Kristof; Probst, Michel; Pieters, Guido

    2013-08-01

    Differences in affective variability in eating disorders are examined using an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol. It is hypothesized that restriction serves to pre-empt the activation of affect whereas bulimic behavior serves to cope with overwhelming affect once activated. Therefore, we expect anorexia nervosa (AN) patients of the restricting type (AN-RT) to have lower mean levels of affect and less affective variability than Bulimia Nervosa (BN) patients. Patients' successive affective states over time are represented as different positions in a two-dimensional space defined by the orthogonal dimensions of valence and activation. Affective variability is measured by the within person variance and the new concepts of pulse and spin. Results of this exploratory study suggest that the diagnostic groups have the same mean levels of affect but affect spins less in patients with AN-RT. Using an EMA protocol and measures like pulse and spin may reveal insights in eating disorders that remain hidden with more traditional assessment methods.

  3. Stress sensitivity and the development of affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Bale, Tracy L

    2006-11-01

    Depressive disorders are the most common form of mental illness in America, affecting females twice as often as males. The great variability of symptoms and responses to therapeutic treatment emphasize the complex underlying neurobiology of disease onset and progression. Evidence from human and animal studies reveals a vital link between individual stress sensitivity and the predisposition toward mood disorders. While the stress response is essential for maintenance of homeostasis and survival, chronic stress and maladaptive responses to stress insults can lead to depression or other affective disorders. A key factor in the mediation of stress responsivity is the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Studies in animal models of heightened stress sensitivity have illustrated the involvement of CRF downstream neurotransmitter targets, including serotonin and norepinephrine, in the profound neurocircuitry failure that may underlie maladaptive coping strategies. Stress sensitivity may also be a risk factor in affective disorder development susceptibility. As females show an increased stress response and recovery time compared to males, they may be at an increased vulnerability for disease. Therefore, examination of sex differences in CRF and downstream targets may aid in the elucidation of the underlying causes of the increased disease presentation in females. While we continue to make progress in our understanding of mood disorder etiology, we still have miles to go before we sleep. As an encouraging number of new animal models of altered stress sensitivity and negative stress coping strategies have been developed, the future looks extremely promising for the possibility of a new generation of drug targets to be developed.

  4. Use of deep brain stimulation for major affective disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Kuanqing

    2016-01-01

    The multifactorial etiology of major affective disorders, such as major depression and bipolar disorder, poses a challenge for identification of effective treatments. In a substantial number of patients, psychopharmacologic treatment does not lead to effective continuous symptom relief. The use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treatment-resistant patients is an investigational approach that has recently produced promising results. The recent development of safer stereotaxic neurosurgery, and the combination with functional neuroimaging to map the affected brain circuits, have led to the investigation of DBS as a potential strategy to treat major mood disorders. Several independent clinical studies have recently shown that chronic DBS treatment leads to remission of symptoms in a high number of treatment-resistant patients for major depression and bipolar disorder. In conclusion, the existing proof-of-principle that DBS can be an effective intervention for treatment-resistant depression opens new avenues for treatment. However, multicenter, randomized and blind trials need to confirm efficacy and be approved after the most recent failures. Patient selection and surgical-related improvements are key issues that remain to be addressed to help deliver more precise and customized treatment. PMID:27698736

  5. A Case of Bipolar Affective Disorder and Aspiration Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Erba, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Adults with mental illness are at a higher risk of aspiration pneumonia than the general population. We describe the case of a patient with bipolar affective disorder and two separate episodes of aspiration pneumonia associated with acute mania. We propose that he had multiple predisposing factors, including hyperverbosity, sedative medications, polydipsia (psychogenic and secondary to a comorbidity of diabetes insipidus), and neuroleptic side effects. PMID:23956911

  6. The Neurobiology of Retinoic Acid in Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bremner, J Douglas; McCaffery, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Current models of affective disorders implicate alterations in norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, and CRF/cortisol; however treatments targeted at these neurotransmitters or hormones have led to imperfect resolution of symptoms, suggesting that the neurobiology of affective disorders is incompletely understood. Until now retinoids have not been considered as possible contributors to affective disorders. Retinoids represent a family of compounds derived from Vitamin A that perform a large number of functions, many via the vitamin A product, retinoic acid. This signaling molecule binds to specific retinoic acid receptors in the brain which, like the glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors, are part of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulate gene transcription. Research in the field of retinoic acid in the CNS has focused on the developing brain, in part stimulated by the observation that isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid), an isomer of retinoic acid used in the treatment of acne, is highly teratogenic for the CNS. More recent work has suggested that retinoic acid may influence the adult brain; animal studies indicated that the administration of isotretinoin is associated with alterations in behavior as well as inhibition of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Clinical evidence for an association between retinoids and depression includes case reports in the literature, studies of health care databases, and other sources. A preliminary PET study in human subjects showed that isotretinoin was associated with a decrease in orbitofrontal metabolism. Several studies have shown that the molecular components required for retinoic acid signaling are expressed in the adult brain ; the overlap of brain areas implicated in retinoic acid function and stress and depression suggest that retinoids could play a role in affective disorders. This report reviews the evidence in this area and describes several systems that may be targets of retinoic acid and which contribute

  7. Affective Cognition and its Disruption in Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Rebecca; Zahn, Roland; Deakin, J F William; Anderson, Ian M

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we consider affective cognition, responses to emotional stimuli occurring in the context of cognitive evaluation. In particular, we discuss emotion categorization, biasing of memory and attention, as well as social/moral emotion. We discuss limited neuropsychological evidence suggesting that affective cognition depends critically on the amygdala, ventromedial frontal cortex, and the connections between them. We then consider neuroimaging studies of affective cognition in healthy volunteers, which have led to the development of more sophisticated neural models of these processes. Disturbances of affective cognition are a core and specific feature of mood disorders, and we discuss the evidence supporting this claim, both from behavioral and neuroimaging perspectives. Serotonin is considered to be a key neurotransmitter involved in depression, and there is a considerable body of research exploring whether serotonin may mediate disturbances of affective cognition. The final section presents an overview of this literature and considers implications for understanding the pathophysiology of mood disorder as well as developing and evaluating new treatment strategies. PMID:20571485

  8. Patterns of maternal transmission in bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    McMahon, F J; Stine, O C; Meyers, D A; Simpson, S G; DePaulo, J R

    1995-06-01

    The mode of inheritance of bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) appears complex, and non-Mendelian models of inheritance have been postulated. Two non-Mendelian phenomena, genomic imprinting and mitochondrial inheritance, may contribute to the complex inheritance pattern seen in BPAD. Both imprinting and mitochondrial inheritance share the feature of differential expression of the phenotype, depending on the parent of origin. In this study we tested the hypothesis of a parent-of-origin effect on the transmission of BPAD. We examined the frequency and risk of affective disorder among relatives in a sample of 31 families ascertained through treated probands with BPAD and selected for the presence of affected phenotypes in only one parental lineage. Three specific comparisons were performed: (1) the observed frequency of transmitting mothers versus transmitting fathers; (2) the observed frequency and lifetime risk of BPAD among the maternal versus the paternal relatives of probands; and (3) the observed frequency and lifetime risk of BPAD for the offspring of affected mothers compared with the offspring of affected fathers. We observed a higher than expected frequency of affected mothers (P < .04), a 2.3-2.8-fold increased risk of illness for maternal relatives (P < .006), and a 1.3- 2.5-fold increased risk of illness for the offspring of affected mothers (P < .017). In seven enlarged pedigrees, fathers repeatedly failed to transmit the affected phenotype to daughters or sons. Taken together, these findings indicate a maternal effect in the transmission of BPAD susceptibility and suggest that molecular studies of mtDNA and imprinted DNA are warranted in patients with BPAD.

  9. 'ADHD Does Bad Stuff to You': Young People's and Parents' Experiences and Perceptions of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travell, Chris; Visser, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the findings of a study of young people's and parents' experiences and perspectives of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) from five positions: the 'symptoms' of ADHD and their consequences, the process of diagnosis and treatment, interventions, a personal diagnosis, and participation and voice. It questions the…

  10. "He's Just Enthusiastic. Is That Such a Bad Thing?" Experiences of Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Ruth; Hennessy, Eilis

    2012-01-01

    Parenting a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a challenging experience. The hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention of a child with ADHD often put parenting skills to the test. The present study thus aimed to explore the experiences of parents of children with ADHD in Ireland. Eighteen parents of 7-12-year-old boys…

  11. Affective decision making in women with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    LeGris, Jeannette; Toplak, Maggie; Links, Paul S

    2014-10-01

    The affective decision making of 41 recently treated outpatient women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) was compared to 41 healthy controls using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Non-affective executive functions (EF) of working memory, interference control, and motor inhibition were also compared. Associations among affective and non-affective EF were examined. Despite normal range intelligence, Stroop interference, motor inhibition, and working memory, women with BPD made significantly more disadvantageous IGT decisions than controls (Cohen's d = .72) that were unrelated to substance abuse history, education, psychotropic use, or attentional deficits. Correlates of EF and IGT performance varied by group. Intellect, BPD, and intact behavioral control explained 35% of the adjusted variance in net IGT performance. Disadvantageous IGT decision making was the only EF to predict BPD. IGT deficits in BPD may be separable from IQ and other EF as supported by the somatic marker hypothesis and suggest a stable, trait-like vulnerability favoring immediate reward over long-term gain in women with the disorder.

  12. Preschool Oppositional Defiant Disorder: A Disorder of Negative Affect, Surgency, and Disagreeableness.

    PubMed

    Zastrow, Brittany L; Martel, Michelle M; Widiger, Thomas A

    2016-10-21

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is conceptualized as a disorder of negative affect and low effortful control. Yet empirical tests of trait associations with ODD remain limited. The current study examined the relationship between temperament and personality traits and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) ODD symptom domains and related impairment in a preschool-age sample. Participants were 109 children ages 3-6 (59% male), overrecruited for ODD from the community, and their primary caregivers (87% mothers). ODD symptoms and impairment were measured using the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule, temperament traits were measured using parent report on the Child Behavior Questionnaire and the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery, and personality traits were measured using examiner report on the California Child Q-Sort. Results suggest that high negative affect was associated with all three ODD symptom domains, whereas low agreeableness was specifically associated with the angry/irritable ODD symptom domain, and high surgency was associated with the argumentative/defiant and vindictive ODD symptom domains. Negative affect and surgency interacted with agreeableness to predict impairment, but not symptoms: Low agreeableness was associated with high impairment, regardless of other trait levels, whereas high negative affect and high surgency predicted high impairment in the presence of high agreeableness. Overall, results suggest ODD is a disorder of high negative affect. Furthermore, low agreeableness is differentially associated with affective ODD symptoms, and high surgency is associated with behavioral ODD symptoms. These traits interact in complex ways to predict impairment. Therefore, negative affect, agreeableness, and surgency may be useful early markers of ODD symptoms and impairment.

  13. The chronobiology and neurobiology of winter seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Levitan, Robert D

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes research on the chronobiology and neurobiology of winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a recurrent subtype of depression characterized by a predictable onset in the fall/winter months and spontaneous remission in the spring/summer period. Chronobiological mechanisms related to circadian rhythms, melatonin, and photoperiodism play a significant role in many cases of SAD, and treatment of SAD can be optimized by considering individual differences in key chronobiological markers. Converging evidence also points to a role for the major monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine in one or more aspects of SAD. Ultimately, as with other psychiatric illnesses, SAD is best considered as a complex disorder resulting from the interaction of several vulnerability factors acting at different levels, the various genetic mechanisms that underlie them, and the physical environment. Models of SAD that emphasize its potential role in human evolution will also be discussed.

  14. Endocrinological disorders affecting neurosurgical patients: An intensivists perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Haldar, Rudrashish

    2014-01-01

    Management of critically ill neurosurgical patients is often complicated by the presence or development of endocrinological ailments which complicate the clinical scenario and adversely affect the prognosis of these patients. The anatomical proximity to the vital centers regulating the endocrinological physiology and alteration in the neurotransmitter release causes disturbances in the hormonal homeostasis. This paves the way for development of diverse disorders where single or multiple hormones may be involved which can have deleterious effect on the different organ system. Understanding and awareness of these disorders is important for the treating intensivist to recognize these changes early in their course, so that appropriate and timely therapeutic measures can be initiated along with the treatment of the primary malady. PMID:25364671

  15. Depressive symptomatology differentiates subgroups of patients with seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Goel, Namni; Terman, Michael; Terman, Jiuan Su

    2002-01-01

    Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) may vary in symptoms of their depressed winter mood state, as we showed previously for nondepressed (manic, hypomanic, hyperthymic, euthymic) springtime states [Goel et al., 1999]. Identification of such differences during depression may be useful in predicting differences in treatment efficacy or analyzing the pathogenesis of the disorder. In a cross-sectional analysis, we determined whether 165 patients with Bipolar Disorder (I, II) or Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), both with seasonal pattern, showed different symptom profiles while depressed. Assessment was by the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-Seasonal Affective Disorder Version (SIGH-SAD), which includes a set of items for atypical symptoms. We identified subgroup differences in SAD based on categories specified for nonseasonal depression, using multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Patients with Bipolar Disorder (I and II) were more depressed (had higher SIGH-SAD scores) and showed more psychomotor agitation and social withdrawal than those with MDD. Bipolar I patients had more psychomotor retardation, late insomnia, and social withdrawal than bipolar II patients. Men showed more obsessions/compulsions and suicidality than women, while women showed more weight gain and early insomnia. Whites showed more guilt and fatigability than blacks, while blacks showed more hypochondriasis and social withdrawal. Darker-eyed patients were significantly more depressed and fatigued than blue-eyed patients. Single and divorced or separated patients showed more hypochondriasis and diurnal variation than married patients. Employed patients showed more atypical symptoms than unemployed patients, although most of the subgroup distinctions lay on the Hamilton Scale. These results comprise a set of biological and sociocultural factors-including race, gender, and marital and employment status-which contribute to depressive

  16. Dysfunctional affect regulation in borderline personality disorder and in somatoform disorder

    PubMed Central

    van Dijke, Annemiek

    2012-01-01

    Background Although affect dysregulation is considered a core component of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and somatoform disorders (SoD), remarkably little research has focused on the prevalence and nature of affect dysregulation in these disorders. Also, despite apparent similarities, little is known about how dysfunctional under- and overregulation of affect and positive and negative somatoform and psychoform dissociative experiences inter-relate. Prior studies suggest a clear relationship between early childhood psychological trauma and affect dysregulation, especially when the caretaker is emotionally, sexually, or physically abusing the child, but how these relate to under- and overregulation while differentiating for developmental epochs is not clear. Although an elevated risk of childhood trauma exposure or complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) symptoms has been reported in BPD and SoD, trauma histories, dysfunctional affect regulation, dissociation, PTSD, and CPTSD were never assessed in unison in BPD and/or SoD. Method BPD and/or SoD diagnoses were confirmed or ruled out in 472 psychiatric inpatients using clinical interviews. Dysfunctional under- and overregulation of affect and somatoform and psychoform dissociation, childhood trauma-by-primary-caretaker (TPC), PTSD, and CPTSD were all measured using self reports. Results No disorder-specific form of dysfunctional affect regulation was found. Although both BPD and SoD can involve affect dysregulation and dissociation, there is a wide range of intensity of dysfunctional regulation phenomena in patients with these diagnoses. Evidence was found for the existence of three qualitatively different forms of experiencing states: inhibitory experiencing states (overregulation of affect and negative psychoform dissociation) most commonly found in SoD, excitatory experiencing states (underregulation of affect and positive psychoform dissociation) most commonly found in BPD, and combination of

  17. Medical & Surgical Management of Pelvic Floor Disorders Affecting Defecation

    PubMed Central

    Schey, Ron; Cromwell, John; Rao, Satish S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic floor disorders that affect stool evacuation include structural (example: rectocele) and functional disorders (example: dyssynergic defecation). Meticulous history, digital rectal examination, and physiological tests such as anorectal manometry, colonic transit study, balloon expulsion and imaging studies such as anal ultrasound, defecography, and static and dynamic MRI can facilitate an objective diagnosis and optimal treatment. Management consists of education and counseling regarding bowel function, diet, laxatives, most importantly behavioral and biofeedback therapies, and lastly surgery. Randomized clinical trials have established that biofeedback therapy is effective in treating dyssynergic defecation. Because dyssynergic defecation may co-exist with conditions such as solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS), and rectocele, before considering surgery, biofeedback therapy should be tried and an accurate assessment of the entire pelvis and its function should be performed. Several surgical approaches have been advocated for the treatment of pelvic floor disorders including open, laparoscopic and trans-abdominal approach, stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR), and robotic colon and rectal resections. However, there is lack of well controlled randomized studies and efficacy of these surgical procedures remains to be established. PMID:22907620

  18. Medical and surgical management of pelvic floor disorders affecting defecation.

    PubMed

    Schey, Ron; Cromwell, John; Rao, Satish S C

    2012-11-01

    Pelvic floor disorders that affect stool evacuation include structural (for example, rectocele) and functional disorders (for example, dyssynergic defecation (DD)). Meticulous history, digital rectal examination (DRE), and physiological tests such as anorectal manometry, colonic transit study, balloon expulsion, and imaging studies such as anal ultrasound, defecography, and static and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can facilitate an objective diagnosis and optimal treatment. Management consists of education and counseling regarding bowel function, diet, laxatives, most importantly behavioral and biofeedback therapies, and finally surgery. Randomized clinical trials have established that biofeedback therapy is effective in treating DD. Because DD may coexist with conditions such as solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) and rectocele, before considering surgery, biofeedback therapy should be tried and an accurate assessment of the entire pelvis and its function should be performed. Several surgical approaches have been advocated for the treatment of pelvic floor disorders including open, laparoscopic, and transabdominal approach, stapled transanal rectal resection, and robotic colon and rectal resections. However, there is lack of well-controlled randomized studies and the efficacy of these surgical procedures remains to be established.

  19. [Diagnostic features, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of seasonal affective disorder].

    PubMed

    Molnár, Eszter; Gonda, Xénia; Rihmer, Zoltán; Bagdy, György

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is characterized by patterns of major depressive episodes that occur and remit with the change of seasons. Two seasonal patterns have been identified: summer-type depression with typical depressive signs and symptoms, and winter-type depression with atypical features of depression. In the subsyndromal form of SAD (S-SAD) symptoms are milder, although vegetative symptoms are clinically significant. SAD needs to be differentiated from atypical depression, cyclothymic disorder, and dysthymia or chronic MDD which may be characterized by a winter worsening of symptoms. Full remission of symptoms must occur after the passing of the season for the disorder to merit the diagnosis of SAD. The mean prevalence of SAD in the temperate zone is 3 to 10%, while that of S-SAD is 6 to 20%. In Hungarian general population the occurrence of SAD is 4.6%, and S-SAD is 7.2%. The pathophysiology of SAD seems to be heterogeneous, studies suggest abnormal circadian rhythm and neurotransmitter function (phase shift hypothesis, role of serotonin, dopamin and norepinephrine). Genetic studies focusing on candidate genes involve 5-HTR2A, 5-HTR2C, DRD4, G protein, and clock-related genes.

  20. Modelling cognitive affective biases in major depressive disorder using rodents.

    PubMed

    Hales, Claire A; Stuart, Sarah A; Anderson, Michael H; Robinson, Emma S J

    2014-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects more than 10% of the population, although our understanding of the underlying aetiology of the disease and how antidepressant drugs act to remediate symptoms is limited. Major obstacles include the lack of availability of good animal models that replicate aspects of the phenotype and tests to assay depression-like behaviour in non-human species. To date, research in rodents has been dominated by two types of assays designed to test for depression-like behaviour: behavioural despair tests, such as the forced swim test, and measures of anhedonia, such as the sucrose preference test. These tests have shown relatively good predictive validity in terms of antidepressant efficacy, but have limited translational validity. Recent developments in clinical research have revealed that cognitive affective biases (CABs) are a key feature of MDD. Through the development of neuropsychological tests to provide objective measures of CAB in humans, we have the opportunity to use 'reverse translation' to develop and evaluate whether similar methods are suitable for research into MDD using animals. The first example of this approach was reported in 2004 where rodents in a putative negative affective state were shown to exhibit pessimistic choices in a judgement bias task. Subsequent work in both judgement bias tests and a novel affective bias task suggest that these types of assay may provide translational methods for studying MDD using animals. This review considers recent work in this area and the pharmacological and translational validity of these new animal models of CABs.

  1. Good vs. Bad Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Good vs. Bad Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can't dissolve ... test . View an animation of cholesterol . LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is considered the “bad” cholesterol because ...

  2. What Causes Bad Breath?

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? A A A en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  3. WFC3/IR Cycle 19 Bad Pixel Table Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, B.

    2012-06-01

    Using data from Cycles 17, 18, and 19, we have updated the IR channel bad pixel table for WFC3. The bad pixel table contains flags that mark the position of pixels that are dead, unstable, have a bad zeroth read value, or are affected by "blobs". In all, 28,500 of the science pixels (2.77%) are flagged as bad. Observers are encouraged to dither their observations as a means of lessening the effects of these bad pixels. The new bad pixel table is in the calibration database system (CDBS) as w681807ii_bpx.fits.

  4. Affective neural response to restricted interests in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cascio, Carissa J.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Heacock, Jessica; Schauder, Kimberly B.; Loring, Whitney A.; Rogers, Baxter P.; Pryweller, Jennifer R.; Newsom, Cassandra R.; Cockhren, Jurnell; Cao, Aize; Bolton, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Background Restricted interests are a class of repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) whose intensity and narrow focus often contribute to significant interference with daily functioning. While numerous neuroimaging studies have investigated executive circuits as putative neural substrates of repetitive behavior, recent work implicates affective neural circuits in restricted interests. We sought to explore the role of affective neural circuits and determine how restricted interests are distinguished from hobbies or interests in typical development. Methods We compared a group of children with ASD to a typically developing (TD) group of children with strong interests or hobbies, employing parent report, an operant behavioral task, and functional imaging with personalized stimuli based on individual interests. Results While performance on the operant task was similar between the two groups, parent report of intensity and interference of interests was significantly higher in the ASD group. Both the ASD and TD groups showed increased BOLD response in widespread affective neural regions to pictures of their own interest. When viewing pictures of other children's interests, the TD group showed a similar pattern, whereas BOLD response in the ASD group was much more limited. Increased BOLD response in the insula and anterior cingulate cortex distinguished the ASD from the TD group, and parent report of the intensity and interference with daily life of the child's restricted interest predicted insula response. Conclusions While affective neural network response and operant behavior are comparable in typical and restricted interests, the narrowness of focus that clinically distinguishes restricted interests in ASD is reflected in more interference in daily life and aberrantly enhanced insula and anterior cingulate response to individuals’ own interests in the ASD group. These results further support the involvement of affective neural networks in repetitive

  5. Tooth dentin defects reflect genetic disorders affecting bone mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Vital, S. Opsahl; Gaucher, C.; Bardet, C.; Rowe, P.S.; George, A.; Linglart, A.; Chaussain, C.

    2012-01-01

    Several genetic disorders affecting bone mineralization may manifest during dentin mineralization. Dentin and bone are similar in several aspects, especially pertaining to the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) which is secreted by well-differentiated odontoblasts and osteoblasts, respectively. However, unlike bone, dentin is not remodelled and is not involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. In contrast to bone, teeth are accessible tissues with the shedding of deciduous teeth and the extractions of premolars and third molars for orthodontic treatment. The feasibility of obtaining dentin makes this a good model to study biomineralization in physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, we focus on two genetic diseases that disrupt both bone and dentin mineralization. Hypophosphatemic rickets is related to abnormal secretory proteins involved in the ECM organization of both bone and dentin, as well as in the calcium and phosphate metabolism. Osteogenesis imperfecta affects proteins involved in the local organization of the ECM. In addition, dentin examination permits evaluation of the effects of the systemic treatment prescribed to hypophosphatemic patients during growth. In conclusion, dentin constitutes a valuable tool for better understanding of the pathological processes affecting biomineralization. PMID:22296718

  6. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Donofry, Shannon D; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Rohan, Kelly J; Wildes, Jennifer E; Kamarck, Marissa L

    2014-06-30

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder (BED) in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N=112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms.

  7. Abnormal hypothalamic response to light in Seasonal Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gilles, Vandewalle; Marc, Hébert; Catherine, Beaulieu; Laurence, Richard; Véronique, Daneault; Marie-Lou, Garon; Jean, Leblanc; Didier, Grandjean; Pierre, Maquet; Sophie, Schwartz; Marie, Dumont; Julien, Doyon; Julie, Carrier

    2017-01-01

    Background Vulnerability to the reduction in natural light associated with fall/winter is generally accepted as the main trigger of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), while light therapy is a treatment of choice of the disorder. However, the relationship between exposure to light and mood regulation remains unclear. As compared to green light, blue light was shown to acutely modulate emotion brain processing in healthy individuals. Here, we investigated the impact of light on emotion brain processing in patients with SAD and healthy controls and its relationship with retinal light sensitivity. Methods Fourteen symptomatic untreated patients with SAD (34.5 ± 8.2 y.o.; 9F) and sixteen healthy controls (32.3 ± 7.7 y.o.; 11F) performed an auditory emotional task in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during the fall/winter season, while being exposed to alternating blue and green monochromatic light. Scotopic and photopic retinal light sensitivities were then evaluated using electroretinography. Results Blue light enhanced responses to auditory emotional stimuli in the posterior hypothalamus in patients with SAD, while green light decreased these responses. These effects of blue and green light were not observed in healthy controls despite similar retinal sensitivity in SAD and control subjects. Conclusions; These results point to the posterior hypothalamus as the neurobiological substrate involved in specific aspects of SAD, including a distinctive response to light and altered emotional responses. PMID:21820647

  8. Seasonal affective disorder in college students: prevalence and latitude.

    PubMed

    Low, K G; Feissner, J M

    1998-11-01

    The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory were used to evaluate a convenience sample of college students in northern New England for winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and subsyndromal SAD. Seventy-six students filled out the questionnaire and the inventory in mid-fall, then completed the inventory again in mid-February. The students who had moved from southern latitudes to northern New England were the most likely to experience increased depression in winter. Prevalence rates for SAD and sub-SAD combined (winter 13.2 and 19.7%, respectively) were slightly higher than those reported in previous research. The prevalence of SAD was also higher in female students, which was consistent with findings in previous research.

  9. Update on the biology of seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Chang-Ho; Lam, Raymond W

    2005-08-01

    The etiology and pathophysiology of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) has been linked to the seasons and to light since its first conceptualization. Aspects of SAD that make it particularly amenable to biological investigation include the predictable recurrent episodes, the rapid response to a nonpharmacologic treatment, the specific neurovegetative features, and the availability of rich animal models of seasonality. This paper reviews new findings for the major biological hypotheses for SAD, focusing on circadian rhythms, neurotransmitters, and molecular genetics. Integrative issues and future directions for the study of SAD, including the heuristic value of a dual-vulnerability hypothesis that conceptualizes seasonality as a dimensional construct and the importance of studying endophenotypes, will be discussed.

  10. Seasonal affective disorder, winter type: current insights and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Meesters, Ybe; Gordijn, Marijke CM

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), winter type, is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes most commonly occurring in autumn or winter and remitting in spring/summer. The syndrome has been well-known for more than three decades, with light treatment being the treatment of first choice. In this paper, an overview is presented of the present insights in SAD. Description of the syndrome, etiology, and treatment options are mentioned. Apart from light treatment, medication and psychotherapy are other treatment options. The predictable, repetitive nature of the syndrome makes it possible to discuss preventive treatment options. Furthermore, critical views on the concept of SAD as a distinct diagnosis are discussed. PMID:27942239

  11. Autoimmune disorders affecting both the central and peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kamm, Christoph; Zettl, Uwe K

    2012-01-01

    Various case series of patients with autoimmune demyelinating disease affecting both the central and peripheral nervous system (CNS and PNS), either sequentially or simultaneously, have been reported for decades, but their frequency is considerably lower than that of the "classical" neurological autoimmune diseases affecting only either CNS or PNS, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) or Guillain-Barré-Syndrome (GBS), and attempts to define or even recognize the former as a clinical entity have remained elusive. Frequently, demyelination started with CNS involvement with subsequent PNS pathology, in some cases with a relapsing-remitting course. Three potential mechanisms for the autoimmune etiology of these conditions can be discussed: (I) They could be caused by a common autoimmunological reactivity against myelin antigens or epitopes present in both the central and peripheral nervous system; (II) They could be due to a higher general susceptibility to autoimmune disease, which in some cases may have been caused or exacerbated by immunomodulatory treatment, e.g. b-interferon; (III) Their co-occurrence might be coincidental. Another example of an autoimmune disease variably involving the central or peripheral nervous system or both is the overlapping and continuous clinical spectrum of Fisher syndrome (FS), as a variant of GBS, and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE). Recent data from larger patient cohorts with demonstration of common autoantibodies, antecedent infections, and results of detailed clinical, neuroimaging and neurophysiological investigations suggest that these three conditions are not separate disorders, but rather form a continuous spectrum with variable central and peripheral nervous system involvement. We herein review clinical and paraclinical data and therapeutic options of these disorders and discuss potential underlying common vs. divergent immunopathogenic mechanisms.

  12. Modelling cognitive affective biases in major depressive disorder using rodents

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Claire A; Stuart, Sarah A; Anderson, Michael H; Robinson, Emma S J

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects more than 10% of the population, although our understanding of the underlying aetiology of the disease and how antidepressant drugs act to remediate symptoms is limited. Major obstacles include the lack of availability of good animal models that replicate aspects of the phenotype and tests to assay depression-like behaviour in non-human species. To date, research in rodents has been dominated by two types of assays designed to test for depression-like behaviour: behavioural despair tests, such as the forced swim test, and measures of anhedonia, such as the sucrose preference test. These tests have shown relatively good predictive validity in terms of antidepressant efficacy, but have limited translational validity. Recent developments in clinical research have revealed that cognitive affective biases (CABs) are a key feature of MDD. Through the development of neuropsychological tests to provide objective measures of CAB in humans, we have the opportunity to use ‘reverse translation’ to develop and evaluate whether similar methods are suitable for research into MDD using animals. The first example of this approach was reported in 2004 where rodents in a putative negative affective state were shown to exhibit pessimistic choices in a judgement bias task. Subsequent work in both judgement bias tests and a novel affective bias task suggest that these types of assay may provide translational methods for studying MDD using animals. This review considers recent work in this area and the pharmacological and translational validity of these new animal models of CABs. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24467454

  13. Affective disorders and cognitive failures: a comparison of seasonal and nonseasonal depression.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Brianna; Payne, Tabitha W

    2007-11-01

    Seasonal depression shares certain common symptoms with nonseasonal depression; however, the two disorders have never been examined in a single study, to the authors' knowledge. The goal of this research was to examine the potential similarities in cognitive impairments in seasonal affective disorder and major depressive disorder in college students in the Midwest. Identification of affective disorders was based on participants' self-reported behavior and affect on the Beck Depression Inventory and the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire. A group of 93 participants was assessed for major depressive disorder and seasonal affective disorder in late autumn and completed the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire for reported difficulties in everyday activities that correspond to problems with perception, attention, and memory retrieval. The results indicated that seasonal affective disorder was highly prevalent (28.0%), substantially more so than major depressive disorder (8.6%). Similar to previous research on major depressive disorder, gender differences were also evident among participants with seasonal affective disorder, with more women qualifying than men. Both affective disorders were associated with higher reports of cognitive failures in comparison to participants with no depressive symptoms. These results reveal that individuals with seasonal affective disorder showed cognitive impairments similar to those with nonseasonal depression.

  14. Carers' representations of affective mental disorders in British Chinese communities.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kevin

    2012-11-01

    Infrequent use of and delayed presentation to professional services have increased the burden of mental illness in minority ethnic communities. Within the growing literature on informal carers, the Chinese remain relatively unstudied. This article reports a qualitative study of 14 carers to explore illness representations of affective disorders in British Chinese communities. Firstly, it places the study within a theoretical framework that permits an understanding of mental health and illness in different sociocultural belief systems. Next, it presents carers' narrative accounts in conceptualising mental illness, including its causes, manifestations and impact on patients and carers, and contextualises the findings within the existing literature. Finally, the article examines how the caring role may be constructed from the broader social experience of carers and their relationships within a community structure that values the group over the individual. Coping mechanisms are discussed in the context of the practice of caring as a moral obligation and of policy implications for more culturally appropriate support services for both Chinese carers and mental health patients.

  15. Mechanisms of Divalent Metal Toxicity in Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Archita Venugopal; Chang, JuOae; Kim, Jonghan

    2016-01-01

    Metals are required for proper brain development and play an important role in a number of neurobiological functions. The Divalent Metal Transporter 1 (DMT1) is a major metal transporter involved in the absorption and metabolism of several essential metals like iron and manganese. However, non-essential divalent metals are also transported through this transporter. Therefore, altered expression of DMT1 can modify the absorption of toxic metals and metal-induced toxicity. An accumulating body of evidence has suggested that increased metal stores in the brain are associated with elevated oxidative stress mediated by the ability of metals to catalyze redox reactions, resulting in abnormal neurobehavioral function and the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Metal overload has also been implicated in impaired emotional behavior, although the underlying mechanisms are not well understood with limited information. The current review focuses on psychiatric dysfunction associated with imbalanced metabolism of metals that are transported by DMT1. The investigations with respect to the toxic effects of metal overload on behavior and their underlying mechanisms of toxicity could provide several new therapeutic targets to treat metal-associated affective disorders. PMID:26551072

  16. Clinical Correlates of Suicide in Suicidal Patients with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders and Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hemendra; Chandra, Prabha S.; Reddi, V. Senthil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most common psychiatric illnesses in the background of suicide are schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and affective disorders (AD). While depression and hopelessness are important factors for suicide in psychiatric patients, the role of psychotic symptoms is unclear. We examine the comparative differences in the clinical correlates of suicide in SSD and AD patients with suicidal risk. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty suicidal psychiatric patients (aged between 17–60 years) were evaluated for depression severity, hopelessness, past attempts, and reasons for wanting to commit suicide at the emergency psychiatry centre. Of these 29% had SSD, 65% AD, and 6% other disorders. Results: Lifetime history of suicide attempts and suicide attempts in previous month were higher in SSD patients. Mean Beck Depression scores, Hopelessness, and Suicide Intention scores were significantly lower in patients with SSD as compared to AD (P ≤ 0.05). More than 60% patients with SSD attributed psychotic symptoms as a reason for wanting to commit suicide, while more than 50% patients with AD attributed it to family and personal stressors (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: Factors associated with suicidal ideations were significantly different between SSD and AD patients. Hence, suicide prevention strategies should be based on the specific risk factors for each group, SSD and AD. PMID:28031586

  17. Relationship of Myers Briggs type indicator personality characteristics to suicidality in affective disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Janowsky, David S; Morter, Shirley; Hong, Liyi

    2002-01-01

    The current study characterized the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality profiles of 64 suicidal and 30 non-suicidal psychiatric inpatients with affective disorder diagnoses. The MBTI divides individuals categorically into eight personality preferences (Extroverted and Introverted, Sensing and Intuitive, Thinking and Feeling, and Judging and Perceiving). Compared to the group of non-suicidal affective disorder patients, suicidal affective disorder patients were significantly more Introverted and Perceiving using ANCOVA analyses, and significantly more Introverted alone using Chi Square analyses.

  18. Occurrence of the Cys311 DRD2 variant in a pedigree multiply affected with panic disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, F.; Hoyne, J.; Diaz, P.

    1995-08-14

    Following the detection of the rare DRD2 codon 311 variant (Ser{yields}Cys) in an affected member from a large, multiply affected panic disorder family, we investigated the occurrence of this variant in other family members. The variant occurred in both affected and unaffected individuals. Further screening in panic disorder sib pairs unrelated to this family failed to detect the Cys311 variant. Our data suggests that this variant has no pathogenic role in panic disorder. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Bipolar disorder dynamics: affective instabilities, relaxation oscillations and noise

    PubMed Central

    Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Holmes, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic, recurrent mental illness characterized by extreme episodes of depressed and manic mood, interspersed with less severe but highly variable mood fluctuations. Here, we develop a novel mathematical approach for exploring the dynamics of bipolar disorder. We investigate how the dynamics of subjective experience of mood in bipolar disorder can be understood using a relaxation oscillator (RO) framework and test the model against mood time-series fluctuations from a set of individuals with bipolar disorder. We show that variable mood fluctuations in individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder can be driven by the coupled effects of deterministic dynamics (captured by ROs) and noise. Using a statistical likelihood-based approach, we show that, in general, mood dynamics are described by two independent ROs with differing levels of endogenous variability among individuals. We suggest that this sort of nonlinear approach to bipolar disorder has neurobiological, cognitive and clinical implications for understanding this mental illness through a mechacognitive framework. PMID:26577592

  20. Allostatic load in parents of children with developmental disorders: moderating influence of positive affect.

    PubMed

    Song, Jieun; Mailick, Marsha R; Ryff, Carol D; Coe, Christopher L; Greenberg, Jan S; Hong, Jinkuk

    2014-02-01

    This study examines whether parents of children with developmental disorders are at risk of elevated allostatic load relative to control parents and whether positive affect moderates difference in risk. In all, 38 parents of children with developmental disorders and 38 matched comparison parents were analyzed. Regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between parent status and positive affect: parents of children with developmental disorders had lower allostatic load when they had higher positive affect, whereas no such association was evident for comparison parents. The findings suggest that promoting greater positive affect may lower health risks among parents of children with developmental disorders.

  1. Disorder affects judgements about a neighbourhood: police presence does not

    PubMed Central

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Many police forces operate a policy of high visibility in disordered neighbourhoods with high crime. However, little is known about whether increased police presence influences people’s beliefs about a neighbourhood’s social environment or their fear of crime. Three experimental studies compared people’s perceptions of social capital and fear of crime in disordered and ordered neighbourhoods, either with a police presence or no police presence. In all studies, neighbourhood disorder lowered perceptions of social capital, resulting in a higher fear of crime. Police presence or absence had no significant effect. The pervasive effects of disorder above other environmental cues are discussed. PMID:24688864

  2. Enhanced serotonin transporter function during depression in seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Willeit, Matthäus; Sitte, Harald H; Thierry, Nikolaus; Michalek, Klaus; Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Zill, Peter; Winkler, Dietmar; Brannath, Werner; Fischer, Michael B; Bondy, Brigitta; Kasper, Siegfried; Singer, Ernst A

    2008-06-01

    Decreased synaptic serotonin during depressive episodes is a central element of the monoamine hypothesis of depression. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT, SERT) is a key molecule for the control of synaptic serotonin levels. Here we aimed to detect state-related alterations in the efficiency of 5-HTT-mediated inward and outward transport in platelets of drug-free depressed patients suffering from seasonal affective disorder (SAD). 5-HTT turnover rate, a measure for the number of inward transport events per minute, and tyramine-induced, 5-HTT-mediated outward transport were assessed at baseline, after 4 weeks of bright light therapy, and in summer using a case-control design in a consecutive sample of 73 drug-free depressed patients with SAD and 70 nonseasonal healthy controls. Patients were drug-naive or medication-free for at least 6 months prior to study inclusion, females patients were studied in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. All participants were genotyped for a 5-HTT-promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) to assess the influence of this polymorphism on 5-HTT parameters. Efficiency of 5-HTT-mediated inward (p=0.014) and outward (p=0.003) transport was enhanced in depressed patients. Both measures normalized toward control levels after therapy and in natural summer remission. Changes in outward transport showed a clear correlation with treatment response (rho=0.421, p=0.001). Changes in inward transport were mediated by changes in 5-HTT transport efficiency rather than affinity or density. 5-HTTLPR was not associated with any of the 5-HTT parameters. In sum, we conclude that the 5-HTT is in a hyperfunctional state during depression in SAD and normalizes after light therapy and in natural summer remission.

  3. Impaired Neurocognitive Functions Affect Social Learning Processes in Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Implications for Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Schutter, Dennis J. L. G.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, a conceptualization of oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is presented according to which social learning processes in these disorders are affected by neurocognitive dysfunctions. Neurobiological studies in ODD and CD suggest that the ability to make associations between behaviors and negative and positive…

  4. Examining affect and perfectionism in relation to eating disorder symptoms among women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler B; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-30

    This study examined personality and affective variables in relation to eating disorder symptoms in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=118) with DSM-IV AN completed baseline questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and interviews (Eating Disorder Examination, Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale), followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving multiple daily reports of affective states and eating disorder behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using eating disorder symptoms as dependent variables (i.e., EMA binge eating, EMA self-induced vomiting, eating disorder rituals, eating disorder preoccupations, dietary restraint). Predictor variables were maladaptive perfectionism (baseline), depressive symptoms (baseline), and affect lability (EMA). Results revealed that affect lability was independently associated with binge eating, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with self-induced vomiting. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with eating disorder rituals, whereas both depressive symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism were independently associated with eating disorder preoccupations. Finally, maladaptive perfectionism and affect lability were both independently associated with dietary restraint. This pattern of findings suggests the importance of affective and personality constructs in relation to eating disorder symptoms in AN and may highlight the importance of targeting these variables in the context of treatment.

  5. Fluoxetine response in children with autistic spectrum disorders: correlation with familial major affective disorder and intellectual achievement.

    PubMed

    DeLong, G Robert; Ritch, Chad R; Burch, Sherri

    2002-10-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine children, 2 to 8 years old, with idiopathic autistic spectrum disorder diagnosed by standard instruments (Childhood Austim Ratings Scale and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were treated with fluoxetine (0.15 to 0.5mg/kg) for 5 to 76 months (mean 32 to 36 months), with discontinuation trials. Response criteria are described. Family histories were obtained using the family history method in repeated interviews. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder, and unusual intellectual achievement, pretreatment language, and hyperlexia were used to define a coherent subgroup of autistic spectrum disorder. Statistical analyses were post hoc. Of the children, 22 (17%) had an excellent response, 67 (52%) good, and 40 (31%) fair/poor. Treatment age did not correlate with response. Fluoxetine response correlated robustly with familial major affective disorder and unusual intellectual achievement, and with hyperlexia in the child. Family history of bipolar disorder and of unusual intellectual achievement correlated strongly. Five children developed bipolar disorder during follow-up. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder (especially bipolar), unusual achievement, and hyperlexia in the children appear to define a homogeneous autistic subgroup. Bipolar disorder, unusual intellectual achievement, and autistic spectrum disorders cluster strongly in families and may share genetic determinants.

  6. Childhood traumatization by primary caretaker and affect dysregulation in patients with borderline personality disorder and somatoform disorder.

    PubMed

    van Dijke, Annemiek; Ford, Julian D; van der Hart, Onno; Van Son, Maarten J M; Van der Heijden, Peter G M; Bühring, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Affect regulation is often compromised as a result of early life interpersonal traumatization and disruption in caregiving relationships like in situations where the caretaker is emotionally, sexually or physically abusing the child. Prior studies suggest a clear relationship between early childhood attachment-related psychological trauma and affect dysregulation. We evaluated the relationship of retrospectively recalled childhood traumatization by primary caretaker(s) (TPC) and affect dysregulation in 472 adult psychiatric patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), somatoform disorder (SoD), both BPD and SoD, or disorders other than BPD or SoD, using the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, the self-report version of the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress, the Self-rating Inventory for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SRIP) and the Traumatic Experiences Checklist. Almost two-thirds of participants reported having experienced childhood TPC, ranging from approximately 50% of patients with SoD or other psychiatric disorders to more than 75% of patients with comorbid BPD+SoD. Underregulation of affect was associated with emotional TPC and TPC occurring in developmental epoch 0-6 years. Over-regulation of affect was associated with physical TPC. Childhood trauma by a primary caretaker is prevalent among psychiatric patients, particularly those with BPD, and differentially associated with underand over-regulation of affect depending on the type of traumatic exposure.

  7. Identifying Molecular Regulators of Neuronal Functions Affected in the Movement Disorder Dystonia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0301 TITLE: Identifying Molecular Regulators of Neuronal Functions Affected in the Movement Disorder...Affected in the Movement Disorder Dystonia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0301 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The movement disorder dystonia is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions in the limbs, hands, feet or neck. The aim

  8. Affective comorbidity in panic disorder: is there a bipolar connection?

    PubMed

    Savino, M; Perugi, G; Simonini, E; Soriani, A; Cassano, G B; Akiskal, H S

    1993-07-01

    Although theoretical explanations for comorbidity in panic disorder (PD) abound in the literature, the complex clinical challenges of these patients have been neglected, especially where panic, obsessive-compulsive and 'soft' bipolar (e.g., hypomanic, cyclothymic and hyperthymic) conditions might co-exist. The aim of the present study has been to systematically explore the spectrum of intra-episodic and longitudinal comorbidity of 140 DSM-III-R PD patients--67.1% of whom concomitantly met the criteria for Agoraphobia--and who were consecutively admitted to the ambulatory service of the Psychiatric Clinic of the University of Pisa over a 2-year period. Comorbidity with strictly defined anxiety disorders--i.e., not explained as mere symptomatic extensions of PD--was relatively uncommon, and included Simple Phobia (10.7%), Social Phobia (6.4%), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (3.6%), and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (4.2%). Comorbidity with Major Depression--strictly limited to the melancholic subtype--occurred in 22.9%. Comorbidity with Bipolar Disorders included 2.1% with mania, 5% with hypomania, as well as 6.4% with cyclothymia, for a total of 13.5%; an additional 34.3% of PD patients met the criteria for hyperthymic temperament. We submit that such comorbid patterns are at the root of unwieldy clinical constructs like 'atypical depression' and 'borderline personality'. The relationship of panic disorder to other anxious-phobic and depressive states has been known for some time. Our data extend this relationship to soft bipolar disorders. Studies from other centers are needed to verify that the proposed new link is not merely due to referral bias to a tertiary university setting.

  9. Neuronal migration and its disorders affecting the CA3 region

    PubMed Central

    Belvindrah, Richard; Nosten-Bertrand, Marika; Francis, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we focus on CA3 neuronal migration disorders in the rodent. We begin by introducing the main steps of hippocampal development, and we summarize characteristic hippocampal malformations in human. We then describe various mouse mutants showing structural hippocampal defects. Notably, genes identified in human cortical neuronal migration disorders consistently give rise to a CA3 phenotype when mutated in the mouse. We successively describe their molecular, physiological and behavioral phenotypes that together contribute to a better understanding of CA3-dependent functions. We finally discuss potential factors underlying the CA3 vulnerability revealed by these mouse mutants and that may also contribute to other human neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:24624057

  10. Diabulimia: how eating disorders can affect adolescents with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Jennifer

    2014-09-16

    Adherence to self-management and medication regimens is required to achieve optimal blood glucose control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Non-adherence places adolescents at serious risk of short and long-term health complications. Adherence difficulties may be exacerbated by concurrent eating disorders. Diabulimia is a term used to describe the deliberate administration of insufficient insulin to maintain glycaemic control for the purpose of causing weight loss. This article explores the concept of diabulimia and the compounding complications of an eating disorder on maintaining self-management regimens in adolescents with diabetes.

  11. What Causes Bad Breath?

    MedlinePlus

    ... smell. Certain foods, especially ones like garlic and onions that contain pungent oils, can contribute to bad ... to a Friend Permissions Guidelines Note: Clicking these links will take you to a site outside of ...

  12. Hearing bad news.

    PubMed

    Morse, Janice

    2011-09-01

    Personal reports of receiving bad news provide data that describes patients' comprehension, reflections, experienced emotions, and an interpretative commentary with the wisdom of hindsight. Analysis of autobiographical accounts of "hearing bad news" enables the identification of patterns of how patients found out diagnoses, buffering techniques used, and styles of receiving the news. I describe how patients grapple with the news, their somatic responses to hearing, and how they struggle and strive to accept what they are hearing. I discuss metaphors used within the languages of hearing bad news. Finally, I discuss implications for a change of focus in the breaking bad news research agenda, that is, from the physician's "performance" to a patient-focused agenda.

  13. [Interpersonal violence in the context of affective and psychotic disorders].

    PubMed

    Maier, W; Hauth, I; Berger, M; Saß, H

    2016-01-01

    Some mental and neurobiological disorders are associated with an increased risk for violence against others. The stigmatization of people with mental illnesses essentially emerges from a distorted perception of this condition. This review article summarizes the available literature on the determinants, prevention, therapy and tools for prediction of serious interpersonal aggression in the context of people with mental disorders. The risks for violence against other people show substantial variation between the various diagnoses. Schizophrenia and mania carry a clearly increased risk particularly at the onset of the disorder but disease-specific pharmacological therapy can reduce these risks. The highest risk factors are in particular previous violence, misuse of alcohol and drugs, male gender and young age. Probabilistic predictions of subsequent aggression against others on an individual-specific basis are only feasible in enriched populations (especially persons with mental illnesses and a previous history of assaults). Valid individual-specific predictions of future violence in the general population or on the basis of diagnoses of mental illness are, however, currently not feasible with sufficient accuracy.

  14. Winter is coming: nightmares and sleep problems during seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Sandman, Nils; Merikanto, Ilona; Määttänen, Hanna; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Partonen, Timo; Paunio, Tiina

    2016-10-01

    Sleep problems, especially nightmares and insomnia, often accompany depression. This study investigated how nightmares, symptoms of insomnia, chronotype and sleep duration associate with seasonal affective disorder, a special form of depression. Additionally, it was noted how latitude, a proxy for photoperiod, and characteristics of the place of residence affect the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder and sleep problems. To study these questions, data from FINRISK 2012 study were used. FINRISK 2012 consists of a random population sample of Finnish adults aged 25-74 years (n = 4905) collected during winter from Finnish urban and rural areas spanning the latitudes of 60°N to 66°N. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire was used to assess symptoms of seasonal affective disorder. Participants with symptoms of seasonal affective disorder had significantly increased odds of experiencing frequent nightmares and symptoms of insomnia, and they were more often evening chronotypes. Associations between latitude, population size and urbanicity with seasonal affective disorder symptoms and sleep disturbances were generally not significant, although participants living in areas bordering urban centres had less sleep problems than participants from other regions. These data show that the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder was not affected by latitude.

  15. Narcissistic disorder and the failure of symbolisation: a Relational Affective Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Mizen, C S

    2014-09-01

    The psychoanalytic concept of narcissistic disorder is broader than that of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (DSM-5 [1]), underlying a range of Personality Disorders (PD) and their co-morbidities. Existing Mentalisation, Psychoanalytic and Cognitive models, fail to account fully for the emerging evidence of biological, developmental, relational and defensive contributions to narcissistic disorder, nor do they account for the common and variant features of co-morbidities namely Anorexia Nervosa, Somatisation, Substance Misuse and Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Alexithymia and concrete modes of relating are common findings in narcissistic disorder and these co-morbid conditions. Current models do not provide a comprehensive account, on the basis of neuro-scientific and developmental evidence, of how affective feelings come to be represented in words and the association between narcissistic disorders and failures of symbolisation. In this paper I propose an empirically based Relational Affective Hypothesis that narcissistic disorder and its comorbidities represent failures at specific points on a representational function pathway through which subcortical affect and visceral feeling in a relational context become the basis for abstraction and language. The elucidation of this pathway allows investigation of the contribution of biological, social and psychogenic factors in narcissistic disorders. It also brings a new understanding of the neurological underpinning of psychodynamic defences in narcissistic disorders. Research and novel treatment implications are briefly considered.

  16. Cushing's syndrome presenting as treatment-resistant bipolar affective disorder: A step in understanding endocrine etiology of mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ummar, I. Syed; Rajaraman, Venkateswaran; Loganathan, N.

    2015-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is the multisystem disorder which is due to cortisol excess. It is very difficult to diagnose in early stages, especially when psychiatric manifestations are the predominant complaints. It could result in significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case of resistant bipolar affective disorder secondary to CS. Early diagnosis and treatment will lead to better functional outcome and prevention of neurocognitive side-effects of excessive cortisol. PMID:26124528

  17. Giving Bad News: A Qualitative Research Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Aein, Fereshteh; Delaram, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The manner in which healthcare professionals deliver bad news affects the way it is received, interpreted, understood, and dealt with. Despite the fact that clinicians are responsible for breaking bad news, it has been shown that they lack skills necessary to perform this task. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian mothers’ experiences to receive bad news about their children cancer and to summarize suggestions for improving delivering bad news by healthcare providers. Materials and Methods: A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 mothers from two pediatric hospitals in Iran. Results: Five major categories emerged from the data analysis, including dumping information, shock and upset, emotional work, burden of delivering bad news to the family members, and a room for multidisciplinary approach. Conclusions: Effective communication of healthcare team with mothers is required during breaking bad news. Using multidisciplinary approaches to prevent harmful reactions and providing appropriate support are recommended. PMID:25068066

  18. Negative Affect Shares Genetic and Environmental Influences with Symptoms of Childhood Internalizing and Externalizing Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Hart, Sara A.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Taylor, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing disorders suggests that they may have common underlying vulnerability factors. Research has shown that negative affect is moderately positively correlated with both internalizing and externalizing disorders in children. The present study is the first to provide an examination of negative affect…

  19. Can Psychological, Social and Demographical Factors Predict Clinical Characteristics Symptomatology of Bipolar Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Pawlak, Joanna; Kapelski, Pawel; Łabędzka, Magdalena; Skibinska, Maria; Zaremba, Dorota; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Hauser, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia (SCH) is a complex, psychiatric disorder affecting 1 % of population. Its clinical phenotype is heterogeneous with delusions, hallucinations, depression, disorganized behaviour and negative symptoms. Bipolar affective disorder (BD) refers to periodic changes in mood and activity from depression to mania. It affects 0.5-1.5 % of population. Two types of disorder (type I and type II) are distinguished by severity of mania episodes. In our analysis, we aimed to check if clinical and demographical characteristics of the sample are predictors of symptom dimensions occurrence in BD and SCH cases. We included total sample of 443 bipolar and 439 schizophrenia patients. Diagnosis was based on DSM-IV criteria using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. We applied regression models to analyse associations between clinical and demographical traits from OPCRIT and symptom dimensions. We used previously computed dimensions of schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder as quantitative traits for regression models. Male gender seemed protective factor for depression dimension in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder sample. Presence of definite psychosocial stressor prior disease seemed risk factor for depressive and suicidal domain in BD and SCH. OPCRIT items describing premorbid functioning seemed related with depression, positive and disorganised dimensions in schizophrenia and psychotic in BD. We proved clinical and demographical characteristics of the sample are predictors of symptom dimensions of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We also saw relation between clinical dimensions and course of disorder and impairment during disorder.

  20. Comparing a Cognitive Model and Phototherapy in the Treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Sandra

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by recurrent major depression or bipolar disorder that occurs annually, usually later in fall as the daylight hours decrease, and that alternates with euthymic or hypomanic moods in the spring and summer. Pioneering research by Dr. Norman Rosenthal and associates has found phototherapy to be…

  1. Was the "nervous illness" of Schreber a case of affective disorder?

    PubMed

    Lipton, A A

    1984-10-01

    The available historical information concerning Freud's subject Daniel Paul Schreber's life, family, and the phenomenology of his illness is reviewed. The author challenges the traditional diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia in favor of a diagnosis of affective disorder.

