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Sample records for affective picture viewing

  1. Emotion and motivated behavior: postural adjustments to affective picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Charles H; Rosengren, Karl S; Smith, Darin P

    2004-03-01

    Thirty-six participants (18 female, 18 male) viewed affective pictures to investigate the coupling between emotional reactions and motivated behavior. Framed within the biphasic theory of emotion, the three systems approach was employed by collecting measures of subjective report, expressive physiology, and motivated behavior. Postural adjustments associated with viewing affective pictures were measured. Results indicated sex-differences for postural responses to unpleasant pictures; an effect not found for pleasant and neutral picture contents. Females exhibited increased postural movement in the posterior direction, and males exhibited increased movement in the anterior direction, for unpleasant pictures. Subjective report of valence and arousal using the self-assessment manikin (SAM), and the startle eye-blink reflex were collected during a separate session, which replicated previous picture-viewing research. Specifically, participants rated pleasant pictures higher in valence and exhibited smaller startle responses compared to unpleasant pictures. Females also reported lower valence ratings compared to males across all picture contents. These findings extend our knowledge of motivated engagement with affective stimuli and indicate that postural responses may provide insight into sex-related differences in withdrawal behavior. PMID:15019170

  2. Modulation of the initial light reflex during affective picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Robert R; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    An initial reflexive constriction of the pupil to stimulation-the light reflex-is primarily modulated by brightness, but is attenuated when participants are under threat of shock (i.e., fear-inhibited light reflex). The present study assessed whether the light reflex is similarly attenuated when viewing emotional pictures. Pupil diameter was recorded while participants viewed erotic, violent, and neutral scenes that were matched in brightness; scrambled versions identical in brightness were also presented as an additional control. Compared to viewing neutral scenes, the light reflex was reliably modulated by hedonic content, with significant attenuation both when viewing unpleasant as well as pleasant pictures. No differences in the light reflex were found among scrambled versions. Thus, emotional modulation of the initial light reflex is not confined to a context of fear and is not indicative of brightness differences when viewing pictures of natural scenes. PMID:24849784

  3. The pupil's response to affective pictures: Role of image duration, habituation, and viewing mode.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Robert J; O'Farrell, Katherine R; Burley, Daniel; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Newton, Naomi V; Gray, Nicola S

    2016-08-01

    The pupil has been shown to be sensitive to the emotional content of stimuli. We examined this phenomenon by comparing fearful and neutral images carefully matched in the domains of luminance, image contrast, image color, and complexity of content. The pupil was more dilated after viewing affective pictures, and this effect was (a) shown to be independent of the presentation time of the images (from 100-3,000 ms), (b) not diminished by repeated presentations of the images, and (c) not affected by actively naming the emotion of the stimuli in comparison to passive viewing. Our results show that the emotional modulation of the pupil is present over a range of variables that typically vary from study to study (image duration, number of trials, free viewing vs. task), and encourages the use of pupillometry as a measure of emotional processing in populations where alternative techniques may not be appropriate. PMID:27172997

  4. Simulation of the geomagnetic field experienced by the International Space Station in its revolution around the Earth: Effects on psychophysiological responses to affective picture viewing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Seppia, C.; Mezzasalma, L.; Messerotti, M.; Cordelli, A.; Ghione, S.

    2006-02-01

    There is evidence suggesting that exposure to an abnormal magnetic environment may produce psychophysiological effects related to abnormalities in responses to stress. This may be of relevance for space medicine where astronauts are exposed to a magnetic field different from that exerted by the Earth. Aim of this study was to assess how the exposure of the head to a magnetic field simulating the one encountered by the International Space Station (ISS) during a single orbit (90 min) around the Earth affects the cardiovascular and psychophysiological parameters. Twenty-four human volunteers were studied double blindly in random order under sham and magnetic exposure. During exposure, the persons were shown a set of pictures of different emotional content while subjective self-rating, skin conductance (SC), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were measured. In addition, BP, HR, and tooth pain threshold were assessed before and after exposure. While subjects were under magnetic exposure, skin conductance was strongly differentiated (F|2,36 = 22.927; p = 0.0001), being high during emotionally involving (positive and negative) pictures and low during neutral pictures. Conversely, when subjects were under sham exposure, no significant differences were observed. There was, however, a trend for higher heart rate during picture viewing under magnetic exposure as compared to sham exposure. No effects were found for the other variables. These results suggest that an abnormal magnetic field that simulates the one encountered by ISS orbiting around the Earth may enhance autonomic response to emotional stimuli.

