Henderson, Robert R.; Bradley, Margaret M.; Lang, Peter J.
An initial reflexive constriction of the pupil to stimulation – the light reflex – is primarily modulated by brightness, but is attenuated when participants are under threat of shock (e.g. "fear-inhibited light reflex").The present study assessed whether the light reflex is similarly attenuated when viewing emotional pictures. Participants viewed erotic, violent, and neutral scenes that were matched in brightness; as an additional control, scrambled versions identical in brightness were also presented. Compared to viewing neutral scenes, the light reflex was reliably modulated by hedonic content, with significant attenuation both when viewing unpleasant, as well as pleasant, pictures. No differences in the light reflex were found among scrambled versions. Modulation of the initial light reflex is therefore not confined to a context of fear, and also is not indicative of differences in brightness when viewing pictures of natural scenes. PMID:24849784
Henderson, Robert R; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J
An initial reflexive constriction of the pupil to stimulation-the light reflex-is primarily modulated by brightness, but is attenuated when participants are under threat of shock (i.e., fear-inhibited light reflex). The present study assessed whether the light reflex is similarly attenuated when viewing emotional pictures. Pupil diameter was recorded while participants viewed erotic, violent, and neutral scenes that were matched in brightness; scrambled versions identical in brightness were also presented as an additional control. Compared to viewing neutral scenes, the light reflex was reliably modulated by hedonic content, with significant attenuation both when viewing unpleasant as well as pleasant pictures. No differences in the light reflex were found among scrambled versions. Thus, emotional modulation of the initial light reflex is not confined to a context of fear and is not indicative of brightness differences when viewing pictures of natural scenes.
Crabbe, James B; Smith, J Carson; Dishman, Rod K
We examined the effects of 30 min of cycling exercise at a moderate intensity of 50% peak oxygen uptake, compared to 30 min of rest, on changes in emotional responses to pictorial foreground stimuli that reliably elicit unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant affect. Emotional responses were measured by self-reports of valence (unpleasant to pleasant) and arousal (low to high) and by hemispheric asymmetry (R-L) of frontal and parietal brain electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in 13 females and 21 males (24+/-3 y). Compared to after rest, self-reports of arousal in response to unpleasant slides were diminished after exercise, but self-reports of valence and frontal asymmetry of alpha frequencies were generally unchanged. Even so, there were differential responses in asymmetry in the beta frequencies in the frontal region and for alpha and beta frequencies in the parietal region, indicative of decreased activity in the left frontal and right parietal regions after exercise compared to after rest. We conclude that moderately intense cycling exercise generally does not alter emotional responding to pleasant and neutral pictures, but may reduce emotional arousal during exposure to unpleasant stimuli.
O'Farrell, Katherine R.; Burley, Daniel; Erichsen, Jonathan T.; Newton, Naomi V.; Gray, Nicola S.
Abstract The pupil has been shown to be sensitive to the emotional content of stimuli. We examined this phenomenon by comparing fearful and neutral images carefully matched in the domains of luminance, image contrast, image color, and complexity of content. The pupil was more dilated after viewing affective pictures, and this effect was (a) shown to be independent of the presentation time of the images (from 100–3,000 ms), (b) not diminished by repeated presentations of the images, and (c) not affected by actively naming the emotion of the stimuli in comparison to passive viewing. Our results show that the emotional modulation of the pupil is present over a range of variables that typically vary from study to study (image duration, number of trials, free viewing vs. task), and encourages the use of pupillometry as a measure of emotional processing in populations where alternative techniques may not be appropriate. PMID:27172997
Snowden, Robert J; O'Farrell, Katherine R; Burley, Daniel; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Newton, Naomi V; Gray, Nicola S
The pupil has been shown to be sensitive to the emotional content of stimuli. We examined this phenomenon by comparing fearful and neutral images carefully matched in the domains of luminance, image contrast, image color, and complexity of content. The pupil was more dilated after viewing affective pictures, and this effect was (a) shown to be independent of the presentation time of the images (from 100-3,000 ms), (b) not diminished by repeated presentations of the images, and (c) not affected by actively naming the emotion of the stimuli in comparison to passive viewing. Our results show that the emotional modulation of the pupil is present over a range of variables that typically vary from study to study (image duration, number of trials, free viewing vs. task), and encourages the use of pupillometry as a measure of emotional processing in populations where alternative techniques may not be appropriate.
Del Seppia, C.; Mezzasalma, L.; Messerotti, M.; Cordelli, A.; Ghione, S.
There is evidence suggesting that exposure to an abnormal magnetic environment may produce psychophysiological effects related to abnormalities in responses to stress. This may be of relevance for space medicine where astronauts are exposed to a magnetic field different from that exerted by the Earth. Aim of this study was to assess how the exposure of the head to a magnetic field simulating the one encountered by the International Space Station (ISS) during a single orbit (90 min) around the Earth affects the cardiovascular and psychophysiological parameters. Twenty-four human volunteers were studied double blindly in random order under sham and magnetic exposure. During exposure, the persons were shown a set of pictures of different emotional content while subjective self-rating, skin conductance (SC), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were measured. In addition, BP, HR, and tooth pain threshold were assessed before and after exposure. While subjects were under magnetic exposure, skin conductance was strongly differentiated (F|2,36 = 22.927; p = 0.0001), being high during emotionally involving (positive and negative) pictures and low during neutral pictures. Conversely, when subjects were under sham exposure, no significant differences were observed. There was, however, a trend for higher heart rate during picture viewing under magnetic exposure as compared to sham exposure. No effects were found for the other variables. These results suggest that an abnormal magnetic field that simulates the one encountered by ISS orbiting around the Earth may enhance autonomic response to emotional stimuli.
Frantzidis, Christos A; Bratsas, Charalampos; Klados, Manousos A; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos; Lithari, Chrysa D; Vivas, Ana B; Papadelis, Christos L; Kaldoudi, Eleni; Pappas, Costas; Bamidis, Panagiotis D
Recent neuroscience findings demonstrate the fundamental role of emotion in the maintenance of physical and mental health. In the present study, a novel architecture is proposed for the robust discrimination of emotional physiological signals evoked upon viewing pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Biosignals are multichannel recordings from both the central and the autonomic nervous systems. Following the bidirectional emotion theory model, IAPS pictures are rated along two dimensions, namely, their valence and arousal. Following this model, biosignals in this paper are initially differentiated according to their valence dimension by means of a data mining approach, which is the C4.5 decision tree algorithm. Then, the valence and the gender information serve as an input to a Mahalanobis distance classifier, which dissects the data into high and low arousing. Results are described in Extensible Markup Language (XML) format, thereby accounting for platform independency, easy interconnectivity, and information exchange. The average recognition (success) rate was 77.68% for the discrimination of four emotional states, differing both in their arousal and valence dimension. It is, therefore, envisaged that the proposed approach holds promise for the efficient discrimination of negative and positive emotions, and it is hereby discussed how future developments may be steered to serve for affective healthcare applications, such as the monitoring of the elderly or chronically ill people.
Moeller, S.J.; Goldstein, R.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T. Parvaz, M.A.; Dunning, J.P.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Hajcak, G.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.
Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures-under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)-was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.
Loftus, Geoffrey R.; Mackworth, Norman H.
Adult subjects viewed pictures at brief intervals, testing their reactions to informative objects--those not redundant with or predictive of the rest of the picture, such as a tractor in an underwater scene. Results indicated that observers fixate earlier, more often, and longer on informative objects. (Author/SJL)
Pereira, Mirtes Garcia; Volchan, Eliane; de Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal; de Oliveira, Leticia; Campagnoli, Rafaela; Pinheiro, Walter Machado; Pessoa, Luiz
We investigated how viewing task-irrelevant emotional pictures affects the performance of a subsequent non-emotional visual detection task. Subjects performed target-detection trials following the offset of individual unpleasant, pleasant and neutral pictures. Sustained interference occurred when subjects viewed blocked unpleasant pictures (mutilated bodies). Such slowing down of reaction time appeared to “build up” with time, consistent with the instatement of a defensive emotional state. With a randomized picture presentation, only a transient interference effect was observed, consistent with increased attentional demands during the processing of unpleasant pictures. During blocked presentation of affiliative pleasant pictures, reaction times were faster, suggesting the activation of appetitive motivational systems. Ultimately, both attentional and motivational systems are intricately tied in the brain and, together, determine behavior. PMID:17144753
Gomez, Patrick; Shafy, Samiha; Danuser, Brigitta
The respiratory behavior during affective states is not completely understood. We studied breathing pattern responses to picture series in 37 participants. We also measured end-tidal pCO2 (EtCO2) to determine if ventilation is in balance with metabolic demands and spontaneous eye-blinking to investigate the link between respiration and attention. Minute ventilation (MV) and inspiratory drive increased with self-rated arousal. These relationships reflected increases in inspiratory volume rather than shortening of the time parameters. EtCO2 covaried with pleasantness but not arousal. Eye-blink rate decreased with increasing unpleasantness in line with a negativity bias in attention. This study confirms that respiratory responses to affective stimuli are organized to a certain degree along the dimensions of valence and arousal. It shows, for the first time, that during picture viewing, ventilatory increases with increasing arousal are in balance with metabolic activity and that inspiratory volume is modulated by arousal. MV emerges as the most reliable respiratory index of self-perceived arousal.
Ong, Jason C; Gramling, Sandra E; Vrana, Scott R; Nicholson, Robert A; Buenaver, Luis F
Despite the advancement of the biopsychosocial model, the interrelationship between behavioral, emotional, and physiological factors in tension-type headache (TTH) remains unclear. Using a picture-viewing paradigm, the present study investigated differences between females with TTH and controls on physiological reactivity, affective valence and arousal, and oral motor habits. In addition, the concordance between EMG activity and self-reported oral habits (i.e., proprioceptive awareness) and EMG activity and self-reported affect (i.e., affective coherence) were measured using within-subject correlations per individual and then compared between groups. Data were analyzed for 27 TTH sufferers and 27 controls who completed a questionnaire packet followed by a psychophysiological assessment consisting of 3 phases (adaptation, scheduled-viewing, recovery) with EMG activity recorded continuously at 3 sites (frontalis, corrugator, zygomatic). During the scheduled-viewing phase, participants were presented with 24 pictures designed to elicit positive, neutral, and negative affect. Compared to controls, the headache group reported elevations in pain, oral habits, and stress across the 3 phases of the assessment, along with elevations in arousal while viewing the pictures. There were no significant differences between the groups in EMG activity while viewing the pictures. Analyses on concordance revealed partial evidence for poor proprioceptive awareness and affective coherence among the headache group, although the correlations were not significantly different than the control group. These findings suggest that arousal, stress perception, and oral habits may play a role in the pathophysiology of TTH and that within-subject designs should be tested further against group designs when measuring psychophysiological concordance.
Hirata, Satoshi; Matsuda, Goh; Ueno, Ari; Fukushima, Hirokata; Fuwa, Koki; Sugama, Keiko; Kusunoki, Kiyo; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hiraki, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu
Advancement of non-invasive brain imaging techniques has allowed us to examine details of neural activities involved in affective processing in humans; however, no comparative data are available for chimpanzees, the closest living relatives of humans. In the present study, we measured event-related brain potentials in a fully awake adult chimpanzee as she looked at affective and neutral pictures. The results revealed a differential brain potential appearing 210 ms after presentation of an affective picture, a pattern similar to that in humans. This suggests that at least a part of the affective process is similar between humans and chimpanzees. The results have implications for the evolutionary foundations of emotional phenomena, such as emotional contagion and empathy.
Shiraishi, Yuko; Ando, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Sayaka; Norikane, Kazuya; Kurayama, Shigeki; Abe, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yasushi
A possible relationship between recognition of facial affect and aberrant eye movement was examined in patients with schizophrenia. A Japanese version of standard pictures of facial affect was prepared. These pictures of basic emotions (surprise, anger, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness) were shown to 19 schizophrenic patients and 20 healthy controls who identified emotions while their eye movements were measured. The proportion of correct identifications of 'disgust' was significantly lower for schizophrenic patients, their eye fixation time was significantly longer for all pictures of facial affect, and their eye movement speed was slower for some facial affects (surprise, fear, and sadness). One index, eye fixation time for "happiness," showed a significant difference between the high- and low-dosage antipsychotic drug groups. Some expected facial affect recognition disorder was seen in schizophrenic patients responding to the Japanese version of affect pictures, but there was no correlation between facial affect recognition disorder and aberrant eye movement.
Bradley, Margaret M.; Sege, Christopher T.; Bowers, Dawn
Hedonic bias during free viewing of novel emotional and neutral scenes was investigated in older adults and college students. A neurophysiological index of emotional picture processing–the amplitude of the centroparietal late positive potential (LPP)–was recorded from the scalp using a dense sensor array while participants (29 older adults; 21 college students) viewed emotionally engaging or mundane natural scenes that varied in specific content. Both students and older adults showed LPP enhancement when viewing affective, compared to neutral, scenes, and there was no difference in LPP amplitude between older individuals and college students when viewing neutral everyday scenes. However, compared to the college students, older individuals showed attenuated LPP amplitude when viewing emotional scenes, regardless of hedonic valence or specific content. Age related differences could be mediated by a reduction in reactive emotional arousal with age, possible mediated by repeated life exposure to emotional stimuli. PMID:27589393
Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H
Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both.
Riegel, Monika; Moslehi, Abnoos; Michałowski, Jarosław M.; Żurawski, Łukasz; Horvat, Marko; Wypych, Marek; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur
Although emotions have been assumed conventionally to be universal, recent studies have suggested that various aspects of emotions may be mediated by cultural background. The purpose of our research was to test these contradictory views, in the case of the subjective evaluation of visual affective stimuli. We also sought to validate the recently introduced Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) database on a different cultural group. Since there has been, to date, no attempt to compare the emotions of a culturally distinct sample of Iranians with those of Europeans, subjective ratings were collected from 40 Iranians and 39 Europeans. Each cultural group was asked separately to provide normative affective ratings and classify pictures according to discrete emotions. The results were analyzed to identify cultural differences in the ratings of individual images. One hundred and seventy NAPS pictures were rated with regard to the intensity of the basic emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust) they elicited, as well as in terms of affective dimensions (valence and arousal). Contrary to previous studies using the International Affective Picture System, our results for Europeans and Iranians show that neither the ratings for affective dimensions nor for basic emotions differed across cultural groups. In both cultural groups, the relationship between valence and arousal ratings could be best described by a classical boomerang-shaped function. However, the content of the pictures (animals, faces, landscapes, objects, or people) had a significant effect on the ratings for valence and arousal. These findings indicate that further studies in cross-cultural affective research should control for the content of stimuli. PMID:28316576
Riegel, Monika; Moslehi, Abnoos; Michałowski, Jarosław M; Żurawski, Łukasz; Horvat, Marko; Wypych, Marek; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur
Although emotions have been assumed conventionally to be universal, recent studies have suggested that various aspects of emotions may be mediated by cultural background. The purpose of our research was to test these contradictory views, in the case of the subjective evaluation of visual affective stimuli. We also sought to validate the recently introduced Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) database on a different cultural group. Since there has been, to date, no attempt to compare the emotions of a culturally distinct sample of Iranians with those of Europeans, subjective ratings were collected from 40 Iranians and 39 Europeans. Each cultural group was asked separately to provide normative affective ratings and classify pictures according to discrete emotions. The results were analyzed to identify cultural differences in the ratings of individual images. One hundred and seventy NAPS pictures were rated with regard to the intensity of the basic emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust) they elicited, as well as in terms of affective dimensions (valence and arousal). Contrary to previous studies using the International Affective Picture System, our results for Europeans and Iranians show that neither the ratings for affective dimensions nor for basic emotions differed across cultural groups. In both cultural groups, the relationship between valence and arousal ratings could be best described by a classical boomerang-shaped function. However, the content of the pictures (animals, faces, landscapes, objects, or people) had a significant effect on the ratings for valence and arousal. These findings indicate that further studies in cross-cultural affective research should control for the content of stimuli.
Schupp, Harald T.
Recent event-related brain potential studies revealed the selective processing of emotional and threatening pictures. Integrating the picture viewing and threat-of-shock paradigm, the present study examined the processing of emotional pictures while they were explicitly instructed to cue threat of real world danger (i.e. electric shocks). Toward this end, 60 pleasant, neutral and unpleasant IAPS-pictures were presented (1 s) as a continuous random stream while high-density EEG and self-reported threat were assessed. In three experimental runs, each picture category was used once as a threat-cue, whereas in the other conditions the same category served as safety-cue. An additional passive viewing run served as a no-threat condition, thus, establishing a threat–safety continuum (threat-cue–safety-cue–no-threat) for each picture category. Threat-of-shock modulated P1, P2 and parieto-occipital LPP amplitudes. While the P1 component differentiated among threat- and no-threat conditions, the P2 and LPP effects were specific to pictures signaling threat-of-shock. Thus, stimulus processing progressively gained more accurate information about environmental threat conditions. Interestingly, the finding of increased EPN and centro-parietal LPP amplitudes to emotional pictures was independent from threat-of-shock manipulation. Accordingly, the results indicate distinct effects associated with the intrinsic significance of emotional pictures and explicitly instructed threat contingencies. PMID:21719425
Fischer, Thomas; Graupner, Sven-Thomas; Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Pannasch, Sebastian
Most empirical evidence on attentional control is based on brief presentations of rather abstract stimuli. Results revealed indications for a dynamic interplay between bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms. Here we used a more naturalistic task to examine temporal signatures of attentional mechanisms on fine and coarse time scales. Subjects had to inspect digitized copies of 60 paintings, each shown for 40 s. We simultaneously measured oculomotor behavior and electrophysiological correlates of brain activity to compare early and late intervals (1) of inspection time of each picture (picture viewing) and (2) of the full experiment (time on task). For picture viewing, we found an increase in fixation duration and a decrease of saccadic amplitude while these parameters did not change with time on task. Furthermore, early in picture viewing we observed higher spatial and temporal similarity of gaze behavior. Analyzing electrical brain activity revealed changes in three components (C1, N1 and P2) of the eye fixation-related potential (EFRP); during picture viewing; no variation was obtained for the power in the frontal beta- and in the theta activity. Time on task analyses demonstrated no effects on the EFRP amplitudes but an increase of power in the frontal theta and beta band activity. Thus, behavioral and electrophysiological measures similarly show characteristic changes during picture viewing, indicating a shifting balance of its underlying (bottom-up and top-down) attentional mechanisms. Time on task also modulated top-down attention but probably represents a different attentional mechanism. PMID:23759704
Li, Hongzhi; Zhu, Wenwu
Panorama view provides people an informative and natural user experience to represent the whole scene. The advances on mobile augmented reality, mobile-cloud computing, and mobile internet can enable panorama view on mobile phone with new functionalities, such as anytime anywhere query where a landmark picture is and what the whole scene looks like. To generate and explore panorama view on mobile devices faces significant challenges due to the limitations of computing capacity, battery life, and memory size of mobile phones, as well as the bandwidth of mobile Internet connection. To address the challenges, this paper presents a novel cloud-based mobile panorama view system that can generate and view panorama-view on mobile devices from a single picture, namely "Pano". In our system, first, we propose a novel iterative multi-modal image retrieval (IMIR) approach to get spatially adjacent images using both tag and content information from the single picture. Second, we propose a cloud-based parallel server synthing approach to generate panorama view in cloud, against today's local-client synthing approach that is almost impossible for mobile phones. Third, we propose predictive-cache solution to reduce latency of image delivery from cloud server to the mobile client. We have built a real mobile panorama view system and perform experiments. The experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of our system and the proposed key component technologies, especially for landmark images.
de Tommaso, Marina; Calabrese, Rita; Vecchio, Eleonora; De Vito Francesco, Vito; Lancioni, Giulio; Livrea, Paolo
Visually induced analgesia has been correlated with the affective content of pleasant, neutral or unpleasant pictures. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of affective images vision on laser evoked potentials and pain perception, in a cohort of healthy subjects and migraine patients. Twenty-two healthy subjects and 24 migraine without aura patients (recorded during the inter-critical phase) participated in the study. Eighty-four colour slides, arranged in two blocks, each consisting of 14 pleasant, 14 unpleasant and 14 neutral images, in random presentation, were chosen from the International Affective Picture System. The CO(2) laser stimuli were delivered on the dorsum of the right hand and supra-orbital zone at 7.5-watt intensity and 25-ms duration, in basal condition and during the viewing of affective pictures. Migraine patients expressed higher scores of valence and arousal for pleasant and unpleasant pictures, compared to controls. In both groups, a late positive potential in the 400-700 ms time range was clear for pleasant and unpleasant pictures, but its amplitude was significantly reduced in migraine patients. The pain rating and the N2 component were reduced in both groups during the visual task compared to basal condition. In migraineurs and controls the P2 wave was reduced during the vision of pleasant pictures, compared to basal condition. This indicates that stimulation by images with different affective content reduces subjective pain for a cognitive mechanism of attentive engagement, while a special inhibition of later LEPs is produced by a positive emotional impact. In migraine, affective images are able to modulate pain perception and LEPs, differently from other modalities of distraction, suggesting a possible emotive elaboration of painful stimuli.
Lamm, Connie; White, Lauren K.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Fox, Nathan A.
The neural correlates of cognitive control for typically developing 9-year-old children were examined using dense-array ERPs and estimates of cortical activation (LORETA) during a go/no-go task with two conditions: a neutral picture condition and an affectively charged picture condition. Activation was estimated for the entire cortex after which…
Lee, Tatia M. C.; Lee, Tiffany M. Y.; Raine, Adrian; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.
The neural correlates of lying about affective information were studied using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methodology. Specifically, 13 healthy right-handed Chinese men were instructed to lie about the valence, positive or negative, of pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) while their brain activity was scanned by a 3T Philip Achieva scanner. The key finding is that the neural activity associated with deception is valence-related. Comparing to telling the truth, deception about the valence of the affectively positive pictures was associated with activity in the inferior frontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, precuneus, and middle temporal regions. Lying about the valence of the affectively negative pictures, on the other hand, was associated with activity in the orbital and medial frontal regions. While a clear valence-related effect on deception was observed, common neural regions were also recruited for the process of deception about the valence of the affective pictures. These regions included the lateral prefrontal and inferior parietal regions. Activity in these regions has been widely reported in fMRI studies on deception using affectively-neutral stimuli. The findings of this study reveal the effect of valence on the neural activity associated with deception. Furthermore, the data also help to illustrate the complexity of the neural mechanisms underlying deception. PMID:20811624
Winn, William; Everett, Richard J.
A total of 73 university freshman and 93 grade 7 and 8 students took part in a study of the differences in the affective meaning of color and black-and-white pictures. Subjects rated black-and-white and color slides on nine seven-point semantic differential scales and a red-blue scale. Results indicated that differences in affective meaning…
Bermejo, Belen G.; Mateos, Pedro M.; Sanchez-Mateos, Juan Degado
The present study provides information on the emotional experience of people with intellectual disability. To evaluate this emotional experience, we have used the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS). The most important result from this study is that the emotional reaction of people with intellectual disability to affective stimuli is…
Guerra, Pedro; Versace, Francesco; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M. Carmen
Recently, several sets of standardized food pictures have been created, supplying both food images and their subjective evaluations. However, to date only the OLAF (Open Library of Affective Foods), a set of food images and ratings we developed in adolescents, has the specific purpose of studying emotions toward food. Moreover, some researchers have argued that food evaluations are not valid across individuals and groups, unless feelings toward food cues are compared with feelings toward intense experiences unrelated to food, that serve as benchmarks. Therefore the OLAF presented here, comprising a set of original food images and a group of standardized highly emotional pictures, is intended to provide valid between-group judgments in adults. Emotional images (erotica, mutilations, and neutrals from the International Affective Picture System/IAPS) additionally ensure that the affective ratings are consistent with emotion research. The OLAF depicts high-calorie sweet and savory foods and low-calorie fruits and vegetables, portraying foods within natural scenes matching the IAPS features. An adult sample evaluated both food and affective pictures in terms of pleasure, arousal, dominance, and food craving, following standardized affective rating procedures. The affective ratings for the emotional pictures corroborated previous findings, thus confirming the reliability of evaluations for the food images. Among the OLAF images, high-calorie sweet and savory foods elicited the greatest pleasure, although they elicited, as expected, less arousal than erotica. The observed patterns were consistent with research on emotions and confirmed the reliability of OLAF evaluations. The OLAF and affective pictures constitute a sound methodology to investigate emotions toward food within a wider motivational framework. The OLAF is freely accessible at digibug.ugr.es. PMID:27513636
Miccoli, Laura; Delgado, Rafael; Guerra, Pedro; Versace, Francesco; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen
Recently, several sets of standardized food pictures have been created, supplying both food images and their subjective evaluations. However, to date only the OLAF (Open Library of Affective Foods), a set of food images and ratings we developed in adolescents, has the specific purpose of studying emotions toward food. Moreover, some researchers have argued that food evaluations are not valid across individuals and groups, unless feelings toward food cues are compared with feelings toward intense experiences unrelated to food, that serve as benchmarks. Therefore the OLAF presented here, comprising a set of original food images and a group of standardized highly emotional pictures, is intended to provide valid between-group judgments in adults. Emotional images (erotica, mutilations, and neutrals from the International Affective Picture System/IAPS) additionally ensure that the affective ratings are consistent with emotion research. The OLAF depicts high-calorie sweet and savory foods and low-calorie fruits and vegetables, portraying foods within natural scenes matching the IAPS features. An adult sample evaluated both food and affective pictures in terms of pleasure, arousal, dominance, and food craving, following standardized affective rating procedures. The affective ratings for the emotional pictures corroborated previous findings, thus confirming the reliability of evaluations for the food images. Among the OLAF images, high-calorie sweet and savory foods elicited the greatest pleasure, although they elicited, as expected, less arousal than erotica. The observed patterns were consistent with research on emotions and confirmed the reliability of OLAF evaluations. The OLAF and affective pictures constitute a sound methodology to investigate emotions toward food within a wider motivational framework. The OLAF is freely accessible at digibug.ugr.es.
Baumgartner, Thomas; Lutz, Kai; Schmidt, Conny F; Jäncke, Lutz
Music is an intriguing stimulus widely used in movies to increase the emotional experience. However, no brain imaging study has to date examined this enhancement effect using emotional pictures (the modality mostly used in emotion research) and musical excerpts. Therefore, we designed this functional magnetic resonance imaging study to explore how musical stimuli enhance the feeling of affective pictures. In a classical block design carefully controlling for habituation and order effects, we presented fearful and sad pictures (mostly taken from the IAPS) either alone or combined with congruent emotional musical excerpts (classical pieces). Subjective ratings clearly indicated that the emotional experience was markedly increased in the combined relative to the picture condition. Furthermore, using a second-level analysis and regions of interest approach, we observed a clear functional and structural dissociation between the combined and the picture condition. Besides increased activation in brain areas known to be involved in auditory as well as in neutral and emotional visual-auditory integration processes, the combined condition showed increased activation in many structures known to be involved in emotion processing (including for example amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampus, insula, striatum, medial ventral frontal cortex, cerebellum, fusiform gyrus). In contrast, the picture condition only showed an activation increase in the cognitive part of the prefrontal cortex, mainly in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Based on these findings, we suggest that emotional pictures evoke a more cognitive mode of emotion perception, whereas congruent presentations of emotional visual and musical stimuli rather automatically evoke strong emotional feelings and experiences.
29. VIEW OF THE DIVERSION STRUCTURE PICTURED IN CO-43-A-28 FROM THE CHANNEL OF THE LATERAL, SHOWING THE UPSTREAM FACE OF THE STRUCTURE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO
Wendt, Julia; Lotze, Martin; Weike, Almut I; Hosten, Norbert; Hamm, Alfons O
This study explored defensive response mobilization as well as fMRI responses during sustained exposure to phobia-relevant stimuli. To test the specificity of affective physiology and brain activation, neutral and other affective stimuli were included. Phobia-specific startle potentiation was maintained and autonomic responses even increased during sustained phobic stimulation. Viewing of spider pictures also resulted in increased activation of the amygdala in spider-phobic participants. This effect, however, was not fear specific because other affective materials evoked comparable signal strength in the amygdala. In contrast, insula activation was specifically increased during sustained phobic exposure in phobic volunteers. These data suggest that the activation of the amygdala in fMRI studies primarily indexes the detection of motivationally relevant stimuli whereas the insula might be more specifically linked to defensive response mobilization.
Wilcox, Reg B; Fallano, Joel; Shannon, Kenneth J; Carrino, John A; Sinclair, Jacquelyn; Khorasani, Ramin
Imaging plays an increasing role in physical therapy (PT) practice. We sought to determine if picture archiving and communication system (PACS) deployment would increase the proportion of imaging studies viewed by physical therapists (PTs) at the point of care and to assess PTs' perception of the value of access to imaging information. The study was performed in a 720-bed urban teaching hospital where an average of 2,000 rehabilitation visits per month are performed by 12 PTs. We compared the proportion of imaging studies viewed by PTs before and after PACS implementation. We surveyed PTs to assess their perception on the value of access to imaging studies. Film library records pre-PACS and web server audit trail post-PACS implementation were reviewed to measure access. Chi-square was used to compare proportions and trends. During the 3-month period before PACS usage, PTs viewed 1% (6/505) of imaging studies, citing time as the primary barrier. Post-PACS, the proportion of imaging studies viewed rose from 28% (95/344, second month) to 84% (163/192, fifth month) (p < 0.0001, chi-square). Most PTs believed that access to imaging studies has high value and has a positive impact on clinical practice. Physical therapists rarely viewed imaging studies before PACS due to time barriers. They viewed more imaging studies (84%) post-PACS and felt that access to imaging studies has a positive impact on clinical practice. Further studies are needed to assess whether PACS enhances PTs' clinical decision making and improves patient outcomes.
Karkare, Manasi Manoj
In this study, anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles were successfully prepared by a sol-gel method using two different precursors, titanium isopropoxide and titanium butoxide. Hydrochloric acid or nitric acid was added to adjust the pH of the solution. The sols obtained were dried at 80 °C and calcined at 450 °C for 3 h. The nanostructures were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, FTIR and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The phase transformations were investigated by an X-ray diffractometer. Highly crystalline anatase titania nanoparticles could be obtained through the controlled hydrolysis reaction rate. The sizes of synthesized particles were in the range 5-13 nm, i.e. 9 nm on an average and with a regular shape. The size of nanoparticles was not affected by the choice of precursor. The broad view of the samples prepared using titanium isopropoxide showed film-like structures, whereas the samples prepared using titanium butoxide showed spherical granules. A red shift of 0.13 eV was observed in the band gap in the case of non-spherical particles compared to spherical ones.
Kato, Ryousuke; Takeda, Yuji
We examined sex-related effects in the amplitudes of the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential elicited by the presentation of emotional stimuli. Sixteen females and 18 males viewed emotional pictures to perform a visual detection task. In female participants, viewing unpleasant pictures elicited larger LPP (550-900 ms) when the pictures contained humans (human pictures) than when they did not contain humans (non-human pictures). For male participants, the results were reversed, with smaller LPP for unpleasant human pictures. Subjective ratings of valence in both female and male participants showed that unpleasant human pictures were evaluated less negatively than unpleasant non-human pictures. The results indicate that greater LPP amplitude for human than for non-human pictures occurred in females irrespective of subjective evaluations. This suggests that relatively robust processes in females cause sex-related effects in sensitivity to human pictures.
Goldman, Jane A; Descartes, Lara
The food content and messages depicted in popular children's picture books were examined using a set of 100 "Favorite Books for Preschoolers." Sixty-nine of these books depicted food and comprised the sample. Examined were: the types and frequencies of food depicted in the text and/or illustrations of the books; the centrality (central, background); and the affect (positive, neutral, or negative) of those depictions. Each food item was counted, categorized by type, and where possible, coded for centrality and affect. Fruit was the most frequently depicted food, followed by sweetened baked goods, dairy, and vegetables. However, centrality and affect differed for these foods. For example, sweet baked goods were high in both centrality and affect. In contrast vegetables were relatively high in centrality but most often neutral in affect. Ice cream, although not in many books, always was associated with positive outcomes. Results were compared to findings in the literature on food messages presented in children's television programs. The ratio of healthy foods to nutrient-poor foods was higher in the books. However, as in television, the books emphasized the desirability of sweetened foods. The results point to the need for detailed analyses of the types of presentations associated with different foods presented in books for children, as well as for continued investigations into food messages in the growing range of media available to young children.
Im, Ki Chun; Choi, Ik Soo; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Eo, Gi Seoung; Kim, Jae Seung; Moon, Dae Hyuk
We developed positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) viewing software (PETviewer) that can display co-registered PET and CT images obtained by PET/CT and stored on picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). PETviewer has tools for presetting windows for CT display; control bars for PET window level; zoom, pan, and pseudo-color functions; and allows the user to draw a rectangular region of interest (ROI) for standardized uptake value (SUV) measurement. SUV was calculated using PET DICOM header information and the pixel intensity in PETviewer. Reconstructed datasets of PET/CT and maximum intensity projection (MIP) of the PET images were transferred and archived in PACS. Phantom experiments were performed to evaluate the validity of image fusion. PET/CT images were displayed on an independent window in PACS. Transaxial PET images were reformatted as sagittal and coronal PET images, which were displayed with the corresponding CT and PET/CT fusion images with adjustable color and transparency. Transaxial, sagittal, and coronal PET images corresponding to the location of the cursor were shown using cine display of MIP images. All images were displayed in PETviewer within 20 s on a personal computer for PACS, which was equipped with a P4, 1.3-GHz CPU, and 512 Mb of RAM. We could measure maximum and mean SUV in a ROI using PETviewer. Transaxial fused images of patients and phantoms showed excellent registration and fusion of PET and CT images in the X and Y directions. PETviewer provided very useful clinical tools for assessing PET/CT images on PACS and should assist in maximizing the benefits derived from PET/CT imaging.
Lemoni, Rea; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.
Taking the view that pictures are not a transparent but rather a deforming mirror of reality, shaping representations of the world bound up with the interests of the social institutions within which pictures are circulated and read, our aim is to explore what view of nature and of the human-nature relationship is built in Greek natural science…
Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Anderson, Craig A
Exposure to video game violence (VGV) is known to result in desensitization to violent material and may alter the processing of positive emotion related to facial expressions. The present study was designed to address three questions: (1) Does the association between VGV and positive emotion extend to stimuli other than faces, (2) is the association between VGV and affective picture processing observed with a single presentation of the stimuli, and (3) is the association between VGV and the response to violent stimuli sensitive to the relevance of emotion for task performance? The data revealed that transient modulations of the event-related potentials (ERPs) related to attentional orienting and sustained modulations of the ERPs related to evaluative processing were sensitive to VGV exposure.
Wimmer, Marina C.; Robinson, Elizabeth J.; Koenig, Laura; Corder, Emma
Three experiments examined 3- to 5-year-olds' (N = 428) understanding of the relationship between pictorial iconicity (photograph, colored drawing, schematic drawing) and the real world referent. Experiments 1 and 2 explored pictorial iconicity in picture-referent confusion after the picture-object relationship has been established. Pictorial iconicity had no effect on referential confusion when the referent changed after the picture had been taken/drawn (Experiment 1) and when the referent and the picture were different from the outset (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 investigated whether children are sensitive to iconicity to begin with. Children deemed photographs from a choice of varying iconicity representations as best representations for object reference. Together, findings suggest that iconicity plays a role in establishing a picture-object relation per se but is irrelevant once children have accepted that a picture represents an object. The latter finding may reflect domain general representational abilities. PMID:25247708
Schneider, Phyillis; Rivard, Reane; Debreuil, Buffy
The current study investigated the effect of colour vs. black-and-white pictures on the stories children told using the pictures as stimuli. Participants were 22 preschool children aged 4-6 (M = 59.98, SD = 7.52) attending day-care centres in a Western Canadian city. Two story sets of five pictures each, depicting stories with similar structure,…
Hilgard, Joseph; Weinberg, Anna; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Bartholow, Bruce D.
It is widely believed that negative information is psychologically more meaningful than positive information, a phenomenon known generally as the negativity bias. However, findings concerning the possibility of a negativity bias in emotional picture processing have been mixed, with recent studies indicating the lack of such a bias in event-related brain potentials (ERPs) when pleasant and unpleasant images are equated for motivational relevance. Here, we investigated two factors that could influence the detection of a negativity bias: picture presentation paradigm and specific picture content. Across two studies, participants viewed pleasant-affiliative, pleasant-thrilling, unpleasant-threatening and neutral images presented in the context of oddball, blocked and random viewing paradigms. Across paradigms, emotional images elicited larger responses in the late positive potential (LPP) than did neutral images. A negativity bias was detected in the oddball paradigm and when thrilling, rather than affiliative, pleasant stimuli were used. Findings are discussed in terms of factors known to influence LPP amplitude and their relevance to differential effects across picture viewing paradigms. PMID:24866528
Huang, Yuxia; Mao, Mengchai; Zhang, Zong; Zhou, Hui; Zhao, Yang; Duan, Lian; Kreplin, Ute; Xiao, Xiang; Zhu, Chaozhe
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is being increasingly applied to affective and social neuroscience research; however, the reliability of this method is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the fNIRS-based prefrontal response to emotional stimuli. Twenty-six participants viewed unpleasant and neutral pictures, and were simultaneously scanned by fNIRS in two sessions three weeks apart. The reproducibility of the prefrontal activation map was evaluated at three spatial scales (mapwise, clusterwise, and channelwise) at both the group and individual levels. The influence of the time interval was also explored and comparisons were made between longer (intersession) and shorter (intrasession) time intervals. The reliabilities of the activation map at the group level for the mapwise (up to 0.88, the highest value appeared in the intersession assessment) and clusterwise scales (up to 0.91, the highest appeared in the intrasession assessment) were acceptable, indicating that fNIRS may be a reliable tool for emotion studies, especially for a group analysis and under larger spatial scales. However, it should be noted that the individual-level and the channelwise fNIRS prefrontal responses were not sufficiently stable. Future studies should investigate which factors influence reliability, as well as the validity of fNIRS used in emotion studies.
Tare, Medha; Chiong, Cynthia; Ganea, Patricia; DeLoache, Judy
Picture books are ubiquitous in young children’s lives and are assumed to support children’s acquisition of information about the world. Given their importance, relatively little research has directly examined children’s learning from picture books. We report two studies examining children’s acquisition of labels and facts from picture books that vary on two dimensions: iconicity of the pictures and presence of manipulative features (or “pop-ups”). In Study 1, 20-month-old children generalized novel labels less well when taught from a book with manipulative features than from standard picture books without such elements. In Study 2, 30- and 36-month-old children learned fewer facts when taught from a manipulative picture book with drawings than from a standard picture book with realistic images and no manipulative features. The results of the two studies indicate that children’s learning from picture books is facilitated by realistic illustrations, but impeded by manipulative features. PMID:20948970
McConkie, George W.; Currie, Christopher B.
A study explored the phenomenon of space constancy or visual stability of stimulus patterns across saccades (a series of small jerky movements of the eye) by making changes in natural, full-color pictures during selected saccades as observers (18 members of the University of Illinois community) examined them for 20 seconds in preparation for a…
Merchant, Kimberly A S; Ward, Marcia M; Mueller, Keith J
Telemedicine (also known as telehealth) is a means to increase access to care, one of the foundations of the Triple Aim. However, the expansion of telemedicine services in the United States has been relatively slow. We previously examined the extent of uptake of hospital based telemedicine using the 2013 HIMSS (Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society) Analytics national database of 4,727 non-specialty hospitals. Our analysis indicated that the largest percentage of operational telemedicine implementations (15.7 percent) was in radiology departments, with a substantial number in emergency/trauma care (7.5 percent) and cardiology/stroke/heart attack programs (6.8 percent). However, existing databases are limited because they do not identify whether a respondent hospital is a "hub" (providing telemedicine services) or a "spoke" (receiving telemedicine services). Therefore, we used data from interviews with hospital representatives to deepen the research and understanding of telemedicine use and the factors affecting that use. Interviews were conducted with key informants at 18 hub hospitals and 18 spoke hospitals to explore their perceptions of barriers and motivators to telemedicine adoption and expansion. Key Findings. (1) Respondents from both hub and spoke hospitals reported that telemedicine helps them meet their mission, enhances access, keeps lower-acuity patients closer to home, and helps head off competition. (2) Respondents from both hub and spoke hospitals reported licensing and credentialing to be significant barriers to telemedicine expansion. Thus, half of hubs provide services only within their state. (3) A variety of one-time funding sources have been used to initiate and grow telemedicine services among hubs and spokes. However, reimbursement issues have impeded the development of workable business models for sustainability. Hub hospitals shoulder the responsibility for identifying sustainable business models. (4) Although respondents
Thompson, Anne E.
In a recent controversial article, "Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need No Inferences" (l980), R. B. Zajonc argues in support of the independence of affect and cognition. Examination of the structure and assumptions of Zajonc's arguments suggests that they do not support the view that affect is non-cognitive. Zajonc appears to leap…
Wierzba, Małgorzata; Riegel, Monika; Pucz, Anna; Leśniewska, Zuzanna; Dragan, Wojciech Ł.; Gola, Mateusz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur
Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples). The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50), male couple (50), female couple (50), male (25) and female (25). Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl. PMID:26441715
Zunhammer, Matthias; Geis, Sandra; Busch, Volker; Eichhammer, Peter; Greenlee, Mark W.