  2. Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…

  3. Bad pixel mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Roger M.; Hale, David; Wizinowich, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Bad pixels are generally treated as a loss of useable area and then excluded from averaged performance metrics. The definition and detection of "bad pixels" or "cosmetic defects" are seldom discussed, perhaps because they are considered self-evident or of minor consequence for any scientific grade detector, however the ramifications can be more serious than generally appreciated. While the definition of pixel performance is generally understood, the classification of pixels as useable is highly application-specific, as are the consequences of ignoring or interpolating over such pixels. CMOS sensors (including NIR detectors) exhibit less compact distributions of pixel properties than CCDs. The extended tails in these distributions result in a steeper increase in bad pixel counts as performance thresholds are tightened which comes as a surprise to many users. To illustrate how some applications are much more sensitive to bad pixels than others, we present a bad pixel mapping exercise for the Teledyne H2RG used as the NIR tip-tilt sensor in the Keck-1 Adaptive Optics system. We use this example to illustrate the wide range of metrics by which a pixel might be judged inadequate. These include pixel bump bond connectivity, vignetting, addressing faults in the mux, severe sensitivity deficiency of some pixels, non linearity, poor signal linearity, low full well, poor mean-variance linearity, excessive noise and high dark current. Some pixels appear bad by multiple metrics. We also discuss the importance of distinguishing true performance outliers from measurement errors. We note how the complexity of these issues has ramifications for sensor procurement and acceptance testing strategies.

  4. Cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics of mothers with anxiety disorders in the context of child anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Cathy; Apetroaia, Adela; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Parental emotional distress, particularly high maternal anxiety, is one of the most consistent predictors of child anxiety treatment outcome. In order to identify the cognitive, affective, and behavioral parenting characteristics of mothers of children with anxiety disorders who themselves have an anxiety disorder, we assessed the expectations, appraisals, and behaviors of 88 mothers of anxious children (44 mothers who were not anxious [NONANX] and 44 mothers with a current anxiety disorder [ANX]) when interacting with their 7-12-year-old children. There were no observed differences in anxiety and avoidance among children of ANX and NONANX mothers, but, compared with NONANX mothers, ANX mothers held more negative expectations, and they differed on observations of intrusiveness, expressed anxiety, warmth, and the quality of the relationship. Associations were moderated by the degree to which children expressed anxiety during the tasks. Maternal-reported negative emotions during the task significantly mediated the association between maternal anxiety status and the observed quality of the relationship. These findings suggest that maternal anxiety disorder is associated with reduced tolerance of children's negative emotions. This may interfere with the maintenance of a positive, supportive mother-child interaction under conditions of stress and, as such, this may impede optimum treatment outcomes. The findings identify potential cognitive, affective, and behavioral targets to improve treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders in the context of a current maternal anxiety disorder.

  5. Smoking-induced affect modulation in nonwithdrawn smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and in those with no psychiatric disorder.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jessica W; Baker, Timothy B; Beckham, Jean C; McFall, Miles

    2017-02-01

    This research sought to determine whether smoking influences affect by means other than withdrawal reduction. Little previous evidence suggests such an effect. We surmised that such an effect would be especially apparent in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), 2 disorders that are frequently comorbid with smoking and that involve dysregulated affect. Participants were U.S. veterans who were regular smokers (N = 159): 52 with PTSD (58% with comorbid MDD), 51 with MDD, and 56 controls with no psychiatric disorder. During 3 positive and 3 negative mood induction trials (scheduled over 2 sessions), nonwithdrawn participants smoked either a nicotine-containing cigarette (NIC+), a nicotine-free cigarette (NIC-), or held a pen. Positive and negative affect were each measured before and after mood induction. Results showed a significant 2-way interaction of Smoking Condition × Time on negative affect during the negative mood induction (F(6, 576) = 2.41, p = .03) in those with PTSD and controls. In these groups, both NIC+ and NIC-, relative to pen, produced lower negative affect ratings after the negative mood induction. There was also a 2-way interaction of Smoking Condition × Time on positive affect response to the positive mood induction among those with PTSD and controls (F(6, 564) = 3.17, p = .005) and among MDD and controls (F(6, 564) = 2.27, p = .036). Among all smokers, NIC+ enhanced the magnitude and duration of positive affect more than did NIC-. Results revealed affect modulation outside the context of withdrawal relief; such effects may motivate smoking among those with psychiatric diagnoses, and among smokers in general. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. The relationship between activating affects, inhibitory affects, and self-compassion in patients with Cluster C personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Schanche, Elisabeth; Stiles, Tore C; McCullough, Leigh; Svartberg, Martin; Nielsen, Geir Høstmark

    2011-09-01

    In the short-term dynamic psychotherapy model termed "Affect Phobia Treatment," it is assumed that increase in patients' defense recognition, decrease in inhibitory affects (e.g., anxiety, shame, guilt), and increase in the experience of activating affects (e.g., sadness, anger, closeness) are related to enhanced self-compassion across therapeutic approaches. The present study aimed to test this assumption on the basis of data from a randomized controlled trial, which compared a 40-session short-term dynamic psychotherapy (N = 25) with 40-session cognitive treatment (N = 25) for outpatients with Cluster C personality disorders. Patients' defense recognition, inhibitory affects, activating affects, and self-compassion were rated with the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (McCullough et al., 2003b) in Sessions 6 and 36. Results showed that increase in self-compassion from early to late in therapy significantly predicted pre- to post-decrease in psychiatric symptoms, interpersonal problems, and personality pathology. Decrease in levels of inhibitory affects and increase in levels of activating affects during therapy were significantly associated with higher self-compassion toward the end of treatment. Increased levels of defense recognition did not predict higher self-compassion when changes in inhibitory and activating affects were statistically controlled for. There were no significant interaction effects with type of treatment. These findings support self-compassion as an important goal of psychotherapy and indicate that increase in the experience of activating affects and decrease in inhibitory affects seem to be worthwhile therapeutic targets when working to enhance self-compassion in patients with Cluster C personality disorders.

  7. Antisocial features and "faking bad": A critical note.

    PubMed

    Niesten, Isabella J M; Nentjes, Lieke; Merckelbach, Harald; Bernstein, David P

    2015-01-01

    We critically review the literature on antisocial personality features and symptom fabrication (i.e., faking bad; e.g., malingering). A widespread assumption is that these constructs are intimately related. Some studies have, indeed, found that antisocial individuals score higher on instruments detecting faking bad, but others have been unable to replicate this pattern. In addition, studies exploring whether antisocial individuals are especially talented in faking bad have generally come up with null results. The notion of an intrinsic link between antisocial features and faking bad is difficult to test and research in this domain is sensitive to selection bias. We argue that research on faking bad would profit from further theoretical articulation. One topic that deserves scrutiny is how antisocial features affect the cognitive dissonance typically induced by faking bad. We illustrate our points with preliminary data and discuss their implications.

  8. Body dysmorphic disorder: A complex and polymorphic affection

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Patrizia; Giannetti, Luigi Maria

    2009-01-01

    Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is defined as a syndrome characterized by an excessive preoccupation because of a presumed or minimal physical flaw in appearance that polarizes the energies of the subject. So far, its specular aspect, represented by the presence of an evident physical defect that is not recognized or is even denied and neglected, has been disregarded. The aim of our study was to examine the individual and relational meaning of BDD and to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral and medical–aesthetical treatments. Methods and results We describe two subjects with BDD, diagnosed by clinical interviews and test. Both patients were compliant to cognitive-behavioral approach. One out of two subjects underwent aesthetical treatments. Conclusions Cognitive-behavioral therapy stimulates self-consciousness, rebuilds the body image, promotes health care, and improves relational capacity. Moreover, it ensures the success of any medical and/or surgical procedures by preventing unrealistic expectations. Lastly, it contributes to the definition of worldwide shared behavioral models. PMID:19777069

  9. Stereotyped distribution of proliferating keratinocytes in disorders affecting the epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Pierard-Franchimont, C.; Pierard, G.E.

    1989-06-01

    We used the technique of autoradiography after incorporation of tritiated thymidine (/sup 3/H-TdR) to evaluate keratinocyte proliferation in basal, epibasal, and other epidermal layers in 30 diseases affecting the epidermis. The number and proportion of /sup 3/H-TdR-labeled keratinocytes were counted in the different layers of the epidermis. Significant correlations were found between the proliferative indices of the different epidermal layers. Such links indicate that the epidermis responds in a rather stereotyped way to various pathological conditions. There exists some regulation in the distribution, number, and proportion of /sup 3/H-TdR-labeled keratinocytes in the various layers of the epidermis.

  10. Recruiting for research studies using online public advertisements: examples from research in affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Wise, Toby; Arnone, Danilo; Marwood, Lindsey; Zahn, Roland; Lythe, Karen E; Young, Allan H

    2016-01-01

    Successful recruitment is vital for any research study. Difficulties in recruitment are not uncommon and can have important implications. This is particularly relevant to research conducted in affective disorders due to the nature of the conditions and the clinical services that serve these patients. Recently, online public advertisements have become more generally accessible and may provide an effective way to recruit patient populations. However, there is paucity of evidence on their viability as a method of recruiting patients into studies of disease mechanisms in these disorders. Public advertisement methods can be useful when researchers require specific populations, such as those not receiving pharmacological treatment. This work describes our experience in successfully recruiting participants into neuroimaging research studies in affective disorders using online public advertisements. Results suggest that these online public advertisements are an effective method for successfully recruiting participants with affective disorders into research studies, particularly for research focusing on disease mechanisms in specific populations.

  11. Suicide attempts and psychological risk factors in patients with bipolar and unipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Joanna; Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Monika; Skibińska, Maria; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Leszczyńska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Rajewska-Rager, Aleksandra; Maciukiewicz, Małgorzata; Czerski, Piotr; Hauser, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is an important clinical problem in psychiatric patients. The highest risk of suicide attempts is noted in affective disorders. The aim of the study was looking for suicide risk factors among personality dimensions and value system in patients with diagnosis of unipolar and bipolar affective disorder (n=189 patients, n=101 controls). To establish the diagnosis, we used SCID (Structured clinical interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition) questionnaire, TCI (Temperament and Character Inventory) questionnaire and Value Survey--to assess the personality. The main limitations of the study are number of participants, lack of data about stressful life events and treatment with lithium. Novelty seeking and harm avoidance dimensions constituted suicide attempt risk factors in the group of patients with affective disorders. Protective role of cooperativeness was discovered. Patients with and without suicide attempt in lifetime history varied in self-esteem position in Value Survey.

  12. Development and initial evaluation of Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) for veterans with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Gros, Daniel F

    2014-12-15

    Considerable attention has focused on the growing need for evidence-based psychotherapy for veterans with affective disorders within the Department of Veteran Affairs. Despite, and possibly due to, the large number of evidence-based protocols available, several obstacles remain in their widespread delivery within Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. In part as an effort to address these concerns, newer transdiagnostic approaches to psychotherapy have been developed to provide a single treatment that is capable of addressing several, related disorders. The goal of the present investigation was to develop and evaluate a transdiagnostic psychotherapy, Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT), in veterans with affective disorders. Study 1 provided initial support for transdiagnostic presentation of evidence-based psychotherapy components in veterans with principal diagnoses of affective disorders (n=15). These findings were used to inform the development of the TBT protocol. In Study 2, an initial evaluation of TBT was completed in a second sample of veterans with principal diagnoses of affective disorders (n=29). The findings of Study 2 demonstrated significant improvements in symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, posttraumatic stress, and related impairment across participants with various principal diagnoses. Together, the investigation provided preliminary support for effectiveness of TBT in veterans with affective disorders.

  13. Bipolar Disorder Affects Behavior and Social Skills on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Thaís; Czepielewski, Letícia Sanguinetti; Fijtman, Adam; Sodré, Leonardo; Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca; Pereira, Caroline Silveira; Vianna-Sulzbach, Mireia; Goi, Pedro D.; Rosa, Adriane Ribeiro; Kapczinski, Flavio; Kunz, Maurício; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a significant cause of functional, cognitive, and social impairment. However, classic studies of functioning and social skills have not investigated how BD may impact behavior on the Internet. Given that the digital age has been changing the way people communicate, this study aims to investigate the pattern of Internet use in patients with BD. Methods This cross-sectional study assessed 30 patients with BD I or II and 30 matched controls. Patients were not in an acute mood episode, according to DSM-IV. A standard protocol examined sociodemographic variables and social behavior on the Internet, assessed by Facebook number of friends (FBN) and lifetime estimated number of offline contacts (social network number, SNN). Results SNN (p<0.001) and FBN (p = 0.036) of patients with BD were significantly lower than those of controls. Also, variables related with Internet use were significantly lower in patients, e.g., close contacts on Facebook (p = 0.021), Internet experience (p = 0.020), and knowledge of terms associated with social networking sites (p = 0.042). Also, patients showed lower rates of the expected pattern of Internet use (based on their age generation), including a poorer knowledge of SNS (p = 0.018) and a lower frequency of Internet use (p = 0.010). Discussion This study suggests that patients with BD show smaller social networks both in real-world settings and on the Internet. Also, patients tend to use the Internet and social networking sites less frequently and show a poorer knowledge of Internet and social media than healthy controls, below the expected for their generation. These significant differences between patients and controls suggest that the effects of BD on social relationships and functioning extend to electronic media. PMID:24244541

  14. Affective Modulation of the Startle Eyeblink and Postauricular Reflexes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dichter, Gabriel S.; Benning, Stephen D.; Holtzclaw, Tia N.; Bodfish, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Eyeblink and postauricular reflexes to standardized affective images were examined in individuals without (n = 37) and with (n = 20) autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Affective reflex modulation in control participants replicated previous findings. The ASD group, however, showed anomalous reflex modulation patterns, despite similar self-report…

  15. Seasonal difference in brain serotonin transporter binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K; Hjordt, Liv V; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Svarer, Claus; da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Baaré, William; Madsen, Jacob; Hasholt, Lis; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies in non-depressed individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between daylight minutes and cerebral serotonin transporter; this relationship is modified by serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region short allele carrier status. We here present data from the first longitudinal investigation of seasonal serotonin transporter fluctuations in both patients with seasonal affective disorder and in healthy individuals. Eighty (11)C-DASB positron emission tomography scans were conducted to quantify cerebral serotonin transporter binding; 23 healthy controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin transporter binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin transporter binding in the summer but in their symptomatic phase during winter, patients with seasonal affective disorder had higher serotonin transporter than the healthy control subjects (P = 0.01). Compared to the healthy controls, patients with seasonal affective disorder changed their serotonin transporter significantly less between summer and winter (P < 0.001). Further, the change in serotonin transporter was sex- (P = 0.02) and genotype- (P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal affective disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin transporter binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom severity, as indexed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - Seasonal Affective Disorder version scores (P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the development of depressive symptoms in winter is associated with a failure to downregulate serotonin transporter levels appropriately during exposure to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to affective disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video_abstract.

  16. Variability in affective activation predicts non-suicidal self-injury in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Vansteelandt, Kristof; Claes, Laurence; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer; De Cuyper, Kathleen; Lemmens, Jos; Probst, Michel; Vanderlinden, Johan; Pieters, Guido

    2013-03-01

    We examined whether affective variability can predict non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in eating disorders. Affect was represented by valence (positive versus negative) and activation (high versus low). Twenty-one patients with anorexia nervosa-restricting type, 18 patients with anorexia nervosa-binge-purging type and 20 patients with bulimia nervosa reported their momentary affect at nine random times a day during a one week period using a hand-held computer. Affective variability was calculated as the within-person standard deviation of valence and activation over time. Results indicate that patients displaying greater variability in activation and using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have a higher probability to engage in lifetime NSSI after adjustment for depression and borderline personality disorder. Neither variability of valence nor mean level of valence and activation had any predictive association with engaging in NSSI. It is suggested that the treatment of NSSI should focus on affect stabilization rather than reducing negative affect.

  17. The role of affective instability and UPPS impulsivity in borderline personality disorder features.

    PubMed

    Tragesser, Sarah L; Robinson, R Joe

    2009-08-01

    Current theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) suggest that extreme levels of affective instability/emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, or a combination of these traits account for the symptoms of BPD. The present study tested the extent to which personality measures of affective instability and impulsivity could account for BPD features in a nonclinical sample. One hundred forty-one undergraduates completed the Affective Lability Scale, the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, and the Personality Assessment Inventory for Borderlines. Both affective instability and impulsivity were uniquely associated with BPD features. Shifts between euthymia and anger, and between anxiety and depression, were associated with BPD features, as were the urgency and (lack of) premeditation scales. Results indicated that specific BPD features may be differentially accounted for by affective instability vs. impulsivity, consistent with perspectives on BPD emphasizing combinations of affective instability and impulsivity as underlying dimensions of the disorder.

  18. Rainmakers: why bad weather means good productivity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Gino, Francesca; Staats, Bradley R

    2014-05-01

    People believe that weather conditions influence their everyday work life, but to date, little is known about how weather affects individual productivity. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we predict and find that bad weather increases individual productivity and that it does so by eliminating potential cognitive distractions resulting from good weather. When the weather is bad, individuals appear to focus more on their work than on alternate outdoor activities. We investigate the proposed relationship between worse weather and higher productivity through 4 studies: (a) field data on employees' productivity from a bank in Japan, (b) 2 studies from an online labor market in the United States, and (c) a laboratory experiment. Our findings suggest that worker productivity is higher on bad-, rather than good-, weather days and that cognitive distractions associated with good weather may explain the relationship. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our research.

  19. Recommendations for the Use of ICT in Elderly Populations with Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gros, Auriane; Bensamoun, David; Manera, Valeria; Fabre, Roxane; Zacconi-Cauvin, Anne-Marie; Thummler, Susanne; Benoit, Michel; Robert, Philippe; David, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Affective disorders are frequently encountered among elderly populations, and the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) could provide an added value for their recognition and assessment in addition to current clinical methods. The diversity and lack of consensus in the emerging field of ICTs is however a strong limitation for their global use in daily practice. The aim of the present article is to provide recommendations for the use of ICTs for the assessment and management of affective disorders among elderly populations with or without dementia. Methods: A Delphi panel was organized to gather recommendations from experts in the domain. A set of initial general questions for the use of ICT in affective disorders was used to guide the discussion of the expert panel and to analyze the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) of employing ICT in elderly populations with affective disorders. Based on the results collected from this first round, a web survey was sent to local general practitioners (GPs) and to all interns in psychiatry in France. Results: The results of the first round revealed that ICT may offer very useful tools for practitioners involved in the diagnosis and management of affective disorders. However, the results of the web survey showed the interest to explain better to current and upcoming practitioners the utility of ICT especially for people living with dementia. PMID:27877126

  20. Recommendations for the Use of ICT in Elderly Populations with Affective Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gros, Auriane; Bensamoun, David; Manera, Valeria; Fabre, Roxane; Zacconi-Cauvin, Anne-Marie; Thummler, Susanne; Benoit, Michel; Robert, Philippe; David, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Affective disorders are frequently encountered among elderly populations, and the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) could provide an added value for their recognition and assessment in addition to current clinical methods. The diversity and lack of consensus in the emerging field of ICTs is however a strong limitation for their global use in daily practice. The aim of the present article is to provide recommendations for the use of ICTs for the assessment and management of affective disorders among elderly populations with or without dementia. Methods: A Delphi panel was organized to gather recommendations from experts in the domain. A set of initial general questions for the use of ICT in affective disorders was used to guide the discussion of the expert panel and to analyze the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) of employing ICT in elderly populations with affective disorders. Based on the results collected from this first round, a web survey was sent to local general practitioners (GPs) and to all interns in psychiatry in France. Results: The results of the first round revealed that ICT may offer very useful tools for practitioners involved in the diagnosis and management of affective disorders. However, the results of the web survey showed the interest to explain better to current and upcoming practitioners the utility of ICT especially for people living with dementia.

  1. [Mental health in older adults: major neurocognitive, affective, and sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Tello-Rodríguez, Tania; Alarcón, Renato D; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin

    2016-06-01

    Numerous biological, psychological, and social factors influence the mental health of elderly individuals to varying degrees. Apart from components related to the normal aging process and the co-occurrence of various medical conditions, events such as the death of a loved one, retirement, or disability significantly contribute to a variety of mental and emotional problems in this stage of the life cycle. The most frequent problems affect the neurocognitive, emotional, and oneiric spheres. Major neurocognitive disorders reduce one's overall performance and, thus, increase their need for close care. Affective disorders may be exacerbated by the lack of family support and decreased social interactions, which may lead to significant isolation result in suicidal behavior. The increased frequency of sleep disorders such as insomnia and daytime sleepiness and specific disorders such as obstructive apnea significantly alter the quality of life of this population.

  2. An attachment insecurity model of negative affect among women seeking treatment for an eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Kowal, John; Balfour, Louise; Ritchie, Kerri; Virley, Barbara; Bissada, Hany

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of attachment insecurity in a clinical sample of 268 eating disordered women. Structural relationships among attachment insecurity, BMI, perceived pressure to diet, body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, and negative affect were assessed. A heterogeneous sample of treatment seeking women with a diagnosed eating disorder completed psychometric tests prior to receiving treatment. The data were analysed using structural equation modeling. Fit indices indicated that the hypothesized model fit adequately to the data. Although cross-sectional in nature, the data suggested that attachment insecurity may lead to negative affect. As well, attachment insecurity may lead to body dissatisfaction, which in turn may lead to restrained eating among women with eating disorders. Attachment insecurity could be a possible vulnerability factor for the development of eating disorder symptoms among women.

  3. Factors Affecting Minor Psychiatric Disorder in Southern Iranian Nurses: A Latent Class Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Jamshid; Roustaei, Narges; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Sadeghi, Erfan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health is one of the most important dimensions of life and its quality. Minor Psychiatric Disorder as a type of mental health problem is prevalent among health workers. Nursing is considered to be one of the most stressful occupations. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of minor psychiatric disorder and its associated factors among nurses in southern Iran. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 771 nurses working in 20 cities of Bushehr and Fars provinces in southern Iran. Participants were recruited through multi-stage sampling during 2014. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used for screening of minor psychiatric disorder in nurses. Latent Class Regression was used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of minor psychiatric disorder among nurses was estimated to be 27.5%. Gender and sleep disorders were significant factors in determining the level of minor psychiatric disorder (P Values of 0.04 and < 0.001, respectively). Female nurses were 20% more likely than males to be classified into the minor psychiatric disorder group. Conclusions: The results of this study provide information about the prevalence of minor psychiatric disorder among nurses, and factors, which affect the prevalence of such disorders. These findings can be used in strategic planning processes to improve nurses’ mental health. PMID:26339670

  4. Affect and alcohol use: an ecological momentary assessment study of outpatients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Jahng, Seungmin; Solhan, Marika B; Tomko, Rachel L; Wood, Phillip K; Piasecki, Thomas M; Trull, Timothy J

    2011-08-01

    Alcohol use may be viewed as an attempt (albeit maladaptive) to regulate negative emotional states. We examined associations between both negative and positive affects and alcohol use in outpatient women diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n=74), a prototype of emotional dysregulation, as well as a psychiatric control group of women with current depressive disorder (major depressive disorder/dysthymic disorder [MDD\\DYS]; n=50). Participants completed randomly prompted reports of mood and alcohol use up to six times a day over a 28-day period using electronic diaries. Mean levels of either positive or negative affects did not distinguish between drinkers and nondrinkers in either diagnostic group. However, levels of both negative and positive affects were positively associated with alcohol use at the momentary level in BPD drinkers. More robust findings were obtained with respect to within-person affective variability, which was related to alcohol use in multiple ways. BPD drinkers showed higher within-person variability for most negative affects than BPD nondrinkers; MDD\\DYS drinkers in general showed less within-person variability than MDD\\DYS nondrinkers for negative affects. Multilevel lagged analyses for BPD drinkers indicated that alcohol use was positively related to variability in all affects, concurrently, but fewer significant effects of affect variability on the next day's drinking or significant effects of alcohol use on the next day's affect variability were observed. Among MDD\\DYS drinkers, we observed more significant associations between affect variability on next day's alcohol use and of alcohol use on next day's affect variability. We discuss theoretical and methodological issues relevant to these findings as well as implications for future research.

  5. Considerations on assisted resilience and individualized therapy in bipolar affective disorder, with a clinical case exemplification

    PubMed Central

    BOLOS, ALEXANDRA

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity, mortality and economic consequences of bipolar affective disorder are very important to be evaluated because many of the costs entailed by this psychiatric disorder come from indirect costs due to inadequate diagnosis and treatment and from the characteristics of the affective symptoms itself. Psychotherapy focuses on diagnosis and the newest pharmacotherapy determines a decreasing of the morbidity of the disorder and also of its social and economic burden. However, more studies are necessary, with more heterogeneous patients, to find more predictors regarding the psychosocial consequences and to find more information about the prognosis of the bipolar disorder. In this context, in this paper we discuss the role of assisted resilience and the individualization of the therapy of bipolar affective disorder, especially that the resilience must be seen as a continuum and can be used anytime and in any situation, according to the theory of Geanellos. This idea is reflected in a case presentation of a patient with the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. PMID:26733744

  6. Sensory Hypersensitivity Predicts Reduced Sleeping Quality in Patients With Major Affective Disorders.

    PubMed

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Gonda, Xenia; Walker, Muffy; Rihmer, Zoltan; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the sensory profile (expressed as hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity) of patients with major affective disorders and its relative contribution to the prediction of sleep quality while considering affective temperaments and depression, which may impact sleep quality. We recruited 176 participants (mean age, 47.3 y), of whom 56.8% had a diagnosis of unipolar major depressive disorder and 43.2% a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Reduced sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Affective temperaments were assessed using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego. Sensory hypersensitivity, assessed using the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile, significantly distinguished between poor and good sleepers. Sleep quality was mainly predicted by the Beck Depression Inventory-II total score and anxious temperament. Sensory hypersensitivity contributed to this prediction mainly with regard to sleep efficiency and related daytime dysfunction.

  7. Negative Affective Features in 516 Cases of First Psychotic Disorder Episodes: Relationship to Suicidal Risk

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Paola; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Khalsa, Hari-Mandir K.; Indic, Premananda; Maggini, Carlo; Tohen, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Plausible candidates of psychopathological phenomena that may associate with or anticipate suicidal risk, include negative affects, including admixtures of dysphoria, depression and anxiety described mainly in nonpsychotic disorders. We ascertained the distribution of such affective features in various first-episode psychotic disorders and correlated these and other clinical and antecedent features with intake suicidal status. Methods We evaluated 516 adult subjects in first-lifetime episodes of various DSM-IV-TR psychotic disorders. Blinded, protocol-guided, assessments of clinical features ascertained in SCID examinations, self- and family reports and clinical records supported analyses of associations of suicide attempts at first-psychotic episodes with antecedent and intake clinical characteristics, including negative affects and diagnoses, using standard bivariate and multivariate methods. Results Negative affective features in various combinations were prevalent (90%) and at >75% in both affective and nonaffective psychotic disorders; anxious depression was most common (22%). We identified antecedent and intake clinical factors preliminarily associated with suicide attempts. Factors remaining independently associated in multivariate logistic modelling (ranked by OR) were: (a) prior suicide attempt, (b) prior aggressive assault, (c) bipolar-mixed state or psychotic major depression diagnosis, (d) prior dysphoria, (e) intake dysphoric-anxiousdepression, (f) prior impulsivity, (g) previous affective instability, (h) previous nonpsychotic depression, (i) previous decline in vital drive, and (j) prior sleep disturbances. Conclusions Various types and combinations of negative affective features (especially anxious depression with and without dysphoria) were prevalent across nonaffective as well as affective first psychotic episodes and strongly associated with suicide attempts. These findings extend previous observations in nonpsychotic disorders. PMID

  8. White matter abnormalities: Insights into the pathophysiology of major affective disorders

    PubMed Central

    Serafini, Gianluca; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) has been commonly associated with poor outcome in subjects with major affective disorders. Unfortunately, WMHs may be frequently confounded by the use of psychoactive medications and duration of illness. Although findings from the current literature are quite conflicting, we proposed that subjects with WMHs may be at higher suicidal risk when compared to other subgroups without. Based on the Fazekas modified scale, the severity of WMHs may serve as a trait marker of disease. Interestingly, the presence of WMHs may represent a neurobiological marker between the underlying vulnerability and clinical presentation of major affective disorders. PMID:24976925

  9. Feeling Good, Feeling Bad: Influences of Maternal Perceptions of the Child and Marital Adjustment on Well-Being in Mothers of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Ekas, Naomi V.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Mothers of children with an autism spectrum disorder (n = 49) participated in a 30-day diary study which examined associations between mothers' positive and negative perceptions of their children, marital adjustment, and maternal well-being. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that marital adjustment mediated associations between…

  10. Possible association between the dopamine D3 receptor gene and bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.D.; Chakraverty, S.; Parsian, A.

    1994-09-01

    A variety of studies have reported possible genetic associations between bipolar affective disorder and different loci using relative risk approaches. An alternative approach is to determine untransmitted genotypes from families selected through a single affected individual. We have used both approaches to test for possible associations between alleles of the dopamine D3 receptor gene and bipolar affective disorder. For relative risk studies, the probands of multiple incidence bipolar affective disorder (n=66) and alcoholism (n=132) families and psychiatric normal controls (n=91) have been compared. Non-transmitted allele approaches have used bipolar affective disorder (n=28) and alcoholic (n=25) probands in which both parents were available for genotyping. Using the Bal I restriction enzyme site polymorphism of Lannfelt, we have found no differences in the allele or genotype frequencies for bipolar or alcoholic probands versus psychiatrically normal controls. In contrast, we have found evidence for an increased frequency of allele 1 and allele 1 containing genotypes in transmitted alleles from bipolar families.

  11. Possible association between the dopamine D{sub 3} receptor gene and bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Parsian, A.; Chakraverty, S.; Todd, R.D.

    1995-06-19

    A variety of studies have reported possible genetic associations between bipolar affective disorder and different loci using relative risk (case-control) comparisons. An alternative approach is to construct a contrast group using parental alleles which were not transmitted to an affected individual. We have used both approaches to test for possible associations between alleles of the dopamine D{sub 3} receptor gene and bipolar affective disorder. For relative risk studies, the probands of multiple incidence bipolar affective disorder families have been compared to alcoholic and psychiatrically normal contrast groups. Nontransmitted allele approaches have used bipolar affective disorder and alcoholic probands in which both parents were available for genotyping. Using the BalI restriction enzyme site polymorphism of Lannfelt et al., we have found no differences in the allele or genotype frequencies for bipolar vs. alcoholic or psychiatrically normal controls. In contrast, we have found evidence for an increased frequency of allele 1 and allele 1 containing genotypes in transmitted alleles from bipolar families. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. When a good taste turns bad: Neural mechanisms underlying the emergence of negative affect and associated natural reward devaluation by cocaine.

    PubMed

    Carelli, Regina M; West, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    An important feature of cocaine addiction in humans is the emergence of negative affect (e.g., dysphoria, irritability, anhedonia), postulated to play a key role in craving and relapse. Indeed, the DSM-IV recognizes that social, occupational and/or recreational activities become reduced as a consequence of repeated drug use where previously rewarding experiences (e.g., food, job, family) become devalued as the addict continues to seek and use drug despite serious negative consequences. Here, research in the Carelli laboratory is reviewed that examined neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie these processes using a novel animal model. Oromotor responses (taste reactivity) were examined as rats learned that intraoral infusion of a sweet (e.g., saccharin) predicts impending but delayed access to cocaine self-administration. We showed that rats exhibit aversive taste reactivity (i.e., gapes/rejection responses) during infusion of the sweet paired with impending cocaine, similar to aversive responses observed during infusion of quinine, a bitter tastant. Critically, the expression of this pronounced aversion to the sweet predicted the subsequent motivation to self-administer cocaine. Electrophysiology studies show that this shift in palatability corresponds to an alteration in nucleus accumbens (NAc) cell firing; neurons that previously responded with inhibition during infusion of the palatable sweet shifted to excitatory activity during infusion of the cocaine-devalued tastant. This excitatory response profile is typically observed during infusion of quinine, indicating that the once palatable sweet becomes aversive following its association with impending but delayed cocaine, and NAc neurons encode this aversive state. We also review electrochemical studies showing a shift (from increase to decrease) in rapid NAc dopamine release during infusion of the cocaine-paired tastant as the aversive state developed, again, resulting in responses similar to quinine

  13. When a good taste turns bad: Neural mechanisms underlying the emergence of negative affect and associated natural reward devaluation by cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Carelli, Regina M.; West, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    An important feature of cocaine addiction in humans is the emergence of negative affect (e.g., dysphoria, irritability, anhedonia), postulated to play a key role in craving and relapse. Indeed, the DSM-IV recognizes that social, occupational and/or recreational activities become reduced as a consequence of repeated drug use where previously rewarding experiences (e.g., food, job, family) become devalued as the addict continues to seek and use drug despite serious negative consequences. Here, research in the Carelli laboratory is reviewed that examined neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie these processes using a novel animal model. Oromotor responses (taste reactivity) were examined as rats learned that intraoral infusion of a sweet (e.g., saccharin) predicts impending but delayed access to cocaine self-administration. We showed that rats exhibit aversive taste reactivity (i.e., gapes/rejection responses) during infusion of the sweet paired with impending cocaine, similar to aversive responses observed during infusion of quinine, a bitter tastant. Critically, the expression of this pronounced aversion to the sweet predicted the subsequent motivation to self-administer cocaine. Electrophysiology studies show that this shift in palatability corresponds to an alteration in nucleus accumbens (NAc) cell firing; neurons that previously responded with inhibition during infusion of the palatable sweet shifted to excitatory activity during infusion of the cocaine-devalued tastant. This excitatory response profile is typically observed during infusion of quinine, indicating that the once palatable sweet becomes aversive following its association with impending but delayed cocaine, and NAc neurons encode this aversive state. We also review electrochemical studies showing a shift (from increase to decrease) in rapid NAc dopamine release during infusion of the cocaine-paired tastant as the aversive state developed, again, resulting in responses similar to quinine

  14. Measuring historical trauma in an American Indian Community Sample: Contributions of substance dependence, affective disorder, conduct disorder and PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Gizer, Ian R.; Gilder, David A.; Ellingson, Jarrod M.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Background The American Indian experience of historical trauma is thought of as both a source of intergenerational trauma responses as well as a potential causative factor for long-term distress and substance abuse among communities. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the extent to which the frequency of thoughts of historical loss and associated symptoms are influenced by: current traumatic events, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), cultural identification, percent Native American Heritage, substance dependence, affective/anxiety disorders, and conduct disorder/antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Methods Participants were American Indians recruited from reservations that were assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA), The Historical Loss Scale and The Historical Loss Associated Symptoms Scale (to quantify frequency of thoughts and symptoms of historical loss) the Stressful-Life-Events Scale (to assess experiences of trauma) and the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale (OCIS). Results Three hundred and six (306) American Indian adults participated in the study. Over half of them indicated that they thought about historical losses at least occasionally, and that it caused them distress. Logistic regression revealed that significant increases in how often a person thought about historical losses were associated with: not being married, high degrees of Native Heritage, and high cultural identification. Additionally, anxiety/affective disorders and substance dependence were correlated with historical loss associated symptoms. Conclusions In this American Indian community, thoughts about historical losses and their associated symptomatology are common and the presences of these thoughts are associated with Native American Heritage, cultural identification, and substance dependence. PMID:23791028

  15. Brain network analysis reveals affected connectome structure in bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Collin, Guusje; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Abramovic, Lucija; Vreeker, Annabel; de Reus, Marcel A; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Boks, Marco P M; Ophoff, Roel A; Kahn, René S

    2016-01-01

    The notion that healthy brain function emerges from coordinated neural activity constrained by the brain's network of anatomical connections--i.e., the connectome--suggests that alterations in the connectome's wiring pattern may underlie brain disorders. Corroborating this hypothesis, studies in schizophrenia are indicative of altered connectome architecture including reduced communication efficiency, disruptions of central brain hubs, and affected "rich club" organization. Whether similar deficits are present in bipolar disorder is currently unknown. This study examines structural connectome topology in 216 bipolar I disorder patients as compared to 144 healthy controls, focusing in particular on central regions (i.e., brain hubs) and connections (i.e., rich club connections, interhemispheric connections) of the brain's network. We find that bipolar I disorder patients exhibit reduced global efficiency (-4.4%, P =0.002) and that this deficit relates (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) to reduced connectivity strength of interhemispheric connections (-13.0%, P = 0.001). Bipolar disorder patients were found not to show predominant alterations in the strength of brain hub connections in general, or of connections spanning brain hubs (i.e., "rich club" connections) in particular (all P > 0.1). These findings highlight a role for aberrant brain network architecture in bipolar I disorder with reduced global efficiency in association with disruptions in interhemispheric connectivity, while the central "rich club" system appears not to be particularly affected.

  16. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period.

  17. Time-varying exposure and the impact of stressful life events on onset of affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Nicholas W J; Surtees, Paul G

    2002-07-30

    Stressful life events are now established as risk factors for the onset of affective disorder but few studies have investigated time-varying exposure effects. Discrete (grouped) time survival methods provide a flexible framework for evaluating multiple time-dependent covariates and time-varying covariate effects. Here, we use these methods to investigate the time-varying influence of life events on the onset of affective disorder. Various straightforward time-varying exposure models are compared, involving one or more (stepped) time-dependent covariates and time-dependent covariates constructed or estimated according to exponential decay. These models are applied to data from two quite different studies. The first, a small scale interviewer-based longitudinal study (n = 180) concerned with affective disorder onset following loss (or threat of loss) event experiences. The second, a questionnaire assessment as part of an ongoing population study (n = 3353), provides a history of marital loss events and of depressive disorder onset. From the first study the initial impact of loss events was found to decay with a half-life of 5 weeks. Psychological coping strategy was found to modify vulnerability to the adverse effects of these events. The second study revealed that while men had a lower immediate risk of disorder onset following loss event experience their risk period was greater than for women. Time-varying exposure effects were well described by the appropriate use of simple time-dependent covariates.

  18. Developmental Trajectories of Positive and Negative Affect in Children at High and Low Familial Risk for Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olino, Thomas M.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Gentzler, Amy L.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although low positive affect (PA) and high negative affect (NA) have been posited to predispose to depressive disorders, little is known about the developmental trajectories of these affects in children at familial risk for mood disorders. Methods: We examined 202 offspring of mothers who had a history of juvenile-onset unipolar…

  19. The relationship between sleep-wake cycle and cognitive functioning in young people with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Joanne S; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16-30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18-30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a 'long sleep' cluster, a 'disrupted sleep' cluster, and a 'delayed and disrupted sleep' cluster. Circadian clusters included a 'strong circadian' cluster, a 'weak circadian' cluster, and a 'delayed circadian' cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The 'long sleep' cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the 'disrupted sleep' cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments and improvement of functioning in

  20. Longitudinal population-based studies of affective disorders: Where to from here?

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John R; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2008-01-01

    Background Longitudinal, population-based, research is important if we are to better characterize the lifetime patterns and determinants of affective disorders. While studies of this type are becoming increasingly prevalent, there has been little discussion about the limitations of the methods commonly used. Methods Discussion paper including a brief review of key prospective population-based studies as the basis for a critical appraisal of current approaches. Results We identified a number of common methodological weaknesses that restrict the potential of longitudinal research to characterize the diversity, prognosis, and determinants of affective disorders over time. Most studies using comprehensive diagnostic instruments have either been of relatively brief duration, or have suffered from long periods between waves. Most etiologic research has focused on first onset diagnoses, although these may be relatively uncommon after early adulthood and the burden of mental disorders falls more heavily on individuals with recurring disorders. Analysis has tended to be based on changes in diagnostic status rather than anges in symptom levels, limiting study power. Diagnoses have generally been treated as homogeneous entities and few studies have explored whether diagnostic subtypes such as atypical depression vary in their etiology or prognosis. Little research has considered whether there are distinct trajectories of symptoms over time and most has focused on individual disorders such as depression, rather than considering the relationship over time between symptoms of different affective disorders. There has also been limited longitudinal research on factors in the physical or social environment that may influence the onset, recurrence or chronicity of symptoms. Conclusion Many important, and in some respects quite basic, questions remain about the trajectory of depression and anxiety disorders over the life course and the factors that influence their incidence

  1. Undifferentiated Negative Affect and Impulsivity in Borderline Personality and Depressive Disorders: A Momentary Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pronove, Lisa M.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Brown, Whitney C.; Solhan, Marika B.; Wood, Phillip K.; Trull, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often report experiencing several negative emotions simultaneously, an indicator of “undifferentiated” negative affect. The current study examined the relationship between undifferentiated negative affect and impulsivity. Participants with a current BPD (n = 67) or depressive disorder (DD; n = 38) diagnosis carried an electronic diary for 28 days, reporting on emotions and impulsivity when randomly prompted (up to 6 times per day). Undifferentiated negative affect was quantified using momentary intraclass correlation coefficients, which indicated how consistently negative emotion items were rated across fear, hostility, and sadness subscales. Undifferentiated negative affect at the occasion-level, day-level, and across 28 days was used to predict occasion-level impulsivity. Multilevel modeling was used to test the hypothesis that undifferentiated negative emotion would be a significant predictor of momentary impulsivity above and beyond levels of overall negative affect. Undifferentiated negative affect at the occasion and day levels were significant predictors of occasion-level impulsivity, but undifferentiated negative affect across the 28-day study period was only marginally significant. Results did not differ depending on BPD or DD status, though BPD individuals did report significantly greater momentary impulsivity and undifferentiated negative affect. Undifferentiated negative affect may increase risk for impulsivity among individuals with BPD and depressive disorders, and the current data suggest that this process can be relatively immediate as well as cumulative over the course of a day. This research supports the consideration of undifferentiated negative affect as a transdiagnostic construct, but one that may be particularly relevant for those with BPD. PMID:26147324

  2. Prevention of Congenital Disorders and Care of Affected Children: A Consensus Statement.

    PubMed

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Howson, Christopher P; Walraven, Gijs; Armstrong, Robert W; Blencowe, Hannah K; Christianson, Arnold L; Kent, Alastair; Malherbe, Helen; Murray, Jeffrey C; Padilla, Carmencita D; Walani, Salimah R

    2016-08-01

    As the Sustainable Development Goals are adopted by United Nations member states, children with congenital disorders remain left behind in policies, programs, research, and funding. Although this finding was recognized by the creation and endorsement of the 63rd World Health Assembly Resolution in 2010 calling on United Nations member states to strengthen prevention of congenital disorders and the improvement of care of those affected, there has been little to no action since then. The Sustainable Development Goals call for the global health and development community to focus first and foremost on the most vulnerable and those left behind in the Millennium Development Goal era. To maximize the opportunity for every woman and couple to have a healthy child and to reduce the mortality and severe disability associated with potentially avoidable congenital disorders and their consequences for the children affected, their families and communities, and national health care systems, we propose priority measures that should be taken urgently to address this issue.

  3. Influence of DGKH variants on amygdala volume in patients with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kittel-Schneider, S; Wobrock, T; Scherk, H; Schneider-Axmann, T; Trost, S; Zilles, D; Wolf, C; Schmitt, A; Malchow, B; Hasan, A; Backens, M; Reith, W; Falkai, P; Gruber, O; Reif, A

    2015-03-01

    The diacylglycerol kinase eta (DGKH) gene, first identified in a genome-wide association study, is one of the few replicated risk genes of bipolar affective disorder (BD). Following initial positive studies, it not only was found to be associated with BD but also implicated in the etiology of other psychiatric disorders featuring affective symptoms, rendering DGKH a cross-disorder risk gene. However, the (patho-)physiological role of the encoded enzyme is still elusive. In the present study, we investigated primarily the influence of a risk haplotype on amygdala volume in patients suffering from schizophrenia or BD as well as healthy controls and four single nucleotide polymorphisms conveying risk. There was a significant association of the DGKH risk haplotype with increased amygdala volume in BD, but not in schizophrenia or healthy controls. These findings add to the notion of a role of DGKH in the pathogenesis of BD.

  4. Maternal Attributions, Affect, and Parenting in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Comparison Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Alyson C.; Hoza, Betsy

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to simultaneously examine maternal attributions, affect, and parenting in mothers of children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using a multimethod approach (vignettes, confederate child video clips, and video clips of mother's own child). Of the participants, 23 were 7- to 12-year-old…

  5. Delineation of Behavioral Phenotypes in Genetic Syndromes: Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Affect and Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Moss, Jo; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    We investigated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, hyperactivity and affect in seven genetic syndromes; Angelman (AS; n = 104), Cri du Chat (CdCS; 58), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; 101), Fragile X (FXS; 191), Prader-Willi (PWS; 189), Smith-Magenis (SMS; 42) and Lowe (LS; 56) syndromes (age range 4-51). ASD symptomatology was heightened in…

  6. Affective-Motivational Brain Responses to Direct Gaze in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kylliainen, Anneli; Wallace, Simon; Coutanche, Marc N.; Leppanen, Jukka M.; Cusack, James; Bailey, Anthony J.; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is unclear why children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) tend to be inattentive to, or even avoid eye contact. The goal of this study was to investigate affective-motivational brain responses to direct gaze in children with ASD. To this end, we combined two measurements: skin conductance responses (SCR), a robust arousal…

  7. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Henderson, Heather A.; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical…

  8. Anxiety and affective disorder comorbidity related to serotonin and other neurotransmitter systems: obsessive-compulsive disorder as an example of overlapping clinical and genetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Dennis L; Moya, Pablo R; Fox, Meredith A; Rubenstein, Liza M; Wendland, Jens R; Timpano, Kiara R

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have also been shown to have comorbid lifetime diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD; rates greater than 70%), bipolar disorder (rates greater than 10%) and other anxiety disorders (e.g. panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)). In addition, overlap exists in some common genetic variants (e.g. the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene), and rare variants in genes/chromosomal abnormalities (e.g. the 22q11 microdeletion syndrome) found across the affective/anxiety disorder spectrums. OCD has been proposed as a possible independent entity for DSM-5, but by others thought best retained as an anxiety disorder subtype (its current designation in DSM-IV), and yet by others considered best in the affective disorder spectrum. This review focuses on OCD, a well-studied but still puzzling heterogeneous disorder, regarding alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in addition to other systems involved, and how related genes may be involved in the comorbidity of anxiety and affective disorders. OCD resembles disorders such as depression, in which gene × gene interactions, gene × environment interactions and stress elements coalesce to yield OC symptoms and, in some individuals, full-blown OCD with multiple comorbid disorders.

  9. Anxiety and affective disorder comorbidity related to serotonin and other neurotransmitter systems: obsessive–compulsive disorder as an example of overlapping clinical and genetic heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Dennis L.; Moya, Pablo R.; Fox, Meredith A.; Rubenstein, Liza M.; Wendland, Jens R.; Timpano, Kiara R.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have also been shown to have comorbid lifetime diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD; rates greater than 70%), bipolar disorder (rates greater than 10%) and other anxiety disorders (e.g. panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)). In addition, overlap exists in some common genetic variants (e.g. the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene), and rare variants in genes/chromosomal abnormalities (e.g. the 22q11 microdeletion syndrome) found across the affective/anxiety disorder spectrums. OCD has been proposed as a possible independent entity for DSM-5, but by others thought best retained as an anxiety disorder subtype (its current designation in DSM-IV), and yet by others considered best in the affective disorder spectrum. This review focuses on OCD, a well-studied but still puzzling heterogeneous disorder, regarding alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in addition to other systems involved, and how related genes may be involved in the comorbidity of anxiety and affective disorders. OCD resembles disorders such as depression, in which gene × gene interactions, gene × environment interactions and stress elements coalesce to yield OC symptoms and, in some individuals, full-blown OCD with multiple comorbid disorders. PMID:23440468

  10. High prevalence of affective disorders among adolescents living in Rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Langhaug, Lisa F; Pascoe, Sophie J; Mavhu, Webster; Woelk, Godfrey; Sherr, Lorraine; Hayes, Richard J; Cowan, Frances M

    2010-08-01

    Poor mental health accounts for considerable disease burden among young people globally. We investigated the prevalence and determinants of affective disorders among rural Zimbabwean youth in 2006. We undertook a cross-sectional survey among 1495 Zimbabwean youth aged 15-23 (median 18) from 12 rural communities in three provinces in south-eastern Zimbabwe. Mental health was assessed using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ), a locally validated 14-item indigenous screening tool for affective disorders, notably depression and anxiety disorders. Participants scoring >or=8/14 were considered at risk of being affected and >or=11 as at risk of being severely affected. Most participants (93.1%) completed the SSQ. Of these, 51.7% (95%CI:49.0-54.3%) scored >or=8/14 and 23.8% (95%CI:21.5-26.0%) scored >or=11. Affective disorders were independently associated with household poverty (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.9, 95%CI:1.4-2.7), living in a female-headed household (AOR 1.3, 95%CI:1.0-1.7), having moved home within last 5 years (AOR 1.4, 95%CI:1.0-1.9) and feeling stigmatized (AOR being shunned by others 3.7, 95%CI:2.5-5.7). There was a strong linear association between risk of affective disorders and sexual risk taking (ever sex AOR 1.5, 95%CI:1.0-2.4, and 2.8, 95%CI:1.9-4.2 for affected and severely affected, respectively, test for trend P < 0.001; >or=2 lifetime partners AOR 2.3, 95%CI:1.1-4.8 and 5.4, 95%CI:2.7-10.7, test for trend P < 0.001). This study indicates high levels of psychological morbidity among rural Zimbabwean youth which was associated with sexual risk taking. Interventions to prevent, identify and treat mental health disorders in this vulnerable population are urgently required. In HIV-endemic countries, such interventions may also help reduce HIV transmission.

  11. High Prevalence of Affective Disorders among Adolescents Living in Rural Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Sophie J.; Mavhu, Webster; Woelk, Godfrey; Sherr, Lorraine; Hayes, Richard J.; Cowan, Frances M.

    2010-01-01

    Poor mental health accounts for considerable disease burden among young people globally. We investigated the prevalence and determinants of affective disorders among rural Zimbabwean youth in 2006. We undertook a cross-sectional survey among 1495 Zimbabwean youth aged 15–23 (median 18) from 12 rural communities in three provinces in south-eastern Zimbabwe. Mental health was assessed using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ), a locally validated 14-item indigenous screening tool for affective disorders, notably depression and anxiety disorders. Participants scoring ≥8/14 were considered at risk of being affected and ≥11 as at risk of being severely affected. Most participants (93.1%) completed the SSQ. Of these, 51.7% (95%CI:49.0–54.3%) scored ≥8/14 and 23.8% (95%CI:21.5–26.0%) scored ≥11. Affective disorders were independently associated with household poverty (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.9, 95%CI:1.4–2.7), living in a female-headed household (AOR 1.3, 95%CI:1.0–1.7), having moved home within last 5 years (AOR 1.4, 95%CI:1.0–1.9) and feeling stigmatized (AOR being shunned by others 3.7, 95%CI:2.5–5.7). There was a strong linear association between risk of affective disorders and sexual risk taking (ever sex AOR 1.5, 95%CI:1.0–2.4, and 2.8, 95%CI:1.9–4.2 for affected and severely affected, respectively, test for trend P < 0.001; ≥2 lifetime partners AOR 2.3, 95%CI:1.1–4.8 and 5.4, 95%CI:2.7–10.7, test for trend P < 0.001). This study indicates high levels of psychological morbidity among rural Zimbabwean youth which was associated with sexual risk taking. Interventions to prevent, identify and treat mental health disorders in this vulnerable population are urgently required. In HIV-endemic countries, such interventions may also help reduce HIV transmission. PMID:20571897

  12. What is a mental disorder? A perspective from cognitive-affective science.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J

    2013-12-01

    Defining disease and disorder remains a key conceptual question in philosophy of medicine and psychiatry, and is currently a very practical matter for psychiatric nosology, given the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, and the upcoming International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision. There have been advances in the cognitive-affective science of human categorization, and it is timely to consider implications for our understanding of the category of psychiatric disorder. The category of mental disorder has graded boundaries, and conditions within this category can be conceptualized using MEDICAL or MORAL metaphors. One key set of constructs used in MEDICAL metaphors relates to the notion of dysfunction, and it may, in turn, be useful to conceptualize such dysfunction in evolutionary terms. For typical disorders, it is relatively easy to agree that dysfunction is present. However, for atypical disorders, there may be considerable debate about the presence and extent of dysfunction. Rational arguments can be brought to bear to help decide whether particular entities should be included in our nosologies, and, if so, what their boundaries should be. However, it is appropriate that there should be ongoing debate on diagnostic validity, clinical utility, and other relevant facts and values, for cases that are difficult to decide. The perspective here can be illustrated using many nosological debates within the anxiety disorders and the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, including the question of delineating normal from abnormal anxiety, of deciding whether anxiety is psychiatric or medical, and the debate about the optimal meta-structure for anxiety disorders.

  13. Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C β1 gene deletion in bipolar disorder affected patient.

    PubMed

    Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita; Longo, Lucia; Polonia, Patrizia

    2013-03-01

    The involvement of phosphoinositides (PI) signal transduction pathway and related molecules, such as the Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzymes, in the pathophysiology of mood disorders is corroborated by a number of recent evidences. Our previous works identified the deletion of PLCB1 gene, which codifies for the PI-PLC β1 enzyme, in 4 out 15 patients affected with schizophrenia, and no deletion both in major depression affected patients and in normal controls. By using interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization methodology, we analyzed PLCB1 in paraffin embedded samples of orbito-frontal cortex of 15 patients affected with bipolar disorder. Deletion of PLCB1 was identified in one female patient.

  14. Analysis of thirteen trinucleotide repeat loci as candidate genes for Schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, S.; Leggo, J.; Ferguson-Smith, M.A.; Rubinsztein, D.C.

    1996-04-09

    A group of diseases are due to abnormal expansions of trinucleotide repeats. These diseases all affect the nervous system. In addition, they manifest the phenomenon of anticipation, in which the disease tends to present at an earlier age or with greater severity in successive generations. Many additional genes with trinucleotide repeats are believed to be expressed in the human brain. As anticipation has been reported in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder, we have examined allele distributions of 13 trinucleotide repeat-containing genes, many novel and all expressed in the brain, in genomic DNA from schizophrenic (n = 20-97) and bipolar affective disorder patients (23-30) and controls (n = 43-146). No evidence was obtained to implicate expanded alleles in these 13 genes as causal factors in these diseases. 26 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Alpha oscillations and their impairment in affective and post-traumatic stress disorders.