  5. Simulation of the geomagnetic field experienced by the International Space Station in its revolution around the Earth: effects on psychophysiological responses to affective picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Del Seppia, Cristina; Mezzasalma, Lorena; Messerotti, Mauro; Cordelli, Alessandro; Ghione, Sergio

    2006-06-12

    There is evidence suggesting that exposure to an abnormal magnetic environment may produce psychophysiological effects related to abnormalities in responses to stress. This may be of relevance for space medicine where astronauts are exposed to a magnetic field different from that exerted by the Earth. Aim of this study was to assess how the exposure of the head to a magnetic field simulating the one encountered by the International Space Station (ISS) during a single orbit (90 min) around the Earth affects the cardiovascular and psychophysiological parameters. Twenty-four human volunteers were studied double blindly in random order under sham and magnetic exposure. During exposure, the persons were shown a set of pictures of different emotional content while subjective self-rating, skin conductance (SC), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were measured. In addition, BP, HR, and tooth pain threshold were assessed before and after exposure. While subjects were under magnetic exposure, skin conductance was strongly differentiated (F(2,36)=22.927; p=0.0001), being high during emotionally involving (positive and negative) pictures and low during neutral pictures. Conversely, when subjects were under sham exposure, no significant differences were observed. There was, however, a trend for higher heart rate during picture viewing under magnetic exposure as compared to sham exposure. No effects were found for the other variables. These results suggest that an abnormal magnetic field that simulates the one encountered by ISS orbiting around the Earth may enhance autonomic response to emotional stimuli. PMID:16529860

  6. On the classification of emotional biosignals evoked while viewing affective pictures: an integrated data-mining-based approach for healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Frantzidis, Christos A; Bratsas, Charalampos; Klados, Manousos A; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos; Lithari, Chrysa D; Vivas, Ana B; Papadelis, Christos L; Kaldoudi, Eleni; Pappas, Costas; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2010-03-01

    Recent neuroscience findings demonstrate the fundamental role of emotion in the maintenance of physical and mental health. In the present study, a novel architecture is proposed for the robust discrimination of emotional physiological signals evoked upon viewing pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Biosignals are multichannel recordings from both the central and the autonomic nervous systems. Following the bidirectional emotion theory model, IAPS pictures are rated along two dimensions, namely, their valence and arousal. Following this model, biosignals in this paper are initially differentiated according to their valence dimension by means of a data mining approach, which is the C4.5 decision tree algorithm. Then, the valence and the gender information serve as an input to a Mahalanobis distance classifier, which dissects the data into high and low arousing. Results are described in Extensible Markup Language (XML) format, thereby accounting for platform independency, easy interconnectivity, and information exchange. The average recognition (success) rate was 77.68% for the discrimination of four emotional states, differing both in their arousal and valence dimension. It is, therefore, envisaged that the proposed approach holds promise for the efficient discrimination of negative and positive emotions, and it is hereby discussed how future developments may be steered to serve for affective healthcare applications, such as the monitoring of the elderly or chronically ill people. PMID:20064762

  7. Affective picture perception: Emotion, context, and the late positive potential

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, M. Carmen; Bradley, Margaret M.; Löw, Andreas; Versace, Francesco; Moltó, Javier; Lang, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERP) were measured when pleasant, neutral or unpleasant pictures were presented in the context of similarly valenced stimuli, and compared to ERPs elicited when the same pictures were viewed in an intermixed context. An early ERP component (150–300 ms) measured over occipital and fronto-central sensors was specific to viewing pleasant pictures and was not affected by presentation context. Replicating previous studies, emotional pictures prompted a larger late positive potential (LPP, 400–700 ms) and a larger positive slow wave (1–6 s) over centro-parietal sensors that also did not differ by presentation context. On the other hand, ERPs elicited when viewing neutral pictures varied as a function of context, eliciting somewhat larger LPPs when presented in blocks, and prompting smaller slow waves over occipital sensors. Taken together, the data indicate that emotional pictures prompt increased attention and orienting that is unaffected by its context of presentation, whereas neutral pictures are more vulnerable to context manipulations. PMID:18068150