The hormone oxytocin has been hypothesized to influence the emotional dimension of pain. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study explored whether intranasal oxytocin and emotional context can affect heat pain perception in 30 healthy male volunteers. After receiving 36 IU oxytocin or placebo, participants underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during which noxious and non-noxious thermode heat stimuli were applied. Simultaneously, scenes from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS) with positive, neutral, and negative emotional valence were shown. Heat intensity and unpleasantness ratings were obtained. The activity of whole-brain correlates of heat processing was quantified via multi-voxel pattern analysis. We observed no appreciable main effects of oxytocin on ratings or neural pain correlates. Effects of emotional picture valence on ratings were smaller than reported in previous studies. Nevertheless, oxytocin was found to significantly enhance the influence of picture valence on unpleasantness ratings at noxious heat levels. No corresponding changes in whole-brain correlates of heat intensity processing were found. Our study provides evidence that intranasal oxytocin increases the effects of emotional context on the subjective unpleasantness of experimental heat pain. Future studies are needed to determine whether this effect can be utilized in clinical settings. PMID:27546446
Reva, N V; Pavlov, S V; Korenek, V V; Loktev, K V; Tumialis, A V; Brak, I V; Aftanas, L I
The study examines the effects of cognitive reappraisal on the event-related potentials (ERPs) to affective stimuli. Participants (n = 53) were asked either to attend affective images, or to down-regulate negative affect, or to up-regulate positive affect. Reappraisal of negative images was associated with attenuation of the P300 and late positive potential (LPP) over parietal regions, whereas reappraisal of positive images had no significant effect on ERP components. The weak P300 reduction correlated with high personality scores of negative affectivity. We assume that only down-regulation of negative emotions is associated with the changes in primary appraisals, and so far reflected in ERP modulation.
Berger, Christoph; Domes, Gregor; Balschat, Johannes; Thome, Johannes; Höppner, Jacqueline
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can modulate the excitability of stimulated cortical areas, such as prefrontal areas involved in emotion regulation. Low frequency (LF) rTMS is expected to have inhibitory effects on prefrontal regions, and thereby should disinhibit limbic activity, resulting in enhanced emotional and autonomic reactions. For high frequency (HF) rTMS, the opposite pattern might be assumed. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different rTMS frequencies applied to the right dlPFC on autonomic functions and on emotional perception. In a crossover design, two groups of 20 healthy young women were either stimulated with one session of LF rTMS (1 Hz) or one session of HF rTMS (10 Hz), compared to sham stimulation. We assessed phasic cardiac responses (PCR), skin conductance reactions (SCR), and emotional appraisal of emotional pictures as well as recognition memory after each rTMS application. After LF rTMS, PCR (heart rate deceleration) during presentation of pictures with negative and neutral valence was significantly increased compared to the presentation of positive pictures. In contrast, the modulatory effect of picture valence and arousal on the cardiac orienting response was absent after HF rTMS. Our results suggest that frontal LF rTMS indirectly activates the ANS via inhibition of the right dlPFC activity, likely by enhancing the sensory processing or attention to aversive and neutral stimuli.
Coppens, Leonora C.; Gootjes, Liselotte; Zwaan, Rolf A.
Language comprehenders form a mental representation of the implied shape of objects mentioned in the text. In the present study, the influence of prior visual experience on subsequent reading was assessed. In two separate phases, participants saw a picture of an object and read a text about the object, suggesting the same or a different shape.…
Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria
Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…
Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia
Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role.
Fragkaki, Iro; Roelofs, Karin; Stins, John; Jongedijk, Ruud A.; Hagenaars, Muriel A.
Besides fight and flight responses, animals and humans may respond to threat with freezing, a response characterized by bradycardia and physical immobility. Risk assessment is proposed to be enhanced during freezing to promote optimal decision making. Indeed, healthy participants showed freezing-like responses to threat cues. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients are characterized by hypervigilance and increased threat responsiveness. We propose that threat responses will be characterized by decreased freezing in PTSD, eliminating possibilities for rejecting cognitive distortions, such as harm expectancy, and thereby contributing to the maintenance of the disorder. However, freezing responses have hardly been investigated in PTSD. Using a stabilometric platform to assess body sway as an indicator of freezing-like behavior, we examined whether veterans with PTSD would show diminished freezing responses to unpleasant versus neutral and pleasant pictures. Fourteen PTSD patients and 14 healthy matched controls watched the pictures, while body sway and heart rate (HR) were continuously assessed. Replicating previous findings, healthy controls showed decreased body sway and HR in response to unpleasant pictures, indicative of freezing-like behavior. In contrast, this response pattern was not observed in PTSD patients. The results may indicate a reduced freezing response in PTSD. As reduced freezing may hinder appropriate risk assessment, it may be an important factor in the maintenance of PTSD. Future research might clarify whether impaired freezing is a PTSD-specific or a transdiagnostic symptom, being present in threat-related disorders. PMID:28352237
21st century environmental problems are wicked and require holistic systems thinking and solutions that integrate social and economic knowledge with knowledge of the environment. Computer-based technologies are fundamental to our ability to research and understand the relevant systems and to provide assessors and decision makers with appropriate data, tools, and strategies. There are significant science and technology challenges being confronted in an effort to streamline the movement of knowledge from its research and experience-based sources to its decision endpoints. In this presentation we explore this continuum and attempt to articulate a holistic and coherent picture of the relationship among the myriad elements of the environmental problem solving landscape. This is done in the hope that this view will enhance the ability of all environmental stakeholders to express their individual contributions in a technological form that will be accessible and usable to the greater community.
does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. University of Iowa @ Iowa City 2 Gilmore...Hall Iowa City , IA 52242 -1320 ABSTRACT Does Everyday Corruption Affect How Russians View their Political Leadership? Report Title Analyzing unique...experiences, we expect dealings with officialdom to be of importance. These dealings directly link citi - zens’ personal or family situations with the state
Bekhtereva, Valeria; Müller, Matthias M
The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), a neurophysiological marker of attentional resource allocation with its generators in early visual cortex, exhibits enhanced amplitude for emotional compared to neutral complex pictures. Emotional cue extraction for complex images is linked to the N1-EPN complex with a peak latency of ∼140-160 ms. We tested whether neural facilitation in early visual cortex with affective pictures requires emotional cue extraction of individual images, even when a stream of images of the same valence category is presented. Images were shown at either 6 Hz (167 ms, allowing for extraction) or 15 Hz (67 ms per image, causing disruption of processing by the following image). Results showed SSVEP amplitude enhancement for emotional compared to neutral images at a presentation rate of 6 Hz but no differences at 15 Hz. This was not due to featural differences between the two valence categories. Results strongly suggest that individual images need to be displayed for sufficient time allowing for emotional cue extraction to drive affective neural modulation in early visual cortex.
CLIFTON, MARGUERITE A.; SMITH, HOPE M.
A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE IF ONE'S EXPRESSED CONCEPT OF HIS PERFORMANCE OF CERTAIN SELECTED MOTOR SKILLS IS CHANGED THROUGH THE PROCESS OF VIEWING MOTION PICTURES OF HIMSELF PERFORMING THESE SAME SKILLS. SIXTY-FIVE COLLEGE STUDENTS 17 TO 21 YEARS OF AGE, PARTICIPATED. EACH SUBJECT PERFORMED FIVE MOTOR SKILLS IN SEQUENCE (1) WALKED 30 FEET…
Walter, Martin; Bermpohl, Felix; Mouras, Harold; Schiltz, Kolja; Tempelmann, Claus; Rotte, Michael; Heinze, Hans Jochen; Bogerts, Bernhard; Northoff, Georg
Sexual activity involves excitement with high arousal and pleasure as typical features of emotions. Brain activations specifically related to erotic feelings and those related to general emotional processing are therefore hard to disentangle. Using fMRI in 21 healthy subjects (11 males and 10 females), we investigated regions that show activations specifically related to the viewing of sexually intense pictures while controlling for general emotional arousal (GEA) or pleasure. Activations in the ventral striatum and hypothalamus were found to be modulated by the stimulus' specific sexual intensity (SSI) while activations in the anterior cingulate cortex were associated with an interaction between sexual intensity and emotional valence. In contrast, activation in other regions like the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, the mediodorsal thalamus and the amygdala was associated only with a general emotional component during sexual arousal. No differences were found in these effects when comparing females and males. Our findings demonstrate for the first time neural differentiation between emotional and sexual components in the neural network underlying sexual arousal.
Lee, Ja Y.; Lindquist, Kristen A.; Nam, Chang S.
There is debate about whether emotional granularity, the tendency to label emotions in a nuanced and specific manner, is merely a product of labeling abilities, or a systematic difference in the experience of emotion during emotionally evocative events. According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion (CAT) (Barrett, 2006), emotional granularity is due to the latter and is a product of on-going temporal differences in how individuals categorize and thus make meaning of their affective states. To address this question, the present study investigated the effects of individual differences in emotional granularity on electroencephalography-based brain activity during the experience of emotion in response to affective images. Event-related potentials (ERP) and event-related desynchronization and synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis techniques were used. We found that ERP responses during the very early (60–90 ms), middle (270–300 ms), and later (540–570 ms) moments of stimulus presentation were associated with individuals’ level of granularity. We also observed that highly granular individuals, compared to lowly granular individuals, exhibited relatively stable desynchronization of alpha power (8–12 Hz) and synchronization of gamma power (30–50 Hz) during the 3 s of stimulus presentation. Overall, our results suggest that emotional granularity is related to differences in neural processing throughout emotional experiences and that high granularity could be associated with access to executive control resources and a more habitual processing of affective stimuli, or a kind of “emotional complexity.” Implications for models of emotion are also discussed. PMID:28392761
Lemoni, Rea; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.
Taking the view that pictures are not a transparent but rather a deforming mirror of reality, shaping representations of the world bound up with the interests of the social institutions within which pictures are circulated and read, our aim is to explore what view of nature and of the human-nature relationship is built in Greek natural science school textbooks. The particular textbooks analysed have been recently introduced (in 2006 and 2007) into Greek education. The pictorial analysis suggests that a "baroque" view of nature and of the human-nature relationship predominantly emerges, according to which nature is constantly in motion, and therefore random and unpredictable natural change could be "normal". Natural environments are viewed in materialistic terms, being transformed by humans and serving as a resource. A comparison with our analysis of the older textbooks written in the early 1980s (Korfiatis et al. 2004) seems to indicate important conceptual differences between the two series of textbooks. The "romantic" and "classic" views of nature in the old textbooks could express the vigour, the optimism and the innocence characterising industrial societies (or in the process of industrialisation) about human interventions in the environment. Conversely, the "baroque" view found in the new textbooks probably marks the scepticism of post-industrial societies about natural phenomena.
Janpol, Henry L.; Dilts, Rachel
This research explored whether viewing documentary films about the natural or built environment can exert a measurable influence on behaviors and perceptions. Different documentary films were viewed by subjects. One film emphasized the natural environment, while the other focused on the built environment. After viewing a film, a computer game…
Boekaerts, Monique; Rozendaal, Jeroen S.
The present study used multiple calibration indices to capture the complex picture of fifth graders' calibration of feeling of confidence in mathematics. Specifically, the effects of gender, type of mathematical problem, instruction method, and time of measurement (before and after problem solving) on calibration skills were investigated. Fourteen…
Hausenblas, Heather A; Janelle, Christopher M; Gardner, Rebecca Ellis; Hagan, Amy L
The purpose of this study was to examine the acute affective responses of high and low body satisfied (BS) men who viewed physique slides of the male ideal (model-slides), physique slides of themselves (self-slides), and nonphysique slides (control-slides). During three laboratory visits the participants viewed the slides from one of the three conditions, and they completed pre-, in-, and post-task affective measures. It was found that the: (a) high BS group reported less mood disturbance than the low BS group; (b) participants reported an increase in depression, anger, and body dissatisfaction after viewing the self-slides; (c) participants indicated a decrease in body dissatisfaction after viewing the model-slides; and (d) viewing the control-slides did not result in affective changes. Findings suggest that viewing physique slides results in increased mood disturbance, regardless of BS level.
Ruth, Amy, Ed.
This issue focuses on how advancements in photography affected Iowans and the pictures they took of their communities. Five famous and not so famous photographers who have taken pictures of Iowa's history are featured: (1) John Plumbe, Jr.; (2) Isaac A. Wetherby; (3) D. C. Hale; (4) Duluth Pieper; and (5) E. M. Clark. Instructions for making…
DiDonato, Guy T; DiDonato, Eva M; Smith, Lisa M; Harwell, Linda C; Summers, J Kevin
The coastal waters of American Samoa's five high islands (Tutuila, Aunu'u, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u) were surveyed in 2004 using a probabilistic design. Water quality data were collected from the near-shore coastal habitat, defined as all near-shore coastal waters including embayments, extending out to 1/4 mile off-shore. Hydrography and water column samples were collected, and water quality data were compared to the Territorial water quality standards for pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), Enterococcus, chlorophyll a, water clarity, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. All station measurements for pH, DO, and Enterococcus satisfied the local water quality standards, although some fraction of the Territory could not be assessed for either DO or Enterococcus. With respect to chlorophyll a, 66 +/- 18% of Territory coastal waters complied with the standard, while 34 +/- 18% failed to comply with the standard. For water clarity, 54 +/- 18% of the Territorial waters complied with the standard while 42 +/- 7% failed to comply. Territorial waters satisfied the standards for total nitrogen and phosphorus 72 +/- 17% and 92 +/- 10%, respectively. These data provide the first "big-picture" view of water quality in the near shore region around the high islands of American Samoa. While the picture is encouraging, these data suggest emerging water quality concerns.
Crepaldi, Davide; Che, Wei-Chun; Su, I.-Fan; Luzzatti, Claudio
Lexical-semantic variables (such as word frequency, imageability and age of acquisition) have been studied extensively in neuropsychology to address the structure of the word production system. The evidence available on this issue is still rather controversial, mainly because of the very complex interrelations between lexical-semantic variables. Moreover, it is not clear whether the results obtained in Indo-European languages also hold in languages with a completely different structure and script, such as Chinese. The objective of the present study is to investigate this specific issue by studying the effect of word frequency, imageability, age of acquisition, visual complexity of the stimuli to be named, grammatical class and morphological structure in word and picture naming in Chinese. The effect of these variables on naming and reading accuracy of healthy and brain-damaged individuals is evaluated using mixed-effect models, a statistical technique that allows to model both fixed and random effects; this feature substantially enhances the statistical power of the technique, so that several variables–and their complex interrelations–can be handled effectively in a unique analysis. We found that grammatical class interacts consistently across tasks with morphological structure: all participants, both healthy and brain-damaged, found simple nouns significantly easier to read and name than complex nouns, whereas simple and complex verbs were of comparable difficulty. We also found that imageability was a strong predictor in picture naming, but not in word naming, whereas the contrary held true for age of acquisition. These results are taken to indicate the existence of a morphological level of processing in the Chinese word production system, and that reading aloud may occur along a non-semantic route (either lexical or sub-lexical) in this language. PMID:22713389
Blechert, Jens; Klackl, Johannes; Miedl, Stephan F; Wilhelm, Frank H
Neuroimaging studies have started to explore the role of food characteristics (e.g., calorie-content) and psychological factors (e.g., restrained eating, craving) for the human appetitive system, motivated by the significant health implications of food-choice, overeating and overweight/obesity. However, one key aspect of modern food environments, food availability, especially of high energy foods, has not been adequately modeled in experimental research. Food that is immediately available for consumption could elicit stronger reward system activity and associated cognitive control than food that is not currently available for consumption and this could vary as a function of energy density. To examine this question, 32 healthy participants (16 women) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while passively viewing available foods - i.e. foods that could be eaten during and after the experiment - and unavailable foods of either high or low-caloric density in a 2 × 2 design. Available compared to unavailable foods elicited higher palatability ratings as well as stronger neural activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), amygdala, and left caudate nucleus as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) - and thus structures implicated in reward and appetitive motivation as well as cognitive control, respectively. Availability effects in the caudate were mainly attributable to the high calorie condition (availability × calorie density interaction). These neuroimaging results support the contention that foods are particularly rewarding when immediately available and particularly so when high in caloric density. Thus, our results are consistent with health promoting interventions utilizing a nudging approach, i.e. aiming at decreasing accessibility of high calorie and increasing accessibility of low calorie foods in daily life. Results also imply that controlling/manipulating food availability may be an important methodological aspect in neuroscientific
Lemoni, Rea; Lefkaditou, Ageliki; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Schizas, Dimitrios; Stamou, George P.
This paper explores the function of the visual syntax of images in Greek primary school textbooks. By using a model for the formal analysis of the visual material, which will allow us to disclose the mechanisms through which meanings are manifested, our aim is to investigate the discursive transition relating to the view of nature and the human-nature relationship between two series of natural science textbooks. The model is applied to a total of 635 pictures; 434 coming from the old series of textbooks introduced in the early 1980s and 201 from the new introduced in 2006. The results show that a) no differences in the codes of the visual representation of nature or human-nature relationship were recorded between the two series of textbooks, b) the environmental rhetoric mediated by the pictorial material of the textbooks appears closer to its lay counterpart than to scientific rhetoric, c) both series of textbooks favor a viewer-picture relation which diverges from the epistemological (subject/object) ideas of the romantic worldview and comes closer to the baroque one that depicts the world as non-linear and disconnected, while gives more freedom to the viewer to proceed to subjective interpretations. Thus, we assert that the baroque approach adopted by both series of textbooks does not aim at the initiation of students to the highly conventionalized ways of expression, and ultimately to the formalized and scientific rhetoric. On the contrary, within a constructionist context, the textbooks' visual mode allows students to equally share power with a quite familiar world.
Gambi, Chiara; Van de Cavey, Joris; Pickering, Martin J.
In 4 experiments we showed that picture naming latencies are affected by beliefs about the task concurrently performed by another speaker. Participants took longer to name pictures when they believed that their partner concurrently named pictures than when they believed their partner was silent (Experiments 1 and 4) or concurrently categorized the…
Yegiyan, Narine S; Bailey, Rachel L
This study explores how people respond to images of junk versus healthy food as a function of their eating habits and food knowledge. The experiment reported here proposed and tested the idea that those with unhealthy eating habits but highly knowledgeable about healthy eating would feel more positive and also more negative toward junk food images compared to images of healthy food because they may perceive them as risky--desirable but potentially harmful. The psychophysiological data collected from participants during their exposure to pictures of junk versus healthy food supported this idea. In addition, unhealthy eaters compared to healthy eaters with the same degree of food knowledge responded more positively to all food items. The findings are critical from a health communication perspective. Because unhealthy eaters produce stronger emotional responses to images of junk food, they are more likely to process information associated with junk food with more cognitive effort and scrutiny. Thus, when targeting this group and using images of junk food, it is important to combine these images with strong message claims and relevant arguments; otherwise, if the arguments are perceived as irrelevant or weak, the motivational activation associated with junk food itself may transfer into an increased desire to consume the unhealthy product.
Cordon, Ingrid M.; Melinder, Annika M. D.; Goodman, Gail S.; Edelstein, Robin S.
Two studies were conducted to examine theoretical questions about children's and adults' memory for emotional visual stimuli. In Study 1, 7- to 9-year-olds and adults (N = 172) participated in the initial creation of the Developmental Affective Photo System (DAPS). Ratings of emotional valence, arousal, and complexity were obtained. In Study 2,…
With the popularity of e-mail cutting into revenues, Canada Post is always searching for a marketing strategy that would encourage people to use the mail. "Picture Postage" is such an initiative. This popular program allows individuals to create their own stamps for family and friends. This opportunity also provides a vehicle for…
The aim of this study was to determine the views of mathematics teachers on the factors that affect the integration of technology in mathematic courses. It is a qualitative case study. The sample size of the study is 10 teachers who are receiving postgraduate education in a university in Turkey. The current study was conducted in three stages. At…
Stockburger, Jessica; Renner, Britta; Weike, Almut I; Hamm, Alfons O; Schupp, Harald T
Vegetarianism provides a model system to examine the impact of negative affect towards meat, based on ideational reasoning. It was hypothesized that meat stimuli are efficient attention catchers in vegetarians. Event-related brain potential recordings served to index selective attention processes at the level of initial stimulus perception. Consistent with the hypothesis, late positive potentials to meat pictures were enlarged in vegetarians compared to omnivores. This effect was specific for meat pictures and obtained during passive viewing and an explicit attention task condition. These findings demonstrate the attention capture of food stimuli, deriving affective salience from ideational reasoning and symbolic meaning.
Presented are basic instructions for non-artists about copying and adapting pictures for health education materials. In many cases, photocopied drawings from other sources can be used in communication campaigns, as long as permission to reproduce is obtained from the artist or publisher and the source is cited. Such drawings should be kept in a file divided by subject (e.g., young people, condoms). A simple procedure involving tracing paper and grids can be used to reduce or enlarge a drawing. A lack of confidence is often the most significant barrier on the part of non-artists to attempting drawing. This article offers simple guidelines for drawing people and faces.
... the U.S. Polio Vaccination Polio Overview for Travelers File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...
Schartau, Patricia E S; Dalgleish, Tim; Dunn, Barnaby D
Appraising negative experiences in ways that reduce associated distress is a key component of successful emotion regulation. In 4 studies, the authors examined the effects of systematically practicing appraisal skills using a computer-mediated cognitive bias modification (CBM) methodology. In Studies 1-3, healthy participants practiced applying appraisal themes linked to the idea of seeing the bigger picture to a series of distressing training films, either during each film (Study 1) or immediately after each film (Studies 2 and 3). Control participants watched the same films with no appraisal instructions. Participants who practiced appraisal, compared with controls, exhibited reduced levels of self-reported negative emotional (Studies 1-3) and electrodermal (Study 1) responses to a final test film that all participants were instructed to appraise. In Study 4, a comparable effect of appraisal practice was found using distressing autobiographical memories for participants with higher levels of negative affect. Appraisal practice also led to reduced intrusion and avoidance of the target memories in the week poststudy, compared with prestudy levels, and relative to the no-practice controls. The findings are discussed in terms of the broader literature on CBM.
Jiang, Xuan; Perkins, Kyle
Bruner's constructs of learning, specifically the structure of learning, spiral curriculum, and discovery learning, in conjunction with the Cognitive Load Theory, are used to evaluate the Picture Word Inductive Model (PWIM), an inquiry-oriented inductive language arts strategy designed to teach K-6 children phonics and spelling. The PWIM reflects…
Stremler, Robyn; Adams, Sherri; Dryden-Palmer, Karen
Light, noise, and interruptions from hospital staff lead to frequent awakenings and detrimental changes to sleep quantity and quality for children who are hospitalized and their parents who stay with them overnight. An understanding of nurses' views on how care affects sleep for the hospitalized child and parent is crucial to the development of strategies to decrease sleep disturbance in hospital. The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to gain an understanding of nurses' views on their role in and influence on sleep for families; perceived barriers and facilitators of patient and parent sleep at night; strategies nurses use to preserve sleep; the distribution, between parent and nurse, of care for the child at night; views of the parent as a recipient of nursing care at night; and the nature of interactions between nurses and families at night. Thirty registered nurses from general pediatric and critical care units participated in one of four semi-structured focus groups. Four main influences on sleep were identified: child factors; environmental factors; nurse-parent interaction factors; and nursing care factors. Some of these restricted nurses' ability to optimize sleep, but many factors were amenable to intervention. Balancing strategies to preserve sleep with the provision of nursing assessment and intervention was challenging and complicated by the difficult nature of work outside of usual waking hours. Nurses highlighted the need for formal policy and mentoring related to provision of nursing care at night in pediatric settings.
Pizzagalli, D; Koenig, T; Regard, M; Lehmann, D
We investigated whether different, personality-related affective attitudes are associated with different brain electric field (EEG) sources before any emotional challenge (stimulus exposure). A 27-channel EEG was recorded in 15 subjects during eyes-closed resting. After recording, subjects rated 32 images of human faces for affective appeal. The subjects in the first (i.e., most negative) and fourth (i.e., most positive) quartile of general affective attitude were further analyzed. The EEG data (mean=25+/-4. 8 s/subject) were subjected to frequency-domain model dipole source analysis (FFT-Dipole-Approximation), resulting in 3-dimensional intracerebral source locations and strengths for the delta-theta, alpha, and beta EEG frequency band, and for the full range (1.5-30 Hz) band. Subjects with negative attitude (compared to those with positive attitude) showed the following source locations: more inferior for all frequency bands, more anterior for the delta-theta band, more posterior and more right for the alpha, beta and 1.5-30 Hz bands. One year later, the subjects were asked to rate the face images again. The rating scores for the same face images were highly correlated for all subjects, and original and retest affective mean attitude was highly correlated across subjects. The present results show that subjects with different affective attitudes to face images had different active, cerebral, neural populations in a task-free condition prior to viewing the images. We conclude that the brain functional state which implements affective attitude towards face images as a personality feature exists without elicitors, as a continuously present, dynamic feature of brain functioning.
This article traces the historical development of use of pictures in storytelling. Discussion focuses on scrolls and sheets used in 11th and 12th century religious ceremonies; public exhibitions of pictures in 140 B.C., picture cloths in India; Kamishibai picture cards in Japan, and picture books used in public libraries for storytelling. (JPF)
Lemoni, Rea; Lefkaditou, Ageliki; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Schizas, Dimitrios; Stamou, George P.
This paper explores the function of the visual syntax of images in Greek primary school textbooks. By using a model for the formal analysis of the visual material, which will allow us to disclose the mechanisms through which meanings are manifested, our aim is to investigate the discursive transition relating to the view of nature and the…
Wang, Mengxing; Su, Jingjing; Zhang, Jilei; Zhao, Ying; Yao, Qian; Zhang, Qiting; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Shuo; Li, Ge-Fei; Liu, Jian-Ren; Du, Xiaoxia
Migraines are a common and undertreated disease and often have psychiatric comorbidities; however, the abnormal mechanism of emotional processing in migraine patients has not been well clarified. This study sought to investigate the different brain functional activation to neutral, positive and negative emotional stimuli between migraine and healthy subjects. Twenty-six adults with migraines and 26 healthy adults, group-matched for sex and age, participated in this experiment. Although there were no significant differences between two groups during the viewing of positive affective pictures vs. neutral affective pictures, there were different activation patterns during the viewing of negative to neutral affective pictures in the two groups; the control group showed both increased and decreased activation patterns, while the migraine subjects showed only increased activation. Negative affective pictures elicited stronger activation than neutral affective pictures in migraineurs, which included the bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe/culmen, the bilateral lingual gyri, the bilateral precuneus and the left cuneus. Our data indicated that migraine patients were hypersensitive to negative stimuli, which might provide clues to aid in the understanding of the pathophysiology and psychiatric comorbidities of migraines. PMID:28181500
Di Maria, David L.
The purpose of this study was to determine factors affecting views of campus services for international students among student affairs administrators. Factors identified during the literature review were examined using a multiple perspectives framework, which combined concepts related to student affairs administration, strategic planning for…
Brown, Daniel K; Barton, Jo L; Gladwell, Valerie F
A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor.
Chen, Xuqian; Liu, Bo; Lin, Shouwen
This paper advances the discussion on which emotion information affects word accessing. Emotion information, which is formed as a result of repeated experiences, is primary and necessary in learning and representing word meanings. Previous findings suggested that valence (i.e., positive or negative) denoted by words can be automatically activated and plays a role in many significant cognitive processes. However, there has been a lack of discussion about whether discrete emotion information (i.e., happiness, anger, sadness, and fear) is also involved in these processes. According to the hierarchy model, emotions are considered organized within an abstract-to-concrete hierarchy, in which emotion prototypes are organized following affective valence. By controlling different congruencies of emotion relations (i.e., matches or mismatches between valences and prototypes of emotion), the present study showed both an evaluative congruency effect (Experiment 1) and a discrete emotional congruency effect (Experiment 2). These findings indicate that not only affective valences but also discrete emotions can be activated under the present priming lexical decision task. However, the present findings also suggest that discrete emotions might be activated at the later priming stage as compared to valences. The present work provides evidence that information about discrete emotion could be involved in word processing. This might be a result of subjects’ embodied experiences. PMID:27379000
Describes a class activity in which students gathered pictures and wrote and recorded narration relating to the first successful flight by the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Notes that, in the process of gathering pictures, the students were motivated to read the information accompanying the pictures. (RS)
Rauber, Rachel; Weizenegger, Benedict; Schmeck, Klaus; Schmid, Marc
Despite the growing number of epidemiologic studies about the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), little knowledge exists regarding the way adolescents view NSSI, whether differences in the attitudes towards NSSI between affected and non-affected adolescents exist and whether the acquaintance with adolescents engaging in NSSI influence one's attitudes towards self-injury? In an epidemiological study of non-suicidal self-injury, we assessed the attitudes of 447 ninth grade students (age 15 years SD = 0.7, 52% male) NSSI using a self-constructed questionnaire with three factors. Sixty one (13.6%) pupils reported that they had intentionally injured themselves once in their life time. 43% (n = 179) indicated that they discuss the topic with others, though over half of these pupils 54% (n = 98) stated feeling burdened by discussions with friends affected by NSSI. Comparisons between affected and non-affected adolescents revealed that adolescents who had never exhibited NSSI tend to believe that NSSI is mostly interpersonally motivated. Moreover, the adolescents affected by NSSI assessed the emotional reaction as more appropriate than non-affected adolescents. This should be considered in the design and refinement of inpatient treatment concepts. Our results suggest focusing on intrapersonal motives in psychotherapeutic sessions and reducing interpersonal motives for self-injurious behaviour through the establishment of clear and transparent milieu therapeutic structural conditions.
Meriau, Katja; Wartenburger, Isabell; Kazzer, Philipp; Prehn, Kristin; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.
People differ with regard to how they perceive, experience, and express negative affect. While trait negative affect reflects a stable, sustained personality trait, state negative affect represents a stimulus limited and temporally acute emotion. So far, little is known about the neural systems mediating the relationship between negative affect…
Numerous studies have shown that viewing media violence encourages aggression, desensitization, and pessimism in children. This book reviews research on the effects of television and movie violence on children and adolescents, offering parents suggestions for dealing with the problems it creates. It is asserted that parents frequently…
Parsons, Christine E; Young, Katherine S; Bhandari, Ritu; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Stein, Alan; Kringelbach, Morten L
Attractive individuals are perceived as having various positive personality qualities. Positive personality qualities can in turn increase perceived attractiveness. However, the developmental origins of the link between attractiveness and personality are not understood. This is important because infant attractiveness ('cuteness') elicits caregiving from adults, and infant personality ('temperament') shapes caregiving behaviour. While research suggests that adults have more positive attitudes towards cuter infants, it is not known whether positive infant temperament can increase the perception of infant cuteness. We investigated the impact of experimentally established infant temperament on adults' perception of cuteness and desire to view individual faces. Ataseline, adults rated the cuteness of, and keypressed to view, images of unfamiliar infants with neutral facial expressions. Training required adults to learn about an infant's 'temperament', through repeated pairing of the neutral infant face with positive or negative facial expressions and vocalizations. Adults then re-rated the original neutral infant faces. Post-training, there were significant changes from baseline: infants who were mostly happy were perceived as cuter and adults expended greater effort to view them. Infants who were mostly sad were not perceived as cuter and adults expended less effort to view them. Our results suggest that temperament has clear consequences for how adults perceive 'bonnie' babies. Perception of infant cuteness is not based on physical facial features alone, and is modifiable through experience.
Kennedy, J M
Pictures can be literal or metaphoric. Metaphoric pictures involve intended violations of standard modes of depiction that are universally recognizable. The types of metaphoric pictures correspond to major groups of verbal metaphors, with the addition of a class of pictorial runes. Often the correspondence between verbal and pictorial metaphors depends on individual features of objects and such physical parameters as change of scale. A more sophisticated analysis is required for some pictorial metaphors, involving juxtapositions of well-known objects and indirect reference.
Black, Denise L.
The purpose of this research was to examine middle school science teachers' perceptions of their students' affective behaviors at each level of the affective domain (receiving, responding, valuing, organization, characterization of value system), perceptions of the usefulness of constructivism as a curricular theory, and constructivist teaching strategies. This study investigated the relationship between affect and constructivism to determine if constructivist strategies can predict levels of affective behavior. Affect is a broad generalization that includes elements (i.e., interests, attitudes, values, emotions, and feelings). The importance of this research relates to enhancing learning, increasing achievement, participatory democracy, and facilitating understanding of science, as well as promoting the development of higher order thinking skills. A nonexperimental, descriptive research design was used to determine the relationship between affect and constructivism. A total of 111 middle school teachers participated in this study. Three instruments were used in this study: Taxonomy of Affective Behavior (TAB), Survey of Science Instruction (SSI), and a short demographic survey. Statistical significance obtained from one-sample t-tests provided evidence that teachers were aware that the affective domain was a viable construct. Statistical evidence of one-sample t-tests provided evidence that teachers perceived constructivism was useful to teach science to middle school students. Pearson product moment correlations results indicated statistically significant relationships between perceptions of constructivism and associated constructivist teaching strategies. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed a relationship between affect and constructivism. Teacher responses indicated they felt constrained from implementing constructivism due to an emphasis on testing. Colleges of education, curriculum specialists, science teachers, and school districts may
Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Koumparou, Helen; Kyriakoudi, Margarita; Papacharalampous, Irene; Trimandili, Maria
This paper aims to give a picture of Greek students' views about biology and some of the factors that affect them. A questionnaire measuring students' intrinsic motivation to learn biology, individual interest in biology and perceived difficulty of biology, along with information about students' gender, level, parents' occupation and educational…
Wonkam, Ambroise; de Vries, Jantina; Royal, Charmaine D; Ramesar, Raj; Angwafo, Fru F
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a debilitating illness that affects quality of life and life expectancy for patients. In Cameroon, it is now possible to opt for termination of an affected pregnancy (TAP) where the fetus is found to be affected by SCD. Our earlier studies found that, contrary to the views of Cameroonian physicians, a majority of parents with their children suffering from SCD would choose to abort if the fetuses were found to be affected. What have not yet been investigated are the views of people suffering from/living with SCD. We used a quantitative sociological method, with administered structured questionnaires, to study the attitudes of adult patients suffering from SCD on prenatal genetic diagnosis (PND) and possible TAP. The majority of the 89 participants were urban dwellers (84.3%), women (57.3%), Christian (95.5%) and single (90.9%), with a secondary/tertiary education (79.5%). The majority (89.2%) would consider PND for SCD; almost half (48.5%) would reject TAP while 40.9% would consider it. Respondents who rejected TAP claimed mostly ethical reasons (78.1%) while those who found TAP acceptable cited fear of having an affected child (88.9%) and the poor quality of the affected child's health (81.5%). Cameroonian patients with SCD are generally supportive of PND and a remarkably high number of patients living with SCD reported that they would consider terminating a pregnancy based on their assessment of the future well-being of the child. Research is required to investigate the burden of SCD on families and their quality of life.
Vermeulen, Divan; van Niekerk, Adriaan
Conventional methods for monitoring salt accumulation within irrigation schemes involve regular field visits to collect soil samples for laboratory analysis. Remote sensing has been proposed as a less time-consuming, more cost-effective alternative as it provides imagery covering large areas throughout the year. This study evaluated the efficacy of very high resolution (VHR) WorldView-2 imagery to map areas affected by salt accumulation. Classifications based on thresholds obtained from Jeffries-Matusita distance, regression modeling, classification and regression trees, as well as supervised classification approaches, were evaluated for discriminating between salt-affected and unaffected soils in Vaalharts, South Africa. The WorldView-2 bands were supplemented with salinity indices (SIs), principal components, and texture measures to increase the number of predictive variables. In situ soil samples were used for model development, classifier training, and accuracy assessment. The results showed that a simple threshold implemented on a normalized difference SI was the most successful in separating classes, with an overall accuracy of 80%. The findings suggest that VHR satellite imagery holds much potential for monitoring salt accumulation, but more research is needed to investigate why the classification results tend to overestimate salt-affected areas. More work is also needed to evaluate the transferability of the techniques to other irrigation schemes.
Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Wilby, David; Temple, Shelby Eric
Light rays of different wavelengths are focused at different distances when they pass through a lens (longitudinal chromatic aberration [LCA]). For animals with color vision this can pose a serious problem, because in order to perceive a sharp image the rays must be focused at the shallow plane of the photoreceptor's outer segments in the retina. A variety of fish and tetrapods have been found to possess multifocal lenses, which correct for LCA by assigning concentric zones to correctly focus specific wavelengths. Each zone receives light from a specific beam entrance position (BEP) (the lateral distance between incoming light and the center of the lens). Any occlusion of incoming light at specific BEPs changes the composition of the wavelengths that are correctly focused on the retina. Here, we calculated the effect of lens position relative to the plane of the iris and light entering the eye at oblique angles on how much of the lens was involved in focusing the image on the retina (measured as the availability of BEPs). We used rotational photography of fish eyes and mathematical modeling to quantify the degree of lens occlusion. We found that, at most lens positions and viewing angles, there was a decrease of BEP availability and in some cases complete absence of some BEPs. Given the implications of these effects on image quality, we postulate that three morphological features (aphakic spaces, curvature of the iris, and intraretinal variability in spectral sensitivity) may, in part, be adaptations to mitigate the loss of spectral image quality in the periphery of the eyes of fishes.
Yeo, Jaeryong; Lee, Juyeong
Sports fans are able to watch games from many locations using TV services while interacting with other fans online. In this paper, we identify the factors that affect sports viewers’ online interactions. Using a large-scale dataset of more than 25 million chat messages from a popular social TV site for baseball, we extract various game-related factors, and investigate the relationships between these factors and fans’ interactions using a series of multiple regression analyses. As a result, we identify several factors that are significantly related to viewer interactions. In addition, we determine that the influence of these factors varies according to the user group; i.e., active vs. less active users, and loyal vs. non-loyal users. PMID:26849568
Carré, Arnaud; Chevallier, Coralie; Robel, Laurence; Barry, Caroline; Maria, Anne-Solène; Pouga, Lydia; Philippe, Anne; Pinabel, François; Berthoz, Sylvie
Abnormal functioning of primary brain systems that express and modulate basic emotional drives are increasingly considered to underlie mental disorders including autism spectrum disorders. We hypothesized that ASD are characterized by disruptions in the primary systems involved in the motivation for social bonding. Twenty adults with ASD were compared to 20 neurotypical participants on the basis of self-reports and clinical assessments, including the Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS) and the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS). ASD diagnosis was related to SAS, as well as to positive (PLAYFULNESS) and negative (FEAR) ANPS-traits. In the overall sample, levels of autistic traits (AQ) were related to SAS and PLAYFULNESS. We argue that PLAYFULNESS could be at the root of social bonding impairments in ASD.
Ko, Minsam; Yeo, Jaeryong; Lee, Juyeong; Lee, Uichin; Jang, Young Jae
Sports fans are able to watch games from many locations using TV services while interacting with other fans online. In this paper, we identify the factors that affect sports viewers' online interactions. Using a large-scale dataset of more than 25 million chat messages from a popular social TV site for baseball, we extract various game-related factors, and investigate the relationships between these factors and fans' interactions using a series of multiple regression analyses. As a result, we identify several factors that are significantly related to viewer interactions. In addition, we determine that the influence of these factors varies according to the user group; i.e., active vs. less active users, and loyal vs. non-loyal users.
Background In South Korea, it has not been easy to negotiate studies that target drug users who are being punished by law, and accordingly, no study on suicidal ideation among substance users has been accomplished yet. In this study, the factors that affect substance users’ suicidal ideation were confirmed. Methods It was based on the data collected from 'The 2009 Study on Substance-Dependent Individuals in Korea’ , which was conducted by The Catholic University of Korea in 2010 as a project sponsored by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea. This study targeted 523 former hospital inpatients, prison inmates, and persons under protective supervision who had used substances such as psychotropic drugs, marijuana, and narcotic agents, and were in the recovery stage at various treatment/rehabilitation centers. Student’s t and chi-square tests were used, and multivariate analysis was performed to examine the strength of the relationships between suicide ideation and various factors. Results According to this study, 41% of these substance users planned suicide with suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation was confirmed as associated with an unsatisfactory domestic environment, insufficient and unsatisfactory spare time experiences with others, emotional abuse, severe depression, and trouble with controlling violent behavior. Of the substance users who had planned to commit suicide, 56% attempted suicide. Their suicide attempts were shown to have been associated with insufficient protective supervision and the experiences of physical abuse, trouble with controlling violent behavior, and doctors’ prescriptions due to psychological or emotional problems. Conclusion Based on this analysis of the factors that affect suicidal behavior, preventive measures and strategies for substance user were suggested in this study. PMID:24220264
Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)
Wang, Wiley; Dean, Jennifer; Muzzolini, Russ
The amount of digital images taken by the average consumer is consistently increasing. People enjoy the convenience of storing and sharing their pictures through online (digital) and offline (traditional) media. A set of pictures can be uploaded to: online photo services, web blogs and social network websites. Alternatively, these images can be used to generate: prints, cards, photo books or other photo products. Through uploading and sharing, images are easily transferred from one format to another. And often, a different set of associated content (text, tags) is created across formats. For example, on his web blog, a user may journal his experiences of his recent travel; on his social network website, his friends tag and comment on the pictures; in his online photo album, some pictures are titled and keyword-tagged. When the user wants to tell a complete story, perhaps in a photo book, he must collect, across all formats: the pictures, writings and comments, etc. and organize them in a book format. The user has to arrange the content of his trip in each format. The arrangement, the associations between the images, tags, keywords and text, cannot be shared with other formats. In this paper, we propose a system that allows the content to be easily created and shared across various digital media formats. We define a uniformed data association structure to connect: images, documents, comments, tags, keywords and other data. This content structure allows the user to switch representation formats without reediting. The framework under each format can emphasize (display or hide) content elements based on preference. For example, a slide show view will emphasize the display of pictures with limited text; a blog view will display highlighted images and journal text; and the photo book will try to fit in all images and text content. In this paper, we will discuss the strategy to associate pictures with text content, so that it can naturally tell a story. We will also list
Mulatti, Claudio; Treccani, Barbara; Job, Remo
In the present work we were concerned with the role of sound representations in object recognition. In order to address this issue we made use of a picture naming task in which target pictures might be accompanied by a white-noise burst. White-noise was thought to interfere with the representation of the sound possibly associated with the depicted object. We reasoned that if such a representation is critical for the recognition of objects strongly associated with certain sounds, white-noise interference should affect the naming of pictures representing objects with typical sounds leaving the naming of object without typical sounds unaffected. The results were congruent with the predictions and consistent with a view of the semantic representations of objects as collection of related representations, modal in nature, and mandatorily accessed. PMID:25339934
Kim, Hyun Suk
This study examined how intrinsic as well as perceived message features affect the extent to which online health news stories prompt audience selections and social retransmissions, and how news-sharing channels (e-mail vs. social media) shape what goes viral. The study analyzed actual behavioral data on audience viewing and sharing of New York Times health news articles, and associated article content and context data. News articles with high informational utility and positive sentiment invited more frequent selections and retransmissions. Articles were also more frequently selected when they presented controversial, emotionally evocative, and familiar content. Informational utility and novelty had stronger positive associations with e-mail-specific virality, while emotional evocativeness, content familiarity, and exemplification played a larger role in triggering social media-based retransmissions. PMID:26441472
A psychological hierarchy model of human vision(1)(2) suggests that the visual signals are processed in a serial manner from lower to higher stages: that is "sensation" - "perception" - "emotion." For designing a future television system, it is important to find out what kinds of physical factors affect the "emotion" experienced by an observer in front of the display. This paper describes the psychological effects induced by the sharpness of the picture. The subjective picture quality was evaluated for the same pictures with five different levels of sharpness. The experiment was performed on two kinds of printed pictures: (A) a woman's face, and (B) a town corner. From these experiments, it was found that the amount of high-frequency peaking (physical value of the sharpness) which psychologically gives the best picture quality, differs between pictures (A) and (B). That is, the optimum picture sharpness differs depending on the picture content. From these results, we have concluded that the psychophysical sharpness of the picture is not only determined at the stage of "perception" (e.g., resolution or signal to noise ratio, which everyone can judge immediately), but also at the stage of "emotion" (e.g., sensation of reality or beauty).