    PubMed

    Eidelman-Rothman, Moranne; Levy, Jonathan; Feldman, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    Affective and anxiety disorders are debilitating conditions characterized by impairments in cognitive and social functioning. Elucidating their neural underpinnings may assist in improving diagnosis and developing targeted interventions. Neural oscillations are fundamental for brain functioning. Specifically, oscillations in the alpha frequency range (alpha rhythms) are prevalent in the awake, conscious brain and play an important role in supporting perceptual, cognitive, and social processes. We review studies utilizing various alpha power measurements to assess abnormalities in brain functioning in affective and anxiety disorders as well as obsessive compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders. Despite some inconsistencies, studies demonstrate associations between aberrant alpha patterns and these disorders both in response to specific cognitive and emotional tasks and during a resting state. We conclude by discussing methodological considerations and future directions, and underscore the need for much further research on the role of alpha functionality in social contexts. As social dysfunction accompanies most psychiatric conditions, research on alpha's involvement in social processes may provide a unique window into the neural mechanisms underlying these disorders.

  16. Eggs: good or bad?

    PubMed

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  17. Psychiatric hospitalizations for affective disorders in Warsaw, Poland: Effect of season and intensity of sunlight.

    PubMed

    Dominiak, Monika; Swiecicki, Lukasz; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2015-09-30

    The purpose of this study was to assess any associations between the number of hospitalizations for affective disorders, seasons of the year and the intensity of sunlight in Poland, a country with a very changeable climate and significant seasonal fluctuations. We analyzed 2837 admissions with affective disorders hospitalized in the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology in Warsaw, between 2002 and 2010 (mania, n=380, mixed episode, n=131, bipolar depression, n=736, recurrent depression, n=681, single depressive episode, n=909). For each diagnostic group admission time series were created and categorized into subgroups according to sex and age, and these were analyzed by means of the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) method. Regression models and correlations were used to assess the influence of the intensity of sunlight on the number of hospitalizations. Most mania admissions were noted in spring/summer months and in midwinter, mixed episode-late spring and winter, and depression (bipolar, recurrent and single depressive episode)-spring and autumn months. The association between frequency of admissions and monthly hours of sunshine was observed in some age and sex subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder and single depressive episode. The results support the seasonality of admissions of patients with affective disorders.

  18. Genome Scan for Tourette Disorder in Affected-Sibling-Pair and Multigenerational Families

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Tourette disorder (TD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with a complex mode of inheritance and is characterized by multiple waxing and waning motor and phonic tics. This article reports the results of the largest genetic linkage study yet undertaken for TD. The sample analyzed includes 238 nuclear families yielding 304 “independent” sibling pairs and 18 separate multigenerational families, for a total of 2,040 individuals. A whole-genome screen with the use of 390 microsatellite markers was completed. Analyses were completed using two diagnostic classifications: (1) only individuals with TD were included as affected and (2) individuals with either TD or chronic-tic (CT) disorder were included as affected. Strong evidence of linkage was observed for a region on chromosome 2p (-logP=4.42, P=3.8×10-5) in the analyses that included individuals with TD or CT disorder as affected. Results in several other regions also provide moderate evidence (−logP >2.0) of additional susceptibility loci for TD. PMID:17304708

  19. [The White man's burden - a case study caught between bipolar affective disorder and Huntington's disease].

    PubMed

    Nowidi, K; Kunisch, R; Bouna-Pyrrou, P; Meißner, D; Hennig-Fast, K; Weindl, A; Förster, S; Neuhann, T M; Falkai, P; Berger, M; Musil, R

    2013-06-01

    We report upon a case of a 55 year old patient with a bipolar affective disorder, presenting herself with a depressive symptomatology in addition to a severe motor perturbation. The main emphasis upon admittance was perfecting and improving her latest medication. Four weeks prior to her stay at our clinic a thorough neurological examination had taken place in terms of an invalidity pension trial which did not result in any diagnostic findings. Therefore a neurological disease seemed at first highly unlikely. Even though the prior testing was negative, the ensuing neurological examination at our clinic resulted in movement disorders very much indicative of Huntington's Disease. A detailed investigation in regards to the particular family history of the patient was positive for Huntington's Disease. However, whether the patient's mother had also been a genetic carrier of Huntington's Disease was still unknown at the time the patient was admitted to our clinic. It was nevertheless discovered that her mother had also suffered from a bipolar affective disorder. A genetic testing that followed the neurological examination of the patient proved positive for Huntington's Disease. Neuro-imaging resulted in a bicaudate-index of 2.4 (the critical value is 1.8). In a clinical psychological test battery the ensuing results were highly uncommon for patients with solely a bipolar affective disorder people. Under the medical regimen of Quetiapine, Citalopram and Tiaprid the patient's mood could be stabilized and there was some improvement of her motor pertubation.

  20. An Examination of Horace Wells' Life as a Manifestation of Major Depressive and Seasonal Affective Disorders.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ramon F; Desai, Sukumar P

    2016-01-01

    Horace Wells was a Hartford, Connecticut, dentist whose practice flourished because of his clinical skills. He had an imaginative mind that propelled him to the forefront in several aspects of dentistry. Unfortunately, he suffered a recurrent "illness" that began in the winter and resolved in the spring. These symptoms were compatible with both major depressive disorder and seasonal affective disorder as a qualifier. Wells' introduction of nitrous oxide as an anesthetic was also associated with self-inhalation. This led to periods of hypomania, followed by depression. With the progression to ether, then chloroform, there was an episode of mania in January 1848, followed by depression and suicide.

  1. Examining Convergence of Retrospective and Ecological Momentary Assessment Measures of Negative Affect and Eating Disorder Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wonderlich, Joseph A.; Lavender, Jason M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Engel, Scott G.; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Data gathered via retrospective forms of assessment are subject to various recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is an alternative approach involving repeated momentary assessments within a participant's natural environment, thus reducing recall biases and improving ecological validity. EMA has been used in numerous prior studies examining various constructs of theoretical relevance to eating disorders. Method This investigation includes data from three previously published studies with distinct clinical samples: (a) women with anorexia nervosa (N=118), (b) women with bulimia nervosa (N=133), and (c) obese men and women (N=50; 9 with current binge eating disorder). Each study assessed negative affective states and eating disorder behaviors using traditional retrospective assessments and EMA. Spearman rho correlations were used to evaluate the concordance of retrospective versus EMA measures of affective and/or behavioral constructs in each sample. Bland-Altman plots were also used to further evaluate concordance in the assessment of eating disorder behaviors. Results There was moderate to strong concordance for the measures of negative affective states across all three studies. Moderate to strong concordance was also found for the measures of binge eating and exercise frequency. The strongest evidence of concordance across measurement approaches was found for purging behaviors. Discussion Overall, these preliminary findings support the convergence of retrospective and EMA assessments of both negative affective states and various eating disorder behaviors. Given the advantages and disadvantages associated with each of these assessment approaches, the specific questions being studied in future empirical studies should inform decisions regarding selection of the most appropriate method. PMID:25195932

  2. Negative affect predicts social functioning across schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Findings from an integrated data analysis.

    PubMed

    Grove, Tyler B; Tso, Ivy F; Chun, Jinsoo; Mueller, Savanna A; Taylor, Stephan F; Ellingrod, Vicki L; McInnis, Melvin G; Deldin, Patricia J

    2016-09-30

    Most people with a serious mental illness experience significant functional impairment despite ongoing pharmacological treatment. Thus, in order to improve outcomes, a better understanding of functional predictors is needed. This study examined negative affect, a construct comprised of negative emotional experience, as a predictor of social functioning across serious mental illnesses. One hundred twenty-seven participants with schizophrenia, 113 with schizoaffective disorder, 22 with psychosis not otherwise specified, 58 with bipolar disorder, and 84 healthy controls (N=404) completed self-report negative affect measures. Elevated levels of negative affect were observed in clinical participants compared with healthy controls. For both clinical and healthy control participants, negative affect measures were significantly correlated with social functioning, and consistently explained significant amounts of variance in functioning. For clinical participants, this relationship persisted even after accounting for cognition and positive/negative symptoms. The findings suggest that negative affect is a strong predictor of outcome across these populations and treatment of serious mental illnesses should target elevated negative affect in addition to cognition and positive/negative symptoms.

  3. Bipolar disorder, affective psychosis, and schizophrenia in pregnancy and the post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian; Chandra, Prabha S; Dazzan, Paola; Howard, Louise M

    2014-11-15

    The perinatal period is associated with an increased risk of severe mental disorders. We summarise the evidence regarding the epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment of severe mental illness in relation to childbirth, focusing on bipolar disorder, affective psychosis, and schizophrenia. We discuss women with ongoing chronic conditions and those with the onset of new episodes of post-partum psychosis. Despite the importance of perinatal episodes, with suicide a leading cause of maternal death, few studies are available to guide the management of women with severe mental disorders in pregnancy and the post-partum period. However, general principles of management are discussed, including the need for an individual risk-benefit analysis for each woman.

  4. Impaired neurocognitive functions affect social learning processes in oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: implications for interventions.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Schutter, Dennis J L G; Lochman, John E

    2012-09-01

    In this review, a conceptualization of oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is presented according to which social learning processes in these disorders are affected by neurocognitive dysfunctions. Neurobiological studies in ODD and CD suggest that the ability to make associations between behaviors and negative and positive consequences is compromised in children and adolescents with these disorders due to reduced sensitivity to punishment and to reward. As a result, both learning of appropriate behavior and learning to refrain from inappropriate behavior may be affected. Likewise, problem solving is impaired due to deficiencies in inhibition, attention, cognitive flexibility, and decision making. Consequently, children and adolescents with ODD and CD may have difficulty learning to optimize their behavior in changeable environments. This conceptualization of ODD and CD is relevant for the improvement of the effect of psychological treatments. Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral interventions that have been shown to be modestly effective in ODD and CD are based on social learning. Limited effectiveness of these interventions may be caused by difficulties in social learning in children and adolescents with ODD and CD. However, although these impairments have been observed at a group level, the deficits in reward processing, punishment processing, and cognitive control mentioned above may not be present to the same extent in each individual with ODD and CD. Therefore, the neurocognitive characteristics in children and adolescents with ODD and CD should be assessed individually. Thus, instead of delivering interventions in a standardized way, these programs may benefit from an individualized approach that depends on the weaknesses and strengths of the neurocognitive characteristics of the child and the adolescent.

  5. The neurogenesis hypothesis of affective and anxiety disorders: are we mistaking the scaffolding for the building?

    PubMed

    Petrik, David; Lagace, Diane C; Eisch, Amelia J

    2012-01-01

    Hypotheses are scaffoldings erected in front of a building and then dismantled when the building is finished. They are indispensable for the workman; but you mustn't mistake the scaffolding for the building. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. The neurogenesis hypothesis of affective disorders - in its simplest form - postulates that the generation of neurons in the postnatal hippocampal dentate gyrus is involved in the etiology and treatment efficacy of major depressive disorder (MDD). The hypothesis was established in the 1990s but was built on a broad foundation of earlier research on the hippocampus, serotonin and MDD. It has gone through several growth phases fueled by discoveries both correlative and causative in nature. Recently, the hypothesis has also been broadened to also include potential relevance for anxiety disorders, like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As any hypothesis should be, it has been tested and challenged, sometimes vigorously. Here we review the current standing of the neurogenesis hypothesis of affective and anxiety disorders, noting in particular how a central postulate - that decreased neurogenesis results in depression or anxiety - has, in general, been rejected. We also review the controversies on whether treatments for these disorders, like antidepressants, rely on intact neurogenesis for their efficacy, and the existence of neurogenesis-dependent and -independent effects of antidepressants. In addition, we review the implications that the hypothesis has for the response to stress, PTSD, and the neurobiology of resilience, and highlight our own work showing that adult-generated neurons are functionally important for the behavioral response to social stress. We conclude by emphasizing how advancements in transgenic mouse technology, rodent behavioral analyses, and our understanding of the neurogenesis process will allow us to refine our conclusions and perform ever more specific experiments. Such scrutiny is critical, since if we

  6. Dopamine Transporter Gene Variant Affecting Expression in Human Brain is Associated with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pinsonneault, Julia K; Han, Dawn D; Burdick, Katherine E; Kataki, Maria; Bertolino, Alessandro; Malhotra, Anil K; Gu, Howard H; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The gene encoding the dopamine transporter (DAT) has been implicated in CNS disorders, but the responsible polymorphisms remain uncertain. To search for regulatory polymorphisms, we measured allelic DAT mRNA expression in substantia nigra of human autopsy brain tissues, using two marker SNPs (rs6347 in exon 9 and rs27072 in the 3′-UTR). Allelic mRNA expression imbalance (AEI), an indicator of cis-acting regulatory polymorphisms, was observed in all tissues heterozygous for either of the two marker SNPs. SNP scanning of the DAT locus with AEI ratios as the phenotype, followed by in vitro molecular genetics studies, demonstrated that rs27072 C>T affects mRNA expression and translation. Expression of the minor T allele was dynamically regulated in transfected cell cultures, possibly involving microRNA interactions. Both rs6347 and rs3836790 (intron8 5/6 VNTR) also seemed to affect DAT expression, but not the commonly tested 9/10 VNTR in the 3′UTR (rs28363170). All four polymorphisms (rs6347, intron8 5/6 VNTR, rs27072 and 3′UTR 9/10 VNTR) were genotyped in clinical cohorts, representing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and controls. Only rs27072 was significantly associated with bipolar disorder (OR=2.1, p=0.03). This result was replicated in a second bipolar/control population (OR=1.65, p=0.01), supporting a critical role for DAT regulation in bipolar disorder. PMID:21525861

  7. Sexually Dimorphic Responses to Early Adversity: Implications for Affective Problems and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-01-01

    During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the lifecycle. For these reason the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorder (greater male prevalence). Recent prospective studies illustrating the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposure to stress and stress hormones for males and females are considered here. Plausible biological mechanisms including the role of the sexually differentiated placenta are discussed. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two sets of developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorders (greater male prevalence). PMID:25038479

  8. Polysomnographic sleep effects of fluoxetine and nefazodone on a seasonal affective disorder patient.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianhua; Shapiro, Colin

    2002-11-01

    This reported person met DSM-III-R criteria for seasonal affective disorder. In successive years she had two treatments with fluoxetine and one with nefazodone. Every year regular polysomnographic monitoring was carried out during the critical initial 8 weeks of treatment. The results indicate that on both occasions fluoxetine decreased the patient's sleep quality. Nefazodone had no sleep disturbing effects and on withdrawal no relapse has been seen for 3 years.

  9. Are lifetime affective disorders predictive of long-term outcome in severe adolescent anorexia nervosa?

    PubMed

    Carrot, B; Radon, L; Hubert, T; Vibert, S; Duclos, J; Curt, F; Godart, N

    2017-03-03

    Depression and anxiety are commonly associated with anorexia nervosa (AN) and contribute to difficulties in social integration, a negative factor for outcome in AN. The link between those disorders and AN has been poorly studied. Thus, our objective was to investigate (1) the link between outcome nine years after hospitalisation for AN and the occurrence of lifetime anxious or depressive comorbidities; (2) the prognostic value of these comorbidities on patient outcome; 181 female patients were hospitalised for AN (between 13 and 22 years old), and were re-evaluated for their psychological, dietary, physical and social outcomes, from 6 to 12 years after their hospitalisation. The link between anxious and depressive disorders (premorbid to AN and lifetime) and the outcome assessment criteria were tested through multivariate analyses; 63% of the participants had good or intermediate outcome, 83% had presented at least one anxiety or depression disorder in the course of their lives, half of them before the onset of AN. Premorbid obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD), BMI at admission, and premenarchal AN all contribute to poor prognosis. Social phobia and agoraphobia affect the subjects' quality of life and increase eating disorder symptoms. These results encourage a systematic assessment of, and care for, anxiety and depression comorbidities among female adolescent patients with a particular focus on premorbid OCD.

  10. Platelet (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding in affective disorders: trait versus state characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, M.; Barkai, A.; Gruen, R.; Peselow, E.; Fieve, R.R.; Quitkin, F.

    1986-06-01

    Platelet (3H)imipramine binding (Bmax) was determined in 67 patients with major affective illness (33 euthymic bipolar, 34 depressed unipolar) and 58 normal control subjects. Bipolar patients had significantly lower Bmax values than did control subjects. The mean Bmax in the unipolar patients was lower than in the control subjects, but the difference was not statistically significant. Dissociation constant (Kd) values did not distinguish patients in either category from control subjects. The significantly lower Bmax in euthymic bipolar patients and the apparent state independence of Bmax in some but not all unipolar patients suggest that platelet imipramine binding may be a trait marker in a subset of affective disorders.

  11. 7 CFR 51.3068 - Badly misshapen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3068 Badly misshapen. Badly misshapen means that the avocado is so badly curved, constricted, pointed or otherwise...

  12. Affective reactivity in heroin-dependent patients with antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Walter, Marc; Degen, Bigna; Treugut, Constanze; Albrich, Jürgen; Oppel, Monika; Schulz, André; Schächinger, Hartmut; Dürsteler-Macfarland, Kenneth M; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A

    2011-05-15

    The Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), one of the most common co-morbid psychiatric disorders in heroin-dependent patients, is associated with a lack of affective modulation. The present study aimed to compare the affect-modulated startle responses of opioid-maintained heroin-dependent patients with and without ASPD relative to those of healthy controls. Sixty participants (20 heroin-dependent patients with ASPD, 20 heroin-dependent patients without ASPD, 20 healthy controls) were investigated in an affect-modulated startle experiment. Participants viewed neutral, pleasant, unpleasant, and drug-related stimuli while eye-blink responses to randomly delivered startling noises were recorded continuously. Both groups of heroin-dependent patients exhibited significantly smaller startle responses (raw values) than healthy controls. However, they showed a normal affective modulation: higher startle responses to unpleasant, lower startle responses to pleasant stimuli and no difference to drug-related stimuli compared to neutral stimuli. These findings indicate a normally modulated affective reactivity in heroin-dependent patients with ASPD.

  13. Affective prosody perception in symptomatically remitted patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Hoertnagl, Christine M; Yalcin-Siedentopf, Nursen; Baumgartner, Susanne; Biedermann, Falko; Deisenhammer, Eberhard A; Hausmann, Armand; Kaufmann, Alexandra; Kemmler, Georg; Mühlbacher, Moritz; Rauch, Anna-Sophia; Fleischhacker, Wolfgang W; Hofer, Alex

    2014-09-01

    Affect perception has frequently been shown to be impaired in patients suffering from schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (BD), but it remains unclear whether these impairments exist during symptomatic remission and whether the two disorders differ from each other in this regard. Most previous studies have investigated facial affect recognition, but not the ability to decode mental states from emotional tone of voice, i.e. affective prosody perception (APP). Accordingly, the present study directly compared APP in symptomatically remitted patients with schizophrenia or BD and healthy control subjects and investigated its relationship with residual symptomatology in patients. Patients with schizophrenia and BD showed comparable APP impairments despite being symptomatically remitted. In comparison to healthy control subjects, overall APP deficits were found in BD but not in schizophrenia patients. Both patient groups were particularly impaired in the identification of anger and confounded it with neutral prosody. In addition, schizophrenia patients frequently confused sadness with happiness, anger, or fright. There was an inverse association between the degree of residual positive symptoms and the ability to correctly recognize happiness in schizophrenia patients. Overall, these data indicate that impairments in APP represent an enduring deficit and a trait marker of both schizophrenia and BD and that the level of impairment is comparable between disorders.

  14. Current management of bipolar affective disorder: is it reflective of the BAP guidelines?

    PubMed

    Farrelly, N; Dibben, C; Hunt, N

    2006-01-01

    In October 2003 the British Association of Psychopharmacology (BAP) published evidence-based guidelines on the management of bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess whether the guidelines could provide the basis for examining clinical decisions and the extent to which practice accords with these guidelines. Case notes of out patients with bipolar disorder were reviewed. Demographic details, and treatment recommendations were determined. The management of affective episodes was evaluated and compared with BAP guidelines. In 84 subjects, 224 affective episodes were identified. Treatment was consistent with BAP guidelines in 72% of episodes. Mania was more likely to be managed in accordance with guidelines than depression or mixed episodes. The use of antidepressant medication was the most likely intervention to deviate from recommendations. Reasons for treatments at odds with the guidelines were identified. Our study demonstrates that clinical practice among a range of psychiatrists broadly reflects the guidelines that have been issued by the British Association of Psychopharmacology (BAP). The BAP guidelines offer a practical and auditable basis for the short- and long-term treatment of bipolar affective disorder.

  15. Affective behavior during mother-daughter conflict and borderline personality disorder severity across adolescence.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Diana J; Scott, Lori N; Jakubowski, Karen P; McMakin, Dana L; Hipwell, Alison E; Silk, Jennifer S; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2014-01-01

    Developmental theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) posit that transactions between child characteristics and adverse environments, especially those in the context of the parent-child relationship, shape and maintain symptoms of the disorder over time. However, very little empirical work has investigated the role of parenting and parent-child transactions that may predict BPD severity over time. We examined maternal and dyadic affective behaviors during a mother-adolescent conflict discussion task as predictors of the course of BPD severity scores across 3 years in a diverse, at-risk sample of girls (N = 74) oversampled for affective instability and their biological mothers. Adolescent girls completed a structured conflict discussion task with their mothers at age 16. Girls' self-reported BPD severity scores were assessed annually from ages 15 to 17. Mother-adolescent interactions were coded using a global rating system of maternal and dyadic affective behaviors. Results from multilevel linear mixed models indicated that positive maternal affective behavior (i.e., supportive/validating behavior, communication skills, autonomy-promoting behavior, and positive affect) and positive dyadic affective behaviors (i.e., satisfaction and positive escalation) were associated with decreases in girls' BPD severity scores over time. Dyadic negative escalation was associated with higher overall levels of BPD severity scores, but negative maternal affective behavior (i.e., negative affect, dominance, conflict, and denial) was not. These findings suggest that the mother-daughter context is an important protective factor in shaping the course of BPD severity scores during adolescence and may be valuable in assessment, intervention, and prevention efforts.

  16. Quarrelsome behavior in borderline personality disorder: influence of behavioral and affective reactivity to perceptions of others.

    PubMed

    Sadikaj, Gentiana; Moskowitz, D S; Russell, Jennifer J; Zuroff, David C; Paris, Joel

    2013-02-01

    We examined how the amplification of 3 within-person processes (behavioral reactivity to interpersonal perceptions, affect reactivity to interpersonal perceptions, and behavioral reactivity to a person's own affect) accounts for greater quarrelsome behavior among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using an event-contingent recording (ECR) methodology, individuals with BPD (N = 38) and community controls (N = 31) reported on their negative affect, quarrelsome behavior, and perceptions of the interaction partner's agreeable-quarrelsome behavior in interpersonal events during a 20-day period. Behavioral reactivity to negative affect was similar in both groups. However, behavioral reactivity and affect reactivity to interpersonal perceptions were elevated in individuals with BPD relative to community controls; specifically, individuals with BPD reported more quarrelsome behavior and more negative affect during interactions in which they perceived others as more cold-quarrelsome. Greater negative affect reactivity to perceptions of other's cold-quarrelsome behavior partly accounted for the increased quarrelsome behavior reported by individuals with BPD during these interactions. This pattern of results suggests a cycle in which the perception of cold-quarrelsome behavior in others triggers elevated negative affect and quarrelsome behavior in individuals with BPD, which subsequently led to more quarrelsome behavior from their interaction partners, which leads to perceptions of others as cold-quarrelsomeness, which begins the cycle anew.

  17. Influence of Core Affect in the Differential Efficacy of a Personality Disorder Intervention Program.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Juan M; Sendra, Juan M; Sánchez, Aintzane; Mena, Ana

    2017-02-06

    The usual emotional experience of the person (affective style) is an influential factor in therapeutic assimilation. Based on a dynamic model of affect shaped dimensionally by the valence and arousal axes (core affect) that fluctuate over time according to the specific context of the individual, its relationship with different variables was investigated and the changes after a 6-month intervention in a specialized hospital unit (N = 103) were observed. The orthogonal structure of core-affect was confirmed. Emotional valence appeared to be positively related to social skills (r = .375; p < .01) and self-esteem (r = .491; p < .01) and negatively to depressive symptoms (r = -.631; p < .01), general disturbance (r = -.395; p < .01) and suicidality (r = -.490; p < .01). Emotional arousal is associated with impulsivity (r = .345; p < .01). The group of patients with an affective style characterized by negative valence and low arousal core-affect gained less therapeutic benefit compared to those with positive valence core-affect (p < .05). Throughout the treatment, valence became more positive (d = .26; IC 95%: 1.9 - 7.2; p = .001), arousal increased (d = .23; IC 95%: 0.2 - 1.7; p = .015) and variability decreased (d = -.44; IC 95%: (-2.9) - (-1.1); p = .001). Changes in the core-affect are related to therapeutic improvement. Adjusting expectations of change can reduce therapeutic frustration, which is as common as it is harmful in the treatment of severe personality disorders.

  18. Deficits in Degraded Facial Affect Labeling in Schizophrenia and Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    van ‘t Wout, Mascha; Ford, Julian D.; Aleman, André

    2016-01-01

    Although deficits in facial affect processing have been reported in schizophrenia as well as in borderline personality disorder (BPD), these disorders have not yet been directly compared on facial affect labeling. Using degraded stimuli portraying neutral, angry, fearful and angry facial expressions, we hypothesized more errors in labeling negative facial expressions in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Patients with BPD were expected to have difficulty in labeling neutral expressions and to display a bias towards a negative attribution when wrongly labeling neutral faces. Patients with schizophrenia (N = 57) and patients with BPD (N = 30) were compared to patients with somatoform disorder (SoD, a psychiatric control group; N = 25) and healthy control participants (N = 41) on facial affect labeling accuracy and type of misattributions. Patients with schizophrenia showed deficits in labeling angry and fearful expressions compared to the healthy control group and patients with BPD showed deficits in labeling neutral expressions compared to the healthy control group. Schizophrenia and BPD patients did not differ significantly from each other when labeling any of the facial expressions. Compared to SoD patients, schizophrenia patients showed deficits on fearful expressions, but BPD did not significantly differ from SoD patients on any of the facial expressions. With respect to the type of misattributions, BPD patients mistook neutral expressions more often for fearful expressions compared to schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, and less often for happy compared to schizophrenia patients. These findings suggest that although schizophrenia and BPD patients demonstrate different as well as similar facial affect labeling deficits, BPD may be associated with a tendency to detect negative affect in neutral expressions. PMID:27300727

  19. Affect recognition across manic and euthymic phases of bipolar disorder in Han-Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi-Ju; Tseng, Huai-Hsuan; Liu, Shi-Kai

    2013-11-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have affect recognition deficits. Whether affect recognition deficits constitute a state or trait marker of BD has great etiopathological significance. The current study aims to explore the interrelationships between affect recognition and basic neurocognitive functions for patients with BD across different mood states, using the Diagnostic Analysis of Non-Verbal Accuracy-2, Taiwanese version (DANVA-2-TW) as the index measure for affect recognition. To our knowledge, this is the first study examining affect recognition deficits of BPD across mood states in the Han Chinese population. Twenty-nine manic patients, 16 remitted patients with BD, and 40 control subjects are included in the study. Distinct association patterns between affect recognition and neurocognitive functions are demonstrated for patients with BD and control subjects, implicating alternations in emotion associated neurocognitive processing. Compared to control subjects, manic patients but not remitted subjects perform significantly worse in the recognition of negative emotions as a whole and specifically anger, after adjusting for differences in general intellectual ability and basic neurocognitive functions. Affect recognition deficit may be a relatively independent impairment in BD rather than consequences arising from deficits in other basic neurocognition. The impairments of manic patients in the recognition of negative emotions, specifically anger, may further our understanding of core clinical psychopathology of BD and have implications in treating bipolar patients across distinct mood phases.

  20. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement

    PubMed Central

    Trevarthen, Colwyn; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements, and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cognitive development and language learning in the second or third year, which lead to a diagnosis of ASD. The early signs relate to abnormalities that have been found in brain stem systems and cerebellum in the embryo or early fetal stage, before the cerebral neocortex is functional, and they have clear consequences in infancy when neocortical systems are intensively elaborated. We propose, with evidence of the disturbances of posture, locomotion and prospective motor control in children with autism, as well as of their facial expression of interest and affect, and attention to other persons' expressions, that examination of the psychobiology of motor affective disorders, rather than later developing cognitive or linguistic ones, may facilitate early diagnosis. Research in this area may also explain how intense interaction, imitation or “expressive art” therapies, which respond intimately with motor activities, are effective at later stages. Exceptional talents of some autistic people may be acquired compensations for basic problems with expectant self-regulations of movement, attention and emotion. PMID:23882192

  1. Emotional dysfunction in avoidant compared to borderline personality disorder: a study of affect consciousness.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Merete Selsbakk; Normann-Eide, Eivind; Normann-Eide, Tone; Wilberg, Theresa

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of emotional dysfunction in patients with avoidant personality disorder (APD) is much needed. The present study examined affect consciousness (AC) in patients with APD compared to borderline personality disorder (BPD). AC, defined as capacity to perceive, reflect on, tolerate, and express emotional experiences, is assumed to be central to structure-building in personality. The study tested the hypotheses that patients with APD have lower general AC and lower AC for pleasant affects compared to BPD. Fifty-nine patients, 26 with APD and 33 with BPD were rated on several aspects of AC using the specialized AC interview. The structured interview SCID-II was applied for diagnostic evaluations. The APD group had significantly lower levels of global AC and conceptual expressivity compared to the BPD group. Among 11 specific affects the APD group had significantly lower AC for interest and contempt. Emotional dysfunction is an important feature of APD and the findings indicate that psychotherapies for APD patients should focus on emotional experiences, aiming to improve emotional awareness, tolerance, and expressivity. The notion of a general avoidance of positive emotions in APD needs further exploration, including a possible dysfunction in the evolutionary based neuro-affective Seeking system.

  2. Developmental Coordination Disorder Affects the Processing of Action-Related Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Mirabella, Giovanni; Del Signore, Sara; Lakens, Daniel; Averna, Roberto; Penge, Roberta; Capozzi, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Processing action-language affects the planning and execution of motor acts, which suggests that the motor system might be involved in action-language understanding. However, this claim is hotly debated. For the first time, we compared the processing of action-verbs in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), a disease that specifically affects the motor system, with children with a typical development (TD). We administered two versions of a go/no-go task in which verbs expressing either hand, foot or abstract actions were presented. We found that only when the semantic content of a verb has to be retrieved, TD children showed an increase in reaction times if the verb involved the same effector used to give the response. In contrast, DCD patients did not show any difference between verb categories irrespective of the task. These findings suggest that the pathological functioning of the motor system in individuals with DCD also affects language processing. PMID:28119585

  3. Mood Disorders & their Pharmacological Treatment during Pregnancy: Is the Future Child Affected?

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Catherine; Fitelson, Elizabeth M.; Werner, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Nearly half the U.S. population will meet criteria for a neuropsychiatric disorder at some point in their lives, and 1 in 17 has a seriously debilitating illness. Though not all affected adults had an identified disorder as a child, increasingly these psychopathologies are conceptualized as the late–stage culmination of aberrant developmental processes shaped by a complex interplay of genes and experience, including experiences in utero. Decades of studies with pregnant animals demonstrate that stress–elicited perturbations in maternal biology affect offspring neurodevelopment. Studies of stress in pregnant women largely mirror these findings. Pregnant women with anxiety and/or depression experience greater life stress, as well as illness–related alterations in their neurobiology, with a potential to impact fetal neurobehavioral development via associated changes in the intrauterine environment, and/or pharmacologic interventions. This article critically reviews findings on child development (including fetal neurobehavior) related to maternal depression, anxiety, and pharmacological treatments, primarily Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). The hypothesis under review is that, in addition to genetics and characteristics of the postnatal environment, the familial transmission of risk for neuropsychiatric disorders involves a ‘third path’ — prenatal exposure to psychiatric illness and its treatment. PMID:21289532

  4. Ayurvedic approach for improving reaction time of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder affected children

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Harish Kumar; Neetu; Kumar, Abhimanyu; Rai, Moti

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder of children. It is the most common neurological disorder of childhood. The present study was conducted to examine the increase in attention span in 43 ADHD-affected children treated with different approaches. The reaction time was measured using a Vernier chronoscope (electronic). Selected children of both sexes in the age-group of 6–16 years were divided into three groups. In group A, 17 patients received syrup Ayurvedic compound I; in group B, 14 patients were treated with syrup Ayurvedic compound I + Shirodhara with milk; and in group C, 12 patients received syrup Ayurvedic compound II (placebo). The dose of the drug was 1.0 ml/kg body weight and the duration of treatment was 3 months. Group B showed highly significant (P<.001) improvement in total reaction time, while in group C the change was statistically nonsignificant P > 0.10. It was found that while the drug and Shirodhara were both effective in improving the reaction time of ADHD-affected children, the drug combined with Shirodhara was superior to the drug used alone. PMID:22131736

  5. Thyroid, brain and mood modulation in affective disorder: insights from molecular research and functional brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Bauer, M; London, E D; Silverman, D H; Rasgon, N; Kirchheiner, J; Whybrow, P C

    2003-11-01

    The efficacy resulting from adjunctive use of supraphysiological doses of levothyroxine has emerged as a promising approach to therapy and prophylaxis for refractory mood disorders. Most patients with mood disorders who receive treatment with supraphysiological doses of levothyroxine have normal peripheral thyroid hormone levels, and also respond differently to the hormone and tolerate it better than healthy individuals and patients with primary thyroid diseases. Progress in molecular and functional brain imaging techniques has provided a new understanding of these phenomena, illuminating the relationship between thyroid function, mood modulation and behavior. Thyroid hormones are widely distributed in the brain and have a multitude of effects on the central nervous system. Notably many of the limbic system structures where thyroid hormone receptors are prevalent have been implicated in the pathogenesis of mood disorders. The influence of the thyroid system on neurotransmitters (particularly serotonin and norepinephrine), which putatively play a major role in the regulation of mood and behavior, may contribute to the mechanisms of mood modulation. Recent functional brain imaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) with [ (18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose demonstrated that thyroid hormone treatment with levothyroxine affects regional brain metabolism in patients with hypothyroidism and bipolar disorder. Theses studies confirm that thyroid hormones are active in modulating metabolic function in the mature adult brain, and provide intriging neuroanatomic clues that may guide future research.

  6. Bad Astronomy Goes Hollywood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plait, P.

    2003-05-01

    It can be argued that astronomy is the oldest of all the sciences, so you'd think that after all this time people would have a pretty good understanding of it. In reality, however, misconceptions about astronomy abound, and even basic concepts are misunderstood. There are many sources of these cosmic misconceptions, including incorrect textbooks, parents and/or teachers who don't understand astronomy and therefore spread misinformation, urban legends, and so on. Perhaps the most pervasive source of bad astronomy is Hollywood. Science fiction movies are enormously popular, but are commonly written and directed by people who don't have even a passing familiarity with astronomy. The smash hit "Armageddon" (the number one box office movie of 1998), for example, used vast quantities of incorrect astronomy in the plot. It reinforced such popular misconceptions as huge asteroids impacting the Earth with little warning, small meteorites being hot when they impact, air existing in space, and that a simple bomb can blow up an asteroid the size of a small moon (even when the bomb is buried only 800 feet deep!). However, movie scenes can be used as a hook that engages the student, helping them learn and remember the correct science. In this talk, I will light-heartedly discuss specific examples of common misinformation, using movie clips, diagrams, and a splash of common sense to show just where Hollywood gets it wrong, and what you can do to help students and the public get it right.

  7. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Cekanova, Maria; Fernando, Romaine I.; Siriwardhana, Nalin; Sukhthankar, Mugdha; Parra, Columba de la; Woraratphoka, Jirayus; Malone, Christine; Ström, Anders; Baek, Seung J.; Wade, Paul A.; Saxton, Arnold M.; Donnell, Robert M.; Pestell, Richard G.; and others

    2015-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer. - Highlights: • BAD and p-BAD expressions are decreased in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue. • BAD impedes breast cancer invasion and migration. • BAD inhibits the EMT and transcription factors that promote cancer cell migration. • Invasion and migration functions of BAD are distinct from the BAD's role in apoptosis.

  8. A Naturalistic Examination of the Temporal Patterns of Affect and Eating Disorder Behaviors in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Lavender, Jason M.; Utzinger, Linsey M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Ellison, Jo; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Evidence supports the presence of significant variability in the timing of affective experiences and eating disorder (ED) behaviors across ED populations. This study examined the naturalistic timing of affective states and ED behaviors in anorexia nervosa (AN). Methods Women (N = 118) with full or subthreshold DSM-IV AN completed two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving self-reports of affect and ED behaviors. Patterns of positive affect, negative affect, and tension/anxiety across hours of the day and days of the week were examined using linear mixed models. Variation in ED behavior occurrence (i.e., binge eating, vomiting, exercise, meal skipping, and self-weighing) across hours of the day and days of the week was examined using general estimating equations. Results Results revealed significant variation in tension/anxiety across hours of the day; there were no significant associations between time of day and negative or positive affect. All affective variables significantly varied across days of the week, with both negative affect and tension/anxiety highest in the middle of the week and lowest on the weekends. The ED behaviors all significantly varied across hours of the day, with binge eating and vomiting most common in later hours, exercise and self-weighing most common in earlier hours, and meal skipping most common at times corresponding to breakfast and lunch. ED behaviors did not significantly vary across days of the week. Conclusion The significant patterns of variation in the timing of affective experiences and ED behaviors may have utility in informing theories and interventions for AN. PMID:26282336

  9. Affection of Fundamental Brain Activity By Using Sounds For Patients With Prosodic Disorders: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Emiko; Katagiri, Yoshitada; Seki, Keiko; Kawamata, Toshio

    2011-06-01

    We present a neural model of the production of modulated speech streams in the brain, referred to as prosody, which indicates the limbic structure essential for producing prosody both linguistically and emotionally. This model suggests that activating the fundamental brain including monoamine neurons at the basal ganglia will potentially contribute to helping patients with prosodic disorders coming from functional defects of the fundamental brain to overcome their speech problem. To establish effective clinical treatment for such prosodic disorders, we examine how sounds affect the fundamental activity by using electroencephalographic measurements. Throughout examinations with various melodious sounds, we found that some melodies with lilting rhythms successfully give rise to the fast alpha rhythms at the electroencephalogram which reflect the fundamental brain activity without any negative feelings.

  10. White matter integrity and its association with affective and interpersonal symptoms in borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Whalley, Heather C.; Nickson, Thomas; Pope, Merrick; Nicol, Katie; Romaniuk, Liana; Bastin, Mark E.; Semple, Scott I.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Hall, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe psychiatric disorder involving a range of symptoms including marked affective instability and disturbances in interpersonal interactions. Neuroimaging studies are beginning to provide evidence of altered processing in fronto-limbic network deficits in the disorder, however, few studies directly examine structural connections within this circuitry together with their relation to proposed causative processes and clinical features. Methods In the current study, we investigated whether individuals with BPD (n = 20) have deficits in white matter integrity compared to a matched group of healthy controls (n = 18) using diffusion tensor MRI (DTI). We hypothesized that the BPD group would have decreased fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter integrity, compared to the controls in white matter tracts connecting frontal and limbic regions, primarily the cingulum, fornix and uncinate fasciculus. We also investigated the extent to which any such deficits related to childhood adversity, as measured by the childhood trauma questionnaire, and symptom severity as measured by the Zanarini rating scale for BPD. Results We report decreased white matter integrity in BPD versus controls in the cingulum and fornix. There were no significant relationships between FA and measures of childhood trauma. There were, however, significant associations between FA in the cingulum and clinical symptoms of anger, and in the fornix with affective instability, and measures of avoidance of abandonment from the Zanarini rating scale. Conclusions We report deficits within fronto-limbic connections in individuals with BPD. Abnormalities within the fornix and cingulum were related to severity of symptoms and highlight the importance of these tracts in the pathogenesis of the disorder. PMID:25685714

  11. Hormonal, biochemical, and hematological profiles in female camels (Camelus dromedarius) affected with reproductive disorders.

    PubMed

    Ali, A; Tharwat, M; Al-Sobayil, F A

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the blood profiles in female camels affected with common reproductive disorders. Estradiol-17beta (E(2)), progesterone (P(4)), thyroxin (T(4)), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, hematocrite, and total and differential white blood cell counts (WBC) were determined in blood of female camels affected with endometritis (n=15), vaginal adhesions (n=15), and ovarian cysts (n=15). Normal cyclic animals were used as controls (n=15). Diagnosis of reproductive disorders was based on transrectal palpation, ultrasonographic examination, and exploration of the vagina. Increased WBC counts (P=0.03) and a tendency for neutrophelia (P=0.05) were noted in female camels with vaginal adhesions. These animals were also characterized by having higher concentration of serum P(4) (P=0.0001), T(4) (P=0.001) and total protein (P=0.007), in comparison with female camels with endometritis, ovarian cysts, or controls. Animals having ovarian cysts with thin walls and homogenous hypoechogenic contents had greater serum E(2) (P=0.001) and P(4) (P=0.0001) than those having ovarian cysts with thick walls and non-homogenous echogenic contents. Animals with endometritis, vaginal adhesions, and ovarian cysts revealed lower serum Zn concentration than that of control group (P=0.003). Other blood parameters did not differ significantly compared to controls. In conclusion, this is the first report characterizing blood constituents in female camels with various reproductive disorders. These profiles may be valuable in clarifying the etio-pathogenesis of these disorders.

  12. Genomewide Scan for Affective Disorder Susceptibility Loci in Families of a Northern Swedish Isolated Population

    PubMed Central

    Venken, Tine; Claes, Stephan; Sluijs, Samuël; Paterson, Andrew D.; van Duijn, Cornelia; Adolfsson, Rolf; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed nine multigenerational families with ascertained affective spectrum disorders in northern Sweden's geographically isolated population of Västerbotten. This northern Swedish population, which originated from a limited number of early settlers ∼8,000 years ago, is genetically more homogeneous than outbred populations. In a genomewide linkage analysis, we identified three chromosomal loci with multipoint LOD scores (MPLOD) ⩾2 at 9q31.1-q34.1 (MPLOD 3.24), 6q22.2-q24.2 (MPLOD 2.48), and 2q33-q36 (MPLOD 2.26) under a recessive affected-only model. Follow-up genotyping with application of a 2-cM density simple-tandem-repeat (STR) map confirmed linkage at 9q31.1-q34.1 (MPLOD 3.22), 6q23-q24 (MPLOD 3.25), and 2q33-q36 (MPLOD 2.2). In an initial analysis aimed at identification of the underlying susceptibility genes, we focused our attention on the 9q locus. We fine mapped this region at a 200-kb STR density, with the result of an MPLOD of 3.70. Genealogical studies showed that three families linked to chromosome 9q descended from common founder couples ∼10 generations ago. In this ∼10-generation pedigree, a common ancestral haplotype was inherited by the patients, which reduced the 9q candidate region to 1.6 Mb. Further, the shared haplotype was observed in 4.2% of patients with bipolar disorder with alternating episodes of depression and mania, but it was not observed in control individuals in a patient-control sample from the Västerbotten isolate. These results suggest a susceptibility locus on 9q31-q33 for affective disorder in this common ancestral region. PMID:15614721

  13. Possible contributions of skin pigmentation and vitamin D in a polyfactorial model of seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alan E; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Tanner, Susan; Kimlin, Michael G

    2014-11-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a polyfactorial and polygenetic disorder that involves biological and psychological sub-mechanisms that differentially involve depression, seasonality, circadian rhythms, retinal sensitivity, iris pigmentation, sleep factors, and the neurotransmitters involved with these systems. Within the framework of the polyfactorial conceptualization of SAD, we review the possible contributions of vitamin D3 with respect to the aforementioned sub-mechanisms. We hypothesize that rather than functioning primarily as a proximal or direct sub-mechanism in the etiology of SAD, vitamin D likely functions in a more foundational and regulative role in potentiating the sub-mechanisms associated with the depressive and seasonality factors. There are several reasons for this position: 1. vitamin D levels fluctuate in the body seasonally, with a lag, in direct relation to seasonally-available sunlight; 2. lower vitamin D levels have been observed in depressed patients (as well as in patients with other psychiatric disorders) compared to controls; 3. vitamin D levels in the central nervous system affect the production of both serotonin and dopamine; and 4. vitamin D and vitamin D responsive elements are found throughout the midbrain regions and are especially concentrated in the hypothalamus, a region that encompasses the circadian timing systems and much of its neural circuitry. We also consider the variable of skin pigmentation as this may affect levels of vitamin D in the body. We hypothesize that people with darker skin pigmentation may experience greater risks for lower vitamin D levels that, especially following their migration to regions of higher latitude, could contribute to the emergence of SAD and other psychiatric and physical health problems.

  14. Negative Affectivity and Effortful Control in Mothers With Borderline Personality Disorder and in Their Young Children.

    PubMed

    Mena, Christina G; Macfie, Jenny; Strimpfel, Jennifer M

    2016-07-07

    Research has examined temperament in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) but not in their offspring, despite offspring's risk of developing BPD and the importance of temperament in the etiology of BPD. We recruited a low-socioeconomic sample of 36 mothers with BPD and their children ages 4 through 7, and 34 normative comparisons. Replicating prior studies, mothers with BPD reported themselves as having more negative affectivity (frustration, fear) and less effortful control (inhibitory control, attentional control, activation control) than did comparisons. Mothers with BPD also reported that their offspring had more negative affectivity (anger/frustration, fear) and less effortful control (inhibitory control, attentional focusing) than did comparisons. We were concerned about potential bias and shared method variance. We therefore provided validity support for mothers' ratings of their children with teacher ratings of child behavior and child self-report via their story-stem completion narratives. We discuss children's temperamental vulnerability versus differential susceptibility to the environment.

  15. Reaction Time of Facial Affect Recognition in Asperger's Disorder for Cartoon and Real, Static and Moving Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyahara, Motohide; Bray, Anne; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Fujita, Chikako; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2007-01-01

    This study used a choice reaction-time paradigm to test the perceived impairment of facial affect recognition in Asperger's disorder. Twenty teenagers with Asperger's disorder and 20 controls were compared with respect to the latency and accuracy of response to happy or disgusted facial expressions, presented in cartoon or real images and in…

  16. A survey of children affected by ectomermal dysplasia syndromes shows an increased prevalence of atopic disorders and immune deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes are rare genetic disorders that affect the development of tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm. Studies and anecdotal experience have indicated that atopic disorders (AD) and immune deficiencies (ID) may be associated with ED in children. Some ED genotypes ...

  17. Mitochondrial genetic analyses suggest selection against maternal lineages in bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, R; Furlong, R A; Amos, W; Cooper, G; Rubinsztein, J S; Walsh, C; Paykel, E S; Rubinsztein, D C

    1999-01-01

    Previous reports of preferential transmission of bipolar affective disorder (BP) from the maternal versus the paternal lines in families suggested that this disorder may be caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations. We have sequenced the mitochondrial genome in 25 BP patients with family histories of psychiatric disorder that suggest matrilineal inheritance. No polymorphism identified more than once in this sequencing showed any significant association with BP in association studies using 94 cases and 94 controls. To determine whether our BP sample showed evidence of selection against the maternal lineage, we determined genetic distances between all possible pairwise comparisons within the BP and control groups, based on multilocus mitochondrial polymorphism haplotypes. These analyses revealed fewer closely related haplotypes in the BP group than in the matched control group, suggesting selection against maternal lineages in this disease. Such selection is compatible with recurrent mitochondrial mutations, which are associated with slightly decreased fitness. Although such mismatch distribution comparisons have been used previously for analyses of population histories, this is, as far as we are aware, the first report of this method being used to study disease. PMID:10417293

  18. A Prospective Investigation of Affect, the Desire to Gamble, Gambling Motivations and Gambling Behavior in the Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Quilty, Lena C; Watson, Chris; Toneatto, Tony; Bagby, R Michael

    2017-03-01

    Time-sampling methodology was implemented to examine the prospective associations between affect, desire to gamble, and gambling behavior in individuals diagnosed with a mood disorder. Thirty (9 male, 21 female) adults with a lifetime diagnosis of a depressive or bipolar disorder diagnosis who endorsed current gambling and lifetime gambling harm participated in the present study. Participants completed electronic diary entries of their current affective state, desire to gamble, and gambling behavior for 30 consecutive days. Hierarchical linear modelling revealed that affect was not a predictor of gambling behavior. Instead, affect predicted the desire to gamble, with high levels of sadness and arousal independently predicting an increased desire to gamble. Desire to gamble predicted actual gambling behavior. There were no differences across diagnostic groups in terms of gambling motivations at baseline; however, during the 30-day period, participants with bipolar disorder endorsed gambling to cope with negative affect more often than did participants with depressive disorder, whereas those with depressive disorder more often endorsed gambling for social reasons or enhancement of positive affect. The present findings provide evidence that negative affect is not directly related to actual gambling behavior, and suggest that affective states rather impact the desire to gamble.

  19. Clinical and cognitive factors affecting psychosocial functioning in remitted patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Konstantakopoulos, G; Ioannidi, N; Typaldou, M; Sakkas, D; Oulis, P

    2016-01-01

    Impaired interpersonal, social, and occupational functioning is very often observed in patients with bipolar disorder, not only at the acute stages of the illness but in remission as well. This finding raises the question of multiple factors that might affect psychosocial functioning in bipolar patients, such as residual subsyndromal symptoms and neuropsychological deficits. Social cognition impairment, especially impaired Theory of Mind (ToM), might also play an important role in bipolar patients' every-day functioning, similarly to what was found in patients with schizophrenia. The present study aimed to investigate the potential effect of clinical and cognitive factors on the psychosocial functioning of patients with bipolar disorder during remission, assessing ToM along with a broad range of basic cognitive functions. Forty-nine patients with bipolar disorder type I in remission and 53 healthy participants were assessed in general intelligence, working memory, attention, speed processing, verbal learning and memory, and executive functions using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. The Faux Pas Recognition Test was used to assess ToM. The two groups were matched for gender, age and education level. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) were also administered to the patients. Every-day functioning was assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). In order to examine the contribution of many factors in psychosocial functioning, we used hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Bipolar patients presented significant impairment compared to healthy participants in all the basic cognitive functions tested with the exception of verbal memory. Moreover, patients had significant poorer performance than healthy controls in overall psyand cognitive ToM but not in affective ToM as measured by Faux Pas. Psychosocial functioning in patient group was

  20. Influence of Sex on Suicidal Phenotypes in Affective Disorder Patients with Traumatic Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Carlberg, Laura; Swoboda, Patrick; Ludwig, Birgit; Koller, Romina; Kapusta, Nestor D.; Aigner, Martin; Haslacher, Helmuth; Schmöger, Michaela; Kasper, Siegfried; Schosser, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the current study, we aimed to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on suicidal behaviour phenotypes in a group of patients with diagnosed affective disorder (unipolar or bipolar affective disorder). Patients and Methods Patients with and without a history of childhood abuse, measured by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), were assessed to explore risks for suicidal behaviour (including suicide attempt, self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury). The tested sample consisted of 258 patients (111 males and 147 females, in-patients and out-patients at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna and University Hospital Tulln, Lower Austria). Psychiatric diagnoses were derived from the SCAN (Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry) interview. In addition, patients were administered the Lifetime Parasuicidal Count (LPC), Suicidal Behaviour Questionnaire (SBQ-R), and Viennese Suicide Risk Assessment Scale (VISURIAS) questionnaires. Results In contrast to male suicide attempters, female suicide attempters showed both significantly higher total CTQ scores (p<0.001), and higher CTQ subscores (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, as well as emotional and physical neglect) in comparison to the non-suicidal control group. Besides, females with a history of self-harming behaviour (including suicidal intention) and Non-Suicidal-Self Injury (NSSI) had significantly higher CTQ total scores (p<0.001) than the control group. Conclusion These findings suggest gender differences in suicidal behaviour after being exposed to childhood trauma. PMID:26366559

  1. Retraction of "The influence of mood on attribution," "Affects of the unexpected: When inconsistency feels good (or bad)," "Why people stereotype affects how they stereotype: The differential influence of comprehension goals and self-enhancement goals on stereotyping," "Silence and table manners: When environments activate norms," and "Event accessibility and context effects in causal inference: Judgment of a different order".

    PubMed

    2012-10-01

    The following five articles have been retracted from Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, and the Editor and the publisher of the journal: Avramova, Y.R., Stapel, D.A. & Lerouge, D. (2010). The influence of mood on attribution. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1360-1371. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0146167210381083) Noordewier, M.K., & Stapel, D.A. (2010). Affects of the unexpected: When inconsistency feels good (or bad). Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 642-654. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0146167209357746 ) Van den Bos, A., & Stapel, D.A. (2009). Why people stereotype affects how they stereotype: The differential influence of comprehension goals and self-enhancement goals on stereotyping. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(1), 101-113 (Original DOI: 10.1177/0146167208325773) Joly, J.F., Stapel, D.A., & Lindenberg, S.M. (2008). Silence and table manners: When environments activate norms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(8), 1047-1056 (Original DOI: 10.1177/0146167208318401) Stapel, D. A., & Spears, R. (1996). Event accessibility and context effects in causal inference: Judgment of a different order. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 979-992. (Original DOI: 10.1177/01461672962210001).

  2. GAD2 Alternative Transcripts in the Human Prefrontal Cortex, and in Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Gao, Yuan; Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C.; Lipska, Barbara K.; Shin, Joo Heon; Xie, Bin; Ye, Tianzhang; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Kleinman, Joel E.; Hyde, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation and early adverse environmental events work together to increase risk for schizophrenia. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in adult mammalian brain, plays a major role in normal brain development, and has been strongly implicated in the pathobiology of schizophrenia. GABA synthesis is controlled by two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) genes, GAD1 and GAD2, both of which produce a number of alternative transcripts. Genetic variants in the GAD1 gene are associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, and reduced expression of its major transcript in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). No consistent changes in GAD2 expression have been found in brains from patients with schizophrenia. In this work, with the use of RNA sequencing and PCR technologies, we confirmed and tracked the expression of an alternative truncated transcript of GAD2 (ENST00000428517) in human control DLPFC homogenates across lifespan besides the well-known full length transcript of GAD2. In addition, using quantitative RT-PCR, expression of GAD2 full length and truncated transcripts were measured in the DLPFC of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. The expression of GAD2 full length transcript is decreased in the DLPFC of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, while GAD2 truncated transcript is increased in bipolar disorder patients but decreased in schizophrenia patients. Moreover, the patients with schizophrenia with completed suicide or positive nicotine exposure showed significantly higher expression of GAD2 full length transcript. Alternative transcripts of GAD2 may be important in the growth and development of GABA-synthesizing neurons as well as abnormal GABA signaling in the DLPFC of patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders. PMID:26848839

  3. Cognitive and affective components of Theory of Mind in preschoolers with oppositional defiance disorder: Clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Domenech, Josep Maria; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2016-07-30

    The goal of the study was to examine the affective-cognitive components of Theory of Mind (ToM), in a community sample of 538 preschoolers, and more specifically in a subsample of 40 children diagnosed with ODD. The relationship between affective and cognitive ToM and some ODD clinical characteristics was examined. Children were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and dimensional measures of psychopathology, impairment and unemotional traits. A measure based on eye-gaze was used to assess ToM. Mixed analysis of variance compared the mean cognitive versus affective scale scores and the between-subjects factor ODD. The association between ToM-scores and clinical measures was assessed through correlation models. Execution and reaction time to emotional and cognitive components of ToM tasks are different at age 5 in normally developing children. Oppositional Defiant children had slower response time when performing the affective mentalizing condition than children without the disorder. The correlation matrix between ToM-scores and clinical measures showed specific associations depending on the impaired ToM aspect and the psychological domain. Results may have clinical implications for the prevention and management of ODD.