  8. Brain Potentials During Affective Picture Processing in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hajcak, Greg; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2008-01-01

    In adults, emotional (e.g., both unpleasant and pleasant) compared to neutral pictures elicit an increase in the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP); modulation of these ERP components are thought to reflect the facilitated processing of, and increased attention to, motivationally salient stimuli. To determine whether the EPN and LPP are sensitive to emotional content in children, high-density EEG was recorded from 18 children who were 5 to 8 years of age (mean age = 77 months, SD = 11 months) while they viewed developmentally appropriate pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reported ratings of valence and arousal were also obtained. An EPN was not evident following emotional compared to neutral pictures; however, a positivity maximal at occipital-parietal recording sites was increased from 500 to 1,000 ms following pleasant pictures and from 500 to 1,500 ms following unpleasant pictures. Comparisons between the EPN and LPP observed in children and adults, and implications for developmental studies of emotion, are discussed. PMID:19103249

  9. Enhanced Choice for Viewing Cocaine Pictures in Cocaine Addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, S.J.; Goldstein, R.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T. Parvaz, M.A.; Dunning, J.P.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Hajcak, G.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2009-02-01

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures-under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)-was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.

  10. Cognitive Determinants of Fixation Location during Picture Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Geoffrey R.; Mackworth, Norman H.

    1978-01-01

    Adult subjects viewed pictures at brief intervals, testing their reactions to informative objects--those not redundant with or predictive of the rest of the picture, such as a tractor in an underwater scene. Results indicated that observers fixate earlier, more often, and longer on informative objects. (Author/SJL)

  11. Effects of picture content and intensity on affective physiological response

    PubMed Central

    BERNAT, EDWARD; PATRICK, CHRISTOPHER J.; BENNING, STEPHEN D.; TELLEGEN, AUKE

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of affective intensity and thematic content of foreground photographic stimuli on various physiological response systems. This was accomplished by assessing responses to pictures that varied systematically in these parameters. Along with overall effects of picture valence reported in previous work, we found effects of thematic content (i.e., specific nature of objects/events depicted) for all measures except heart rate. In addition, we found that the magnitude of startle blink, skin conductance, and corrugator muscle reactions increased with increasing affective intensity of pictures. Additionally, for these three measures, intensity effects also interacted with effects of picture content. These results indicate that stimulus parameters of intensity and thematic content exert separate—and in some cases interactive—modulatory effects on physiological reactions to emotional pictures. PMID:16629689

  12. Affective picture processing: An integrative review of ERP findings

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Jonas K.; Nordin, Steven; Sequeira, Henrique; Polich, John

    2008-01-01

    The review summarizes and integrates findings from 40 years of event-related potential (ERP) studies using pictures that differ in valence (unpleasant-to-pleasant) and arousal (low-to-high) and that are used to elicit emotional processing. Affective stimulus factors primarily modulate ERP component amplitude, with little change in peak latency observed. Arousal effects are consistently obtained, and generally occur at longer latencies. Valence effects are inconsistently reported at several latency ranges, including very early components. Some affective ERP modulations vary with recording methodology, stimulus factors, as well as task-relevance and emotional state. Affective ERPs have been linked theoretically to attention orientation for unpleasant pictures at earlier components (< 300 ms). Enhanced stimulus processing has been associated with memory encoding for arousing pictures of assumed intrinsic motivational relevance, with task-induced differences contributing to emotional reactivity at later components (> 300 ms). Theoretical issues, stimulus factors, task demands, and individual differences are discussed. PMID:18164800