Sheridan, Marion C.; And Others
Written to help a viewer watch a motion picture perceptively, this book explains the characteristics of the film as an art form and examines the role of motion pictures in the English curriculum. Specific topics covered include (1) the technical aspects of the production of films (the order of "shots," camera angle, and point of view), (2) the…
Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.
Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…
The state of science is a moving target, and its ever-shifting horizons can best be gleaned by the contents of scientific journals. However, the bigger picture of the scientific enterprise, which also encompasses its past, its future, and its overarching philosophies, can often be better represented through the more reflective pace of popular…
Discusses picture books that are suitable for teens, particularly middle school readers, and provides detailed reviews for five titles that have appealing story themes and illustrations including: Tony Millionaires' Sock Monkey: A Children's Book; Mick Foley's Christmas Chaos; Mick Foley's Halloween Hijinx; The Book of Jack; and Moby Dick. (LRW)
Dewar, Michaela; Hoefeijzers, Serge; Zeman, Adam; Butler, Christopher; Della Sala, Sergio
Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is an epileptic syndrome characterized by recurrent, brief episodes of amnesia. Transient epileptic amnesia is often associated with the rapid decline in recall of new information over hours to days (accelerated long-term forgetting - 'ALF'). It remains unknown how recognition memory is affected in TEA over time. Here, we report a systematic study of picture recognition in patients with TEA over the course of one week. Sixteen patients with TEA and 16 matched controls were presented with 300 photos of everyday life scenes. Yes/no picture recognition was tested 5min, 2.5h, 7.5h, 24h, and 1week after picture presentation using a subset of target pictures as well as similar and different foils. Picture recognition was impaired in the patient group at all test times, including the 5-minute test, but it declined normally over the course of 1week. This impairment was associated predominantly with an increased false alarm rate, especially for similar foils. High performance on a control test indicates that this impairment was not associated with perceptual or discrimination deficits. Our findings suggest that, at least in some TEA patients with ALF in verbal recall, picture recognition does not decline more rapidly than in controls over 1week. However, our findings of an early picture recognition deficit suggest that new visual memories are impoverished after minutes in TEA. This could be the result of deficient encoding or impaired early consolidation. The early picture recognition deficit observed could reflect either the early stages of the process that leads to ALF or a separable deficit of anterograde memory in TEA. Lastly, our study suggests that at least some patients with TEA are prone to falsely recognizing new everyday visual information that they have not in fact seen previously. This deficit, alongside their ALF in free recall, likely affects everyday memory performance.
Truszkowski, Walt; Paterra, Frank; Bailin, Sidney
The old maxim goes: 'A picture is worth a thousand words'. The objective of the research reported in this paper is to demonstrate this idea as it relates to the knowledge acquisition process and the automated development of an expert system's rule base. A prototype tool, the Knowledge From Pictures (KFP) tool, has been developed which configures an expert system's rule base by an automated analysis of and reasoning about a 'picture', i.e., a graphical representation of some target system to be supported by the diagnostic capabilities of the expert system under development. This rule base, when refined, could then be used by the expert system for target system monitoring and fault analysis in an operational setting. Most people, when faced with the problem of understanding the behavior of a complicated system, resort to the use of some picture or graphical representation of the system as an aid in thinking about it. This depiction provides a means of helping the individual to visualize the bahavior and dynamics of the system under study. An analysis of the picture augmented with the individual's background information, allows the problem solver to codify knowledge about the system. This knowledge can, in turn, be used to develop computer programs to automatically monitor the system's performance. The approach taken is this research was to mimic this knowledge acquisition paradigm. A prototype tool was developed which provides the user: (1) a mechanism for graphically representing sample system-configurations appropriate for the domain, and (2) a linguistic device for annotating the graphical representation with the behaviors and mutual influences of the components depicted in the graphic. The KFP tool, reasoning from the graphical depiction along with user-supplied annotations of component behaviors and inter-component influences, generates a rule base that could be used in automating the fault detection, isolation, and repair of the system.
Harvey, Denise Y.; Schnur, Tatiana T.
Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category impairs performance relative to when stimuli come from different semantic categories (i.e., semantic interference). Despite similar semantic interference phenomena in both picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, the locus of interference has been attributed to different levels of the language system – lexical in naming and semantic in word-picture matching. Although both tasks involve access to shared semantic representations, the extent to which interference originates and/or has its locus at a shared level remains unclear, as these effects are often investigated in isolation. We manipulated semantic context in cyclical picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, and tested whether factors tapping semantic-level (generalization of interference to novel category items) and lexical-level processes (interactions with lexical frequency) affected the magnitude of interference, while also assessing whether interference occurs at a shared processing level(s) (transfer of interference across tasks). We found that semantic interference in naming was sensitive to both semantic- and lexical-level processes (i.e., larger interference for novel vs. old and low- vs. high-frequency stimuli), consistent with a semantically mediated lexical locus. Interference in word-picture matching exhibited stable interference for old and novel stimuli and did not interact with lexical frequency. Further, interference transferred from word-picture matching to naming. Together, these experiments provide evidence to suggest that semantic interference in both tasks originates at a shared processing stage (presumably at the semantic level), but that it exerts its effect at different loci when naming pictures vs. matching words to pictures. PMID:27242621
Coren, S; Aks, D J
The existence of the moon illusion in pictorial representations was demonstrated in 6 experiments. Ss either judged the size of the moon in pictures, depicted as on the horizon or high in the sky, or drew horizon and elevated moons. The horizon moon was consistently judged to be larger than the elevated moon, independent of the angle at which the pictures are viewed. The distance paradox usually observed with the moon illusion (horizon moon apparently closer than the elevated moon) also exists in pictures. The magnitude of both size and distance effects depends on the salience of depicted depth cues. The pattern of results suggests that the moon illusion is caused by several interacting mechanisms and that use of pictorial stimuli may allow the separation of various cognitive from physiological contributions to the illusion.
modelos mentales . Invited address, University of Salamanca, July, 1991. Glenmberg, A. M. Building mental models from text A simulation of comprehension...facilitate construction of mental models. Our experimental work has demonstrated that one way in which pictures help comprehension is by providing a framework...for the construction of a mental model, a repMese tion of what the text is about (eg., the components of a machine or the steps in a procedure) as
Domestic violence against women is an important social and public health problem worldwide resulting from unequal power relationships between men and women. The purpose of the present cross-sectional descriptive study was to determine the factors affecting the views and experiences of women living in the city centre of Manisa, Turkey, regarding domestic violence. The data were collected from a representative sample of women (n = 873) in 2012. The socio-demographic questionnaire and the World Health Organization's Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Against Women were used for data collection. The study results revealed that of the women, 14.8% were exposed to physical violence, 7.9% to sexual violence, 20.2% to emotional violence/abuse and 11.2% to economic violence/abuse within the last 12 months. Lower income level, lower social status, lower educational level, unemployment, being exposed to parental violence during childhood and being married to husbands exposed to parental violence during childhood were associated risk factors with domestic violence. The study results indicate that domestic violence against women is a common phenomenon in Manisa.
The complex terrain of Ariel is viewed in this image, the best Voyager 2 color picture of the Uranian moon. The individual photos used to construct this composite were taken Jan. 24, 1986, from a distance of 170,000 kilometers (105,000 miles. Voyager captured this view of Ariel's southern hemisphere through the green, blue and violet filters of the narrow-angle camera; the resolution is about 3 km (2 mi). Most of the visible surface consists of relatively intensely cratered terrain transected by fault scarps and fault-bounded valleys (graben). Some of the largest valleys, which can be seen near the terminator (at right), are partly filled with younger deposits that are less heavily cratered. Bright spots near the limb and toward the left are chiefly the rims of small craters. Most of the brightly rimmed craters are too small to be resolved here, although one about 30 km (20 mi) in diameter can be easily distinguished near the center. These bright-rim craters, though the youngest features on Ariel, probably have formed over a long span of geological time. Although Ariel has a diameter of only about 1,200 km (750 mi), it has clearly experienced a great deal of geological activity in the past. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Royce, Christine Anne
From the earliest civilizations, humans have used drawings and pictures as a form of communication and to convey information--whether it was the seasons or location of good hunting grounds. In this month's column, simple alphabet picture books show students how pictures can be used to communicate information about a topic. In the first activity,…
van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; van den Boogaard, Sylvia
Although there is evidence that the use of picture books affects young children's achievement scores in mathematics, little is known about the cognitive engagement and, in particular, the mathematical thinking that is evoked when young children are read a picture book. The focus of the case study reported in this article is on the cognitive…
The lack of a big picture in tuberculosis: the clinical point of view, the problems of experimental modeling and immunomodulation. The factors we should consider when designing novel treatment strategies
Vilaplana, Cristina; Cardona, Pere-Joan
This short review explores the large gap between clinical issues and basic science, and suggests why tuberculosis research should focus on redirect the immune system and not only on eradicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillus. Along the manuscript, several concepts involved in human tuberculosis are explored in order to understand the big picture, including infection and disease dynamics, animal modeling, liquefaction, inflammation and immunomodulation. Scientists should take into account all these factors in order to answer questions with clinical relevance. Moreover, the inclusion of the concept of a strong inflammatory response being required in order to develop cavitary tuberculosis disease opens a new field for developing new therapeutic and prophylactic tools in which destruction of the bacilli may not necessarily be the final goal. PMID:24592258
Eder, Andreas B.; Rothermund, Klaus
Affective-mapping effects between affective stimuli and lever movements are critically dependent upon the evaluative meaning of the response labels that are used in the task instructions. In Experiments 1 and 2, affective-mapping effects predicted by specific-muscle-activation and distance-regulation accounts were replicated when the standard…
Teacher in Space trainees work with Arriflex motion picture camera. Photos include view of Sharon Christa McAuliffe (left) and Barbara Morgan having hands-on experience with an Arriflex motion picture camera following a briefing on space photography (40668); Morgan adjusts a lens as a studious McAuliffe looks on (40669); McAuliffe zeroes in on a test subject during a practice session with the Arriflex (40670); Morgan focuses on a subject (40671).
Frieden, B R; Swindell, W
Restored pictures of Ganymede have been produced that have some identifiably reliable features and some identifiable artifacts. The latter arise from artifacts in parts of the red image data. Among the presumably reliable features are some mare-like objects (perhaps with some internal structure), and a few rather large, bright rings. Whether the latter are ice, or arise from near-specular reflection from smooth surface features, is left for future investigation. One of the restoring methods used, maximum entropy, has been shown to be applicable to moderately extended images. In view of its short time requirements (30 seconds per picture), the method should be applicable to moderately larger images, for example with twice the given number of data points.
SAS PICTURE format is a very powerful tool. The different options allow the display of data in a more picturesque manner adding symbols, qualifiers, and comments to the data points without modifying the data. With a PICTURE format one can create a series of templates for displa...
SAS picture format is a very powerful tool. The different options allow the display of data in a more picturesque manner adding symbols, qualifiers, and comments to the data points without modifying the data. With a picture format one can create a series of templates for displ...
Sprott, Jane B.; Greene, Carolyn
It is assumed that legitimacy of the legal system is important, yet almost nothing is known about how young offenders view this institution. A sample of youths were interviewed at their first appearance in court and asked about their feelings regarding how they have been treated (procedural justice) by their lawyer, by the crown attorney, and by…
Sheehan, Norman T.
The resource-based view is a strategic framework for understanding why some firms outperform others. Its importance is reflected in its wide inclusion in strategy texts as a tool for assessing a firm's internal strengths and weaknesses. This article outlines an experiential exercise that demonstrates how different bundles of resources and…
Contains a series of activities which focus on the process of extinction, how the increasing human population affects other species, and on the reasons for helping endangered species. Includes diagrams and illustrations of endangered species. (ML)
Mocaiber, Izabela; Perakakis, Pandelis; Pereira, Mirtes Garcia; Pinheiro, Walter Machado; Volchan, Eliane; de Oliveira, Letícia; Vila, Jaime
Emotional reactions to threatening situations can be either advantageous for human adaptation or unfavorable for physical and mental health if sustained over prolonged periods of time. These contrasting effects mostly depend on the individual's capacity for emotion regulation. It has been shown, for example, that changing appraisal can alter the course of emotional processing. In the present study, the influence of stimulus appraisal over cardiac reactivity to briefly presented (200ms) mutilation pictures was tested in the context of an affective classification task. Heart rate and reaction time of twenty-four undergraduate students were monitored during the presentation of pictures (neutral or mutilated bodies) in successive blocks. In one condition (real), participants were told that the pictures depicted real events. In the other condition (fictitious), they were told that the pictures were taken from movie scenes. As expected, the results showed a more pronounced bradycardia to mutilation pictures, in comparison to neural pictures, in the real context. In the fictitious context, a significant attenuation of the emotional modulation (defensive bradycardia) was observed. However, this attenuation seemed to be transient because it was only observed in the first presentation block of the fictitious context. Reaction time to classify mutilation pictures, compared to neutral pictures, was slower in both contexts, reflecting the privileged processing of emotionally laden material. The present findings show that even briefly presented mutilation pictures elicit a differential cardiac reactivity and modulate behavioral performance. Importantly, changing stimulus appraisal attenuates the emotional modulation of cardiac reactivity (defensive bradycardia).
The author and illustrator of a picture book about the life cycle of the lynx describes the research and development process she used to create the book. Contacts with wildlife biologists, presenting the predator/prey relationship, creating pictures and text, drawing from life, and creating the book jacket are among the topics covered. (KRN)
Pardon, Douglas Jay
Upper-level elementary classroom teachers can integrate wordless picture books (usually used only in the lower elementary grades) with the Jigsaw approach to cooperative learning. Students are first assigned to heterogeneously-balanced "home teams." Members of the home team write a story to accompany a picture book, usually in about 15…
Anderson, J. L.; Danielson, G. E.; Evans, N.; Soha, J. M.; Belton, M. J. S.
A comprehensive set of television pictures of Venus taken by the Mariner 10 spacecraft is presented. Included is a chronological sequence of television images illustrating the development, variety, and circulation of Venus upper-atmospheric phenomena as viewed in the near-ultraviolet. The higher-resolution images have been assembled into global mosaics to facilitate comparison. Figures and tables describing the imaging sequences have been included to provide a guide to the more complete set of 3400 Venus images on file at the National Space Science Data Center.
Grelland, Hans Herlof
To estimate Minkowski's introduction of space-time in relativity, the case is made for the view that abstract language and mathematics carries meaning not only by its connections with observation but as pictures of facts. This view is contrasted to the more traditional intuitionism of Hume, Mach, and Husserl. Einstein's attempt at a conceptual reconstruction of space and time as well as Husserl's analysis of the loss of meaning in science through increasing abstraction is analysed. Wittgenstein's picture theory of language is used to explain how meaning is conveyed by abstract expressions, with the Minkowski space as a case.
Bandela, Praveen K.; Satgunam, PremNandhini; Garg, Prashant; Bharadwaj, Shrikant R.
Background Clarity of the transplanted tissue and restoration of visual acuity are the two primary metrics for evaluating the success of corneal transplantation. Participation of the transplanted eye in habitual binocular viewing is seldom evaluated post-operatively. In unilateral corneal disease, the transplanted eye may remain functionally inactive during binocular viewing due to its suboptimal visual acuity and poor image quality, vis-à-vis the healthy fellow eye. Methods and Findings This study prospectively quantified the contribution of the transplanted eye towards habitual binocular viewing in 25 cases with unilateral transplants [40yrs (IQR: 32–42yrs) and 25 age-matched controls [30yrs (25–37yrs)]. Binocular functions including visual field extent, high-contrast logMAR acuity, suppression threshold and stereoacuity were assessed using standard psychophysical paradigms. Optical quality of all eyes was determined from wavefront aberrometry measurements. Binocular visual field expanded by a median 21% (IQR: 18–29%) compared to the monocular field of cases and controls (p = 0.63). Binocular logMAR acuity [0.0 (0.0–0.0)] almost always followed the fellow eye’s acuity [0.00 (0.00 –-0.02)] (r = 0.82), independent of the transplanted eye’s acuity [0.34 (0.2–0.5)] (r = 0.04). Suppression threshold and stereoacuity were poorer in cases [30.1% (13.5–44.3%); 620.8arc sec (370.3–988.2arc sec)] than in controls [79% (63.5–100%); 16.3arc sec (10.6–25.5arc sec)] (p<0.001). Higher-order wavefront aberrations of the transplanted eye [0.34μ (0.21–0.51μ)] were higher than the fellow eye [0.07μ (0.05–0.11μ)] (p<0.001) and their reduction with RGP contact lenses [0.09μ (0.08–0.12μ)] significantly improved the suppression threshold [65% (50–72%)] and stereoacuity [56.6arc sec (47.7–181.6arc sec)] (p<0.001). Conclusions In unilateral corneal disease, the transplanted eye does participate in gross binocular viewing but offers limited support
Children's picture books that recreate, parody, or fictionalize famous artworks and introduce the art museum experience, a genre to which I will refer as "children's art books," have become increasingly popular over the past decade. This essay explores the pedagogical implications of this trend through the family program "Picture Books and Picture…
Schaefer, Evelyn G; Halldorson, Michael K; Dizon-Reynante, Cheryl
The flashbulb accounts of 38 participants concerning the September 11th 2001 terrorist attack reported at both 28 hours and 6 months following the event were examined for quantity, quality, and consistency as a function of the time lapse between first learning of the event and initial viewing of media images. The flashbulb accounts of those who reported seeing images at least an hour after learning of the event differed qualitatively, but not quantitatively, from accounts of participants who reported seeing images at the same time as or within minutes of learning of the event. Delayed viewing of images resulted in less elaborate and generally less consistent accounts across the 6-month interval. The results are discussed in terms of factors affecting flashbulb memory formation and individual differences in connectedness to the event.
Sevinç, Seda; Gizir, Cem Ali
This qualitative case study aims to investigate the most common factors that negatively affect adjustment to university and coping strategies used by first-year university students in the adaptation process from the viewpoint of first-year university students. The participants were 25 first-year university students from various faculties at Mersin…
Laier, Christian; Schulte, Frank P; Brand, Matthias
Some individuals report problems during and after Internet sex engagement, such as missing sleep and forgetting appointments, which are associated with negative life consequences. One mechanism potentially leading to these kinds of problems is that sexual arousal during Internet sex might interfere with working memory (WM) capacity, resulting in a neglect of relevant environmental information and therefore disadvantageous decision making. In this study, 28 healthy individuals performed 4 experimental manipulations of a pictorial 4-back WM task with neutral, negative, positive, or pornographic stimuli. Participants also rated 100 pornographic pictures with respect to sexual arousal and indicated masturbation urges previous to and following pornographic picture presentation. Results revealed worse WM performance in the pornographic picture condition of the 4-back task compared with the three remaining picture conditions. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis indicated an explanation of variance of the sensitivity in the pornographic picture condition by the subjective rating of the pornographic pictures as well as by a moderation effect of masturbation urges. Results contribute to the view that indicators of sexual arousal due to pornographic picture processing interfere with WM performance. Findings are discussed with respect to Internet sex addiction because WM interference by addiction-related cues is well known from substance dependencies.
Hockley, William E; Bancroft, Tyler
Previous research has shown that the picture superiority effect (PSE) is seen in tests of associative recognition for random pairs of line drawings compared to pairs of concrete words (Hockley, 2008). In the present study we demonstrated that the PSE for associative recognition is still observed when subjects have correctly identified the individual items of each pair as old (Experiment 1), and that this effect is not due to rehearsal borrowing (Experiment 2). The PSE for associative recognition also is shown to be present but attenuated for mixed picture-word pairs (Experiment 3), and similar in magnitude for pairs of simple black and white line drawings and coloured photographs of detailed objects (Experiment 4). The results are consistent with the view that the semantic meaning of nameable pictures is activated faster than that of words thereby affording subjects more time to generate and elaborate meaningful associations between items depicted in picture form.
Britt, Allison E.; Ferrara, Casey; Mirman, Daniel
Producing a word requires selecting among a set of similar alternatives. When many semantically related items become activated, the difficulty of the selection process is increased. Experiment 1 tested naming of items with either multiple synonymous labels (“Alternate Names,” e.g., gift/present) or closely semantically related but non-equivalent responses (“Near Semantic Neighbors,” e.g., jam/jelly). Picture naming was fastest and most accurate for pictures with only one label (“High Name Agreement”), slower and less accurate in the Alternate Names condition, and slowest and least accurate in the Near Semantic Neighbors condition. These results suggest that selection mechanisms in picture naming operate at two distinct levels of processing: selecting between similar but non-equivalent names requires two selection processes (semantic and lexical), whereas selecting among equivalent names only requires one selection at the lexical level. Experiment 2 examined how these selection mechanisms are affected by normal aging and found that older adults had significantly more difficulty in the Near Semantic Neighbors condition, but not in the Alternate Names condition. This suggests that aging affects semantic processing and selection more strongly than it affects lexical selection. Experiment 3 examined the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in these selection processes by testing individuals with aphasia secondary to stroke lesions that either affected the LIFG or spared it. Surprisingly, there was no interaction between condition and lesion group: the presence of LIFG damage was not associated with substantively worse naming performance for pictures with multiple acceptable labels. These results are not consistent with a simple view of LIFG as the locus of lexical selection and suggest a more nuanced view of the neural basis of lexical and semantic selection. PMID:27458393
Britt, Allison E; Ferrara, Casey; Mirman, Daniel
Producing a word requires selecting among a set of similar alternatives. When many semantically related items become activated, the difficulty of the selection process is increased. Experiment 1 tested naming of items with either multiple synonymous labels ("Alternate Names," e.g., gift/present) or closely semantically related but non-equivalent responses ("Near Semantic Neighbors," e.g., jam/jelly). Picture naming was fastest and most accurate for pictures with only one label ("High Name Agreement"), slower and less accurate in the Alternate Names condition, and slowest and least accurate in the Near Semantic Neighbors condition. These results suggest that selection mechanisms in picture naming operate at two distinct levels of processing: selecting between similar but non-equivalent names requires two selection processes (semantic and lexical), whereas selecting among equivalent names only requires one selection at the lexical level. Experiment 2 examined how these selection mechanisms are affected by normal aging and found that older adults had significantly more difficulty in the Near Semantic Neighbors condition, but not in the Alternate Names condition. This suggests that aging affects semantic processing and selection more strongly than it affects lexical selection. Experiment 3 examined the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in these selection processes by testing individuals with aphasia secondary to stroke lesions that either affected the LIFG or spared it. Surprisingly, there was no interaction between condition and lesion group: the presence of LIFG damage was not associated with substantively worse naming performance for pictures with multiple acceptable labels. These results are not consistent with a simple view of LIFG as the locus of lexical selection and suggest a more nuanced view of the neural basis of lexical and semantic selection.
Dewhurst, S A; Conway, M A
Five experiments investigated the influence of picture processing on recollective experience in recognition memory. Subjects studied items that differed in visual or imaginal detail, such as pictures versus words and high-imageability versus low-imageability words, and performed orienting tasks that directed processing either toward a stimulus as a word or toward a stimulus as a picture or image. Standard effects of imageability (e.g., the picture superiority effect and memory advantages following imagery) were obtained only in recognition judgments that featured recollective experience and were eliminated or reversed when recognition was not accompanied by recollective experience. It is proposed that conscious recollective experience in recognition memory is cued by attributes of retrieved memories such as sensory-perceptual attributes and records of cognitive operations performed at encoding.
Describes an action-research project conducted by student teachers in Edinburgh designed to explore ways in which children picture what happens inside an electric circuit. The student teachers also explored their own understanding of electricity. (Author/WRM)
altogether. His explanation for the efftct is similar to that proposed by Raijmakers and Shiffrin (1981) in the SAM model of memory : Items from...implicit memory , explicit memory , recognition memory , perce ’ptual fluency, priming, RSVP, fragmented pictures, connectionist models , PDP models 19...of implicit and explicit memory . A connectionist model of picture recognition which was developed and tested in collaboration with Elliot Hirshman
May 1991. Comprension del texto illustrado: los dibujos ayudan a crear modelos mentales . University of Salamanca, July 1991. Building mental models...progress in three areas. First, we have demonstrated that pictures are used to modify the mental representation derived from texts. When reading with...pictures, people tend to form mental models, even when reading in relatively unfamiliar domains. These mental models are representations of what the
Bruehlman-Senecal, Emma; Ayduk, Özlem; John, Oliver P
Recent experimental work demonstrates that temporal distancing from negative experiences reduces distress. Yet two central questions remain: (a) do people differ in the habitual tendency to temporally distance from negative experiences, and if so (b) what implications does this tendency have for well-being? Seven studies explored these questions. Study 1 describes the construction and reliability of the Temporal Distancing Questionnaire, a new measure of individual differences in the tendency to place negative experiences into a broader future time perspective. Study 2 establishes a nomological network around this construct, examining the relationship of temporal distancing to other theoretically related constructs. Study 3 tests whether people high in temporal distancing (i.e., "high temporal distancers") experience greater concurrent well-being, including greater positive affect and life satisfaction and lesser negative affect, worry, and depressive symptoms. Study 4 examines whether temporal distancing predicts well-being measured at the daily level, and across time. Finally, Studies 5a-5c explore a key way in which temporal distancing may support psychological well-being-by facilitating more adaptive responses to negative experiences. Our results demonstrate that the tendency to temporally distance from negative experiences predicts a more positive profile of affective experiences and stress-reactivity that may support immediate and longer-term well-being. Moreover, many of these findings remained significant when controlling for general reappraisal tendencies. (PsycINFO Database Record
Center of parcel with picture tube wall along walkway. Leaning Tower of Bottle Village at frame right; oblique view of Rumpus Room, remnants of Little Hut destroyed by Northridge earthquake at frame left. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA
While literacy is an important part of anyone's education, it should be noted that visual literacy, being able to view, interpret and react to visuals, is just as important for today's population. College students are reluctant at first to take the time to really examine a picture book, whereas youngsters go over and over their favorite books to…
7. Another picture of workers laying up the graphite core of the 105-B pile. This view is towards the rear of the pile. The gun barrels can be seen protruding into the pile. D-3047 - B Reactor, Richland, Benton County, WA
A 3-YEAR PROGRAM, "MODERN SOCIETY--ITS VALUES AND ITS DEMANDS," WAS DEVISED TO MAKE USE OF THE VISUAL AND ORAL ABILITIES OF "RELUCTANT" SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS. SEVENTEEN MODERN NOVELS AND PLAYS IN CONJUNCTION WITH THEIR MOTION PICTURE ADAPTATIONS WERE STUDIED AND VIEWED. STUDENTS GRADED THE FILMS ON THE BASES OF…
Iosifian, S. A.; Petrovskii, V. A.
Attempts a sociopolitical portrait of Russia's young people through an examination of their motion picture viewing habits combined with other survey responses. Discovers that most Russian youth are disinterested in politics, prefer violent Western movies, and remain concerned about crime although they are personally optimistic. Recommends…
Collender, Robert B.
This paper describes implementation approaches in image acquisition and playback for 3-D computer graphics, 3-D television and 3-D theatre movies without special glasses. Projection lamps, spatial light modulators, CRT's and dynamic scanning are all eliminated by the application of an active image array, all static components and a semi-specular screen. The resulting picture shows horizontal parallax with a wide horizontal view field (up to 360 de-grees) giving a holographic appearance in full color with smooth continuous viewing without speckle. Static component systems are compared with dynamic component systems using both linear and circular arrays. Implementation of computer graphic systems are shown that allow complex shaded color images to extend from the viewer's eyes to infinity. Large screen systems visible by hundreds of people are feasible by the use of low f-stops and high gain screens in projection. Screen geometries and special screen properties are shown. Viewing characteristics offer no restrictions in view-position over the entire view-field and have a "look-around" feature for all the categories of computer graphics, television and movies. Standard video cassettes and optical discs can also interface the system to generate a 3-D window viewable without glasses. A prognosis is given for technology application to 3-D pictures without glasses that replicate the daily viewing experience. Super-position of computer graphics on real-world pictures is shown feasible.
Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Nakadomari, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Miyauchi, Satoru; Kitahara, Kenji
When we are viewing colored picture, what is the difference in our brain between a random Color dot picture and a digit figure pattern picture seen through its colored dots? We created 3 patterns that are a functional magnetic resonance imaging version of the Ishihara plate patterns to test multiple color-sensitive areas in human ventral occipitotemporal cortex. The results showed that area V4 is activated by the stimulus of reading shapes from its color dots in the Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates but not by the stimulus of seeing a random color dot picture. We suggest that area V4 is activated not by color processing but by segregation.
Koenderink, Jan; Wijntjes, Maarten; van Doorn, Andrea
The “zograscope” is a “visual aid” (commonly known as “optical machine” in the 18th century) invented in the mid-18th century, and in general use until the early 20th century. It was intended to view single pictures (thus not stereographic pairs) with both eyes. The optics approximately eliminates the physiological cues (binocular disparity, vergence, accommodation, movement parallax, and image blur) that might indicate the flatness of the picture surface. The spatial structure of pictorial space is due to the remaining pictorial cues. As a consequence, many (or perhaps most) observers are aware of a heightened “plasticity” of the pictorial content for zograscopic as compared with natural viewing. We discuss the optics of the zograscope in some detail. Such an analysis is not available in the literature, whereas common “explanations” of the apparatus are evidently nonsensical. We constructed a zograscope, using modern parts, and present psychophysical data on its performance. PMID:23799196
Willows, Dale M.
Children read sets of words under three conditions: with no pictures, with related pictures, and with unrelated pictures. Results indicated that words were read more slowly whenever pictures were present; that unrelated pictures produced more interference than related pictures; and that both effects were inversely related to reading ability.…
Ferdenzi, Camille; Fournel, Arnaud; Thévenet, Marc; Coppin, Géraldine; Bensafi, Moustafa
Sniffing, which is the active sampling of olfactory information through the nasal cavity, is part of the olfactory percept. It is influenced by stimulus properties, affects how an odor is perceived, and is sufficient (without an odor being present) to activate the olfactory cortex. However, many aspects of the affective correlates of sniffing behavior remain unclear, in particular the modulation of volume and duration as a function of odor hedonics. The present study used a wide range of odorants with contrasted hedonic valence to test: (1) which psychophysical function best describes the relationship between sniffing characteristics and odor hedonics (e.g., linear, or polynomial); (2) whether sniffing characteristics are sensitive to more subtle variations in pleasantness than simple pleasant-unpleasant contrast; (3) how sensitive sniffing is to other perceptual dimensions of odors such as odor familiarity or edibility; and (4) whether the sniffing/hedonic valence relationship is valid in other populations than young adults, such as the elderly. Four experiments were conducted, using 16–48 odorants each, and recruiting a total of 102 participants, including a group of elderly people. Results of the four experiments were very consistent in showing that sniffing was sensitive to subtle variations in unpleasantness but not to subtle variations in pleasantness, and that, the more unpleasant the odor, the more limited the spontaneous sampling of olfactory information through the nasal cavity (smaller volume, shorter duration). This also applied, although to a lesser extent, to elderly participants. Relationships between sniffing and other perceptual dimensions (familiarity, edibility) were less clear. It was concluded that sniffing behavior might be involved in adaptive responses protecting the subject from possibly harmful substances. PMID:26635683
Sugaya, Nagisa; Haraguchi, Ayako; Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Higuchi, Susumu; Umeno, Mitsuru; Aikawa, Yuzo; Ikeda, Kazutaka
We investigated the differential influence of family dysfunction on alcohol and methamphetamine dependence in Japan using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), a useful instrument that multilaterally measures the severity of substance dependence. The participants in this study were 321 male patients with alcohol dependence and 68 male patients with methamphetamine dependence. We conducted semi-structured interviews with each patient using the ASI, which is designed to assess problem severity in seven functional domains: Medical, Employment/Support, Alcohol use, Drug use, Legal, Family/Social relationships, and Psychiatric. In patients with alcohol dependence, bad relationships with parents, brothers and sisters, and friends in their lives were related to current severe psychiatric problems. Bad relationships with brothers and sisters and partners in their lives were related to current severe employment/support problems, and bad relationships with partners in their lives were related to current severe family/social problems. The current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of drug use and family/social problems in patients with alcohol dependence. Patients with methamphetamine dependence had difficulty developing good relationships with their father. Furthermore, the current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of medical, employment/support, and family/social problems in patients with methamphetamine dependence. The results of this study suggest that family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence. Additionally, family relationships may be particularly related to psychiatric problems in these patients, although the ASI was developed to independently evaluate each of seven problem areas.
The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative system (AAC) used to improve and increase communication for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders. Research addressing the efficacy of this system is increasing; however, there is limited information published that evaluates…
Giff, Patricia Reilly; And Others
Three teachers discuss using picture books to cure reading problems, boost sagging self-concepts, and tutor handicapped children. Techniques for using books are described, as are follow-up activities. Examples of specific books and their uses with hearing and visually impaired children are given. (MT)
Downey, Matthew T.
Explains how the pictures in history textbooks are potentially useful as teaching aids in social studies courses. Illustrations (reproductions of paintings, historical photographs, woodcuts, lithographs, and engravings, etc.) are important because they may be the only primary source materials to which students will be exposed. (Author/DB)
Abercrombie, Heather C; Chambers, Andrea S; Greischar, Lawrence; Monticelli, Roxanne M
Arousal-related processes associated with heightened heart rate (HR) predict memory enhancement, especially for emotionally arousing stimuli. In addition, phasic HR deceleration reflects "orienting" and sensory receptivity during perception of stimuli. We hypothesized that both tonic elevations in HR as well as phasic HR deceleration during viewing of pictures would be associated with deeper encoding and better subsequent memory for stimuli. Emotional pictures are more memorable and cause greater HR deceleration than neutral pictures. Thus, we predicted that the relations between cardiac activity and memory enhancement would be most pronounced for emotionally-laden compared to neutral pictures. We measured HR in 53 males during viewing of unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant pictures, and tested memory for the pictures two days later. Phasic HR deceleration during viewing of individual pictures was greater for subsequently remembered than forgotten pictures across all three emotion categories. Elevated mean HR across the entire encoding epoch also predicted better memory performance, but only for emotionally arousing pictures. Elevated mean HR and phasic HR deceleration were associated, such that individuals with greater tonic HR also showed greater HR decelerations during picture viewing, but only for emotionally arousing pictures. Results suggest that tonic elevations in HR are associated both with greater orienting and heightened memory for emotionally arousing stimuli.
Liu, Jiangang; Tian, Jie
The present study combined the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) algorithms to identify the spatial distribution and time course of single-trial EEG record differences between neural responses to emotional stimuli vs. the neutral. Single-trial multichannel (129-sensor) EEG records were collected from 21 healthy, right-handed subjects viewing the emotion emotional (pleasant/unpleasant) and neutral pictures selected from International Affective Picture System (IAPS). For each subject, the single-trial EEG records of each emotional pictures were concatenated with the neutral, and a three-step analysis was applied to each of them in the same way. First, the ICA was performed to decompose each concatenated single-trial EEG records into temporally independent and spatially fixed components, namely independent components (ICs). The IC associated with artifacts were isolated. Second, the clustering analysis classified, across subjects, the temporally and spatially similar ICs into the same clusters, in which nonparametric permutation test for Global Field Power (GFP) of IC projection scalp maps identified significantly different temporal segments of each emotional condition vs. neutral. Third, the brain regions accounted for those significant segments were localized spatially with LORETA analysis. In each cluster, a voxel-by-voxel randomization test identified significantly different brain regions between each emotional condition vs. the neutral. Compared to the neutral, both emotional pictures elicited activation in the visual, temporal, ventromedial and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulated gyrus. In addition, the pleasant pictures activated the left middle prefrontal cortex and the posterior precuneus, while the unpleasant pictures activated the right orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulated gyrus and somatosensory region. Our results were well consistent with other functional imaging
Addison, J. A.; Finney, B. P.; Harada, N.
Modern instrumental and monitoring observations indicate strong multi-decadal changes and spatial heterogeneities affect climate and marine ecosystems in the North Pacific Ocean. Networks of high-resolution paleoclimate archives from this dynamic region are therefore required to describe changes prior to historical records. We present new decadally-resolved marine sediment core data from the Kuril Islands in the Sea of Okhotsk, together with sub-decadal data from the temperate fjords of the Gulf of Alaska (GoAK). These distant sites are located along the western (Kuril) and eastern (GoAK) boundaries of the Subarctic North Pacific Ocean, where micronutrient-rich coastal waters interact with North Pacific high-nutrient-low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters to drive highly productive marine ecosystems. In the Sea of Okhotsk, a notable increase in opal concentrations (a proxy for past siliceous primary productivity) occurs during the middle Holocene between ~5000 and 6000 yrs ago, while alkenone-based warm season SST proxies either decline or remain relatively constant. A similar middle Holocene increase in opal concentrations is also observed in the GoAK during an interval of declining warm season coastal SAT as inferred from pollen transfer functions [Heusser et al., 1985]. Declining summer solar insolation during the middle Holocene can explain the overall decline in warm-season SST in both the Sea of Okhotsk and the Gulf of Alaska. However, as the increase in opal likely reflects an improvement in North Pacific phytoplankton growing conditions during the spring/summer bloom season, then the opal increase seems unlikely to be related directly to summer solar insolation. We propose a middle Holocene intensification of the Aleutian Low (AL) pressure cell and concomitant changes in North Pacific circulation may be responsible. In both regions, several potential mechanisms related to an intensified AL could result in greater productivity including: (i) increased advection
Armitage, Emma; Allen, Melissa L.
Pictures are defined by their creator's intentions and resemblance to their real world referents. Here we examine whether young children follow a realist route (e.g., focusing on how closely pictures resemble their referents) or intentional route (e.g., focusing on what a picture is intended to represent by its artist) when identifying a picture's…
Llorens, Anaïs; Trébuchon, Agnès; Riès, Stéphanie; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Alario, F.-Xavier
A common strategy to reveal the components of the speech production network is to use psycholinguistic manipulations previously tested in behavioral protocols. This often disregards how implementation aspects that are nonessential for interpreting behavior may affect the neural response. We compared the electrophysiological (EEG) signature of two popular picture naming protocols involving either unfamiliar pictures without repetitions or repeated familiar pictures. We observed significant semantic interference effects in behavior but not in the EEG, contrary to some previous findings. Remarkably, the two protocols elicited clearly distinct EEG responses. These were not due to naming latency differences nor did they reflect a homogeneous modulation of amplitude over the trial time-window. The effect of protocol is attributed to the familiarization induced by the first encounter with the materials. Picture naming processes can be substantially modulated by specific protocol requirements controlled by familiarity and, to a much lesser degree, the repetition of materials. PMID:24785306
Atomic Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) can be viewed as macroscopic objects where atoms form correlated atom clusters to all orders. Therefore, the presence of a BEC makes the direct use of the cluster-expansion approach–lucrative e.g. in semiconductor quantum optics–inefficient when solving the many-body kinetics of a strongly interacting Bose. An excitation picture is introduced with a nonunitary transformation that describes the system in terms of atom clusters within the normal component alone. The nontrivial properties of this transformation are systematically studied, which yields a cluster-expansion friendly formalism for a strongly interacting Bose gas. Its connections and corrections to the standard Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov approach are discussed and the role of the order parameter and the Bogoliubov excitations are identified. The resulting interaction effects are shown to visibly modify number fluctuations of the BEC. Even when the BEC has a nearly perfect second-order coherence, the BEC number fluctuations can still resolve interaction-generated non-Poissonian fluctuations. - Highlights: • Excitation picture expresses interacting Bose gas with few atom clusters. • Semiconductor and BEC many-body investigations are connected with cluster expansion. • Quantum statistics of BEC is identified in terms of atom clusters. • BEC number fluctuations show extreme sensitivity to many-body correlations. • Cluster-expansion friendly framework is established for an interacting Bose gas.
Evidence of the acute lack of interchangeable laboratory results and consensus in current practice among clinical laboratories has underpinned greater attention to standardization and harmonization projects. Although the focus is mainly on the standardization of measurement procedures, the scope of harmonization goes beyond method and analytical results: it includes all other aspects of laboratory testing, including terminology and units, report formats, reference intervals and decision limits, as well as test profiles and criteria for the interpretation of results. This review provides further insight on the issue of harmonization in laboratory medicine in view of the urgent need for a complete picture now that old and new drivers are calling for more effective efforts in this field. The main drivers for standardization and harmonization projects are first and foremost patient safety, but also the increasing trends towards consolidation and networking of clinical laboratories, accreditation programs, clinical governance, and advances in Information Technology (IT), including the electronic patient record. The harmonization process, which should be considered a three-tier approach involving local, national and international fronts, must go beyond the harmonization of methods and analytical results to include all other aspects of laboratory testing. A pertinent example of the importance of a complete picture in harmonization programs is given by the National Bone Health Alliance working in the field of bone turnover markers in cooperation with scientific societies including the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC).