  4. Loving-Kindness Meditation to Target Affect in Mood Disorders: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Petrocchi, Nicola; Steinberg, James; Lin, Muyu; Arimitsu, Kohki; Kind, Shelley; Mendes, Adriana; Stangier, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Conventional treatments for mood disorders primarily focus on reducing negative affect, but little on enhancing positive affect. Loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is a traditional meditation practice directly oriented toward enhancing unconditional and positive emotional states of kindness towards oneself and others. We report here two independent and uncontrolled studies carried out at different centers, one in Boston, USA (n = 10), and one in Frankfurt, Germany (n = 8), to examine the potential therapeutic utility of a brief LKM group intervention for symptoms of dysthymia and depression. Results at both centers suggest that LKM was associated with large-sized effects on self-reported symptoms of depression (d = 3.33 and 1.90), negative affect (d = 1.98 and 0.92), and positive affect (d = 1.63 and 0.94). Large effects were also found for clinician-reported changes in depression, rumination and specific positive emotions, and moderate effects for changes in adaptive emotion regulation strategies. The qualitative data analyses provide additional support for the potential clinical utility of the intervention. This proof-of-concept evaluation of LKM as a clinical strategy warrants further investigation.

  5. Elevated Preattentive Affective Processing in Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Hooley, Jill M.; Dahlgren, Mary K.; Gönenc, Atilla; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Gruber, Staci A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emotion dysregulation is central to the clinical conceptualization of borderline personality disorder (BPD), with individuals often displaying instability in mood and intense feelings of negative affect. Although existing data suggest important neural and behavioral differences in the emotion processing of individuals with BPD, studies thus far have only explored reactions to overt emotional information. Therefore, it is unclear if BPD-related emotional hypersensitivity extends to stimuli presented below the level of conscious awareness (preattentively). Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure neural responses to happy, angry, fearful, and neutral faces presented preattentively, using a backward masked affect paradigm. Given their tendency toward emotional hyperreactivity and altered amygdala and frontal activation, we hypothesized that individuals with BPD would demonstrate a distinct pattern of fMRI responses relative to those without BPD during the viewing of masked affective versus neutral faces in specific regions of interests (ROIs). Results: Results indicated that individuals with BPD demonstrated increases in frontal, cingulate, and amygdalar activation represented by number of voxels activated and demonstrated a different pattern of activity within the ROIs relative to those without BPD while viewing masked affective versus neutral faces. Conclusion: These findings suggest that in addition to the previously documented heightened responses to overt displays of emotion, individuals with BPD also demonstrate differential responses to positive and negative emotions, early in the processing stream, even before conscious awareness. PMID:26696932

  6. The interaction of borderline personality disorder symptoms and relationship satisfaction in predicting affect.

    PubMed

    Kuhlken, Katherine; Robertson, Christopher; Benson, Jessica; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that stable, marital relationships may have overall prognostic significance for individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD); however, research focused on the impact of nonmarital, and perhaps short-term, romantic relationships is lacking. Thus, the primary goal of this study was to examine the impact of the interaction of BPD symptoms and relationship satisfaction on state negative affect in college undergraduates. It was predicted that individuals who scored higher on measures of BPD symptoms and who were in a satisfying romantic relationship would report less negative affect than comparable individuals in a less satisfying romantic relationship. Questionnaires assessing BPD symptoms, relationship satisfaction, and negative affect were administered to 111 women, the majority of whom then completed daily measures of relationship satisfaction and negative affect over a 2-week follow-up period. Hierarchical multiple regression and hierarchical linear modeling were used to test the hypotheses. The interaction of BPD symptoms with relationship satisfaction was found to significantly predict anger, as measured at one time point, suggesting that satisfying romantic relationships may be a protective factor for individuals scoring high on measures of BPD symptoms with regard to anger.

  7. Walk on the bright side: physical activity and affect in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Mata, Jutta; Thompson, Renee J; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H

    2012-05-01

    Although prescribed exercise has been found to improve affect and reduce levels of depression, we do not know how self-initiated everyday physical activity influences levels of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in depressed persons. Fifty-three individuals diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 53 never-depressed controls participated in a seven-day experience sampling study. Participants were prompted randomly eight times per day and answered questions about their physical activity and affective state. Over the week, the two groups of participants did not differ in average level of physical activity. As expected, participants with MDD reported lower average PA and higher average NA than did never-depressed controls. Both participants with MDD and controls reported higher levels of PA at prompts after physical activity than at prompts after inactive periods; moreover, for both groups of participants, PA increased from a prompt after an inactive period to a subsequent prompt at which activity was reported. Depressed participants in particular showed a dose-response effect of physical activity on affect: longer duration and/or higher intensity of physical activity increased their PA significantly more than did short duration and/or lower intensity physical activity. Physical activity did not influence NA in either group. In contrast to previous treatment studies that examined the effects of prescribed structured exercise, this investigation showed that self-initiated physical activity influences PA. These findings also underscore the importance of distinguishing between PA and NA to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of physical activity on affect in MDD.

  8. Affective Disorders, Psychosis and Dementia in a Community Sample of Older Men with and without Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Osvaldo P.; McCaul, Kieran; Hankey, Graeme J.; Yeap, Bu B.; Golledge, Jonathan; Flicker, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Background Dementia and affective and psychotic symptoms are commonly associated with Parkinson’s disease, but information about their prevalence and incidence in community representative samples remains sparse. Methods We recruited a community-representative sample 38173 older men aged 65–85 years in 1996 and used data linkage to ascertain the presence of PD, affective disorders, psychotic disorders and dementia. Diagnoses followed the International Classification of Disease coding system. Age was recorded in years. Follow up data were available until December 2011. Results The mean age of participants was 72.5 years and 333 men (0.9%) had PD at study entry. Affective and psychotic disorders and dementia were more frequent in men with than without PD (respective odds ratios: 6.3 [95%CI = 4.7, 8.4]; 14.2 [95%CI = 8.4, 24.0] and 18.2 [95%CI = 13.4, 24.6]). Incidence rate ratios of affective and psychotic disorders were higher among men with than without PD, although ratios decreased with increasing age. The age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of an affective episode associated with PD was 5.0 (95%CI = 4.2, 5.9). PD was associated with an age-adjusted HR of 8.6 (95%CI = 6.1, 12.0) for psychotic disorders and 6.1 (95%CI = 5.5, 6.8) for dementia. PD and dementia increased the HR of depressive and psychotic disorders. Conclusions PD increases the risk of affective and psychotic disorders, as well as dementia, among community dwelling older men. The risk of a recorded diagnosis of affective and psychotic disorders decreases with increasing age. PMID:27689715

  9. Affective Temperament Profiles in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Association with Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    ÖZKAN, Adile; ALTINBAŞ, Kürşat; KOÇ, Emine Rabia; ŞEN, Halil Murat; ÖZIŞIK KARAMAN, Handan Işın

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to screen for bipolarity and to investigate the affective temperaments of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and the possible association between the clinical and demographic characteristics of MS patients and temperament profiles. Methods A total of 65 patients with MS and 66 healthy volunteers completed the 32-item hypomania checklist (HCl-32), the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), and the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) tests. The HCl-32, MDQ, and TEMPS-A scores were compared between the patients and healthy volunteers. Results MS patients had significantly higher scores for the depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious domains of the TEMPS-A scale than the control group, whereas relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients had higher MDQ and TEMPS-A hyperthymia scores than secondary progressive MS patients. MS patients who were being treated with interferon beta 1-b therapy had significantly higher MDQ scores than those being treated with interferon beta 1-a, glatiramer acetate, or who were without medication. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores were positively correlated with TEMPS-A depressive and hyperthymic temperaments. Conclusion Our results suggest that higher scores for affective temperament in MS patients indicate subclinical manifestations of mood disorders. Higher hyperthymia scores and manic symptoms detected in the RRMS group could shed light on the relationship between bipolarity and MS. Thus, the screening of bipolarity and affective temperament profiles in MS patients could help clinicians predict future mood episodes and decrease their impact on disease severity. PMID:28360804

  10. Oxidative Stress Implications in the Affective Disorders: Main Biomarkers, Animal Models Relevance, Genetic Perspectives, and Antioxidant Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Balmus, Ioana Miruna; Dobrin, Romeo; Timofte, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the affective disorders and the almost ubiquitous pathological oxidative stress can be described in a multifactorial way, as an important mechanism of central nervous system impairment. Whether the obvious changes which occur in oxidative balance of the affective disorders are a part of the constitutive mechanism or a collateral effect yet remains as an interesting question. However it is now clear that oxidative stress is a component of these disorders, being characterized by different aspects in a disease-dependent manner. Still, there are a lot of controversies regarding the relevance of the oxidative stress status in most of the affective disorders and despite the fact that most of the studies are showing that the affective disorders development can be correlated to increased oxidative levels, there are various studies stating that oxidative stress is not linked with the mood changing tendencies. Thus, in this minireview we decided to describe the way in which oxidative stress is involved in the affective disorders development, by focusing on the main oxidative stress markers that could be used mechanistically and therapeutically in these deficiencies, the genetic perspectives, some antioxidant approaches, and the relevance of some animal models studies in this context. PMID:27563374

  11. Attentional and affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Marieke; van Leeuwen, Matthijs; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Heiman, Julia R; Laan, Ellen

    2012-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem in women. From an incentive motivation perspective, HSDD may be the result of a weak association between sexual stimuli and rewarding experiences. As a consequence, these stimuli may either lose or fail to acquire a positive meaning, resulting in a limited number of incentives that have the capacity to elicit a sexual response. According to current information processing models of sexual arousal, sexual stimuli automatically activate meanings and if these are not predominantly positive, processes relevant to the activation of sexual arousal and desire may be interrupted. Premenopausal U.S. and Dutch women with acquired HSDD (n = 42) and a control group of sexually functional women (n = 42) completed a single target Implicit Association Task and a Picture Association Task assessing automatic affective associations with sexual stimuli and a dot detection task measuring attentional capture by sexual stimuli. Results showed that women with acquired HSDD displayed less positive (but not more negative) automatic associations with sexual stimuli than sexually functional women. The same pattern was found for self-reported affective sex-related associations. Participants were slower to detect targets in the dot detection task that replaced sexual images, irrespective of sexual function status. As such, the findings point to the relevance of affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with HSDD, and imply that the treatment of HSDD might benefit from a stronger emphasis on the strengthening of the association between sexual stimuli and positive meaning and sexual reward.

  12. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems

    PubMed Central

    Raison, Charles L.; Hale, Matthew W.; Williams, Lawrence E.; Wager, Tor D.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that afferent thermosensory signals contribute to well-being and depression. Although thermoregulatory systems have traditionally been conceptualized as serving primarily homeostatic functions, increasing evidence suggests neural pathways responsible for regulating body temperature may be linked more closely with emotional states than previously recognized, an affective warmth hypothesis. Human studies indicate that increasing physical warmth activates brain circuits associated with cognitive and affective functions, promotes interpersonal warmth and prosocial behavior, and has antidepressant effects. Consistent with these effects, preclinical studies in rodents demonstrate that physical warmth activates brain serotonergic neurons implicated in antidepressant-like effects. Together, these studies suggest that (1) thermosensory pathways interact with brain systems that control affective function, (2) these pathways are dysregulated in affective disorders, and (3) activating warm thermosensory pathways promotes a sense of well-being and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of affective disorders. PMID:25628593

  13. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems.

    PubMed

    Raison, Charles L; Hale, Matthew W; Williams, Lawrence E; Wager, Tor D; Lowry, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that afferent thermosensory signals contribute to well-being and depression. Although thermoregulatory systems have traditionally been conceptualized as serving primarily homeostatic functions, increasing evidence suggests neural pathways responsible for regulating body temperature may be linked more closely with emotional states than previously recognized, an affective warmth hypothesis. Human studies indicate that increasing physical warmth activates brain circuits associated with cognitive and affective functions, promotes interpersonal warmth and prosocial behavior, and has antidepressant effects. Consistent with these effects, preclinical studies in rodents demonstrate that physical warmth activates brain serotonergic neurons implicated in antidepressant-like effects. Together, these studies suggest that (1) thermosensory pathways interact with brain systems that control affective function, (2) these pathways are dysregulated in affective disorders, and (3) activating warm thermosensory pathways promotes a sense of well-being and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of affective disorders.

  14. Eating style in seasonal affective disorder: who will gain weight in winter?

    PubMed

    Kräuchi, K; Reich, S; Wirz-Justice, A

    1997-01-01

    Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) selectively eat more carbohydrates (CHO), particularly sweets but also starch-rich foods, during their depression in winter. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was administered to female SAD patients, healthy female controls, and female medical students to determine their eating style, together with the modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ+). SAD patients showed higher values for "emotional" (EMOT) eating than the students, and these in turn had higher values than the controls. In comparison to controls, SAD patients and students head high values for the factor "external" (EXT) eating, but there was no difference between the groups with respect to "restraint" (REST) eating. This is in strong contrast to patients with bulimia and anorexia nervosa, who are high REST eaters, indicating that SAD patients do not have a similar eating disorder. Additional items showed that SAD patients selectively eat sweets under emotionally difficult conditions (when depressed, anxious, or lonely). Configural frequency analysis showed that seasonal body weight change (SBWC) is high in subjects with high EMOT and REST eating together with a high body mass index (BMI). This result is in accordance with the concept of disinhibition of dietary restraint in extreme emotional situations, e.g., the depressive state.

  15. State of the art psychopharmacological treatment options in seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Mesut; Batmaz, Sedat; Songur, Emrah; Oral, Esat Timuçin

    2016-03-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is defined as a subtype of mood disorders in DSM 5, and it is characterized by a seasonal onset. SAD is proposed to be related to the seasonal changes in naturally occurring light, and the use of bright light therapy for depressive symptoms has been shown to reduce them in placebo controlled trials. Cognitive behavioral therapy has also been demonstrated to be effective in SAD. This review article aims to focus on the psychopharmacological treatment options for SAD. According to clinical trial results, first line treatment options seem to be sertraline and fluoxetine, and are well tolerated by the patients. There is some evidence that other antidepressants (e.g. bupropion) might be effective as well. Although clinical trials have shown that some of these antidepressants may be of benefit, a recent review has concluded that there is not enough evidence to support the use of any of these agents for the treatment of SAD yet. Moreover, more studies are still needed to evaluate the effectiveness of other treatment options, e.g., propranolol, melatonin, hypericum, etc. In addition to the above proposed treatments, patients with seasonal depressive symptoms should thoroughly be evaluated for any cues of bipolarity, and their treatment should be planned accordingly.

  16. Maternal interaction style in affective disordered, physically ill, and normal women.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, E B; Jones, M; Hammen, C

    1993-09-01

    Affective style (AS) and communication deviance (CD) have been suggested as markers of dysfunctional family environments that may be associated with psychiatric illness. Studies have focused mainly on parental responses during family interactions when an offspring is the identified patient. The present study is unique in examining AS and CD in mothers with unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, or chronic physical illness, and in normal controls. The sample consisted of 64 mothers with children ages 8 to 16. Unipolar mothers were more likely to show negative AS than were any other maternal group. There were no group differences for CD. Chronic stress, few positive life events, and single parenting were associated with AS. CD was associated solely with lower socioeconomic status. Results suggest that dysfunctional interactions are determined not only by maternal psychopathology, but also by an array of contextual factors that are related to the quality of the family environment.

  17. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Heather A.; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical development than participants with ASD. In the hierarchical linear modeling analysis, there were no differences in face processing accuracy between participants with and without ASD, but participants with ASD were more confident in their decisions. These results suggest that individuals with ASD have metacognitive impairments and are overconfident in face processing. Additionally, greater metacognitive awareness was predictive of better face processing accuracy, suggesting that metacognition may be a pivotal skill to teach in interventions. PMID:26496991

  18. A real world dissemination and implementation of Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) for veterans with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Gros, Daniel F; Szafranski, Derek D; Shead, Sarah D

    2017-03-01

    Dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychotherapies is challenging in real world clinical settings. Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) for affective disorders was developed with dissemination and implementation in clinical settings in mind. The present study investigated a voluntary local dissemination and implementation effort, involving 28 providers participating in a four-hour training on TBT. Providers completed immediate (n=22) and six-month follow-up (n=12) training assessments and were encouraged to collect data on their TBT patients (delivery fidelity was not investigated). Findings demonstrated that providers endorsed learning of and interest in using TBT after the training. At six-months, 50% of providers reported using TBT with their patients and their perceived effectiveness of TBT to be very good to excellent. Submitted patient outcome data evidenced medium to large effect sizes. Together, these findings provide preliminary support for the effectiveness of a real world dissemination and implementation of TBT.

  19. Journey as destination: a recovery model for families affected by concurrent disorders.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Caroline P; Skinner, W J Wayne

    2012-08-01

    We conducted a study offering peer support and education to members of families affected by concurrent disorders (CD). This article is an analysis of the qualitative data from a mixed methods study. Using constructivist grounded theory, we analyzed semistructured interviews with participants, with half attending a 12-week support group and reading weekly workbook assignments, and the others receiving the workbook only and being interviewed 3 months later. We developed a model that describes family journeys into, through, and beyond CD, involving three phases connected by two transitional constructs. Preoccupation with the unresolved CD of an ill family member characterized the journey into and through illness, the first two phases, whereas renewal characterized the passage from illness to journeying on toward recovery. Participants had strong comments about health care providers and the service system, and spoke of the need for self-care, empowerment, support, and inclusion.

  20. The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenland is related to latitude.

    PubMed

    Kegel, Mogens; Dam, Henrik; Ali, Fatuma; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenlanders and Danes living at four different latitudes in Greenland. A Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was mailed to 6021 men and women between the ages of 18 and 59 years living in four different municipalities in Greenland. The recipients were randomly selected from the National Population Register. Approximately 9% of the respondents met the criteria for SAD, and the incidence of SAD varied between a southern municipality and three northern municipalities. The prevalence of SAD was particularly high in northern municipalities. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of SAD between Greenlanders and Danes. The results are comparable with other population studies that have reported a high prevalence of SAD in arctic areas. The clinical implications of our findings and the possibilities for introducing light therapy should be assessed in future studies.

  1. Seasonal affective disorder: a review of the syndrome and its public health implications.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, F M; Wehr, T A; Sack, D A; James, S P; Rosenthal, N E

    1987-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a disturbance of mood and behavior which resembles some seasonal changes seen in lower mammals. Like these animal seasonal changes, SAD is thought to be related to decreased sunlight during winter months. [SAD has been successfully treated with exposure to bright artificial light of higher intensity than is usually present in the home or workplace. Many people not suffering from SAD may nonetheless have seasonal changes which could be helped by environmental light supplementation. Lighting standards in the home and workplace should be re-evaluated on the basis of new knowledge of the psychobiological effects of light.] We review the literature on SAD and discuss its public health implications in the context of a typical case presentation. PMID:3789239

  2. No Effect of Ambient Odor on the Affective Appraisal of a Desktop Virtual Environment with Signs of Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Toet, Alexander; van Schaik, Martin; Theunissen, Nicolet C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Desktop virtual environments (VEs) are increasingly deployed to study the effects of environmental qualities and interventions on human behavior and safety related concerns in built environments. For these applications it is essential that users appraise the affective qualities of the VE similar to those of its real world counterpart. Previous studies have shown that factors like simulated lighting, sound and dynamic elements all contribute to the affective appraisal of a desktop VE. Since ambient odor is known to affect the affective appraisal of real environments, and has been shown to increase the sense of presence in immersive VEs, it may also be an effective tool to tune the affective appraisal of desktop VEs. This study investigated if exposure to ambient odor can modulate the affective appraisal of a desktop VE with signs of public disorder. Method Participants explored a desktop VE representing a suburban neighborhood with signs of public disorder (neglect, vandalism and crime), while being exposed to either room air or subliminal levels of unpleasant (tar) or pleasant (cut grass) ambient odor. Whenever they encountered signs of disorder they reported their safety related concerns and associated affective feelings. Results Signs of crime in the desktop VE were associated with negative affective feelings and concerns for personal safety and personal property. However, there was no significant difference between reported safety related concerns and affective connotations in the control (no-odor) and in each of the two ambient odor conditions. Conclusion Ambient odor did not affect safety related concerns and affective connotations associated with signs of disorder in the desktop VE. Thus, semantic congruency between ambient odor and a desktop VE may not be sufficient to influence its affective appraisal, and a more realistic simulation in which simulated objects appear to emit scents may be required to achieve this goal. PMID:24250810

  3. How to Tell Bad News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Therapists, physicians, police officers, and emergency staff often are the messengers of bad news. They have to tell a patient, a parent, or a loved one about a death, an accident, a school shooting, a life-threatening diagnosis, a terrorist attack, or a suicide. Usually the messenger bears a heavy responsibility but has little training and seeks…

  4. Bad Arguments Defending Racial Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Professor Cohen describes the arduous path to the passage of Proposition 2 in Michigan in 2006. In considering the reasons for its victory, he shows how claims (sometimes well-intended) "for" preferences rest on truly bad arguments. (Contains 8 footnotes.)

  5. BAD TIMES, SLIMMER CHILDREN?

    PubMed

    Bellés-Obrero, Cristina; Jiménez-Martín, Sergi; Vall-Castello, Judit

    2016-11-01

    Although the majority of the literature has confirmed that recessions are beneficial for adults' health and babies' outcomes at delivery, this effect should not necessarily be the same for children. In this paper, we study the effect of business cycle conditions on infant underweight, overweight, and obesity. We exploit eight waves of repeated cross-sectional data (1987-2012) of the Spanish National Health Survey for children aged 2-15 and use the regional unemployment rate of the trimester of the interview as a proxy for the business cycle phase at the local level. We find that an increase in the unemployment rate is associated with lower obesity incidence, especially for children under 6 years old and over 12 years old. However, economic shocks also proof to have potentially negative consequences as they increase the prevalence of infant underweight for the same age groups. Moreover, we show that the possible mechanisms through which the cycle is impacting infant obesity is the nutritional composition of the children's diet, as well as, increases in the frequency of exercise. We provide some evidence that suggests that the impact of business cycle conditions on infant weight disorders have little objective health consequences in the short run. However, the potential long-term effects may become important as underweight during childhood is associated with worse outcomes later in life. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Drive for thinness, affect regulation and physical activity in eating disorders: a daily life study.

    PubMed

    Vansteelandt, Kristof; Rijmen, Frank; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2007-08-01

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, the within patient associations between drive for thinness, emotional states, momentary urge to be physically active and physical activity were studied in 32 inpatients with an eating disorder. Participants received an electronic device and had to indicate at nine random times a day during 1 week their momentary drive for thinness, positive and negative emotional states and their urge to be physically active and physical activity. Multilevel analyses indicated that patients with higher mean levels for urge to be physically active were characterized by lower body mass index (BMI) and chronically negative affect whereas patients with higher mean levels for physical activity were characterized by lower BMI and higher dispositions for drive for thinness. In addition, within patient relations between drive for thinness and urge to be physically active were moderated by BMI and chronically negative affect whereas within patient relations between drive for thinness and physical activity were moderated by BMI. Finally, also positive emotional states were significantly associated with physical activity within patients. By using a daily process design, characteristics of physical activity were revealed that have not been identified with assessment methods that have a lower time resolution.

  7. Craniofacial Morphology Affects Bite Force in Patients with Painful Temporomandibular Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bavia, Paula Furlan; Vilanova, Larissa Soares Reis; Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial morphology affects masticatory performance in healthy dentate subjects, but little is known about its effects in patients with painful temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Forty-eight female patients (mean age of 28±5.8 years) with painful TMDs underwent lateral cephalometric radiography. Using Ricketts' cephalometric analysis and the Vert method, subjects were assigned to three groups according to their craniofacial morphology: brachyfacial (n=22), mesofacial (n=13), and dolichofacial (n=13). Research diagnostic criteria for TMD were used to confirm the TMD diagnosis for each patient. Pain intensity was reported by each patient based on a visual analog scale (VAS). Maximum bite force (MBF) was measured with pressure sensors placed on the first molar site. Masticatory performance (MP) was assessed by chewing a silicone-based artificial material and determining the resulting particle size by the sieve method. Chewing ability (CA) was evaluated for seven food types and analyzed by a VAS questionnaire. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey-Kramer test (p<0.05). MBF differed in each group, with brachyfacial patients having the highest MBF values. There was no difference in MP among the groups. The groups differed only in their ability to chew one of the seven evaluated food types. In summary, craniofacial morphology affects the MBF without impairing MP or CA in patients with painful TMDs.

  8. An affective disorder in zebrafish with mutation of the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Ziv, L; Muto, A; Schoonheim, P J; Meijsing, S H; Strasser, D; Ingraham, H A; Schaaf, M J M; Yamamoto, K R; Baier, H

    2013-06-01

    Upon binding of cortisol, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulates the transcription of specific target genes, including those that encode the stress hormones corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone. Dysregulation of the stress axis is a hallmark of major depression in human patients. However, it is still unclear how glucocorticoid signaling is linked to affective disorders. We identified an adult-viable zebrafish mutant in which the negative feedback on the stress response is disrupted, due to abolition of all transcriptional activity of GR. As a consequence, cortisol is elevated, but unable to signal through GR. When placed into an unfamiliar aquarium ('novel tank'), mutant fish become immobile ('freeze'), show reduced exploratory behavior and do not habituate to this stressor upon repeated exposure. Addition of the antidepressant fluoxetine to the holding water and social interactions restore normal behavior, followed by a delayed correction of cortisol levels. Fluoxetine does not affect the overall transcription of CRH, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), the serotonin transporter (Serta) or GR itself. Fluoxetine, however, suppresses the stress-induced upregulation of MR and Serta in both wild-type fish and mutants. Our studies show a conserved, protective function of glucocorticoid signaling in the regulation of emotional behavior and reveal novel molecular aspects of how chronic stress impacts vertebrate brain physiology and behavior. Importantly, the zebrafish model opens up the possibility of high-throughput drug screens in search of new classes of antidepressants.

  9. Impairments in facial affect recognition associated with autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lozier, Leah M; Vanmeter, John W; Marsh, Abigail A

    2014-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by social impairments, including inappropriate responses to affective stimuli and nonverbal cues, which may extend to poor face-emotion recognition. However, the results of empirical studies of face-emotion recognition in individuals with ASD have yielded inconsistent findings that occlude understanding the role of face-emotion recognition deficits in the development of ASD. The goal of this meta-analysis was to address three as-yet unanswered questions. Are ASDs associated with consistent face-emotion recognition deficits? Do deficits generalize across multiple emotional expressions or are they limited to specific emotions? Do age or cognitive intelligence affect the magnitude of identified deficits? The results indicate that ASDs are associated with face-emotion recognition deficits across multiple expressions and that the magnitude of these deficits increases with age and cannot be accounted for by intelligence. These findings suggest that, whereas neurodevelopmental processes and social experience produce improvements in general face-emotion recognition abilities over time during typical development, children with ASD may experience disruptions in these processes, which suggested distributed functional impairment in the neural architecture that subserves face-emotion processing, an effect with downstream developmental consequences.

  10. 7 CFR 51.1223 - Badly misshapen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1223 Badly misshapen. “Badly misshapen” means that the peach is so decidedly deformed that its appearance is...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1223 - Badly misshapen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1223 Badly misshapen. “Badly misshapen” means that the peach is so decidedly deformed that its appearance is...

  12. Paradoxical severe agitation induced by add-on high-doses quetiapine in schizo-affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Fond, Guillaume; MacGregor, Alexandra; Ducasse, Deborah; Brittner, Marie

    2014-05-15

    We report the case of a 35-year-old patient suffering from schizo-affective disorder since the age of 19 years, treated by a combination of first-generation antipsychotics, zuclopenthixol (100 mg/day) and lithium (1200 mg/day) (serum lithium=0.85 mEq/l). This patient had no associated personality disorder (particularly no antisocial disorder) and no substance abuse disorder. Within the 48 h following the gradual introduction of quetiapine (up to 600 mg/day), the patient presented severe agitation without an environmental explanation, contrasting with the absence of a history of aggressiveness or personality disorder. The diagnoses of manic shift and akathisia were dismissed. The withdrawal and the gradual reintroduction of quetiapine 2 weeks later, which led to another severe agitation, enabled us to attribute the agitation specifically to quetiapine.

  13. Designing affective video games to support the social-emotional development of teenagers with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Khandaker, Mitu

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders, comprised of three diagnostic entities - autistic disorder (AD), Asperger's disorder (AS), and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (including atypical autism) (PDD-NOS). A number of intervention techniques are currently used to reduce some of the associated challenges, with techniques ranging from behavioral therapy to dietary interventions and traditional counseling. This positional paper proposes the use of video games which leverage affective computing technologies as intervention in autism spectrum disorders in the context of the use of traditional play therapy with adolescents, who may feel uncomfortable engaging in traditional play with toys they may be too old for. It aims to explore the potential for greater 'social physics' made possible by affective computing technologies. This involves computationally 'recognizing' emotions in a user, often through the use of multimodal affective sensors, including facial expressions, postural shifts, and physiological signals such as heart rate, skin conductivity, and EEG signals. However, it is suggested that this should be augmented by researching the effect of social game design mechanisms on social-emotional development, particularly for those who experience difficulty with social interaction.

  14. Adverse childhood experiences associate to reduced glutamate levels in the hippocampus of patients affected by mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Sara; Locatelli, Clara; Falini, Andrea; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2016-11-03

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can possibly permanently alter the stress response system, affect the glutamatergic system and influence hippocampal volume in mood disorders. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between glutamate levels in the hippocampus, measured through single proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and ACE in patients affected by mood disorders and healthy controls. Higher levels of early stress associate to reduced levels of Glx/Cr in the hippocampus in depressed patients but not in healthy controls. Exposure to stress during early life could lead to a hypofunctionality of the glutamatergic system in the hippocampus of depressed patients. Abnormalities of glutamatergic signaling could then possibly underpin the structural and functional abnormalities observed in patients affected by mood disorders.

  15. Loss of NMDA receptors in dopamine neurons leads to the development of affective disorder-like symptoms in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jastrzębska, Kamila; Walczak, Magdalena; Cieślak, Przemysław Eligiusz; Szumiec, Łukasz; Turbasa, Mateusz; Engblom, David; Błasiak, Tomasz; Parkitna, Jan Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    The role of changes in dopamine neuronal activity during the development of symptoms in affective disorders remains controversial. Here, we show that inactivation of NMDA receptors on dopaminergic neurons in adult mice led to the development of affective disorder-like symptoms. The loss of NMDA receptors altered activity and caused complete NMDA-insensitivity in dopamine-like neurons. Mutant mice exhibited increased immobility in the forced swim test and a decrease in social interactions. Mutation also led to reduced saccharin intake, however the preference of sweet taste was not significantly decreased. Additionally, we found that while mutant mice were slower to learn instrumental tasks, they were able to reach the same performance levels, had normal sensitivity to feedback and showed similar motivation to exert effort as control animals. Taken together these results show that inducing the loss of NMDA receptor-dependent activity in dopamine neurons is associated with development of affective disorder-like symptoms. PMID:27853270

  16. Bad trip due to anticholinergic effect of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Mangot, Ajish G

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis in its various forms has been known since time immemorial, the use of which has been rising steadily in India. 'Bad trips' have been documented after cannabis use, manifestations ranging from vague anxiety and fear to profoundly disturbing states of terror and psychosis. Cannabis is known to affect various neurotransmitters, but 'bad trip' due to its anticholinergic effect has never been described in literature to the best of author's knowledge. Hereby, the author describes a case of a young adult male experiencing profound anticholinergic effects after being exposed for the first time in his life to bhang, a local oral preparation of cannabis.

  17. Debating Robert Weissberg: Why We Should Read but Not Accept "Bad Students, Not Bad Schools"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maranto, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's critique on Robert Weissberg's book titled "Bad Students, Not Bad Schools". The author argues that Weissberg's readable, controversial "Bad Students, Not Bad Schools" (2010) is funny, acerbic, bold, and slaughters more than a few sacred cows of what Weissberg calls the "failed educational industrial complex." As…

  18. A Response to Robert Maranto's Review of "Bad Students, Not Bad Schools"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Robert Maranto's review of "Bad Students, Not Bad Schools". The author begins by thanking Professor Maranto for his thoughtful review of his "Bad Students, Not Bad Schools" (2010). Professor Maranto is the first professional educator to acknowledge the book's existence, a fact that says much about…

  19. Further association study on dopamine D2 receptor variant S311C in Schizophrenia and affective disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Arinami, Tadao; Hamaguchi, Hideo; Itokawa, Masanari; Aoki, Junichi; Shibuya, Haruo

    1996-04-09

    The dopamine D2 receptor gene is a candidate gene for schizophrenia because the potency of certain neuroleptics correlates with their affinity for this receptor. Case-control studies in 291 schizophrenics, 78 patients with affective disorders, and 579 controls on an association of a molecular variant of S311C of the dopamine D2 receptor with psychiatric disorders were conducted. The frequency of individuals with S311C was significantly higher in schizophrenics with the absence of negative symptoms (17.1%, P < 0.00001), but similar in schizophrenics with the presence of negative symptoms (5.7%, P = 0.46) when compared with the controls (4.1%). The frequency of S311C was significantly higher in familiar schizophrenics from one local area but not in those from other areas. It was significant that S311C was frequently present in patients with mood-incongruent psychotic affective disorders (33.3%, P < 0.0001), but not in those with other affective disorders. These data suggest that S311C might be one of the genetic factors for symptomatic dimensions of delusions and hallucinations and might be involved in underlying clinical heterogeneity in schizophrenia and affective disorders. 48 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Glutamate modulators as potential therapeutic drugs in schizophrenia and affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji; Malchow, Berend; Falkai, Peter; Schmitt, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    Severe psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia are related to cognitive and negative symptoms, which often are resistant to current treatment approaches. The glutamatergic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and affective disorders. A key component is the dysfunction of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Substances regulating activation/inhibition of the NMDA receptor have been investigated in schizophrenia and major depression and are promising in therapeutic approaches of negative symptoms, cognition, and mood. In schizophrenia, add-on treatments with glycine, D-serine, D-alanine, D-cycloserine, D-amino acid oxidase inhibitors, glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) inhibitors (e.g., sarcosine, bitopertin) and agonists (e.g., LY2140023) or positive allosteric modulator (e.g., ADX71149) of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have been studied. In major depression, the NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g., ketamine, AZD6765), GluN2B subtype antagonists (e.g., traxoprodil, MK-0657), and partial agonists (e.g., D-cycloserine, GLYX-13) at the glycine site of the NMDA receptor have been proven to be effective in animal studies and first clinical trials. In addition, clinical studies of mGluR2/3 antagonist BCI-838 (a prodrug of BCI-632 (MGS0039)), mGluR2/3-negative allosteric modulators (NMAs) (e.g., RO499819, RO4432717), and mGluR5 NAMs (e.g., AZD2066, RO4917523) are in progress. Future investigations should include effects on brain structure and activation to elucidate neural mechanisms underlying efficacy of these drugs.

  1. Linkage analysis of alternative anxiety phenotypes in multiply affected panic disorder families

    PubMed Central

    Fyer, Abby J.; Costa, Ramiro; Haghighi, Fatemeh; Logue, Mark W.; Knowles, James A.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Hodge, Susan E.; Hamilton, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Background The choice of phenotype definitions for genetic studies of panic and phobic disorders is complicated by family, twin and neurobiological data indicating both distinct and shared risk factors as well as heterogeneity within categories. We previously reported a genome scan in 120 multiplex panic disorder (PD) families using a phenotype that closely adhered to the DSM IV PD definition. Here we extend this work by conducting exploratory linkage analyses in this same pedigree set using ten additional literature- based panic and phobia-related phenotypes that take into account aspects of these hypothesized complexities. Methods Multiply affected families (> 2 individuals with PD) were recruited from clinical and non-clinical sources, evaluated by clinician administered semi-structured interview and subsequent blind consensus best estimate procedure. Each phenotype was analyzed under dominant and recessive models using parametric 2-point (homogeneity and heterogeneity), multipoint, and non-parametric methods. Empirically based permutations were used to estimate model specific and global (across all phenotypes) p-values. Results The highest score was a 2-point lod (4.27, global p < 0.08) on chromosome 13 (D13S793, 76cM) for the phenotype “specific or social phobia” under a recessive model and conditions of homogeneity. There was minimal support for linkage to any of the remaining nine phenotypes. Conclusions Though interpretation of findings is limited by sample size and the large number of phenotypes and models analyzed these data suggest a region on chromosome 13 as a potential site for further exploration in relation to risk for specific and social phobias. PMID:22525237

  2. Sleep in fall/winter seasonal affective disorder: effects of light and changing seasons.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J L; Rosen, L N; Mendelson, W B; Jacobsen, F M; Skwerer, R G; Joseph-Vanderpool, J R; Duncan, C C; Wehr, T A; Rosenthal, N E

    1994-05-01

    Disturbances of sleep are a hallmark of seasonal affective disorders (SAD), as they are of other mood disorders. Fall/winter SAD patients most often report hypersomnia. Among responses of 293 SAD patients on a symptom questionnaire, complaints of winter hypersomnia (80%) greatly exceeded insomnia (10%), hypersomnia plus insomnia (5%), or no sleep difficulty (5%). Increased sleep length in fall/winter is not unique to SAD. Among 1571 individuals across four latitudes surveyed at random from the general population, winter sleep increases of < or = 2 hr/day relative to summer were reported by nearly half. However, hypersomnia had a low correlation (r = 0.29) with the total number of other SAD symptoms that were reported in this sample. Ten SAD patients kept daily sleep logs across 1 yr that showed increases in fall and winter (sleeping most in October; least in May) whose maximum averaged 2.7 hr per day more weekend sleep than in spring and summer. These winter increases might have been somewhat attenuated since most received light therapy during part of the winter. Nocturnal EEG recordings of depressed SAD patients in winter showed decreased sleep efficiency, decreased delta sleep percentage, and increased REM density (but normal REM latency) in comparison with recordings: (1) from themselves in summer; (2) from themselves after > or = 9 days of light therapy; or (3) from age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Thus, the extent of fall/winter oversleeping recorded by our SAD patients did not differ dramatically from that reported by the general population, but sleep complaints of our SAD patients have been accompanied by features of sleep architecture that are different from healthy controls and are reversed by summer or by bright-light therapy.

  3. Linkage disequilibrium analysis of G-olf{sub {alpha}} (GNAL) in bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiouris, S.J.; Breschel, T.S.; Xu, J.

    1996-09-20

    This study examines G-olf{sub {alpha}} as a possible candidate gene for susceptibility to bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) using the Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT). G-olf{sub {alpha}}, which encodes a subunit of a G-protein involved in intracellular signaling, maps within a region of chromosome 18 that has been implicated by two different linkage studies as a potential site of BPAD susceptibility loci. The expression pattern of G-olf{sub {alpha}} in the brain, its coupling to dopamine receptors, and the effects of lithium salts on G-proteins all support G-olf{sub {alpha}} as a candidate gene for BPAD. Our study population consisted of 106 probands and sibs with bipolar I disorder, with a median age-at-onset of 21.5 years ascertained from the United States. There was no evidence of linkage disequilibrium between BPAD and any of the observed G-olf{sub {alpha}} alleles in our sample. Division of families based on sex of the transmitting parent did not significantly change the results. This sample had good power (78%) to detect linkage disequilibrium with alleles conferring a relative risk equal to that estimated for the putative 18p locus (2.58). Our results do not support a major role for G-olf{sub {alpha}} as a susceptibility locus for BPAD in a substantial portion of our sample. Other genes lying near G-olf{sub {alpha}} within the linked region on chromosome 18 cannot be excluded by our data. This study illustrates the use of the TDT in evaluating candidate genes within linked chromosome regions. 24 refs., 1 tab.

  4. The health effects of leaving school in a bad economy.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates the lasting health effects of leaving school in a bad economy. Three empirical patterns motivate this study: Leaving school in a bad economy has persistent and negative career effects, career and health outcomes are correlated, and fluctuations in contemporaneous economic conditions affect health in the short-run. I draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Age 40 Health Supplement. Members of my sample left school between 1976 and 1992. I find that men who left school when the school-leaving state unemployment rate was high have worse health at age 40 than otherwise similar men, while leaving school in a bad economy lowers depressive symptoms at age 40 among women. A 1 percentage point increase in the school-leaving state unemployment rate leads to a 0.5% to 18% reduction in the measured health outcomes among men and a 6% improvement in depressive symptoms among women.

  5. Affect Regulation Training (ART) for Alcohol Use Disorders: Development of a Novel Intervention for Negative Affect Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Bradizza, Clara M.; Schlauch, Robert C.; Coffey, Scott F.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Gudleski, Gregory; Bole, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Although negative affect is a common precipitant of alcohol relapse, there are few interventions for alcohol dependence that specifically target negative affect. In this Stage 1a/1b treatment development study, several affect regulation strategies (e.g., mindfulness, prolonged exposure, distress tolerance) were combined to create a new treatment supplement called Affect Regulation Training (ART), which could be added to enhance Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for alcohol dependence. A draft therapy manual was given to therapists and treatment experts before being administered to several patients who also provided input. After two rounds of manual development (Stage 1a), a pilot randomized clinical trial (N = 77) of alcohol-dependent outpatients who reported drinking often in negative affect situations was conducted (Stage 1b). Participants received 12-weekly, 90-minute sessions of either CBT for alcohol dependence plus ART (CBT + ART) or CBT plus a healthy lifestyles control condition (CBT + HLS). Baseline, end-of-treatment, and 3- and 6-month posttreatment interviews were conducted. For both treatment conditions, participant ratings of treatment satisfaction were high, with CBT + ART rated significantly higher. Drinking outcome results indicated greater reductions in alcohol use for CBT + ART when compared to CBT + HLS, with moderate effect sizes for percent days abstinent, drinks per day, drinks per drinking day, and percent heavy drinking days. Overall, findings support further research on affect regulation interventions for negative affect drinkers. PMID:23876455

  6. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Cekanova, Maria; Fernando, Romaine I; Siriwardhana, Nalin; Sukhthankar, Mugdha; De la Parra, Columba; Woraratphoka, Jirayus; Malone, Christine; Ström, Anders; Baek, Seung J; Wade, Paul A; Saxton, Arnold M; Donnell, Robert M; Pestell, Richard G; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie; Wimalasena, Jay

    2015-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer.

  7. Hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in an animal model of seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Deats, Sean P; Adidharma, Widya; Yan, Lily

    2015-08-18

    Light has profound effects on mood regulation as exemplified in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and the therapeutic benefits of light therapy. However, the underlying neural pathways through which light regulates mood are not well understood. Our previous work has developed the diurnal grass rat, Arvicanthis niloticus, as an animal model of SAD. Following housing conditions of either 12:12 h dim light:dark (DLD) or 8:16 h short photoperiod (SP), which mimic the lower light intensity or short day-length of winter, respectively, grass rats exhibit an increase in depression-like behavior compared to those housed in a 12:12 h bright light:dark (BLD) condition. Furthermore, we have shown that the orexinergic system is involved in mediating the effects of light on mood and anxiety. To explore other potential neural substrates involved in the depressive phenotype, the present study examined hypothalamic dopaminergic (DA) and somatostatin (SST) neurons in the brains of grass rats housed in DLD, SP and BLD. Using immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and SST, we found that the number of TH- and SST-ir cells in the hypothalamus was significantly lower in the DLD and SP groups compared to the BLD group. We also found that treating BLD animals with a selective orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) antagonist SB-334867 significantly reduced the number of hypothalamic TH-ir cells. The present study suggests that the hypothalamic DA neurons are sensitive to daytime light deficiency and are regulated by an orexinergic pathway. The results support the hypothesis that the orexinergic pathways mediate the effects of light on other neuronal systems that collectively contribute to light-dependent changes in the affective state.

  8. Repetitive TMS on Left Cerebellum Affects Impulsivity in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    De Vidovich, Giulia Zelda; Muffatti, Riccardo; Monaco, Jessica; Caramia, Nicoletta; Broglia, Davide; Caverzasi, Edgardo; Barale, Francesco; D’Angelo, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    The borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a severe pattern of instability in emotional regulation, interpersonal relationships, identity and impulse control. These functions are related to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and since PFC shows a rich anatomical connectivity with the cerebellum, the functionality of the cerebellar-PFC axis may impact on BPD. In this study, we investigated the potential involvement of cerebello-thalamo-cortical connections in impulsive reactions through a pre/post stimulation design. BPD patients (n = 8) and healthy controls (HC; n = 9) performed an Affective Go/No-Go task (AGN) assessing information processing biases for positive and negative stimuli before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS; 1 Hz/10 min, 80% resting motor threshold (RMT) over the left lateral cerebellum. The AGN task consisted of four blocks requiring associative capacities of increasing complexity. BPD patients performed significantly worse than the HC, especially when cognitive demands were high (third and fourth block), but their performance approached that of HC after rTMS (rTMS was almost ineffective in HC). The more evident effect of rTMS in complex associative tasks might have occurred since the cerebellum is deeply involved in integration and coordination of different stimuli. We hypothesize that in BPD patients, cerebello-thalamo-cortical communication is altered, resulting in emotional dysregulation and disturbed impulse control. The rTMS over the left cerebellum might have interfered with existing functional connections exerting a facilitating effect on PFC control. PMID:27994543

  9. Effects of salience-network-node neurofeedback training on affective biases in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J Paul; Glover, Gary H; Bagarinao, Epifanio; Chang, Catie; Mackey, Sean; Sacchet, Matthew D; Gotlib, Ian H

    2016-03-30

    Neural models of major depressive disorder (MDD) posit that over-response of components of the brain's salience network (SN) to negative stimuli plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of MDD. In the present proof-of-concept study, we tested this formulation directly by examining the affective consequences of training depressed persons to down-regulate response of SN nodes to negative material. Ten participants in the real neurofeedback group saw, and attempted to learn to down-regulate, activity from an empirically identified node of the SN. Ten other participants engaged in an equivalent procedure with the exception that they saw SN-node neurofeedback indices from participants in the real neurofeedback group. Before and after scanning, all participants completed tasks assessing emotional responses to negative scenes and to negative and positive self-descriptive adjectives. Compared to participants in the sham-neurofeedback group, from pre- to post-training, participants in the real-neurofeedback group showed a greater decrease in SN-node response to negative stimuli, a greater decrease in self-reported emotional response to negative scenes, and a greater decrease in self-reported emotional response to negative self-descriptive adjectives. Our findings provide support for a neural formulation in which the SN plays a primary role in contributing to negative cognitive biases in MDD.

  10. Eye tracking of attention in the affective disorders: A meta-analytic review and synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Thomas; Olatunji, Bunmi O.

    2012-01-01

    A large body of research has demonstrated that affective disorders are characterized by attentional biases for emotional stimuli. However, this research relies heavily on manual reaction time (RT) measures that cannot fully delineate the time course and components of attentional bias. Eye tracking technology, which allows relatively direct and continuous measurement of overt visual attention, may provide an important supplement to RT measures. This article reviews eye tracking research on anxiety and depression, evaluating the experimental paradigms and eye movement indicators used to study attentional biases. Also included is a meta-analysis of extant eye tracking research (33 experiments; N = 1579) on both anxiety and depression. Relative to controls, anxious individuals showed increased vigilance for threat during free viewing and visual search, and showed difficulty disengaging from threat in visual search tasks, but not during free viewing. In contrast, depressed individuals were not characterized by vigilance for threat during free viewing, but were characterized by reduced orienting to positive stimuli, as well as reduced maintenance of gaze on positive stimuli and increased maintenance of gaze on dysphoric stimuli. Implications of these findings for theoretical accounts of attentional bias in anxiety and depression are discussed, and avenues for future research using eye-tracking technology are outlined. PMID:23059623

  11. Early neural activation during facial affect processing in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Leung, Rachel C; Pang, Elizabeth W; Cassel, Daniel; Brian, Jessica A; Smith, Mary Lou; Taylor, Margot J

    2015-01-01

    Impaired social interaction is one of the hallmarks of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Emotional faces are arguably the most critical visual social stimuli and the ability to perceive, recognize, and interpret emotions is central to social interaction and communication, and subsequently healthy social development. However, our understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying emotional face processing in adolescents with ASD is limited. We recruited 48 adolescents, 24 with high functioning ASD and 24 typically developing controls. Participants completed an implicit emotional face processing task in the MEG. We examined spatiotemporal differences in neural activation between the groups during implicit angry and happy face processing. While there were no differences in response latencies between groups across emotions, adolescents with ASD had lower accuracy on the implicit emotional face processing task when the trials included angry faces. MEG data showed atypical neural activity in adolescents with ASD during angry and happy face processing, which included atypical activity in the insula, anterior and posterior cingulate and temporal and orbitofrontal regions. Our findings demonstrate differences in neural activity during happy and angry face processing between adolescents with and without ASD. These differences in activation in social cognitive regions may index the difficulties in face processing and in comprehension of social reward and punishment in the ASD group. Thus, our results suggest that atypical neural activation contributes to impaired affect processing, and thus social cognition, in adolescents with ASD.

  12. Serotonergic systems, anxiety, and affective disorder: focus on the dorsomedial part of the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Christopher A; Hale, Matthew W; Evans, Andrew K; Heerkens, Jasper; Staub, Daniel R; Gasser, Paul J; Shekhar, Anantha

    2008-12-01

    Depressed suicide patients have elevated expression of neuronal tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) mRNA and protein in midbrain serotonergic neurons, as well as increases in brain serotonin turnover. The mechanisms underlying these changes are uncertain, but increased TPH2 expression and serotonin turnover could result from genetic influences, adverse early life experiences, or acute stressful life events, all of which can alter serotonergic neurotransmission and have been implicated in determining vulnerability to major depression. Emerging evidence suggests that there are several different stress-related subsets of serotonergic neurons, each with a unique role in the integrated stress response. Here we review our current understanding of how genetic and environmental factors may influence TPH2 mRNA expression and serotonergic neurotransmission, focusing in particular on the dorsomedial part of the dorsal raphe nucleus. This subdivision of the dorsal raphe nucleus is selectively innervated by key forebrain structures implicated in regulation of anxiety states, it gives rise to projections to a distributed neural system mediating anxiety states, and serotonergic neurons within this subdivision are selectively activated by a number of stress- and anxiety-related stimuli. A better understanding of the anatomical and functional properties of specific stress- or anxiety-related serotonergic systems should aid our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the etiology of anxiety and affective disorders.

  13. Modeling Heterogeneity in Momentary Interpersonal and Affective Dynamic Processes in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Scott, Lori N.; Beeney, Joseph E.; Lazarus, Sophie A.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a diagnosis defined by impairments in several dynamic processes (e.g., interpersonal relating, affect regulation, behavioral control). Theories of BPD emphasize that these impairments appear in specific contexts, and emerging results confirm this view. At the same time, BPD is a complex construct that encompasses individuals with heterogeneous pathology. These features—dynamic processes, situational specificity, and individual heterogeneity—pose significant assessment challenges. In the current study, we demonstrate assessment and analytic methods that capture both between-person differences and within-person changes over time. Twenty-five participants diagnosed with BPD completed event-contingent, ambulatory assessment protocols over 21 days. We used p-technique factor analyses to identify person-specific psychological structures consistent with clinical theories of personality. Five exemplar cases are selected and presented in detail to showcase the potential utility of these methods. The presented cases' factor structures reflect not only heterogeneity but also suggest points of convergence. The factors also demonstrated significant associations with important clinical targets (self-harm, interpersonal violence). PMID:27317561

  14. Spirituality and religiousness as predictive factors of outcome in schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Sylvia; Perroud, Nader; Gillieron, Christiane; Brandt, Pierre-Yves; Rieben, Isabelle; Borras, Laurence; Huguelet, Philippe

    2011-04-30

    Spirituality and religiousness have been shown to be highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. This study assesses the predictive value of helpful vs. harmful use of religion to cope with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder at 3 years. From an initial cohort of 115 outpatients, 80% were reassessed for positive, negative and general symptoms, clinical global impression, social adaptation and quality of life. For patients with helpful religion at baseline, the importance of spirituality was predictive of fewer negative symptoms, better clinical global impression, social functioning and quality of life. The frequencies of religious practices in community and support from religious community had no effect on outcome. For patients with harmful religion at baseline, no relationships were elicited. This result may be due to sample size. Indeed, helpful spiritual/religious coping concerns 83% of patients, whereas harmful spiritual/religious coping concerns only 14% of patients. Our study shows that helpful use of spirituality is predictive of a better outcome. Spirituality may facilitate recovery by providing resources for coping with symptoms. In some cases, however, spirituality and religiousness are a source of suffering. Helpful vs. harmful spiritual/religious coping appears to be of clinical significance.

  15. Factors affecting behavior and welfare of service dogs for children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Kristen E; Adams, Cindy L; Millman, Suzanne T

    2008-01-01

    The use of service dogs for children with autism spectrum disorder is a relatively new and growing assistance-dog application. The objectives of this article were to identify and describe the factors influencing an autism service dog's performance and the impact of this type of placement on the dog's welfare. A qualitative approach uses interview and observational data to characterize the dogs' behaviors and welfare with relevancy to the dogs' home environments. Identification of potential physical stressors included lack of rest or recovery time after working, unintentional maltreatment and prodding by children with autism, lack of predictability in daily routines, and insufficient opportunities for recreational activities. Results revealed that these dogs formed social relationships primarily with the parents and second with the children with autism. Failure to recognize and respond to the identified physical, emotional, and social needs can have serious impacts on the behavior, welfare, and performance of these autism service dogs, as well as parental satisfaction. As applications of service dogs expand to new domains, there is a need to assess and understand factors and variables affecting the relationship between family and service dog to ensure continued success of these programs.

  16. No evidence of association between dopamine D4 receptor variants and bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, L.C.C.; Castle, D.; Murray, R.