  13. Amygdala responses to unpleasant pictures are influenced by task demands and positive affect trait

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Tiago A.; Mocaiber, Izabela; Erthal, Fatima S.; Joffily, Mateus; Volchan, Eliane; Pereira, Mirtes G.; de Araujo, Draulio B.; Oliveira, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    The role of attention in emotional processing is still the subject of debate. Recent studies have found that high positive affect in approach motivation narrows attention. Furthermore, the positive affect trait has been suggested as an important component for determining human variability in threat reactivity. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether different states of attention control would modulate amygdala responses to highly unpleasant pictures relative to neutral and whether this modulation would be influenced by the positive affect trait. Participants (n = 22, 12 male) were scanned while viewing neutral (people) or unpleasant pictures (mutilated bodies) flanked by two peripheral bars. They were instructed to (a) judge the picture content as unpleasant or neutral or (b) to judge the difference in orientation between the bars in an easy condition (0 or 90∘ orientation difference) or (c) in a hard condition (0 or 6∘ orientation difference). Whole brain analysis revealed a task main effect of brain areas related to the experimental manipulation of attentional control, including the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex. Region of interest analysis showed an inverse correlation (r = -0.51, p < 0.01) between left amygdala activation and positive affect level when participants viewed unpleasant stimuli and judged bar orientation in the easy condition. This result suggests that subjects with high positive affect exhibit lower amygdala reactivity to distracting unpleasant pictures. In conclusion, the current study suggests that positive affect modulates attention effect on unpleasant pictures, therefore attenuating emotional responses. PMID:25788883

  14. Affective Rating of Color and Black-and-White Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, William; Everett, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    This study explored the effect of grade level and sex on affective ratings of color and black-and-white pictures by having 148 students from grades 4, 7, and 12 rate color and black-and-white slides on nine semantic differential scales. (JEG)

  15. Brain response to affective pictures in the chimpanzee.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Satoshi; Matsuda, Goh; Ueno, Ari; Fukushima, Hirokata; Fuwa, Koki; Sugama, Keiko; Kusunoki, Kiyo; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hiraki, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Advancement of non-invasive brain imaging techniques has allowed us to examine details of neural activities involved in affective processing in humans; however, no comparative data are available for chimpanzees, the closest living relatives of humans. In the present study, we measured event-related brain potentials in a fully awake adult chimpanzee as she looked at affective and neutral pictures. The results revealed a differential brain potential appearing 210 ms after presentation of an affective picture, a pattern similar to that in humans. This suggests that at least a part of the affective process is similar between humans and chimpanzees. The results have implications for the evolutionary foundations of emotional phenomena, such as emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:23439389

  16. Externalizing proneness and brain response during pre-cuing and viewing of emotional pictures.

    PubMed

    Foell, Jens; Brislin, Sarah J; Strickland, Casey M; Seo, Dongju; Sabatinelli, Dean; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Externalizing proneness, or trait disinhibition, is a concept relevant to multiple high-impact disorders involving impulsive-aggressive behavior. Its mechanisms remain disputed: major models posit hyperresponsive reward circuitry or heightened threat-system reactivity as sources of disinhibitory tendencies. This study evaluated alternative possibilities by examining relations between trait disinhibition and brain reactivity during preparation for and processing of visual affective stimuli. Forty females participated in a functional neuroimaging procedure with stimuli presented in blocks containing either pleasurable or aversive pictures interspersed with neutral, with each picture preceded by a preparation signal. Preparing to view elicited activation in regions including nucleus accumbens, whereas visual regions and bilateral amygdala were activated during viewing of emotional pictures. High disinhibition predicted reduced nucleus accumbens activation during preparation within pleasant/neutral picture blocks, along with enhanced amygdala reactivity during viewing of pleasant and aversive pictures. Follow-up analyses revealed that the augmented amygdala response was related to reduced preparatory activation. Findings indicate that participants high in disinhibition are less able to process implicit cues and mentally prepare for upcoming stimuli, leading to limbic hyperreactivity during processing of actual stimuli. This outcome is helpful for integrating findings from studies suggesting reward-system hyperreactivity and others suggesting threat-system hyperreactivity as mechanisms for externalizing proneness. PMID:26113614

  17. Let's not be indifferent about neutrality: Neutral ratings in the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) mask mixed affective responses.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Iris K; Veenstra, Lotte; van Harreveld, Frenk; Schwarz, Norbert; Koole, Sander L

    2016-06-01

    The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a picture set used by researchers to select pictures that have been prerated on valence. Researchers rely on the ratings in the IAPS to accurately reflect the degree to which the pictures elicit affective responses. Here we show that this may not always be a safe assumption. More specifically, the scale used to measure valence in the IAPS ranges from positive to negative, implying that positive and negative feelings are end-points of the same construct. This makes interpretation of midpoint, or neutral ratings, especially problematic because it is impossible to tell whether these ratings are the result of neutral, or of mixed feelings. In other words, neutral ratings may not be as neutral as researchers assume them to be. Investigating this, in this work we show that pictures that seem neutral according to the valence ratings in the IAPS indeed vary in levels of ambivalence they elicit. Furthermore, the experience of ambivalence in response to these pictures is predictive of the arousal that people report feeling when viewing these pictures. These findings are of particular importance because neutrality differs from ambivalence in its specific psychological consequences, and by relying on seemingly neutral valance ratings, researchers may unwillingly introduce these consequences into their research design, undermining their level of experimental control. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950363