Walling, Linda Lucas
Addresses selecting materials for children who have deficits or strengths in their use of certain learning modes based on Howard Gardner's seven types of intelligence: linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, and internal and external personal intelligence. Describes one picture book for each category. (Author/LRW)
We give a brief representation of the theoretical results from the color dipole picture, covering the total photoabsorption cross section, high-energy J/ψ photoproduction with respect to recent experimental data from the LHCb Collaboration at CERN, and ultra-high energy neutrino scattering, relevant for the ICE-CUBE experiment.
Dixon, Joan; And Others
Developed for students in kindergarten through second grade, this alphabet book is one in a series of picture dictionaries in the Pima language developed to instill pride in Pima students by presenting their language in print and to increase their vocabularies in both Pima and English. Introductory sections provide a brief history of the project…
Luz, Chris; Burgan, John
Explores how universities and colleges can provide efficient parking and related transportation through careful analysis of current and future parking requirements in light of other institutional building plans, including the institution's master plan. Discussions include new construction versus facility renovations, an alternative to building…
Cosme, Danielle; Wiens, Stefan
As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51) passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels) electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses during picture
Cosme, Danielle; Wiens, Stefan
As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51) passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels) electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses during picture
Wang, Dezong; Xiong, Yingen; Cheng, Liping
There is great significance in comparing medical x-ray pictures, which are taken in different periods. For the orthopaedics surgeon comparing the density of bone is one important way of clinical diagnosis. Some persons think that if these orthopaedics pictures are processed by histogram normalization their gray level and pseudo color can be compared directly. But for one picture we know that the gray distribution is different between the original picture and the processed picture. Comparing these pictures is not authentic. In this paper we discuss that subject and describe the basis of histogram normalization. The distribution on original x-ray pictures and processed pictures is provided. The methods to compare different pictures are mentioned.
The current study examined children's ability to analyse pictures of a risky situation, both in relation to the characteristics of the pictures and in relation to the centering/decentering process of cognitive development. Sixty children aged 6, 9 or 11 years were given an objective or subjective version of a story about a risky situation involving road crossing and were asked to reconstruct it by putting six pictures in chronological order. The type of picture series, objective or subjective, had a different effect on the children's understanding and performance, according to the age. The older children were better at ordering the pictures, but on the subjective version only. The picture-version effect on planning time decreased with age; only the younger children took more time to start touching the pictures. On one hand, it is concluded that for the youngest children, objective representations are essential to analysing pictures showing a risk, whereas the oldest children will profit more from a subjective view. On the other hand, subjective representations, which give a more realistic view, provide an excellent tool for testing children's abilities. Subjective representations can be used to detect potentially risky behaviour in virtual situations (static pictures, or multimedia tools), since it permits one to predict at-risk behaviour in the street and to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures.
Kass, Robert E
Statistics has moved beyond the frequentist-Bayesian controversies of the past. Where does this leave our ability to interpret results? I suggest that a philosophy compatible with statistical practice, labelled here statistical pragmatism, serves as a foundation for inference. Statistical pragmatism is inclusive and emphasizes the assumptions that connect statistical models with observed data. I argue that introductory courses often mis-characterize the process of statistical inference and I propose an alternative "big picture" depiction.
BATES, ELIZABETH; D’AMICO, SIMONA; JACOBSEN, THOMAS; SZÉKELY, ANNA; ANDONOVA, ELENA; DEVESCOVI, ANTONELLA; HERRON, DAN; LU, CHING CHING; PECHMANN, THOMAS; PLÉH, CSABA; WICHA, NICOLE; FEDERMEIER, KARA; GERDJIKOVA, IRINI; GUTIERREZ, GABRIEL; HUNG, DAISY; HSU, JEANNE; IYER, GOWRI; KOHNERT, KATHERINE; MEHOTCHEVA, TEODORA; OROZCO-FIGUEROA, ARACELI; TZENG, ANGELA; TZENG, OVID
Timed picture naming was compared in seven languages that vary along dimensions known to affect lexical access. Analyses over items focused on factors that determine cross-language universals and cross-language disparities. With regard to universals, number of alternative names had large effects on reaction time within and across languages after target–name agreement was controlled, suggesting inhibitory effects from lexical competitors. For all the languages, word frequency and goodness of depiction had large effects, but objective picture complexity did not. Effects of word structure variables (length, syllable structure, compounding, and initial frication) varied markedly over languages. Strong cross-language correlations were found in naming latencies, frequency, and length. Other-language frequency effects were observed (e.g., Chinese frequencies predicting Spanish reaction times) even after within-language effects were controlled (e.g., Spanish frequencies predicting Spanish reaction times). These surprising cross-language correlations challenge widely held assumptions about the lexical locus of length and frequency effects, suggesting instead that they may (at least in part) reflect familiarity and accessibility at a conceptual level that is shared over languages. PMID:12921412
Yang, T. L.; Dixon, M. W.; Proffitt, D. R.; Kaiser, M. K. (Principal Investigator)
In six experiments we demonstrate that the vertical-horizontal illusion that is evoked when viewing photographs and line drawings is relatively small, whereas the magnitude of this illusion when large objects are viewed is at least twice as great. Furthermore, we show that the illusion is due more to vertical overestimation than horizontal underestimation. The lack of a difference in vertical overestimation between pictures and line drawings suggests that vertical overestimation in pictures depends solely on the perceived physical size of the projection on the picture surface, rather than on what is apparent about an object's represented size. The vertical-horizontal illusion is influenced by perceived physical size. It is greater when viewing large objects than small pictures of these same objects, even when visual angles are equated.
Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei
We study Poisson and operator algebras with the ''quasi-linear property'' from the Heisenberg picture point of view. This means that there exists a set of one-parameter groups yielding an explicit expression of dynamical variables (operators) as functions of ''time'' t. We show that many algebras with nonlinear commutation relations such as the Askey-Wilson, q-Dolan-Grady and others satisfy this property. This provides one more (explicit Heisenberg evolution) interpretation of the corresponding integrable systems.
Rasch, Thorsten; Schnotz, Wolfgang
New technologies enable flexible combinations of text and interactive or non-interactive pictures. The aim of the present study was to investigate (a) whether adding pictures to texts is generally beneficial for learning or whether it can also have detrimental effects, (b) how interactivity of pictures affects learning, (c) whether the…
Potter, Mary C; Staub, Adrian; O'Connor, Daniel H; Potter, Mary C
Pictures seen in a rapid sequence are remembered briefly, but most are forgotten within a few seconds (M. C. Potter. A. Staub, J. Rado. & D. H. O'Connor. 2002). The authors investigated the pictorial and conceptual components of this fleeting memory by presenting 5 pictured scenes and immediately testing recognition of verbal titles (e.g., people at a table) or recognition of the pictures themselves. Recognition declined during testing, but initial performance was higher and the decline steeper when pictures were tested. A final experiment included test decoy pictures that were conceptually similar to but visually distinct from the original pictures. Yeses to decoys were higher than yeses to other distractors. Fleeting memory for glimpsed pictures has a strong conceptual component (conceptual short-term memory), but there is additional highly volatile pictorial memory (pictorial short-term memory) that is not tapped hy a gist title or decoy picture.
Hockley, William E
The picture superiority effect has been well documented in tests of item recognition and recall. The present study shows that the picture superiority effect extends to associative recognition. In three experiments, students studied lists consisting of random pairs of concrete words and pairs of line drawings; then they discriminated between intact (old) and rearranged (new) pairs of words and pictures at test. The discrimination advantage for pictures over words was seen in a greater hit rate for intact picture pairs, but there was no difference in the false alarm rates for the two types of stimuli. That is, there was no mirror effect. The same pattern of results was found when the test pairs consisted of the verbal labels of the pictures shown at study (Experiment 4), indicating that the hit rate advantage for picture pairs represents an encoding benefit. The results have implications for theories of the picture superiority effect and models of associative recognition.
Quinlan, Chelsea K; Taylor, Tracy L; Fawcett, Jonathan M
The authors investigated directed forgetting as a function of the stimulus type (picture, word) presented at study and test. In an item-method directed forgetting task, study items were presented 1 at a time, each followed with equal probability by an instruction to remember or forget. Participants exhibited greater yes-no recognition of remember than forget items for each of the 4 study-test conditions (picture-picture, picture-word, word-word, word-picture). However, this difference was significantly smaller when pictures were studied than when words were studied. This finding demonstrates that the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect can be reduced by high item memorability, such as when the picture superiority effect is operating. This suggests caution in using pictures at study when the goal of an experiment is to examine potential group differences in the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect.
Lenzner, Alwine; Schnotz, Wolfgang; Müller, Andreas
Three experiments with students from 7th and 8th grade were performed to investigate the effects of decorative pictures in learning as compared to instructional pictures. Pictures were considered as instructional, when they were primarily informative, and as decorative, when they were primarily aesthetically appealing. The experiments…
Richardson, Maurine V.; Miller, Margaret B.
A picture book is defined as a book in which the illustrations are as important as the text or written story. Picture books published today seem appropriate and exciting for anyone from 1 to 100 years old. Among the many kinds of picture books are Mother Goose books; toy books (board books, pop-up books, concept books, flap books, cloth books, and…
The creative writing program described in this lesson exposes middle school student to wordless picture books and helps them to develop story lines orally and in writing. During the four 45-minute lessons, students will: explore various wordless picture books; develop oral story lines for wordless picture books; develop written story lines for…
Heller, Morton A.; McCarthy, Melissa; Clark, Ashley
This article reviews recent research on perception of tangible pictures in sighted and blind people. Haptic picture naming accuracy is dependent upon familiarity and access to semantic memory, just as in visual recognition. Performance is high when haptic picture recognition tasks do not depend upon semantic memory. Viewpoint matters for the ease…
This is the highest-resolution picture of Titania returned by Voyager 2. The picture is a composite of two images taken Jan. 24, 1986, through the clear filter of Voyager's narrow-angle camera. At the time, the spacecraft was 369,000 kilometers (229,000 miles) from the Uranian moon; the resolution was 13 km (8 mi). Titania is the largest satellite of Uranus, with a diameter of a little more than 1,600 km (1,000 mi). Abundant impact craters of many sizes pockmark the ancient surface. The most prominent features are fault valleys that stretch across Titania. They are up to 1,500 km (nearly 1,000 mi) long and as much as 75 km (45 mi) wide. In valleys seen at right-center, the sunward-facing walls are very bright. While this is due partly to the lighting angle, the brightness also indicates the presence of a lighter material, possibly young frost deposits. An impact crater more than 200 km (125 mi) in diameter distinguishes the very bottom of the disk; the crater is cut by a younger fault valley more than 100 km (60 mi) wide. An even larger impact crater, perhaps 300 km (180 mi) across, is visible at top. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Roux, Sebastien; Bonin, Patrick
The issue of how information flows within the lexical system in written naming was investigated in five experiments. In Experiment 1, participants named target pictures that were accompanied by context pictures having phonologically and orthographically related or unrelated names (e.g., a picture of a "ball" superimposed on a picture of…
Güntekin, Bahar; Başar, Erol
The differentiation of faces, facial expressions and affective pictures involves processes of higher mental activity that have considerable applications in the psychology of moods and emotions. At present, the search for functional correlates of brain oscillations is an important trend in neuroscience. Furthermore, analyses of oscillatory responses provide key knowledge on the physiology of brain dynamics. Studies analysing oscillatory dynamics in face perception and emotional pictures have increased in recent years; however, the literature lacks a review of the current state of the art. This study provides a comprehensive review of the delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma oscillatory responses on presentation of faces, facial expressions and affective pictures (International Affective Picture System, IAPS). The reviewed literature revealed that the brain is more sensitive to emotional stimuli than neutral stimuli. A common and reliable finding from all reviewed studies was the increased brain responsiveness towards negative emotional pictures (face expression or IAPS).
Oppliger, Patrice A.; Davis, Ashley
Bullying affects a significant number of school children in the United States. Great concern for teaching children about bullying is apparent in the number of picture books published with bullying themes. The following study is a content analysis of how bullies and victims are portrayed in picture books suitable for preschoolers. Many of the…
Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; Spence, Melanie J.; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Herve
This research developed a multimodal picture-word task for assessing the influence of visual speech on phonological processing by 100 children between 4 and 14 years of age. We assessed how manipulation of seemingly to-be-ignored auditory (A) and audiovisual (AV) phonological distractors affected picture naming without participants consciously…
Callahan, J. D.
The Multimission Interactive Picture Planner, MIP, is a scientifically accurate and fast, 3D animation program for deep space. MIP is also versatile, reasonably comprehensive, portable, and will run on microcomputers. New techniques were developed to rapidly perform the calculations and transformations necessary to animate scientifically accurate 3D space. At the same time, portability is maintained, as the transformations and clipping have been written in FORTRAN 77 code. MIP was primarily designed to handle Voyager, Galileo, and the Space Telescope. It can, however, be adapted to handle other missions. The space simulation consists of a rotating body (usually a planet), any natural satellites, a spacecraft, the sun, stars, descriptive labelling, and field of view boxes. The central body and natural satellites are tri-axial wireframe representations with terminators, limbs, and landmarks. Hidden lines are removed for the central body and natural satellites, but not for the scene as a whole so that bodies may be seen behind one another. The program has considerable flexibility in its step time, observer position, viewed object, field of view, etc. Most parameters may be changed from the keyboard while the simulation is running. When MIP is executed it will ask the user for a control file, which should be prepared before execution. The control file identifies which mission MIP should simulate, the star catalog files, the ephemerides files to be used, the central body, planets, asteroids, and comets, and solar system landmarks and constants such as planets, asteroids, and comets. The control file also describes the fields of view. Control files are included to simulate the Voyager 1 encounter at Jupiter and the Giotto spacecraft's flyby of Halley's comet. Data is included for Voyager 1 and 2 (all 6 planetary encounters) and Giotto. MIP was written for an IBM PC or compatibles. It requires 512K of RAM, a CGA or compatible graphics adapter, and DOS 2.0 or higher. Users
This series of Voyager 2 pictures of Tethys shows its distinctive large crater, 400 kilometers (250 miles) in diameter, as it rotates toward the termination and limb of this satellite of Saturn. These images were obtained at four-hour intervals beginning late Aug. 24 and ending early the next day; the distances were 1.1 million km. (670,000 mi.), 826,000 km. (510,000 mi.) and 680,000 km. (420,000 mi.), respectively. The crater, the remnant of a large impact, has a central peak and several concentric rings. Some grooves radiating from the center may be formed of material thrown from the crater during the impact. The bottom frame, with the crater in profile, reveals that its floor has risen back to the spherical shape of the satellite, unlike the large crater seen on Tethys sister moon Mimas. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
Gruber, Nicole; Kreuzpointner, Ludwig
As frequently reported, psychometric assessments on Picture Story Exercises, especially variations of the Thematic Apperception Test, mostly reveal inadequate scores for internal consistency. We demonstrate that the reason for this apparent shortcoming is not caused by the coding system itself but from the incorrect use of internal consistency coefficients, especially Cronbach’s α. This problem could be eliminated by using the category-scores as items instead of the picture-scores. In addition to a theoretical explanation we prove mathematically why the use of category-scores produces an adequate internal consistency estimation and examine our idea empirically with the origin data set of the Thematic Apperception Test by Heckhausen and two additional data sets. We found generally higher values when using the category-scores as items instead of picture-scores. From an empirical and theoretical point of view, the estimated reliability is also superior to each category within a picture as item measuring. When comparing our suggestion with a multifaceted Rasch-model we provide evidence that our procedure better fits the underlying principles of PSE. PMID:24348902
Stenbert, G; Radeborg, K; Hedman, L R
Words and pictures were studied and recognition tests given in which each studied object was to be recognized in both word and picture format. The main dependent variable was the latency of the recognition decision. The purpose was to investigate the effects of study modality (word or picture), of congruence between study and test modalities, and of priming resulting from repeated testing. Experiments 1 and 2 used the same basic design, but the latter also varied retention interval. Experiment 3 added a manipulation of instructions to name studied objects, and Experiment 4 deviated from the others by presenting both picture and word referring to the same object together for study. The results showed that congruence between study and test modalities consistently facilitated recognition. Furthermore, items studied as pictures were more rapidly recognized than were items studied as words. With repeated testing, the second instance was affected by its predecessor, but the facilitating effect of picture-to-word priming exceeded that of word-to-picture priming. The finds suggest a two- stage recognition process, in which the first is based on perceptual familiarity and the second uses semantic links for a retrieval search. Common-code theories that grant privileged access to the semantic code for pictures or, alternatively, dual-code theories that assume mnemonic superiority for the image code are supported by the findings. Explanations of the picture superiority effect as resulting from dual encoding of pictures are not supported by the data.
Gable, Philip A; Poole, Bryan D
Behavioral approach and avoidance are fundamental to the experience of emotion and motivation, but the motivational system associated with anger is not well established. Some theories posit that approach motivational processes underlie anger, whereas others posit that avoidance motivational processes underlie anger. The current experiment sought to address whether traits related to behavioral approach or avoidance influence responses to anger stimuli using multiple measures: ERP, electroencephalographic (EEG) α-asymmetry and self-report. After completing the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral approach system (BIS/BAS) scales, participants viewed anger pictures and neutral pictures. BAS predicted larger late positive potentials (LPPs) to anger pictures, but not to neutral pictures. In addition, BAS predicted greater left-frontal asymmetry to anger pictures. Moreover, larger LPPs to anger pictures related to greater left-frontal EEG asymmetry during anger pictures. These results suggest that trait approach motivation relates to neurophysiological responses of anger.
Gamsu, Gordon; Perez, Enrico
Over the past 2 decades, groups of computer scientists, electronic design engineers, and physicians, in universities and industry, have worked to achieve an electronic environment for the practice of medicine and radiology. The radiology component of this revolution is often called PACS (picture archiving and communication systems). More recently it has become evident that the efficiencies and cost savings of PACS are realized when they are part of an enterprise-wide electronic medical record. The installation of PACS requires careful planning by all the various stakeholds over many months prior to installation. All of the users must be aware of the initial disruption that will occur as they become familiar with the systems. Modern fourth generation PACS is linked to radiology and hospital information systems. The PACS consist of electronic acquisition sites-a robust network intelligently managed by a server, multiple viewing sites, and an archive. The details of how these are linked and their workflow analysis determines the success of PACS. PACS evolves over time, components are frequently replaced, and so the users must expect continuous learning about new updates and improved functionality. The digital medical revolution is rapidly being adopted in many medical centers, improving patient care and the success of the institution.
Hagenaars, Muriel A.; Mesbah, Rahele; Cremers, Henk
Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing) during subsequent analog trauma (affective picture viewing). Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1, 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome) or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast) than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (n = 51), again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative-related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations. PMID:26089801
Haberkamp, Anke; Glombiewski, Julia Anna; Schmidt, Filipp; Barke, Antonia
Selecting appropriate stimuli is a major challenge of affective research. Although several standardized databases for affective pictures exist, none of them focus on discrete emotions such as disgust. Validated pictures inducing discrete emotions are still limited, and this presents a problem for researchers interested in studying different facets of disgust. In this paper, we introduce the DIsgust-RelaTed-Images (DIRTI) picture set. The set consists of 240 disgust-inducing pictures divided into six categories (food, animals, body products, injuries/infections, death, and hygiene). Additionally, we included 60 matched neutral pictures (10 per category). All pictures were rated by 200 participants on nine-point rating scales measuring disgust, fear, valence, and arousal. The present validation study covered a wide age range (18-75 years) with a balanced number of participants in each decade of life. For each picture, we provide separate ratings on the four scales for men and women. In addition to the original pictures, we also provide a luminance-matched version for experiments that require control of the physical properties of the pictures. The standardized DIRTI picture set allows researchers to chose from a wide set of disgust-inducing pictures and may enhance researchers' ability to draw comparisons between studies on disgust. (Download DIRTI picture set: http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.167037).
Verona, Edelyn; Bresin, Konrad; Patrick, Christopher J
Despite increased interest in female psychopathy, more work is needed to establish commonalities between the nomological networks for psychopathy in men and women. The current study sought to advance understanding of affective deficits in female psychopathy, as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Forty-eight female inmates were tested in an affect-startle paradigm involving passive viewing of emotional and neutral picture stimuli. Results showed that women scoring high on PCL-R psychopathy exhibited deficits in startle reactivity to unpleasant pictures, especially with regard to victim-distress scenes, highlighting a specific insensitivity to the vicarious distress of others. The deficient affective modulation was specific to interpersonal-affective features and not adult/child antisocial features. These data confirm deficits in affective responding among women high on psychopathy, with implications for fear- versus empathy-related conceptualizations of psychopathic women.
In the September 2010 issue of "Mathematics Teaching," Tom O'Brien offered practical advice about how to teach addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division and contrasted his point of view with that of H.H. Wu. In this article, the author revisits Tom's examples, drawing on his methodology while, hopefully, simplifying it and giving it…
Fahrenheit scales.The reddish haze all around the picture is dust. The white dots are other stars, mostly in the background. L1157 is located 800 light-years away in the constellation Cepheus. This image was taken by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Infrared light of 8 microns is colored red; 4.5-micron infrared light is green; and 3.6-micron infrared light is blue. The visible-light picture is from the Palomar Observatory-Space Telescope Science Institute Digitized Sky Survey. Blue visible light is blue; red visible light is green, and near-infrared light is red. The artist's animation begins by showing a dark and dusty corner of space where little visible light can escape. The animation then transitions to the infrared view taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, revealing the embryonic star and its dramatic jets.
Mauler, Birgit I; Hamm, Alfons O; Weike, Almut I; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
Emotional responding to salient food cues and effects of food deprivation and consumption were investigated in 32 women with bulimia and 32 control women. One half of each group was food deprived before viewing unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and food-related pictures. Then participants could eat from a buffet before viewing a parallel picture set. Women with bulimia showed a substantial potentiation of startle responses during viewing of food cues relative to control women. This startle potentiation was attenuated by food deprivation and augmented by increased food consumption. These data support the affective regulation model suggesting that food cues prompt negative affective states in women with bulimia, who are overwhelmed by fasting. The resulting deprivation increases the incentive value of food cues and may thus trigger binge eating.
Retinex Imaging Processing, winner of NASA's 1999 Space Act Award, is commercially available through TruView Imaging Company. With this technology, amateur photographers use their personal computers to improve the brightness, scene contrast, detail, and overall sharpness of images with increased ease. The process was originally developed for remote sensing of the Earth by researchers at Langley Research Center and Science and Technology Corporation (STC). It automatically enhances a digital image in terms of dynamic range compression, color independence from the spectral distribution of the scene illuminant, and color/lightness rendition. As a result, the enhanced digital image is much closer to the scene perceived by the human visual system, under all kinds and levels of lighting variations. TruView believes there are other applications for the software in medical imaging, forensics, security, recognizance, mining, assembly, and other industrial areas.
Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are extremely versatile systems that facilitate the transfer of digital images and patient data throughout a healthcare enterprise. PACS are most commonly used in radiology departments to process images from diagnostic imaging modalities, such as digital radiography devices and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. In this article, we evaluate three such systems from three of the largest PACS suppliers--the Agfa IMPAX, GE PathSpeed, and Siemens Sienet. The ultimate goal of any PACS is to improve workflow within the enterprise. Our testing focused on whether, and to what degree, the systems could meet this goal. We found that all three PACS are fairly complete and able to support image distribution and improve workflow compared with film-based processes. However, we did identify significant differences--along with some noteworthy limitations--with respect to system design and operation, external integration capabilities, and supplier support and professional services. We have ranked the systems for each of these factors to help healthcare facilities identify the system that will best meet their needs. Also in this Evaluation, we present an overview of the technology, a Glossary of PACS terminology (see page 400), selection guidance, and discussions of PACS-related topics, including data compression options, the role of the DICOM standard, and concerns about data security in many of today's systems.
Lin, Huiyan; Jin, Hua; Liang, Jiafeng; Yin, Ruru; Liu, Ting; Wang, Yiwen
Uncertainty about the emotional content of an upcoming event has found to modulate neural activity to the event before its occurrence. However, it is still under debate whether the uncertainty effects occur after the occurrence of the event. To address this issue, participants were asked to view emotional pictures that were shortly after a cue, which either indicated a certain emotion of the picture or not. Both certain and uncertain cues were used by neutral symbols. The anticipatory phase (i.e., inter-trial interval, ITI) between the cue and the picture was short to enhance the effects of uncertainty. In addition, we used positive and negative pictures that differed only in valence but not in arousal to investigate whether the uncertainty effect was dependent on emotional valence. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded during the presentation of the pictures. Event-related potential (ERP) results showed that negative pictures evoked smaller P2 and late LPP but larger N2 in the uncertain as compared to the certain condition; whereas we did not find the uncertainty effect in early LPP. For positive pictures, the early LPP was larger in the uncertain as compared to the certain condition; however, there were no uncertainty effects in some other ERP components (e.g., P2, N2, and late LPP). The findings suggest that uncertainty modulates neural activity to emotional pictures and this modulation is altered by the valence of the pictures, indicating that individuals alter the allocation of attentional resources toward uncertain emotional pictures dependently on the valence of the pictures. PMID:26733916
Brooks, Patricia J.; MacWhinney, Brian
Two experiments examined phonological priming in children and adults using a cross-modal picture-word interference task. Pictures of familiar objects were presented on a computer screen, while interfering words were presented over headphones. Results indicate that priming effects reach a peak during a time when articulatory information is being…
Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann
A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs.…
The picture book is a simple yet profound tool for teaching peace. Picture books are nearly pieces of art--with rich text accompanied by illustrations, paintings, and photographs that speak to the spirit of the child. They are an ideal peace resource, in part because they are readily accessible for all age levels. Books can be borrowed through…
Potter, Mary C.; Staub, Adrian; O'Connor, Daniel H.
Pictures seen in a rapid sequence are remembered briefly, but most are forgotten within a few seconds (M. C. Potter. A. Staub, J. Rado. & D. H. O'Connor. 2002). The authors investigated the pictorial and conceptual components of this fleeting memory by presenting 5 pictured scenes and immediately testing recognition of verbal titles (e.g., people…
Elia, Iliada; Philippou, George
In the present study, we assert that pictures serve four functions in problem solving: decorative, representational, organizational and informational. We, therefore, investigate the effects of pictures based on their functions in mathematical problem solving (MPS), by high achievement students of Grade 6 in Cyprus, in a communication setting. A…
In this lesson plan, middle school students analyze the structure of a postmodern picture book to uncover how authors form relationships between words and illustrations. An online teacher resource explains the intent of the picture book "Black and White" and provides background information and suggestions for classroom discussion. During one…
Cox, William F., Jr.; Fletcher, Harold J.
Eighty subjects 4, 6, 8, and 10 years of age inductively identified partially uncovered silhouettes of three simple pictures. Subjects removed as few as possible covering pieces, according to their own strategies, to correctly name the pictures. Performance generally improved with increased age on the two dependent measures, inductively inferring…
Furukawa, James M.; Sunshine, Phyllis M.
Thirty-three second graders participated in a study to discover the value of teaching concepts using picture attribute chunking (PAC). It was hypothesized that PAC would yield superior concept learning performances compared to a picture attribute list (PAL) treatment and a word-alone treatment. The children, selected on the basis of a pretest that…
Austin, Bruce A.
Several reasons for studying motion pictures and patrons' attitudes toward them include the following: (1) current data show that motion pictures account for 53% of the total United States spectator amusement expenditures; (2) the average weekly United States movie attendance has plummeted by more than half since 1930; (3) despite this decline,…
Reid, D. J.
Discusses learning behaviors where the "picture superiority effect" (PSE) seems to be most effective in biology education. Also considers research methodology and suggests a new research model which allows a more direct examination of the strategies learners use when matching up picture and text in efforts to "understand"…
Most teachers feel confident espousing the benefits of using picture books in English lessons, talking about the importance of using the illustrations to enhance the text, engaging students and fostering a love and appreciation of literature. How many teachers passionately advocate the use of these same picture books in mathematics lessons? This…
This article discusses the role picture books play in helping young writers. Third-grade students were read engaging picture books for the sole purpose of noticing and naming different features they encountered during the read-alouds. Students were able to recognize the tools many authors and illustrators use such as onomatopoeia, varied font…
Alberto, Paul A.; Fredrick, Laura D.
This article presents a five-step sequence for teaching children with disabilities to read pictures. Steps are sequenced for content and complexity of picture, student response requirement, and language demands. They include: (1) identify person, (2) identify object, (3) identify person and object, (4) identify action, and (5) identify sequence.…
Shepard, Blythe C.; Guenette, Francis L.
A magazine picture collage activity was used with three female counsellor education students as a vehicle to support them in processing their experience as counsellors in training. The use of magazine picture collage in group supervision is described, and the benefits and challenges are presented. The collages served as jumping-off points for…
Taikh, Alex; Hargreaves, Ian S; Yap, Melvin J; Pexman, Penny M
We provide new behavioural norms for semantic classification of pictures and words. The picture stimuli are 288 black and white line drawings from the International Picture Naming Project ([Székely, A., Jacobsen, T., D'Amico, S., Devescovi, A., Andonova, E., Herron, D., et al. (2004). A new on-line resource for psycholinguistic studies. Journal of Memory & Language, 51, 247-250]). We presented these pictures for classification in a living/nonliving decision, and in a separate version of the task presented the corresponding word labels for classification. We analyzed behavioural responses to a subset of the stimuli in order to explore questions about semantic processing. We found multiple semantic richness effects for both picture and word classification. Further, while lexical-level factors were related to semantic classification of words, they were not related to semantic classification of pictures. We argue that these results are consistent with privileged semantic access for pictures, and point to ways in which these data could be used to address other questions about picture processing and semantic memory.
Shi, Zhuanghua; Jia, Lina; Müller, Hermann J.
Judging the duration of emotional stimuli is known to be influenced by their valence and arousal values. However, whether and how perceiving emotion in one modality affects time perception in another modality is still unclear. To investigate this, we compared the influence of different types of emotional pictures—a picture of threat, disgust, or a neutral picture presented at the start of a trial—on temporal bisection judgments of the duration of a subsequently presented vibrotactile stimulus. We found an overestimation of tactile duration following exposure to pictures of threat, but not pictures of disgust (even though these scored equally high on arousal), in a short-range temporal bisection task (range 300/900 ms). Follow-up experiments revealed that this duration lengthening effect was abolished when the range to be bisected was increased (1000/1900 ms). However, duration overestimation was maintained in the short-range bisection task regardless of whether the interval between the visual and tactile events was short or long. This pattern is inconsistent with a general arousal interpretation of duration distortion and suggests that crossmodal linkages in the processing of emotions and emotional regulation are two main factors underlying the manifestation of crossmodal duration modulation. PMID:22654742
Cheng, H. D.; Kou, L. T.
In picture processing an important problem is to identify two digital pictures of the same scene taken under different lighting conditions. This kind of problem can be found in remote sensing, satellite signal processing and the related areas. The identification can be done by transforming the gray levels so that the gray level histograms of the two pictures are closely matched. The transformation problem can be solved by using the packing method. Researchers propose a VLSI architecture consisting of m x n processing elements with extensive parallel and pipelining computation capabilities to speed up the transformation with the time complexity 0(max(m,n)), where m and n are the numbers of the gray levels of the input picture and the reference picture respectively. If using uniprocessor and a dynamic programming algorithm, the time complexity will be 0(m(3)xn). The algorithm partition problem, as an important issue in VLSI design, is discussed. Verification of the proposed architecture is also given.
Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R
Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories.
Weber, Jonathan N.; Weiss, Robin A.
Explains a key finding of the research which revealed that initial infection resulted from the binding of the human immunodeficiency virus to a molecule known as the CD4 antigen. Describes various assays used to determine the affect of antibodies on the ability of the virus to infect the cells. (RT)
Chemistry produces materials and releases energy by ionic or electronic rearrangements. Three structure types affect the ease with which a reaction occurs. In the Earth's crust, "solid crystals" change chemically only with extreme heat and pressure, unless their fixed ions touch moving fluids. On the other hand, in living things, "liquid crystals"…
Kitmacher, Gary H.
aircraft like the high-flying U-2 spy planes for. Weather satellites permitted weather predictions as never before. Satellites were developed in the first ten years of the space program for earth resources and mapping. In this paper and presentation we will observe some of the best views taken in space and from space...of the Earth, and the moon and beyond. We will travel in space with our astronauts. Some of the photographs we will see are famous and others not nearly so. We will discuss some of the history behind the pictures and some of the benefits that have been gained from the views from space.
Describes how to teach students about art concepts during a photography lesson. Explains that students learn about concepts such as: how to take a sharp picture, how to fill the frame and leading lines, and how to focus on point of view in photographs. Includes learning objectives for the lesson. (CMK)
Walker, D A
Picture literacy constitutes one of the main accomplishments of Nepal's nonformal education program. Although program participants had little difficulty initially in identifying pictured objects, they were unable to understand the meaning or intended message of an illustration. In classroom discussions, participants were asked to analyze pictures, relate them to their own experiences, and read more meaning into illustrations. As the literacy curriculum was developed and tested, it became clear that the use of pictures greatly increased the number of meaningful ideas that could be communicated in the lessons. Comics were especially valuable in introducing social issues in a dramatic, exciting way that could not be achieved through stories with a limited vocabulary. While the written story must be coherent, the comic can be fragmentary and more ground can be covered. The pictures make the page less formidable and reinforce the written word. Once pictures and comics had been introduced into the literacy curriculum, experimentation with other uses was possible. For example, participants role-played the comics and created their own stories around discussion pictures. All these activities proved to be educationally sound and appropriate to the cultural setting.
Wippich, W; Mecklenbräuker, S; Weidmann, K; Reichert, A
Two experiments explored whether picture puzzles are an adequate instrument to investigate implicit memory for pictorial information. During the testing phase, the subjects had to identify hidden figures in picture puzzles. In a preceding learning phase, the priming conditions were varied systematically. In the first experiment, some subjects had to solve picture puzzles in the learning phase, whereas others made esthetic judgments (global processing) or estimated the number of triangles in the picture puzzles (local processing). In the second experiment, the subjects inspected copies of figures that were hidden at testing, modified versions of these figures, or their names in the learning phase. In the first experiment, the subjects of the different encoding conditions showed comparable priming effects. Picture puzzles that had already been processed or seen during learning were solved more often than new ones. Interview data revealed that subjects in the local or global processing conditions did not identify hidden figures at encoding. Furthermore, these subjects could not discriminate between old and new picture puzzles in a final explicit test of recognition. Thus, nonconscious storage of perceptual information that is not semantically interpreted may be sufficient to evoke priming effects. In the second experiment, the subjects in the different encoding conditions showed reliable priming effects, too. The presentation of the duplicates at encoding produced the greatest amount of priming. Effects of verbal priming, however, indicate that the solution of picture puzzles is not based solely on perceptual information. Depending on the priming conditions at learning, the solution of picture puzzles may be based primarily on data-driven processing or may be guided more heavily by conceptual information. It is concluded that perceptual, lexical, and/or conceptual information can contribute to the solution of picture puzzles.
Miccoli, Laura; Delgado, Rafael; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Guerra, Pedro; García-Mármol, Eduardo; Fernández-Santaella, M. Carmen
In the last decades, food pictures have been repeatedly employed to investigate the emotional impact of food on healthy participants as well as individuals who suffer from eating disorders and obesity. However, despite their widespread use, food pictures are typically selected according to each researcher's personal criteria, which make it difficult to reliably select food images and to compare results across different studies and laboratories. Therefore, to study affective reactions to food, it becomes pivotal to identify the emotional impact of specific food images based on wider samples of individuals. In the present paper we introduce the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF), which is a set of original food pictures created to reliably select food pictures based on the emotions they prompt, as indicated by affective ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance and by an additional food craving scale. OLAF images were designed to allow simultaneous use with affective images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), which is a well-known instrument to investigate emotional reactions in the laboratory. The ultimate goal of the OLAF is to contribute to understanding how food is emotionally processed in healthy individuals and in patients who suffer from eating and weight-related disorders. The present normative data, which was based on a large sample of an adolescent population, indicate that when viewing affective non-food IAPS images, valence, arousal, and dominance ratings were in line with expected patterns based on previous emotion research. Moreover, when viewing food pictures, affective and food craving ratings were consistent with research on food cue processing. As a whole, the data supported the methodological and theoretical reliability of the OLAF ratings, therefore providing researchers with a standardized tool to reliably investigate the emotional and motivational significance of food. The OLAF database is publicly available at zenodo
Miccoli, Laura; Delgado, Rafael; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Guerra, Pedro; García-Mármol, Eduardo; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen
In the last decades, food pictures have been repeatedly employed to investigate the emotional impact of food on healthy participants as well as individuals who suffer from eating disorders and obesity. However, despite their widespread use, food pictures are typically selected according to each researcher's personal criteria, which make it difficult to reliably select food images and to compare results across different studies and laboratories. Therefore, to study affective reactions to food, it becomes pivotal to identify the emotional impact of specific food images based on wider samples of individuals. In the present paper we introduce the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF), which is a set of original food pictures created to reliably select food pictures based on the emotions they prompt, as indicated by affective ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance and by an additional food craving scale. OLAF images were designed to allow simultaneous use with affective images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), which is a well-known instrument to investigate emotional reactions in the laboratory. The ultimate goal of the OLAF is to contribute to understanding how food is emotionally processed in healthy individuals and in patients who suffer from eating and weight-related disorders. The present normative data, which was based on a large sample of an adolescent population, indicate that when viewing affective non-food IAPS images, valence, arousal, and dominance ratings were in line with expected patterns based on previous emotion research. Moreover, when viewing food pictures, affective and food craving ratings were consistent with research on food cue processing. As a whole, the data supported the methodological and theoretical reliability of the OLAF ratings, therefore providing researchers with a standardized tool to reliably investigate the emotional and motivational significance of food. The OLAF database is publicly available at zenodo.org.
A Call for Policy Action in Sub-Saharan Africa to Rethink Diagnostics for Pregnancy Affected by Sickle Cell Disease: Differential Views of Medical Doctors, Parents and Adult Patients Predict Value Conflicts in Cameroon
Abstract Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a debilitating illness that affects the life expectancy of patients. It is possible to test for SCD before birth, to allow for reproductive options to parents. However, under Cameroonian Law, voluntary abortion is a criminal offense and medical abortion is permitted only “…if it is done by an authorized professional and justified by the need to save the mother from grave health jeopardy.” The objective of the present study was to compare the views of Cameroonian doctors, parents with at least one living SCD-affected child, and adult SCD patients, regarding prenatal genetic diagnosis and termination of SCD-affected pregnancy. We conducted a quantitative sociological survey of 110 doctors, 130 parents, and 89 adult patients. The majority accepted the prenatal genetic diagnosis for SCD (78.7%, 89.8%, and 89.2%, respectively). Parents (62.5%) were more in favor of termination of SCD-affected pregnancy, than doctors and adults patients (36.1% and 40.9% acceptance, respectively). Parents and patients who found medical abortion acceptable cited fear to have a SCD-affected child (98.1 and 88.9%) and the poor quality of the affected child's health (92.6% and 81.5%). The data underscore the urgency of policy action to place emphasis on: premarital screening, early detection and care of SCD, socio-economic measures to assist SCD-affected families, appropriateness to consider maternal distress due to fetal anomalies in medical abortion legislation. These novel findings signal potential value-based conflicts on the horizon, and can usefully inform the future policy actions in the African continent as OMICS biotechnologies are increasingly employed in global health. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first attempt in sub-Saharan Africa to attempt to triangulate the views of multiple stakeholders towards prenatal diagnosis of SCD and termination of an affected pregnancy. PMID:24754796
Aaron, Rachel V; Benning, Stephen D
The startle blink reflex is facilitated during early picture viewing, then inhibited by attention during pleasant and aversive pictures compared to neutral pictures, and finally potentiated during aversive pictures specifically. However, it is unclear whether the postauricular reflex, which is elicited by the same loud acoustic probe as the startle blink reflex but enhanced by appetitive instead of defensive emotion, has the same pattern and time course of emotional modulation. We examined this issue in a sample of 90 undergraduates using serially presented soft acoustic clicks that elicited postauricular (but not startle blink) reflexes in addition to standard startle probes. Postauricular reflexes elicited by both clicks and probes correlated during food and nurturant contents, during which they were potentiated compared to neutral pictures, suggesting clicks effectively elicit emotionally modulated postauricular reflexes. The postauricular reflex was initially facilitated during the first 500 ms of picture processing but was larger during pleasant than neutral pictures throughout picture processing, with larger effect sizes during the latter half of picture processing. Across reflexes and eliciting stimuli, measures of emotional modulation had higher coefficient alphas than magnitudes during specific picture contents within each valence, indicating that only emotional modulation measures assess higher-order appetitive or defensive processing.
As a postdoc in cognitive neuroscience who's also a neurology fellow, Adam Gazzaley is a meld of basic science expertise and clinical experience: He studies brain aging in people by using functional magnetic resonance imaging at the University of California (UC), Berkeley, and he also sees patients at UC San Francisco's Memory and Aging Center. The 34-year-old native New Yorker dives with equal fervor into scientific research and nature photography, two lenses for viewing a single world of discovery. Growing up in Queens, Gazzaley knew from age 7 that he wanted to become a scientist, and as a teenager, he commuted long hours to attend the Bronx High School of Science. He earned an M.D.-Ph.D. from the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. Gazzaley's hobby as a shutterbug periodically takes him on backpacking trips to document the beauty of the great outdoors. He sells fine-art prints of his photographs to individuals, hospitals, and clinics through his company, Wanderings Inc.