    1994-09-15

    Disturbance in the dopamine neurotransmitter system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of affective disorder. In this study, we examine the possibility that functional variants of the recently cloned dopamine D4 receptor gene contribute to the genetic component of manic depression. The polymorphism, a 48 bp tandem repeat coding for part of the third cytoplasmic loop, was detected using a PCR based method. In a first sample of 57 patients and 59 controls, we found allele 7 to be in excess in the patients. In contrast, allele 3 was less frequent in patients. A second, larger sample of 90 patients and 91 controls was utilized to test these hypotheses. Data from the two samples were then pooled together for further analyses. We calculated the power of our samples, and if the frequency of 7 repeat allele obtained from sample 1 is true, i.e., 25% (28/114) for patients and 14% (16/188) for controls, then the power of the combined sample is 62% at 5% (two-tailed) significance level. However, both observations were not replicated; we therefore conclude that variations in this repeat of the DRD4 gene do not contribute to the genetic component of manic depression. 51 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. The first observation of seasonal affective disorder symptoms in Rhesus macaque.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dongdong; Chu, Xunxun; Feng, Xiaoli; Li, Zhifei; Yang, Shangchuan; Lü, Longbao; Yang, Qing; Pan, Lei; Yin, Yong; Li, Jiali; Xu, Lin; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xintian

    2015-10-01

    Diurnal animals are a better model for seasonal affective disorder (SAD) than nocturnal ones. Previous work with diurnal rodents demonstrated that short photoperiod conditions brought about depression-like behavior. However, rodents are at a large phylogenetic distance from humans. In contrast, nonhuman primates are closely similar to humans, making them an excellent candidate for SAD model. This study made the first attempt to develop SAD in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and it was found that short photoperiod conditions could lead monkeys to display depressive-like huddling behavior, less spontaneous locomotion, as well as less reactive locomotion. In addition to these depression-related behavioral changes, the physiological abnormalities that occur in patients with SAD, such as weight loss, anhedonia and hypercortisolism, were also observed in those SAD monkeys. Moreover, antidepressant treatment could reverse all of the depression-related symptoms, including depressive-like huddling behavior, less spontaneous locomotion, less reactive locomotion, weight loss, anhedonia and hypercortisolism. For the first time, this study observed the SAD symptoms in rhesus macaque, which would provide an important platform for the understanding of the etiology of SAD as well as developing novel therapeutic interventions in the future.

  18. Stress, Inflammation, and Cellular Vulnerability during Early Stages of Affective Disorders: Biomarker Strategies and Opportunities for Prevention and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Adam J.; Kim, Yesul; Price, J. Blair; Kale, Rajas P.; McGillivray, Jane A.; Berk, Michael; Tye, Susannah J.

    2014-01-01

    The mood disorder prodrome is conceptualized as a symptomatic, but not yet clinically diagnosable stage of an affective disorder. Although a growing area, more focused research is needed in the pediatric population to better characterize psychopathological symptoms and biological markers that can reliably identify this very early stage in the evolution of mood disorder pathology. Such information will facilitate early prevention and intervention, which has the potential to affect a person’s disease course. This review focuses on the prodromal characteristics, risk factors, and neurobiological mechanisms of mood disorders. In particular, we consider the influence of early-life stress, inflammation, and allostatic load in mediating neural mechanisms of neuroprogression. These inherently modifiable factors have known neuroadaptive and neurodegenerative implications, and consequently may provide useful biomarker targets. Identification of these factors early in the course of the disease will accordingly allow for the introduction of early interventions which augment an individual’s capacity for psychological resilience through maintenance of synaptic integrity and cellular resilience. A targeted and complementary approach to boosting both psychological and physiological resilience simultaneously during the prodromal stage of mood disorder pathology has the greatest promise for optimizing the neurodevelopmental potential of those individuals at risk of disabling mood disorders. PMID:24782789

  19. The Unique Effects of Parental Alcohol and Affective Disorders, Parenting, and Parental Negative Affect on Adolescent Maladjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Moira; Chassin, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Using a high-risk community sample, multiple regression analyses were conducted separately for mothers (n = 416) and fathers (n = 346) to test the unique, prospective influence of parental negative affect on adolescent maladjustment (internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and negative emotionality) 2 years later over and above parental…

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Light Therapy, and Their Combination for Seasonal Affective Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohan, Kelly J.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Tierney Lindsey, Kathryn; Johnson, Leigh G.; Lippy, Robert D.; Lacy, Timothy J.; Barton, Franca B.

    2007-01-01

    This first controlled psychotherapy trial for seasonal affective disorder (SAD) compared SAD-tailored cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), light therapy (LT), and their combination to a concurrent wait-list control. Adults (N = 61) with major depression, recurrent with seasonal pattern, were randomized to one of four 6-week conditions: CBT (1.5-hr…

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Alicia A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) (Laurent et al. Psychol Asses 1: 326-338, 1999) in a sample of 139 children (ages 7-14 years) diagnosed with a principal anxiety disorder. Results from this study provided support for the convergent validity of the PANAS-C with…

  2. An Affective Dimension within Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms among Boys: Personality and Psychopathology Outcomes into Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A dimension of negatively oriented affect within oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, which has been described as irritability, has been shown to predict depression and anxiety. Related constructs have been linked to temperament and personality constructs. However, only a few studies have examined the prediction from…

  3. Learning, Adjustment and Stress Disorders: With Special Reference to Tsunami Affected Regions. Beitrage zur Padagogischen und Rehabilitationspsychologie. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witruk, Evelin, Ed.; Riha, David, Ed.; Teichert, Alexandra, Ed.; Haase, Norman, Ed.; Stueck, Marcus, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book contains selected contributions from the international workshop Learning, "Adjustment and Stress Disorders--with special reference to Tsunami affected Regions" organised by Evelin Witruk and the team of Educational and Rehabilitative Psychology at the University of Leipzig in January 2006. The book contains new results and the…

  4. Association analysis of the monoamine oxidase A gene in bipolar affective disorder by using family-based internal controls

    SciTech Connect

    Noethen, M.M.; Eggermann, K.; Propping, P.

    1995-10-01

    It is well accepted that association studies are a major tool in investigating the contribution of single genes to the development of diseases that do not follow simple Mendelian inheritance pattern (so-called complex traits). Such major psychiatric diseases as bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia clearly fall into this category of diseases. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Factors Affecting Adult Talk in the Inclusive Classroom and the Socially Competent Behavior of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Dwight W.

    2012-01-01

    Difficulty with social competence is a core deficit of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Research on typically developing children suggests the amount of adult talk they are exposed to can positively affect their social competence. With growth in the number of children with ASD entering the inclusive preschool classroom, there is a need to…

  6. Bipolar disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Manic depression; Bipolar affective disorder; Mood disorder - bipolar; Manic depressive disorder ... happiness and high activity or energy (mania) or depression and low activity or energy (depression). The following ...

  7. Proactive and reactive control of movement are differently affected in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder children.

    PubMed

    Pani, P; Menghini, D; Napolitano, C; Calcagni, M; Armando, M; Sergeant, J A; Vicari, S

    2013-10-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder children are impaired in the ability to interrupt an ongoing action in relation to a sudden change in the environment (reactive control, measured by stop signal reaction time, SSRT). Less investigated is the ability to control the response when it is known in advance that it will be required to stop (proactive control, measured by change in Reaction time, RT). The study is aimed at exploring both the reactive and the proactive inhibitory control in a group of ADHD children compared to a group of age-matched controls. ADHD children (N=28) and Controls (N=28) performed 4 tasks: 2 tasks required to respond to the appearance of the go-signals (go task and nostop task) and 2 tasks to respond to the go signals in a context in which sometimes a restrain or suppression of the response was required (go-nogo task and stop task). ADHD children showed a longer SSRT compared to controls. Both groups showed an increment in RT by comparing the go-nogo to the go task and an increment in RT and SD by comparing the stop to the nostop task. ADHD children showed higher intra-individual variability (SD) compared to controls only in the stop and nostop task. ADHD children showed impaired reactive control but preserved proactive control, and the physical appearance of the go signal affected their reaction times intra-individual variability. A comparison between the reactive and proactive controls helps in defining neuropsychological profiles of ADHD children and can inspires therapeutic behavioral-cognitive strategies for response control.

  8. Factors affecting exits from homelessness among persons with serious mental illness and substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielian, Sonya; Bromley, Elizabeth; Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Kern, Robert S.; Goldenson, Nicholas I.; Danley, Megan E.; Young, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to understand the housing trajectories of homeless consumers with serious mental illness (SMI) and co-occurring substance use disorders (SUD) and to identify factors that best-predicted achievement of independent housing. Methods Using administrative data, we identified homeless persons with SMI and SUD admitted to a residential rehabilitation program from 12/2008-11/2011. On a random sample (n=36), we assessed a range of potential predictors of housing outcomes, including symptoms, cognition, and social/community supports. We used the Residential Time-Line Follow-Back (TLFB) Inventory to gather housing histories since exiting rehabilitation and identify housing outcomes. We used recursive partitioning to identify variables that best-differentiated participants by these outcomes. Results We identified three housing trajectories: stable housing (n=14); unstable housing (n=15); and continuously engaged in housing services (n=7). Using recursive partitioning, two variables (symbol digit modalities test (SDMT), a neurocognitive speed of processing measure and Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS)-relationships subscale, which quantifies symptoms affecting relationships) were sufficient to capture information provided by 26 predictors to classify participants by housing outcome. Participants predicted to continuously engage in services had impaired processing speeds (SDMT score<32.5). Among consumers with SDMT score≥32.5, those predicted to achieve stable housing had fewer interpersonal symptoms (BASIS-relationships score<0.81) than those predicted to have unstable housing. This model explains 57% of this sample's variability and 14% of this population's variability in housing outcomes. Conclusion As cognition and symptoms influencing relationships predicted housing outcomes for homeless adults with SMI and SUD, cognitive and social skills trainings may be useful for this population. PMID:25919839

  9. [The approaches in the discovery of antidepressants using affective disorder models].

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Kazumasa; Murasawa, Hiroyasu; Kamei, Junzo

    2003-04-01

    With the recent appearance of SSRI and SNRI, medication options with respect to depression have broadened. However, patients displaying clear improvement with existing antidepressants still do not exceed about 60 percent of total patients. New types of therapeutic agent development are currently required. Conditions for the determination of new antidepressants are: 1) instantaneous medications displaying a high level of antidepressant action in the early stages of treatment and 2) medications displaying efficacy with respect to patients that are therapy-resistant. However, drug discovery using new animal models is critical as part of drug development of these types of antidepressants in addition to models used in the past such as the forced swim test. We adopted two animal models (olfactory bulbectomy model and conditioned fear stress (CFS) model) developed for pharmacological evaluation of antidepressants. It has been well known that olfactory bulbectomied rats display extreme emotional response (aggressiveness and anxiety). However the improvement of this response occurs following chronic but not acute antidepressant treatment. Thus, we used this model to evaluate the period of the manifestation of antidepressant action. Mice exhibited a marked suppression of motility when they were returned to the same environment in which they had previously received an electric foot shock. Thus, it is suggested that the CFS stress model may be a useful model for therapy-resistant depression due to the fact that motor suppression is not readily attenuated by antidepressant treatment. In this report, we provide an overview of the approaches in the discovery of new antidepressants using these affective disorder models.

  10. Variation in NGFB is Associated with Primary Affective Disorders in Women

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Donghong; Zhang, Huiping; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Listman, Jennifer B.; Li, Dawei; Price, Lawrence H.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Anton, Raymond F.; Kranzler, Henry R.; Gelernter, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Affective disorders (AFDs) are highly comorbid with substance dependence (SD) and both are genetically influenced. However, the specific etiology of the comorbidity is not well understood. We genotyped an array of 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near 130 genes in 868 European-Americans (EAs), including 182 individuals with primary AFDs (PAFDs), 214 with SD comorbid with AFD (CAFD), and 472 screened controls. NGFB, which encodes nerve growth factor β and was represented in the array by 15 SNPs, showed the strongest evidence of association, but only among women with PAFDs. Six of the SNPs showed a nominally significant association with PAFDs in women (Ps = 0.0007–0.01); three (rs2856813, rs4332358, and rs10776799) were empirically significant based on 1,000,000 permutations (Ps = 0.008–0.015). Seven haplotypes were significantly associated with PAFDs in women (Ps = 0.0014–0.01), of which six were significant based on empirical permutation analysis (minimal P = 0.0045). Four diplotypes were significantly associated with PAFDs in women (global Ps = 0.001–0.01). The specific diplotype GG-TC, reconstructed from rs2856813 and rs6678788, showed the strongest evidence of association with PAFDs in women (OR = 4.07, P = 4.2E-05). No SNPs or haplotypes were associated with PAFDs in men or with CAFDs in either sex. We conclude that variation in NGFB is a risk factor for PAFDs in women, but not for CAFD. PMID:21294249

  11. Factors affecting patients’ self-management in chronic venous disorders: a single-center study

    PubMed Central

    Barański, Kamil; Chudek, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Background The conservative treatment of chronic venous disorders (CVDs) includes pharmacotherapy, compression therapy, physiotherapy, and changes in lifestyle. These methods are available without prescription and not reimbursed by Polish National Health Service. Adherence to therapy is affected by poorly characterized patient-related factors. Objective The aim of the study was to perform an assessment of factors that affect the usage and resignation from conservative methods in CVD self-management. Methods A structured interview concerning self-management was carried out with 407 consecutive CVD patients of mean age 64.4 years (range: 23–87 years). All the patients had recently undergone Doppler examination and were classified in accordance with Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, and Pathophysiology (CEAP) classification. Results Pharmacotherapy was the most frequently (85.0% of respondents) used method in CVD self-management. Obese (odds ratio [OR] =1.75 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.99–3.05]) and subjects with longer duration of the disease (OR =1.74 [95% CI 1.16–2.62]) were more likely to use venoactive drugs, while females used ointments commonly containing heparin (OR =1.82 [95% CI 1.08–3.03]). Compression therapy was perceived by respondents as the most difficult method in self-management (OR =2.50 [95% CI 1.61–3.88]) and was also recognized as the most effective method of treatment (OR =13.9 [95% CI 7.35–26.4]). Longer duration of CVD (≥15 years) increased (OR =1.78 [95% CI 1.16–2.71]) while obesity decreased (OR =0.38 [95% CI 0.20–0.72]) the utilization of compression therapy. Females were more likely to adhere to lifestyle changes than males (OR =1.68 [95% CI 0.97–2.90]). Physiotherapy was rarely used by the patients. Conclusion Obesity and longer duration of CVDs increase the use of venoactive drugs. Subjects with longer duration of the disease and without obesity are more likely to utilize compression therapy, the method considered to be

  12. Bad eating habits as the main cause of obesity among children.

    PubMed

    Kuźbicka, Karolina; Rachoń, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is undoubtedly one of the biggest medical problems of the 21st century. Regrettably, the problem affects more and more children and adolescents. 10% of world's school-aged children have an excess body weight and a quarter of these children are obese. In Europe every fifth school-aged child suffers from an excess body weight. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Polish adolescents is about 14%. An excess body weight can be the consequence of genetic factors, endocrine disorders or certain drugs. However, "simple obesity" is the most common, consequence of providing too much energy from food products in comparison to energy expenditure (caloric excess). Today's lifestyle promotes the development of obesity. The lack of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle and energy-rich diet are the main causes of an excess body fat accumulation. Because of improper eating behaviours children consume an excess amount of energy; and their diet is deficient in elements necessary for proper development. The examples of such bad eating habits are: snacking highly processed and calorie-rich foods between meals eating in front of the TV screen, skipping breakfasts, drinking sugar-sweetened beverages, "eating out" frequently and "emotional eating". Bad eating behaviours are crucial factors for the development of obesity. Eating habits are usually formed in early childhood and parents play a very important role in their development.

  13. Individual and Community Level Risk-Factors for Alcohol Use Disorder among Conflict-Affected Persons in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; Chikovani, Ivdity; Makhashvili, Nino; Patel, Vikram; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background The evidence on alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected civilian populations remains extremely weak, despite a number of potential risk-factors. The aim of this study is to examine patterns of alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected persons in the Republic of Georgia. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 3600 randomly selected internally displaced persons (IDPs) and former IDPs. Two alcohol use disorder outcomes were measured: (i) having at least hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT score ≥8); (ii) episodic heavy drinking (consuming >60 grams of pure alcohol per drinking session at least once a week). Individual level demographic and socio-economic characteristics were also recorded, including mental disorders. Community level alcohol environment characteristics relating to alcohol availability, marketing and pricing were recorded in the respondents' communities and a factor analysis conducted to produce a summary alcohol environment factor score. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between individual and community level factors with the alcohol use disorder outcomes (among men only). Results Of the total sample, 71% of men and 16% of women were current drinkers. Of the current drinkers (N = 1386), 28% of men and 1% of women were classified as having at least hazardous alcohol use; and 12% of men and 2% of women as episodic heavy drinkers. Individual characteristics significantly associated with both outcomes were age and experiencing a serious injury, while cumulative trauma events and depression were also associated with having at least hazardous alcohol use. For the community level analysis, a one unit increase in the alcohol environment factor was associated with a 1.27 fold increase in episodic heavy drinking among men (no significant association with hazardous alcohol use). Conclusion The findings suggest potential synergies for treatment responses for alcohol use disorder and depression among conflict-affected populations in

  14. Could autonomous motivation hold the key to successfully implementing lifestyle changes in affective disorders? A multicentre cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Madou, Tomas; Moens, Herman; De Backer, Tanja; Vanhalst, Patrick; Helon, Chris; Naert, Pieter; Rosenbaum, Simon; Stubbs, Brendon; Probst, Michel

    2015-07-30

    There is a need for theoretically-based research on the motivational processes linked to the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle in people with affective disorders. Within the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) framework, we investigated the SDT tenets in people with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder by examining the factor structure of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2) and by investigating associations between motivation, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) scores. A total of 165 patients (105 ♀) (45.6 ± 14.2 years) agreed to participate. An exploratory factor analysis demonstrated sufficient convergence with the original factor for amotivation, and external and introjected regulation. The items of identified and intrinsic regulation loaded on the same factor, which was labelled autonomous regulation. Significant correlations were found between the total IPAQ score and the subscales amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation and autonomous regulation. The relative autonomy index (RAI) was associated with the PANAS scores. Differences in RAI were found between physically inactive and active participants. Our results suggest that in people with affective disorders the level of autonomous motivation may play an important role in the adoption and maintenance of health promoting behaviours.

  15. Personality and Psychiatric Disorders in Women Affected by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Scaruffi, Elisabetta; Gambineri, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Stefania; Turra, Jenni; Vettor, Roberto; Mioni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder among fertile women. Studies show reduced quality of life, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder, and sexual dysfunction, but the etiology of these disturbs remains still debated. The aim of our study is to verify whether this hyperandrogenic syndrome characterizes a strong psycho(patho)logical personality. Method: Sixty PCOS subjects (mean age 25.8 ± 4.7 years) were evaluated by anthropometric, metabolic, hormonal, clinical, and psychological parameters. After the certainty of the diagnosis of PCOS, the Rorschach test, according to Exner’s comprehensive system (CS) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) were administered to each patient. The control group, on which the comparison was carried out, was composed by 40 healthy and aged compared women who were exclusively administered the Rorschach test according to CS. Results: MCMI-III evidenced axis II DSM-IV personality disorders [4.1% schizoid, depressive, sadistic, negativistic (passive–aggressive), and masochistic, 6.1% avoiding, 12.2% dependent, 20.4% histrionic, 16.3% narcissistic, 2.0% obsessive–compulsive], and axis I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders: 10.2% anxiety, 2.0% somatoform disorder and bipolar disorder, 16.3% major depressive disorder. Finally, we found 44.9% delusional disorder and 4.1% thought disorder. Rorschach test’s results show 53.1% reduced coping abilities and social skills, 55.1% depression, 30.6% perceptual distortion and cognitive slippage, 24.5% constantly alert and worry, 8.1% at risk for suicide, and finally about 50% of our patients had chronic stress. Conclusion: PCOS women have relevant personality and psychiatric disorders, when compared with normal subjects. PMID:25429283

  16. Managing the risk of lithium-induced nephropathy in the long-term treatment of patients with recurrent affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Severus, Emanuel; Bauer, Michael

    2013-02-11

    Lithium has been the most effective psychopharmacological drug in the long-term treatment of patients with recurrent unipolar and bipolar affective illness. As a result of its widespread and longtime use in patients with recurrent affective disorders, psychiatrists have become increasingly aware of the whole spectrum of lithium's potential side effects. One of the side effects associated with its chronic use is lithium-induced nephropathy. In a recent cross-sectional study published in BMC Medicine, Alberto Bocchetta et al. add further information to this topic, demonstrating that duration of lithium treatment is associated with impaired glomerular function in patients with recurrent or chronic affective disorders. The present paper will discuss the implications of this and other related recent research on our management of patients with recurrent affective disorders. In this context the importance of shared decision making and close monitoring of kidney function is highlighted, including the regular assessment of the glomerular filtration rate, to provide best possible care to our patients maintained on lithium treatment.See related research article here http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/33.

  17. Psychological Disorders and Ecological Factors Affect the Development of Executive Functions: Some Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Zebdi, Rafika; Goyet, Louise; Pinabiaux, Charlotte; Guellaï, Bahia

    2016-01-01

    The links between deficits in executive functions (EFs) (e.g., mental flexibility, inhibition capacities, etc.) and some psychological disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders) have been investigated in the past decades or so. Observations evidenced that some deficits in working memory, planning, and mental flexibility were highly correlated with anxiety and depressive disorders. The majority of studies focused on adults’ population, whereas it seems important to adopt a developmental perspective to fully understand the dynamic relation of these EF/psychological disorders. We suggest to focus on the following two axes in future research: (i) relations between EF and anxiety traits through development and (ii) the possible role of external factors such as parent–child relationships on the development of EF. PMID:28003806

  18. The affective reactivity of psychotic speech: The role of internal source monitoring in explaining increased thought disorder under emotional challenge.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Paulo; Sellwood, William; Spray, Amy; Bentall, Richard P

    2016-04-01

    Thought disorder (TD) has been shown to vary in relation to negative affect. Here we examine the role internal source monitoring (iSM, i.e. ability to discriminate between inner speech and verbalized speech) in TD and whether changes in iSM performance are implicated in the affective reactivity effect (deterioration of TD when participants are asked to talk about emotionally-laden topics). Eighty patients diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder and thirty healthy controls received interviews that promoted personal disclosure (emotionally salient) and interviews on everyday topics (non-salient) on separate days. During the interviews, participants were tested on iSM, self-reported affect and immediate auditory recall. Patients had more TD, poorer ability to discriminate between inner and verbalized speech, poorer immediate auditory recall and reported more negative affect than controls. Both groups displayed more TD and negative affect in salient interviews but only patients showed poorer performance on iSM. Immediate auditory recall did not change significantly across affective conditions. In patients, the relationship between self-reported negative affect and TD was mediated by deterioration in the ability to discriminate between inner speech and speech that was directed to others and socially shared (performance on the iSM) in both interviews. Furthermore, deterioration in patients' performance on iSM across conditions significantly predicted deterioration in TD across the interviews (affective reactivity of speech). Poor iSM is significantly associated with TD. Negative affect, leading to further impaired iSM, leads to increased TD in patients with psychosis. Avenues for future research as well as clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Affected-sib-pair analyses reveal support of prior evidence for a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder, on 21q

    SciTech Connect

    Detera-Wadleigh, S.D.; Badner, J.A.; Goldin, L.R.

    1996-06-01

    In 22 multiplex pedigrees screened for linkage to bipolar disorder, by use of 18 markers on chromosome 21q, single-locus affected-sib-pair (ASP) analysis detected a high proportion (57%-62%) of alleles shared identical by descent (IBD), with P values of .049-.0008 on nine marker loci. Multilocus ASP analyses revealed locus trios in the distal region between D21S270 and D21S171, with excess allele sharing (nominal P values <.01) under two affection-status models, ASM I (bipolars and schizoaffectives) and ASM II (ASM I plus recurrent unipolars). In addition, under ASM I, the proximal interval spanned by D21S1436 and D21S65 showed locus trios with excess allele sharing (nominal P values of .03-.0003). These findings support prior evidence that a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder is on 21q. 38 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. An olfactory-limbic model of multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome: Possible relationships to kindling and affective spectrum disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, I.R.; Miller, C.S.; Schwartz, G.E. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper reviews the clinical and experimental literature on patients with multiple adverse responses to chemicals (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome-MCS) and develops a model for MCS based on olfactory-limbic system dysfunction that overlaps in part with Post's kindling model for affective disorders. MCS encompasses a broad range of chronic polysymptomatic conditions and complaints whose triggers are reported to include low levels of common indoor and outdoor environmental chemicals, such as pesticides and solvents. Other investigators have found evidence of increased prevalence of depression, anxiety, and somatization disorders in MCS patients and have concluded that their psychiatric conditions account for the clinical picture. However, none of these studies has presented any data on the effects of chemicals on symptoms or on objective measures of nervous system function. Synthesis of the MCS literature with large bodies of research in neurotoxicology, occupational medicine, and biological psychiatry, suggests that the phenomenology of MCS patients overlaps that of affective spectrum disorders and that both involve dysfunction of the limbic pathways. Animal studies demonstrate that intermittent repeated low level environmental chemical exposures, including pesticides, cause limbic kindling. Kindling (full or partial) is one central nervous system mechanism that could amplify reactivity to low levels of inhaled and ingested chemicals and initiate persistent affective, cognitive, and somatic symptomatology in both occupational and nonoccupational settings. As in animal studies, inescapable and novel stressors could cross-sensitize with chemical exposures in some individuals to generate adverse responses on a neurochemical basis. The olfactory-limbic model raises testable neurobiological hypotheses that could increase understanding of the multifactorial etiology of MCS and of certain overlapping affective spectrum disorders. 170 refs.

  1. How bad is bile acid diarrhoea: an online survey of patient-reported symptoms and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bannaga, Ayman; Kelman, Lawrence; O'Connor, Michelle; Pitchford, Claire; Walters, Julian R F; Arasaradnam, Ramesh P

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is an underdiagnosed condition producing diarrhoea, urgency and fear of faecal incontinence. How patients experience these symptoms has not previously been studied. Bile Acid Malabsorption (BAM) Support UK was established in 2015 as a national charity with objectives including to provide details regarding how BAD affects patients, to improve earlier recognition and clinical management. Design, setting and main outcome A questionnaire was collected anonymously by BAM Support UK and the Bile Salt Malabsorption Facebook group over 4 weeks at the end of 2015. It comprised 56 questions and aimed to inform patients and clinicians about how BAD affects the respondents. Results The first 100 responses were analysed. 91% of the respondents reported a diagnosis of BAD. 58% of total respondents diagnosed following a Selenium-homocholic acid taurine scan, 69% were diagnosed by a gastroenterologist, with type 2 and 3 BAD comprising 38% and 37%, respectively, of total respondents. Symptoms had been experienced for more than 5 years before diagnosis in 44% of respondents. Following treatment, usually with bile acid sequestrants, 60% of participants reported improvement of diarrhoea and most reported their mental health has been positively impacted. Just over half of the cohort felt as though their symptoms had been dismissed during clinical consultations and 28% felt their GPs were unaware of BAD. Conclusions BAD requires more recognition by clinicians to address the current delays in diagnosis. Treatment improves physical and mental symptoms in the majority of participants. PMID:28123771

  2. Longitudinal Modeling of the Association Between Transmissible Risk, Affect During Drug Use and Development of Substance Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Kirisci, Levent; Reynolds, Maureen; Horner, Michelle; Zhai, ZuWei; Gathuru, Irene; Vanyukov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective This longitudinal investigation examined the hypothesis that subjective experience during consumption of preferred drugs mediates the association of transmissible risk for substance use disorder (SUD) measured in childhood and adolescence and SUD diagnosis in adulthood. Transmissible risk denotes the psychological characteristics having intergenerational continuity between parents and their biological children. Methods The transmissible liability index (TLI) was administered to 483 10–12 year old boys (baseline). Follow-up evaluations were conducted when the boys attained 12–14, 16, 19 and 22 years of age using age-specific versions of the TLI. Frequency of consumption of the participant’s three most preferred drugs, affect on an ordinary day, affect while under influence of the preferred substances and presence/absence of current SUD were assessed at 22 years of age. Results Consumption frequency of preferred drugs among boys mediates the association of transmissible risk during childhood and adolescence and SUD diagnosis in adulthood. Severity of negative affect on a drug-free day predicts frequency of consumption of preferred drugs which, in turn, predicts severity of negative affect during the drug use event. Neither affect on a drug-free day nor affect during the drug use event mediates the association of transmissible risk and SUD. Conclusions Affect on drug-free days, and while under influence of preferred substances covary with consumption frequency; however, affect is not related to transmissible SUD risk or SUD outcome. PMID:26441401

  3. 25 CFR 11.421 - Bad checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 11.421 Section 11.421 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.421 Bad checks. (a) A person who issues or passes a check or similar sight order for..., and the issuer failed to make good within 10 days after receiving notice of that refusal....

  4. 25 CFR 11.421 - Bad checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bad checks. 11.421 Section 11.421 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.421 Bad checks. (a) A person who issues or passes a check or similar sight order for..., and the issuer failed to make good within 10 days after receiving notice of that refusal....

  5. 27 CFR 70.101 - Bad checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bad checks. 70.101 Section....101 Bad checks. If any check or money order in payment of any amount receivable under Title 26 of the... appropriate TTB officer that such check was tendered in good faith and that such person had reasonable...

  6. 27 CFR 70.101 - Bad checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 70.101 Section....101 Bad checks. If any check or money order in payment of any amount receivable under Title 26 of the... appropriate TTB officer that such check was tendered in good faith and that such person had reasonable...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1013 - Badly deformed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1013 Badly deformed. Badly deformed means that...

  8. Are short (blue) wavelengths necessary for light treatment of seasonal affective disorder?

    PubMed

    Anderson, J L; Hilaire, M A St; Auger, R R; Glod, C A; Crow, S J; Rivera, A N; Salgado, S M Fuentes; Pullen, S J; Kaufman, T K; Selby, A J; Wolfe, D J

    2016-08-05

    Despite widely published speculation regarding a potential potency advantage of short-wavelength (blue-appearing) light for Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) treatment, there have been few systematic studies. Those comparing short-wavelength to broad-wavelength (white) light under actual clinical conditions suggest equivalent effectiveness. This multicenter, parallel-group design trial was undertaken to compare the effects of light therapy on SAD using blue (~465 nm) versus blue-free (595-612 nm) LED lights. Fifty-six medication-free subjects aged 21-64 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for recurrent major depression with winter-type seasonal pattern were enrolled in this blinded study at five participating centers between January and March 2012. Thirty-five subjects met the criteria for randomization to 30 min of either blue (~465 nm) or blue-free (595-612 nm) daily morning light therapy. Twenty-nine subjects completed the study; three subjects withdrew due to treatment-related adverse events, including migraines, and three withdrew for non-study-related reasons. The primary effectiveness variable was depression score (SIGH-ADS) after six weeks of daily light treatment. Secondary effectiveness variables included quality-of-life (QoL) and suicidality ratings. Using an intent-to-treat analysis, mean depression scores were different at baseline for the blue group (29 ± 5 versus 26 ± 5, p = 0.05 blue versus blue-free, respectively), and the initial score was used as a covariate. Baseline scores were not significantly different between treatment groups among those who completed the study, and no significant differences in depression scores were observed after 6 weeks (mean ± SD scores at 6 weeks: 5.6 ± 6.1 versus 4.5 ± 5.3, p = 0.74, blue versus blue-free, respectively). In addition, the proportion of subjects who met remission criteria, defined as a depression score ≤8, was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.41); among the 29 subjects who

  9. How Stimulus and Task Complexity Affect Monitoring in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koolen, Sophieke; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; Egger, Jos I. M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to update and monitor working memory representations of visual input, and whether performance is influenced by stimulus and task complexity. 15 high-functioning adults with ASD and 15 controls were asked to allocate either elements of abstract figures or…

  10. Gambling Disorder and Affect Regulation: The Role of Alexithymia and Attachment Style.

    PubMed

    Di Trani, Michela; Renzi, Alessia; Vari, Chiara; Zavattini, Giulio Cesare; Solano, Luigi

    2016-08-23

    The aim of the present study was to explore the dimensions of alexithymia and attachment styles in a group of disordered gamblers and to evaluate the relationship between alexithymia, attachment styles, and the severity of gambling disorder. Sixty disordered gamblers diagnosed according to the diagnostic and statistical manual-5 filled out the Kurzfragebogen zum Glücksspielverhalten, the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised. Approximately 70 % of the sample displayed 'intermediate' and 'severe' gambling severity levels on the Kurzfragebogen zum Glücksspielverhalten, and 77 % showed 'high' or 'borderline' levels of alexithymia on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (mean = 56.40). Regarding attachment styles, 70 % of the sample displayed an 'insecure' attachment, with a particularly high prevalence of the 'fearful' style (26.66 %). A linear regression analysis revealed that only the anxiety dimension of the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire predicted the severity of gambling. Our data appear to confirm that gambling disorder is characterised by emotional and relational dysregulation, and that pathological gambling behaviours may serve as external regulators of internal undifferentiated emotional states.

  11. [New facts of long-term prophylaxis for bipolar affective disorder].

    PubMed

    Bschor, T; Müller-Oerlinghausen, B; Stoppe, G; Hiemke, C

    2014-09-01

    Lithium and with restrictions, carbamazepine, valproic acid, lamotrigine, olanzapine, aripiprazole and quetiapine, are approved in Germany for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Lithium is the only drug that (I) proved to be effective for the prevention of depressive as well as manic episodes in state-of-the-art studies without an enriched design and that (II) is approved for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorders without restrictions. It (III) is also the only drug which is recommended for maintenance treatment by the current German S3 guidelines on bipolar disorders with the highest degree of recommendation (A) and (IV) is the only drug with a well proven suicide preventive effect. Hence, lithium is the mood stabilizer of first choice. No patient should be deprived of lithium without a specific reason. Side effects and risks are manageable if both the physician and the patient are well informed. Detailed and practical information on a safe use of lithium can be found in the S3 guidelines on bipolar disorders. For patients who do not respond sufficiently to lithium, have contraindications or non-tolerable side effects, other mood stabilizers should be used. Restrictions in their respective approval as well as specific side effects and risks have to be taken into account. Because maintenance treatment is a long-term treatment, particular concern should be paid to drugs with the potential risk of a metabolic syndrome, particularly atypical antipsychotics.

  12. Neural Correlates of Facial Affect Processing in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, A. Ting; Dapretto, Mirella; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Sigman, Marian; Bookheimer, Susan Y.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the neural basis of impairments in interpreting facial emotions in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Twelve children and adolescents with ASD and 12 typically developing (TD) controls matched faces by emotion and assigned a label to facial expressions while undergoing functional magnetic…

  13. Factors Affecting the Age at Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Nova Scotia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenette, Priscilla; Dodds, Linda; MacPherson, Kathleen; Flowerdew, Gordon; Hennen, Brian; Bryson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    While early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is essential for ensuring timely access to early intervention services, there is limited existing literature investigating factors that delay this diagnosis. This population-based cohort study explored the age at which children in Nova Scotia, Canada, are diagnosed with ASDs and the factors…

  14. Factors That Affect Age of Identification of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Chana R.; Kubiszyn, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This study explored factors associated with age of identification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results of a one-way ANOVA indicated differences in age of diagnosis among the four regions in the United States, F(3, 650) = 7.618, p = 0.01. Tukey's post hoc comparisons of the groups indicated that the mean age of diagnosis in the Midwest (M =…

  15. Unseen positive and negative affective information influences social perception in bipolar I disorder and healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Erika H.; Purcell, Amanda L.; Earls, Holly A.; Cooper, Gaia; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is fundamentally a disorder of emotion regulation, and associated with explicit processing biases for socially relevant emotional information in human faces. Less is known, however, about whether implicit processing of this type of emotional information directly influences social perception. We thus investigated group-related differences in the influence of unconscious emotional processing on conscious person perception judgments using a continuous flash suppression task among 22 individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (BD; AgeM=30.82, AgeSD=7.04; 68.2% female) compared with 22 healthy adults (CTL; AgeM=20.86, AgeSD=9.91; 72.2% female). Across both groups, participants rated neutral faces as more trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen happy faces as compared to unseen angry and neutral faces; participants rated neutral faces as less trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen angry as compared to neutral faces. These findings suggest that emotion-related disturbances are not explained by early automatic processing stages, and that activity in the dorsal visual stream underlying implicit emotion processing is intact in bipolar disorder. Implications for understanding the etiology of emotion disturbance in BD are discussed. PMID:26745436

  16. Is the Ability to Integrate Parts into Wholes Affected in Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olu-Lafe, Olufemi; Liederman, Jacqueline; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable debate about whether people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are biased toward local information and whether this disrupts their ability to integrate two complex shapes elements into a single figure. Moreover, few have examined the relationship between integration ability and ASD symptom severity. Adolescent/adult males…

  17. Special Needs Characteristics of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders that Affect Inclusion in Regular Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoutjesdijk, Regina; Scholte, Evert M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the discriminating special needs characteristics of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) that predict restrictiveness of placement in special education. The focus is on dynamic factors instead of static factors. To this end, 235 children with EBD in special schools and 111 children with EBD…

  18. Factors Affecting Responses of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder to "Yes/No" Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funazaki, Yasuhiro; Oi, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify factors related to difficulties in responding to "yes/no" questions (Y/N-Qs) among 52 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 41 boys and 11 girls aged between 3:5-16:0 years. Participants completed the Tanaka-Binet Intelligence Scale V, the Picture Vocabulary Test: Revised (PVT-R), and the Pervasive…

  19. Affective preclinical modeling of psychiatric disorders: taking imbalanced primal emotional feelings of animals seriously in our search for novel antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2015-12-01

    Preclinical animal models of psychiatric disorders are of critical importance for advances in development of new psychiatric medicine. Regrettably, behavior-only models have yielded no novel targeted treatments during the past half-century of vigorous deployment. This may reflect the general neglect of experiential aspects of animal emotions, since affective mental states of animals supposedly cannot be empirically monitored. This supposition is wrong-to the extent that the rewarding and punishing aspects of emotion circuit arousals reflect positive and negative affective states. During the past decade, the use of such affective neuroscience-based animal modeling has yielded three novel antidepressants (i) via the alleviation of psychic pain with low doses of buprenorphine; (ii) via the amplification of enthusiasm by direct stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle); and (iii) via the facilitation of the capacity for social joy with play facilitators such as rapastinel (GLYX13). All have progressed to successful human testing. For optimal progress, it may be useful for preclinical investigators to focus on the evolved affective foundations of psychiatrically relevant brain emotional disorders for optimal animal modeling.

  20. Psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) in children with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Alicia A; Kendall, Philip C

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) (Laurent et al. Psychol Asses 1: 326-338, 1999) in a sample of 139 children (ages 7-14 years) diagnosed with a principal anxiety disorder. Results from this study provided support for the convergent validity of the PANAS-C with established measures of childhood anxiety and depression. As predicted, negative affect was significantly associated with measures of anxiety and depression whereas positive affect was associated with depression. However, weaknesses in discriminant validity were found, most notably with regard to social anxiety. Consistent with previous research, social anxiety was significantly associated with low levels of positive affect (PA). Furthermore, results from regression analyses indicated that PA made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of social anxiety as well as depression scores. Findings are discussed with regard to the usefulness of the PANAS-C to differentiate anxiety and depression in children with anxiety disorders.

  1. Affective preclinical modeling of psychiatric disorders: taking imbalanced primal emotional feelings of animals seriously in our search for novel antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical animal models of psychiatric disorders are of critical importance for advances in development of new psychiatric medicine. Regrettably, behavior-only models have yielded no novel targeted treatments during the past half-century of vigorous deployment. This may reflect the general neglect of experiential aspects of animal emotions, since affective mental states of animals supposedly cannot be empirically monitored. This supposition is wrong—to the extent that the rewarding and punishing aspects of emotion circuit arousals reflect positive and negative affective states. During the past decade, the use of such affective neuroscience-based animal modeling has yielded three novel antidepressants (i) via the alleviation of psychic pain with low doses of buprenorphine; (ii) via the amplification of enthusiasm by direct stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle); and (iii) via the facilitation of the capacity for social joy with play facilitators such as rapastinel (GLYX13). All have progressed to successful human testing. For optimal progress, it may be useful for preclinical investigators to focus on the evolved affective foundations of psychiatrically relevant brain emotional disorders for optimal animal modeling. PMID:26869838

  2. Association between gastrointestinal symptoms and affectivity in patients with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Karling, Pontus; Maripuu, Martin; Wikgren, Mikael; Adolfsson, Rolf; Norrback, Karl-Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study if anxiety, depression and experience of stress are associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. METHODS A total of 136 patients with bipolar disorder (mean age 49.9 years; 61% women) and 136 controls from the general population (mean age 51.0 years; 60% women) were included in the study. GI symptoms were assessed with The Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale-irritable bowel syndrome (GSRS-IBS), level of anxiety and depression with The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and stress-proneness with Perceived Stress Questionnaire. Over a ten year period, all visits in primary care were retrospectively recorded in order to identify functional GI disorders. RESULTS In subjects with low total HADS-score, there were no significant differences in GI-symptoms between patients and controls (GSRS-IBS 7.0 vs 6.5, P = 0.513). In the patients with bipolar disorder there were significant correlations between all GSRS and HADS subscores for all symptom clusters except for “constipation” and “reflux”. Factors associated to GI symptoms in the patient group were female sex (adjusted OR = 2.37, 95%CI: 1.07-5.24) and high HADS-Depression score (adjusted OR = 3.64, 95%CI: 1.07-12.4). These patients had also significantly more visits for IBS than patients with low HADS-Depression scores (29% vs 8%, P = 0.008). However, there was no significant differences in consulting behaviour for functional GI disorders between patients and controls (25% vs 17%, P = 0.108). CONCLUSION Female patients and patients with high HADS depression score reported significantly more GI symptoms, whereas patients with low HADS scores did not differ from control subjects. PMID:27784966

  3. Cognitive and affective perspective-taking in conduct-disordered children high and low on callous-unemotional traits

    PubMed Central

    Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia; Warden, David

    2008-01-01

    Background Deficits in cognitive and/or affective perspective-taking have been implicated in Conduct-Disorder (CD), but empirical investigations produced equivocal results. Two factors may be implicated: (a) distinct deficits underlying the antisocial conduct of CD subgroups, (b) plausible disjunction between cognitive and affective perspective-taking with subgroups presenting either cognitive or affective-specific deficits. Method This study employed a second-order false-belief paradigm in which the cognitive perspective-taking questions tapped the character's thoughts and the affective perspective-taking questions tapped the emotions generated by these thoughts. Affective and cognitive perspective-taking was compared across three groups of children: (a) CD elevated on Callous-Unemotional traits (CD-high-CU, n = 30), (b) CD low on CU traits (CD-low-CU, n = 42), and (c) a 'typically-developing' comparison group (n = 50), matched in age (7.5 – 10.8), gender and socioeconomic background. Results The results revealed deficits in CD-low-CU children for both affective and cognitive perspective-taking. In contrast CD-high-CU children showed relative competency in cognitive, but deficits in affective-perspective taking, a finding that suggests an affective-specific defect and a plausible dissociation of affective and cognitive perspective-taking in CD-high-CU children. Conclusion Present findings indicate that deficits in cognitive perspective-taking that have long been implicated in CD appear to be characteristic of a subset of CD children. In contrast affective perspective-taking deficits characterise both CD subgroups, but these defects seem to be following diverse developmental paths that warrant further investigation. PMID:18601753

  4. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    PubMed

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members.

  5. Character and Temperament Dimensions in Subjects with Depressive Disorder: Impact of the Affective State on Their Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bajraktarov, Stojan; Novotni, Antoni; Arsova, Slavica; Gudeva-Nikovska, Dance; Vujovik, Viktorija

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The depression is a cross-cultural condition that occurs in all cultures and within all nations with certain specificities, even though there are some differences in its manifestation. The hereditary load is of major importance, but also the individual personality factors, in the form of risk factors, are associated with the occurrence of depression. Personality characteristics have a significant impact on the occurrence of the recurrent depressive disorder and the outcome of the treatment as well. AIM: To identify the specific personality traits in people with the recurrent depressive disorder and the impact of the affective state on them. METHODS: Three questionnaires were used: a general questionnaire, Beck’s scale of depressive symptoms, and TCI-R (inventory for temperament and character). RESULTS: The most indicative differences in the dimensions are found in the Harm avoidance and the Self-direction dimensions, and most variable dimensions dependent on effective state are Novelty seeking and Reward dependence. CONCLUSION: The people with the recurrent depressive disorder have a different profile of personality traits (temperament and character) compared with the control group, and their characteristics depend on their current affective state. PMID:28293319

  6. 78 FR 7659 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Congenital Disorders That Affect Multiple Body Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... impairments that affect multiple body systems in adults and children under titles II and XVI of the Social... eligibility or filing for benefits, call our national toll-free number, 1-800-772-1213, or TTY 1-800-325-0778... the appropriate affected body system(s), such as musculoskeletal, special senses and...

  7. Disruption of sonic hedgehog signaling in Ellis-van Creveld dwarfism confers protection against bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Ginns, E I; Galdzicka, M; Elston, R C; Song, Y E; Paul, S M; Egeland, J A

    2015-10-01

    Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, an autosomal recessively inherited chondrodysplastic dwarfism, is frequent among Old Order Amish of Pennsylvania. Decades of longitudinal research on bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) revealed cosegregation of high numbers of EvC and Bipolar I (BPI) cases in several large Amish families descending from the same pioneer. Despite the high prevalence of both disorders in these families, no EvC individual has ever been reported with BPI. The proximity of the EVC gene to our previously reported chromosome 4p16 BPAD locus with protective alleles, coupled with detailed clinical observations that EvC and BPI do not occur in the same individuals, led us to hypothesize that the genetic defect causing EvC in the Amish confers protection from BPI. This hypothesis is supported by a significant negative association of these two disorders when contrasted with absence of disease (P=0.029, Fisher's exact test, two-sided, verified by permutation to estimate the null distribution of the test statistic). As homozygous Amish EVC mutations causing EvC dwarfism do so by disrupting sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, our data implicate Shh signaling in the underlying pathophysiology of BPAD. Understanding how disrupted Shh signaling protects against BPI could uncover variants in the Shh pathway that cause or increase risk for this and related mood disorders.

  8. Involvement of the Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Learning Others’ Bad Reputations and Indelible Distrust

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Atsunobu; Ito, Yuichi; Kiyama, Sachiko; Kunimi, Mitsunobu; Ohira, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Jun; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2016-01-01

    A bad reputation can persistently affect judgments of an individual even when it turns out to be invalid and ought to be disregarded. Such indelible distrust may reflect that the negative evaluation elicited by a bad reputation transfers to a person. Consequently, the person him/herself may come to activate this negative evaluation irrespective of the accuracy of the reputation. If this theoretical model is correct, an evaluation-related brain region will be activated when witnessing a person whose bad reputation one has learned about, regardless of whether the reputation is deemed valid or not. Here, we tested this neural hypothesis with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants memorized faces paired with either a good or a bad reputation. Next, they viewed the faces alone and inferred whether each person was likely to cooperate, first while retrieving the reputations, and then while trying to disregard them as false. A region of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), which may be involved in negative evaluation, was activated by faces previously paired with bad reputations, irrespective of whether participants attempted to retrieve or disregard these reputations. Furthermore, participants showing greater activity of the left ventrolateral prefrontal region in response to the faces with bad reputations were more likely to infer that these individuals would not cooperate. Thus, once associated with a bad reputation, a person may elicit evaluation-related brain responses on their own, thereby evoking distrust independently of their reputation. PMID:26869908

  9. Involvement of the Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Learning Others' Bad Reputations and Indelible Distrust.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Atsunobu; Ito, Yuichi; Kiyama, Sachiko; Kunimi, Mitsunobu; Ohira, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Jun; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2016-01-01

    A bad reputation can persistently affect judgments of an individual even when it turns out to be invalid and ought to be disregarded. Such indelible distrust may reflect that the negative evaluation elicited by a bad reputation transfers to a person. Consequently, the person him/herself may come to activate this negative evaluation irrespective of the accuracy of the reputation. If this theoretical model is correct, an evaluation-related brain region will be activated when witnessing a person whose bad reputation one has learned about, regardless of whether the reputation is deemed valid or not. Here, we tested this neural hypothesis with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants memorized faces paired with either a good or a bad reputation. Next, they viewed the faces alone and inferred whether each person was likely to cooperate, first while retrieving the reputations, and then while trying to disregard them as false. A region of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), which may be involved in negative evaluation, was activated by faces previously paired with bad reputations, irrespective of whether participants attempted to retrieve or disregard these reputations. Furthermore, participants showing greater activity of the left ventrolateral prefrontal region in response to the faces with bad reputations were more likely to infer that these individuals would not cooperate. Thus, once associated with a bad reputation, a person may elicit evaluation-related brain responses on their own, thereby evoking distrust independently of their reputation.

  10. Evidence for a genetic association between alleles of monoamine oxidase A gene and bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, L.C.C.; Sham, P.; Castle, D.

    1995-08-14

    We present evidence of a genetic association between bipolar disorder and alleles at 3 monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) markers, but not with alleles of a monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) polymorphism. The 3 MAOA markers, including one associated with low MAOA activity, show strong allelic association with each other but surprisingly not with MAOB. Our results are significantly only for females, though the number of males in our sample is too small to draw any definite conclusions. Our data is consistent with recent reports of reduced MAOA activity in patients with abnormal behavioral phenotypes. The strength of the association is weak, but significant, which suggests that alleles at the MAOA locus contribute to susceptibility to bipolar disorder rather than being a major determinant. 58 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Factors affecting the outcome of distal realignment for patellofemoral disorders of the knee.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Jen; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Han-Hsiang; Wu, Su-Ter

    2005-06-01

    This study correlated the risk factors with the clinical outcome of distal realignment for patellofemoral disorders in 48 patients with 53 knees with 25 to 96 months follow-up. The indications for surgery included pain and disability due to patellofemoral disorders with failure of at least 6 months of conservative treatments. The evaluations included pain scores, Lysholm functional scores and radiographs of the knee. The overall results were satisfactory in 47 knees (88.7%) and unsatisfactory in six knees (11.3%). There was no correlation of the clinical results with age, sex, body weight and body height, preoperative pain scores and Lysholm scores. However, the clinical outcome correlated with the severity of articular damage and the correction of patellar malalignment. Error in patient selection and inadequate surgical technique were attributable to poor outcomes.

  12. Understanding heterogeneity in borderline personality disorder: differences in affective reactivity explained by the traits of dependency and self-criticism.

    PubMed

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Zuroff, David C; Russell, Jennifer J; Moskowitz, D S; Paris, Joel

    2012-08-01

    This study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism and dependency respectively moderated the effects of perceived inferiority and emotional insecurity on negative affect during interpersonal interactions in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). A sample of 38 patients with BPD and matched community comparison participants completed event-contingent record forms after each significant interaction for a 20-day period. Multilevel models showed that, controlling for baseline levels of depressive symptoms and neuroticism, as well as lagged negative affect, event-level elevations in perceived inferiority and emotional insecurity were related to more negative affect in both groups. Event-level perceived inferiority was more strongly associated with negative affect in patients with BPD who reported higher levels of self-criticism, while event-level perceived emotional insecurity was more strongly associated with negative affect in patients with BPD who reported higher levels of dependency. No significant interactions emerged for the comparison group. These findings further our understanding of differences among patients with BPD and support the application of personality-vulnerability or diathesis-stress models in predicting negative affect in BPD. Results have implications for the design of therapies for patients with BPD.

  13. The effect of diagnostic labels on the affective responses of college students towards peers with 'Asperger's Syndrome' and 'Autism Spectrum Disorder'.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Mark; Mills, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Given the removal of Asperger's Syndrome label in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition, the impact of clinical labels upon the affective responses of college students was explored. A total of 120 college students read two vignettes depicting social interactions typical of a person with autism spectrum disorder. In one vignette, they were informed that the character was a typical college student and in the other, the character had a clinical disorder (either autism spectrum disorder, Asperger's Syndrome or Schizophrenia). Participants' affective responses were measured on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. No significant differences in positive and negative affective responses were found between the clinical labels. However, affective responses were significantly more positive and less negative towards behaviours associated with clinical groups compared to the typical college student. The implications for students disclosing their diagnosis at university are discussed.

  14. Obesity, but not Metabolic Syndrome, Negatively Affects Outcome in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Susan L; Kemp, David E; Friedman, Edward S; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Sylvia, Louisa G; Calabrese, Joseph R; Rabideau, Dustin J; Ketter, Terence A; Thase, Michael E; Singh, Vivek; Tohen, Mauricio; Bowden, Charles L; Bernstein, Emily E; Brody, Benjamin D; Deckersbach, Thilo; Kocsis, James H; Kinrys, Gustavo; Bobo, William V; Kamali, Masoud; McInnis, Melvin G; Leon, Andrew C.; Faraone, Stephen; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Shelton, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Objective Examine the effects of obesity and metabolic syndrome on outcome in bipolar disorder. Method The Comparative Effectiveness of a Second Generation Antipsychotic Mood Stabilizer and a Classic Mood Stabilizer for Bipolar Disorder (Bipolar CHOICE) study randomized 482 participants with bipolar disorder in a six-month trial comparing lithium- and quetiapine-based treatment. Baseline variables were compared between groups with and without obesity, with and without abdominal obesity, and with and without metabolic syndrome, respectively. The effects of baseline obesity, abdominal obesity, and metabolic syndrome on outcomes were examined using mixed effects linear regression models. Results At baseline, 44.4% of participants had obesity, 48.0% had abdominal obesity, and 27.3% had metabolic syndrome; neither obesity, nor abdominal obesity, nor metabolic syndrome were associated with increased global severity, mood symptoms, or suicidality, or with poorer functioning or life satisfaction. Treatment groups did not differ on prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, or metabolic syndrome. By contrast, among the entire cohort, obesity was associated with less global improvement and less improvement in total mood and depressive symptoms, suicidality, functioning, and life satisfaction after six months of treatment. Abdominal obesity was associated with similar findings. Metabolic syndrome had no effect on outcome. Conclusion Obesity and abdominal obesity, but not metabolic syndrome, were associated with less improvement after six months of lithium- or quetiapine-based treatment. PMID:26114830

  15. [Metabolic Syndrome and Bipolar Affective Disorder: A Review of the Literature].