  18. Comparison of physiological responses to affect eliciting pictures and music.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both. PMID:26752207

  19. Emotional Modulation of the Late Positive Potential during Picture Free Viewing in Older and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Renfroe, Jenna B; Bradley, Margaret M; Sege, Christopher T; Bowers, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Hedonic bias during free viewing of novel emotional and neutral scenes was investigated in older adults and college students. A neurophysiological index of emotional picture processing-the amplitude of the centroparietal late positive potential (LPP)-was recorded from the scalp using a dense sensor array while participants (29 older adults; 21 college students) viewed emotionally engaging or mundane natural scenes that varied in specific content. Both students and older adults showed LPP enhancement when viewing affective, compared to neutral, scenes, and there was no difference in LPP amplitude between older individuals and college students when viewing neutral everyday scenes. However, compared to the college students, older individuals showed attenuated LPP amplitude when viewing emotional scenes, regardless of hedonic valence or specific content. Age related differences could be mediated by a reduction in reactive emotional arousal with age, possible mediated by repeated life exposure to emotional stimuli. PMID:27589393

  20. Event related beta and gamma oscillatory responses during perception of affective pictures.

    PubMed

    Güntekin, Bahar; Tülay, Elif

    2014-08-19

    Several studies reveal that unpleasant pictures elicit higher beta and gamma responses than pleasant and/or neutral pictures; however, the effect of stimulation design (block or random) has not been studied before. The aim of the study is to analyze the common and distinct parameters of affective picture perception in block and random designs by means of analysis of high frequency oscillatory dynamics (beta and gamma). EEG of 22 healthy subjects was recorded at 32 locations. The participants passively viewed 120 emotional pictures (10 × 4 unpleasant, 10 × 4 pleasant, 10 × 4 neutral) in block and random designs. The phase-locking and power of event related beta (14-28 Hz) and gamma (29-48 Hz) oscillations were analyzed for two different time windows (0-200 ms/200-400 ms). Statistical analysis showed that in the 0-200 ms time window, during the block design, unpleasant stimulation elicited higher beta phase-locking and beta power than the pleasant and neutral stimulation (p<0.05). In the 200-400 ms time window, during the block design, over occipital electrodes unpleasant stimulation elicited higher gamma response power than the pleasant stimulation and neutral stimulation (p<0.05). Unpleasant stimulation did not elicit higher beta or gamma responses in the random design. The present study showed that experimental design highly influences the perception of IAPS pictures. Unpleasant stimulation elicited higher event related beta and gamma phase-locking and power only in block design but not in random design. It seems that longer blocks of aversive pictures affect the brain more than the rapid observation of these pictures. PMID:24992292

  1. Viewing preferences of rhesus monkeys related to memory for complex pictures, colours and faces.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F A; Goldman-Rakic, P S

    1994-01-31

    In order to determine the preferences of rhesus monkeys for visual stimuli, their eye movements were measured in response to presentations of complex pictures, fields of uniform colour, and of faces using the scleral search coil technique. The monkeys (n = 4) controlled both the onset and offset of the stimuli by the direction of their gaze. Each stimulus was presented 4 times, with 0 or 2, and 36 or 38 trials between successive presentations. Several trends were apparent in their scanning behaviour: (1) all 4 monkeys spent more time looking at pictures and faces compared to colour fields. As individuals, they differed in their overall propensity in looking at visual stimuli: monkeys that spent the most (or least) time looking at pictures spent the most (or least) time looking at colour fields. (2) Although the monkeys appeared to prefer pictures and faces to colour fields as measured by gaze duration, preferences for individual pictures, faces and colour fields were not evident. (3) Memory for recently presented stimuli substantially affected gaze duration which was significantly longer for the first compared to the second presentation of the pictures and faces, and memory was estimated to influence gaze duration over as many as 38 intervening trials. These effects were not significant in the case of colour fields. (4) There were no significant differences either in the average latencies to initiate eye movements or the number of saccades on the first and second presentations of pictures, colors or faces for the 4 monkeys. However, the average latencies to the first eye movement within a trial were longer for colour fields than for pictures for all 4 monkeys. Individual monkeys differed substantially in their mean latencies for the initiation of the first eye movement within a trial, which ranged from 235 ms to 414 ms in the two extreme cases. (5) At the presentation of faces, the monkeys tended to make saccades to major facial features, and only occasionally to