Strasser, Janis; Seplocha, Holly
This article discusses the importance of using picture books to support young children's literacy. A picture book is different from a children's book, because it contains illustrations. In a picture book, both the picture and text are equally important. The text and illustrations of high-quality picture books weave rich stories that can excite and…
Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Mühlberger, Andreas; Weyers, Peter; Alpers, Georg W.; Plichta, Michael M.; Breuer, Felix; Pauli, Paul
Several studies have investigated the neural responses triggered by emotional pictures, but the specificity of the involved structures such as the amygdala or the ventral striatum is still under debate. Furthermore, only few studies examined the association of stimuli's valence and arousal and the underlying brain responses. Therefore, we investigated brain responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging of 17 healthy participants to pleasant and unpleasant affective pictures and afterwards assessed ratings of valence and arousal. As expected, unpleasant pictures strongly activated the right and left amygdala, the right hippocampus, and the medial occipital lobe, whereas pleasant pictures elicited significant activations in left occipital regions, and in parts of the medial temporal lobe. The direct comparison of unpleasant and pleasant pictures, which were comparable in arousal clearly indicated stronger amygdala activation in response to the unpleasant pictures. Most important, correlational analyses revealed on the one hand that the arousal of unpleasant pictures was significantly associated with activations in the right amygdala and the left caudate body. On the other hand, valence of pleasant pictures was significantly correlated with activations in the right caudate head, extending to the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings support the notion that the amygdala is primarily involved in processing of unpleasant stimuli, particularly to more arousing unpleasant stimuli. Reward-related structures like the caudate and NAcc primarily respond to pleasant stimuli, the stronger the more positive the valence of these stimuli is. PMID:21088708
Liu, Baolin; Xin, Shuai; Jin, Zhixing; Hu, Yu; Li, Yang
In this paper, we aimed to verify the emotional facilitation effect in the picture-word interference task using event-related potentials. Twenty-one healthy subjects were asked to categorize the emotional valences of pictures accompanied by emotionally congruent, either centrally or laterally positioned Chinese words. For both the foveal and lateral word presentations, the reaction times were faster compared to the picture-only presentation. Compared to the picture-only presentation, P200 amplitude increased under the foveal word presentation condition and decreased under the lateral word presentation condition, indicating that more attentional resources were required when an accompanying word was in the center of a picture than when the word was in the lateral position. Latency of P300 was shorter in response to picture-word stimuli irrespective of word position, indicating that an emotionally congruent word facilitated the emotional processing of the target picture, which verified the emotional facilitation effect and was consistent with the results in psychology. The late positive component was more positive when the picture-word stimuli were more positive, which reflected the feature of positivity offset. The findings suggest that the time window for an emotional facilitation effect may be limited to processing aspects associated with P300 (i.e., affective evaluation).
... Pictures Are Crowd Pullers …" Art, culture, and the Internet combine to intervene against malaria in Uganda NLM's ... Services Division collaborated on the project through the Internet. "We wanted to see if such a 'health ...
The authors of picture books who write especially melodic language are doing more than simply offering up work that is pleasing to the ear. They are accessing more of the whole child. In this article five picture books will be discussed for their musical attributes: "Now One Foot, Now the Other", by Tomie dePaola, "The Cat in the Hat", by Dr.…
Fujita, T. T.; Tecson, J. J.
The recognition of cloud patterns formed in the wake of orographic obstacles was investigated using pictures from Skylab, for the purpose of estimating atmospheric motions. The existence of ship-wake-type wave clouds in contrast to vortex sheets were revealed during examination of the pictures, and an attempt was made to characterize the pattern of waves as well as the transition between waves and vortices. Examples of mesoscale cloud patterns which were analyzed photogrammetrically and meteorologically are presented.
Ellis, Stephen R.
Principles for the design of dynamic spatial instruments for communicating quantitative information to viewers are considered through a brief review of the history of pictorial communication. Pictorial communication is seen to have two directions: (1) from the picture to the viewer; and (2) from the viewer to the picture. Optimization of the design of interactive instruments using pictorial formats requires an understanding of the manipulative, perceptual, and cognitive limitations of human viewers.
Levelt, W J; Praamstra, P; Meyer, A S; Helenius, P; Salmelin, R
The purpose of this study was to relate a psycholinguistic processing model of picture naming to the dynamics of cortical activation during picture naming. The activation was recorded from eight Dutch subjects with a whole-head neuromagnetometer. The processing model, based on extensive naming latency studies, is a stage model. In preparing a picture"s name, the speaker performs a chain of specific operations. They are, in this order, computing the visual percept, activating an appropriate lexical concept, selecting the target word from the mental lexicon, phonological encoding, phonetic encoding, and initiation of articulation. The time windows for each of these operations are reasonably well known and could be related to the peak activity of dipole sources in the individual magnetic response patterns. The analyses showed a clear progression over these time windows from early occipital activation, via parietal and temporal to frontal activation. The major specific findings were that (1) a region in the left posterior temporal lobe, agreeing with the location of Wernicke"s area, showed prominent activation starting about 200 msec after picture onset and peaking at about 350 msec (i.e., within the stage of phonological encoding), and (2) a consistent activation was found in the right parietal cortex, peaking at about 230 msec after picture onset, thus preceding and partly overlapping with the left temporal response. An interpretation in terms of the management of visual attention is proposed.
El Sayed, Salah Mohamed; Baghdadi, Hussam; Zolaly, Mohammed; Almaramhy, Hamdi H; Ayat, Mongi; Donki, Jagadish G
3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) is a promising effective anticancer drug against many different tumors in children and adults. 3BP exhibited strong anticancer effects in both preclinical and human studies e.g. energy depletion, oxidative stress, anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastatic effects, targeting cancer stem cells and antagonizing the Warburg effect. There is no report about 3BP metabolism to guide researchers and oncologists to improve clinical practice and prevent drug resistance. In this article, we provide evidences that 3BP is metabolized through glutathione (GSH) conjugation as a novel report where 3BP was confirmed to be attached to GSH followed by permanent loss of pharmacological effects in a picture similar to cisplatin. Both cisplatin and 3BP are alkylating agents. Reported decrease in endogenous cellular GSH content upon 3BP treatment was confirmed to be due to the formation of 3BP-GSH complex i.e. GSH consumption for conjugation with 3BP. Cancer cells having high endogenous GSH exhibit resistance to 3BP while 3BP sensitive cells acquire resistance upon adding exogenous GSH. Being a thiol blocker, 3BP may attack thiol groups in tissues and serum proteins e.g. albumin and GSH. That may decrease 3BP-induced anticancer effects and the functions of those proteins. We proved here that 3BP metabolism is different from metabolism of hydroxypyruvate that results from metabolism of D-serine using D-amino acid oxidase. Clinically, 3BP administration should be monitored during albumin infusion and protein therapy where GSH should be added to emergency medications. GSH exerts many physiological effects and is safe for human administration both orally and intravenously. Based on that, reported GSH-induced inhibition of 3BP effects makes 3BP effects reversible, easily monitored and easily controlled. This confers a superiority of 3BP over many anticancer agents.
Austin, Bruce A.
Examines the phenomenon of the cult film and the characteristics of the audiences of the "Rocky Horror Picture Show." Suggests that the preparation, waiting, and finally the active participation in the viewing of the film itself appear to be part of a group ritual which characterizes the cult film as an event. (JMF)
Miller, R D; Crandell, D R
Light-weight, battery-operated timers were built and coupled to 16-mm motion-picture cameras having apertures controlled by photoelectric cells. The cameras were placed adjacent to Emmons Glacier on Mount Rainier. The film obtained confirms the view that exterior time-lapse photography can be applied to the study of slow-acting geologic processes.
There is evidence that violence in motion pictures viewed by children on screen or television can contribute to violence in real life, although the movies can rarely be blamed as the sole cause of anti-social conduct. Clinical reports cite instances of the effect on "susceptible" youngsters; e.g., emotionally disturbed individuals. Long-term…
Miller, R.D.; Crandell, D.R.
Light-weight, battery-operated timers were built and coupled to 16-mm motion-picture cameras having apertures controlled by photoelectric cells. The cameras were placed adjacent to Emmons Glacier on Mount Rainier. The film obtained confirms the view that exterior time-lapse photography can be applied to the study of slow-acting geologic processes.
Arterberry, Martha E.
Five- and 7-month-old infants' sensitivity to the pictorial depth cue of height-in-the-picture-plane was assessed. Infants were presented with 2 objects, 1 higher than the other, and their reaching was recorded under monocular and binocular viewing conditions. The results showed that both age groups reached significantly more to the lower,…
In this article, Vanessa Joosen explores Anthony Browne's construction of motherhood in four of his picture books that focus on family. She focuses on the use of narratological perspective, visual point of view, and intertextual references to explain how an ideology of motherhood is evoked. While Browne makes use of child narrators and focalizers…
Koskela, P. E.
This addendum to the Mariner Mars 1971 Television Picture Catalog, Volume 2 (for abstract, see N73-20850) contains data for the Mariner 9 TV pictures taken after Rev 262. Some of the data presented in Volume 2 is brought up to date. The new provisional mapping pole is discussed, and tables provide the latitude and longitude with respect to the new pole, prime meridian, and rotation rate for the centerpoints of all the Mariner 9 TV pictures.
Dhooge, Elisah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.
Current views of lexical selection in language production differ in whether they assume lexical selection by competition or not. To account for recent data with the picture-word interference (PWI) task, both views need to be supplemented with assumptions about the control processes that block distractor naming. In this paper, we propose that such…
Tempesta, Daniela; Couyoumdjian, Alessandro; Curcio, Giuseppe; Moroni, Fabio; Marzano, Cristina; De Gennaro, Luigi; Ferrara, Michele
Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively affects various cognitive performances, but surprisingly evidence about a specific impact of sleep loss on subjective evaluation of emotional stimuli remains sparse. In the present study, we assessed the effect of SD on the emotional rating of standardized visual stimuli selected from the International Affective Picture System. Forty university students were assigned to the sleep group (n=20), tested before and after one night of undisturbed sleep at home, or to the deprivation group, tested before and after one night of total SD. One-hundred and eighty pictures (90 test, 90 retest) were selected and categorized as pleasant, neutral and unpleasant. Participants were asked to judge their emotional reactions while viewing pictures by means of the Self-Assessment Manikin. Subjective mood ratings were also obtained by means of Visual Analog Scales. No significant effect of SD was observed on the evaluation of pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. On the contrary, SD subjects perceived the neutral pictures more negatively and showed an increase of negative mood and a decrease of subjective alertness compared to non-deprived subjects. Finally, an analysis of covariance on mean valence ratings of neutral pictures using negative mood as covariate confirmed the effect of SD. Our results indicate that sleep is involved in regulating emotional evaluation. The emotional labeling of neutral stimuli biased toward negative responses was not mediated by the increase of negative mood. This effect can be interpreted as an adaptive reaction supporting the "better safe than sorry" principle. It may also have applied implications for healthcare workers, military and law-enforcement personnel.
Hwang, Se Jin; Park, Sowhey; Hwang, Kun
Motion pictures are made to entertain and enlighten people, but they are viewed differently by different people. What one considers to be a tearjerker may induce giggles in another. We have gained added interest in this because our professional pictures contain plastic surgery in their venue. We have recently reviewed 21 motion pictures that were made from 1928 to 2006 and that includes plastic surgical procedures in their content. As a habit, we tried to analyze them from a surgical point of view. About one third (35.7%) of the patients were criminals, whereas 14.3% of them were spies. One third of the procedures were done by illegitimate "surgeons," whereas a quarter of the procedures (25%) were performed by renowned surgeons. Surgeons who were in love with the patients did the rest (25%) of the operations. The complication rate was 14.3%; the surgery was successful in 85.7% of cases, but were the patients happy with the results? This was not the case in the movies. Only 7.7% were happy; 14.5 % of them were eminently unhappy. Why the discrepancy? It is difficult to analyze the minds of the people in the film, but considering that the majority of the characters in the films were rather unsavory, one may deduce that a crooked mind functions differently. Motion pictures have advanced greatly in the past several decades with the advent of improved mechanical and electronic devices, and plastic surgery as also advanced in tandem. This surgical field has become a common procedure in our daily life. It is readily available and mostly painless. However, the public sees it in only one way, that is, that the performing physicians are highly compensated. Very few consider the efforts and the suffering that accompanies each and every surgical procedure as it is performed. Perhaps, it is too much to hope for a day that will come when we will see a film that portrays the mental anguish that accompanies each and every procedure the plastic surgeon makes.
Dong, Yunying; De Beuckelaer, Alain; Yu, Liang; Zhou, Renlai
Protocols for measuring attentional bias to threat in test-anxiety, a special form of trait-anxiety, are rarely found in the literature. In our eye-tracking study, we introduced a new protocol, and studied the time-course of attention to test-related pictures with varying threat levels in 22 high test-anxious (HTA) and 22 low test-anxious (LTA) subjects. To determine whether attentional bias to test-related pictures is due to test-anxiety and not to state-anxiety, we also included a third group of 22 subjects with high state-anxiety but low test-anxiety (HSA). The subjects completed a free viewing task (FVT) in which high threat-neutral (HT-N) and low threat-neutral (LT-N) picture pairs were presented for 3 s. The results demonstrated that: (1) HTA subjects showed initial orienting to LT pictures, early attentional engagement with HT pictures later on and avoidance of HT pictures at the very end; (2) LTA subjects showed initial orienting to HT pictures and maintenance of attention on them later on; while (3) HSA subjects showed an initial orientation towards LT pictures and maintenance of attention on LT and HT pictures later on. These results suggest that, (high) test-anxiety is also prone to attentional bias towards test-related threat stimuli. Implications for future research are discussed.
In the available psychological literature, affect regulation is fundamentally considered in terms of self-regulation, and according to this standard picture, the contribution of other people in our affect regulation has been viewed in terms of socially assisted self-regulation. The present article challenges this standard picture. By focusing on affect regulation as it unfolds in early infancy, it will be argued that instead of being something original and fundamental, self-regulation developmentally emerges from the basis of a further type of affect regulation. While infants' capacities in recognizing, understanding, and modifying their own affective states are initially immature and undeveloped, affect regulation is initially managed by the other: it is initially the self, and not the other, that plays the role of an assistant in affect regulation. To capture this phenomenon, the concepts of "auto-matic," "hetero-matic," and "altero-matic" affect regulation will be introduced and their interrelations elaborated. By showing how the capacity of affective self-regulation, which is characteristic to maturity, is developmentally achieved by internalizing regulative functions that, at the outset of development, are managed by the caregiver, it will be argued that altero-matic affect regulation is an autonomous type of affect regulation and the developmental basis for self-regulation.
In the available psychological literature, affect regulation is fundamentally considered in terms of self-regulation, and according to this standard picture, the contribution of other people in our affect regulation has been viewed in terms of socially assisted self-regulation. The present article challenges this standard picture. By focusing on affect regulation as it unfolds in early infancy, it will be argued that instead of being something original and fundamental, self-regulation developmentally emerges from the basis of a further type of affect regulation. While infants’ capacities in recognizing, understanding, and modifying their own affective states are initially immature and undeveloped, affect regulation is initially managed by the other: it is initially the self, and not the other, that plays the role of an assistant in affect regulation. To capture this phenomenon, the concepts of “auto-matic,” “hetero-matic,” and “altero-matic” affect regulation will be introduced and their interrelations elaborated. By showing how the capacity of affective self-regulation, which is characteristic to maturity, is developmentally achieved by internalizing regulative functions that, at the outset of development, are managed by the caregiver, it will be argued that altero-matic affect regulation is an autonomous type of affect regulation and the developmental basis for self-regulation. PMID:27378984
Cornelis, Els V K; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan
Mirror reflections and planar rotations of a picture do not result in any variations concerning the internal geometrical layout of the objects depicted in the picture. We examined to what extent these picture plane transformations gave rise to perceptual differences. A large set of pictures was generated by mirror-reflecting and rotating a set of six original photographs in the picture plane. We externalised the percepts of the depicted objects by using a direct perceptual method: the gauge-figure method. Participants had to adjust a gauge figure so that it seemed to be painted on the surface of the depicted object. From an extensive set of settings collected this way, we computed for each picture the three-dimensional interpretation--or pictorial relief--of the depicted object. On the basis of this set of pictorial reliefs, we addressed the effects of mirror reflections and rotations of pictures on the shape percept of the depicted object. Mirror-reflecting a picture around the horizontal axis resulted in large differences in pictorial reliefs, whereas mirror-reflecting pictures around the vertical axis resulted in only small differences in pictorial reliefs. Clockwise 90 degrees, 180 degrees, and 270 degrees rotation affected the pictorial relief significantly. In all cases, the differences between the pictorial reliefs could be resolved by affine transformations, and could thus be ascribed to different solutions of the depth ambiguities inherent in pictures.
Bookbinder, S H; Brainerd, C J
In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are caused by valence and which are caused by arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling revealed that negative valence (a) reduced erroneous suppression of true memories and (b) increased the familiarity of the semantic content of both true and false memories. Overall, negative valence impaired the verbatim side of episodic memory but enhanced the gist side, and these effects persisted even after a week-long delay. (PsycINFO Database Record
Bates, E; Burani, C; D'Amico, S; Barca, L
Results from two separate norming studies of lexical access in Italian were merged, permitting a comparison of word-reading and picture-naming latencies and the factors that predict each one for an overlapping subsample of 128 common nouns. Factor analysis of shared lexical predictors yielded four latent variables: a frequency factor, a semantic factor, a length factor, and a final factor dominated by frication on the initial phoneme. Age of acquisition (AoA) loaded highly on the first two factors, suggesting that it can be split into separate sources of variance. Regression analyses using factor scores as predictors showed that word reading and picture naming are both influenced by the frequency/AoA factor. The semantics/AoA factor influenced only picture naming, whereas the length and frication factors influenced only word reading. Generalizability of these results to other languages is discussed, including potential effects of cross-language differences in orthographic transparency.
Elia, Iliada; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Georgiou, Alexia
The present study examines the cognitive activity that is evoked in young children when they are read a picture book that is written for the purpose of teaching mathematics. The focus of this study is to explore the effects of pictures on children's spontaneous mathematical cognitive engagement. The study is based on the assumption that the…
Clark, Roger; Fink, Heather
The authors provide a multicultural feminist analysis of picture books for children by looking at the illustrations and listening carefully to themes of oppression and resistance in 33 picture books that focus on characters that are on the powerless side of some powerless/powerful social dichotomy. The authors find many images that either depict…
Eitel, Alexander; Scheiter, Katharina
The present article reviews 42 studies investigating the role of sequencing of text and pictures for learning outcomes. Whereas several of the reviewed studies revealed better learning outcomes from presenting the picture before the text rather than after it, other studies demonstrated the opposite effect. Against the backdrop of theories on…
Koskela, P. E.; Helton, M. R.; Seeley, L. N.; Zawacki, S. J.
A collection of data relating to the Mariner 9 TV picture is presented. The data are arranged to offer speedy identification of what took place during entire science cycles, on individual revolutions, and during individual science links or sequences. Summary tables present the nominal design for each of the major picture-taking cycles, along with the sequences actually taken on each revolution. These tables permit identification at a glance, all TV sequences and the corresponding individual pictures for the first 262 revolutions (primary mission). A list of TV pictures, categorized according to their latitude and longitude, is also provided. Orthographic and/or mercator plots for all pictures, along with pertinent numerical data for their center points are presented. Other tables and plots of interest are also included. This document is based upon data contained in the Supplementary Experiment Data Record (SEDR) files as of 21 August 1972.
Rorvig, Mark E.; Shelton, Robert O.
Method of automated selection of film or video motion-picture frames for storage or examination developed. Beneficial in situations in which quantity of visual information available exceeds amount stored or examined by humans in reasonable amount of time, and/or necessary to reduce large number of motion-picture frames to few conveying significantly different information in manner intermediate between movie and comic book or storyboard. For example, computerized vision system monitoring industrial process programmed to sound alarm when changes in scene exceed normal limits.
Schuler, Anne; Scheiter, Katharina; Rummer, Ralf; Gerjets, Peter
The study examined whether the modality effect is caused by either high visuo-spatial load or a lack of temporal contiguity when processing written text and pictures. Students (N = 147) viewed pictures on the development of tornados, which were accompanied by either spoken or written explanations presented simultaneously with, before, or after the…
Flaisch, Tobias; Imhof, Martin; Schmälzle, Ralf; Wentz, Klaus-Ulrich; Ibach, Bernd; Schupp, Harald T
The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural processing of concurrently presented emotional stimuli under varying explicit and implicit attention demands. Specifically, in separate trials, participants indicated the category of either pictures or words. The words were placed over the center of the pictures and the picture-word compound-stimuli were presented for 1500 ms in a rapid event-related design. The results reveal pronounced main effects of task and emotion: the picture categorization task prompted strong activations in visual, parietal, temporal, frontal, and subcortical regions; the word categorization task evoked increased activation only in left extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, beyond replicating key findings regarding emotional picture and word processing, the results point to a dissociation of semantic-affective and sensory-perceptual processes for words: while emotional words engaged semantic-affective networks of the left hemisphere regardless of task, the increased activity in left extrastriate cortex associated with explicitly attending to words was diminished when the word was overlaid over an erotic image. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between Picture Category and Task within dorsal visual-associative regions, inferior parietal, and dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal cortices: during the word categorization task, activation was increased in these regions when the words were overlaid over erotic as compared to romantic pictures. During the picture categorization task, activity in these areas was relatively decreased when categorizing erotic as compared to romantic pictures. Thus, the emotional intensity of the pictures strongly affected brain regions devoted to the control of task-related word or picture processing. These findings are discussed with respect to the interplay of obligatory stimulus processing with task-related attentional control mechanisms.
Flaisch, Tobias; Imhof, Martin; Schmälzle, Ralf; Wentz, Klaus-Ulrich; Ibach, Bernd; Schupp, Harald T.
The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural processing of concurrently presented emotional stimuli under varying explicit and implicit attention demands. Specifically, in separate trials, participants indicated the category of either pictures or words. The words were placed over the center of the pictures and the picture-word compound-stimuli were presented for 1500 ms in a rapid event-related design. The results reveal pronounced main effects of task and emotion: the picture categorization task prompted strong activations in visual, parietal, temporal, frontal, and subcortical regions; the word categorization task evoked increased activation only in left extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, beyond replicating key findings regarding emotional picture and word processing, the results point to a dissociation of semantic-affective and sensory-perceptual processes for words: while emotional words engaged semantic-affective networks of the left hemisphere regardless of task, the increased activity in left extrastriate cortex associated with explicitly attending to words was diminished when the word was overlaid over an erotic image. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between Picture Category and Task within dorsal visual-associative regions, inferior parietal, and dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal cortices: during the word categorization task, activation was increased in these regions when the words were overlaid over erotic as compared to romantic pictures. During the picture categorization task, activity in these areas was relatively decreased when categorizing erotic as compared to romantic pictures. Thus, the emotional intensity of the pictures strongly affected brain regions devoted to the control of task-related word or picture processing. These findings are discussed with respect to the interplay of obligatory stimulus processing with task-related attentional control mechanisms. PMID:26733895
Schnotz, Wolfgang; Ludewig, Ulrich; Ullrich, Mark; Horz, Holger; McElvany, Nele; Baumert, Jürgen
Reading for learning frequently requires integrating text and picture information into coherent knowledge structures. This article presents an experimental study aimed at analyzing the strategies used by students for integrating text and picture information. Four combinations of texts and pictures (text-picture units) were selected from textbooks…
Willows, Dale M.
Good, normal, and poor third grade readers were required to read easy, moderate, and difficult one-syllable nouns under three conditions: control condition with no pictures, identifying-picture condition, and unrelated-picture condition. Reading performance of poor readers was influenced by pictures under all conditions. Individual differences…
Gao, Junling; Fan, Jicong; Wu, Bonnie W.; Halkias, Georgios T.; Chau, Maggie; Fung, Peter C.; Chang, Chunqi; Zhang, Zhiguo; Hung, Yeung-Sam; Sik, Hinhung
Chanting and praying are among the most popular religious activities, which are said to be able to alleviate people’s negative emotions. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this mental exercise and its temporal course have hardly been investigated. Here, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the effects of chanting the name of a Buddha (Amitābha) on the brain’s response to viewing negative pictures that were fear- and stress-provoking. We recorded and analyzed electroencephalography (EEG) data from 21 Buddhists with chanting experience as they viewed negative and neutral pictures. Participants were instructed to chant the names of Amitābha or Santa Claus silently to themselves or simply remain silent (no-chanting condition) during picture viewing. To measure the physiological changes corresponding to negative emotions, electrocardiogram and galvanic skin response data were also collected. Results showed that viewing negative pictures (vs. neutral pictures) increased the amplitude of the N1 component in all the chanting conditions. The amplitude of late positive potential (LPP) also increased when the negative pictures were viewed under the no-chanting and the Santa Claus condition. However, increased LPP was not observed when chanting Amitābha. The ERP source analysis confirmed this finding and showed that increased LPP mainly originated from the central-parietal regions of the brain. In addition, the participants’ heart rates decreased significantly when viewing negative pictures in the Santa Claus condition. The no-chanting condition had a similar decreasing trend although not significant. However, while chanting Amitābha and viewing negative pictures participants’ heart rate did not differ significantly from that observed during neutral picture viewing. It is possible that the chanting of Amitābha might have helped the participants to develop a religious schema and neutralized the effect of the negative stimuli. These findings
Yu, Alfred B; Abrams, Richard A; Zacks, Jeffrey M
When does looking at an object prime actions associated with using it, and what aspects of those actions are primed? We examined whether viewing manmade objects with handles would selectively facilitate responses for the hand closest to the handle, attempting to replicate a study reported by Tucker and Ellis (1998). We also examined whether the hypothesized action priming effects depended upon the response hand's proximity to an object. In 7 experiments, participants made judgments about whether pictured objects were manmade or natural or whether the objects were upright or inverted. They responded by pressing buttons located either on the same or opposite side as the objects' handles, at variable distances. Action priming was observed only when participants were explicitly instructed to imagine picking up the pictured objects while making their judgments; the data provide no evidence for task-general automatic priming of lateralized responses by object handles. These data indicate that visually encoding an object activates spatially localized action representations only under special circumstances.
Ribisi, Stephen, Jr.; Yu, Kristina; Lambertson, Lori
The old adage that a picture is worth a thousand words also holds true in cell biology. Much of the knowledge that we have of the structures and functions of cells has been acquired by biologists peering through the eyepieces of microscopes. The point of this lesson is to provide an opportunity for students to observe cell biological data while…
van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; van den Boogaard, Sylvia; Doig, Brian
In this article we describe our experiences using picture books to provide young children (five- to six-year-olds) with a learning environment where they can explore and extend preliminary notions of mathematics-related concepts, without being taught these concepts explicitly. We gained these experiences in the PICO-ma project, which aimed to…
Kuby, Patricia; And Others
Describes picture books that contain environmental print (print found in the natural environment of a child, such as logos, billboards, and road signs) and how they can be used in the classroom. Includes "ABC Drive!" by Naomi Howland (1994), "The Signmaker's Assistant" by Tedd Arnold (1992), and four others. Also provides a…
Discusses the use of children's literature in social studies instruction and addresses the nature of Canadian children's literature. Provides an annotated list of 14 picture books representing different geographical regions in Canada, reflecting various historical periods, and presenting information on Canadian experiences. Offers Canadian…
Brodie, Carolyn S.
This column presents a brief biography of illustrator Stephen Gammell, well-known for both his black-and-white and his brightly colored children's picture book art. Stephen Gammell has made a long career illustrating children's stories and poems. The first book he illustrated, "A Nutty Business" (written by Ida Chittum), was published in 1973 and…
Booth, Josephine; Vitkovitch, Melanie
Two groups of children were given pictures of animals to name as quickly as they could. The groups comprised 40 nursery aged children (mean age 3 ; 11) and 40 Year 2 children (mean age 6 ; 9) attending primary school in London. The 30 animals were presented one by one, on cards, and any errors made by the children were noted. Consistent with a…
Flannery, Maura C.
Some innovations in the images of cells and molecules that keep changing for new techniques and as a result of using new approaches to old methods are explored and new ways of illustrating cell and molecular structures are discussed. The three elements that play an important role in any biological image are aesthetic factors such as picture style…
Some writers on children's picture-books seem to believe that comfort and reassurance are their most important goals. Yet these books may also provide a context for imaginative adventure, and even for a journey into the dark night of the soul. As Nietzsche would put it, there is a Dionysian as well as an Apollonian element in children's…
This qualitative study describes and analyses young language learners' spontaneous comments while sharing picture books during EFL sessions. It also explores teachers' responses to learners' comments, and considers reasons teachers may choose to ignore children's talk in their first language (L1). Data were collected from young Hungarian learners…
Discusses the importance of including bilingual English/Spanish picture books in library collections, introduces some recent titles, and describes some programming ideas. Topics include second language study, children teaching English to Spanish-speaking parents, cultural studies, and bilingual presentations. (LRW)
Carpenter, Geoffrey C.; Duvall, David
Use of motion pictures and videotape recordings to analyze animal behavior is described. Indicates that accuracy/amount of data available is greatly increased and that simultaneous behaviors of different animals can be studied or individual behavior patterns increased/decreased, providing observers with temporal perceptions similar to the animals…
Webster, David; And Others
This picture book was designed to be used with an Elementary Science Study unit that provides opportunities for students in grades 4-6 to study animal tracks. Shown within this book are numerous examples of tracks, including those of tires, human beings, animal tracks, and others in various media, such as snow, sand, mud, dust, and cement. (CS)
Texas Child Care, 2002
Discusses how teachers in early childhood education and care settings can use children's picture books to teach physical science concepts. Presents activities for toddlers and preschoolers related to the areas of light and optics, sound and music, and machines and power. Includes for each activity a list of materials and instructions for teachers.…
Mullen, Patricia A.; Whitehead, Robert L.
Compared with 20 normal speaking and 20 articulation defective Ss (7 and 8 years old) was the percent of correct initial identification of stimulus pictures on the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation with the percent correct identification on the Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale. (Author/IM)
The rapidly changing picture on localism and the government's focus on local economic growth have significant implications for adult learning and skills providers in England. Government now sees a sense of place as key to economic growth and recognises the need for a renewed debate on how business and state interact with localities. There is a…
... produced film. (4) Imply endorsement of a product. (5) Permit the use of official Navy seals. (c) Navy... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Navy assists in the production of commercial, privately financed, nontheatrical motion pictures...
... produced film. (4) Imply endorsement of a product. (5) Permit the use of official Navy seals. (c) Navy... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Navy assists in the production of commercial, privately financed, nontheatrical motion pictures...
... produced film. (4) Imply endorsement of a product. (5) Permit the use of official Navy seals. (c) Navy... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Navy assists in the production of commercial, privately financed, nontheatrical motion pictures...
Young, Freddie; Petzold, Paul
Meant to serve as an authoritative source of information on camera work in large scale feature productions, this book attempts to give some basic understanding of the problems of motion picture photography, the working conditions and artistry of lighting for mood and dramatic effect, budget problems for making films, and facts about working with a…
Dale, Lourdes P.; Higgins, Brittany E.; Pinkerton, Nick; Couto, Michelle; Mansolillo, Victoria; Weisinger, Nica; Flores, Marci
Because many girls develop their understanding of what it means to be a girl from books about princesses, the researchers coded the messages and content in 58 princess books (picture, fairy tales, and fractured fairy tales). Results indicate that gender stereotypes are present in the books--the princesses were more likely to be nurturing, in…
Hearn, Emily; Thurman, Mark
The eight stages of storyboarding described in this book will help children design original picture books with illustrations and creative stories. The 24-frame storyboarding technique described in the book forces the young author/illustrator to jump right into the story, select only the most essential aspects of the plot, and describe the actions…
Shirzadi, Seyed Majid; Raeissi, Pouran; Nasiripour, Amir Ashkan; Tabibi, Seyed Jamaleddin
Background: The hospitality design of a hospital is a complex process that depends on careful planning, systematic thinking, and consideration of various factors. This study aimed to determine the viewpoints of patients and their relatives on factors affecting hospital hotel services in Iran in 2015. The results of this study can be used to design a suitable model for the assessment and improvement of hospitality service quality. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 10 hospitals of Iran were included. The subjects of the study included 480 patients and their companions from different internal and surgical wards. Simple random sampling method was performed at the hospitals, where patients were selected through stratified sampling based on hospital wards, and in each ward, through systematic sampling based on the bed numbers. A researcher-made questionnaire was used as the study tool which was developed through reviewing the literature and opinions of experts. Its internal reliability was determined based on Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α =0.85). Results: In reviewing the eleven aspects of hospital hotel services regarding the patients’ and their companions’ viewpoint, services related to all aspects, whether human, economic, operational, personnel identification, safety, health care services, physical, clinical welfare, cultural, patient guidance, or public welfare services, received mean scores of higher than three (out of five). Conclusion: The present study showed that in the patients’ and their companions’ viewpoint, factors affecting hospital hotel services in the country are very important. The tool used in this study can be a criterion for assessing the status of the hotel services of the country's major hospitals, so accordingly, the assessment and improvement of the existing conditions can be possible. PMID:27904592
1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) IN CENTER OF PICTURE WITH FOUR HATCHES SHOWING IN SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY
1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING RIBS AND KEELSON OF HULL IN CENTER OF PICTURE ON SHINGLE BEACH Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 84, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY
Exterior view looking northwest with construction facilities of "new" pumping station in foreground. Doug Hine is man in picture. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV
Schmaljohann, Heiko; Eikenaar, Cas
In birds, accumulating energy is far slower than spending energy during flight. During migration, birds spend, therefore, most of the time at stopover refueling energy used during the previous flight. This elucidates why current energy stores and actual rate of accumulating energy are likely crucial factors influencing bird's decision when to resume migration in addition to other intrinsic (sex, age) and extrinsic (predation, weather) factors modulating the decision within the innate migration program. After first summarizing how energy stores and stopover durations are generally determined, we critically review that high-energy stores and low rates of accumulating energy were significantly related to high departure probabilities in several bird groups. There are, however, also many studies showing no effect at all. Recent radio-tracking studies highlighted that migrants leave a site either to resume migration or to search for a better stopover location, so-called "landscape movements". Erroneously treating such movements as departures increases the likelihood of type II errors which might mistakenly suggest no effect of either trait on departure. Furthermore, we propose that energy loss during the previous migratory flight in relation to bird's current energy stores and migration strategy significantly affects its urge to refuel and hence its departure decision.
Silberzweig, James E; Khorsandi, Azita S; El-Shayal, Tarek; Abiri, Michael M
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that anatomic visible-light photographs can be catalogued using a system primarily intended for viewing radiographic images. One hundred four patients from April 2004 through November 2005 were evaluated for lower extremity venous insufficiency, lower extremity varicose veins, and/or telangiectasias. All consultation reports, duplex ultrasound reports with images, and lower extremity photographic images were archived in the radiology department's picture archiving and communication system. The picture archiving and communication system provides an electronic alternative to using a conventional, manual, or analog method of storing photographic images. Use of a picture archiving and communication system for the archiving of photographic images can be a valuable tool for an interventional radiologist's vein practice.
Boldini, Angela; Russo, Riccardo; Punia, Sahiba; Avons, S E
Speed-accuracy trade-off methods have been used to contrast single- and dual-process accounts of recognition memory. With these procedures, subjects are presented with individual test items and required to make recognition decisions under various time constraints. In three experiments, we presented words and pictures to be intentionally learned; test stimuli were always visually presented words. At test, we manipulated the interval between the presentation of each test stimulus and that of a response signal, thus controlling the amount of time available to retrieve target information. The standard picture superiority effect was significant in long response deadline conditions (i.e., > or = 2,000 msec). Conversely, a significant reverse picture superiority effect emerged at short response-signal deadlines (< 200 msec). The results are congruent with views suggesting that both fast familiarity and slower recollection processes contribute to recognition memory. Alternative accounts are also discussed.
Simcock, Gabrielle; DeLoache, Judy
What do toddlers learn from everyday picture-book reading interactions? To date, there has been scant research exploring this question. In this study, the authors adapted a standard imitation procedure to examine 18- to 30-month-olds' ability to learn how to reenact a novel action sequence from a picture book. The results provide evidence that toddlers can imitate specific target actions on novel real-world objects on the basis of a picture-book interaction. Children's imitative performance after the reading interaction varied both as a function of age and the level of iconicity of the pictures in the book. These findings are discussed in terms of children's emerging symbolic capacity and the flexibility of the cognitive representation.
Amrhein, Paul C; McDaniel, Mark A; Waddill, Paula
In 4 experiments, symbolic comparisons were investigated to test semantic-memory retrieval accounts espousing processing advantages for picture over word stimuli. In Experiment 1, participants judged pairs of animal names or pictures by responding to questions probing concrete or abstract attributes (texture or size, ferocity or intelligence). Per pair, attributes were salient or nonsalient concerning their prerated relevance to animals being compared. Distance (near or far) between attribute magnitudes was also varied. Pictures did not significantly speed responding relative to words across all other variables. Advantages were found forfar attribute magnitudes (i.e., the distance effect) and salient attributes. The distance effect was much less for salient than nonsalient concrete-attribute comparisons. These results were consistently found in additional experiments with increased statistical power to detect modality effects. Our findings argue against dual-coding and some common-code accounts of conceptual attribute processing, urging reexamination of the assumption that pictures confer privileged access to long-term knowledge.
Adolph, Dirk; Pause, Bettina M
The present study assessed emotion regulation in response to chemosensory and visual stimuli. Using cognitive reappraisal, 40 female participants regulated their emotions in response to disgusting pictures and odors, while the startle reflex was elicited and emotion ratings were assessed. Participants reported feeling less negative, and less aroused, while down-regulating their emotions towards both odors and pictures. Although being rated as equally negative and arousing, odor presentations were accompanied by larger startle responses than picture presentations. Furthermore, as compared to pictures emotion regulation towards odors followed a strikingly different time course suggesting less effective emotion regulation in response to disgusting odors. Questionnaire data show that differences between emotion regulation outcome towards odors was not attributable to different regulation strategies used. Thus, the current data suggest a unique role of olfaction in emotion perception, and show that cognitive emotion regulation - although being generally effective - may also be limited.
Bouman, Daniëlle; Stins, John F.; Beek, Peter J.
Emotion influences parameters of goal-directed whole-body movements in several ways. For instance, previous research has shown that approaching (moving toward) pleasant stimuli is easier compared to approaching unpleasant stimuli. However, some studies found that when emotional pictures are viewed for a longer time, approaching unpleasant stimuli may in fact be facilitated. The effect of viewing duration may have modulated whole-body approach movement in previous research but this has not been investigated to date. In the current study, participants initiated a step forward after viewing neutral, high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. The viewing duration of the stimuli was set to seven different durations, varying from 100 to 4000 ms. Valence and arousal scores were collected for all stimuli. The results indicate that both viewing duration and the arousal of the stimuli influence kinematic parameters in forward gait initiation. Specifically, longer viewing duration, compared to shorter viewing duration, (a) diminished the step length and peak velocity in both neutral and emotional stimuli, (b) increased reaction time in neutral stimuli and, (c) decreased reaction time in pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. Strikingly, no differences were found between high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. In other words, the valence of the stimuli did not influence kinematic parameters of forward step initiation. Instead the arousal level (neutral: low; pleasant and unpleasant: high) explained the variance found in the results. The kinematics of forward gait initiation seemed to be reflected in the subjective arousal scores, but not the valence scores. So it seems arousal affects forward gait initiation parameters more strongly than valence. In addition, longer viewing duration seemed to cause diminished alertness, affecting GI parameters. These results shed new light on the prevailing theoretical interpretations regarding approach motivation
Zanker, Johannes M; Doyle, Melanie; Robin, Walker
It has been the matter of some debate why we can experience vivid dynamic illusions when looking at static pictures composed from simple black and white patterns. The impression of illusory motion is particularly strong when viewing some of the works of 'Op Artists, such as Bridget Riley's painting Fall. Explanations of the illusory motion have ranged from retinal to cortical mechanisms, and an important role has been attributed to eye movements. To assess the possible contribution of eye movements to the illusory-motion percept we studied the strength of the illusion under different viewing conditions, and analysed the gaze stability of observers viewing the Riley painting and control patterns that do not produce the illusion. Whereas the illusion was reduced, but not abolished, when watching the painting through a pinhole, which reduces the effects of accommodation, it was not perceived in flash afterimages, suggesting an important role for eye movements in generating the illusion for this image. Recordings of eye movements revealed an abundance of small involuntary saccades when looking at the Riley pattern, despite the fact that gaze was kept within the dedicated fixation region. The frequency and particular characteristics of these rapid eye movements can vary considerably between different observers, but, although there was a tendency for gaze stability to deteriorate while viewing a Riley painting, there was no significant difference in saccade frequency between the stimulus and control patterns. Theoretical considerations indicate that such small image displacements can generate patterns of motion signals in a motion-detector network, which may serve as a simple and sufficient, but not necessarily exclusive, explanation for the illusion. Why such image displacements lead to perceptual results with a group of Op Art and similar patterns, but remain invisible for other stimuli, is discussed.
Wang, Dezong; Xiong, Yingen; Cheng, Liping
There is great significance in comparing medical x-ray pictures, which are taken in different periods. For the orthopaedics surgeon comparing the density of bone is one important way of clinical diagnosis. Some persons think that if these orthopaedics pictures are processed by histogram normalization their gray level and pseudo color can be compared directly. But for one picture we know that the gray distribution is different between the original picture and the processed picture. Comparing these pictures is not authentic. In this paper we discuss that subject and describe the basis of histogram normalization. The distribution on original x-ray pictures and processed pictures is provided. The methods to compare different pictures are mentioned.
Korwar, V. N.; Lipes, R. G.
The degradation of picture quality is studied for a high-resolution, large-swath SAR mapping system subjected to speckle, additive white Gaussian noise, and range and azimuthal ambiguities occurring because of the non-finite antenna pattern produced by a square aperture antenna. The effect of the azimuth antenna pattern was accounted for by calculating the aximuth ambiguity function. Range ambiguities were accounted for by adding appropriate pixels at a range separation corresponding to one pulse repetition period, but attenuated by the antenna pattern. A method of estimating the range defocussing effect which arises from the azimuth matched filter being a function of range is shown. The resulting simulated picture was compared with one degraded by speckle and noise but no ambiguities. It is concluded that azimuth ambiguities don't cause any noticeable degradation but range ambiguities might.
Frieden, B. R.; Swindell, W.