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Carlos López; Mejía, Adelaida Castaño; Velásquez, Alicia Henao; Restrepo Palacio, Tomás Felipe; Zuluaga, Julieta Osorio

    2013-09-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder that is found within the first ten causes of disability and premature mortality. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a group of risk factors (RF) that predispose to cardiovascular disease (CV), diabetes and early mortality. Both diseases generate high costs to the health system. Major studies have shown that MS has a higher prevalence in patients with mental disorders compared to the general population. The incidence of MS in BD is multifactorial, and due to iatrogenic, genetic, economic, psychological, and behavioral causes related to the health system. The most common RF found is these patients was an increased abdominal circumference, and it was found that the risk of suffering this disease was greater in women and Hispanic patients. As regards the increase in RF to develop a CV in patients with BD, there have been several explanations based on the risky behavior of patients with mental illness, included tobacco abuse, physical inactivity and high calorie diets. An additional explanation described in literature is the view of BD as a multisystemic inflammatory illness, supported by the explanation that inflammation is a crucial element in atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, platelet rupture, and thrombosis. The pathophysiology of MS and BD include factors such as adrenal, thyroid and sympathetic nervous system dysfunction, as well as poor lifestyle and medication common in these patients. This article attempts to give the reader an overall view of the information published in literature to date, as regards the association between BD and MS.

  16. New medication strategies for comorbid substance use and bipolar affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Kosten, Thomas R; Kosten, Therese A

    2004-11-15

    Comorbidity of substance abuse disorders (SUD) with bipolar disorders (BPD) is a serious treatment problem. Childhood BPD can be further complicated by comorbidity with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and later SUD during adolescence. The aim of this article is to review the literature on pharmacotherapies for these patients. Developing the ideal pharmacotherapy for BPD and SUD can be informed by the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the neurobiology of SUD. This ideal pharmacotherapy would have several key characteristics. These characteristics include treating the BPD, relieving withdrawal symptoms, and preventing relapse to SUD. The ideal medication should have low abuse liability, require infrequent dosing, be well tolerated, and have few side effects. A medication approaching this ideal is the GABA enhancer valproate. Adding atypical antipsychotic agents might not improve valproate's efficacy, but combining GABA medications with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors holds promise for SUD with depression. Pemoline might be the best option for minimizing the risk of SUD complicating comorbid ADHD with BPD.

  17. Reduced Freezing in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Patients while Watching Affective Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Fragkaki, Iro; Roelofs, Karin; Stins, John; Jongedijk, Ruud A.; Hagenaars, Muriel A.

    2017-01-01

    Besides fight and flight responses, animals and humans may respond to threat with freezing, a response characterized by bradycardia and physical immobility. Risk assessment is proposed to be enhanced during freezing to promote optimal decision making. Indeed, healthy participants showed freezing-like responses to threat cues. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients are characterized by hypervigilance and increased threat responsiveness. We propose that threat responses will be characterized by decreased freezing in PTSD, eliminating possibilities for rejecting cognitive distortions, such as harm expectancy, and thereby contributing to the maintenance of the disorder. However, freezing responses have hardly been investigated in PTSD. Using a stabilometric platform to assess body sway as an indicator of freezing-like behavior, we examined whether veterans with PTSD would show diminished freezing responses to unpleasant versus neutral and pleasant pictures. Fourteen PTSD patients and 14 healthy matched controls watched the pictures, while body sway and heart rate (HR) were continuously assessed. Replicating previous findings, healthy controls showed decreased body sway and HR in response to unpleasant pictures, indicative of freezing-like behavior. In contrast, this response pattern was not observed in PTSD patients. The results may indicate a reduced freezing response in PTSD. As reduced freezing may hinder appropriate risk assessment, it may be an important factor in the maintenance of PTSD. Future research might clarify whether impaired freezing is a PTSD-specific or a transdiagnostic symptom, being present in threat-related disorders. PMID:28352237

  18. [Tacit metarepresentation and affective sense of personal identity. An approach to understanding severe psychiatric disorders of adolescence and young adulthood].

    PubMed

    Balbi, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The results of present-day research in the field of "Dissociation Paradigm", regarding the capacity of the human mind to perceive, learn, and store information that in appearance passes as unnoticed, support the constructivist hypothesis of the active, selective and constructive condition of consciousness, in addition to the existence of a tacit dimension of knowledge that operates in functional relationship with the former. Unconscious mental states are intrinsically intentional. This is to say that they imply a semantic or cognitive connotation that is capable of affecting phenomenical experience and therefore behavior. In addition, the precocious existence of a tacit metarepresentational system in normally developed children has been proven, which is essential for guaranteeing the deployment of the process of functional coevolution between affectivity and consciousness, by which the experience of personal identity is acquired. These discoveries allow the inference of a "tacit affective metarepresentational recurrence", the organizational foundation on which a unified, sustainable, and continuous sense of the experience of personal identity is structured, and also allow us to hypothesize a "tacit metarepresentational mourning", a specific type of grief which is the chief foundation of the majority of psychopathological disorders. This concept may represent a potential explanation of the severe mental disorders of adolescence and young adulthood. The hypothesis of the present work is that, in the ambiguous context of Postmodern Culture, the prolongation of the adolescent period, facilitated by the welfare state, hinders the dealing with the aforementioned mourning, leading to an increment of depressive states and suicidal behavior among young people.

  19. Depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder in patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Demartini, Benedetta; Ranieri, Rebecca; Masu, Annamaria; Selle, Valerio; Scarone, Silvio; Gambini, Orsola

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and depression is still controversial. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder in a population of patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism and a control group without thyroid disease. The authors enrolled 123 consecutive outpatients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism undergoing follow-up at the endocrinology department of San Paolo Hospital in Milan and 123 controls without thyroid disease under the charge of general physicians.All patients and controls underwent an evaluation by means of a psychiatric interview; Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D); Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); and serum thyroid stimulating hormone, free T4, and free T3 levels. Patients were also screened for thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroglobulin antibodies. Patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism had a prevalence of depressive symptoms of 63.4% at HAM-D and 64.2% at MADRS; 22 patients (17.9%) had a diagnosis of depressive episode (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria). The control group had a prevalence of depressive symptoms of 27.6% at HAM-D and 29.3% at MADRS, and only seven controls had a diagnosis of depressive episode. The prevalence of depressive symptoms between these two groups was statistically different. This study underlines a strong association between subclinical hypothyroidism and depressive symptoms, which could have some important diagnostic and therapeutic implications in the clinical practice.

  20. Cue-Elicited Affect and Craving: Advancement of the Conceptualization of Craving in Co-Occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosen, Elizabeth; Nillni, Yael I.; Berenz, Erin C.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Coffey, Scott F.

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occurs with alcohol dependence (AD) and negatively affects treatment outcomes. Trauma-related negative affect enhances substance craving in laboratory cue-reactivity studies of AD individuals, but the role of positive affect has not been established. In this study, 108 AD treatment-seeking adults…

  1. Disability and Quality of Life of Subjects with Bipolar Affective Disorder in Remission

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Soumya P.; Nisha, A.; Varghese, P. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite significant advances in pharmacological and psychological therapies for bipolar disorder, many people continue to have less than optimal outcomes, which are associated with significant disability and poor quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to assess the disability and QOL and factors associated with such suboptimal outcomes in subjects with bipolar disorder in remission. Methods: Consecutive patients diagnosed to have bipolar disorder in remission attending the Department of Psychiatry, MOSC Medical College, Kerala, India were recruited for the study. They were assessed using the International Classification of Diseases Diagnostic Criteria for Research-10, Hamilton Scale for Depression, Young's Mania Rating Scale, World Health Organization-QOL (WHO QOL-BREF), WHO-Disability Assessment Scale (WHO-DAS), and Kuppuswamy's scale for socioeconomic status assessment. Results: Eighty-four patients were evaluated. The mean total WHO-DAS score was 19.2 ± 2.09, the maximum disability in domain 4 (getting along) followed by domain 2 (mobility). The mean total WHO-QOL BREF score was 54.26 ± 2.85, the lowest subscore in domain 3 (social interactions). Disability scores were significantly associated with increasing age, female gender, not being an earning member of the family, and lower QOL scores. Poorer QOL scores were significantly associated with increasing age and higher disability score. Conclusions: Many bipolar patients in remission have significant disability and poorer QOL. There is a need for longitudinal studies to explore such associations and develop interventions to reduce the disability thereby enhancing the QOL. PMID:27570346

  2. Clinical diagnoses in young offspring from eastern Québec multigenerational families densely affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maziade, M; Gingras, N; Rouleau, N; Poulin, S; Jomphe, V; Paradis, M-E; Mérette, C; Roy, M-A

    2008-01-01

    Maziade M, Gingras N, Rouleau N, Poulin S, Jomphe V, Paradis M-E, Mérette C, Roy M-A. Clinical diagnoses in young offspring from eastern Québec multigenerational families densely affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Objective The follow-up since 1989 of a large sample of multigenerational families of eastern Québec that are densely affected by schizophrenia (SZ) or bipolar disorder (BP) has permitted to look at the rates of DSM diagnoses in the young offspring of a SZ parent (HRSZ) and of a BP parent (HRBP) who had an extremely loaded family history. Method The sample (average age of 17.5, SD 4.5) consisted of 54 high-risk offspring (HR) having one parent affected by a DSM-IV SZ or BP. The parents descended from 21 multigenerational families that constitute a quasi-total sample of such kindred in eastern Québec. The HRs were administered a lifetime best estimate DSM-IV diagnosis. Results We observed that the rates, the diversity of diagnoses, the high comorbidity, the severity and the age of onset of the clinical diagnoses tended to be similar with those already reported in the offspring of affected parents with a low familial loading. Although the sample size was small, HRSZ and HRBP also tended to show similarities in their clinical status. Conclusion Overall, taking into account methodological limitations, the observation early in life of some shared characteristics among HRSZ and HRBP in terms of non-psychotic diagnosis may be congruent with the accumulating evidence that several phenotypic features are shared in adulthood by the two major psychoses. Significant outcomes Offspring at high genetic risk of major psychosis displayed early in life non-psychotic DSM disorders warranting a consultation.Various and highly comorbid disorders were observable in these offspring at extreme genetic risk.HRSZ and HRBP showed similarities in their clinical status. Limitations Normal control group from the general population was absent.Small sample size may have

  3. Racial-Ethnic Variation in Mental Health Service Utilization Among People with a Major Affective Disorder and a Criminal History.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungkyu; Matejkowski, Jason; Han, Woojae

    2017-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample, this study examined the extent to which the utilization of various mental health services was associated with racial-ethnic identity among people with major affective disorders who have a criminal history. Approximately 33.7 % of the sample received any type of mental health services in a given year. Multivariate models indicated that married Blacks and Latinos were less likely to use specialty mental health care than their white counterparts. To provide equitable mental health treatment for vulnerable subgroups of this population, mental health professionals should account for the heterogeneity of mental health care in diverse cultural contexts.

  4. Does intensity or youth affect the neurobiological effect of exercise on major depressive disorder?

    PubMed

    Budde, Henning; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Machado, Sergio; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Wegner, Mirko

    2016-09-28

    The purpose of this commentary is to discuss the different neurobiological effects of exercise on major depressive disorder (MDD) in children and adolescents and to provide additional explanations to this well written systematic review. This commentary highlights the effects of exercise on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which plays a crucial role in MDD. We address the questions of whether age and different exercise intensities may provide additional information on the neurobiological effects of acute or chronic exercise on MDD. Previous findings clearly suggest that the etiology of MDD is complex and multifaceted, involving numerous neurobiological systems, which are additionally influenced by these two factors.

  5. Duplication 15q14 --> pter: a rare chromosomal abnormality underlying bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Reif, Andreas; Kress, Wolfgang; Wurm, Karl; Benninghoff, Jens; Pfuhlmann, Bruno; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2004-05-01

    We have followed up a patient with 8q24.2 --> qter and 15q14 --> pter duplication due to a maternal reciprocal translocation, a condition related to Prader-Willi Syndrome. Apart from dysmorphic features, the patient suffered from recurring episodes of bipolar psychosis. Interestingly, PET scanning revealed revealed prominent bilateral hypometabolism in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes as well as in the cerebellum. Possible implications of this rare chromosomal abnormality with regards to psychiatric disorders are discussed, with emphasis on recent evidence suggesting chromosome 15q13-15 as a susceptibility locus for psychosis.

  6. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to understand enamel affected by metabolic disorder mucopolysaccharidosis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Malik Arshman; Addison, Owen; James, Alison; Hendriksz, Christian J; Al-Jawad, Maisoon

    2016-04-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is an inherited metabolic disorder that can affect the tooth structure leading to defects. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction being a state of the art technique has been used to determine the enamel crystallite orientation in deciduous enamel affected by Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I and Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IVA and comparing these with that of healthy deciduous enamel. Using this technique it was observed that there is a loss of texture in deciduous enamel affected by Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I and Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IVA when compared to the healthy deciduous enamel. Generally it was observed that the incisal surface of the deciduous teeth possessed a higher texture or preferred orientation of enamel crystallites and on progression towards the cervical region there was a decrease in the texture or preferred orientation of enamel crystallites. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the presence of a poorly calcified layer between the enamel and dentine at the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) in MPS affected samples was likely to be responsible for rendering the tooth structure weak and prone to fracture as is often the case in MPS affected deciduous enamel.

  7. [Application of pharmacologic functional magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) in the research of affective disorders].

    PubMed

    Édes, Andrea Edit; Gonda, Xénia; Bagdy, György; Juhász, Gabriella

    2014-06-01

    Many common psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders are associated with dysfunction in the monoamine neurotransmission in the central nervous system. However, the investigation of these pathophysiological processes in the human living brain is difficult. In case of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a non-invasive method for the examination of brain activity, the activity-inducing stimulus is generally a cognitive psychological test, while during pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) the activation is triggered by a specific pharmacon. In the present work we review the available scientific literature related to this method using literature search in PubMed. Through application of a selective pharmacon like the selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) citalopram or escitalopram in a challenge phMRI study, the serotonergic neurotransmitter system can be examined specifically, the functioning brain areas involved in its effect become observable.. With modulation phMRI we can monitor the long-term effect of an antidepressant or we can examine the immediate effect of a single dose of the medication on congitive psychological functions like emotional processing. Thus, the application of phMRI methods may help deepen our understanding of serotonergic function in the living human brain as well as of diseases related to serotonergic neurotransmitter system dysfunction.

  8. Does Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Affect Post-Treatment Methamphetamine Use?

    PubMed Central

    Glasner-Edwards, Suzette; Mooney, Larissa J.; Ang, Alfonso; Hillhouse, Maureen; Rawson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although trauma is a well-established risk factor for substance use disorders, little is known about the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and treatment outcomes among methamphetamine users. In the present study, we examine the relationship between PTSD and post-treatment methamphetamine use outcomes, hospitalizations, and overall psychiatric impairment. Methods Using data from 526 adults in the largest psychosocial clinical trial of methamphetamine users conducted to date, this study examined: (1) treatment outcomes of methamphetamine users with concomitant PTSD three years after psychosocial treatment for methamphetamine dependence; and (2) PTSD symptom clusters as risk factors for post-treatment relapse to methamphetamine use. Results PTSD was associated with poorer methamphetamine use outcomes; methamphetamine use frequency throughout the 3-year follow-up was significantly greater among individuals with a PTSD diagnosis, and those with PTSD had more than five times the odds of reporting methamphetamine use in the 30 days prior to the follow-up interview, OR= 5.2, 95% CI [2.0–13.3]. Additionally, higher levels of other Axis I psychopathology were observed among methamphetamine users with PTSD. Avoidance and arousal symptoms predicted post-treatment methamphetamine use. Conclusions Addressing these high risk PTSD symptoms and syndromes in methamphetamine users may be helpful as a means of improving treatment outcomes in this population. PMID:24065875

  9. Putative mechanisms of action of antidepressant drugs in affective and anxiety disorders and pain.

    PubMed Central

    Blier, P; Abbott, F V

    2001-01-01

    An enhancement of neurotransmission of serotonin (5-HT), noradrenaline, or both, underlies the antidepressant response associated with most agents presently available to treat major depression. With respect to the 5-HT system, antidepressant drugs exert immediate effects on some neuronal elements controlling overall transmission, but it is the gradual changes in neuronal responses to such treatments that are ultimately responsible for producing their therapeutic benefits. In major depression, an increase in 5-HT1A transmission is thought to be a crucial determinant of the antidepressant response, whereas an enhancement of 5-HT2 transmission in the orbitofrontal cortex may mediate the therapeutic effect of 5-HT reuptake inhibitors in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The doses of medication and the durations of treatment necessary to obtain these alterations in 5-HT transmission in various brain structures of laboratory animals are fully consistent with the conditions in the clinic necessary to attenuate symptoms in depression and OCD. It is also possible that the relief of chronic pain produced by some antidepressants may be mediated, in part, by the blockade of peripheral 5-HT2A receptors. These observations emphasize the notion that the 5-HT system is endowed with different adaptive properties in various parts of the body, which, in addition to the multiplicity of 5-HT receptors, makes this chemospecific network important in many disorders. PMID:11212592

  10. Improved cognitive, affective and anxiety measures in patients with chronic systemic disorders following structured physical activity.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Robson Bonoto; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; de Sá Junior, Antonio Reis; de Carvalho, Cristiane Junqueira; da Silva Moura, Tiago Augusto; Lade, Carlos Gabriel; Rizvanov, Albert A; Kiyasov, Andrey P; Mukhamedyarov, Marat A; Zefirov, Andrey L; Palotás, András; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2015-11-01

    Mental illnesses are frequent co-morbid conditions in chronic systemic diseases. High incidences of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment complicate cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Lifestyle changes including regular exercise have been advocated to reduce blood pressure and improve glycaemic control. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect of physical training on the most prevalent corollary psychiatric problems in patients with chronic organic ailments. This longitudinal study assessed the mental health of hypertensive (age: 57 ± 8 years) and/or diabetic (age: 53 ± 8 years) patients using mini-mental state examination, Beck's depression inventory, Beck's anxiety inventory and self-reporting questionnaire-20 before and after a 3-month supervised resistance and aerobic exercise programme comprising structured physical activity three times a week. Clinically relevant improvement was observed in the Beck's depression inventory and Beck's anxiety inventory scores following the 12-week training (61%, p = 0.001, and 53%, p = 0.02, respectively). Even though statistically not significant (p = 0.398), the cognitive performance of this relatively young patient population also benefited from the programme. These results demonstrate positive effects of active lifestyle on non-psychotic mental disorders in patients with chronic systemic diseases, recommending exercise as an alternative treatment option.

  11. Variants in KCNJ11 and BAD do not predict response to ketogenic dietary therapies for epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Schoeler, Natasha E.; Leu, Costin; White, Jon; Plagnol, Vincent; Ellard, Sian; Matarin, Mar; Yellen, Gary; Thiele, Elizabeth A.; Mackay, Mark; McMahon, Jacinta M.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Sander, Josemir W.; Cross, J. Helen; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of specific metabolic disorders, predictors of response to ketogenic dietary therapies (KDT) are unknown. We aimed to determine whether variants in established candidate genes KCNJ11 and BAD influence response to KDT. We sequenced KCNJ11 and BAD in individuals without previously-known glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome or other metabolic disorders, who received KDT for epilepsy. Hospital records were used to obtain demographic and clinical data. Two response phenotypes were used: ≥50% seizure reduction and seizure-freedom at 3-month follow-up. Case/control association tests were conducted with KCNJ11 and BAD variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) > 0.01, using PLINK. Response to KDT in individuals with variants with MAF < 0.01 was evaluated. 303 Individuals had KCNJ11 and 246 individuals had BAD sequencing data and diet response data. Six SNPs in KCNJ11 and two in BAD had MAF > 0.01. Eight variants in KCNJ11 and seven in BAD (of which three were previously-unreported) had MAF < 0.01. No significant results were obtained from association analyses, with either KDT response phenotype. P-values were similar when accounting for ethnicity using a stratified Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel test. There did not seem to be a consistent effect of rare variants on response to KDT, although the cohort size was too small to assess significance. Common variants in KCNJ11 and BAD do not predict response to KDT for epilepsy. We can exclude, with 80% power, association from variants with a MAF of >0.05 and effect size >3. A larger sample size is needed to detect associations from rare variants or those with smaller effect sizes. PMID:26590798

  12. Variants in KCNJ11 and BAD do not predict response to ketogenic dietary therapies for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Schoeler, Natasha E; Leu, Costin; White, Jon; Plagnol, Vincent; Ellard, Sian; Matarin, Mar; Yellen, Gary; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Mackay, Mark; McMahon, Jacinta M; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Sander, Josemir W; Cross, J Helen; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2015-12-01

    In the absence of specific metabolic disorders, predictors of response to ketogenic dietary therapies (KDT) are unknown. We aimed to determine whether variants in established candidate genes KCNJ11 and BAD influence response to KDT. We sequenced KCNJ11 and BAD in individuals without previously-known glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome or other metabolic disorders, who received KDT for epilepsy. Hospital records were used to obtain demographic and clinical data. Two response phenotypes were used: ≥ 50% seizure reduction and seizure-freedom at 3-month follow-up. Case/control association tests were conducted with KCNJ11 and BAD variants with minor allele frequency (MAF)>0.01, using PLINK. Response to KDT in individuals with variants with MAF<0.01 was evaluated. 303 Individuals had KCNJ11 and 246 individuals had BAD sequencing data and diet response data. Six SNPs in KCNJ11 and two in BAD had MAF>0.01. Eight variants in KCNJ11 and seven in BAD (of which three were previously-unreported) had MAF<0.01. No significant results were obtained from association analyses, with either KDT response phenotype. P-values were similar when accounting for ethnicity using a stratified Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test. There did not seem to be a consistent effect of rare variants on response to KDT, although the cohort size was too small to assess significance. Common variants in KCNJ11 and BAD do not predict response to KDT for epilepsy. We can exclude, with 80% power, association from variants with a MAF of >0.05 and effect size >3. A larger sample size is needed to detect associations from rare variants or those with smaller effect sizes.

  13. Is Running Bad for Your Knees?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162903.html Is Running Bad for Your Knees? Study suggests it may ... THURSDAY, Jan. 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Everybody believes running can leave you sore and swollen, right? Well, ...

  14. Bad Science and Its Social Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidler, Dana L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Berson, Michael J.; Fogelman, Aimee L.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates three types of bad science: (1) cultural prejudice based on scientific errors (polygenism, phrenology, reification through intelligence testing); (2) unethical science (Tuskegee syphilis experiments, tobacco companies and research); and (3) unwitting errors (pesticides, chlorofluorocarbons). (Contains 50 references.) (SK)

  15. The psychological benefits of bad poetry.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2010-12-01

    The author was the founder and secretary pro-tem of the Bad Poets Society at Princeton Theological Seminary. This distinction does not appear on his official resume. The Society did not have meetings but it had a newsletter that came out several times a year comprised of bad poetry written by members of the faculty and staff. These poetic works included reflections on institutional matters. This article contains bad poetry by the author relating to such matters. This poetry illustrates Sigmund Freud's (Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious. Norton, New York, 1960) view of humor as saving in the expenditure of painful emotions, costly inhibitions, and difficult thinking. The parasitical nature of bad poetry is also noted and illustrated with the author's own poems.

  16. Phospholipid-protein balance in affective disorders: Analysis of human blood serum using Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Depciuch, Joanna; Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Nowak, Gabriel; Dudek, Dominika; Siwek, Marcin; Styczeń, Krzysztof; Parlińska-Wojtan, Magdalena

    2016-11-30

    Raman and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red) spectroscopies provide information on the chemical structure of compounds through identification and analysis of functional groups. In the present study, both spectroscopic techniques were used for investigating the phospholipid - protein balance in blood serum of depressed subjects (major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder type I or II) taking also into account their age and gender. The obtained results were compared with those of healthy subjects. The Raman and FTIR (using ATR (Attenuated Total Reflectance) technique), spectra show that a correlation between the level of phospholipids and proteins exists. Indeed, in depressed subjects the quantity of phospholipids and proteins is lower, compared to healthy ones. The second derivative of FTIR spectra shows that phospholipids directly affect the structure of proteins and their functions. In all male depressed subjects a higher amount of phospholipids and proteins compared to female depressed subjects was measured, offering them faster recovery perspectives. Spectroscopy results show that the phospholipids' and proteins' levels are lower in depressed subjects from 41 to 65 compared to the age group between 20 and 40, independently from the gender. Consequently, this study shows that Raman and infrared spectroscopies might be applied as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the balance between phospholipids and proteins in blood serum as a potential biomarker in depressive disorders.

  17. Identifying Chronic Affective Disorders in Outpatients: Validation of the General Behavior Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Daniel N.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated validity of General Behavior Inventory (GBI) in screening outpatients for chronic unipolar and bipolar affective conditions. Administered GBI to 492 patients; selected and administered blind structured diagnostic interviews to 167 patients. Unipolar depressives were followed up 6 months after initial evaluation. GBI exhibited…

  18. Level of Functioning in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Phenotypic Congruence Among Affected Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Riley, Brien P.

    2014-01-01

    Little evidence supports that siblings with autism exhibit the same behaviors; however, some findings suggest that level of functioning shows familial aggregation. We tested this notion among multiplex families participating with the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) Consortium, using scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test—Third Edition (N = 204 families), the Ravens Colored Progressive Matrices (N = 226 families), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (N = 348 families). Intraclass Correlation Coefficients revealed that siblings with autism/autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were more similar on measures of verbal and nonverbal IQ and adaptive functioning than were unrelated children with autism/ASD. Preliminary twin correlations indicated strong genetic effects for some skill domains and the influence of shared environmental factors for others. PMID:17968643

  19. How stimulus and task complexity affect monitoring in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Koolen, Sophieke; Vissers, Constance Th W M; Egger, Jos I M; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to update and monitor working memory representations of visual input, and whether performance is influenced by stimulus and task complexity. 15 high-functioning adults with ASD and 15 controls were asked to allocate either elements of abstract figures or semantically meaningful pictures to the correct category, according to a certain set of rules. In general, the groups did not differ on measures of intelligence, working memory, attention, fluency and memory. For the monitoring of allocation of abstract figures, a similar pattern of reaction times was found for ASD and control participants. For the monitoring of allocation of semantically meaningful pictures, a different response pattern was found, with a stronger increase in response times for the ASD than for the control group when the number of categories increased. This suggests that participants with ASD are able to monitor working memory representations, but suffer under more complex circumstances.

  20. Behavioural aspects of patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) that affect their dental management

    PubMed Central

    Limeres-Posse, Jacobo; Castaño-Novoa, Patricia; Abeleira-Pazos, Maite; Ramos-Barbosa, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Dental treatment in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) can be complicated due to the presence of behavioral alterations. In this group, there are no specific behavioral profiles that allow dentist to anticipate the attitude that a patient will show during a visit. Thus, behavioral attitudes have been described that vary from total permissiveness and collaboration during even bloody procedures, to the absolute impossibility in conducting a simple oral examination. There is no effective behavioral management technique for all ASD patients. Prior information, such as the type of ASD or the presence of certain concurrent pathologies can help predict the patient’s likely behavior. Therefore, gathering all the information in a preliminary interview with the parents/guardians of the patient is recommended. Knowing these factors will allow individualized behavioral management strategies to be designed and facilitates the planning of dental treatment. Key words:Dentistry, autism, ASD, behavior management. PMID:24608219

  1. Level of functioning in autism spectrum disorders: phenotypic congruence among affected siblings.

    PubMed

    Goin-Kochel, Robin P; Mazefsky, Carla A; Riley, Brien P

    2008-07-01

    Little evidence supports that siblings with autism exhibit the same behaviors; however, some findings suggest that level of functioning shows familial aggregation. We tested this notion among multiplex families participating with the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) Consortium, using scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Third Edition (N = 204 families), the Ravens Colored Progressive Matrices (N = 226 families), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (N = 348 families). Intraclass Correlation Coefficients revealed that siblings with autism/autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were more similar on measures of verbal and nonverbal IQ and adaptive functioning than were unrelated children with autism/ASD. Preliminary twin correlations indicated strong genetic effects for some skill domains and the influence of shared environmental factors for others.

  2. Behavioural aspects of patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) that affect their dental management.

    PubMed

    Limeres-Posse, Jacobo; Castaño-Novoa, Patricia; Abeleira-Pazos, Maite; Ramos-Barbosa, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    Dental treatment in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) can be complicated due to the presence of behavioral alterations. In this group, there are no specific behavioral profiles that allow dentist to anticipate the attitude that a patient will show during a visit. Thus, behavioral attitudes have been described that vary from total permissiveness and collaboration during even bloody procedures, to the absolute impossibility in conducting a simple oral examination. There is no effective behavioral management technique for all ASD patients. Prior information, such as the type of ASD or the presence of certain concurrent pathologies can help predict the patient's likely behavior. Therefore, gathering all the information in a preliminary interview with the parents/guardians of the patient is recommended. Knowing these factors will allow individualized behavioral management strategies to be designed and facilitates the planning of dental treatment.

  3. Written threat: Electrophysiological evidence for an attention bias to affective words in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Wabnitz, Pascal; Martens, Ulla; Neuner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with heightened sensitivity to threat cues, typically represented by emotional facial expressions. To examine if this bias can be transferred to a general hypersensitivity or whether it is specific to disorder relevant cues, we investigated electrophysiological correlates of emotional word processing (alpha activity and event-related potentials) in 20 healthy participants and 20 participants with SAD. The experimental task was a silent reading of neutral, positive, physically threatening and socially threatening words (the latter were abusive swear words) while responding to a randomly presented dot. Subsequently, all participants were asked to recall as many words as possible during an unexpected recall test. Participants with SAD showed blunted sensory processing followed by a rapid processing of emotional words during early stages (early posterior negativity - EPN). At later stages, all participants showed enhanced processing of negative (physically and socially threatening) compared to neutral and positive words (N400). Moreover, at later processing stages alpha activity was increased specifically for negative words in participants with SAD but not in healthy controls. Recall of emotional words for all subjects was best for socially threatening words, followed by negative and positive words irrespective of social anxiety. The present findings indicate that SAD is associated with abnormalities in emotional word processing characterised by early hypervigilance to emotional cues followed by cognitive avoidance at later processing stages. Most importantly, the specificity of these attentional biases seems to change as a function of time with a general emotional bias at early and a more specific bias at later processing stages.

  4. Biased Recognition of Facial Affect in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder Reflects Clinical State

    PubMed Central

    Münkler, Paula; Rothkirch, Marcus; Dalati, Yasmin; Schmack, Katharina; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories of depression posit that perception is negatively biased in depressive disorder. Previous studies have provided empirical evidence for this notion, but left open the question whether the negative perceptual bias reflects a stable trait or the current depressive state. Here we investigated the stability of negatively biased perception over time. Emotion perception was examined in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy control participants in two experiments. In the first experiment subjective biases in the recognition of facial emotional expressions were assessed. Participants were presented with faces that were morphed between sad and neutral and happy expressions and had to decide whether the face was sad or happy. The second experiment assessed automatic emotion processing by measuring the potency of emotional faces to gain access to awareness using interocular suppression. A follow-up investigation using the same tests was performed three months later. In the emotion recognition task, patients with major depression showed a shift in the criterion for the differentiation between sad and happy faces: In comparison to healthy controls, patients with MDD required a greater intensity of the happy expression to recognize a face as happy. After three months, this negative perceptual bias was reduced in comparison to the control group. The reduction in negative perceptual bias correlated with the reduction of depressive symptoms. In contrast to previous work, we found no evidence for preferential access to awareness of sad vs. happy faces. Taken together, our results indicate that MDD-related perceptual biases in emotion recognition reflect the current clinical state rather than a stable depressive trait. PMID:26039710

  5. Comparative psychometric analyses of the SCL-90-R and its short versions in patients with affective disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread application of Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL-90-R), its psychometric weaknesses have repeatedly been noted. This study aimed to comparatively assess the psychometric properties of the SCL-90-R scales and the scales of its short versions Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Symptom Checklist-27 (SCL-27), Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18), Symptom Checklist-14 (SCL-14), and Symptom Checklist short version-9 (SCL-K-9) in patients with affective disorders. Methods The data of 2,727 patients within the main treatment group of affective disorders were assessed according to the DSM-IV. Patients completed the SCL-90-R and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results There were no significant differences regarding the internal consistency of the SCL-90-R scales and the scales of the short versions. The dimensional structure was only supported for the short versions BSI-18, SCL-14 and SCL-K-9. The assessment of convergent validity revealed high correlations. With regard to the discriminant validity, there were medium correlations. With regard to the sensitivity of change, no significant differences between the scales were found. Conclusions In summary, the scales of the short versions show mostly satisfactory psychometric properties in comparison to the scales of the SCL-90-R. The results support the application of the short versions as screening instruments, especially the BSI-18, and more economic variants of the SCL-90-R covering a wide range of psychopathological symptoms. PMID:23537095

  6. Analysis of genetic association and epistasis interactions between circadian clock genes and symptom dimensions of bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Pawlak, Joanna; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Zaremba, Dorota; Skibinska, Maria; Hauser, Joanna

    2014-07-01

    Bipolar affective disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by periodic changes in mood from depression to mania. Disruptions of biological rhythms increase risk of mood disorders. Because clinical representation of disease is heterogeneous, homogenous sets of patients are suggested to use in the association analyses. In our study, we aimed to apply previously computed structure of bipolar disorder symptom dimension for analyses of genetic association. We based quantitative trait on: main depression, sleep disturbances, appetite disturbances, excitement and psychotic dimensions consisted of OPCRIT checklist items. We genotyped 42 polymorphisms from circadian clock genes: PER3, ARNTL, CLOCK and TIMELSSS from 511 patients BD (n = 292 women and n = 219 men). As quantitative trait we used clinical dimensions, described above. Genetic associations between alleles and quantitative trait were performed using applied regression models applied in PLINK. In addition, we used the Kruskal-Wallis test to look for associations between genotypes and quantitative trait. During second stage of our analyses, we used multidimensional scaling (multifactor dimensionality reduction) for quantitative trait to compute pairwise epistatic interactions between circadian gene variants. We found association between ARNTL variant rs11022778 main depression (p = 0.00047) and appetite disturbances (p = 0.004). In epistatic interaction analyses, we observed two locus interactions between sleep disturbances (p = 0.007; rs11824092 of ARNTL and rs11932595 of CLOCK) as well as interactions of subdimension in main depression and ARNTL variants (p = 0.0011; rs3789327, rs10766075) and appetite disturbances in depression and ARNTL polymorphism (p = 7 × 10(-4); rs11022778, rs156243).

  7. An investigation of negative affect, reactivity, and distress tolerance as predictors of disordered eating attitudes across adolescence.

    PubMed

    Juarascio, Adrienne S; Felton, Julia W; Borges, Allison M; Manasse, Stephanie M; Murray, Helen B; Lejuez, Carl W

    2016-06-01

    The current study examined internalizing symptoms, affect reactivity, and distress intolerance as prospective predictors of increases in eating disorder (ED)-attitudes during adolescence. Adolescents (n = 206) took part in a six-year longitudinal study examining the development of psychopathology. Latent growth curve analysis was used to examine associations between predictors and later ED-attitudes. Distress intolerance and internalizing symptoms were associated with ED-attitudes at baseline, but did not predict increases over time. Affect reactivity, however, was significantly associated with increases in ED-attitudes over time. Baseline affect reactivity did not interact with baseline distress intolerance to predict increases in ED-attitudes; however higher baseline internalizing symptoms interacted with distress intolerance to predict increases in ED-attitudes across adolescence. These results are among the first to document that affect reactivity alone and the combined effect of high internalizing symptoms and high distress intolerance early in adolescence are risk factors for the later development of ED-attitudes.

  8. Affective temperaments play an important role in the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Tsunoda, Tomoya; Nakai, Yukiei; Tanichi, Masaaki; Tanaka, Teppei; Hashimoto, Naoki; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Shin; Kitaichi, Yuji; Boku, Shuken; Tanabe, Hajime; Nibuya, Masashi; Yoshino, Aihide; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies have shown that various factors, such as genetic and environmental factors, contribute to the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study is to clarify how multiple factors, including affective temperaments, childhood abuse and adult life events, are involved in the severity of depressive symptoms in MDD. A total of 98 participants with MDD were studied using the following self-administered questionnaire surveys: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 measuring the severity of depressive symptoms; Life Experiences Survey (LES) measuring negative and positive adult life events; Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) measuring affective temperaments; and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS) measuring childhood abuse. The data were analyzed using single and multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling (SEM). The neglect score reported by CATS indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms through affective temperaments measured by TEMPS-A in SEM. Four temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious) directly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms. The negative change in the LES score also directly predicted severity. This study suggests that childhood abuse, especially neglect, indirectly increases the severity of depressive symptoms through increased scores of affective temperaments in MDD.

  9. 26 CFR 1.166-1 - Bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad debts. 1.166-1 Section 1.166-1 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.166-1 Bad debts. (a... shall be allowed in respect of bad debts owed to the taxpayer. For this purpose, bad debts...

  10. 26 CFR 1.166-1 - Bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bad debts. 1.166-1 Section 1.166-1 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.166-1 Bad debts. (a... shall be allowed in respect of bad debts owed to the taxpayer. For this purpose, bad debts...

  11. Prenatal excess glucocorticoid exposure and adult affective disorders: a role for serotonergic and catecholamine pathways.

    PubMed

    Wyrwoll, Caitlin S; Holmes, Megan C

    2012-01-01

    Fetal glucocorticoid exposure is a key mechanism proposed to underlie prenatal 'programming' of adult affective behaviours such as depression and anxiety. Indeed, the glucocorticoid metabolising enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which is highly expressed in the placenta and the developing fetus, acts as a protective barrier from the high maternal glucocorticoids which may alter developmental trajectories. The programmed changes resulting from maternal stress or bypass or from the inhibition of 11β-HSD2 are frequently associated with alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Hence, circulating glucocorticoid levels are increased either basally or in response to stress accompanied by CNS region-specific modulations in the expression of both corticosteroid receptors (mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors). Furthermore, early-life glucocorticoid exposure also affects serotonergic and catecholamine pathways within the brain, with changes in both associated neurotransmitters and receptors. Indeed, global removal of 11β-HSD2, an enzyme that inactivates glucocorticoids, increases anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in mice; however, in this case the phenotype is not accompanied by overt perturbation in the HPA axis but, intriguingly, alterations in serotonergic and catecholamine pathways are maintained in this programming model. This review addresses one of the potential adverse effects of glucocorticoid overexposure in utero, i.e. increased incidence of affective behaviours, and the mechanisms underlying these behaviours including alteration of the HPA axis and serotonergic and catecholamine pathways.

  12. Drug addiction: An affective-cognitive disorder in need of a cure.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Liana; Diana, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Drug addiction is a compulsive behavioral abnormality. In spite of pharmacological treatments and psychosocial support to reduce or eliminate drug intake, addiction tends to persist over time. Preclinical and human observations have converged on the hypothesis that addiction represents the pathological deterioration of neural processes that normally serve affective and cognitive functioning. The major elements of persistent compulsive drug use are hypothesized to be structural, cellular and molecular that underlie enduring changes in several forebrain circuits that receive input from midbrain dopamine neurons and are involved in affective (e.g. ventral striatum) and cognitive (e.g. prefrontal cortex) mechanisms. Here we review recent progress in identifying crucial elements useful to understand the pathophysiology of the disease and its treatments. Manipulation of neuropeptides brain systems and pharmacological targeting of κ-opioid receptors and/or drug metabolism may hold beneficial effects at affective and cognitive level. Non-pharmacological, highly innovative approaches such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation may reveal unsuspected potential and promise to be the first neurobiology-based therapeutics in addiction.

  13. Affective disturbance associated with premenstrual dysphoric disorder does not disrupt emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception.

    PubMed

    Rhudy, Jamie L; Bartley, Emily J; Palit, Shreela; Kuhn, Bethany L; Kerr, Kara L; Martin, Satin L; DelVentura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L

    2014-10-01

    In healthy individuals, emotions modulate pain and spinal nociception according to a valence linear trend (ie, pain/nociception is highest during negative emotions and lowest during positive emotions). However, emerging evidence suggests that emotional modulation of pain (but not spinal nociception) is disrupted in fibromyalgia and disorders associated with chronic pain risk (eg, major depression, insomnia). The present study attempted to extend this work and to examine whether women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), a cyclical syndrome associated with debilitating affective symptoms during the late-luteal (premenstrual) phase of the menstrual cycle, is also associated with disrupted emotional modulation of pain. To do so, an affective picture-viewing procedure was used to study emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in 14 women with PMDD and 14 control women during mid-follicular, ovulatory, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle (verified by salivary hormone levels and luteinizing hormone tests). At each phase, mutilation, neutral, and erotic pictures were presented to manipulate emotion. During picture viewing, suprathreshold electrocutaneous stimuli were presented to evoke pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR; a physiological measure of spinal nociception). Statistically powerful linear mixed model analyses confirmed that pictures evoked the intended emotional states in both groups across all menstrual phases. Furthermore, emotion modulated pain and NFR according to a valence linear trend in both groups and across all menstrual phases. Thus, PMDD-related affective disturbance is not associated with a failure to emotionally modulate pain, suggesting that PMDD does not share this pain phenotype with major depression, insomnia, and fibromyalgia.

  14. Affective personality predictors of disrupted reward learning and pursuit in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    DelDonno, Sophie R; Weldon, Anne L; Crane, Natania A; Passarotti, Alessandra M; Pruitt, Patrick J; Gabriel, Laura B; Yau, Wendy; Meyers, Kortni K; Hsu, David T; Taylor, Stephen F; Heitzeg, Mary M; Herbener, Ellen; Shankman, Stewart A; Mickey, Brian J; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Langenecker, Scott A

    2015-11-30

    Anhedonia, the diminished anticipation and pursuit of reward, is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD). Trait behavioral activation (BA), as a proxy for anhedonia, and behavioral inhibition (BI) may moderate the relationship between MDD and reward-seeking. The present studies probed for reward learning deficits, potentially due to aberrant BA and/or BI, in active or remitted MDD individuals compared to healthy controls (HC). Active MDD (Study 1) and remitted MDD (Study 2) participants completed the modified monetary incentive delay task (mMIDT), a behavioral reward-seeking task whose response window parameters were individually titrated to theoretically elicit equivalent accuracy between groups. Participants completed the BI Scale and BA Reward-Responsiveness and Drive Scales. Despite individual titration, active MDD participants won significantly less money than HCs. Higher Reward-Responsiveness scores predicted more won; Drive and BI were not predictive. Remitted MDD participants' performance did not differ from controls', and trait BA and BI measures did not predict r-MDD performance. These results suggest that diminished reward-responsiveness may contribute to decreased motivation and reward pursuit during active MDD, but that reward learning is intact in remission. Understanding individual reward processing deficits in MDD may inform personalized intervention addressing anhedonia and motivation deficits in select MDD patients.

  15. Early ERP modulation during mood adjectives processing in patients with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Szczepan J; Wyczesany, Miroslaw

    2016-10-06

    Attentional bias is considered a key feature in mood disorders, and yet little is known of its neural correlates within the early stream of information processing in manic and depressed patients. The study aimed to capture and detail attentional bias during emotional word processing in patients within the first 500ms of stimulus exposition. 28 mood adjectives (14 positive and 14 negative) were used as stimuli. We expected differences in adjective encoding between groups during lexico-semantic analysis based on varying attentional resource allocation. Differences were evidenced within the first 100ms after stimulus onset with higher amplitudes for both patient groups than controls, possibly indicating more automatic attention allocation to stimuli during sensory analysis stages. Between 200-290ms after the words' onset, a specific valence mood-word mismatch was registered which approached significance, with higher responses evoked to negative than positive words in manic patients, and the opposite pattern of activity observed in depressed patients, suggesting cognitive bias based on mood incongruence during the lexico-semantic analysis stage. There was also a lateralized pattern of activity, with higher amplitudes over the right hemisphere posteriorly, and higher over the left frontally in the patient groups, especially in the manic individuals. The study points to attentional bias based on mood incongruence processing during crucial stages of meaning encoding within the early stream of information processing.

  16. How disorder affects topological surface states in the limit of ultrathin Bi2Se3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kenan; Soriano, David; Robles, Roberto; Ordejon, Pablo; Roche, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    We present a first-principles study of electronic properties of ultrathin films of topological insulators (TIs) and scrutinize the role of disorder on the robustness of topological surface states, which can be analysed through their spin textures. The presence of twin grain boundaries is found to increase the band gap of the film, while preserving the spin texture of states in first conduction and valence bands. Differently, partial hydrogenation of one surface not only results in some self-doping effect, but also provokes some alteration of the spin texture symmetry of the electronic states. The formation of a new Dirac cone at M-point of the Brillouin zone of the hydrogenated surface, together with a modified spin texture characteristics are consistent with a dominant Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction type, more usually observed in 3D materials. Our findings indicate that defects can either be detrimental or beneficial for exploring spin transport of surface states in the limit of ultrathin films of TIs, which maximizes surface over bulk phenomena.

  17. How does inertia affect the steady-shear rheology of disordered solids?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottler, Joerg; Barrat, Jean-Louis; Nicolas, Alexandre

    We study the finite-shear-rate rheology of disordered solids with molecular dynamics simulations in two dimensions. By systematically varying the damping strength ζ, we identify two well defined flow regimes, separated by a thin crossover region. In the overdamped regime, the athermal rheology is governed by the competition between elastic forces and viscous forces, whose ratio gives the Weissenberg number Wi ζ γ ˙ the macroscopic stress Σ follows the frequently encountered Herschel-Bulkley law Σ =Σ0 + k√{ Wi} , with yield stress Σ0 > 0 . In the underdamped (inertial) regime, dramatic changes in the rheology are observed for low damping: the flow curve becomes nonmonotonic. This change is not caused by longer-lived correlations in the particle dynamics at lower damping; instead, for weak dissipation, the sample heats up considerably and proportional to the driving. By thermostatting more or less underdamped systems, we are able to link quantitatively the rheology to the kinetic temperature Tk, while the damping strength enters only indirectly by setting Tk.

  18. Intersubjectivity, affective neuroscience, and the neurobiology of autistic spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Kenneth J

    2008-03-01

    Intersubjectivity is an approach to the study of social interaction viewed from a perspective which rejects the view that reducing any such analysis to study at the level of the individual is adequate to address the issues of social functioning. It also stresses the view that social processes cannot be reduced to cognitive ones - most of the important questions in the study of developmental psychopathology deal with issues which have commonality with many other species and are patent well before the ontological emergence of 'cognitive' abilities. In this paper we review the evidence in this area, and discuss a range of issues relevant to autistic spectrum disorders. We focus in particular on social interaction; the role of the Intrinsic Motive Formation and recent work on mirror neurons in autism; genetic and teratogenic factors in the genesis of autism; and the role of a number of biological factors in pathogenesis - tryptophan; vitamin B12; sterol metabolism; glutamate and GABA; and the Fragile-X expansion.

  19. Autism spectrum disorder susceptibility gene TAOK2 affects basal dendrite formation in the neocortex.

    PubMed

    de Anda, Froylan Calderon; Rosario, Ana Lucia; Durak, Omer; Tran, Tracy; Gräff, Johannes; Meletis, Konstantinos; Rei, Damien; Soda, Takahiro; Madabhushi, Ram; Ginty, David D; Kolodkin, Alex L; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2012-06-10

    How neurons develop their morphology is an important question in neurobiology. Here we describe a new pathway that specifically affects the formation of basal dendrites and axonal projections in cortical pyramidal neurons. We report that thousand-and-one-amino acid 2 kinase (TAOK2), also known as TAO2, is essential for dendrite morphogenesis. TAOK2 downregulation impairs basal dendrite formation in vivo without affecting apical dendrites. Moreover, TAOK2 interacts with Neuropilin 1 (Nrp1), a receptor protein that binds the secreted guidance cue Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A). TAOK2 overexpression restores dendrite formation in cultured cortical neurons from Nrp1(Sema-) mice, which express Nrp1 receptors incapable of binding Sema3A. TAOK2 overexpression also ameliorates the basal dendrite impairment resulting from Nrp1 downregulation in vivo. Finally, Sema3A and TAOK2 modulate the formation of basal dendrites through the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results delineate a pathway whereby Sema3A and Nrp1 transduce signals through TAOK2 and JNK to regulate basal dendrite development in cortical neurons.

  20. Bad news transmission as a function of the definitiveness of consequences and the relationship between communicator and recipient.

    PubMed

    Weenig, M W; Groenenboom, A C; Wilke, H A

    2001-03-01

    There is ample evidence suggesting (e.g., A. Tesser & S. Rosen, 1975) that people are reluctant to transmit bad news. Research on rumors, on the other hand, suggests that people sometimes are less reluctant to transmit bad news. It is argued that differences between the 2 lines of research include the definitiveness of the consequences of the news and the relationship between communicator and recipient. The influence of these 2 factors on news transmission was investigated in 3 experiments. Results showed that bad news with indefinite consequences was transmitted more often than bad news with definite consequences and that both kinds of bad news were transmitted more often if the recipient was a friend rather than a stranger. Differences in feelings of moral responsibility to transmit the news largely accounted for both effects. The 2 factors did not affect the likelihood of good news transmission.

  1. COMT genotype affects brain white matter pathways in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Zalesky, Andrew; Park, Subin; Yang, Young-Hui; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, BoAh; Song, In-Chan; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Jae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Increased dopamine availability may be associated with impaired structural maturation of brain white matter connectivity. This study aimed to derive a comprehensive, whole-brain characterization of large-scale axonal connectivity differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) associated with catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. Using diffusion tensor imaging, whole-brain tractography, and an imaging connectomics approach, we characterized altered white matter connectivity in youth with ADHD who were COMT Val-homozygous (N = 29) compared with those who were Met-carriers (N = 29). Additionally, we examined whether dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) and dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) polymorphisms were associated with white matter differences. Level of attention was assessed using the continuous performance test before and after an 8-week open-label trial of methylphenidate (MPH). A network of white matter connections linking 18 different brain regions was significantly weakened in youth with ADHD who were COMT Met-carriers compared to those who were Val-homozygous (P < 0.05, family-wise error-corrected). A measure of white matter integrity, fractional anisotropy, was correlated with impaired pretreatment performance in continuous performance test omission errors and response time variability, as well as with improvement in continuous performance test response time variability after MPH treatment. Altered white matter connectivity was exclusively based on COMT genotypes, and was not evident in DAT1 or DRD4. We demonstrated that white matter connectivity in youth with ADHD is associated with COMT Val158Met genotypes. The present findings suggest that different layers of dopamine-related genes and interindividual variability in the genetic polymorphisms should be taken into account when investigating the human connectome.

  2. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Are Dysregulated in Williams Syndrome, a Genetic Disorder Affecting Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Li; Carter, C. Sue; Ying, Jian; Bellugi, Ursula; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Korenberg, Julie R.

    2012-01-01

    The molecular and neural mechanisms regulating human social-emotional behaviors are fundamentally important but largely unknown; unraveling these requires a genetic systems neuroscience analysis of human models. Williams Syndrome (WS), a condition caused by deletion of ∼28 genes, is associated with a gregarious personality, strong drive to approach strangers, difficult peer interactions, and attraction to music. WS provides a unique opportunity to identify endogenous human gene-behavior mechanisms. Social neuropeptides including oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) regulate reproductive and social behaviors in mammals, and we reasoned that these might mediate the features of WS. Here we established blood levels of OT and AVP in WS and controls at baseline, and at multiple timepoints following a positive emotional intervention (music), and a negative physical stressor (cold). We also related these levels to standardized indices of social behavior. Results revealed significantly higher median levels of OT in WS versus controls at baseline, with a less marked increase in AVP. Further, in WS, OT and AVP increased in response to music and to cold, with greater variability and an amplified peak release compared to controls. In WS, baseline OT but not AVP, was correlated positively with approach, but negatively with adaptive social behaviors. These results indicate that WS deleted genes perturb hypothalamic-pituitary release not only of OT but also of AVP, implicating more complex neuropeptide circuitry for WS features and providing evidence for their roles in endogenous regulation of human social behavior. The data suggest a possible biological basis for amygdalar involvement, for increased anxiety, and for the paradox of increased approach but poor social relationships in WS. They also offer insight for translating genetic and neuroendocrine knowledge into treatments for disorders of social behavior. PMID:22719898

  3. Gender Issues and Related Social Stigma Affecting Patients with a Disorder of Sex Development in India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Angela Ann; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Shabir, Iram; Marumudi, Eunice; George, Tony Sam; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2017-02-01

    Children with disorders of sex development (DSD) manifest at birth with malformed genitalia or later with atypical pubertal development. Those born with malformed genitalia are often diagnosed at birth. However, in resource-poor countries like India, where not all births are supervised by healthcare workers, some of these children remain undiagnosed until puberty or even later. The aim of this study was to assess the gender issues and psychosocial problems of children with DSD. Participants included 205 children with DSD (103 with 46,XX DSD and 102 with 46,XY DSD). Both the children with DSD and their parents underwent semistructured interviews by a clinical psychologist. The birth of a child with DSD was perceived as a major medical and social problem by parents from all socioeconomic strata. Mothers were distressed as many believed the DSD condition was transmitted through the mother. Children who were not diagnosed and treated during infancy or early childhood experienced considerable social discrimination not only from relatives and friends but also from medical and paramedical staff in hospitals. Several patients had been operated during infancy without an etiological diagnosis and without provision of adequate information to the parents. Some children had problems related to complications of surgery. Most teenage patients with 5α-reductase-2 deficiency reared as females presented with gender dysphoria, while children with androgen insensitivity (except for one) or with gonadal dysgenesis developed a gender identity concordant with their gender of rearing. Parents of children with DSD preferred a male gender assignment for their children (if that was possible) because of the social advantages of growing up male in a patriarchal society.