  2. Multidimensional normative ratings for the International Affective Picture System.

    PubMed

    Libkuman, Terry M; Otani, Hajime; Kern, Rosalie; Viger, Steen G; Novak, Nicole

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to replicate and extend the International Affective Picture System norms (Ito, Cacioppo, & Lang, 1998; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1999). These norms were developed to provide researchers with photographic slides that varied in emotional evocation, especially arousal and valence. In addition to collecting rating data on the dimensions of arousal and valence, we collected data on the dimensions of consequentiality, meaningfulness, familiarity, distinctiveness, and memorability. Furthermore, we collected ratings on the primary emotions of happiness, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, and fear. A total of 1,302 participants were tested in small groups. The participants in each group rated a subset of 18 slides on 14 dimensions. Ratings were obtained on 703 slides. The means and standard deviations for all of the ratings are provided. We found our valence ratings to be similar to the previous norms. In contrast, our participants were more likely to rate the slides as less arousing than in the previous norms. The mean ratings on the remaining 12 dimensions were all below the midpoint of the 9-point Likert scale. However, sufficient variability in ratings across the slides indicates that selecting slides on the basis of these variables is feasible. Overall, the present ratings should allow investigators to use these norms for research purposes, especially in research dealing with the interrelationships among emotion and cognition. The means and standard deviations for emotions may be downloaded as an Excel spreadsheet from www.psychonomic.org/archive. PMID:17695361

  3. Breathing and affective picture processing across the adult lifespan.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Patrick; Filippou, Dimitra; Pais, Bruno; von Gunten, Armin; Danuser, Brigitta

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated differences between healthy younger, middle-aged, and older adults in their respiratory responses to pictures of different valence and arousal. Expiratory time shortened and end-tidal PCO2 decreased with increasing arousal in all age groups; yet, compared to younger adults, older adults' overall change from baseline was smaller for expiratory time and larger for end-tidal PCO2. Contrary to their younger counterparts, older adults' inspiratory time did not shorten with increasing arousal. Inspiratory duty cycle did not covary with affective ratings for younger adults, increased with unpleasantness for middle-aged adults, and increased with arousal for older adults. Thoracic breathing increased with increasing unpleasantness only among older adults. Age had no effects on mean inspiratory flow and minute ventilation, which both augmented as arousal increased. We discuss how age effects on respiratory response magnitude and pattern may depend on age-associated biological changes or reflect age-related differences in emotional processing. PMID:27417701

  4. Attentional dynamics during free picture viewing: Evidence from oculomotor behavior and electrocortical activity

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Thomas; Graupner, Sven-Thomas; Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Pannasch, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Most empirical evidence on attentional control is based on brief presentations of rather abstract stimuli. Results revealed indications for a dynamic interplay between bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms. Here we used a more naturalistic task to examine temporal signatures of attentional mechanisms on fine and coarse time scales. Subjects had to inspect digitized copies of 60 paintings, each shown for 40 s. We simultaneously measured oculomotor behavior and electrophysiological correlates of brain activity to compare early and late intervals (1) of inspection time of each picture (picture viewing) and (2) of the full experiment (time on task). For picture viewing, we found an increase in fixation duration and a decrease of saccadic amplitude while these parameters did not change with time on task. Furthermore, early in picture viewing we observed higher spatial and temporal similarity of gaze behavior. Analyzing electrical brain activity revealed changes in three components (C1, N1 and P2) of the eye fixation-related potential (EFRP); during picture viewing; no variation was obtained for the power in the frontal beta- and in the theta activity. Time on task analyses demonstrated no effects on the EFRP amplitudes but an increase of power in the frontal theta and beta band activity. Thus, behavioral and electrophysiological measures similarly show characteristic changes during picture viewing, indicating a shifting balance of its underlying (bottom-up and top-down) attentional mechanisms. Time on task also modulated top-down attention but probably represents a different attentional mechanism. PMID:23759704