The paper discusses results of an attempt to restore two blurred pictures of Ganymede taken by Pioneer 10 through a blue filter and a red filter. The mathematical formulation of the restoration problem is outlined, it is noted that both conventional linear filtering and the maximum-entropy algorithm were employed as restoration techniques, and the two methods are described. The original blurred pictures are reproduced along with the two restorations of each image. The restored images are found to exhibit some mare-like features as well as a few large bright rings, possibly ice ridges. The results obtained with the two restoration techniques are compared, and it is concluded that the maximum-entropy method is more advantageous than linear methods in applications to moderately extended images.
Suzuki, A.; Kim, J. S.; Sugura, M.; Nagano, H.
Using the data obtained from the IMS North American magnetometer network stations at high latitudes, a motion picture was made by a computer technique, describing time changes of Pc5 and Pi3 magnetic pulsation vectors. Examples of pulsation characteristics derived from this presentation are regional polarization changes including shifts of polarization demarcation lines, changes in the extent of an active region and its movement with time.
Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.; van't Spijker, J. C.; Koerkamp, H. M. M. Klein
Tien and Ulrich introduced a description of the prism-film coupler, with use of the ray picture. The model given is discussed, and it is argued that the effect of the Goss-Hanchen shift cannot be neglected in general. Relatively simple expressions are given for the computation of the coupling efficiency of a prism-loaded planar structure as a function of the angle of incidence of the incoming beam. Computational results are presented and compared with those of other methods.
This is a childhood picture of Dr. von Braun (center) with his brothers. Dr. Wernher von Braun was born in Wirsitz, Germany, March 23, 1912. His childhood dreams of marned space flight were fulfilled when giant Saturn rockets, developed under his direction at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, boosted the manned Apollo spacecraft to the Moon. His life was dedicated to expanding man's knowledge through the exploration of space.
Paes, Juliana; de Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes Garcia; David, Isabel; Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal; Sobral, Ana Paula; Machado-Pinheiro, Walter; Mocaiber, Izabela
It is well established that emotions are organized around two motivational systems: the defensive and the appetitive. Individual differences are relevant factors in emotional reactions, making them more flexible and less stereotyped. There is evidence that health professionals have lower emotional reactivity when viewing scenes of situations involving pain. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the rating of pictures of surgical procedure depends on their personal/occupational relevance. Fifty-two female Nursing (health discipline) and forty-eight Social Work (social science discipline) students participated in the experiment, which consisted of the presentation of 105 images of different categories (e.g., neutral, food), including 25 images of surgical procedure. Volunteers judged each picture according to its valence (pleasantness) and arousal using the Self-Assessment Manikin scale (dimensional approach). Additionally, the participants chose the word that best described what they felt while viewing each image (discrete emotion perspective). The average valence score for surgical procedure pictures for the Nursing group (M = 4.57; SD = 1.02) was higher than the score for the Social Work group (M = 3.31; SD = 1.05), indicating that Nursing students classified those images as less unpleasant than the Social Work students did. Additionally, the majority of Nursing students (65.4%) chose “neutral” as the word that best described what they felt while viewing the pictures. In the Social Work group, disgust (54.2%) was the emotion that was most frequently chosen. The evaluation of emotional stimuli differed according to the groups' personal/occupational relevance: Nursing students judged pictures of surgical procedure as less unpleasant than the Social Work students did, possibly reflecting an emotional regulation skill or some type of habituation that is critically relevant to their future professional work. PMID:27518897
Paes, Juliana; de Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes Garcia; David, Isabel; Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal; Sobral, Ana Paula; Machado-Pinheiro, Walter; Mocaiber, Izabela
It is well established that emotions are organized around two motivational systems: the defensive and the appetitive. Individual differences are relevant factors in emotional reactions, making them more flexible and less stereotyped. There is evidence that health professionals have lower emotional reactivity when viewing scenes of situations involving pain. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the rating of pictures of surgical procedure depends on their personal/occupational relevance. Fifty-two female Nursing (health discipline) and forty-eight Social Work (social science discipline) students participated in the experiment, which consisted of the presentation of 105 images of different categories (e.g., neutral, food), including 25 images of surgical procedure. Volunteers judged each picture according to its valence (pleasantness) and arousal using the Self-Assessment Manikin scale (dimensional approach). Additionally, the participants chose the word that best described what they felt while viewing each image (discrete emotion perspective). The average valence score for surgical procedure pictures for the Nursing group (M = 4.57; SD = 1.02) was higher than the score for the Social Work group (M = 3.31; SD = 1.05), indicating that Nursing students classified those images as less unpleasant than the Social Work students did. Additionally, the majority of Nursing students (65.4%) chose "neutral" as the word that best described what they felt while viewing the pictures. In the Social Work group, disgust (54.2%) was the emotion that was most frequently chosen. The evaluation of emotional stimuli differed according to the groups' personal/occupational relevance: Nursing students judged pictures of surgical procedure as less unpleasant than the Social Work students did, possibly reflecting an emotional regulation skill or some type of habituation that is critically relevant to their future professional work.
The study of empathy, a translation of the term ‘Einfühlung’, originated in 19th century Germany in the sphere of aesthetics, and was followed by studies in psychology and then neuroscience. During the past decade the links between empathy and art have started to be investigated, but now from the neuroscientific perspective, and two different approaches have emerged. Recently, the primacy of the mirror neuron system and its association with automaticity and imitative, simulated movement has been envisaged. But earlier, a number of eminent art historians had pointed to the importance of cognitive responses to art; these responses might plausibly be subserved by alternative neural networks. Focusing here mainly on pictures depicting pain and evoking empathy, both approaches are considered by summarizing the evidence that either supports the involvement of the mirror neuron system, or alternatively suggests other neural networks are likely to be implicated. The use of such pictures in experimental studies exploring the underlying neural processes, however, raises a number of concerns, and suggests caution is exercised in drawing conclusions concerning the networks that might be engaged. These various networks are discussed next, taking into account the affective and sensory components of the pain experience, before concluding that both mirror neuron and alternative neural networks are likelyto be enlisted in the empathetic response to images of pain. A somewhat similar duality of spontaneous and cognitive processes may perhaps also be paralleled in the creation of such images. While noting that some have repudiated the neuroscientific approach to the subject, pictures are nevertheless shown here to represent an unusual but invaluable tool in the study of pain and empathy. PMID:25614024
Gelderman, Richard F.
A wise astronomer once pointed out that if a picture is worth a thousand words, then a spectrum is worth a thousand pictures. Unfortunately, spectra are rarely emphasized in the introductory astronomy courses and few students exit such a course with any meaningful understanding or appreciation of spectroscopy. Part of the problem is lack of background knowledge; the typical introductory astronomy student has little experience with spectroscopy or atomic physics. Another issue is that spectra are not pretty pictures and are not intuitively understandable. We present and discuss a series of “minds-on” exercises and activities built into a college-level “stars, galaxies, and cosmology” intro astronomy course. The lessons are structured to help students improve their ability to recognize patterns and improve their ability to really see the details in front of them. Another goal is for students to realize there is “more than meets the eye” to learn how to discover “hidden” diagnostics, such as different sources of light their eyes see as white light. A curriculum that emphasizes spectroscopy also provides the opportunity to stress the story of the “Harvard Women,” a tale that bridges gender gaps and often humanizes scientists in the eyes of non-science majors. Finally, with a solid foundation in spectroscopy, students are better prepared to understand exciting topics such as Hubble’s Law and the importance of primordial nucleosynthesis.
Wade, Nicholas J
Pictures deceive the brain: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between pictorial images (the contents of pictures) and objects are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from a pictorial image, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between image and object. Pictorial images can be spatialized or stylized; spatialized images (like photographs) generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also images but they do not resemble the objects they represent--they are stylized or conventional. Pictures can also be illusions--deceptions of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Most of visual science is now concerned with pictorial images--two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of deception?
Devue, Christel; Laloyaux, Cédric; Feyers, Dorothée; Theeuwes, Jan; Brédart, Serge
Faces and self-referential material (eg one's own name) are more likely to capture attention in the inattentional-blindness (IB) paradigm than other stimuli. This effect is presumably due to the meaning of these stimuli rather than to their familiarity [Mack and Rock, 1998 Inattentional Blindness (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press)]. In previous work, IB has been investigated mostly with schematic stimuli. In the present study, the generalisability of this finding was tested with photographic stimuli. In support of the view that faces constitute a special category of stimuli, pictures of faces were found to resist more to IB than pictures of common objects (experiment 1) or than pictures of inverted faces (experiment 2). In a third experiment, the influence of face familiarity and identity (the participant's own face, a friend's face, and an unknown face) on IB rates was evaluated. Unexpectedly, no differential resistence to blindness across these three kinds of faces was found. In conclusion, pictures of faces attracted attention more than pictures of objects or inverted faces in the IB paradigm. However, this effect was not dependent on face familiarity or identity.
Boucher, Olivier; Chouinard-Leclaire, Christine; Muckle, Gina; Westerlund, Alissa; Burden, Matthew J; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L
Recognition memory for concrete, nameable pictures is typically faster and more accurate than for abstract pictures. A dual-coding account for these findings suggests that concrete pictures are processed into verbal and image codes, whereas abstract pictures are encoded in image codes only. Recognition memory relies on two successive and distinct processes, namely familiarity and recollection. Whether these two processes are similarly or differently affected by stimulus concreteness remains unknown. This study examined the effect of picture concreteness on visual recognition memory processes using event-related potentials (ERPs). In a sample of children involved in a longitudinal study, participants (N=96; mean age=11.3years) were assessed on a continuous visual recognition memory task in which half the pictures were easily nameable, everyday concrete objects, and the other half were three-dimensional abstract, sculpture-like objects. Behavioral performance and ERP correlates of familiarity and recollection (respectively, the FN400 and P600 repetition effects) were measured. Behavioral results indicated faster and more accurate identification of concrete pictures as "new" or "old" (i.e., previously displayed) compared to abstract pictures. ERPs were characterized by a larger repetition effect, on the P600 amplitude, for concrete than for abstract images, suggesting a graded recollection process dependent on the type of material to be recollected. Topographic differences were observed within the FN400 latency interval, especially over anterior-inferior electrodes, with the repetition effect more pronounced and localized over the left hemisphere for concrete stimuli, potentially reflecting different neural processes underlying early processing of verbal/semantic and visual material in memory.
Flaisch, Tobias; Steinhauser, Marco; Schupp, Harald T
Emotional stimuli induce a state of natural selective attention and receive preferential processing by the brain. While this enables the organism to detect and respond swiftly to life-threatening or-sustaining stimuli, research using variants of the attentional blink paradigm has revealed that this advantage may come at the cost of processing other stimuli in a picture stream. In these studies, participants have to actively search for a target within the stream. However, it has also been shown that the active task set may exert a considerable influence on the outcome in an attentional blink scenario. Accordingly, the present series of studies was designed to test whether proactive emotional cost effects occur in an experimental context that does not implement an active search task set and in which all viewed stimuli are of equal relevance. Toward this end, a recognition memory paradigm was utilized in which participants viewed rapidly presented sequences of emotional and neutral images. Immediately afterward, they had to decide whether a probe stimulus had occurred in the sequence or not. Across 3 studies, images were better remembered when they had been presented after neutral as compared with emotional images. This was the case after both positive and negative emotional images and regardless of whether participants had to memorize all or only nonemotional stimuli. These findings speak to the robustness of proactive emotional cost effects and link recent research examining emotion-induced blindness to classic observations regarding emotional interference in memory tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record
The physical conditions of the display of single 2-D pictures, which produce images realistically, were studied by using the characteristics of the intake of the information for visual depth perception. Depth sensitivity, which is defined as the ratio of viewing distance to depth discrimination threshold, was introduced in order to evaluate the availability of various cues for depth perception: binocular parallax, motion parallax, accommodation, convergence, size, texture, brightness, and air-perspective contrast. The effects of binocular parallax in different conditions, the depth sensitivity of which is greatest at a distance of up to about 10 m, were studied with the new versatile stereoscopic display. From these results, four conditions to reinforce the perception of depth in single pictures were proposed, and these conditions are met by the old viewing devices and the new high-definition and wide television displays.
Benestad, Rasmus E.
The popular picture of the greenhouse effect emphasises the radiation transfer but fails to explain the observed climate change. An old conceptual model for the greenhouse effect is revisited and presented as a useful resource in climate change communication. It is validated against state-of-the-art data, and nontraditional diagnostics show a physically consistent picture. The earth's climate is constrained by well-known and elementary physical principles, such as energy balance, flow, and conservation. Greenhouse gases affect the atmospheric optical depth for infrared radiation, and increased opacity implies higher altitude from which earth's equivalent bulk heat loss takes place. Such an increase is seen in the reanalyses, and the outgoing long-wave radiation has become more diffuse over time, consistent with an increased influence of greenhouse gases on the vertical energy flow from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. The reanalyses further imply increases in the overturning in the troposphere, consistent with a constant and continuous vertical energy flow. The increased overturning can explain a slowdown in the global warming, and the association between these aspects can be interpreted as an entanglement between the greenhouse effect and the hydrological cycle, where reduced energy transfer associated with increased opacity is compensated by tropospheric overturning activity.
Al'perovich, P M; Korneichuk, A G; Konstantinovich, T I; Starinets, G A; Pshuk, Ia I
The authors studied 908 patients with Bell's paralysis. In 373 cases the etiology was cooling, in 52--vascular diseases, in 207 cases the etiology was not established. An analysis of the clinical picture development permits to assume that different modern theories of the pathogenesis of Bell's paralysis (the theory of primary ischemia, secondary ischemia a combination of primary and secondary ischemia) do not exclude each other, finding a different application depending upon the etiology of the paralysis. The report contains a detailed description of the clinical picture and development of Bell's paralysis. It is established, that the facial nerve in Bell's paralysis is usually affected in the inferior part of the Fallopian tube. A follow-up study of 536 patients demonstrated that in 174 cases (32.4%) (those who were discharged from the hospital with an incomplete therapeutical effect) a contracture of the mimical muscles was formed. In 70 of them the symptom of "crocodile tears" was found. In 73 patients there were homolateral relapses of Bell's paralysis.
Persson, Louise; Haraldsson, Katarina
Schools are recognized worldwide as settings for health promotion, and leadership has a bearing on schools' ability to be health promoting. School managers have a great influence on what is prioritized in school, which in turn affects students' school performance and health. There is lack of research into school managers' views on health promotion, and what they consider to be central to health promotion. The aim was therefore to examine school managers' views about what health promotion in schools include. An explorative design, qualitative content analysis, was performed. In-depth interviews were conducted with all 13 school managers of a middle-sized municipality in central Sweden. The analysis had both manifest and latent content and three categories: 'Organization and Collaboration', 'Optimize the arena' and 'Strengthen the individual', and 10 subcategories emerged. The theme, 'Opportunities for learning and a good life', describes the latent content of these categories. Taking into account the views of school managers are important because these views help form a more complete picture of how school managers work with health promotion and what is needed to enhance health promotion to improve students' opportunities for learning and a good life. The Ottawa Charter for Health promotion is thereby transformed into practice.
Sigmon, Miranda L.; Tackett, Mary E.; Azano, Amy Price
This article focuses on developing teacher understanding of how to carefully select and use children's picture books about autism as a tool for teaching awareness, empathy, and acceptance in an elementary classroom setting. We describe how the increased rate of autism and growing practice of inclusive educational settings affect classroom practice…
Behar, D.; Stewart, M.A.
Investigates how socioeconomic status, sex, and age of admission to a child psychiatry ward influenced the clinical picture of aggressive conduct disorder among 58 affected children. As little evidence of variation in any of the three variables was found, results reinforced the idea that the disorder is a valid psychiatric syndrome. (RH)
The perceptual fluency hypothesis claims that items that are easy to perceive at encoding induce an illusion that they will be easier to remember, despite the finding that perception does not generally affect recall. The current set of studies tested the predictions of the perceptual fluency hypothesis with a picture generation manipulation.…
Huo, Junyan; Chang, Yilin; Li, Ming; Yang, Haitao
Inter-view prediction is introduced in multiview video coding (MVC) to exploit the inter-view correlation. Statistical analyses show that the coding gain benefited from inter-view prediction is unequal among pictures. On the basis of this observation, a picturewise interview prediction selection scheme is proposed. This scheme employs a novel inter-view prediction selection criterion to determine whether it is necessary to apply inter-view prediction to the current coding picture. This criterion is derived from the available coding information of the temporal reference pictures. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can improve the performance of MVC with a comprehensive consideration of compression efficiency, computational complexity, and random access ability.
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2008-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This movie first shows an artist's animation of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander snapping a picture of its arm, then transitions to the actual picture of the arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier unpeeled. The arm is still folded up, with its 'elbow' shown at upper left and its scoop at bottom right. The biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm in this view. The barrier is an extra precaution to protect Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars. Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have come about during the final steps before launch, and during the journey to Mars, will not contact the robotic arm. After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy. The arm is scheduled to begin to unlatch on the third Martian day of the mission, or Sol 3 (May 28, 2008). This image was taken on Sol 1 (May 26, 2008) by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.
Background Overt repetition of auditorily presented words can facilitate picture naming performance in both unimpaired speakers and individuals with word retrieval difficulties, but the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms and longevity of such effects remain unclear. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether different neurological mechanisms underlie short-term (within minutes) and long-term (within days) facilitation effects from an auditory repetition task in healthy older adults. Results The behavioral results showed that both short- and long-term facilitated items were named significantly faster than unfacilitated items, with short-term items significantly faster than long-term items. Neuroimaging analyses identified a repetition suppression effect for long-term facilitated items, relative to short-term facilitated and unfacilitated items, in regions known to be associated with both semantic and phonological processing. A repetition suppression effect was also observed for short-term facilitated items when compared to unfacilitated items in a region of the inferior temporal lobe linked to semantic processing and object recognition, and a repetition enhancement effect when compared to long-term facilitated items in a posterior superior temporal region associated with phonological processing. Conclusions These findings suggest that different neurocognitive mechanisms underlie short- and long-term facilitation of picture naming by an auditory repetition task, reflecting both phonological and semantic processing. More specifically, the brain areas engaged were consistent with the view that long-term facilitation may be driven by a strengthening of semantic-phonological connections. Short-term facilitation, however, appears to result in more efficient semantic processing and/or object recognition, possibly in conjunction with active recognition of the phonological form. PMID:22364354
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago... will enforce the temporary safety zone for motion picture filming in Calumet Harbor, Chicago, IL from 9... Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL (78 FR 20241, August 20, 2013). This updated...
Costello, Bill; Kolodziej, Nancy J.
The use of picture books as supplementary material for middle level classrooms is becoming more common. Picture books are being created specifically to address the needs and interests of middle school students. Society is becoming more visually oriented and the visual format of picture books appeals to adolescents, who today are exposed to various…
This teaching tip manuscript demonstrates how picture book illustrations can be used as an inquiry tool that facilitates one's connecting of visual investigations in a picture to the process of generating self-questions. Techniques suggested to promote self-questioning are (1) introducing young readers to an interactive picture book read aloud…
Tiedt, Iris McClellan
Arguing that picture books have much to offer students in the upper grades (including middle school and even high school students), this book discusses using picture books to stimulate students' thinking in a variety of topic areas. Chapter 1, Using Picture Books in the Middle School To Stimulate Thinking, introduces the topic of using picture…
Rich, Rebecca Z.; Blake, Sylvia
This article describes a picture drawing strategy to enhance the comprehension of fourth- and fifth-grade students with language and reading problems. Students used adhesive notes to draw pictures of main ideas as they read aloud or listened. Students learned the strategy rapidly and were able to use the pictures to generate summary statements.…
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motion picture producing industry. 541.709 Section 541.709... SALES EMPLOYEES Definitions and Miscellaneous Provisions § 541.709 Motion picture producing industry... motion picture producing industry who is compensated at a base rate of at least $695 a week (exclusive...
A study investigated 4 problems of children between 3 and 7.5 years of age: difficulty in seeing the same character in different representations; the process of linking several pictures into 1 story; the correlation between the temporal order and spatial disposition of pictures; and the tendency to consider the setting of pictures as a puzzle to…
Maisto, Albert A.; Queen, Debbie Elaine
The performance of 53 younger adults (mean age 20.7) and 52 older adults (mean age 68.3) was compared in a memory task involving pictures, words, and pictures-plus-words. Results showed (1) significantly higher recall scores for younger adults; (2) equivalent picture superiority effect for both groups; and (3) decline in older adults' performance…
Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin
When pictures and words are presented serially in an explicit memory task, recall of the pictures is superior. While this effect is well established in the adult population, little is known of the development of this picture-superiority effect in typical development. This task was administered to 80 participants from middle childhood to…
Francis, Wendy S.; Corral, Nuvia I.; Jones, Mary L.; Saenz, Silvia P.
Cognitive mechanisms underlying repetition priming in picture naming were decomposed in several experiments. Sets of encoding manipulations meant to selectively prime or reduce priming in object identification or word production components of picture naming were combined factorially to dissociate processes underlying priming in picture naming.…
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motion or sound pictures. 27.71 Section 27... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Light and Sound Equipment § 27.71 Motion or sound pictures. The taking or filming of any motion or sound pictures on...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motion or sound pictures. 27.71 Section 27... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Light and Sound Equipment § 27.71 Motion or sound pictures. The taking or filming of any motion or sound pictures on...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motion or sound pictures. 27.71 Section 27... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Light and Sound Equipment § 27.71 Motion or sound pictures. The taking or filming of any motion or sound pictures on...
Juhasz, Barbara J.
Words and pictures with earlier learned labels are processed faster than words and pictures with later learned labels. This age-of-acquisition (AoA) effect has been extensively investigated in many different types of tasks. This article provides a review of these studies including picture naming, word naming, speeded word naming, word…
Cho, Boo-Kyung; Kim, Jeongjun
Examines how one Korean kindergarten used picture books to facilitate children's creativity. Describes students' responses to literature-based science activities related to a picture book. Concludes that good picture books can unleash children's minds from conventional science activities and that the development of the children's ideas depended on…
Malone, Fionn D. Lee, D. K. K.; Foulkes, W. M. C.; Blunt, N. S.; Shepherd, James J.; Spencer, J. S.
The recently developed density matrix quantum Monte Carlo (DMQMC) algorithm stochastically samples the N-body thermal density matrix and hence provides access to exact properties of many-particle quantum systems at arbitrary temperatures. We demonstrate that moving to the interaction picture provides substantial benefits when applying DMQMC to interacting fermions. In this first study, we focus on a system of much recent interest: the uniform electron gas in the warm dense regime. The basis set incompleteness error at finite temperature is investigated and extrapolated via a simple Monte Carlo sampling procedure. Finally, we provide benchmark calculations for a four-electron system, comparing our results to previous work where possible.
Kano, Fumihiro; Call, Josep; Tomonaga, Masaki
Because the faces and eyes of primates convey a rich array of social information, the way in which primates view faces and eyes reflects species-specific strategies for facial communication. How are humans and closely related species such as great apes similar and different in their viewing patterns for faces and eyes? Following previous studies comparing chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with humans (Homo sapiens), this study used the eye-tracking method to directly compare the patterns of face and eye scanning by humans, gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo abelii). Human and ape participants freely viewed pictures of whole bodies and full faces of conspecifics and allospecifics under the same experimental conditions. All species were strikingly similar in that they viewed predominantly faces and eyes. No particular difference was identified between gorillas and orangutans, and they also did not differ from the chimpanzees tested in previous studies. However, humans were somewhat different from apes, especially with respect to prolonged eye viewing. We also examined how species-specific facial morphologies, such as the male flange of orangutans and the black-white contrast of human eyes, affected viewing patterns. Whereas the male flange of orangutans affected viewing patterns, the color contrast of human eyes did not. Humans showed prolonged eye viewing independently of the eye color of presented faces, indicating that this pattern is internally driven rather than stimulus dependent. Overall, the results show general similarities among the species and also identify unique eye-viewing patterns in humans.
Pönkänen, Laura M; Alhoniemi, Annemari; Leppänen, Jukka M; Hietanen, Jari K
Several recent studies have begun to examine the neurocognitive mechanisms involved in perceiving and responding to eye contact, a salient social signal of interest and readiness for interaction. Laboratory experiments measuring observers' responses to pictorial instead of live eye gaze cues may, however, only vaguely approximate the real-life affective significance of gaze direction cues. To take this into account, we measured event-related brain potentials and subjective affective responses in healthy adults while viewing live faces with a neutral expression through an electronic shutter and faces as pictures on a computer screen. Direct gaze elicited greater face-sensitive N170 amplitudes and early posterior negativity potentials than averted gaze or closed eyes, but only in the live condition. The results show that early-stage processing of facial information is enhanced by another person's direct gaze when the person is faced live. We propose that seeing a live face with a direct gaze is processed more intensely than a face with averted gaze or closed eyes, as the direct gaze is capable of intensifying the feeling of being the target of the other's interest and intentions. These results may have implications for the use of pictorial stimuli in the social cognition studies.
Loritz, Ralf; Hassler, Sibylle K.; Jackisch, Conrad; Allroggen, Niklas; van Schaik, Loes; Wienhöfer, Jan; Zehe, Erwin
This study explores the suitability of a single hillslope as a parsimonious representation of a catchment in a physically based model. We test this hypothesis by picturing two distinctly different catchments in perceptual models and translating these pictures into parametric setups of 2-D physically based hillslope models. The model parametrizations are based on a comprehensive field data set, expert knowledge and process-based reasoning. Evaluation against streamflow data highlights that both models predicted the annual pattern of streamflow generation as well as the hydrographs acceptably. However, a look beyond performance measures revealed deficiencies in streamflow simulations during the summer season and during individual rainfall-runoff events as well as a mismatch between observed and simulated soil water dynamics. Some of these shortcomings can be related to our perception of the systems and to the chosen hydrological model, while others point to limitations of the representative hillslope concept itself. Nevertheless, our results confirm that representative hillslope models are a suitable tool to assess the importance of different data sources as well as to challenge our perception of the dominant hydrological processes we want to represent therein. Consequently, these models are a promising step forward in the search for the optimal representation of catchments in physically based models.
Peláez, Irene; Martínez-Iñigo, David; Barjola, Paloma; Cardoso, Susana; Mercado, Francisco
Pain perception arises from a complex interaction between a nociceptive stimulus and different emotional and cognitive factors, which appear to be mediated by both automatic and controlled systems. Previous evidence has shown that whereas conscious processing of unpleasant stimuli enhances pain perception, emotional influences on pain under unaware conditions are much less known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation of pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures through an emotional masking paradigm. Two kinds of both somatosensory (painful and non-painful) and emotional stimulation (negative and neutral pictures) were employed. Fifty pain-free participants were asked to rate the perception of pain they were feeling in response to laser-induced somatosensory stimuli as faster as they can. Data from pain intensity and reaction times were measured. Statistical analyses revealed a significant effect for the interaction between pain and emotional stimulation, but surprisingly this relationship was opposite to expected. In particular, lower pain intensity scores and longer reaction times were found in response to negative images being strengthened this effect for painful stimulation. Present findings suggest a clear pain perception modulation by unconscious emotional contexts. Attentional capture mechanisms triggered by unaware negative stimulation could explain this phenomenon leading to a withdrawal of processing resources from pain. PMID:27818642
Peláez, Irene; Martínez-Iñigo, David; Barjola, Paloma; Cardoso, Susana; Mercado, Francisco
Pain perception arises from a complex interaction between a nociceptive stimulus and different emotional and cognitive factors, which appear to be mediated by both automatic and controlled systems. Previous evidence has shown that whereas conscious processing of unpleasant stimuli enhances pain perception, emotional influences on pain under unaware conditions are much less known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation of pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures through an emotional masking paradigm. Two kinds of both somatosensory (painful and non-painful) and emotional stimulation (negative and neutral pictures) were employed. Fifty pain-free participants were asked to rate the perception of pain they were feeling in response to laser-induced somatosensory stimuli as faster as they can. Data from pain intensity and reaction times were measured. Statistical analyses revealed a significant effect for the interaction between pain and emotional stimulation, but surprisingly this relationship was opposite to expected. In particular, lower pain intensity scores and longer reaction times were found in response to negative images being strengthened this effect for painful stimulation. Present findings suggest a clear pain perception modulation by unconscious emotional contexts. Attentional capture mechanisms triggered by unaware negative stimulation could explain this phenomenon leading to a withdrawal of processing resources from pain.
Lansdale, Mark W.; Oliff, Lynda; Baguley, Thom S.
The authors investigated whether memory for object locations in pictures could be exploited to address known difficulties of designing query languages for picture databases. M. W. Lansdale's (1998) model of location memory was adapted to 4 experiments observing memory for everyday pictures. These experiments showed that location memory is…
Ghatala, Elizabeth S.; And Others
This study applied a frequency theory to measure the superiority of pictures over words in both discrimination learning and recognition memory tasks. Three groups of sixth grade students were given separate instructions before viewing slides of either common objects or words. The first group (control) was asked to study the items shown, the second…
Johnson-Ulrich, Zoe; Vonk, Jennifer; Humbyrd, Mary; Crowley, Marilyn; Wojtkowski, Ela; Yates, Florence; Allard, Stephanie
Many animals have been tested for conceptual discriminations using two-dimensional images as stimuli, and many of these species appear to transfer knowledge from 2D images to analogous real life objects. We tested an American black bear for picture-object recognition using a two alternative forced choice task. She was presented with four unique sets of objects and corresponding pictures. The bear showed generalization from both objects to pictures and pictures to objects; however, her transfer was superior when transferring from real objects to pictures, suggesting that bears can recognize visual features from real objects within photographic images during discriminations.
Jia, Wenyan; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Yue, Yaofeng; Li, Zhaoxin; Fernstrom, John; Bai, Yicheng; Li, Chengliu; Sun, Mingui
Objective Accurate estimation of food portion size is of paramount importance in dietary studies. We have developed a small, chest-worn electronic device called eButton which automatically takes pictures of consumed foods for objective dietary assessment. From the acquired pictures, the food portion size can be calculated semi-automatically with the help of computer software. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the accuracy of the calculated food portion size (volumes) from eButton pictures. Design Participants wore an eButton during their lunch. The volume of food in each eButton picture was calculated using software. For comparison, three raters estimated the food volume by viewing the same picture. The actual volume was determined by physical measurement using seed displacement. Setting Dining room and offices in a research laboratory. Subjects Seven lab member volunteers. Results Images of 100 food samples (fifty Western and fifty Asian foods) were collected and each food volume was estimated from these images using software. The mean relative error between the estimated volume and the actual volume over all the samples was −2.8 % (95 % CI −6.8 %, 1.2%) with SD of 20.4 %. For eighty-five samples, the food volumes determined by computer differed by no more than 30 % from the results of actual physical measurements. When the volume estimates by the computer and raters were compared, the computer estimates showed much less bias and variability. Conclusions From the same eButton pictures, the computer-based method provides more objective and accurate estimates of food volume than the visual estimation method. PMID:24476848
Hutchinson, Jesson D.; Bahran, Rian Mustafa; McKenzie, George Espy; Cutler, Theresa Elizabeth
Below are all of the pictures for the CNEC and CVT measurements performed at the DAF in July 2016. In total there are 165 pictures. The photos on pages 2-105 were taken during the first week of measurements and the photos on pages 106-165 were taken during the second week of measurements. Many photos are applicable to both sets, which is why it is best to keep the entire set together. For most configurations, a description of the configuration was written on a white board; photos of the measurement setup were taken, then a photo of the white board was taken. For example, the pictures on pages 6-19 (which precede a white board picture on page 20) are of the configuration with Rocky Flats Shells 1-2 surrounded by 4 AmLi sources, which is listed on the white board picture on page 20. In some cases, the white board picture precedes the configuration pictures.
Zhang, Guanjun; Stevenson, Robert L.
Due to widely used motion-compensated prediction coding, errors propagate along decoded video sequence and may result in severe quality degradation. Various methods have been reported to address this problem based on the common idea of diversifying prediction references. In this paper, we present an alternative way of concealing the references pictures errors. A generated virtual picture is used as a reference instead of an actual sequence picture in the temporal prediction. The virtual reference picture is generated in a way to filter damaged parts of previously decoded pictures so that the decoder can still get a clean reference picture in case of errors. Coding efficiency is effected due to the fact that the virtual reference is less correlated to the currently encoded picture. The simulations on H.264 codec have shown quality improvement of the proposed method over intra-coded macroblock refreshment. It can be used on any motion-compensated video codec to combat channel errors.
Fisher, John P.; Glenister, Jennifer M.
Designed for use by speech pathologists, psychologists, special educators, English-as-a-Second-Language teachers, classroom teachers, and other professionals investigating child, adolescent, and adult language, this test--the Hundred Pictures Naming Test (HPNT)--is a confrontation naming test designed to evaluate rapid naming ability across age…
Reynolds, F. W.; Anderson, Carl
Motion-picture films have come to be recognized quite generally as a valuable and practical means of instruction in schools, college, and universities and for clubs and societies organized for educational purposes. The number of persons making such use of them is now very large and constantly becoming larger. To all these, a handbook of general…
This article considers ideological, pedagogical and constitutive functions of children's picture books, with particular emphasis on the ways in which texts construct children and childhood in economic terms. Through an analysis of Lauren Childs' "Hubert Horatio Bartle Bobton-Trent" and Anthony Browne's "Voices in the Park", the article…
Baumgartner, Thomas; Esslen, Michaela; Jäncke, Lutz
Most previous neurophysiological studies evoked emotions by presenting visual stimuli. Models of the emotion circuits in the brain have for the most part ignored emotions arising from musical stimuli. To our knowledge, this is the first emotion brain study which examined the influence of visual and musical stimuli on brain processing. Highly arousing pictures of the International Affective Picture System and classical musical excerpts were chosen to evoke the three basic emotions of happiness, sadness and fear. The emotional stimuli modalities were presented for 70 s either alone or combined (congruent) in a counterbalanced and random order. Electroencephalogram (EEG) Alpha-Power-Density, which is inversely related to neural electrical activity, in 30 scalp electrodes from 24 right-handed healthy female subjects, was recorded. In addition, heart rate (HR), skin conductance responses (SCR), respiration, temperature and psychometrical ratings were collected. Results showed that the experienced quality of the presented emotions was most accurate in the combined conditions, intermediate in the picture conditions and lowest in the sound conditions. Furthermore, both the psychometrical ratings and the physiological involvement measurements (SCR, HR, Respiration) were significantly increased in the combined and sound conditions compared to the picture conditions. Finally, repeated measures ANOVA revealed the largest Alpha-Power-Density for the sound conditions, intermediate for the picture conditions, and lowest for the combined conditions, indicating the strongest activation in the combined conditions in a distributed emotion and arousal network comprising frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital neural structures. Summing up, these findings demonstrate that music can markedly enhance the emotional experience evoked by affective pictures.
Book apps have developed into a new format for the picture book. Given the crucial role that picture books have played in early childhood education, it seems pertinent to ascertain the ways in which they have been affected by digitisation. In response to concerns regarding a lack of models and design principles within children's digital…
Loritz, Ralf; Hassler, Sibylle; Jackisch, Conrad; Zehe, Erwin
Hydrological modelling studies often start with a qualitative sketch of the hydrological processes of a catchment. These so-called perceptual models are often pictured as hillslopes and are generalizations displaying only the dominant and relevant processes of a catchment or hillslope. The problem with these models is that they are prone to become too much predetermined by the designer's background and experience. Moreover it is difficult to know if that picture is correct and contains enough complexity to represent the system under study. Nevertheless, because of their qualitative form, perceptual models are easy to understand and can be an excellent tool for multidisciplinary exchange between researchers with different backgrounds, helping to identify the dominant structures and processes in a catchment. In our study we explore whether a perceptual model built upon an intensive field campaign may serve as a blueprint for setting up representative hillslopes in a hydrological model to reproduce the functioning of two distinctly different catchments. We use a physically-based 2D hillslope model which has proven capable to be driven by measured soil-hydrological parameters. A key asset of our approach is that the model structure itself remains a picture of the perceptual model, which is benchmarked against a) geo-physical images of the subsurface and b) observed dynamics of discharge, distributed state variables and fluxes (soil moisture, matric potential and sap flow). Within this approach we are able to set up two behavioral model structures which allow the simulation of the most important hydrological fluxes and state variables in good accordance with available observations within the 19.4 km2 large Colpach catchment and the 4.5 km2 large Wollefsbach catchment in Luxembourg without the necessity of calibration. This corroborates, contrary to the widespread opinion, that a) lower mesoscale catchments may be modelled by representative hillslopes and b) physically
A north looking view of portions of Massachusetts and New Hampshire in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This picture includes a view of Boston and Boston Bay, Lowell, Manchester, Lawrence, and Salem.
INTERIOR VIEW OF BEDROOM 1. SHOWING THE BOARD AND BATTEN WALLS WITH PICTURE RAIL. NOTE THE MIRROR-PANEL CLOSET DOOR AND FIVE-PANEL DOOR TO THE HALL. VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Y, 27 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI
AIRCRAFT, MOTION PICTURE CAMERAS, MOTION PICTURE FILM , COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS.... MOTION PICTURE PHOTOGRAPHY, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, CLOUD HEIGHT INDICATORS, CLOUDS, HEIGHT FINDING, DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT
Korwar, V. N.; Lipes, R. G.
The degradation of picture quality in a high-resolution, large-swath SAR mapping system caused by speckle, additive white Gaussian noise and range and azimuthal ambiguities occurring because of the nonfinite antenna pattern produced by a square aperture antenna was studied and simulated. The effect of the azimuth antenna pattern was accounted for by calculating the azimuth ambiguity function. Range ambiguities were accounted for by adding, to each pixel of interest, appropriate pixels at a range separation corresponding to one pulse repetition period, but attenuated by the antenna pattern. It is concluded that azimuth ambiguities do not cause any noticeable degradation (for large time bandwidth product systems, at least) but range ambiguities might.
Véron-Cetty, M.-P.; Véron, P.
The 1.5 m Oanish telescope at La Silla has been used to photograph a number of galaxies with a CCO camera (1) through three different filters: blue (Johnson B), red and infrared (Gunn r (L) and z). The images have been reduced with the ESO image processing system IHAP and then transferred to the VAX computer to use OICOMEO, the high quality hard copy device which produces colour slides. These photographs are in real but not natural colours in the sense that instead of using blue, green and red images, we have used blue, red and infrared. The colour balance is arbitrary but the same for all pictures, except #2. The seeing was 1.2 to 1.5 arcsec. In all cases, north is at the top, east to the left.
Flynn, Brian; Mendillo, Michael
Atomic sodium is a useful tracer of the tenuous lunar atmosphere because of its high efficiency in scattering sunlight at the D1 (5896 angstroms) and D2 (5890 angstroms) wavelengths. In 1988, Earth-based instruments revealed the presence of sodium at a density of less than 50 atoms per cubic centimeter at lunar altitudes below 100 kilometers. Telescopic observations that are made with a coronograph technique to block out the disk of the moon allow a true picture of the circumlunar atmosphere to be obtained and show the presence of sodium out to a distance of several lunar radii. The distribution of sodium has a solar zenith angle dependence, suggesting that most of the sodium that reaches great altitudes is liberated from the moon's surface by solar photons (by heating or sputtering) or by solar wind impact, in contrast to a source driven by uniform micrometeor bombardment.
A collection of 893 historical picture postcards from 1900 to 1935, depicting dwarfs and giants, was analysed from medical and psychosocial viewpoints. In conditions such as 'bird headed dwarfism', achondroplasia, cretinism, so-called Aztecs or pinheads, Grebe chondrodysplasia, and acromegalic gigantism, the disorder could be diagnosed easily. In hypopituitary dwarfism, exact diagnosis was more difficult because of heterogeneity. The most common conditions depicted were pituitary dwarfism and achondroplasia. Most of those with gigantism had pituitary gigantism and acromegaly. Brothers and sisters or parents and their children provided evidence of mendelian inheritance of some of these disorders. The cards suggest that being put on show provided, at least in some cases, social benefits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9764085
Fong, Wai; Yeh, Pen-Shu; Sank, Victor; Nyugen, Xuan; Xia, Wei; Duran, Steve; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)
Low-Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) is a proposed standard for direct broadcast transmission of satellite weather images. This standard is a joint effort by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As a digital transmission scheme, its purpose is to replace the current analog Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) system for use in the Meteorological Operational (METOP) satellites. Goddard Space Flight Center has been tasked to build an LRPT Demonstration System (LDS). It's main objective is to develop or demonstrate the feasibility of a low-cost receiver utilizing a Personal Computer (PC) as the primary processing component and determine the performance of the protocol in the simulated Radio Frequency (RF) environment. The approach would consist of two phases. In the phase 1, a Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) Modulator-Demodulator (MODEM) board that would perform RF demodulation would be purchased allowing the Central Processing Unit (CPU) to perform the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) protocol processing. Also since the weather images are compressed the PC would perform the decompression. Phase 1 was successfully demonstrated on December 1997. Phase 2 consists of developing a high-fidelity receiver, transmitter and environment simulator. Its goal is to find out how the METOP Specification performs in a simulated noise environment in a cost-effective receiver. The approach would be to produce a receiver using as much software as possible to perform front-end processing to take advantage of the latest high-speed PCs. Thus the COTS MODEM used in Phase 1 is performing RF demodulation along with data acquisition providing data to the receiving software. Also, environment simulator is produced using the noise patterns generated by Institute for Telecommunications Sciences (ITS) from their noise environment study.
Chalmers, Kerry A
Children aged 3½ to 6½ years viewed pictures of common objects presented either once or three times on one of two consecutive days. A different hand puppet was used to present the pictures on each day, providing both perceptual and temporal cues to source. At test, old (studied) and new (non-studied) pictures were presented for item recognition and source identification. Results showed that both item and source accuracy were higher for older (M = 5; 9 years) than younger children (M = 4; 6 years). Significant interactions between Age and Day of study were found for both item and source accuracy. For younger children, accuracy was higher for pictures studied on Day 1 than Day 2 (significant for source identification but not item recognition), whereas older children showed the opposite pattern: Higher accuracy for Day 2 than Day 1 (significant for item recognition but not source identification). Results are interpreted with respect to proactive interference and response bias. The utility of signal detection theory measures in determining the basis of age differences in performance of source identification is discussed.