  4. Personality Disorder and Changes in Affect Consciousness: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study of Patients with Avoidant and Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Merete Selsbakk; Normann-Eide, Tone; Egeland, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are highly prevalent in patients receiving psychiatric services, and are associated with significant personal and social costs. Over the past two decades, an increasing number of treatment studies have documented the effectiveness of treatment for patients with PDs, especially when it comes to reduction of symptom distress, risk taking behavior, self-harm, or suicide attempts. However, less is known about the more complex aims of improving the personality structure itself, such as identity- and interpersonal disturbances. Emotional dysfunction is closely associated with PD pathology. The present study investigated changes in affect consciousness (AC) in patients with avoidant or borderline PD, and how these changes were associated with clinical status after 3 years of follow-up. The study included 52 individuals; 79 percent were females, and mean age was 30 years. The evaluations included the Affect Consciousness Interview, Symptom Checklist-90-R, Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, the Index of Self-Esteem, and three domains (Identity Integration, Relational Capacities, and Self-Control) of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118). There was a significant increase in the Global AC and AC scores for most of the specific affects from baseline to follow-up. As the present study did not include a control group, it cannot be concluded that changes in AC are effects of psychotherapy, and the possibility of age-related maturation processes cannot be excluded. The change in Global AC contributed significantly to explained variance in the follow-up levels of Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, and the two SIPP-118 domains Relational Capacities and Identity Integration. Improved AC was not associated with change in the Self-Control domain or the Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-R. The results suggest that AC may be altered for patients with borderline and avoidant PDs, and this is the first study to report that

  5. Genetic modification of corticosteroid receptor signalling: novel insights into pathophysiology and treatment strategies of human affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Müller, Marianne; Holsboer, Florian; Keck, Martin E

    2002-01-01

    Every disturbance of the body, either real or imagined, evokes a stress response. Essential to this stress response is the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, finally resulting in the release of glucocorticoid hormones from the adrenal cortex. Glucocorticoid hormones, in turn, feed back to this system by central activation of two types of corticosteroid receptors: the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) which markedly differ in their neuroanatomical distribution and ligand affinity. Whereas a brief period of controllable stress, experienced with general arousal and excitement, can be a challenge and might thus be beneficial, chronically elevated levels of circulating corticosteroids are believed to enhance vulnerability to a variety of diseases, including affective disorders. Corticosteroids are known to influence emotions and cognitive processes, such as learning and memory. In addition, corticosteroids play extremely important roles in modulating fear and anxiety-related behaviour. The mechanisms by which corticosteroids exert their effects on behaviour are often indirect, by modulating particular sets of neurons or neurotransmitter systems. In addition, the timing of corticosteroid increase (before, during or after exposure to a stressor) determines whether and how behaviour is affected. The cumulative evidence makes a strong case implicating corticosteroid receptor dysfunction in the pathogenesis of affective disorders. Although definitive controlled trials remain to be conducted, there is evidence indicating that cortisol-lowering or corticosteroid receptor antagonist treatments may be of clinical benefit in selected individuals with major depression. A more detailed knowledge of the GR signalling pathways therefore opens up the possibility to specifically target GR function. In recent years, refined molecular technologies and the generation of genetically engineered mice (e.g. "conventional

  6. Seasonal variation in affective and other clinical symptoms among high-risk families for bipolar disorders in an Arctic population

    PubMed Central

    Pirkola, Sami; Eriksen, Heidi A.; Partonen, Timo; Kieseppä, Tuula; Veijola, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Mylläri-Figuerola, Eeva-Maija; Salo, Paula M.; Paunio, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Background In bipolar disorder (BD), seasonality of symptoms is common and disturbances in circadian rhythms have been reported. Objectives We identified high-penetrance families in a geographically restricted area in Northern Fennoscandia and studied the seasonal variation of clinical symptoms among BD subjects and their healthy relatives. Design We explored the clinical characteristics of subjects living in Northern Fennoscandia, with extreme annual variation in daylight. Among known indigenous high-risk families for BD, we compared the affected ones (N=16) with their healthy relatives (N=15), and also included 18 healthy non-related controls from the same geographical area. Seasonal fluctuation in clinical measures was followed up at the 4 most demarcated photoperiodic time points of the annual cycle: around the summer solstice and autumn equinox in 2013, the winter solstice in 2013/2014, and the spring equinox in 2014. In the baseline, lifetime manic symptoms [Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ)] and morningness–eveningness questionnaire type (MEQ) were registered, whereas in the follow-up, depressive [Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)] and distress [General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12)] symptoms and alcohol consumption and sleep were recorded. Results Possibly indicative or statistically significant differences in symptoms between the affected subjects and their healthy relatives were the BDI winter (13.3 vs. 2.6, t=−2.51, p=0.022) and spring scores (12.6 vs. 3.2, t=−1.97, p=0.063) and GHQ winter (4.2 vs. 0.82, t=−2.08, p=0.052) and spring scores (3.8 vs. 0.82, t=−1.97, p=0.063). Scores were higher among the affected subjects, exceeding a possibly diagnostic threshold (10 and 3) at all the time points, and without the notable seasonality which was observed among the healthy relatives. In the overall population, MDQ and MEQ scores had an inverse correlation (−0.384, significant at 0.016), indicating increased lifetime manic behaviour among “the night

  7. A comprehensive linkage analysis of chromosome 21q22 supports prior evidence for a putative bipolar affective disorder locus.

    PubMed Central

    Aita, V M; Liu, J; Knowles, J A; Terwilliger, J D; Baltazar, R; Grunn, A; Loth, J E; Kanyas, K; Lerer, B; Endicott, J; Wang, Z; Penchaszadeh, G; Gilliam, T C; Baron, M

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated evidence of linkage to bipolar affective disorder (BP) in a single large, multigenerational family with a LOD score of 3.41 at the PFKL locus on chromosome 21q22.3. Additional families showed little support for linkage to PFKL under homogeneity or heterogeneity, in that study. We have expanded on that analysis, with 31 microsatellite markers at an average marker spacing of affecteds-only" method. As such, our results are based solely on genetic information from affected individuals, without assumptions about the disease-locus genotypes of the unaffecteds. Furthermore, for ease of comparison, this study was performed with the same approach as a 10-cM genome scan for BP loci, the results of which will be reported elsewhere. PMID:9915960

  8. Bad apples, bad cases, and bad barrels: meta-analytic evidence about sources of unethical decisions at work.

    PubMed

    Kish-Gephart, Jennifer J; Harrison, David A; Treviño, Linda Klebe

    2010-01-01

    As corporate scandals proliferate, practitioners and researchers alike need a cumulative, quantitative understanding of the antecedents associated with unethical decisions in organizations. In this meta-analysis, the authors draw from over 30 years of research and multiple literatures to examine individual ("bad apple"), moral issue ("bad case"), and organizational environment ("bad barrel") antecedents of unethical choice. Findings provide empirical support for several foundational theories and paint a clearer picture of relationships characterized by mixed results. Structural equation modeling revealed the complexity (multidetermined nature) of unethical choice, as well as a need for research that simultaneously examines different sets of antecedents. Moderator analyses unexpectedly uncovered better prediction of unethical behavior than of intention for several variables. This suggests a need to more strongly consider a new "ethical impulse" perspective in addition to the traditional "ethical calculus" perspective. Results serve as a data-based foundation and guide for future theoretical and empirical development in the domain of behavioral ethics.

  9. Modeling psychotic and cognitive symptoms of affective disorders: Disrupted latent inhibition and reversal learning deficits in highly stress reactive mice.

    PubMed

    Knapman, A; Heinzmann, J-M; Holsboer, F; Landgraf, R; Touma, C

    2010-09-01

    Increased stress reactivity has repeatedly been reported in patients suffering from psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia and major depression. These disorders also have other symptoms in common, such as cognitive deficits and psychotic-like behavior. We have therefore investigated if increased stress reactivity is associated with these phenotypic endpoints in an animal model of affective disorders. The stress reactivity mouse model used in this study consists of three CD-1-derived mouse lines, that have been selectively bred for high (HR), intermediate (IR) or low (LR) stress reactivity. Male mice from these three breeding lines were subjected to a reversal learning task and latent inhibition (Li) was assessed using a conditioned taste aversion paradigm. Furthermore, as the dopaminergic system is involved in both Li and reversal learning, the dopamine 1 receptor (D1R), dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) and dopamine transporter (DAT) mRNA expression levels were assessed in relevant brain areas of these animals. The results demonstrate that HR mice show perseveration in the reversal learning task and have disrupted Li. Furthermore, compared to LR mice, HR mice have decreased D2R mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area, as well as decreased D1R mRNA levels in the cingulate cortex, and an increased expression of D2R mRNA in the nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the HR mice display cognitive deficits associated with psychotic-like behavior, similar to those observed in patients suffering from schizophrenia and major depression and could be utilized in the search for better treatment strategies for these symptoms of psychiatric disorders.

  10. Cartesian theories on the passions, the pineal gland and the pathogenesis of affective disorders: an early forerunner.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, F; Alamo, C

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between physical and functional alterations in the pineal gland, the 'passions' (emotions or feelings) and psychopathology has been a constant throughout the history of medicine. One of the most influential authors on this subject was René Descartes, who discussed it in his work The Treatise on the Passions of the Soul (1649). Descartes believed that 'passions' were sensitive movements that the soul, located in the pineal gland, experienced due to its union with the body, by circulating animal spirits. Descartes described sadness as one of the six primitive passions of the soul, which leads to melancholy if not remedied. Cartesian theories had a great deal of influence on the way that mental pathologies were considered throughout the entire 17th century and during much of the 18th century, but the link between the pineal gland and psychiatric disorders it was definitively highlighted in the 20th century, with the discovery of melatonin in 1958. The recent development of a new pharmacological agent acting through melatonergic receptors (agomelatine) has confirmed the close link between the pineal gland and affective disorders.

  11. Affective and neuropsychological correlates of children's rituals and compulsive-like behaviors: continuities and discontinuities with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Pietrefesa, Ashley S; Evans, David W

    2007-10-01

    This study explored the relations among ritualistic and compulsive-like behavior, fears, and neuropsychological performance in typically developing children between the ages of four and eight years. Forty-two children were administered a battery of neuropsychological tasks assessing response inhibition and set-shifting. Two parent-report questionnaires assessed the intensity of children's fears and compulsive-like behaviors ("just right" perceptions and repetitive behaviors). For younger children (72 months), set-shifting and response inhibition accounted for significant variance in their ritualistic, compulsive-like behaviors. For older children (>72 months), a combination of neuropsychological (response inhibition) and affective (animal fears and social anxiety) factors predicted compulsive-like behaviors. These findings suggest that common neuropsychological mechanisms underlie compulsive, ritualistic behavior exhibited in normal development and in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  12. Association of Jacobsen syndrome and bipolar affective disorder in a patient with a de novo 11q terminal deletion.

    PubMed

    Böhm, D; Hoffmann, K; Laccone, F; Wilken, B; Dechent, P; Frahm, J; Bartels, I; Bohlander, S K

    2006-02-15

    We report on a young woman with Jacobsen syndrome (JBS) who was admitted to our psychiatric department because of a bipolar affective disorder (BPAD). Chromosome analysis was performed due to the fact that she had mental retardation, short stature, and subtle facial anomalies. A deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 11 was found. A detailed mapping of the deletion breakpoint by quantitative real time PCR revealed a true terminal 11q deletion of approximately 8 Mb corresponding to the karyotype 46,XX,del(11)(q24.2). Polymorphic DNA marker analysis showed that the deletion is located on the paternal chromosome. Additionally, laboratory investigations revealed a low platelet count and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed white matter T2 hyperintensities in frontotemporal regions, which are unlikely to result from a demyelinating process as indicated by localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a BPAD in a case with JBS.

  13. Differences in cortisol response affect the distinction of observed reactive and proactive aggression in children with aggressive behaviour disorders.

    PubMed

    Kempes, M; de Vries, H; Matthys, W; van Engeland, H; van Hooff, J

    2008-01-01

    Various researchers distinguished two categories of aggressive behaviour, namely reactive and proactive aggression. Reactive aggression is an aggressive response to a perceived threat or provocation, whereas proactive aggression is behaviour that anticipates a reward. In the present study, including both a sample of disruptive behaviour disordered (DBD) and normal control (NC) children, we observed reactive and proactive aggressive behaviour during an experimental dyadic play session. DBD children showed more observed reactive and proactive aggression. Subsequently, we investigated whether the observed measures correlated with parent-rated measures of reactive and proactive aggression in. We distinguished in both NC and DBD children a subgroup showing a rise in cortisol level, i.e. responders, and a subgroup who did not show a rise in cortisol, i.e. non-responders. Results suggest that differences in the cortisol response affects the correspondence between observed and parent-rated reactive and proactive aggression since only DBD non-responders showed the expected correlations.

  14. Systematic screening for mutations in the human serotonin 1F receptor gene in patients with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Shimron-Abarbanell, D.; Harms, H.; Erdmann, J.; Propping, P.; Noethen, M.M.

    1996-04-09

    Using single strand conformational analysis we screened the complete coding sequence of the serotonin 1F (5-HT{sub 1F}) receptor gene for the presence of DNA sequence variation in a sample of 137 unrelated individuals including 45 schizophrenic patients, 46 bipolar patients, as well as 46 healthy controls. We detected only three rare sequence variants which are characterized by single base pair substitutions, namely a silent T{r_arrow}A transversion in the third position of codon 261 (encoding isoleucine), a silent C{r_arrow}T transition in the third position of codon 176 (encoding histidine), and a C{r_arrow}T transition in position -78 upstream from the start codon. The lack of significant mutations in patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder indicates that the 5-HT{sub 1F} receptor is not commonly involved in the etiology of these diseases. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Patients' narratives concerning good and bad caring.

    PubMed

    Lövgren, G; Engström, B; Norberg, A

    1996-01-01

    Narratives from patients (n = 80) and patients' relatives (n = 12) were collected to illuminate experiences of good and bad caring episodes and to obtain descriptions of good caring. Narratives describing good caring included such task aspects as swift and correct assessment and access to information. Aspects less frequently mentioned were, for example, being given time, receiving pain relief and good food. Relationship aspects mentioned; having an interest shown in the care, being taken seriously and being cared about. There are parallels regarding relationship aspects between the narratives concerning good and bad caring episodes; for example what was praised in the good caring narratives was criticized in those describing bad caring. Such parallels were being/not being trusted, being/not being believed and being/not being respected. The narrations concerning bad caring were more specific and more vivid than those about good caring. The authors' interpretation was that the bad episodes were unexpected and very painful and therefore remained imprinted in the patients' memories. The descriptions of good caring included relationship aspects in only 34 cases, task aspects in only five cases and a combination of both in 50 cases. The ultimate purpose of the study was to obtain a basis for the development of a policy for good caring founded on patients' experiences. It is desirable that further studies be undertaken within various clinical specialties which would also take into consideration medical, social and cultural perspectives.

  16. Bad Actors Criticality Assessment for Pipeline system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Meseret; Chong, Kit wee; Osman, Sabtuni; Siaw Khur, Wee

    2015-04-01

    Failure of a pipeline system could bring huge economic loss. In order to mitigate such catastrophic loss, it is required to evaluate and rank the impact of each bad actor of the pipeline system. In this study, bad actors are known as the root causes or any potential factor leading to the system downtime. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is used to analyze the probability of occurrence for each bad actor. Bimbaum's Importance and criticality measure (BICM) is also employed to rank the impact of each bad actor on the pipeline system failure. The results demonstrate that internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage are critical and highly contribute to the pipeline system failure with 48.0%, 12.4% and 6.0% respectively. Thus, a minor improvement in internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage would bring significant changes in the pipeline system performance and reliability. These results could also be useful to develop efficient maintenance strategy by identifying the critical bad actors.

  17. Antidepressant therapy in epilepsy: can treating the comorbidities affect the underlying disorder?

    PubMed

    Cardamone, L; Salzberg, M R; O'Brien, T J; Jones, N C

    2013-04-01

    There is a high incidence of psychiatric comorbidity in people with epilepsy (PWE), particularly depression. The manifold adverse consequences of comorbid depression have been more clearly mapped in recent years. Accordingly, considerable efforts have been made to improve detection and diagnosis, with the result that many PWE are treated with antidepressant drugs, medications with the potential to influence both epilepsy and depression. Exposure to older generations of antidepressants (notably tricyclic antidepressants and bupropion) can increase seizure frequency. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that newer ('second generation') antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, have markedly less effect on excitability and may lead to improvements in epilepsy severity. Although a great deal is known about how antidepressants affect excitability on short time scales in experimental models, little is known about the effects of chronic antidepressant exposure on the underlying processes subsumed under the term 'epileptogenesis': the progressive neurobiological processes by which the non-epileptic brain changes so that it generates spontaneous, recurrent seizures. This paper reviews the literature concerning the influences of antidepressants in PWE and in animal models. The second section describes neurobiological mechanisms implicated in both antidepressant actions and in epileptogenesis, highlighting potential substrates that may mediate any effects of antidepressants on the development and progression of epilepsy. Although much indirect evidence suggests the overall clinical effects of antidepressants on epilepsy itself are beneficial, there are reasons for caution and the need for further research, discussed in the concluding section.

  18. Antidepressant therapy in epilepsy: can treating the comorbidities affect the underlying disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Cardamone, L; Salzberg, MR; O'Brien, TJ; Jones, NC

    2013-01-01

    There is a high incidence of psychiatric comorbidity in people with epilepsy (PWE), particularly depression. The manifold adverse consequences of comorbid depression have been more clearly mapped in recent years. Accordingly, considerable efforts have been made to improve detection and diagnosis, with the result that many PWE are treated with antidepressant drugs, medications with the potential to influence both epilepsy and depression. Exposure to older generations of antidepressants (notably tricyclic antidepressants and bupropion) can increase seizure frequency. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that newer (‘second generation’) antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, have markedly less effect on excitability and may lead to improvements in epilepsy severity. Although a great deal is known about how antidepressants affect excitability on short time scales in experimental models, little is known about the effects of chronic antidepressant exposure on the underlying processes subsumed under the term ‘epileptogenesis’: the progressive neurobiological processes by which the non-epileptic brain changes so that it generates spontaneous, recurrent seizures. This paper reviews the literature concerning the influences of antidepressants in PWE and in animal models. The second section describes neurobiological mechanisms implicated in both antidepressant actions and in epileptogenesis, highlighting potential substrates that may mediate any effects of antidepressants on the development and progression of epilepsy. Although much indirect evidence suggests the overall clinical effects of antidepressants on epilepsy itself are beneficial, there are reasons for caution and the need for further research, discussed in the concluding section. PMID:23146067

  19. Postharvest physio-pathological disorders in table grapes as affected by UV-C light.

    PubMed

    D'Hallewin, G; Ladu, G; Pani, G; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; Venditti, T

    2012-01-01

    To gain knowledge on the influence of postharvest treatments with ultraviolet-C light upon the keeping quality of table grapes, a trail was performed employing commercially mature 'Corina', 'Dawn Seedless', 'Centennial Seedless' and 'Gran Perlon' grape cultivars (cvs). After grading, bunches were subjected to 0.0, 0.5, 1.5 or 3 kJm(-2) and then stored at 5 degrees C and 90% relative humidity (RH) for 6 weeks followed by a 2 day shelf-life at 25 degrees C and 70% RH. A weekly inspection was performed and a visual evaluation of the appearance, treatment damage, stems browning and berry shrivelling was performed. Weight loss, decay and shatter were quantified at the end of storage and shelf-life. Regardless the cv and UV-C dose, fruit appearance was acceptable until the end of storage and shelf-life. Among the cvs, the highest score was held by 'G. Perlon'. After the fourth week of storage, the berries of 'Centennial S.' turned light brown and darkened over time when treated with 3.0 kJm(-2). Stem browning was not induced by the light treatment, but resulted cv depended and was pronounced for 'Centennial S.' and 'Dawn S.'. Berry shrivelling was insignificant, while shatter was very high in 'Corina' and did not depend upon UV-C treatment. Regarding weight loss, differences could not be attributed to the light treatment and after storage it ranged from 3 up to 5%. Decay was significantly reduced by light treatment and the efficacy increased by raising the dose. Botrytis cinerea was the main cause of decay with 'Corina' being the most jeopardized, followed by 'Dawn S.' and 'Centennial S.', whereas 'G. Perlon' resulted the less affected. In conclusion, hormetic effects of postharvest light treatment on table grapes were observed in almost all cvs with 'G. Perlon' having the best performance.

  20. Cerebral White Matter Lesions and Affective Episodes Correlate in Male Individuals with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Birner, Armin; Seiler, Stephan; Lackner, Nina; Bengesser, Susanne A.; Queissner, Robert; Fellendorf, Frederike T.; Platzer, Martina; Ropele, Stefan; Enzinger, Christian; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Mangge, Harald; Pirpamer, Lukas; Deutschmann, Hannes; McIntyre, Roger S.; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Reininghaus, Bernd; Reininghaus, Eva Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cerebral white matter lesions (WML) have been found in normal aging, vascular disease and several neuropsychiatric conditions. Correlations of WML with clinical parameters in BD have been described, but not with the number of affective episodes, illness duration, age of onset and Body Mass Index in a well characterized group of euthymic bipolar adults. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the associations between bipolar course of illness parameters and WML measured with volumetric analysis. Methods In a cross-sectional study 100 euthymic individuals with BD as well as 54 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to undergo brain magnetic resonance imaging using 3T including a FLAIR sequence for volumetric assessment of WML-load using FSL-software. Additionally, clinical characteristics and psychometric measures including Structured Clinical Interview according to DSM-IV, Hamilton-Depression, Young Mania Rating Scale and Beck’s Depression Inventory were evaluated. Results Individuals with BD had significantly more (F = 3.968, p < .05) WML (Mdn = 3710mm3; IQR = 2961mm3) than HC (Mdn = 2185mm3; IQR = 1665mm3). BD men (Mdn = 4095mm3; IQR = 3295mm3) and BD women (Mdn = 3032mm3; IQR = 2816mm3) did not significantly differ as to the WML-load or the number and type of risk factors for WML. However, in men only, the number of manic/hypomanic episodes (r = 0.72; p < .001) as well as depressive episodes (r = 0.51; p < .001) correlated positively with WML-load. Conclusions WML-load strongly correlated with the number of manic episodes in male BD patients, suggesting that men might be more vulnerable to mania in the context of cerebral white matter changes. PMID:26252714

  1. Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  2. Adaptive bad pixel correction algorithm for IRFPA based on PCNN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Hanbing; Zhou, Zuofeng; Cao, Jianzhong; Yi, Bo; Yan, Aqi; Zhang, Jian

    2013-10-01

    Bad pixels and response non-uniformity are the primary obstacles when IRFPA is used in different thermal imaging systems. The bad pixels of IRFPA include fixed bad pixels and random bad pixels. The former is caused by material or manufacture defect and their positions are always fixed, the latter is caused by temperature drift and their positions are always changing. Traditional radiometric calibration-based bad pixel detection and compensation algorithm is only valid to the fixed bad pixels. Scene-based bad pixel correction algorithm is the effective way to eliminate these two kinds of bad pixels. Currently, the most used scene-based bad pixel correction algorithm is based on adaptive median filter (AMF). In this algorithm, bad pixels are regarded as image noise and then be replaced by filtered value. However, missed correction and false correction often happens when AMF is used to handle complex infrared scenes. To solve this problem, a new adaptive bad pixel correction algorithm based on pulse coupled neural networks (PCNN) is proposed. Potential bad pixels are detected by PCNN in the first step, then image sequences are used periodically to confirm the real bad pixels and exclude the false one, finally bad pixels are replaced by the filtered result. With the real infrared images obtained from a camera, the experiment results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  3. [An old "new" disease: body dysmorphic disorder (dysmorphophobia)].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Pál

    2010-10-31

    Body dysmorphic disorder causes significant suffering and serious impairment in psychosocial functions. However, this disease with dangerous risks is scarcely mentioned in the Hungarian medical literature. The objective of the author is to give a detailed review about this almost unknown, but relatively common disorder. The serious disorder of body perception is in the centre of symptoms, leading to social isolation, anxiety, depression and obsessive-compulsive phenomena. The disorder often remains unrecognized because of the lack of insight of disease. Comorbidity with affective disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, alcoholism and substance use disorders is common. The life quality of affected patients is bad, the risk of suicide or violence is high. Biological, psychological and sociocultural factors play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of the disorder. Imaging techniques and neuropsychological measures revealed changes characteristic for the disease. Childhood abuse and neglect, appearance-related critical remarks, stressors and the impact of media are also supposed to have role in the development of the disorder. The point prevalence is 0.7-2.5% in the general population, however, in special groups such as in tertiary students, psychiatric, dermatological and cosmetic surgery patients the prevalence rates may be much higher. Typically, the disease begins in early adolescence, and it persists and deteriorates without treatment, showing a chronic course. By means of pharmacotherapy and/or psychotherapy long-during improvement or full recovery can be achieved within a relatively short period of time.

  4. Does comorbid chronic pain affect posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis and treatment? Outcomes of posttraumatic stress disorder screening in Department of Veterans Affairs primary care.

    PubMed

    Outcalt, Samantha D; Hoen, Helena Maria; Yu, Zhangsheng; Franks, Tenesha Marie; Krebs, Erin E

    2016-01-01

    Because posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is both prevalent and underrecognized, routine primary care-based screening for PTSD has been implemented across the Veterans Health Administration. PTSD is frequently complicated by the presence of comorbid chronic pain, and patients with both conditions have increased symptom severity and poorer prognosis. Our objective was to determine whether the presence of pain affects diagnosis and treatment of PTSD among Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) patients who have a positive PTSD screening test. This retrospective cohort study used clinical and administrative data from six Midwestern VA medical centers. We identified 4,244 VA primary care patients with a positive PTSD screen and compared outcomes for those with and without a coexisting pain diagnosis. Outcomes were three clinically appropriate responses to positive PTSD screening: (1) mental health visit, (2) PTSD diagnosis, and (3) new selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) prescription. We found that patients with coexisting pain had a lower rate of mental health visits than those without pain (hazard ratio: 0.889, 95% confidence interval: 0.821-0.962). There were no significant differences in the rate of PTSD diagnosis or new SSRI prescription between patients with and without coexisting pain.

  5. Association for methodology and documentation in psychiatry profiles predict later risk for criminal behavior and violent crimes in former inpatients with affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Soyka, Michael; Zingg, Christina

    2010-05-01

    Few studies have investigated criminal and violent behavior in patients with affective disorders. We reviewed the national crime register for records of criminal offenses committed by 1561 patients with affective disorders and studied the predictive value of certain psychopathological symptoms assessed with the Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) system concerning future criminal behavior. Sixty-five (4.2%) patients had been convicted in the 7-12 years after discharge (307 cases). Patients with the AMDP syndrome mania had a significantly higher risk for later criminal behavior. The combination with the hostility syndrome further increased the risk. These findings are in line with previous data indicating a higher risk for later criminal behavior in patients with a manic/bipolar disorder compared to depressive disorder. As previously demonstrated in another sample of schizophrenic patients, the AMDP syndromes mania (and hostility) is associated with a higher risk of later criminal behavior.

  6. Otoacoustic emissions, auditory evoked potentials and self-reported gender in people affected by disorders of sex development (DSD).

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Amy B; Espinoza-Varas, Blas; Aston, Christopher E; Edmundson, Shelagh; Champlin, Craig A; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-08-01

    Both otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are sexually dimorphic, and both are believed to be influenced by prenatal androgen exposure. OAEs and AEPs were collected from people affected by 1 of 3 categories of disorders of sex development (DSD) - (1) women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS); (2) women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH); and (3) individuals with 46,XY DSD including prenatal androgen exposure who developed a male gender despite initial rearing as females (men with DSD). Gender identity (GI) and role (GR) were measured both retrospectively and at the time of study participation, using standardized questionnaires. The main objective of this study was to determine if patterns of OAEs and AEPs correlate with gender in people affected by DSD and in controls. A second objective was to assess if OAE and AEP patterns differed according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure across groups. Control males, men with DSD, and women with CAH produced fewer spontaneous OAEs (SOAEs) - the male-typical pattern - than control females and women with CAIS. Additionally, the number of SOAEs produced correlated with gender development across all groups tested. Although some sex differences in AEPs were observed between control males and females, AEP measures did not correlate with gender development, nor did they vary according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure, among people with DSD. Thus, OAEs, but not AEPs, may prove useful as bioassays for assessing early brain exposure to androgens and predicting gender development in people with DSD.

  7. Otoacoustic Emissions, Auditory Evoked Potentials and Self-Reported Gender in People Affected by Disorders of Sex Development (DSD)

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Amy B.; Espinoza-Varas, Blas; Aston, Christopher E.; Edmundson, Shelagh; Champlin, Craig A.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Both otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are sexually dimorphic, and both are believed to be influenced by prenatal androgen exposure. OAEs and AEPs were collected from people affected by 1 of 3 categories of disorders of sex development (DSD) – (1) women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS); (2) women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH); and (3) individuals with 46, XY DSD including prenatal androgen exposure who developed a male gender despite initial rearing as females (men with DSD). Gender identity (GI) and role (GR) were measured both retrospectively and at the time of study participation, using standardized questionnaires. The main objective of this study was to determine if patterns of OAEs and AEPs correlate with gender in people affected by DSD and in controls. A second objective was to assess if OAE and AEP patterns differed according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure across groups. Control males, men with DSD, and women with CAH produced fewer spontaneous OAEs (SOAEs) – the male-typical pattern – than control females and women with CAIS. Additionally, the number of SOAEs produced correlated with gender development across all groups tested. Although some sex differences in AEPs were observed between control males and females, AEP measures did not correlate with gender development, nor did they vary according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure, among people with DSD. Thus, OAEs, but not AEPs, may prove useful as bioassays for assessing early brain exposure to androgens and predicting gender development in people with DSD. PMID:25038289

  8. Setting apart the affected: the use of behavioral criteria in animal models of post traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Hagit; Zohar, Joseph; Matar, Michael A; Zeev, Kaplan; Loewenthal, Uri; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2004-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects about 20-30% of exposed individuals. Clinical studies of PTSD generally employ stringent criteria for inclusion in study populations, and yet in animal studies the data collection and analysis are generally expressed as a function of exposed vs nonexposed populations, regardless of individual variation in response. Prior data support an approach to animal models analogous to inclusion criteria in clinical studies. This series of studies sought to assess prevalence rates of maladaptive vs adaptive responses determined according to a more stringent approach to the concept of inclusion/exclusion criteria (cutoff behavioral criteria-CBC), consisting of two successive behavioral tests (elevated plus maze and acoustic startle response tests). The rats were exposed to stressors in two different paradigms; exposure to a predator and underwater trauma. The prevalence rates of maladaptive responses to stress in these two distinct models dropped over time from 90% in the acute phase to 25% enduring/maladaptive response at 7 days, to remain constant over 30 days. As setting the affected individuals apart from the unaffected approximates clinical studies, it might also help to clarify some of the pending issues in PTSD research.

  9. Lessons Learned from Whole Exome Sequencing in Multiplex Families Affected by a Complex Genetic Disorder, Intracranial Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Farlow, Janice L.; Lin, Hai; Sauerbeck, Laura; Lai, Dongbing; Koller, Daniel L.; Pugh, Elizabeth; Hetrick, Kurt; Ling, Hua; Kleinloog, Rachel; van der Vlies, Pieter; Deelen, Patrick; Swertz, Morris A.; Verweij, Bon H.; Regli, Luca; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Ruigrok, Ynte M.; Doheny, Kimberly; Liu, Yunlong; Broderick, Joseph; Foroud, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Genetic risk factors for intracranial aneurysm (IA) are not yet fully understood. Genomewide association studies have been successful at identifying common variants; however, the role of rare variation in IA susceptibility has not been fully explored. In this study, we report the use of whole exome sequencing (WES) in seven densely-affected families (45 individuals) recruited as part of the Familial Intracranial Aneurysm study. WES variants were prioritized by functional prediction, frequency, predicted pathogenicity, and segregation within families. Using these criteria, 68 variants in 68 genes were prioritized across the seven families. Of the genes that were expressed in IA tissue, one gene (TMEM132B) was differentially expressed in aneurysmal samples (n=44) as compared to control samples (n=16) (false discovery rate adjusted p-value=0.023). We demonstrate that sequencing of densely affected families permits exploration of the role of rare variants in a relatively common disease such as IA, although there are important study design considerations for applying sequencing to complex disorders. In this study, we explore methods of WES variant prioritization, including the incorporation of unaffected individuals, multipoint linkage analysis, biological pathway information, and transcriptome profiling. Further studies are needed to validate and characterize the set of variants and genes identified in this study. PMID:25803036

  10. Lessons learned from whole exome sequencing in multiplex families affected by a complex genetic disorder, intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Farlow, Janice L; Lin, Hai; Sauerbeck, Laura; Lai, Dongbing; Koller, Daniel L; Pugh, Elizabeth; Hetrick, Kurt; Ling, Hua; Kleinloog, Rachel; van der Vlies, Pieter; Deelen, Patrick; Swertz, Morris A; Verweij, Bon H; Regli, Luca; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Ruigrok, Ynte M; Doheny, Kimberly; Liu, Yunlong; Broderick, Joseph; Foroud, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Genetic risk factors for intracranial aneurysm (IA) are not yet fully understood. Genomewide association studies have been successful at identifying common variants; however, the role of rare variation in IA susceptibility has not been fully explored. In this study, we report the use of whole exome sequencing (WES) in seven densely-affected families (45 individuals) recruited as part of the Familial Intracranial Aneurysm study. WES variants were prioritized by functional prediction, frequency, predicted pathogenicity, and segregation within families. Using these criteria, 68 variants in 68 genes were prioritized across the seven families. Of the genes that were expressed in IA tissue, one gene (TMEM132B) was differentially expressed in aneurysmal samples (n=44) as compared to control samples (n=16) (false discovery rate adjusted p-value=0.023). We demonstrate that sequencing of densely affected families permits exploration of the role of rare variants in a relatively common disease such as IA, although there are important study design considerations for applying sequencing to complex disorders. In this study, we explore methods of WES variant prioritization, including the incorporation of unaffected individuals, multipoint linkage analysis, biological pathway information, and transcriptome profiling. Further studies are needed to validate and characterize the set of variants and genes identified in this study.

  11. Specific protein profile in cerebrospinal fluid from HIV-1-positive cART-treated patients affected by neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Valentina; Delbue, Serena; Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Tavazzi, Eleonora; Del Savio, Rossella; Crovella, Sergio; Marchioni, Enrico; Ferrante, Pasquale; Comar, Manola

    2012-10-01

    Cytokines/chemokines are involved in the immune response of infections, including HIV-1. We defined the profile of 48 cytokines/chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid from 18 cART patients with chronic HIV-1 infection by Luminex technology. Nine patients were affected with leukoencephalopathies: five with John Cunningham virus (JCV) + progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and four with JCV-not determined leukoencephalopathy (NDLE). In addition, nine HIV-1-positive patients with no neurological signs (NND) and five HIV-1-negative patients affected with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) were enrolled. Ten cytokines (IL-15, IL-3, IL-16, IL-18, CTACK, GRO1, SCF, MCP-1, MIF, SDF) were highly expressed in HIV-1-positive patients while IL-1Ra and IL-17 were present at a lower level. In addition, the levels of IL-17, IL-9, FGF-basic, MIP-1β, and MCP-1 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in patients with neurological diseases (PML, NDLE, ADEM) with respect to NND. Focusing the attention to the cytokine profile in JCV + PML patients with respect to JCV-NDLE patients, only TNF-β was significantly downregulated (p < 0.05) in JCV + PML patients. This pilot study emphasized the role of immunoregulation in HIV-1-related neurological disorders during cART treatment.

  12. Affective context interferes with brain responses during cognitive processing in borderline personality disorder: fMRI evidence.

    PubMed

    Soloff, Paul H; White, Richard; Omari, Amro; Ramaseshan, Karthik; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2015-07-30

    Emotion dysregulation in borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with loss of cognitive control in the face of intense negative emotion. Negative emotional context may interfere with cognitive processing through the dysmodulation of brain regions involved in regulation of emotion, impulse control, executive function and memory. Structural and metabolic brain abnormalities have been reported in these regions in BPD. Using novel fMRI protocols, we investigated the neural basis of negative affective interference with cognitive processing targeting these regions. Attention-driven Go No-Go and X-CPT (continuous performance test) protocols, using positive, negative and neutral Ekman faces, targeted the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), respectively. A stimulus-driven Episodic Memory task, using images from the International Affective Pictures System, targeted the hippocampus (HIP). Participants comprised 23 women with BPD, who were compared with 15 healthy controls. When Negative>Positive faces were compared in the Go No-Go task, BPD subjects had hyper-activation relative to controls in areas reflecting task-relevant processing: the superior parietal/precuneus and the basal ganglia. Decreased activation was also noted in the OFC, and increased activation in the amygdala (AMY). In the X-CPT, BPD subjects again showed hyper-activation in task-relevant areas: the superior parietal/precuneus and the ACC. In the stimulus-driven Episodic Memory task, BPD subjects had decreased activation relative to controls in the HIP, ACC, superior parietal/precuneus, and dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) (for encoding), and the ACC, dPFC, and HIP for retrieval of Negative>Positive pictures, reflecting impairment of task-relevant functions. Negative affective interference with cognitive processing in BPD differs from that in healthy controls and is associated with functional abnormalities in brain networks reported to have structural or metabolic

  13. Affective context interferes with brain responses during cognitive processing in borderline personality disorder: fMRI evidence

    PubMed Central

    Soloff, Paul H.; White, Richard; Omari, Amro; Ramaseshan, Karthik; Diwadka, Vaibhav A.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation in borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with loss of cognitive control in the face of intense negative emotion. Negative emotional context may interfere with cognitive processing through the dysmodulation of brain regions involved in regulation of emotion, impulse control, executive function and memory. Structural and metabolic brain abnormalities have been reported in these regions in BPD. Using novel fMRI protocols, we investigated the neural basis of negative affective interference with cognitive processing targeting these regions. Attention-driven Go No-Go and X-CPT (continuous performance test) protocols, using positive, negative and neutral Ekman faces, targeted the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), respectively. A stimulus-driven Episodic Memory task, using images from the International Affective Pictures System, targeted the hippocampus (HIP). Participants comprised 23 women with BPD, who were compared with 15 healthy controls. When Negative>Positive faces were compared in the Go No-Go task, BPD subjects had hyper-activation relative to controls in areas reflecting task-relevant processing: the superior parietal/precuneus and thebasal ganglia. Decreased activation was also noted in the OFC, and increased activation in the amygdala (AMY). In the X-CPT, BPD subjects again showed hyper-activation in task-relevant areas: the superior parietal/precuneus and the ACC. In the stimulus-driven Episodic Memory task, BPD subjects had decreased activation relative to controls in the HIP, ACC, superior parietal/precuneus, and dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) (for encoding), and the ACC, dPFC, and HIP for retrieval of Negative>Positive pictures, reflecting impairment of task-relevant functions. Negative affective interference with cognitive processing in BPD differs from that in healthy controls and is associated with functional abnormalities in brain networks reported to have structural or metabolic

  14. Self-stigma in borderline personality disorder – cross-sectional comparison with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Grambal, Ales; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Latalova, Klara; Holubova, Michaela; Marackova, Marketa; Ociskova, Marie; Slepecky, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Self-stigma arises from one’s acceptance of societal prejudices and is common in psychiatric patients. This investigation compares the self-stigma of a sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCH), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar affective disorder (BAD), and anxiety disorders (AD) and explores of the self-stigma with the subjective and objective measures of the severity of the disorder and demographic factors. Methods The total of 184 inpatients admitted to the psychotherapeutic department diagnosed with BPD, SCH, MDD, BAP, and AD were compared on the internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI) scale. The ISMI-total score was correlated with the subjective and objective evaluation of the disorder severity (clinical global impression), and clinical and demographic factors. Results The self-stigma levels were statistically significantly different among the diagnostic groups (BPD 71.15±14.74; SCH 63.2±13.27; MDD 64.09±12.2; BAD 62.0±14.21; AD 57.62±15.85; one-way analysis of variance: F=8.698, df=183; P<0.005). However after applying the Bonferroni’s multiple comparison test, the only significant difference was between the BPD patients and the patients with AD (P<0.001). Stepwise regression analysis showed that the strongest factors connected with the higher level of self-stigma were being without partner, the number of hospitalization, and the severity of the disorder. Conclusion The BPD patients suffer from a higher level of self-stigma compared to patients with AD. In practice, it is necessary to address the reduction of self-stigma by using specific treatment strategies, such as cognitive therapy. PMID:27703362

  15. Healthy co-twins of patients with affective disorders show reduced risk-related activation of the insula during a monetary gambling task

    PubMed Central

    Macoveanu, Julian; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders are at increased risk for affective disorders and express discrete structural and functional abnormalities in the brain reward system. However, value-based decision making is not well understood in these at-risk individuals. Methods We investigated healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorders (high-risk and low-risk groups, respectively) using functional MRI during a gambling task. We assessed group differences in activity related to gambling risk over the entire brain. Results We included 30 monozygotic and 37 dizygotic twins in our analysis. Neural activity in the anterior insula and ventral striatum increased linearly with the amount of gambling risk in the entire cohort. Individual neuroticism scores were positively correlated with the neural response in the ventral striatum to increasing gambling risk and negatively correlated with individual risk-taking behaviour. Compared with low-risk twins, the high-risk twins showed a bilateral reduction of risk-related activity in the middle insula extending into the temporal cortex with increasing gambling risk. Post hoc analyses revealed that this effect was strongest in dizygotic twins. Limitations The relatively old average age of the mono- and dizygotic twin cohort (49.2 yr) may indicate an increased resilience to affective disorders. The size of the monozygotic high-risk group was relatively small (n = 13). Conclusion The reduced processing of risk magnitude in the middle insula may indicate a deficient integration of exteroceptive information related to risk-related cues with interoceptive states in individuals at familial risk for affective disorders. Impaired risk processing might contribute to increased vulnerability to affective disorders. PMID:26395812

  16. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels as a possible predictor of psychopathology in healthy twins at high and low risk for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a potential biomarker of affective disorder. However, longitudinal studies evaluating a potential predictive role of BDNF on subsequent psychopathology are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF alone or in interaction with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism predict onset of affective disorder in healthy individuals at heritable risk for affective disorder. In a high-risk study, we assessed whole blood levels of BDNF in 234 healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorder (high and low risk twins, respectively). Participants were followed up longitudinally with questionnaires at 6-month intervals for mean seven years and then reassessed with a personal interview to obtain information about whether they had developed psychiatric illness. At follow-up 36 participants (15.4%) had developed psychiatric disorder. Cox regression analysis revealed that BDNF levels at baseline were not associated with onset of illness in this explorative study. Further, two-way interactions between BDNF levels and the Val66Met polymorphism or between familial risk and the Val66Met polymorphism did not predict illness onset.

  17. Distressing cutaneous lesion among bipolar affective disorder patients on lithium therapy: A retrospective cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ummar, Syed; Dorai, B. Lakshmi; Ramanathan, Shree Aarthi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the incidence of cutaneous lesion in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) patients on lithium therapy. To evaluate the relationship between duration of lithium therapy, dosage of lithium, serum lithium level, and cutaneous lesions. To assess whether reduction/stoppage of dose of lithium has any change in the course of cutaneous side effects. To look for a relationship between addition of isotretinoin and the course of mood disorder. Methodology: We retrospectively collected hospital case records of 125 consecutive BPAD patients initiated lithium therapy, assessed with inclusion and exclusion criteria. We follow up them for 2½ years for the assessment of above said aims. Results: The prevalence of skin reaction in BPAD patients with lithium therapy was 19.8%. Among patients on lithium therapy, cutaneous lesion emerged in initial 6 months and later after 1 year of treatment. Nearly 55% of patients on higher doses of lithium (1200 mg) had a cutaneous lesion. Patient on therapeutic serum level of lithium had a higher incidence of skin lesion. Out of six patients in whom dosage of lithium was reduced, three of them had reduced lesions (P = 0.6), in two patients, skin lesion increased, and one patient had no change. Among 11 patients treated with isotretinoin, only two patients had emergence of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Lithium continues to increase the incidence of multiple cutaneous lesions among BPAD patients on lithium therapy. Incidence of cutaneous side effects directly correlates with the dose of lithium and therapeutic range of serum lithium level. Altering the dose of lithium does not statistically influence the cutaneous lesion. PMID:28196994

  18. A Bad Day for Sandy Dayton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duch, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Presents a rear-end car accident scenario to teach about forces and kinetic energy in a problem-based learning format. Includes four parts: (1) "A Bad Day for Sandy Dayton"; (2) "The Emergency Room"; (3) "The Facts of the Case"; and (4) "Judgement Day". Discusses the major issues of the questions, introduces scientific concepts, and initiates…

  19. "Good" and "Bad" Criticism: A Descriptive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Karen; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Identifies salient features that distinguish between criticisms perceived by their recipients as "good" from those perceived as "bad." Considers five primary areas for criticism: appearance, skill performance, relationships, general personhood, and decision making, as well as stylistic characteristics of criticism. (NKA)

  20. Breaking bad news: a patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Dias, Lauren; Chabner, Bruce A; Lynch, Thomas J; Penson, Richard T

    2003-01-01

    Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery that provides hope to the patient, support to caregivers, and encourages the healing process. The Center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. Clinicians in the field of oncology are unavoidably forced to break bad news. The Schwartz Center Rounds focuses on issues of communication between patients and their caregivers, one of the most difficult aspects of which is breaking bad news. The invited patient, a woman who had been living with a low-grade cancer for many years, spoke about her experiences both as a person living with cancer and as the daughter of a patient diagnosed with cancer. Her father's suicide, precipitated by being told his diagnosis, puts the horror of receiving bad news into stark relief. She provides a fascinating account of how she proactively adjusted to her diagnosis, and fought for optimal quality of life. This article discusses issues of support, abandonment, and how hope is conveyed, and reviews the literature that informs good clinical practice in breaking bad news.

  1. Seasonal affective disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... them more sensitive to light, such as certain psoriasis drugs, antibiotics, or antipsychotics, should not use light ... 2016 Updated by: Timothy Rogge, MD, Medical Director, Family Medical Psychiatry Center, Kirkland, WA. Also reviewed by ...

  2. Neurogenesis and affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Benjamin A; Hen, René

    2011-03-01

    The neurogenesis hypothesis of depression was originally formed upon the demonstration that stress impacts levels of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Since then much work has established that newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus are required for mediating some of the beneficial effects of antidepressant treatment. Recent studies combining behavioral, molecular and electrophysiological approaches have attempted to make sense of the role young neurons play in modulating mood by demonstrating a potential role in regulating the circuitry in the brain that underlies depression. Here we discuss the work that led to the neurogenesis hypothesis of depression, and the subsequent studies that have sought to test this hypothesis. We also discuss different animal models of depression that have been used to test the role of neurogenesis in mediating the antidepressant response.

  3. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... do a thorough evaluation, which generally includes: Physical exam. Your doctor may do a physical exam and ask in-depth questions about your health. ... to cope with SAD Learn how to manage stress In addition to your treatment plan for seasonal ...

  4. Breaking Bad News in Healthcare Organizations: Application of the Spikes Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VonBergen, C. W.; Stevens, Robert E.; Loudon, David

    2011-01-01

    Organizational downsizing has increased exponentially worldwide and is also affecting the healthcare industry. It is one thing to speak abstractly of the need to reduce costs and quite another to actually tell a worker the bad news that he or she has been laid off. This paper offers practical advice to healthcare managers on conducting unpleasant…

  5. Logging the Great Lakes Indian Reservations: The Case of the Bad River Band of Ojibwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen-Adams, Michelle M.; Langston, Nancy E.; Mladenoff, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The harvest of the Great Lakes primary forest stands (ca. 1860-1925) transformed the region's ecological, cultural, and political landscapes. Although logging affected both Indian and white communities, the Ojibwe experienced the lumber era in ways that differed from many of their white neighbors. When the 125,000-acre Bad River Reservation was…

  6. The effect of a cryotherapy gel wrap on the microcirculation of skin affected by Chronic Venous Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Martina; Zapka, Jane G.; King, Dana E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim This randomized clinical trial was conducted 2008 – 2009 to investigate a cryotherapy (cooling) gel wrap applied to lower leg skin affected by chronic venous disorders to determine whether therapeutic cooling improves skin microcirculation. Impaired skin microcirculation contributes to venous leg ulcer development, thus new prevention therapies should address the microcirculation to prevent venous leg ulcers. Data Sources Sixty participants (n = 30 per group) were randomized to receive one of two daily 30-minute interventions for four weeks. The treatment group applied the cryotherapy gel wrap around the affected lower leg skin, or compression and elevated the legs on a special pillow each evening at bedtime. The standard care group wore compression and elevated the legs only. Laboratory pre- and post-measures included microcirculation measures of skin temperature with a thermistor, blood flow with a laser Doppler flowmeter, and venous refill time with a photoplethysmograph. Review methods Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, paired t-tests or Wilcoxon signed ranks tests, logistic regression analyses, and mixed model analyses. Results Fifty-seven participants (treatment = 28; standard care = 29) completed the study. The mean age was 62 years, 70% female, 50% African American. In the final adjusted model, there was a statistically significant decrease in blood flow between the two groups (−6.2[−11.8; −0.6], P = 0.03). No statistically significant differences were noted in temperature or venous refill time. Conclusion Study findings suggest that cryotherapy improves blood flow by slowing movement within the microcirculation and thus might potentially provide a therapeutic benefit to prevent leg ulcers. PMID:21592186

  7. Pyrethroid Pesticide Metabolite in Urine and Microelements in Hair of Children Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Valentina F.; Nasuti, Cinzia; Piangerelli, Marco; Correia-Sá, Luísa; Ghezzo, Alessandro; Marini, Marina; Abruzzo, Provvidenza M.; Visconti, Paola; Giustozzi, Marcello; Rossi, Gerardo; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2016-01-01

    The number of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is dramatically increasing as well as the studies aimed at understanding the risk factors associated with the development of ASD. Since the etiology of ASD is partly genetic and partly environmental, factors (i.e., heavy metals, pesticides) as well as lifestyle seem to have a key role in the development of the disease. ASD and Control (CTR) children, aged 5–12 years, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled with trap mass detector was used to measure the level of 3-PBA, the main pyrethroid metabolite in urine in a group of ASD patients, while optical emission spectrometry analysis was employed to estimate the level of metals and microelements in hair in a different group of ASD children. The presence of 3-PBA in urine seems to be independent of age in ASD children, while a positive correlation between 3-PBA and age was observed in the control group of the same age range. Urine concentration of 3-BPA in ASD children had higher values than in the control group, which were marginally significant (p = 0.054). Mg results were significantly decreased in ASD with respect to controls, while V, S, Zn, and Ca/Mg were marginally increased, without reaching statistical significance. Results of Principal Component (PC) analysis of metals and microelements in hair were not associated with either age or health status. In conclusion, 3-PBA in urine and Mg in hair were changed in ASD children relative to control ones. PMID:27482573

  8. Effects of personal space intrusion in affective contexts: an fMRI investigation with women suffering from borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Schienle, Anne; Wabnegger, Albert; Schöngassner, Florian; Leutgeb, Verena

    2015-10-01

    The amygdala and the parietal cortex play a key role in the neural representation of personal space. Although the concept of personal space is clinically very relevant for borderline personality disorder (BPD), especially in affective contexts, it has not been investigated thus far with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this fMRI study, 25 female BPD patients and 25 healthy women were exposed to photos of angry, disgusted and neutral facial expressions. All stimuli were once shown as still photos, and once were zoomed-in in order to simulate intrusion into one's own personal space. Approaching faces generally provoked activation of the amygdala and the somatosensory cortex. BPD patients showed an increased activation within both regions, but only toward approaching disgusted faces. Their amygdala activation in this specific condition positively correlated with self-disgust scores. Moreover, the clinical group indicated an enhanced personal distance preference, which was associated with parietal activation. The present study revealed altered personal space processing of BPD patients, especially in situations that relate to social contexts involving disgust. Future studies should focus on the temporal stability of personal space processing during the natural course of BPD as well as during therapy.

  9. Association, haplotype, and gene-gene interactions of the HPA axis genes with suicidal behaviour in affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Leszczyńska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Pawlak, Joanna; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Hauser, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Family twin and adoption studies have noted the heritability of specific biological factors that influence suicidal behaviour. Exposure to stress is one of the factors that strongly contribute to suicide attempts. The biological response to stress involves the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Therefore, we found it interesting to study polymorphisms of genes involved in the HPA axis (CRHR1, NR3C1, and AVPBR1). The study was performed on 597 patients, 225 of whom had a history of suicide attempts. We did not observe any significant differences in the studied polymorphisms between the group of patients with a history of suicide attempts and the control subjects. Our haplotype analysis of the AVPR1b gene revealed an association between the GCA haplotype and suicide attempts; however, this association was not significant after correcting for multiple testing. We did not observe any other association in haplotype and MDR analysis. We report here a comprehensive analysis of the HPA axis genes and a lack of association for genetic variations regarding the risk of suicide attempts in affective disorder patients. Nonetheless, the inconsistencies with the previously published results indicate the importance of the further investigation of these polymorphisms with respect to the risk of suicide attempts.

  10. Hospital treatment, mortality and healthcare costs in relation to socioeconomic status among people with bipolar affective disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yu-Chun; Kuo, Kuei-Hong; Chang, Chin-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence regarding the relationships between the socioeconomic status and long-term outcomes of individuals with bipolar affective disorder (BPD) is lacking. Aims We aimed to estimate the effects of baseline socioeconomic status on longitudinal outcomes. Method A national cohort of adult participants with newly diagnosed BPD was identified in 2008. The effects of personal and household socioeconomic status were explored on outcomes of hospital treatment, mortality and healthcare costs, over a 3-year follow-up period (2008–2011). Results A total of 7987 participants were recruited. The relative risks of hospital treatment and mortality were found elevated for the ones from low-income households who also had higher healthcare costs. Low premium levels did not correlate with future healthcare costs. Conclusions Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with poorer outcome and higher healthcare costs in BPD patients. Special care should be given to those with lower socioeconomic status to improve outcomes with potential benefits of cost savings in the following years. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © 2016 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703748

  11. Fluctuating capacity and advance decision-making in Bipolar Affective Disorder — Self-binding directives and self-determination

    PubMed Central

    Gergel, Tania; Owen, Gareth S.

    2015-01-01

    For people with Bipolar Affective Disorder, a self-binding (advance) directive (SBD), by which they commit themselves to treatment during future episodes of mania, even if unwilling, can seem the most rational way to deal with an imperfect predicament. Knowing that mania will almost certainly cause enormous damage to themselves, their preferred solution may well be to allow trusted others to enforce treatment and constraint, traumatic though this may be. No adequate provision exists for drafting a truly effective SBD and efforts to establish such provision are hampered by very valid, but also paralysing ethical, clinical and legal concerns. Effectively, the autonomy and rights of people with bipolar are being ‘protected’ through being denied an opportunity to protect themselves. From a standpoint firmly rooted in the clinical context and experience of mania, this article argues that an SBD, based on a patient-centred evaluation of capacity to make treatment decisions (DMC-T) and grounded within the clinician–patient relationship, could represent a legitimate and ethically coherent form of self-determination. After setting out background information on fluctuating capacity, mania and advance directives, this article proposes a framework for constructing such an SBD, and considers common objections, possible solutions and suggestions for future research. PMID:25939286

  12. The affective tie that binds: Examining the contribution of positive emotions and anxiety to relationship formation in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Charles T; Pearlstein, Sarah L; Stein, Murray B

    2017-03-31

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have difficulty forming social relationships. The prevailing clinical perspective is that negative emotions such as anxiety inhibit one's capacity to develop satisfying social connections. However, empirical findings from social psychology and affective neuroscience suggest that positive emotional experiences are fundamental to establishing new social bonds. To reconcile these perspectives, we collected repeated measurements of anxiety, positive emotions (pleasantness), and connectedness over the course of a controlled relationship formation encounter in 56 participants diagnosed with SAD (64% female; Mage=23.3, SD=4.7). Participants experienced both increases in positive emotions and decreases in anxiety throughout the interaction. Change in positive emotions was the most robust predictor of subsequent increases in connectedness, as well as a greater desire to engage one's partner in future social activities, above and beyond reductions in anxiety (medium to large sized effects). Those findings suggest that anxiety-based models alone may not fully explain difficulties in relationship formation in SAD, and underscore the potential value of considering positive emotional experiences in conceptual and treatment models of SAD.