  5. Enhanced visual exploration for real objects compared to pictures during free viewing in the macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Mustafar, Faiz; De Luna, Paolo; Rainer, Gregor

    2015-09-01

    The question of whether animals perceive pictures as representation of real objects remains still unsolved. Object-picture perception is generally studied requiring animals to learn some information about real objects and transfer that knowledge to the pictorial domain, or vice versa. Here, we tackle the issue of object-picture perception from a different perspective, examining visual exploration behavior of two naïve macaque monkeys during free-viewing of objects and pictures of these objects on a computer monitor. Our main finding is that monkeys looked spontaneously longer at object rather than picture stimuli. However, we find striking similarities in temporal dynamics of gaze allocation within the time course of a single stimulus presentation, as well as in habituation rates within and across behavioral sessions. We also highlight differences between stimulus types in terms of spatial gaze patterns and looking strategies. Stimulus features that attract overt attention during spontaneous visual exploration are thus better predicted for object stimuli by a visual saliency model. Moreover, we provide evidence for a consistency in stimulus preference for objects and pictures, suggesting a correspondence of in how macaques perceive objects and their pictorial stimuli. Taken together, our data suggest that macaque monkeys exhibit evidence for correspondence between objects and pictures. This validates spontaneous visual exploration as a method for studying object-picture correspondence without a need for extensive behavioral training. We discuss the potential advantages of using object over picture stimuli in the context of studies on visual cognition. PMID:26003135

  6. Theta phase coherence in affective picture processing reveals dysfunctional sensory integration in psychopathic offenders.

    PubMed

    Tillem, Scott; Ryan, Jonathan; Wu, Jia; Crowley, Michael J; Mayes, Linda C; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle

    2016-09-01

    Psychopathic offenders are described as emotionally cold, displaying deficits in affective responding. However, research demonstrates that many of the psychopathy-related deficits are moderated by attention, such that under conditions of high attentional and perceptual load psychopathic offenders display deficits in affective responses, but do not in conditions of low load. To date, most studies use measures of defensive reflex (i.e., startle) and conditioning manipulations to examine the impact of load on psychopathy-related processing, but have not examined more direct measures of attention processing. In a sample of adult male offenders, the present study examined time-frequency EEG phase coherence in response to a picture-viewing paradigm that manipulated picture familiarity to assess neural changes in processing based on perceptual demands. Results indicated psychopathy-related differences in the theta response, an index of readiness to perceive and integrate sensory information. These data provide further evidence that psychopathic offenders have disrupted integration of sensory information. PMID:27373371

  7. mPano: cloud-based mobile panorama view from single picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongzhi; Zhu, Wenwu

    2013-09-01

    Panorama view provides people an informative and natural user experience to represent the whole scene. The advances on mobile augmented reality, mobile-cloud computing, and mobile internet can enable panorama view on mobile phone with new functionalities, such as anytime anywhere query where a landmark picture is and what the whole scene looks like. To generate and explore panorama view on mobile devices faces significant challenges due to the limitations of computing capacity, battery life, and memory size of mobile phones, as well as the bandwidth of mobile Internet connection. To address the challenges, this paper presents a novel cloud-based mobile panorama view system that can generate and view panorama-view on mobile devices from a single picture, namely "Pano". In our system, first, we propose a novel iterative multi-modal image retrieval (IMIR) approach to get spatially adjacent images using both tag and content information from the single picture. Second, we propose a cloud-based parallel server synthing approach to generate panorama view in cloud, against today's local-client synthing approach that is almost impossible for mobile phones. Third, we propose predictive-cache solution to reduce latency of image delivery from cloud server to the mobile client. We have built a real mobile panorama view system and perform experiments. The experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of our system and the proposed key component technologies, especially for landmark images.

  8. Neural Activation Underlying Cognitive Control in the Context of Neutral and Affectively Charged Pictures in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Connie; White, Lauren K.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The neural correlates of cognitive control for typically developing 9-year-old children were examined using dense-array ERPs and estimates of cortical activation (LORETA) during a go/no-go task with two conditions: a neutral picture condition and an affectively charged picture condition. Activation was estimated for the entire cortex after which…

  9. Startle Reflex Potentiation During Aversive Picture Viewing as an Indicator of Trait Fear

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J.; Bernat, Edward M.