Kroemer, Nils B; Krebs, Lena; Kobiella, Andrea; Grimm, Oliver; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Wolfensteller, Uta; Kling, Ricarda; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Smolka, Michael N
Overweight and obesity pose serious challenges to public health and are promoted by our food-rich environment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate reactivity to food cues after overnight fasting and following a standardized caloric intake (i.e., a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT) in 26 participants (body mass index, BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 kg m(-2)). They viewed pictures of palatable food and low-level control stimuli in a block design and rated their current appetite after each block. Compared to control pictures, food pictures activated a large bilateral network typically involved in homeostatically and hedonically motivated food processing. Glucose ingestion was followed by decreased activation in the basal ganglia and paralimbic regions and increased activation in parietal and occipital regions. Plasma level increases in insulin correlated with cue-induced appetite at the neural and behavioral level. High insulin increases were associated with reduced activation in various bilateral regions including the fusiform gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the medial frontal gyrus, and the limbic system in the right hemisphere. In addition, they were accompanied by lower subjective appetite ratings following food pictures and modulated the neural response associated with it (e.g., in the fusiform gyrus). We conclude that individual insulin reactivity is critical to reduce food-cue responsivity after an initial energy intake and thereby may help to counteract overeating.
Chasteen, Alison L; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Dupuis, Kate; Smith, Sherri; Singh, Gurjit
Memory and hearing are critical domains that interact during older adults' daily communication and social encounters. To develop a more comprehensive picture of how aging influences performance in these domains, the roles of social variables such as views of aging and self-perceived abilities need greater examination. The present study investigates the linkages between views of aging, self-perceived abilities, and performance within and across the domains of memory and hearing, connections that have never been examined together within the same sample of older adults. For both domains, 301 older adults completed measures of their views of aging, their self-perceived abilities and behavioral tests. Using structural equation modeling, we tested a hypothesized model in which older adults' negative views of aging predicted their performance in the domains of memory and hearing through negatively affecting their self-perceived abilities in those domains. Although this model achieved adequate fit, an alternative model in which hearing performance predicted self-perceived hearing also was supported. Both models indicate that hearing influences memory with respect to both behavioral and self-perception measures and that negative views of aging influence self-perceptions in both domains. These results highlight the importance of views of aging and self-perceptions of abilities within and across these domains.
Miozzo, Michele; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf
The time course of brain activation during word production has become an area of increasingly intense investigation in cognitive neuroscience. The predominant view has been that semantic and phonological processes are activated sequentially, at about 150 and 200–400 ms after picture onset. Although evidence from prior studies has been interpreted as supporting this view, these studies were arguably not ideally suited to detect early brain activation of semantic and phonological processes. We here used a multiple linear regression approach to magnetoencephalography (MEG) analysis of picture naming in order to investigate early effects of variables specifically related to visual, semantic, and phonological processing. This was combined with distributed minimum-norm source estimation and region-of-interest analysis. Brain activation associated with visual image complexity appeared in occipital cortex at about 100 ms after picture presentation onset. At about 150 ms, semantic variables became physiologically manifest in left frontotemporal regions. In the same latency range, we found an effect of phonological variables in the left middle temporal gyrus. Our results demonstrate that multiple linear regression analysis is sensitive to early effects of multiple psycholinguistic variables in picture naming. Crucially, our results suggest that access to phonological information might begin in parallel with semantic processing around 150 ms after picture onset. PMID:25005037
Particle physics conferences lasting a week (like CHEP) can have 100's of talks and posters presented. Current conference web interfaces (like Indico) are well suited to finding a talk by author or by time-slot. However, browsing the complete material in a modern large conference is not user friendly. Browsing involves continually making the expensive transition between HTML viewing and talk-slides (which are either PDF files or some other format). Further the web interfaces aren't designed for undirected browsing. The advent of multi-core computing and advanced video cards means that we have more processor power available for visualization than any time in the past. This poster describes a technique of rendering a complete conference's slides and posters as a single very large picture. Standard plug-in software for a browser allows a user to zoom in on a portion of the conference that looks interesting. As the user zooms further more and more details become visible, allowing the user to make a quick and chep decision on whether to spend more time on a particular talk. The project, DeepConference, has been implemented as a public web site and can render any conference whose agenda is powered by Indico. The rendering technology is powered by the free download, Silverlight. The poster discusses the implementation and use as well as cross platform performance and possible future directions. A demo will be shown.
Kim, Jongwan; Wang, Jing; Wedell, Douglas H; Shinkareva, Svetlana V
Recent research has demonstrated that affective states elicited by viewing pictures varying in valence and arousal are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Identification of affective states from more naturalistic stimuli has clinical relevance, but the feasibility of identifying these states on an individual trial basis from fMRI data elicited by dynamic multimodal stimuli is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether affective states can be similarly identified when participants view dynamic naturalistic audiovisual stimuli. Eleven participants viewed 5s audiovisual clips in a passive viewing task in the scanner. Valence and arousal for individual trials were identified both within and across participants based on distributed patterns of activity in areas selectively responsive to audiovisual naturalistic stimuli while controlling for lower level features of the stimuli. In addition, the brain regions identified by searchlight analyses to represent valence and arousal were consistent with previously identified regions associated with emotion processing. These findings extend previous results on the distributed representation of affect to multimodal dynamic stimuli.
Kim, Jongwan; Wang, Jing; Wedell, Douglas H.
Recent research has demonstrated that affective states elicited by viewing pictures varying in valence and arousal are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Identification of affective states from more naturalistic stimuli has clinical relevance, but the feasibility of identifying these states on an individual trial basis from fMRI data elicited by dynamic multimodal stimuli is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether affective states can be similarly identified when participants view dynamic naturalistic audiovisual stimuli. Eleven participants viewed 5s audiovisual clips in a passive viewing task in the scanner. Valence and arousal for individual trials were identified both within and across participants based on distributed patterns of activity in areas selectively responsive to audiovisual naturalistic stimuli while controlling for lower level features of the stimuli. In addition, the brain regions identified by searchlight analyses to represent valence and arousal were consistent with previously identified regions associated with emotion processing. These findings extend previous results on the distributed representation of affect to multimodal dynamic stimuli. PMID:27598534
Pucel, David J.
Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)
An SBIR contract through Langley Research Center helped Interactive Pictures Corporation, of Knoxville, Tennessee, create an innovative imaging technology. This technology is a video imaging process that allows real-time control of live video data and can provide users with interactive, panoramic 360 views. The camera system can see in multiple directions, provide up to four simultaneous views, each with its own tilt, rotation, and magnification, yet it has no moving parts, is noiseless, and can respond faster than the human eye. In addition, it eliminates the distortion caused by a fisheye lens, and provides a clear, flat view of each perspective.
A vertical view of southeastern New York State is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This picture covers the northern part of New Jersey, a part of northeastern Pennsylvania, and the western tip of Connecticut. The body of water is Long Island Sound. The wide Hudson River flows southward across a corner of the photograph. The New York City metropolitan area occupies part of the picture.
Perri, Rinaldo L.; Berchicci, Marika; Lucci, Giuliana; Cimmino, Rocco L.; Bello, Annalisa; Di Russo, Francesco
Emotional perception has been extensively studied, but only a few studies have investigated the brain activity preceding exposure to emotional stimuli, especially when they are triggered by the subject himself. Here, we sought to investigate the emotional expectancy by means of movement related cortical potentials (MRCPs) in a self-paced task, in which the subjects begin the affective experience by pressing a key. In this experiment, participants had to alternatively press two keys to concomitantly display positive, negative, neutral, and scrambled images extracted from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS). Each key press corresponded to a specific emotional category, and the experimenter communicated the coupling before each trial so that the subjects always knew the valence of the forthcoming picture. The main results of the present study included a bilateral positive activity in prefrontal areas during expectancy of more arousing pictures (positive and negative) and an early and sustained positivity over occipital areas, especially during negative expectancy. In addition, we observed more pronounced and anteriorly distributed Late Positive Potential (LPPs) components in the emotional conditions. In conclusion, these results show that emotional expectancy can influence brain activity in both motor preparation and stimulus perception, suggesting enhanced pre-processing in the to-be-stimulated areas. We propose that before a predictable emotional stimulus, both appetitive and defensive motivational systems act to facilitate the forthcoming processing of survival-relevant contents by means of an enhancement of attention toward more arousing pictures. PMID:24904344
Jóźwiak, Marek; Chen, Brian Po-Jung; Musielak, Bartosz; Fabiszak, Jacek; Grzegorzewski, Andrzej
This study presents how motion pictures illustrate a person with cerebral palsy (CP), the social impact from the media, and the possibility of cerebral palsy education by using motion pictures. 937 motion pictures were reviewed in this study. With the criteria of nondocumentary movies, possibility of disability classification, and availability, the total number of motion pictures about CP was reduced to 34. The geographical distribution of movie number ever produced is as follows: North America 12, Europe 11, India 2, East Asia 6, and Australia 3. The CP incidences of different motor types in real world and in movies, respectively, are 78–86%, 65% (Spastic); 1.5–6%, 9% (Dyskinetic); 6.5–9%, 26% (Mixed); 3%, 0% (Ataxic); 3-4%, 0% (Hypotonic). The CP incidences of different Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels in real world and in movies, respectively, are 40–51%, 47% (Level I + II); 14–19%, 12% (Level III); 34–41%, 41% (Level IV + V). Comparisons of incidence between the real world and the movies are surprisingly matching. Motion pictures honestly reflect the general public's point of view to CP patients in our real world. With precise selection and medical professional explanations, motion pictures can play the suitable role making CP understood more clearly. PMID:26257472
Jóźwiak, Marek; Chen, Brian Po-Jung; Musielak, Bartosz; Fabiszak, Jacek; Grzegorzewski, Andrzej
This study presents how motion pictures illustrate a person with cerebral palsy (CP), the social impact from the media, and the possibility of cerebral palsy education by using motion pictures. 937 motion pictures were reviewed in this study. With the criteria of nondocumentary movies, possibility of disability classification, and availability, the total number of motion pictures about CP was reduced to 34. The geographical distribution of movie number ever produced is as follows: North America 12, Europe 11, India 2, East Asia 6, and Australia 3. The CP incidences of different motor types in real world and in movies, respectively, are 78-86%, 65% (Spastic); 1.5-6%, 9% (Dyskinetic); 6.5-9%, 26% (Mixed); 3%, 0% (Ataxic); 3-4%, 0% (Hypotonic). The CP incidences of different Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels in real world and in movies, respectively, are 40-51%, 47% (Level I + II); 14-19%, 12% (Level III); 34-41%, 41% (Level IV + V). Comparisons of incidence between the real world and the movies are surprisingly matching. Motion pictures honestly reflect the general public's point of view to CP patients in our real world. With precise selection and medical professional explanations, motion pictures can play the suitable role making CP understood more clearly.
Bulsing, P J; Gutjar, S; Zijlstra, N; Zandstra, E H
One of the factors determining meal size is the expectation one has about satiating properties of foods. Foods eliciting low satiety expectations are often chosen in larger portions. We investigated whether satiety expectations of one food lead to a different portion size selection of other foods, using an online picture task. One hundred and twenty-six subjects (64 unrestrained, 62 restrained) participated in three conditions (within-subject). In two conditions subjects were asked to imagine they consumed soup as a first course. They were shown pictures of soups differing in terms of visual attributes, e.g. colour intensity, ingredients variety, etc. that conveyed a high or low expected satiety. In the control condition, no picture was shown. After viewing either a soup picture or no picture, subjects chose an ideal menu and portion size out of several other foods (meat, side dishes and vegetables) via an online choice task, specifically developed for this experiment. The energy (kcal) and weight (grams) selected for the main course was measured. More energy was chosen in the low satiety compared with the high satiety soup picture condition, but this effect was only significant for restrained eaters. This study shows that satiety expectations of a first course 'carry over' to the rest of the menu in people who carefully watch their diet, i.e. restrained eaters make satiety estimations for an entire menu. Our online choice task was able to capture these estimations in an implicit manner.
Reichmann-Decker, Aimee; DePrince, Anne P; McIntosh, Daniel N
Several trauma-specific and emotion theories suggest that alterations in children's typical affective responses may serve an attachment function in the context of abuse by a caregiver or close other. For example, inhibiting negative emotional responses or expressions might help the child preserve a relationship with an abusive caregiver. Past research in this area has relied on self-report methods to discover links between affective responsiveness and caregiver abuse. Extending this literature, the current study used facial electromyography to assess affective responsiveness with 2 measures: mimicry of emotional facial expressions and affective modulation of startle. We predicted that women who reported childhood abuse by close others would show alterations in affective responsiveness relative to their peers. We tested 100 undergraduate women who reported histories of (a) childhood sexual or physical abuse by someone close, such as a parent (high-betrayal); (b) childhood abuse by someone not close (low-betrayal); or (c) no abuse in childhood (no-abuse). Especially when viewing women's emotional expressions, the high-betrayal group showed more mimicry of happy and less mimicry of angry faces relative to women who reported no- or low-betrayal abuse, who showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, women who reported high-betrayal abuse showed less affective modulation of startle during pictures depicting men threatening women than did the other two groups. Findings suggest that, as predicted by betrayal trauma theory, women who have experienced high-betrayal abuse show alterations in automatic emotional processes consistent with caregiving-maintenance goals in an abusive environment.
Business students view commercial films depicting management issues such as hostile takeover, organizational culture, and international business competition. Lectures, readings, and interviews give students background information with which to assess the films. The technique enables students to observe and understand stakeholder interactions in…
Patrick, Patricia; Patrick, Tammy
Unfortunately, middle school students often view human impact as an abstract idea over which they have no control and do not see themselves as contributing to the Earth's environmental decline. How better to uncover students' ideas concerning human impact in their local community than to have them take photographs. With this objective in mind, the…
Kaschub, Michele; Smith, Janice P.
Creating, performing, responding, and connecting are often central foci in the development of music education curricula. While these meta-organizers provide a sense of direction for planning instruction, greater depths of knowledge and skill could be achieved if these actions were viewed as means rather than ends in music education. The profession…
With winds reaching 155 mph, this year's Hurricane Carlotta became the second strongest eastern Pacific June hurricane on record. These images from MISR show the hurricane on June 21, the day of its peak intensity. The pictures are oriented so that the spacecraft's flight path is from left to right; north is at the left.The top image is a color view from MISR's vertical (nadir) camera, showing Carlotta's location in the eastern Pacific Ocean, about 500 km south of Puerto Vallarta, Mexico.The middle image is a stereoscopic 'anaglyph' created using MISR's nadir camera plus one of its aftward-viewing cameras, and shows a closer view of the area around the hurricane. Viewing with red/blue glasses (red filter over the left eye) is required to obtain a 3-D stereo effect.Near the center of the storm, the eye is about 25 km in diameter and partially obscured by a thin cloud. About 50 km to the left of the eye, the sharp drop-off from high-level to low-level cloud gives a sense of the vertical extent of the hidden eye wall. The low-level cloud is spiraling counterclockwise into the center of the cyclone. It then rises in the vicinity of the eye wall and emerges with a clockwise rotation at high altitude. Maximum surface winds are found near the eye wall.The bottom stereo image is a zoomed-in view of convective clouds in the hurricane's spiral arms. The arms are breeding grounds for severe thunderstorms, with associated heavy rain and flooding, frequent lightning, and tornadoes. Thunderstorms rise in dramatic fashion to about the same altitude as the high cloud near the hurricane's center, and are made up of individual cells that are typically less than 20 km in diameter. This image shows a number of these cells, some fairly isolated, and others connected together. Their three-dimensional structure is clearly apparent in this stereo view.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science
Mintzer, M Z; Snodgrass, J G
The form change paradigm was used to explore the basis for the picture superiority effect. Recognition memory for studied pictures and words was tested in their study form or the alternate form. Form change cost was defined as the difference between recognition performance for same and different form items. Based on the results of Experiment 1 and previous studies, it was difficult to determine the relative cost for studied pictures and words due to a reversal of the mirror effect. We hypothesized that the reversed mirror effect results from subjects' basing their recognition decisions on their assumptions about the study form. Experiments 2 and 3 confirmed this hypothesis and generated a method for evaluating the relative cost for pictures and words despite the reversed mirror effect. More cost was observed for pictures than words, supporting the distinctiveness model of the picture superiority effect.
A Study to Determine Whether General Concepts Which are Commonly Taught by Motion Pictures can be Learned as Effectively by Sequential Still Photographs During Traditional Versus Self Paced Study Periods.
Wells, Russell Frederick
Reported is a study investigating the use of sequential still photographs rather than motion picture or slides as a media for instructional purposes for a botany course at the university level. Six experimental groups of randomly chosen students viewed visual materials presenting given concepts by three modes--motion pictures, slides, and…
King, Kenneth P.
This study provides a historical overview of the development of the motion picture as a tool within the context of science education. The technology was traced from its beginning as a silent motion picture through its current manifestation in videotapes and videodiscs. The use of the technology as a teaching tool is examined in terms of the concept of scientific literacy and the means by which the motion picture helped to accomplish the goals of scientific literacy.
Wang, Lamei; Chen, Chia-Wen; Zhu, Liqi
Pictorial stimuli standardized for Chinese children are still absent although it is needed in order to test the development of children's cognitive functions. This study presents normative measures for Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures, viewed by 4- and 6-year old Chinese children. Name agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity were obtained for each age group. The data indicate substantial differences between young and older children in name agreement based on expected name, familiarity and visual complexity. The correlation pattern of the variables collected in the present study were consistent with children's norms in other languages and norms of Chinese adults, while there are cross-age and cross-culture differences in specific variables. The obtained measures represent a useful tool for further research on Chinese children's pictorial processing and constitute the first picture normative study for children in this language.
Wang, Lamei; Chen, Chia-Wen; Zhu, Liqi
Pictorial stimuli standardized for Chinese children are still absent although it is needed in order to test the development of children's cognitive functions. This study presents normative measures for Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures, viewed by 4- and 6-year old Chinese children. Name agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity were obtained for each age group. The data indicate substantial differences between young and older children in name agreement based on expected name, familiarity and visual complexity. The correlation pattern of the variables collected in the present study were consistent with children's norms in other languages and norms of Chinese adults, while there are cross-age and cross-culture differences in specific variables. The obtained measures represent a useful tool for further research on Chinese children's pictorial processing and constitute the first picture normative study for children in this language. PMID:24599271
Zhang, Wenjuan; Zhou, Renlai; Wang, Qingguo; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Yanfeng
The present event-related potentials (ERPs) study set out to investigate the effect of neuroticism on emotion evaluation during the menstrual cycle, with high and low neuroticism females viewing and evaluating valence and arousal of emotional pictures in the menstruation, late follicular and luteal phases. Behavioral results revealed no group or phase effect. ERPs data showed modulations of the menstrual cycle and neuroticism on the late positive potential (LPP), with the larger LPP (300-1000 ms post-stimulus) during the late follicular phase than that during the luteal phase and larger LPP (1000-3000 ms post-stimulus) in the high neuroticism group than that in the low neuroticism group. Furthermore, significant positive correlations between the LPP amplitudes and valence and arousal evaluations were observed mainly in the high neuroticism group. The present study provides electrophysiological evidences that the LPP evoked by emotional pictures are modulated both by the menstrual cycle and neuroticism.
Rhudy, Jamie L; Bartley, Emily J; Palit, Shreela; Kuhn, Bethany L; Kerr, Kara L; Martin, Satin L; DelVentura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L
In healthy individuals, emotions modulate pain and spinal nociception according to a valence linear trend (ie, pain/nociception is highest during negative emotions and lowest during positive emotions). However, emerging evidence suggests that emotional modulation of pain (but not spinal nociception) is disrupted in fibromyalgia and disorders associated with chronic pain risk (eg, major depression, insomnia). The present study attempted to extend this work and to examine whether women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), a cyclical syndrome associated with debilitating affective symptoms during the late-luteal (premenstrual) phase of the menstrual cycle, is also associated with disrupted emotional modulation of pain. To do so, an affective picture-viewing procedure was used to study emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in 14 women with PMDD and 14 control women during mid-follicular, ovulatory, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle (verified by salivary hormone levels and luteinizing hormone tests). At each phase, mutilation, neutral, and erotic pictures were presented to manipulate emotion. During picture viewing, suprathreshold electrocutaneous stimuli were presented to evoke pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR; a physiological measure of spinal nociception). Statistically powerful linear mixed model analyses confirmed that pictures evoked the intended emotional states in both groups across all menstrual phases. Furthermore, emotion modulated pain and NFR according to a valence linear trend in both groups and across all menstrual phases. Thus, PMDD-related affective disturbance is not associated with a failure to emotionally modulate pain, suggesting that PMDD does not share this pain phenotype with major depression, insomnia, and fibromyalgia.
Gallo, David A.; Foster, Katherine T.; Wong, Jessica T.; Bennett, David A.
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) can reduce the effects of emotional content on memory for studied pictures, but less is known about false memory. In healthy adults, emotionally arousing pictures can be more susceptible to false memory effects than neutral pictures, potentially because emotional pictures share conceptual similarities that cause memory confusions. We investigatedthese effects in AD patients and healthy controls. Participants studied pictures and their verbal labels, and then picture recollection was tested using verbal labels as retrieval cues. Some of the test labels had been associated with a picture at study, whereas other had not. On this picture recollection test, we found that both AD patients and controlsincorrectly endorsed some of the test labels that had not been studiedwith pictures. These errors were associated with medium to high levels of confidence, indicating some degree of false recollection. Critically, these false recollection judgments were greater for emotionalcompared to neutral items, especially for positively valenced items, in both AD patients and controls. Dysfunction of the amygdala and hippocampusin early AD may impairrecollection, but ADdid not disrupt the effect of emotion on false recollection judgments. PMID:20727904
Kruse, Poul R; Kruse, Edith; Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik
The development of the pharmacy in the 19th and 20th centuries is illustrated by education and activity in the Dolphin Pharmacy in Copenhagen. The career within chemistry and pharmacy started with an apprenticeship of 4 year in the pharmacies. The Dolphin Pharmacy was responsible for part of the examination, i.e. the examination of the preparation of medicine. Passing the examination the chemist's assistant was free to prepare and to dispense medicine. Graduation as a pharmaceutical candidate was necessary to obtain license. Lectures in chemistry, physics, pharmacy, botany and pharmacognosy were obtained at the University of Copenhagen and the Polytechnic, but no curriculum was available. A rational education was obtained later on by the establishment of the School of Pharmacy in 1892. The proprietor pharmacists of the Dolphin Pharmacy were excellent scientists who contributed to the development of pharmacy. Pictures of the pharmacy from about the 1930s show the manufacture of medicines on the basis of a prescription and a pharmacopoeia. Ointments containing zinc white, sulphur and tar were used for various skin diseases and for the tiresome cough; cough mixtures containing codeine or extract of ipecacuanha root were used. In the 1930s the medicine for injection was sterilized and the tablet machine was the breakthrough for a rational production in the pharmacy. However, at the end of the 1900s it was no more possible to compete with the pharmaceutical industry and all the production of medicine was taken over by the industry.
Croy, Ilona; Olgun, Selda; Joraschky, Peter
The sense of olfaction is often reported to have a special relationship with emotional processing. Memories triggered by olfactory cues often have a very emotional load. On the other hand, basic negative or positive emotional states should be sufficient to cover the most significant functions of the olfactory system including ingestion, hazard avoidance, and social communication. Thus, we investigated whether different basic emotions can be evoked in healthy people through the sense of olfaction. We asked 119 participants which odor evokes one of the six basic emotions (happiness, disgust, anger, anxiety, sadness, and surprise); another 97 participants were asked about pictures evoking those emotions. The results showed that almost every participant could name an olfactory elicitor for happiness or disgust. Olfactory elicitors of anxiety were reported less frequently, but they were still reported by three-quarters of the participants. However, for sadness and anger only about half of the participants reported an olfactory elicitor, whereas significantly more named a visual cue. Olfactory emotion elicitors were mainly related to the classes of culture, plants, and food, and visual emotion elicitors were largely related to humans. This data supports the hypothesis that in the vast majority of people, few differentiated emotions can be elicited through the olfactory channel. These emotions are happiness, disgust, and anxiety.
Teufert, John F.; Trabelsi, Mourad
An important element for the fielding of a viable, effective NATO Response Force (NRF) is access to meteorological, oceanographic, geospatial data (GEOMETOC) and imagery. Currently, the available GEOMETOC information suffers from being very fragmented. NATO defines the Recognised Environmental Picture as controlled information base for GEOMETOC data. The NATO REP proposes an architecture that is both flexible and open. The focus lies on enabling a network-centric approach. The key into achieving this is relying on using open, well recognized standards that apply to both the data exchange protocols and the data formats. Communication and information exchange based on open standards enables system interoperability. Diverse systems, each with unique, specialized contributions to an increased understanding of the battlespace, can now cooperate to a manageable information sphere. By clearly defining responsibilities in the generation of information, a reduction in data transfer overhead is achieved . REP identifies three main stages in the dissemination of GEOMETOC data. These are Collection, Fusion (and Analysis) and Publication. A REP architecture has been successfully deployed during the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (CWID) in Lillehammer, Norway during June 2005. CWID is an annual event to validate and improve the interoperability of NATO and national Consultation and command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. With a test case success rate of 84%, it was able to provide relevant GEOMETOC support to the main NRF component headquarters. In 2006, the REP architecture will be deployed and validated during the NATO NRF Steadfast live exercises.
INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH TOWARDS THE SITE OF THE HISTORIC THOMAS FURNACES WITH ACTIVE DOLOMITE EXTRACTION ONGOING IN THE FOREGROUND. FURNACE FOUNDATION RUINS ARE PICTURED ON THE TOP LEDGE (CENTER LEFT) OF THE QUARRY. ALSO PICTURED IS THE HISTORIC THOMAS COKEWORKERS WITH (LEFT TO RIGHT) THE POWER PLANT, BOILER HOUSE, AND COKEWORKS. JUST SOUTH OF THE COKEWORKS, IS AN ACTIVE DOLOMITE CRUSHING, SIZING, AND SCREENING PLANT - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL
INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH TOWARDS THE SITE OF THE HISTORIC THOMAS FURNACES WITH ACTIVE DOLOMITE EXTRACTION ONGOING IN THE FOREGROUND. FURNACE FOUNDATION RUINS ARE PICTURED ON THE TOP LEDGE (CENTER LEFT) OF THE QUARRY. ALSO PICTURED IS THE HISTORIC THOMAS COKEWORKS WITH (LEFT TO RIGHT) THE POWER PLANT, BOILER HOUSE, AND COKEWORKS. JUST SOUTH OF THE COKEWORKS IS AN ACTIVE DOLOMITE CRUSHING, SIZING, AND SCREENING PLANT. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL
MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.
Cascio, Carissa J.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Heacock, Jessica; Schauder, Kimberly B.; Loring, Whitney A.; Rogers, Baxter P.; Pryweller, Jennifer R.; Newsom, Cassandra R.; Cockhren, Jurnell; Cao, Aize; Bolton, Scott
Background Restricted interests are a class of repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) whose intensity and narrow focus often contribute to significant interference with daily functioning. While numerous neuroimaging studies have investigated executive circuits as putative neural substrates of repetitive behavior, recent work implicates affective neural circuits in restricted interests. We sought to explore the role of affective neural circuits and determine how restricted interests are distinguished from hobbies or interests in typical development. Methods We compared a group of children with ASD to a typically developing (TD) group of children with strong interests or hobbies, employing parent report, an operant behavioral task, and functional imaging with personalized stimuli based on individual interests. Results While performance on the operant task was similar between the two groups, parent report of intensity and interference of interests was significantly higher in the ASD group. Both the ASD and TD groups showed increased BOLD response in widespread affective neural regions to pictures of their own interest. When viewing pictures of other children's interests, the TD group showed a similar pattern, whereas BOLD response in the ASD group was much more limited. Increased BOLD response in the insula and anterior cingulate cortex distinguished the ASD from the TD group, and parent report of the intensity and interference with daily life of the child's restricted interest predicted insula response. Conclusions While affective neural network response and operant behavior are comparable in typical and restricted interests, the narrowness of focus that clinically distinguishes restricted interests in ASD is reflected in more interference in daily life and aberrantly enhanced insula and anterior cingulate response to individuals’ own interests in the ASD group. These results further support the involvement of affective neural networks in repetitive
A near vertical view of the Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky border area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The clock is in the most southerly corner of the picture. Interstate 81 under construction extends northeast-southwest across the bottom portion of the photograph. The larger urban area nearest the center of the picture is Kingsport, Tennessee. On the southern side of I-80 and east of Kingsport is the city of Bristol, Tennessee-Virginia. Johnson City, Tennessee is the urban area near the edge of the picture southeast of Kingsport. The Holston RIver, a tributary of the Tennessee River, meanders through the Kingsport area. The characteristic ridge and valley features in the Cumberland Plateau of Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia are clearly visible. Forests (dark green) occur on the ridges and clearly outline the folded and faulted rock formations. Agricultur
Hagenaars, Muriel A; Roelofs, Karin; Stins, John F
Human freezing has been objectively assessed using a passive picture viewing paradigm as an analog for threat. These results should be replicated for other stimuli in order to determine their stability and generalizability. Affective films are used frequently to elicit affective responses, but it is unknown whether they also elicit freezing-like defense responses. To test whether this is the case, 50 participants watched neutral, pleasant and unpleasant film fragments while standing on a stabilometric platform and wearing a polar band to assess heart rate. Freezing-like responses (indicated by overall reduced body sway and heart rate deceleration) were observed for the unpleasant film only. The unpleasant film also elicited early reduced body sway (1-2 s after stimulus onset). Heart rate and body sway were correlated during the unpleasant film only. The results suggest that ecologically valid stimuli like films are adequate stimuli in evoking defense responses. The results also underscore the importance of including time courses in human experimental research on defense reactions in order to delineate different stages in the defense response.
The schizophrenic syndrome, in one form or another is a result of combinations of genetic, organic and psychosocial factors. 100 schizophrenic males were studied and etiological factors such as schizophrenia or affective illness in direct relatives, brain damage or temporal lobe epilepsy, an over-protective parent or latent homosexuality were isolated. The findings show a relationship between these etiological factors and the clinical picture and course and an attempt is made to use the etiological factor in classifying schizophrenia.
Braga, Nelson R. F.; Martin Contreras, Miguel Angel; Diles, Saulo
The fraction of heavy vector mesons produced in a heavy ion collision, as compared to a proton-proton collision, serves as an important indication of the formation of a thermal medium, the quark-gluon plasma. This sort of analysis strongly depends on understanding the thermal effects of a medium like the plasma on the states of heavy mesons. In particular, it is crucial to know the temperature ranges where they undergo a thermal dissociation, or melting. AdS/QCD models are know to provide an important tool for the calculation of hadronic masses, but in general are not consistent with the observation that decay constants of heavy vector mesons decrease with excitation level. It has recently been shown that this problem can be overcome using a soft wall background and introducing an extra energy parameter, through the calculation of correlation functions at a finite position of anti-de Sitter space. This approach leads to the evaluation of masses and decay constants of S wave quarkonium states with just one flavor dependent and one flavor independent parameter. Here we extend this more realistic model to finite temperatures and analyze the thermal behavior of the states 1 S, 2 S and 3 S of bottomonium and charmonium. The corresponding spectral function exhibits a consistent picture for the melting of the states where, for each flavor, the higher excitations melt at lower temperatures. We estimate for these six states the energy ranges in which the heavy vector mesons undergo a transition from a well-defined peak in the spectral function to complete melting in the thermal medium. A very clear distinction between the heavy flavors emerges, with the bottomonium state Υ (1S) surviving a deconfinement transition at temperatures much larger than the critical deconfinement temperature of the medium.
Levine, J S
Over the last several years, many of the fundamental ideas concerning the composition and chemical evolution of the Earth's early atmosphere have changed. While many aspects of this subject are clouded--either uncertain or unknown, a new picture is emerging. We are just beginning to understand how astronomical, geochemical, and atmospheric processes each contributed to the development of the gaseous envelope around the third planet from the sun some 4.6 billion years ago and how that envelope chemically evolved over the history of our planet. Simple compounds in that gaseous envelope, energized by atmospheric lightning and/or solar ultraviolet radiation, formed molecules of increasing complexity that eventually evolved into the first living systems on our planet. This process is called "chemical evolution" and immediately preceded biological evolution; once life developed and evolved, it began to alter the chemical composition of the atmosphere that provided the very essence of its creation. Photosynthetic organisms which have the ability to biochemically transform carbon dioxide and water to carbohydrates, which they use for food, produce large amounts of molecular oxygen (O2) as a by-product of the reaction. Atmospheric oxygen photochemically formed ozone, which absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun and shields the Earth's surface from this biologically lethal radiation. Once atmospheric ozone levels increased sufficiently, life could leave the safety of the oceans and go ashore for the first time. Throughout the history of our planet, there has been strong interaction between life and the atmosphere. Understanding our cosmic roots is particularly relevant as we embark on a search for life outside the Earth. At this very moment, several radio telescopes around the world are searching for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI).
Mao, Yuezhi; Horn, Paul R; Head-Gordon, Martin
Energy decomposition analysis (EDA) of electronic structure calculations has facilitated quantitative understanding of diverse intermolecular interactions. Nevertheless, such analyses are usually performed at a single geometry and thus decompose a "single-point" interaction energy. As a result, the influence of the physically meaningful EDA components on the molecular structure and other properties are not directly obtained. To address this gap, the absolutely localized molecular orbital (ALMO)-EDA is reformulated in an adiabatic picture, where the frozen, polarization, and charge transfer energy contributions are defined as energy differences between the stationary points on different potential energy surfaces (PESs), which are accessed by geometry optimizations at the frozen, polarized and fully relaxed levels of density functional theory (DFT). Other molecular properties such as vibrational frequencies can thus be obtained at the stationary points on each PES. We apply the adiabatic ALMO-EDA to different configurations of the water dimer, the water-Cl(-) and water-Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) complexes, metallocenes (Fe(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+)), and the ammonia-borane complex. This method appears to be very useful for unraveling how physical effects such as polarization and charge transfer modulate changes in molecular properties induced by intermolecular interactions. As an example of the insight obtained, we find that a linear hydrogen bond geometry for the water dimer is preferred even without the presence of polarization and charge transfer, while the red shift in the OH stretch frequency is primarily a charge transfer effect; by contrast, a near-linear geometry for the water-chloride hydrogen bond is achieved only when charge transfer is allowed.
Schaefer, Alexandre; Pottage, Claire L; Rickart, Adam J
Extensive evidence shows that emotional events tend to be remembered in greater detail and with an enhanced sense of vividness compared to neutral events. The current study investigated the neural correlates of this phenomenon during retrieval using the event-related potentials technique (ERP). Participants were asked to perform a memory recognition test of previously studied ("Old") and unstudied ("New") emotional and neutral pictures encoded a week before the test session. Next, they were asked to perform a Remember-Know task (Gardiner and Java, 1993) for each "old" decision. ERPs were created for retrieval activity corresponding to six conditions: Remember-Emotional, Remember-Neutral, Know-Emotional, Know-Neutral, New-Emotional and New-Neutral. Results showed that negative emotion enhanced three distinct subtypes of the electrophysiological old-new effect specifically for old items associated with a "Remember" judgment. This effect was observed for ERP old-new effects conforming to an early frontal P2 old-new effect peaking at ~180 ms, a midfrontal old-new effect starting at ~300 ms (the "FN400") and a late positive complex (LPC) with parietal maxima observed at 500-700 ms. In addition, a breakdown of our data in different levels of emotional arousal revealed that the relationship between ERP correlates of retrieval and arousal conformed to a nonlinear, inverted U-shaped function for posterior late effects (500-700) and to a linear function for early effects (P2 and FN400). Taken together, these results suggest that multiple retrieval subprocesses contribute to the emotional enhancement of recollective experience.
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL... temporary safety zones on waterways near Chicago, IL. These safety zones are intended to restrict vessels from portions of Chicago waterways due to the filming of a motion picture. These temporary safety...
Baird, Adela; Laugharne, Janet; Maagerø, Eva; Tønnessen, Elise Seip
Children as readers of picture books and the ways they respond to, and make meaning from, such texts are the focus of this article, which reports on a small-scale study undertaken in Norway and Wales, UK. The theoretical framing of the research draws on concepts of the multimodal ensemble in picture books and of the reading event as part of a…
Collins, S. A., Jr.
A comprehensive set of high quality reproductions of the final, computer-processed television pictures of Mars is presented. The genesis and unique characteristics of the pictures are explained, interesting features are pointed out, and some indication of their significance in the history of Mars investigations is provided.
Eddy, Marianna D.; Holcomb, Phillip J.
This experiment examined invariance in object representations through measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) to pictures in a masked repetition priming paradigm. Pairs of pictures were presented where the prime was either the same size or half the size of the target object and the target was either presented in a normal orientation or was a…
Many of the most talented authors and artists of the past and present have shared their thoughts and their gifts with young children through picture books. Many picture books allow young children to explore important ideas and to stretch their minds far beyond rote memorization. Young children absorb knowledge at a very rapid pace. In an age of…
DeFauw, Danielle L.; Saad, Klodia
This article presents an authentic writing opportunity to help ninth-grade students use the writing process in a science classroom to write and illustrate picture books for fourth-grade students to demonstrate and share their understanding of a biology unit on cells. By creating a picture book, students experience the writing process, understand…
Yomo, Minoru; Uni, Kazuhito; Moore, Danièle; Kiyose, Takashi
Recently, the use of children's picture books to teach English has been increasing in Japan. An advantage of these books is the high proportion of basic vocabulary they include. Can picture books also be useful for teaching Japanese students Italian and increasing their motivation? The present study analyses the effectiveness of employing a…
...; voluntary standards—Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Std., Joint Photographic Experts... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Picture archiving and communications system. 892... communications system. (a) Identification. A picture archiving and communications system is a device...
Gao, Yang; Bintz, William P.
Picture books, when used thoughtfully and artfully, can teach theories to graduate students in literacy and foreign language education. In this article, the authors described how a pair of picture books is used to teach Vygotsky's "Zone of Proximal Development" and Krashen's "Input Hypothesis" in the fields of literacy…
Raines, Shirley C.; Isbell, Rebecca J.
The wordless picture book is a valued but underused resource for young children, beginning literacy students, and for proficient readers. A survey of teachers indicated that three problems exist: (1) few wordless picture books are available in library collections; (2) teachers do not know how to select quality wordless books; and (3) few teachers…
Examines five picture books by author/illustrator Peter Sis, and how they deal explicitly with people who through extraordinary journeys develop extraordinary ways of seeing the world. Discusses use of paratextual elements, multiple formats, multiple layers of narrative, and a merging of texts and pictures. Suggests ways these books might be used…
Houston-Price, Carmel; Burton, Eliza; Hickinson, Rachel; Inett, Jade; Moore, Emma; Salmon, Katherine; Shiba, Paula
Although the relationship between "mere exposure" and attitude enhancement is well established in the adult domain, there has been little similar work with children. This article examines whether toddlers' visual attention toward pictures of foods can be enhanced by repeated visual exposure to pictures of foods in a parent-administered picture…
California Library Association, Sacramento.
Suggested subject headings for 16mm motion pictures are listed. The intent of the list is to provide audiovisual librarians with a tool which will aid them in making subject indexes for their printed catalogs. It is also intended as an authority for professional catalogers who may be called upon to catalog 16mm motion pictures. (Author/KKC)
Coover, Robert W.
This historical study report describes phases in the development of applicable standards for cataloging instructional motion picture films. Steps leading to the present state of the art are objectively presented, focusing on standards developed to establish bibliographic control of instructional motion picture films, contemporary reaction to such…
King, Kenneth P.
Provides an historical overview of the development of the motion picture as a tool within the context of science education. Examines the use of technology as a teaching tool in terms of scientific literacy and the means by which the motion picture helped to accomplish scientific literacy goals. (Author/CCM)
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Picture archiving and communications system. 892.2050 Section 892.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2050 Picture archiving...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Picture archiving and communications system. 892.2050 Section 892.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2050 Picture archiving...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Picture archiving and communications system. 892.2050 Section 892.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2050 Picture archiving...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Picture archiving and communications system. 892.2050 Section 892.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2050 Picture archiving...
Willows, Dale M.
Recent research projects demonstrate that pictures in reading textbooks have a negative effect on the word-decoding ability of young readers. This particular study questioned whether the relative difficulty of the words being read determines the effect that pictures have on good, normal, and poor readers. After pretesting to determine reading…
Smith, C. Zoe
Historians of photography have failed to explore the origins of the Black Star Picture Agency and how it introduced experienced photojournalists to Henry Luce, a publisher attempting to break new ground in American journalism with the introduction of a picture magazine, "Life," in 1936. Black Star's founders, Ernest Mayer, Kurt Kornfeld,…
Winograd, Eugene; And Others
Compared verbal and visual encoding using the picture superiority effect. One experiment found an interaction between age and type of material. In other experiments, the picture superiority effect was found in both age groups with no interaction. Performing a semantic-orienting task had no effect on recall. (Author/RC)
Wicklund, David A.; Katz, Leonard
Twenty children in each of grades 2 and 4 were given a reaction time task of the type in which Sternberg (1969) shows high-speed, serial, exhaustive scanning of information in memory. On each trial subjects were asked to memorize two, four, or six pictures and were then presented with a single picture probe. The subject made a key-pressing…
Cotton, Penni; Daly, Nicola
The potential for picture books in national collections to act as mirrors reflecting the reader's cultural identity, is widely accepted. This paper shows that the books in a New Zealand Picture Book Collection can also become windows into unfamiliar worlds for non-New Zealand readers, giving them the opportunity to learn more about a context in…
Daugaard, Line Møller; Johansen, Martin Blok
When teachers and school librarians choose picture books for multilingual children, they often base their choice on an evaluation of linguistic comprehensibility, content familiarity and cultural appropriateness. This means that postmodern picture books may be excluded. This paper presents a case study of multilingual children's encounter with a…
Howard, David; Nickels, Lyndsey; Coltheart, Max; Cole-Virtue, Jennifer
We report an experiment in which subjects named 120 pictures, consisting of series of five pictures drawn from each of 24 semantic categories (and intermixed with 45 fillers). The number of intervening trials (lag) between successive presentations of members of the same category varied from two to eight. Subjects' naming latencies were slowed by…
In these two companion papers, a learning activity is introduced that teaches students how mathematics works through the visual aid of picture grids. The picture grids are composed of 60 different acrylic stained-glass window overlays. Each fractional part is represented by a different color: fifths are green, quarters are yellow, etc. The square…
Piro, Joseph M.