  13. "Serving Time": The Relationship of Good and Bad Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The argument is that good and bad teaching are asymmetrical. Eradicating what is readily thought of as bad teaching does not leave behind the purse gold of good teaching. Good teaching is that which promotes student learning. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between bad teaching and good teaching in graduate…

  14. Why Am I in Such a Bad Mood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breakfasts Shyness Why Am I in Such a Bad Mood? KidsHealth > For Teens > Why Am I in Such a Bad Mood? A A A What's in this article? ... like hurting yourself, that's more than just a bad mood and you need to tell someone. continue ...

  15. 48 CFR 31.205-3 - Bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bad debts. 31.205-3... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-3 Bad debts. Bad debts, including actual or estimated losses arising from uncollectible accounts receivable...

  16. 48 CFR 31.205-3 - Bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bad debts. 31.205-3... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-3 Bad debts. Bad debts, including actual or estimated losses arising from uncollectible accounts receivable...

  17. [Bad tourist behaviors and their environmental impacts on Xixi National Wetland Park in Hangzhou].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Xin; Wang, Ru-Song; Mao, Chun-Hong

    2009-06-01

    By the methods of site investigation, data collection and correlation analysis, the bad tourist behaviors and their environmental impacts on Xixi National Wetland Park in 2006 were studied. The occurrence probabilities of three bad tourist behaviors, i.e., picking, trampling, and littering were 6.5%, 10.3% and 12.6%, respectively. Picking probability was primarily related to the vegetation types along walkways, while the scale of heavy trampling was negatively correlated with tour distance from the entrance. Waste production by each tourist was 782 g x d(-1) on average. The waste from littering amounted for 13.6% of the total. Tourist flow fluctuations of daily, weekly, and monthly perspectives for the study area showed high seasonality and successive days of overloaded tourist flows during peak seasons, which caused an increase of bad tourist behaviors. However, the water quality in the Park was not affected because of the improvement of dredging facilities.

  18. CHRM2 gene predisposes to alcohol dependence, drug dependence and affective disorders: results from an extended case-control structured association study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xingguang; Kranzler, Henry R; Zuo, Lingjun; Wang, Shuang; Blumberg, Hilary P; Gelernter, Joel

    2005-08-15

    Cholinergic muscarinic 2 receptor (CHRM2) is implicated in memory and cognition, functions impaired in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Wang et al. [Wang, J.C., Hinrichs, A.L., Stock, H., Budde, J., Allen, R., Bertelsen, S., Kwon, J.M., Wu, W., Dick, D.M., Rice, J. et al. (2004) Evidence of common and specific genetic effects: association of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene with alcohol dependence and major depressive syndrome. Hum. Mol. Genet., 13, 1903-1911] reported that variation in CHRM2 gene predisposed to alcohol dependence (AD) and major depressive syndrome. We examined the relationships between variation in CHRM2 and AD, drug dependence (DD) and affective disorders, using a novel extended case-control structured association (SA) method. Six markers at CHRM2 and 38 ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) were genotyped in a sample of 871 subjects, including 333 healthy controls [287 European-Americans (EAs) and 46 African-Americans (AAs)] and 538 AD and/or DD subjects (415 with AD and 346 with DD and 382 EAs and 156 AAs). The same CHRM2 markers were genotyped in a sample of 137 EA subjects with affective disorders. All of the six markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in controls, but SNP3 (rs1824024) was in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium in the AD and DD groups. Using conventional case-control comparisons, some markers were nominally significantly or suggestively associated with phenotypes before or after controlling for population stratification and admixture effects, but these associations were not significant after multiple test correction. However, regression analysis identified specific alleles, genotypes, haplotypes and diplotypes that were significantly associated with risk for each disorder. We conclude that variation in CHRM2 predisposes to AD, DD and affective disorders. One haplotype block within the 5'-UTR of CHRM2 may be more important for the development of these disorders than other regions. Interaction between two

  19. Health Care Reform Tracking Project: Tracking State Health Care Reforms as They Affect Children and Adolescents with Emotional Disorders and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Sheila A.; Stroul, Beth A.

    The Health Care Reform Tracking Project is a 5-year national project to track and analyze state health care reform initiatives as they affect children and adolescents with emotional/behavioral disorders and their families. The study's first phase was a baseline survey of all 50 states to describe current state reforms as of 1995. Among findings of…

  20. The Effect of Diagnostic Labels on the Affective Responses of College Students towards Peers with "Asperger's Syndrome" and "Autism Spectrum Disorder"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Mark; Mills, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Given the removal of Asperger's Syndrome label in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition," the impact of clinical labels upon the affective responses of college students was explored. A total of 120 college students read two vignettes depicting social interactions typical of a person with autism spectrum…

  1. Physiologically-Indexed and Self-Perceived Affective Empathy in Conduct-Disordered Children High and Low on Callous-Unemotional Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia; Warden, David

    2008-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) was employed to compare vicarious affective arousal across three groups of children (aged 7.6 - 11, N = 95): Conduct Disordered (CD) elevated on Callous-Unemotional traits ("CD/CU"), CD low on CU traits ("CD-only"), and "typically-developing" controls, matched in age, gender and socioeconomic background. While watching an emotion…

  2. Enhancing Learning Environments for Students Affected by Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study of Canadian Pre-Service Teacher Knowledge and Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pei, Jacqueline; Job, Jenelle; Poth, Cheryl; O'Brien-Langer, Anna; Tang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    There is a pressing need for enhancing the learning environment for students affected by Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). To develop relevant professional learning opportunities for teachers, a logical initial step is to explore the extent to which pre-service teachers accurately understand the unique neuropsychological functioning…

  3. Do Problems with Information Processing Affect the Process of Psychotherapy for Adults with Learning Disabilities or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosden, Merith; Patz, Sarah; Smith, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Problems in processing information can affect psychosocial functioning. Psychotherapy can be used to address psychosocial problems; however, the same information-processing problems that contribute to disabilities, such as learning disabilities (LD) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), particularly deficits in auditory processing…

  4. Using the Circumplex Model of Affect to Study Valence and Arousal Ratings of Emotional Faces by Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Angela; Bansal, Ravi; Liu, Jun; Gerber, Andrew J.; Goh, Suzanne; Posner, Jonathan; Colibazzi, Tiziano; Algermissen, Molly; Chiang, I-Chin; Russell, James A.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    The Affective Circumplex Model holds that emotions can be described as linear combinations of two underlying, independent neurophysiological systems (arousal, valence). Given research suggesting individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulty processing emotions, we used the circumplex model to compare how individuals with ASD and…

  5. CASE-REPORT Case study of a patient presenting both type II bipolar affective disorder and Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Delavenne, H; Khoury, J M; Thibaut, F; Garcia, F D

    2016-10-17

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common sex chromosomal disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 500-1000. Increased incidences of anxiety, depression, substance abuse, psychotic and behavioral disorders, and sexual disorders have been reported in patients with KS. The aim of this case study was to report a case of a man with untreated KS who was also diagnosed with type II bipolar disorder. This case report raises awareness regarding psychiatric diagnoses that may be associated with such a highly prevalent condition. A 46-year-old man who had previously been diagnosed with an untreated KS was examined in our Psychiatric Department with an acute hypomanic episode. Clinical improvement was observed within 4 days and psychiatric symptoms were resolved in 7 days without use of medication. A psychiatric history of a depressive episode and at least two hypomanic episodes, as well as a family history of two relatives diagnosed with bipolar disorder, strongly suggest that our patient has type II bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder may be a comorbid disorder in patients with KS. Routine screening for mood disorders and appropriate referral and evaluation should be performed. Future genetic research is warranted to explore why some chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., duplications), especially those located on the X chromosome, such as Klinefelter syndrome, may be associated with a bipolar or psychotic disorder in some individuals but not in others.

  6. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: Relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A; Stouffer, Gina M; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs. Six hundred fourteen young adults (age 18-30 yrs) of Mexican American heritage, largely second generation, were recruited from the community and assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and an acculturation stress scale. More males (51.2%) reported experiencing traumas than females (41.1%), however, a larger proportion of females received a PTSD diagnosis (15%) than males (8%). Alcohol dependence and affective disorders, but not anxiety disorders, antisocial disorders, nicotine, marijuana, or stimulant dependence, were significantly comorbid with PTSD. Endorsing higher levels of acculturation stress was also significantly associated with both trauma exposure and a diagnosis of PTSD. Logistic regression revealed that female gender, having an affective disorder, alcohol dependence, higher levels of acculturation stress, and lower levels of education were all predictors of PTSD status. Additionally, alcohol dependence generally occurred after the PTSD diagnosis in early adulthood in this high-risk population. These studies suggest that treatment and prevention efforts should particularly focus on young adult second generation Mexican American women with higher levels of acculturation stress, who may be at higher risk for PTSD, affective disorder, and alcohol dependence following trauma exposure.

  7. A systematic association mapping on chromosome 6q in bipolar affective disorder--evidence for the melanin-concentrating-hormone-receptor-2 gene as a risk factor for bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Abou Jamra, Rami; Schulze, Thomas G; Becker, Tim; Brockschmidt, Felix F; Green, Elaine; Alblas, Margrieta A; Wendland, Jens R; Adli, Mazda; Grozeva, Detelina; Strohmeier, Jana; Georgi, Alexander; Craddock, Nick; Propping, Peter; Rietschel, Marcella; Nöthen, Markus M; Cichon, Sven; Schumacher, Johannes

    2010-06-05

    Strong evidence of linkage between chromosomal region 6q16-q22 and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) has previously been reported. We conducted a systematic association mapping of the 6q-linkage interval using 617 SNP markers in a BPAD case-control sample of German descent (cases = 330, controls = 325). In this screening step, 46 SNPs showed nominally significant BPAD-association (P-values between 0.0007 and 0.0484). Although none of the 46 SNPs survived correction for multiple testing, they were genotyped in a second and ethnically matched BPAD sample (cases = 328, controls = 397). At the melanin-concentrating-hormone-receptor-2 (MCHR2) gene, we found nominal association in both the initial and second BPAD samples (combined P = 0.008). This finding was followed up by the genotyping of 17 additional MCHR2-SNPs in the combined sample in order to define our findings more precisely. We found that the MCHR2-locus can be divided into three different haplotype-blocks, and observed that the MCHR2-association was most pronounced in BPAD male patients with psychotic symptoms. In two neighboring blocks, putative risk-haplotypes were found to be 7% more frequent in patients (block II: 23.3% vs. 16.2%, P = 0.005, block III: 39.2% vs. 32.0%, P = 0.024), whereas the putative protective haplotypes were found to be 5-8% less frequent in patients (block II: 11.6% vs. 16.4%, P = 0.041, block III: 30.0% vs. 38.8%, P = 0.007). The corresponding odds ratios (single-marker analysis) ranged between 1.25 and 1.46. Our findings may indicate that MCHR2 is a putative risk factor for BPAD. These findings should be interpreted with caution and replicated in independent BPAD samples.

  8. A Functional Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 1 (VMAT1) Gene Variant Is Associated with Affect and the Prevalence of Anxiety, Affective, and Alcohol Use Disorders in a Longitudinal Population-Representative Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaht, Mariliis; Kiive, Evelyn; Veidebaum, Toomas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inter-individual differences in the monoaminergic systems have been shown to moderate the risk for a lifetime history of anxiety, affective, and alcohol use disorders. A common single nucleotide polymorphism in the vesicular monoamine transporter 1 gene (VMAT1 rs1390938 G/A; Thr136Ile) has been reported as functional in vitro and associated with bipolar disorder and anxiety. We aimed at assessing the association between the VMAT1 genotype, affect, and affect-related psychiatric disorders in a longitudinal population-representative study. Methods: We used the database of the Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study (beginning in 1998). Cohorts of initially 9- (recalled at ages 15 and 18 years, n=579) and 15- (recalled at ages 18 and 25 years; n=654) year-old children provided self-reports on impulsivity, anxiety, depressiveness, neuroticism, and alcohol use. In addition, psychiatric assessment based on DSM-IV was carried out in the older cohort at age 25 years. Results: Subjects homozygous for the less prevalent A (136Ile) allele reported lower maladaptive impulsivity, state and trait anxiety, depressiveness, and neuroticism and were less likely to have been diagnosed with an affective, anxiety, and/or alcohol use disorder by young adulthood. While in the younger cohort alcohol use started at younger age, this birth cohort effect was dependent on genotype: only G allele carriers and in particular the GG homozygotes started alcohol use earlier. Conclusions: VMAT1 rs1390938/Thr136Ile is associated with mood, personality, and alcohol use in the general population. Subjects homozygous for the “hyperfunction” allele (AA; Ile/Ile) appear to be more resilient to these disorders. PMID:26861143

  9. Cue-elicited affect and craving: advancement of the conceptualization of craving in co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Nosen, Elizabeth; Nillni, Yael I; Berenz, Erin C; Schumacher, Julie A; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Coffey, Scott F

    2012-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occurs with alcohol dependence (AD) and negatively affects treatment outcomes. Trauma-related negative affect enhances substance craving in laboratory cue-reactivity studies of AD individuals, but the role of positive affect has not been established. In this study, 108 AD treatment-seeking adults with current PTSD and AD were presented with four counterbalanced trials consisting of an audio cue (personalized trauma or neutral script) followed by a beverage cue (alcohol or water). Results revealed alcohol cues increased positive and negative affect, and positive affective responses explained significant incremental variance in self-reported craving and salivation, but only when cues were accompanied by neutral not trauma imagery. Ambivalent (high negative and positive) responses were associated with strongest craving. Findings advance the conceptualization of craving in individuals with PTSD-AD and highlight the importance of independently assessing positive and negative affective responses to cues in individuals with co-occurring PTSD-AD.

  10. Breaking Bad News to Togolese Patients.

    PubMed

    Kpanake, Lonzozou; Sorum, Paul Clay; Mullet, Etienne

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to map Togolese people's positions regarding the breaking of bad news to elderly patients. Two hundred eleven participants who had in the past received bad medical news were presented with 72 vignettes depicting communication of bad news to elderly female patients and asked to indicate the acceptability of the physician's conduct in each case. The vignettes were all combinations of five factors: (a) the severity of the disease, (b) the patient's wishes about disclosure, (c) the level of social support during hospitalization, (d) the patient's psychological robustness, and (e) the physician's decision about how to communicate the bad news. Five qualitatively different positions were found. Two percent of the participants preferred that the physician always tell the full truth to both the patient and her relatives, 8% preferred that the truth be told depending on the physician's perception of the situation, 15% preferred that the physician tell the truth but understood that in some cases nondisclosure to the patient was not inappropriate, 33% preferred that the physician tell the full truth to the relatives but not as much information to the patient, and 42% preferred that the physician tell the full truth to the relatives only. These findings present a challenge to European physicians taking care of African patients living in Europe or working in African hospitals, and to African physicians trained in Europe and now working in their home countries. If these physicians respect the imperative of always telling the truth directly to their patients, their behavior may trigger anger and considerable misunderstanding among African patients and their families.

  11. [Breaking bad news--information for doctors].

    PubMed

    Kotlinowska, Barbara; Wilusz, Mirosława

    2010-01-01

    The article broaches the subject of breaking bad news. Medical doctors deal with such a problem frequently, not always well-prepared for their role. Obviously, each patient should be treated individually, not only because every disease is a unique case, but also because patients have their own hopes and expectations. In order to conduct a discussion containing bad news, it is worth to base on the scheme presented in the article. Preparation for the meeting is crucial. Besides the fact that it facilitates the dialogue, it also enables presenting information in the right way. Firstly, it is important to listen to the patient carefully, clarify his concerns and then answer all his questions and doubt. Next, if the patient is willing, the doctor should discuss the state of health, possible therapies and prognosis. The end of the talk should consist of appropriate summary and the date of the next meeting. The article emphasize that truth and reliability are extremely significant in contact with a patient. Moreover, it presents the area of information which can be talked about with the family. The authors try to approach the dialogue which contains bad news, reveal various possibility of conducting the discussion and dealing with problems.

  12. A short guide to giving bad news.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jeffrey T

    2008-01-01

    Approaching an individual or a family with bad news, but without an appropriate plan to present the information in a structured manner, is almost a guarantee of greater emotional pain and disruption for the recipients of the news. Crisis interveners must develop a strategic plan for the announcement of bad news. That plan should entail a lead-up phase, a transmission phase, and a followup phase. The lead-up phase encompasses the gathering of accurate, verifiable information and the clear identification of the targets of the information. The transmission phase includes immediate preparation for the presentation of the information, the actual announcement, and the presentation of additional details as questions arise. The follow-up phase includes a range of supportive interventions to assist people in the immediate crisis reaction. It also includes a system of referrals for people who might benefit from additional professional care. This article provides practical guidelines for providing bad news to the loved ones of injured, ill, or deceased people.

  13. Monozygotic twins affected with major depressive disorder have greater variance in methylation than their unaffected co-twin.

    PubMed

    Byrne, E M; Carrillo-Roa, T; Henders, A K; Bowdler, L; McRae, A F; Heath, A C; Martin, N G; Montgomery, G W; Krause, L; Wray, N R

    2013-06-11

    Our understanding of major depressive disorder (MDD) has focused on the influence of genetic variation and environmental risk factors. Growing evidence suggests the additional role of epigenetic mechanisms influencing susceptibility for complex traits. DNA sequence within discordant monozygotic twin (MZT) pairs is virtually identical; thus, they represent a powerful design for studying the contribution of epigenetic factors to disease liability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether specific methylation profiles in white blood cells could contribute to the aetiology of MDD. Participants were drawn from the Queensland Twin Registry and comprised 12 MZT pairs discordant for MDD and 12 MZT pairs concordant for no MDD and low neuroticism. Bisulphite treatment and genome-wide interrogation of differentially methylated CpG sites using the Illumina Human Methylation 450 BeadChip were performed in WBC-derived DNA. No overall difference in mean global methylation between cases and their unaffected co-twins was found; however, the differences in females was significant (P=0.005). The difference in variance across all probes between affected and unaffected twins was highly significant (P<2.2 × 10⁻¹⁶), with 52.4% of probes having higher variance in cases (binomial P-value<2.2 × 10⁻¹⁶). No significant differences in methylation were observed between discordant MZT pairs and their matched concordant MZT (permutation minimum P=0.11) at any individual probe. Larger samples are likely to be needed to identify true associations between methylation differences at specific CpG sites.

  14. Avermectins differentially affect ethanol intake and receptor function: Implications for developing new therapeutics for alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Asatryan, Liana; Yardley, Megan M.; Khoja, Sheraz; Trudell, James R.; Hyunh, Nhat; Louie, Stan G.; Petasis, Nicos A.; Alkana, Ronald L.; Davies, Daryl L.

    2014-01-01

    Our laboratory is investigating ivermectin (IVM) and other members of the avermectin family as new pharmaco-therapeutics to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Prior work found that IVM significantly reduced ethanol intake in mice and that this effect likely reflects IVM’s ability to modulate ligand-gated ion channels. We hypothesized that structural modifications that enhance IVM’s effects on key receptors and/or increase its brain concentration should improve its anti-alcohol efficacy. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the abilities of IVM and two other avermectins, abamectin (ABM) and selamectin (SEL), to reduce ethanol intake in mice, to alter modulation of GABA ARs and P2X4Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes and to increase their ability to penetrate the brain. IVM and ABM significantly reduced ethanol intake and antagonized the inhibitory effects of ethanol on P2X4R function. In contrast, SEL did not affect either measure, despite achieving higher brain concentrations than IVM and ABM. All three potentiated GABAA receptor function. These findings suggest that chemical structure and effects on receptor function play key roles in the ability of avermectins to reduce ethanol intake and that these factors are more important than brain penetration alone. The direct relationship between the effect of these avermectins on P2X4R function and ethanol intake suggest that the ability to antagonize ethanol-mediated inhibition of P2X4R function may be a good predictor of the potential of an avermectin to reduce ethanol intake and support the use of avermectins as a platform for developing novel drugs to prevent and/or treat AUDs. PMID:24451653

  15. Broadening of Generalized Anxiety Disorders Definition Does not Affect the Response to Psychiatric Care: Findings from the Observational ADAN Study

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, Enrique; Carrasco, Jose L; Olivares, José M; López-Gómez, Vanessa; Vilardaga, Inma; Perez, María

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the consequences of broadening DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), we examined prospectively the evolution of GAD symptoms in two groups of patients; one group diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria and the other, according to broader criteria. Method: Multicentre, prospective and observational study conducted on outpatient psychiatric clinics. Patients were selected from October 2007 to January 2009 and diagnosed with GAD according to DSM-IV criteria (DSM-IV group) or broader criteria. Broader criteria were considered 1-month of excessive or non-excessive worry and only 2 of the associated symptoms listed on DSM-IV for GAD diagnosis. Socio-demographic data, medical history and functional outcome measures were collected three times during a 6-month period. Results: 3,549 patients were systematically recruited; 1,815 patients in DSM-IV group (DG) and 1,264 in broad group (BG); 453 patients did not fulfil inclusion criteria and were excluded. Most patients (87.9% in DG, 82.0% in BG) were currently following pharmacological therapies (mainly benzodiazepines) to manage their anxiety symptoms. The changes observed during the study were: 49.0% and 58.0%, respectively of patients without anxiety symptoms as per HAM-A scale at the 6 month visit (p=0.261) and 59.7% and 67.7%, respectively (p=0.103) of responder rates (> 50% reduction of baseline scoring). Conclusion: Broadening of GAD criteria does not seem to affect psychiatric care results in subjects with GAD, is able to identify the core symptoms of the disease according to the DSM-IV criteria and could lead to an earlier diagnosis. PMID:23173012

  16. A double-blind, controlled evaluation of zimeldine, imipramine and placebo in patients with primary affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Merideth, C H; Feighner, J P

    1983-01-01

    Zimeldine, imipramine and placebo were studied in a randomized, double-blind, parallel group comparison of 119 patients with primary affective disorders. These out-patients were between 18 and 65 years of age and all received placebo single-blind during an initial 3-7-day washout period. During the subsequent 6-week double-blind period, patients were titrated from 50 mg b.d. to 150 mg b.d. with zimeldine, a potent and selective inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake, with imipramine, an inhibitor of noradrenaline and 5-HT reuptake, or with a corresponding number of placebo capsules. The zimeldine treatment group had significantly lower mean HAM-D scale total scores than the placebo and imipramine groups at week 4 and last available assessment. There was a significantly greater proportion of patients showing an improvement of 50% or more in HAM-D score, among the zimeldine group than in the placebo group at week 4, and among the imipramine group at weeks 4, 6 and last available assessment. The Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scales and the 56-item Hopkins Symptom Check-list (HSCL-56) self-rating inventory both showed significantly more improvement in the zimeldine patients than in the placebo or the imipramine patients. Fewer zimeldine patients reported adverse experiences than imipramine patients. Dry mouth was the most frequently reported adverse experience, occurring significantly more often in the imipramine group than the zimeldine or the placebo groups; significantly more zimeldine than placebo patients reported dry mouth. Headache was the only other adverse experience which occurred more often in the zimeldine than in the placebo group. The imipramine group had consistently higher mean pulse rates than the other two groups, and postural hypotension was also more common in the imipramine group.

  17. Avermectins differentially affect ethanol intake and receptor function: implications for developing new therapeutics for alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Asatryan, Liana; Yardley, Megan M; Khoja, Sheraz; Trudell, James R; Hyunh, Nhat; Louie, Stan G; Petasis, Nicos A; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-06-01

    Our laboratory is investigating ivermectin (IVM) and other members of the avermectin family as new pharmaco-therapeutics to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Earlier work found that IVM significantly reduced ethanol intake in mice and that this effect likely reflects IVM's ability to modulate ligand-gated ion channels. We hypothesized that structural modifications that enhance IVM's effects on key receptors and/or increase its brain concentration should improve its anti-alcohol efficacy. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the abilities of IVM and two other avermectins, abamectin (ABM) and selamectin (SEL), to reduce ethanol intake in mice, to alter modulation of GABAARs and P2X4Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes and to increase their ability to penetrate the brain. IVM and ABM significantly reduced ethanol intake and antagonized the inhibitory effects of ethanol on P2X4R function. In contrast, SEL did not affect either measure, despite achieving higher brain concentrations than IVM and ABM. All three potentiated GABAAR function. These findings suggest that chemical structure and effects on receptor function play key roles in the ability of avermectins to reduce ethanol intake and that these factors are more important than brain penetration alone. The direct relationship between the effect of these avermectins on P2X4R function and ethanol intake suggest that the ability to antagonize ethanol-mediated inhibition of P2X4R function may be a good predictor of the potential of an avermectin to reduce ethanol intake and support the use of avermectins as a platform for developing novel drugs to prevent and/or treat AUDs.

  18. Integrating psychological and neurobiological considerations regarding the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders: An Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model.

    PubMed

    Brand, Matthias; Young, Kimberly S; Laier, Christian; Wölfling, Klaus; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-12-01

    Within the last two decades, many studies have addressed the clinical phenomenon of Internet-use disorders, with a particular focus on Internet-gaming disorder. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, we suggest an Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model of specific Internet-use disorders. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework for the processes underlying the development and maintenance of an addictive use of certain Internet applications or sites promoting gaming, gambling, pornography viewing, shopping, or communication. The model is composed as a process model. Specific Internet-use disorders are considered to be the consequence of interactions between predisposing factors, such as neurobiological and psychological constitutions, moderators, such as coping styles and Internet-related cognitive biases, and mediators, such as affective and cognitive responses to situational triggers in combination with reduced executive functioning. Conditioning processes may strengthen these associations within an addiction process. Although the hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders, summarized in the I-PACE model, must be further tested empirically, implications for treatment interventions are suggested.

  19. Trajectories Leading to Autism Spectrum Disorders Are Affected by Paternal Age: Findings from Two Nationally Representative Twin Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundstrom, Sebastian; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Carlstrom, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher; Mill, Jonathan; Rastam, Maria; Hultman, Christina M.; Ronald, Angelica; Anckarsater, Henrik; Plomin, Robert; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite extensive efforts, the causes of autism remain unknown. Advancing paternal age has been associated with various neurodevelopmental disorders. We aim to investigate three unresolved questions: (a) What is the association between paternal age and autism spectrum disorders (ASD)?; (b) Does paternal age moderate the genetic and…

  20. The protocadherin 17 gene affects cognition, personality, amygdala structure and function, synapse development and risk of major mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Chang, H; Hoshina, N; Zhang, C; Ma, Y; Cao, H; Wang, Y; Wu, D-D; Bergen, S E; Landén, M; Hultman, C M; Preisig, M; Kutalik, Z; Castelao, E; Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, M; Forstner, A J; Strohmaier, J; Hecker, J; Schulze, T G; Müller-Myhsok, B; Reif, A; Mitchell, P B; Martin, N G; Schofield, P R; Cichon, S; Nöthen, M M; Walter, H; Erk, S; Heinz, A; Amin, N; van Duijn, C M; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Tost, H; Xiao, X; Yamamoto, T; Rietschel, M; Li, M

    2017-01-10

    Major mood disorders, which primarily include bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, are the leading cause of disability worldwide and pose a major challenge in identifying robust risk genes. Here, we present data from independent large-scale clinical data sets (including 29 557 cases and 32 056 controls) revealing brain expressed protocadherin 17 (PCDH17) as a susceptibility gene for major mood disorders. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the PCDH17 region are significantly associated with major mood disorders; subjects carrying the risk allele showed impaired cognitive abilities, increased vulnerable personality features, decreased amygdala volume and altered amygdala function as compared with non-carriers. The risk allele predicted higher transcriptional levels of PCDH17 mRNA in postmortem brain samples, which is consistent with increased gene expression in patients with bipolar disorder compared with healthy subjects. Further, overexpression of PCDH17 in primary cortical neurons revealed significantly decreased spine density and abnormal dendritic morphology compared with control groups, which again is consistent with the clinical observations of reduced numbers of dendritic spines in the brains of patients with major mood disorders. Given that synaptic spines are dynamic structures which regulate neuronal plasticity and have crucial roles in myriad brain functions, this study reveals a potential underlying biological mechanism of a novel risk gene for major mood disorders involved in synaptic function and related intermediate phenotypes.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 10 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.231.

  1. Cell and Gene Therapy for Genetic Diseases: Inherited Disorders Affecting the Lung and Those Mimicking Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Some of the first human gene therapy trials targeted diseases of the lung and provided important information that will continue to help shape future trials. Here we describe both cell and gene therapies for lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and alpha-1 antitrypsin disorder as well as fatty acid oxidation disorders that mimic sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Human clinical gene therapy trials for cystic fibrosis and alpha-1 antitrypsin have been performed using a variety of vectors including adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, and nonviral vectors. No human clinical gene therapy trials have been performed for disorders of fatty acid oxidation; however, important proof-of-principle studies have been completed for multiple fatty acid oxidation disorders. Important achievements have been made and have yet to come for cell and gene therapies for disorders of the lung and those mimicking SIDS. PMID:22642257

  2. Cell and gene therapy for genetic diseases: inherited disorders affecting the lung and those mimicking sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Allison M; Flotte, Terence R

    2012-06-01

    Some of the first human gene therapy trials targeted diseases of the lung and provided important information that will continue to help shape future trials. Here we describe both cell and gene therapies for lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and alpha-1 antitrypsin disorder as well as fatty acid oxidation disorders that mimic sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Human clinical gene therapy trials for cystic fibrosis and alpha-1 antitrypsin have been performed using a variety of vectors including adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, and nonviral vectors. No human clinical gene therapy trials have been performed for disorders of fatty acid oxidation; however, important proof-of-principle studies have been completed for multiple fatty acid oxidation disorders. Important achievements have been made and have yet to come for cell and gene therapies for disorders of the lung and those mimicking SIDS.

  3. Linking Dimensional Models of Internalizing Psychopathology to Neurobiological Systems: Affect-Modulated Startle as an Indicator of Fear and Distress Disorders and Affiliated Traits

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J.; Cuthbert, Bruce N.

    2009-01-01

    Integrative hierarchical models have sought to account for the extensive comorbidity between various internalizing disorders in terms of broad individual difference factors these disorders share. However, such models have been developed largely on the basis of self-report and diagnostic symptom data. Toward the goal of linking such models to neurobiological systems, we review studies that have employed variants of the affect-modulated startle paradigm to investigate emotional processing in internalizing disorders as well as personality constructs known to be associated with these disorders. Specifically, we focus on four parameters of startle reactivity: fear-potentiated startle, inhibition of startle in the context of pleasant stimuli, context-potentiated startle, and general startle reactivity. On the basis of available data, we argue that these varying effects index differing neurobiological processes related to mood and anxiety disorders that are interpretable from the standpoint of dimensional models of the internalizing spectrum. Further, we contend that these empirical findings can feed back into and help reshape conceptualizations of internalizing disorders in ways that make them more amenable to neurobiological analysis. PMID:19883142

  4. Negative affect mediates the relationship between interpersonal problems and binge-eating disorder symptoms and psychopathology in a clinical sample: a test of the interpersonal model.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Iryna V; Tasca, Giorgio A; Hammond, Nicole; Balfour, Louise; Ritchie, Kerri; Koszycki, Diana; Bissada, Hany

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the validity of the interpersonal model of binge-eating disorder (BED) psychopathology in a clinical sample of women with BED. Data from a cross-sectional sample of 255 women with BED were examined for the direct effects of interpersonal problems on BED symptoms and psychopathology, and indirect effects mediated by negative affect. Structural equation modelling analyses demonstrated that higher levels of interpersonal problems were associated with greater negative affect, and greater negative affect was associated with higher frequency of BED symptoms and psychopathology. There was a significant indirect effect of interpersonal problems on BED symptoms and psychopathology mediated through negative affect. Interpersonal problems may lead to greater BED symptoms and psychopathology, and this relationship may be partially explained by elevated negative affect. The results of the study are the first to provide support for the interpersonal model of BED symptoms and psychopathology in a clinical sample of women.

  5. The Trauma of Peer Abuse: Effects of Relational Peer Victimization and Social Anxiety Disorder on Physiological and Affective Reactions to Social Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Iffland, Benjamin; Sansen, Lisa Margareta; Catani, Claudia; Neuner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social exclusion elicits emotional distress, negative mood, and physiological stress. Recent studies showed that these effects were more intense and persisting in socially anxious subjects. The present study examined whether the abnormal reactions of socially anxious subjects can be traced back to previous experiences of relational peer victimization during childhood and adolescence. Methods: Participants (N = 74) were patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder as well as healthy controls. The patient and control groups were subdivided into two subgroups according to the subject’s reports about previous relational peer victimization. Immediate and delayed physiological (skin conductance level and heart rate) and affective reactions to a simulated social exclusion in a ball-toss game (Cyberball) were recorded. Results: Overall, subjects’ immediate reactions to social exclusion were an increase in skin conductance and a reduction of positive affect. Regardless of the diagnostic status, subjects with a history of relational peer victimization showed a more intense self-reported affective change that was accompanied by a blunted skin conductance response. However, the mood of the subjects with a history of peer victimization recovered during a 15 min waiting period. A diagnosis of social anxiety disorder did not affect the reactions to social exclusion on any measure. Conclusion: Findings indicate that stress reactions to social exclusion depend more on previous experiences of peer victimization than on a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder. The findings indicate that memories of negative social experiences can determine the initial stress reaction to social threats. PMID:24672491

  6. Factors associated with co-occurring borderline personality disorder among inner-city substance users: the roles of childhood maltreatment, negative affect intensity/reactivity, and emotion dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T; Baruch, David E; Bornovalova, Marina A; Lejuez, C W

    2008-01-01

    The co-occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) among individuals with substance use disorders is a common and clinically relevant phenomenon in need of further empirical investigation. The present study adds to the extant literature on the factors associated with co-occurring BPD among substance users, examining the relationships between childhood maltreatment (in the form of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect), negative affect intensity/reactivity, emotion dysregulation, and BPD pathology (both diagnostic status and symptom count) among a sample of 76 inner-city treatment-seeking substance users. Emotion dysregulation was expected to mediate the relationships between childhood maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity (and their interaction) and BPD pathology. Results indicate that the presence of a BPD diagnosis was associated with higher levels of both childhood maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity. However, only childhood maltreatment emerged as a unique predictor of BPD diagnostic status. Conversely, both childhood maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity accounted for unique variance in the number of endorsed BPD symptoms. Moreover, emotion dysregulation fully mediated the relationships between maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity and BPD symptom count, as well as the relationship between emotional abuse in particular and BPD diagnostic status. Contrary to hypotheses, results provided no support for the interaction between maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity in the prediction of BPD pathology (diagnosis or symptom count), above and beyond the main effects of these factors.

  7. A comparison of the effects of rhythm and robotic interventions on repetitive behaviors and affective states of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sudha M.; Park, Isabel K.; Neelly, Linda B.; Bhat, Anjana N.

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive behaviors and poor affect regulation are commonly seen in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We compared the effects of two novel interventions - rhythm and robotic therapies, with those of a standard-of-care intervention, on the repetitive behaviors and affective states of 36 children with ASD between 5 and 12 years using a randomized controlled trial design. We coded for frequencies of sensory, negative, and stereotyped behaviors and the duration of positive, negative, and interested affective states in children during early, mid, and late training sessions. In terms of repetitive behaviors, in the early session, the rhythm and robot groups engaged in greater negative behaviors, whereas the comparison group engaged in greater sensory behaviors. With training, the rhythm group reduced negative behaviors whereas there were no training-related changes in the other groups. In terms of affective states, the rhythm and robot groups showed greater negative affect, whereas the comparison group demonstrated greater interested affect across all sessions. With training, the rhythm group showed a reduction in negative affect and an increase in interested affect whereas the robot group showed a reduction in positive affect. Overall, it appears that rhythm-based interventions are socially engaging treatment tools to target core impairments in autism. PMID:26251668

  8. BadR and BadM Proteins Transcriptionally Regulate Two Operons Needed for Anaerobic Benzoate Degradation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Hidetada; Hirakawa, Yuko; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris grows with the aromatic acid benzoate and the alicyclic acid cyclohexanecarboxylate (CHC) as sole carbon sources. The enzymatic steps in an oxygen-independent pathway for CHC degradation have been elucidated, but it was unknown how the CHC operon (badHI aliAB badK) encoding the enzymes for CHC degradation was regulated. aliA and aliB encode enzymes for the conversion of CHC to cyclohex-1-enecarboxyl–coenzyme A (CHene-CoA). At this point, the pathway for CHC degradation merges with the pathway for anaerobic benzoate degradation, as CHene-CoA is an intermediate in both degradation pathways. Three enzymes, encoded by badK, badH, and badI, prepare and cleave the alicyclic ring of CHene-CoA to yield pimelyl-CoA. Here, we show that the MarR transcription factor family member, BadR, represses transcription of the CHC operon by binding near the transcription start site of badH. 2-Ketocyclohexane-1-carboxyl–CoA, an intermediate of CHC and benzoate degradation, interacts with BadR to abrogate repression. We also present evidence that the transcription factor BadM binds to the promoter of the badDEFGAB (Bad) operon for the anaerobic conversion of benzoate to CHene-CoA to repress its expression. Contrary to previous reports, BadR does not appear to control expression of the Bad operon. These data enhance our view of the transcriptional regulation of anaerobic benzoate degradation by R. palustris. PMID:25888170

  9. Employee bad behavior: selected thoughts and strategies.

    PubMed

    Reinholz, Becky; Cash, Jimmie K; Kupperschmidt, Betty

    2009-01-01

    In summary, bad behavior is prevalent in many acute care settings. Kupperschmidt (2006) once asked if it would take a mandate from a regulatory agency to get nurses to address horizontal hostility. Perhaps the answer to that question is "Yes" and we now have that mandate. Nursing Managers and Executives are challenged to demonstrate competence in effective behavior management. Role modeling integrity by adherence to standards and governing policies motivates employees to follow such examples. Inspiring environments that allow professionals to share talents and skills in a "safe" culture of practice promotes healthy work environments and defines successful behavior management.

  10. Competition in Healthcare: Good, Bad or Ugly?

    PubMed

    Goddard, Maria

    2015-08-01

    The role of competition in healthcare is much debated. Despite a wealth of international experience in relation to competition, evidence is mixed and contested and the debate about the potential role for competition is often polarised. This paper considers briefly some of the reasons for this, focusing on what is meant by "competition in healthcare" and why it is more valuable to think about the circumstances in which competition is more and less likely to be a good tool to achieve benefits, rather than whether or not it is "good" or "bad," per se.

  11. Video games: good, bad, or other?

    PubMed

    Prot, Sara; McDonald, Katelyn A; Anderson, Craig A; Gentile, Douglas A

    2012-06-01

    Video games are a pervasive pastime among children and adolescents. The growing popularity of video games has instigated a debate among parents, researchers, video game producers, and policymakers concerning potential harmful and helpful effects of video games on children. This article provides an overview of research findings on the positive and negative effects of video games, thus providing an empirical answer to the question, are video games good or bad? The article also provides some guidelines to help pediatricians, parents, and other caregivers protect children from negative effects and to maximize positive effects of video games.

  12. Changes in Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs Across Treatment Modalities for Seasonal Affective Disorder: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Light Therapy, and their Combination"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    significant response rate of only 43% in those experiencing moderate to severe SAD symptoms ( Terman et al., 1989). In addition, residual...Seasonal Affective Disorder Version (SIGH-SAD; Williams, Link, Rosenthal, Amira, & Terman , 1992) and the Beck Depression Inventory – Second Edition...compared at post- treatment based on pre-determined criteria established in previous SAD research ( Terman et al.1989). Post-treatment remission rates

  13. Research of IRFPAs' reliability evaluation by bad pixel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Lichao; Huang, Aibo; Lai, Canxiong; Chen, Xing; Hao, Mingming; Chen, Honglei; Lu, Guoguang; Huang, Yun; En, Yunfei

    2015-10-01

    Reliability is an important index to ensure the application of infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) in complex environment, and it becomes a major bottleneck problem of IRFPAs' development. Because of the characteristics such as type, nature, quantity, location and distribution et al, bad pixel which contains initial bad pixel and used bad pixel has outstanding advantage for failure analysis and reliability evaluation of IRFPAs. In this paper, the structure of IRPFAs has been introduced in detail, and the damage mechanisms of used bad pixel also have been analyzed deeply. At the same time, the feasibility to study IRPFAs' damage stress, failure position, damage mechanism has been discussed all around. The research of bad pixel can be used to optimize the structure and process, meanwhile it also can improve the accuracy of bad pixel identification and replacements.

  14. Predicting Short-Term Positive Affect in Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder: The Role of Selected Personality Traits and Emotion Regulation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Jaclyn S.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Lim, Michelle H.; Fernandez, Katya C.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, research has provided support for a moderate, inverse relationship between social anxiety and dispositional positive affect. However, the dynamics of this relationship remain poorly understood. The present study evaluates whether certain personality traits and emotion regulation variables predict short-term positive affect for individuals with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Positive affect as measured by two self-report instruments was assessed before and after two tasks in which the participant conversed with either a friend or a romantic partner. Tests of models examining the hypothesized prospective predictors revealed that the paths did not differ significantly across diagnostic group and both groups showed the hypothesized patterns of endorsement for the emotion regulation variables. Further, a variable reflecting difficulty redirecting oneself when distressed prospectively predicted one measure of positive affect. Additional research is needed to explore further the role of emotion regulation strategies on positive emotions for individuals higher in social anxiety. PMID:26119140

  15. Predicting short-term positive affect in individuals with social anxiety disorder: The role of selected personality traits and emotion regulation strategies.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Jaclyn S; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Lim, Michelle H; Fernandez, Katya C

    2015-08-01

    Recently, research has provided support for a moderate, inverse relationship between social anxiety and dispositional positive affect. However, the dynamics of this relationship remain poorly understood. The present study evaluates whether certain personality traits and emotion regulation variables predict short-term positive affect for individuals with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Positive affect as measured by two self-report instruments was assessed before and after two tasks in which the participant conversed with either a friend or a romantic partner. Tests of models examining the hypothesized prospective predictors revealed that the paths did not differ significantly across diagnostic group and both groups showed the hypothesized patterns of endorsement for the emotion regulation variables. Further, a variable reflecting difficulty redirecting oneself when distressed prospectively predicted one measure of positive affect. Additional research is needed to explore further the role of emotion regulation strategies on positive emotions for individuals higher in social anxiety.

  16. Analysis of polyglutamine-coding repeats in the TATA-binding protein in different human populations and in patients with schizophrenia an bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinsztein, D.C.; Leggo, J.; Crow, T.J.

    1996-09-20

    A new class of disease (including Huntington disease, Kennedy disease, and spinocerebellar ataxias types 1 and 3) results from abnormal expansions of CAG trinucleotides in the coding regions of genes. In all of these diseases the CAG repeats are thought to be translated into polyglutamine tracts. There is accumulating evidence arguing for CAG trinucleotide expansions as one of the causative disease mutations in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. We and others believe that the TATA-binding protein (TBP) is an important candidate to investigate in these diseases as it contains a highly polymorphic stretch of glutamine codons, which are close to the threshold length where the polyglutamine tracts start to be associated with disease. Thus, we examined the lengths of this polyglutamine repeat in normal unrelated East Anglians, South African Blacks, sub-Saharan Africans mainly from Nigeria, and Asian Indians. We also examined 43 bipolar affective disorder patients and 65 schizophrenic patients. The range of polyglutamine tract-lengths that we found in humans was from 26-42 codons. No patients with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia had abnormal expansions at this locus. 22 refs., 1 tab.

  17. The Role of Hippocampal Estradiol Receptor-α in a Perimenopausal Affective Disorders-Like Rat Model and Attenuating of Anxiety by Electroacupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yongheng; Ma, Shulan

    2016-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy is the principal treatment for perimenopausal affective disorders which can cause severe side effects. The present study compared the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and estradiol treatment on perimenopausal affective disorders at the behavioral and cellular levels. In this randomized experimental in vivo study, adult female rats were divided into intact, ovariectomy, chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), and ovariectomy and CUS combination groups. After week 6, all groups were subdivided to three subgroups of control, EA, and estradiol treatment. The behavioral parameters in the open field and the elevated plus maze tests were assessed before and after treatments. Alterations of serum steroid hormones and changes of estradiol receptor-α (ER-α) immunofluorescence neurons in the hippocampus sections were evaluated. EA treatment caused more antianxiety effects than estradiol treatment in CUS group (P < 0.05). Notably, estradiol and EA treatments had better significant behavioral effects when the models were not estrogen-deficient. Importantly, within each group, compared to the control group, the numbers of ER-α-positive neurons were significantly larger in EA subgroups. Therefore, EA had antianxiety effects on perimenopausal affective disorders caused by CUS but not by estrogen deficiency and upregulation of hippocampus ER-α neurons may contribute to its mechanism of action. PMID:28044085

  18. Bad Kids and Bad Feelings: What Children's Literature Teaches about ADHD, Creativity, and Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Clio

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses data from children's literature and classroom narratives to consider hyperactivity, inattention, and other non-normative behaviors in children. It encourages educational thinkers and childhood mental health professionals to take a historical perspective on children's badness rather than consigning it to the realm of pathology.…

  19. Certain Bacteria May Affect Preterm Birth Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163401.html Certain Bacteria May Affect Preterm Birth Risk Bad 'bugs' tied ... Feb. 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Certain types of bacteria in a pregnant woman's cervix and vagina can ...

  20. Intermittent Explosive Disorder amongst Women in Conflict Affected Timor-Leste: Associations with Human Rights Trauma, Ongoing Violence, Poverty, and Injustice

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Verdial, Teresa; Tam, Natalino; Savio, Elisa; Fonseca, Zulmira; Thorpe, Rosamund; Liddell, Belinda; Zwi, Anthony; Tay, Kuowei; Brooks, Robert; Steel, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Women in conflict-affected countries are at risk of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. No studies have investigated the association between experiences of abuse and injustice and explosive anger amongst women in these settings, and the impact of anger on women's health, family relationships and ability to participate in development. Methods A mixed methods study including an epidemiological survey (n = 1513, 92.6% response) and qualitative interviews (n = 77) was conducted in Timor-Leste. The indices measured included Intermittent Explosive Disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder; severe distress; days out of role (the number of days that the person was unable to undertake normal activities); gender-specific trauma; conflict/violence; poverty; and preoccupations with injustice. Results Women with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (n = 184, 12.2%) were more disabled than those without the disorder (for >5 days out of role, 40.8% versus 31.5%, X2(2)  = 12.93 p = 0.0016). Multivariable associations with Intermittent Explosive Disorder, controlling for the presence of PTSD, psychological distress and other predictors in the model, included the sense of being sick (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.08–2.77); victimization as a result of helping the resistance movement (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.48–3.68); war-related trauma specific to being a woman (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.09–3.50); ongoing family violence and community conflict (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27–2.77); extreme poverty (OR 1.23, 95%, CI 1.08–1.39); and distressing preoccupations with injustice (relating to 2/3 historical periods, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.35–3.28). In the qualitative study, women elaborated on the determinants of anger and its impact on their health, family and community functioning, child-rearing, and capacity to engage in development. Women reflected on the strategies that might help them overcome their anger. Conclusions Intermittent Explosive Disorder is

  1. Pesticides: the good and the bad.

    PubMed

    Mrak, E M

    1984-03-01

    Pesticides have been used for many years. In earlier times they were a protection against fungi and insect pests. The great increase in the use of pesticides occurred with the development of new organic chemicals following World Wars I and II. In addition to chemicals for the control of fungi and insects, new developments were nematocides, herbicides, rodenticides, avicides, defoliants, wood preservatives, etc. The use of chemicals helped increase productivity, but caused great concern about their effect on human health and safety. On the other hand, chemicals did help tremendously from the standpoint of protecting against diseases that were carried by insects, especially mosquitoes. Adverse publicity has caused great concern about pesticides and this is especially so since our society has undergone great changes from an agricultural society to an industrial society and finally to a communications society. Unfortunately, publicity relating to the use of pesticides has seldom been balanced from the standpoint of the good and the bad. In fact, the communications media has and does usually stress the potential adverse effects of pesticides without reference to the good. This has caused concern on the part of advocates and the average person to the extent that it has placed heavy constraints on agriculture. There is a need for the dissemination of balanced information on the good as well as the bad of pesticides.

  2. [Case report of a patient with renal cell cancer and his fateful progress - Breaking Bad News].

    PubMed

    Kudlacek, Stefan; Meran, Johannes G

    2012-01-01

    "Breaking Bad News" outlines a pathway for medical and other professional staff to deliver bad news to patients, clients, their families and carers. Bad news can mean different things to different people. Basically, it means any information which adversely and seriously affects an individual point of view of future or situations without any feeling of hope. The way a doctor or other health or social care professionals deliver bad news places an indelible mark on the doctor/professional-patient relationship. The debate about the levels of truth given to patients about their diagnosis has developed significantly over the last few years. While doctors and professionals now increasingly share information it has been the practice to withhold information because it was believed to be in the best interests of the patient. We discuss the situation of a patient with renal cancer who developed metastases after surgery. Unfortunately a tumour embolism from the kidney flashed into the pulmonary arteries. First it was not for sure if there were any metastases beside the tumour embolus. Months after embolectomy by thoracic surgery there was certain evidence of multiple pulmonary nodal lesions. First and second line chemotherapies failed and the patient died within several months after start of pharmacologic treatment. The case report discusses diagnosis and procedures, how the patient was supported and the way he got information at any critical date.

  3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog therapy for central precocious puberty and other childhood disorders affecting growth and puberty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P

    2006-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog therapy relies primarily on the ability of these compounds to bind to and modulate GnRH-receptor activity. GnRH analogs have been used in pediatric patients where endogenous gonadotropin release is undesirable or potentially harmful, such as in: (i) patients with central precocious puberty (CPP); (ii) healthy short children where pubertal delay would provide an opportunity to supplement pre-pubertal linear growth; and (iii) children with malignancies and other disorders where treatment requires the use of gonadotoxic compounds. In the first two groups of patients, GnRH agonists may be used alone or in conjunction with somatropin (growth hormone [GH]) to prevent early skeletal maturation and increase the subsequent adult height, while in the latter case, GnRH agonists are used alone or in conjunction with GnRH antagonists in an attempt to preserve gonadal function.In children and adolescents with CPP, timely use of GnRH agonists alone can result in an adult height within the genetic potential of the individual (target height); however, minimal height is gained when GnRH agonist therapy is commenced after a marked advancement of skeletal age. This provides the rationale for combined therapy with GnRH agonists and somatropin in such patients, and studies have shown improved growth with this approach compared with GnRH agonists alone. Combination therapy with GnRH agonists and somatropin has also been shown to increase adult heights to a greater extent than GnRH agonists alone in pediatric patients with concomitant CPP and GH deficiency, those with idiopathic short stature, and those born small for gestational age; however, such combination therapy has shown no increased benefit over somatropin alone in pediatric patients with GH deficiency. Limited results in children and adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and chronic primary hypothyroidism have also shown increased growth rates, while no growth benefit was

  4. Storage temperature and 1-MCP treatment affect storage disorders and physiological attributes of ‘Royal Gala’ apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Royal Gala’ apples [Malus domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] can develop postharvest disorders such as flesh browning, senescent breakdown, peeling, cracking, or shriveling during and after cold storage. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of storage temperature and a range of 1-methylc...

  5. Spatial and Identity Cues Differentially Affect Implicit Contextual Cueing in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Brittany G.; Powell, Patrick S.; Mussey, Joanna L.; Klinger, Laura G.; Crisler, Megan E.; Klinger, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The present studies examined implicit contextual cueing in adolescents and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In Study 1, 16 individuals with ASD and 20 matched individuals with typical development completed a contextual cueing task using stimulus-identity cues. In Study 2, 12 individuals with ASD and 16 individuals with typical…

  6. Child and Setting Characteristics Affecting the Adult Talk Directed at Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Dwight W.; Boyd, Brian A.; Odom, Samuel L.

    2015-01-01

    Difficulty with social competence is a core deficit of autism spectrum disorder. Research on typically developing children and children with disabilities, in general, suggests the adult talk received in the classroom is related to their social development. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the types and amounts of adult talk children with…

  7. Differential secretion of the mutated protein is a major component affecting phenotypic severity in CRLF1-associated disorders

    PubMed Central

    Herholz, Jana; Meloni, Alessandra; Marongiu, Mara; Chiappe, Francesca; Deiana, Manila; Herrero, Carmen Roche; Zampino, Giuseppe; Hamamy, Hanan; Zalloum, Yusra; Waaler, Per Erik; Crisponi, Giangiorgio; Crisponi, Laura; Rutsch, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Crisponi syndrome (CS) and cold-induced sweating syndrome type 1 (CISS1) are disorders caused by mutations in CRLF1. The two syndromes share clinical characteristics, such as dysmorphic features, muscle contractions, scoliosis and cold-induced sweating, with CS patients showing a severe clinical course in infancy involving hyperthermia, associated with death in most cases in the first years of life. To evaluate a potential genotype/phenotype correlation and whether CS and CISS1 represent two allelic diseases or manifestations at different ages of the same disorder, we carried out a detailed clinical analysis of 19 patients carrying mutations in CRLF1. We studied the functional significance of the mutations found in CRLF1, providing evidence that phenotypic severity of the two disorders mainly depends on altered kinetics of secretion of the mutated CRLF1 protein. On the basis of these findings, we believe that the two syndromes, CS and CISS1, represent manifestations of the same disorder, with different degrees of severity. We suggest renaming the two genetic entities CS and CISS1 with the broader term of Sohar–Crisponi syndrome. PMID:21326283

  8. How Many Families in Child Welfare Services Are Affected by Parental Substance Use Disorders? A Common Question that Remains Unanswered

    PubMed Central

    Seay, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Associated with extensive negative outcomes for children, parental substance use disorders are a major concern within the child welfare system. Obtaining actual prevalence rate data has been difficult, however, and there are no recent published reports on this issue. Using a systematic search, this paper examines: (1) Prevalence estimates of parental substance use disorders in the child welfare population; (2) the types of child welfare involvement for reported prevalence estimates; and (3) how prevalence information is being collected. Prevalence rates were found to have a wide range, from 3.9% to 79%, with regional prevalence estimates being higher than national estimates. Prevalence rates of parental substance use disorders varied by type of child welfare involvement of the family and method of data collection. This study points out the need for improvements in prevalence estimates in the United States and national data collection procedures to ensure that child welfare and substance abuse treatment systems are adequately responding to children and families with substance use disorders. PMID:26827475

  9. Neural correlates of automatic perceptual sensitivity to facial affect in posttraumatic stress disorder subjects who survived L'Aquila eartquake of April 6, 2009.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Monica; Catalucci, Alessia; Mariano, Melania; Pino, Maria Chiara; Tripaldi, Simona; Roncone, Rita; Gallucci, Massimo

    2012-09-01

    The "Emotional Numbing" (EN) constitutes one of