Presents speculations on broadening the concept of literacy and using pictures to teach. Discusses the importance and value of training students to "read" a painting and, by extension, a visual image and how this fits into promoting a culture of literacy. Considers the application of reader-response theory to pictures as text. (SG)
Nork, C. L.
Stereoscopic television pictures are produced by placing a colorless, transparent screen of adjacent parallel cylindrical lenses before a raster from two synchronized TV cameras. Alternate frames from alternate cameras are displayed. The viewers sensory perception fuses the two images into one three-dimensional picture.
Describes characteristics of fairy tales. Discusses use of fairy tales and novels for teens in the classroom. Presents annotations of 31 titles including both picture books and young adult novels grouped by nine popular tales. Concludes that through comparing picture books and teen novels, there is one last chance to introduce fairy tales to older…
Li, Shuo; Zhang, Yu-Jin
Can the abundant emotions reflected in pictures be classified automatically by computer? Only the visual features extracted from images are considered in the previous researches, which have the constrained capability to reveal various emotions. In addition, the training database utilized by previous methods is the subset of International Affective Picture System (IAPS) that has a relatively small scale, which exerts negative effects on the discrimination of emotion classifiers. To solve the above problems, this paper proposes a novel and practical emotional picture classification approach, using semi-supervised learning scheme with both visual feature and keyword tag information. Besides the IAPS with both emotion labels and keyword tags as part of the training dataset, nearly 2000 pictures with only keyword tags that are downloaded from the website Flickr form an auxiliary training dataset. The visual feature of the latent emotional semantic factors is extracted by probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (pLSA) model, while the text feature is described by binary vectors on the tag vocabulary. A first Linear Programming Boost (LPBoost) classifier which is trained on the samples from IAPS combines the above two features, and aims to label the other training samples from the internet. Then the second SVM classifier which is trained on all training images using only visual feature, focuses on the test images. In the experiment, the categorization performance of our approach is better than the latest methods.
Sedgwick, H. A.
Pictorial displays whose primary purpose is to convey accurate information about the 3-D spatial layout of an environment are discussed. How and how well, pictures can convey such information is discussed. It is suggested that picture perception is not best approached as a unitary, indivisible process. Rather, it is a complex process depending on multiple, partially redundant, interacting sources of visual information for both the real surface of the picture and the virtual space beyond. Each picture must be assessed for the particular information that it makes available. This will determine how accurately the virtual space represented by the picture is seen, as well as how it is distorted when seen from the wrong viewpoint.
Winograd, E; Smith, A D; Simon, E W
One recurrent theme in the literature on aging and memory is that the decline of memory for nonverbal information is steeper than for verbal information. This research compares verbal and visual encoding using the picture superiority effect, the finding that pictures are remembered better than words. In the first experiment, an interaction was found between age and type of material; younger subjects recalled more pictures than words while older subjects did not. However, the overall effect was small and two further experiments were conducted. In both of these experiments, the picture superiority effect was found in both age groups with no interaction. In addition, performing a semantic orienting task had no effect on recall. The finding of a picture superiority effect in older subjects indicates that nonverbal codes can be effectively used by subjects in all age groups to facilitate memory performance.
Hennerdal, Lars-Olov; Berggren, Magnus
Presently, we contemplate the merger of paper and electronics in different forms. There is a great desire to further explore this twinning of the information displaying features of printed papers and electronic inks. Here, we report a full-color paperboard display technology comprised of thermochromic and static inks combined with a patterned heater foil. Black and full-color thermochromic ink dots were screen-printed adjacent to, and on top of, static ink dots using a zero-angle mesh and template pattern orientation. As the heater is turned on and off, the display alter its content in between two predefined four-color pictures.
Cutts, J. A.
A compilation of Mariner 9 television data is presented for the study of the planet Mars and of its two satellites, Phobos and Deimos. The concept of the basic mission, camera characteristics, and various processing techniques of the raw television data recovered from the spacecraft are discussed. Data are arranged into the following disciplines; (1) mapping and geology, (2) polar studies, (3) geodesy, (4) variable surface features, (5) atmospheric phenomena, and (6) satellites. Reproduction and arrangements of approximately 3000 individual pictures and photomosaics are provided.
Lemmens, P M C; De Haan, A; Van Galen, G P; Meulenbroek, R G J
In the present study, the affective impact of earcons on stimulus classification is investigated. We show, using a picture-categorization task, that the affective connotation of earcons in major and minor mode (representing positive and negative valence, respectively) can be congruent or incongruent with response valence. Twenty participants classified pictures of animals and instruments in 256 trials, using positive and negative Yes or No responses. Together with the pictures, either a chord in major mode or minor mode was played. The affective valence of the chords either did or did not match the valence of responses. Response-time latencies show congruency effects of the matching and non matching sound and response valences, indicating that it is important to carefully investigate human-computer interfaces for potential affective congruency effects, as these can either facilitate or inhibit user performance.
We are on the way to obtaining multi-dimensional "pictures" of the proton. The field is bursting with activities, both from the theoretical and experimental side. A brief selection of important achievements of the last years and open challenges for the future is presented. They are already well documented in the various reviews of this Topical Issue, but they are gathered here in a more condensed way for convenience, together with some additional remarks. The choice of the items included in this short overview is far from being complete and represents the view of the author.
Shattuck, Eric C; Muehlenbein, Michael P
Sickness behavior, a coordinated set of behavioral changes during infection and elicited by the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), is well studied in non-human animals. Over the last two decades, several papers have expanded this research to include humans. However, these studies use a variety of research designs, and typically focus on a single cytokine and only a few of the many behavioral changes constituting sickness behavior. Therefore, our understanding of human sickness behavior remains equivocal. To generate a more holistic, integrative picture of this phenomenon, a meta-analysis of the human sickness behavior literature was conducted. Full model results show that both IL-6 and IL-1β have significant relationships with sickness behavior, and the strength of these relationships is affected by a number of study parameters, such as type of immune stimulus and inclusion of controls. In addition to research design heterogeneity, other issues to address in future studies include an unequal focus on different cytokines and different sickness behaviors.
Liu, Ying; Ding, Yi; Lu, Luluzi; Chen, Xu
How attachment style affects emotion processing is tightly connected with individuals’ attention bias. This experiment explored avoidant individuals’ attentional engagement and attentional disengagement using a cue-target paradigm in fMRI. The experimental group consisted of 17 avoidant participants, while the control group consisted of 16 secure participants; these were identified by the Experiences in Close Relationships inventory and the Relationship Questionnaire. Each reacted to pictures of positive parent-child attachment, negative parent-child attachment, positive romantic attachment, negative romantic attachment, and neutral non-attachment. Behaviorally, avoidant individuals were slower than secure individuals in responding to emotions and their attentional disengagement effect for negative parent-child emotions was stronger than positive ones. fMRI results showed that avoidant compared to secure individuals activated more strongly in the right superior temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and the left medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, supplementary motor area, and cingulate gyrus. They also showed stronger activation in disengaging from positive than negative emotions in the bilateral fusiform and middle occipital gyri. In conclusion, avoidant individuals could detect emotions as effective as secure individuals in attentioal engaging stages. They can disengage from positive emotions with effective cognitive resources and were harder to get rid of negative emotions with insufficient resource. PMID:28128347
Dering, Benjamin; Martin, Clara D.; Moro, Sancho; Pegna, Alan J.; Thierry, Guillaume
The human face is the most studied object category in visual neuroscience. In a quest for markers of face processing, event-related potential (ERP) studies have debated whether two peaks of activity – P1 and N170 – are category-selective. Whilst most studies have used photographs of unaltered images of faces, others have used cropped faces in an attempt to reduce the influence of features surrounding the “face–object” sensu stricto. However, results from studies comparing cropped faces with unaltered objects from other categories are inconsistent with results from studies comparing whole faces and objects. Here, we recorded ERPs elicited by full front views of faces and cars, either unaltered or cropped. We found that cropping artificially enhanced the N170 whereas it did not significantly modulate P1. In a second experiment, we compared faces and butterflies, either unaltered or cropped, matched for size and luminance across conditions, and within a narrow contrast bracket. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the main findings of Experiment 1. We then used face–car morphs in a third experiment to manipulate the perceived face-likeness of stimuli (100% face, 70% face and 30% car, 30% face and 70% car, or 100% car) and the N170 failed to differentiate between faces and cars. Critically, in all three experiments, P1 amplitude was modulated in a face-sensitive fashion independent of cropping or morphing. Therefore, P1 is a reliable event sensitive to face processing as early as 100 ms after picture onset. PMID:21954382
Barbarotto, Riccardo; Laiacona, Marcella; Macchi, Valeria; Capitani, Erminio
We present a new corpus of 80 pictures of unreal objects, useful for a controlled assessment of object reality decision. The new pictures were assembled from parts of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart [J. Exp. Psychol., Hum. Learning Memory 6; 1980: 174] set and were devised for the purpose of contrasting natural categories (animals, fruits and vegetables), artefacts (tools, vehicles and furniture), body parts and musical instruments. We examined 140 normal subjects in a free-choice and a multiple-choice object decision task, assembled with 80 pictures of real objects and above 80 new pictures of unreal objects in order to obtain a difficulty index for each picture. We found that the tasks were more difficult with pictures representing natural entities than with pictures of artefacts. We found a gender by category interaction, with a female superiority with some natural categories (fruits and vegetables, but not animals), and a male advantage with artefacts. On this basis, the difficulty index we calculated for each picture is separately reported for males and females. We discuss the possible origin of the gender effect, which has been found with the same categories in other tasks and has a counterpart in the different familiarity of the stimuli for males and females. In particular, we contrast explanations based on socially determined gender differences with accounts based on evolutionary pressures. We further comment on the relationship between data from normal subjects and the domain-specific account of semantic category dissociations observed in brain-damaged patients.
Correia, L; Brookshire, R H; Nicholas, L E
Twelve aphasic and 12 non-brain-damaged adult males described the speech elicitation pictures from the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE), the Minnesota Test for Differential Diagnosis of Aphasia (MTDDA), the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB), and six pictures representing male-biased or female-biased daily-life situations. For each speech sample we calculated number of words, words per minute, number of correct information units, percentage of words that were correct information units, and percentage of correct information units that were nouns or adjectives (amount of enumeration or naming). The WAB picture elicited more enumeration than the BDAE or MTDDA pictures, and information was produced at a slower rate in response to the WAB picture than the other two pictures. These differences were statistically significant and appear to be clinically important. Gender bias had statistically significant effects on two measures. Male-biased pictures elicited significantly more words and significantly more correct information units than female-biased pictures. However, these differences were small and do not appear to be clinically important. Two of the five measures (words per minute and percentage of words that were correct information units) differentiated non-brain-damaged speakers from aphasic speakers. The magnitude of these differences suggests that these measures provide clinically important information about the problems aphasic adults may have when they produce narrative discourse.
Senokossoff, Gwyn W.
This article discusses the benefits of using picture books with adolescent readers, describes strategies that can be taught with picture books, and provides examples of books the author has used. Some of the topics discussed include: reading comprehension, visual literacy, interactive read-aloud with facilitative talk, literary elements, and…
This movie is composed of the sharpest views of Pluto that NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft obtained during its flyby on July 14, 2015. The pictures are part of a sequence taken near New Horizons’ cl...
de Nooijer, Jacqueline A; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Zwaan, Rolf A
According to the body-specificity hypothesis, hearing action words creates body-specific mental simulations of the actions. Handedness should, therefore, affect mental simulations. Given that pictures of actions also evoke mental simulations and often accompany words to be learned, would pictures that mismatch the mental simulation of words negatively affect learning? We investigated effects of pictures with a left-handed, right-handed, or bimanual perspective on left- and right-handers' learning of object-manipulation words in an artificial language. Right-handers recalled fewer definitions of words learned with a corresponding left-handed-perspective picture than with a right-handed-perspective picture. For left-handers, there was no effect of perspective. These findings suggest that mismatches between pictures and mental simulations evoked by hearing action words can negatively affect right-handers' learning. Left-handers, who encounter the right-handed perspective frequently, could presumably overcome the lack of motor experience with visual experience and, therefore, not be influenced by picture perspective.
functioning of the observatory. The Optical Monitor also simultaneously viewed the same regions. One RGS spectrometer obtained its first spectra on 25 January; the other will be commissioned at the start of February. This initial series of short and long duration exposures have delighted the Project management team and the scientists even more. First analyses confirm that the spacecraft is extremely stable, the XMM telescopes are focusing perfectly, and the EPIC cameras, Optical Monitor and RGS spectrometers are working exactly as expected. The Science Operations Centre infrastructure, processing and archiving the science data telemetry from the spacecraft, is also performing well. Initial inspection of the first commissioning images immediately showed some unique X-ray views of several celestial objects, to be presented on 9 February. The occasion will give Principal Investigators and Project management the opportunity to comment on the pictures and the excellent start of the XMM mission. The Calibration and Performance Verification phase for XMM's science instruments is to begin on 3 March, with routine science operations starting in June. Press is invited to attend to the press conference that will be held at the Villafranca/ Madrid- Vilspa facility (ESA's Satellite Tracking Station) Apartado 50727, E-2 080 MADRID, Spain. The press event will be broadcast to the other ESA establishments: ESA Headquarters, Paris; ESA/ ESTEC (Space Expo), Noordwijk, the Netherlands; ESA/ESOC, Darmstadt, Germany and ESA/ESRIN, Frascati, Italy. Media representatives wishing to attend the event are kindly requested to fill out the attached reply from and fax it back to the establishment of their choice.
Through a Space Act Agreement, Diebold, Inc., acquired the exclusive rights to Glenn Research Center's patented video observation technology, originally designed to accelerate video image analysis for various ongoing and future space applications. Diebold implemented the technology into its AccuTrack digital, color video recorder, a state-of- the-art surveillance product that uses motion detection for around-the- clock monitoring. AccuTrack captures digitally signed images and transaction data in real-time. This process replaces the onerous tasks involved in operating a VCR-based surveillance system, and subsequently eliminates the need for central viewing and tape archiving locations altogether. AccuTrack can monitor an entire bank facility, including four automated teller machines, multiple teller lines, and new account areas, all from one central location.
Zetlin, Andrea G.; Weinberg, Lois A.; Shea, Nancy M.
Many children in the foster care system are at great risk of academic difficulties and school failure. The purpose of this study was to bring together individuals within the foster care system to discuss the challenges to obtaining an appropriate education for foster youths and how best to provide the supports and structures needed for educational…
Joughin, I. R.
Instead of heroic efforts to acquire a few dozen field-based measurements of ice-flow velocity at some of the Earth's most remote locations, computer servers now crunch satellite data to spew out millions of measurements, providing a whole new perspective on how ice sheets function. Prior to such observations, outlet glaciers and ice streams were perceived to respond slowly to climate change, with little change at timescales of months to decades. While some glaciers flow at steady rates, a remarkable number have responded to recent warming with large variations in speed over periods as short as seconds. A wide variety of behavior is observed with some glaciers steadily gaining speed, others accelerating and then leveling off, and a handful varying substantially with no clear trend. While in the minority, a few glaciers have steadily decelerated over the last decade. As examples ofrecent change, two of the most rapidly changing glaciers are examined: Jakobshavn Isbrae in Greenland and Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica. In addition to documenting the dramatic changes on these glaciers, satellite observations provide important new spatio-temporal data sets with which to understand such change, particularly when used in conjunction with ice sheet models. Although models constrained by these data reveal that ice-shelf buttressing is an important control on ice-sheet flow, the actual speedups are a complex response to the loss of buttressing, involving several other feedbacks that contribute to the acceleration.Although satellite observations have produced tremendous progress in understanding ice sheets, so far these data have raised more questions than they have answered. The contribution that ice dynamics will make to future sea level remains poorly understood and remains a grand challenge for glaciology. The ongoing record of spaceborne measurements is and will remain a key component in addressing this challenge.
Gable, Philip A; Harmon-Jones, Eddie
Decades of research have suggested that all positive affective states broaden attention. Recent studies have found that positive affects high in approach motivation narrow attention, whereas positive affects low in approach motivation broaden attention. However, these studies were limited because they used only affective pictures to manipulate positive affect. The pictures, rather than the affective states created by them, may have caused individuals to focus on the emotional details of the picture, and this attentional focus may have caused the narrowing of attentional scope. Moreover, no experiment has yet to examine both low and high approach-motivated positive affect within the same individuals in the same study. The current experiments manipulated pregoal (high approach) and postgoal (low approach) positive states by giving participants the opportunity to win money on a game. Results revealed that pregoal positive affect caused a narrowing of attention, whereas postgoal positive affect caused a broadening of attention.
Viking 2 s first picture on the surface of Mars was taken within minutes after the spacecraft touched down on September 3. The scene reveals a wide variety of rocks littering a surface of fine-grained deposit. Boulders in the 10 to 20-centimeter (4 to 8-inch) size range-- some vesicular (holes) and some apparently fluted by wind--are common. Many of the pebbles have tabular or platy shapes, suggesting that they may be derived from layered strata. The fluted boulder just above the Lander s footpad displays a dust-covered or scraped surface, suggesting it was overturned or altered by the foot at touchdown. Just as occurred with Viking l s first picture on July 20, brightness variations at the beginning of the picture scan (left edge) probably are due to dust settling after landing. A substantial amount of fine-grained material kicked up by the descent engines has accumulated in the concave interior of the footpad. Center of the image is about 1.4 meters (5 feet) from the camera. Field of view extends 70 from left to right and 20 from top to bottom. Viking 2 landed at a region called Utopia in the northern latitudes about 7500 kilometers (4600 miles) northeast of Viking l s landing on the Chryse plain 45 days earlier.
Costa, Marco; Braun, Christoph; Birbaumer, Niels
The magnetic equivalent of the contingent negative variation (CMV) and visual evoked magnetic fields (VEF) in anticipation of pictures of opposite-sex nude, same-sex nude, and neutral photographs has been recorded with whole-head MEG in 12 males and 12 females. Subjective ratings of valence indicated a strong gender effect. While females rated both male and female nudes as neutral, males rated male nudes similar to neutrals but female nudes received higher scores of pleasantness. Gender differences were also found for ratings of picture-induced arousal. While females rated male and female nudes as equally arousing, males attributed more arousal to opposite-sex nudes. The CMV instead revealed, for both male and female participants, higher amplitudes for opposite-sex nudes. VEF in response to nudes revealed two components with mean latencies of 126 and 203 ms. The amplitude of the first component was stronger in males than in females, and only in males the magnetic activity was increased in response to male and female nudes compared to neutral pictures. For the second component the mean magnetic activity was higher in response to nudes than to neutral contents for both male and female participants. The results are discussed in terms of an evolutionary view of sexual selection, which predicts a greater response in male subjects to stimuli relevant for mate choice.
Kroemer, Nils B; Krebs, Lena; Kobiella, Andrea; Grimm, Oliver; Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Smolka, Michael N
Ghrelin figures prominently in the regulation of appetite in normal-weighed individuals. The apparent failure of this mechanism in eating disorders and the connection to addictive behavior in general demand a deeper understanding of the endogenous central-nervous processes related to ghrelin. Thus, we investigated processing of pictures showing palatable food after overnight fasting and following a standardized caloric intake (i.e. a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test) using functional magnetic resonance imaging and correlated it with blood plasma levels of ghrelin. Twenty-six healthy female and male volunteers viewed food and control pictures in a block design and rated their appetite after each block. Fasting levels of ghrelin correlated positively with food-cue reactivity in a bilateral network of visual processing-, reward- and taste-related regions, including limbic and paralimbic regions. Notably, among those regions were the hypothalamus and the midbrain where ghrelin receptors are densely concentrated. In addition, high fasting ghrelin levels were associated with stronger increases of subjective appetite during the food-cue-reactivity task. In conclusion, brain activation and subjective appetite ratings suggest that ghrelin elevates the hedonic effects of food pictures. Thereby, fasting ghrelin levels may generally enhance subjective craving when confronted with reward cues.
Genevsky, Alexander; Gard, David E
The affective startle modulation task has been an important measure in understanding physiological aspects of emotion and motivational responses. Research utilizing this method has relied primarily on a 'passive' viewing paradigm, which stands in contrast to everyday life where much of emotion and motivation involves some active choice or agency. The present study investigated the role of choice on the physiology of emotion. Eighty-four participants were randomized into 'choice' (n=44) or 'no-choice' (n=40) groups distinguished by the ability to choose between stimuli. EMG eye blink responses were recorded in both anticipation and stimulus viewing. Results indicated a significant attenuation of the startle magnitude in choice condition trials (relative to no-choice) across all picture categories and probe times. We interpret these findings as an indication that the act of choice may decrease one's defensive response, or conversely, lacking choice may heighten the defensive response. Implications for future research are discussed.
Weldon, M S; Roediger, H L; Challis, B H
In three experiments, we examined why pictures are remembered better than words on explicit memory tests like recall and recognition, whereas words produce more priming than pictures on some implicit tests, such as word-fragment and word-stem completion (e.g., completing -l-ph-nt or ele----- as elephant). One possibility is that pictures are always more accessible than words if subjects are given explicit retrieval instructions. An alternative possibility is that the properties of the retrieval cues themselves constrain the retrieval processes engaged; word fragments might induce data-driven (perceptually based) retrieval, which favors words regardless of the retrieval instructions. Experiment 1 demonstrated that words were remembered better than pictures on both the word-fragment and word-stem completion tasks under both implicit and explicit retrieval conditions. In Experiment 2, pictures were recalled better than words with semantically related extralist cues. In Experiment 3, when semantic cues were combined with word fragments, pictures and words were recalled equally well under explicit retrieval conditions, but words were superior to pictures under implicit instructions. Thus, the inherently data-limited properties of fragmented words limit their use in accessing conceptual codes. Overall, the results indicate that retrieval operations are largely determined by properties of the retrieval cues under both implicit and explicit retrieval conditions.
Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L
Research has debated whether children reflect on artists' intentions when comprehending pictures, or instead derive meaning entirely from resemblance. We explore these hypotheses by comparing how typically developing toddlers and low-functioning children with autism (a population impaired in intentional reasoning) interpret abstract pictures. In Experiment 1, both groups mapped familiar object names onto abstract pictures, however, they related the same representations to different 3-D referents. Toddlers linked abstract pictures with intended referents they did not resemble, while children with autism mapped picture-referent relations based on resemblance. Experiment 2 showed that toddlers do not rely upon linguistic cues to determine intended referential relations. Experiment 3 confirmed that the responding of children with autism was not due to perseveration or associative word learning, and also provided independent evidence of their intention-reading difficulties. We argue that typically developing children derive meaning from the social-communicative intentions underlying pictures when resemblance is an inadequate cue to meaning. By contrast, children with autism do not reflect on artists' intentions and simply relate pictures to whatever they happen to resemble.
Uhrig, Meike K.; Trautmann, Nadine; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Henrich, Florian; Hiller, Wolfgang; Marschall, Susanne
Pictures and film clips are widely used and accepted stimuli to elicit emotions. Based on theoretical arguments it is often assumed that the emotional effects of films exceed those of pictures, but to date this assumption has not been investigated directly. The aim of the present study was to compare pictures and films in terms of their capacity to induce emotions verified by means of explicit measures. Stimuli were (a) single pictures presented for 6 s, (b) a set of three consecutive pictures with emotionally congruent contents presented for 2 s each, (c) short film clips with a duration of 6 s. A total of 144 participants rated their emotion and arousal states following stimulus presentation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the film clips and 3-picture version were as effective as the classical 1-picture method to elicit positive emotions, however, modulation toward positive valence was little. Modulation toward negative valence was more effective in general. Film clips were less effective than pictorial stimuli in producing the corresponding emotion states (all p < 0.001) and were less arousing (all p ≤ 0.02). Possible reasons for these unexpected results are discussed. PMID:26925007
Johnston, Deirdre D.
Identifies four motivations adolescents report for viewing graphic horror films: gore watching, thrill watching, independent watching, and problem watching. Argues that viewing motivations are predictors of responses to graphic horror. Finds that viewing motivations were related to viewers' cognitive and affective responses and a tendency to…
Qian, K X; Feng, Z G; Ru, W M; Zeng, P; Yuan, H Y
Previously it has been found by pump haemolysis testing that the flow rate has a remarkable effect on index of haemolysis (IH), while pressure head does not affect IH. Recent investigation with particle image velocimetry (PIV) technology has demonstrated that IH is directly related to the flow pattern of stream field in impeller vane channels. PIV is a visible approach showing the real flow status in the pump. The different positions of a tracer particle in two PIV pictures taken at 20 micros intervals decide the velocity value and direction. The velocity vectors of many particles draw the flow pattern of the stream field. The same pictures are taken at 2, 4 and 6 l min(-1) flow rates while the pressure head is kept unchanged at 100 mmHg; then the pictures are taken at 4 l min(-1) flow with different pressure heads of 80, 100 and 120 mmHg. Results reveal that the flow rate of 4 l min(-1) (IH = 0.030) has the best stream field, and neither turbulence nor separation can be seen. In other flow rates (IH: 0.048 - 0.082), there is obviously second flow. Meanwhile, no significant difference can be seen among the PIV pictures of different pressure heads pumped, which agrees with the results of haemolysis testing showing that pressure has no effect on pump haemolysis. It may be concluded that the haemolysis property of a centrifugal pump can be assessed approximately by PIV pictures, which are much easier to take than haemolysis tests.
Toglia, M P; Hinman, P J; Dayton, B S; Catalano, J F
Picture and word recall was examined in conjunction with list organization. 60 subjects studied a list of 30 items, either words or their pictorial equivalents. The 30 words/pictures, members of five conceptual categories, each represented by six exemplars, were presented either blocked by category or in a random order. While pictures were recalled better than words and a standard blocked-random effect was observed, the interaction indicated that the recall advantage of a blocked presentation was restricted to the word lists. A similar pattern emerged for clustering. These findings are discussed in terms of limitations upon the pictorial superiority effect.
Proverbio, Alice Mado; Adorni, Roberta; Zani, Alberto; Trestianu, Laura
Recent findings have demonstrated that women might be more reactive than men to viewing painful stimuli (vicarious response to pain), and therefore more empathic [Han, S., Fan, Y., & Mao, L. (2008). Gender difference in empathy for pain: An electrophysiological investigation. Brain Research, 1196, 85-93]. We investigated whether the two sexes differed in their cerebral responses to affective pictures portraying humans in different positive or negative contexts compared to natural or urban scenarios. 440 IAPS slides were presented to 24 Italian students (12 women and 12 men). Half the pictures displayed humans while the remaining scenes lacked visible persons. ERPs were recorded from 128 electrodes and swLORETA (standardized weighted Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography) source reconstruction was performed. Occipital P115 was greater in response to persons than to scenes and was affected by the emotional valence of the human pictures. This suggests that processing of biologically relevant stimuli is prioritized. Orbitofrontal N2 was greater in response to positive than negative human pictures in women but not in men, and not to scenes. A late positivity (LP) to suffering humans far exceeded the response to negative scenes in women but not in men. In both sexes, the contrast suffering-minus-happy humans revealed a difference in the activation of the occipito/temporal, right occipital (BA19), bilateral parahippocampal, left dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) and left amygdala. However, increased right amygdala and right frontal area activities were observed only in women. The humans-minus-scenes contrast revealed a difference in the activation of the middle occipital gyrus (MOG) in men, and of the left inferior parietal (BA40), left superior temporal gyrus (STG, BA38) and right cingulate (BA31) in women (270-290 ms). These data indicate a sex-related difference in the brain response to humans, possibly supporting human empathy.
This study explored the effect of TV size, illumination, and viewing angle on preferred viewing distance in high-definition liquid crystal display televisions (HDTV). Results showed that the mean preferred viewing distance was 2856 mm. TV size and illumination significantly affected preferred viewing distance. The larger the screen size, the greater the preferred viewing distance, at around 3-4 times the width of the screen (W). The greater the illumination, the greater the preferred viewing distance. Viewing angle also correlated significantly with preferred viewing distance. The more deflected from direct frontal view, the shorter the preferred viewing distance seemed to be.
Hietanen, Jari K; Klemettilä, Terhi; Kettunen, Jani E; Korpela, Kalevi M
An affective priming paradigm with pictures of environmental scenes and facial expressions as primes and targets, respectively, was employed in order to investigate the role of natural (e.g., vegetation) and built elements (e.g., buildings) in eliciting rapid affective responses. In Experiment 1, images of environmental scenes were digitally manipulated to make continua of priming pictures with a gradual increase of natural elements (and a decrease of built elements). The primes were followed by presentations of facial expressions of happiness and disgust as to-be-recognized target stimuli. The recognition times of happy faces decreased and the recognition times of disgusted faces increased as the quantity of natural/built material present in the primes increased/decreased. The physical changes also influenced the evaluated restorativeness and affective valence of the primes. In Experiment 2, the primes used in Experiment 1 were manipulated in such a way that they were void of any recognizable natural or built elements but contained either similar colours or similar shapes as primes in Experiment 1. This time the results showed no effect of priming. These results were interpreted to give support for a view that the priming effect by environmental pictures is due to the primes representing environmental scenes and not due to the presence of certain low-level colour or shape information in the primes. In all, the present results provide evidence that perception of environmental scenes elicits automatic affective responses and influences recognition of facial expressions.
Fiedler, Klaus; Schenck, Wolfram; Watling, Marlin; Menges, Jochen I
A newly developed paradigm for studying spontaneous trait inferences (STI) was applied in 3 experiments. The authors primed dyadic stimulus behaviors involving a subject (S) and an object (O) person through degraded pictures or movies. An encoding task called for the verification of either a graphical feature or a semantic interpretation, which either fit or did not fit the primed behavior. Next, participants had to identify a trait word that appeared gradually behind a mask and that either matched or did not match the primed behavior. STI effects, defined as shorter identification latencies for matching than nonmatching traits, were stronger for S than for O traits, after graphical rather than semantic encoding decisions and after encoding failures. These findings can be explained by assuming that trait inferences are facilitated by open versus closed mindsets supposed to result from distracting (graphical) encoding tasks or encoding failures (involving nonfitting interpretations).
Students often have difficulty understanding algebraic proofs of statistics theorems. However, it sometimes is possible to prove statistical theorems with pictures in which case students can gain understanding more easily. I provide examples for two versions of Bayes' theorem.
7. MOTION PICTURE CAMERA STAND AT BUILDING 8768. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA
Miscellaneous artifacts relating to experiments with talking motion pictures about 1912 and to loudspeaking phonographs in the 1920s, third floor. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ
1. Photocopy from stereoptican picture (original owned by Charles van Ravenswaay, Wilmington, Delaware) J. C. Macurdy, Photographer ca. 1871 EXTERIOR IN 1871 - St. Peter & Paul Roman Catholic Church, Seventh & Spring Streets, Boonville, Cooper County, MO
Astronaut Robert L. Gibson, STS 61-C mission commander, partially floats on the aft flight deck of the Shuttle Columbia while preparing to use a motion picture camera. The windows overlooking the cargo bay are visible in the background.
Florida State Dept. of Commerce, Tallahassee. Div. of Economic Development.
Designed to assist the motion picture or television producer, this directory lists organizations (producers, distributors, talent agencies, laboratories, etc.) by geographical section in Florida. Each entry includes the company address, telephone, services available, a contact person, and credits. (DAG)
57. Historic American Buildings Survey From Motion Picture 'Ghost of Romance' Date of Photo: August 4, 1920 CONVENTS - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA
Photocopy of postcard (original in Picture Group 800, Connecticut State Library, Hartford, Connecticut), C.G. Talbot, publisher, Putnam, Conn., No. 1478. Postmarked 1905. Grammar School, Putnam, Conn. - Israel Putnam School, School & Oak Streets, Putnam, Windham County, CT
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: SWIRE View of Distant Galaxies [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2Figure 3 Figure 4These spectacular images, taken by the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) Legacy project, encapsulate one of the primary objectives of the Spitzer mission: to connect the evolution of galaxies from the distant, or early, universe to the nearby, or present day, universe. The Tadpole galaxy (main image) is the result of a recent galactic interaction in the local universe. Although these galactic mergers are rare in the universe's recent history, astronomers believe that they were much more common in the early universe. Thus, SWIRE team members will use this detailed image of the Tadpole galaxy to help understand the nature of the 'faint red-orange specks' of the early universe. The larger picture (figure 2) depicts one-sixteenth of the SWIRE survey field called ELAIS-N1. In this image, the bright blue sources are hot stars in our own Milky Way, which range anywhere from 3 to 60 times the mass of our Sun. The fainter green spots are cooler stars and galaxies beyond the Milky Way whose light is dominated by older stellar populations. The red dots are dusty galaxies that are undergoing intense star formation. The faintest specks of red-orange are galaxies billions of light-years away in the distant universe. Figure 3 features an unusual ring-like galaxy called CGCG 275-022. The red spiral arms indicate that this galaxy is very dusty and perhaps undergoing intense star formation. The star-forming activity could have been initiated by a near head-on collision with another galaxy. The most distant galaxies that SWIRE is able to detect are revealed in a zoom of deep space (figure 4). The colors in this feature represent the same objects as those in the larger field image of ELAIS
A spectacular new image of the Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253) has been taken with the ESO VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile as part of one of its first major observational campaigns. By observing in infrared light VISTA's view is less affected by dust and reveals a myriad of cooler stars as well as a prominent bar of stars across the central region. The VISTA image provides much new information on the history and development of the galaxy. The Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253) lies in the constellation of the same name and is one of the brightest galaxies in the sky. It is prominent enough to be seen with good binoculars and was discovered by Caroline Herschel from England in 1783. NGC 253 is a spiral galaxy that lies about 13 million light-years away. It is the brightest member of a small collection of galaxies called the Sculptor Group, one of the closest such groupings to our own Local Group of galaxies. Part of its visual prominence comes from its status as a starburst galaxy, one in the throes of rapid star formation. NGC 253 is also very dusty, which obscures the view of many parts of the galaxy (eso0902). Seen from Earth, the galaxy is almost edge on, with the spiral arms clearly visible in the outer parts, along with a bright core at its centre. VISTA, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope. After being handed over to ESO at the end of 2009 (eso0949) the telescope was used for two detailed studies of small sections of the sky before it embarked on the much larger surveys that are now in progress. One of these "mini surveys" was a detailed study of NGC 253 and its environment. As VISTA works at infrared wavelengths it can see right through most of the dust that is such a prominent feature of the Sculptor Galaxy when viewed in visible light. Huge numbers of cooler stars that are barely detectable with visible
AD-A240 337 Operational Symbols: Can A Picture Be Worth A Thousand Words ? A Monograph by Major Frederick R. Kienle Infantry SDTIC P I "A 199 School...TYPE AND DATES COVERED APR 1991 MONOGRAPH .-. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS OPERATIONAL SYMBOLS: CAN A PICTURE BE WORTH A THOUSAND WORDS ? 6... Words ? Approved by: Monograph Director !i ,&, 1 ,, "V/ Director, School of COL 1 james R. McDonough,AS Advanced Military Studies
pictures and words . The long-term facilitation occurs when subjects are exposed to some representation of the item during a study episode, and then show...item (picture vs. word ) between study and test. The research carried out under the grant has exploited this similarity between explicit and implicit... Words (F49620-92-J-0119) Joan Gay Snodgrass New York University 6 Washington Place, Room 857 New York, NY 10003 5 October 1994 Final Report for Period 1
In 1985 Anne-Marie Christakis selected me to make the first pulse holographic feature-fiction movie. Up to that time, the process had only been used for laboratory tests. The running time for the movie was to be 1 minute 20 seconds. Apparently quite long compared with previous tests, but an extremely short time in which to tell a story. I chose the characters of Beauty and the Beast. A lot of time was spent in preparatory work: triple distilling the scenario to get it down to 80 seconds; paintings and masks, and I extracted the music from a suite I had already written in medieval style. The movie was made in 1986 in the laboratory of Professeur Smigielsky, which was located in the Franco-German Defense Research Establishment, at St. Louis in France. Prof. Smigielsky's staff operated all the equipment and Anne-Marie Christakis coordinated everything, as she had done throughout the project. As soon as we arrived at the laboratory, we were told not to look beyond a certain angle towards the laser, otherwise we could be blinded for life. With all that dangerous power however, it was only possible to illuminate a volume for the set of half a meter wide by half a meter deep by one third of a meter high. Such a set gives real meaning to the expression `cramp one's style.' The layout used was, in principle, the same as for making a simple hologram. A pulsed YAG laser was used and each pulse was synchronized with a new frame to be exposed in the camera. When the movie was finished, it was not very bright, and one had to look through a small aperture to view it.
Boerma, Inouk E; Mol, Suzanne E; Jolles, Jelle
We examined the role of mental imagery skills on story comprehension in 150 fifth graders (10- to 12-year-olds), when reading a narrative book chapter with alternating words and pictures (i.e., text blocks were alternated by one- or two-page picture spreads). A parallel group design was used, in which we compared our experimental book version, in which pictures were used to replace parts of the corresponding text, to two control versions, i.e., a text-only version and a version with the full story text and all pictures. Analyses showed an interaction between mental imagery and book version: children with higher mental imagery skills outperformed children with lower mental imagery skills on story comprehension after reading the experimental narrative. This was not the case for both control conditions. This suggests that children's mental imagery skills significantly contributed to the mental representation of the story that they created, by successfully integrating information from both words and pictures. The results emphasize the importance of mental imagery skills for explaining individual variability in reading development. Implications for educational practice are that we should find effective ways to instruct children how to "read" pictures and how to develop and use their mental imagery skills. This will probably contribute to their mental models and therefore their story comprehension.
Khu, Melanie; Graham, Susan A; Ganea, Patricia A
The present study investigated whether naming would facilitate infants' transfer of information from picture books to the real world. Eighteen- and 21-month-olds learned a novel label for a novel object depicted in a picture book. Infants then saw a second picture book in which an adult demonstrated how to elicit the object's non-obvious property. Accompanying narration described the pictures using the object's newly learnt label. Infants were subsequently tested with the real-world object depicted in the book, as well as a different-color exemplar. Infants' performance on the test trials was compared with that of infants in a no label condition. When presented with the exact object depicted in the picture book, 21-month-olds were significantly more likely to attempt to elicit the object's non-obvious property than were 18-month-olds. Learning the object's label before learning about the object's hidden property did not improve 18-month-olds' performance. At 21-months, the number of infants in the label condition who attempted to elicit the real-world object's non-obvious property was greater than would be predicted by chance, but the number of infants in the no label condition was not. Neither age group nor label condition predicted test performance for the different-color exemplar. The findings are discussed in relation to infants' learning and transfer from picture books.
Boerma, Inouk E.; Mol, Suzanne E.; Jolles, Jelle
We examined the role of mental imagery skills on story comprehension in 150 fifth graders (10- to 12-year-olds), when reading a narrative book chapter with alternating words and pictures (i.e., text blocks were alternated by one- or two-page picture spreads). A parallel group design was used, in which we compared our experimental book version, in which pictures were used to replace parts of the corresponding text, to two control versions, i.e., a text-only version and a version with the full story text and all pictures. Analyses showed an interaction between mental imagery and book version: children with higher mental imagery skills outperformed children with lower mental imagery skills on story comprehension after reading the experimental narrative. This was not the case for both control conditions. This suggests that children’s mental imagery skills significantly contributed to the mental representation of the story that they created, by successfully integrating information from both words and pictures. The results emphasize the importance of mental imagery skills for explaining individual variability in reading development. Implications for educational practice are that we should find effective ways to instruct children how to “read” pictures and how to develop and use their mental imagery skills. This will probably contribute to their mental models and therefore their story comprehension. PMID:27822194
Khu, Melanie; Graham, Susan A.; Ganea, Patricia A.
The present study investigated whether naming would facilitate infants’ transfer of information from picture books to the real world. Eighteen- and 21-month-olds learned a novel label for a novel object depicted in a picture book. Infants then saw a second picture book in which an adult demonstrated how to elicit the object’s non-obvious property. Accompanying narration described the pictures using the object’s newly learnt label. Infants were subsequently tested with the real-world object depicted in the book, as well as a different-color exemplar. Infants’ performance on the test trials was compared with that of infants in a no label condition. When presented with the exact object depicted in the picture book, 21-month-olds were significantly more likely to attempt to elicit the object’s non-obvious property than were 18-month-olds. Learning the object’s label before learning about the object’s hidden property did not improve 18-month-olds’ performance. At 21-months, the number of infants in the label condition who attempted to elicit the real-world object’s non-obvious property was greater than would be predicted by chance, but the number of infants in the no label condition was not. Neither age group nor label condition predicted test performance for the different-color exemplar. The findings are discussed in relation to infants’ learning and transfer from picture books. PMID:24611058
Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field.
Segovia, Jorge; El-Bennich, Bruno; Rojas, Eduardo; Cloët, Ian C; Roberts, Craig D; Xu, Shu-Sheng; Zong, Hong-Shi
We employ a continuum approach to the three valence-quark bound-state problem in relativistic quantum field theory to predict a range of properties of the proton's radial excitation and thereby unify them with those of numerous other hadrons. Our analysis indicates that the nucleon's first radial excitation is the Roper resonance. It consists of a core of three dressed quarks, which expresses its valence-quark content and whose charge radius is 80% larger than the proton analogue. That core is complemented by a meson cloud, which reduces the observed Roper mass by roughly 20%. The meson cloud materially affects long-wavelength characteristics of the Roper electroproduction amplitudes but the quark core is revealed to probes with Q(2)≳3m(N)(2).
The concept of a "picture superiority effect" is discussed. Examined are a number of perceptual considerations that need to be given to picture construction. Parameters which appear to attract the learner's attention to a picture are considered. (CW)