    2009-01-01

    Measures of fearfulness and measures of psychopathy show positive and negative associations, respectively, with startle reflex potentiation during unpleasant picture viewing. We tested the hypothesis that a common bipolar trait dimension underlies these differing associations. Blink responses to noise probes were recorded during pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures in 88 undergraduates assessed with a battery of self-report scales indexing fear and psychopathy/fearlessness. A significant positive association was found between an omnibus index of fear, consisting of scores on the first component from a PCA of these various scales, and startle potentiation during aversive picture viewing. This association was most robust, across participants overall and within gender subgroups, for scenes that were most directly threatening. Implications for psychophysiological research on individual differences and psychopathology are discussed. PMID:19055499

  10. Pain Catastrophising Affects Cortical Responses to Viewing Pain in Others

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Pain catastrophising is an exaggerated cognitive attitude implemented during pain or when thinking about pain. Catastrophising was previously associated with increased pain severity, emotional distress and disability in chronic pain patients, and is also a contributing factor in the development of neuropathic pain. To investigate the neural basis of how pain catastrophising affects pain observed in others, we acquired EEG data in groups of participants with high (High-Cat) or low (Low-Cat) pain catastrophising scores during viewing of pain scenes and graphically matched pictures not depicting imminent pain. The High-Cat group attributed greater pain to both pain and non-pain pictures. Source dipole analysis of event-related potentials during picture viewing revealed activations in the left (PHGL) and right (PHGR) paraphippocampal gyri, rostral anterior (rACC) and posterior cingulate (PCC) cortices. The late source activity (600–1100 ms) in PHGL and PCC was augmented in High-Cat, relative to Low-Cat, participants. Conversely, greater source activity was observed in the Low-Cat group during the mid-latency window (280–450 ms) in the rACC and PCC. Low-Cat subjects demonstrated a significantly stronger correlation between source activity in PCC and pain and arousal ratings in the long latency window, relative to high pain catastrophisers. Results suggest augmented activation of limbic cortex and higher order pain processing cortical regions during the late processing period in high pain catastrophisers viewing both types of pictures. This pattern of cortical activations is consistent with the distorted and magnified cognitive appraisal of pain threats in high pain catastrophisers. In contrast, high pain catastrophising individuals exhibit a diminished response during the mid-latency period when attentional and top-down resources are ascribed to observed pain. PMID:26186545

  11. Emotional discrimination during viewing unpleasant pictures: timing in human anterior ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Satoru; Noriuchi, Madoka; Iguchi, Yoshinobu; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Hoshi, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and amygdala have critical roles in the generation and regulation of unpleasant emotions, and in this study the dynamic neural basis of unpleasant emotion processing was elucidated by using paired-samples permutation t-tests to identify the timing of emotional discrimination in various brain regions. We recorded the temporal dynamics of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals in those brain regions during the viewing of unpleasant pictures by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with high temporal resolution, and we compared the time course of the signal within the volume of interest (VOI) across emotional conditions. Results show that emotional discrimination in the right amygdala precedes that in the left amygdala and that emotional discrimination in both those regions precedes that in the right anterior VLPFC. They support the hypotheses that the right amygdala is part of a rapid emotional stimulus detection system and the left amygdala is specialized for sustained stimulus evaluation and that the right anterior VLPFC is implicated in the integration of viscerosensory information with affective signals between the bilateral anterior VLPFCs and the bilateral amygdalae. PMID:25713527

  12. Lying about the Valence of Affective Pictures: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Lee, Tiffany M. Y.; Raine, Adrian; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.

    2010-01-01

    The neural correlates of lying about affective information were studied using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methodology. Specifically, 13 healthy right-handed Chinese men were instructed to lie about the valence, positive or negative, of pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) while their brain activity was scanned by a 3T Philip Achieva scanner. The key finding is that the neural activity associated with deception is valence-related. Comparing to telling the truth, deception about the valence of the affectively positive pictures was associated with activity in the inferior frontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, precuneus, and middle temporal regions. Lying about the valence of the affectively negative pictures, on the other hand, was associated with activity in the orbital and medial frontal regions. While a clear valence-related effect on deception was observed, common neural regions were also recruited for the process of deception about the valence of the affective pictures. These regions included the lateral prefrontal and inferior parietal regions. Activity in these regions has been widely reported in fMRI studies on deception using affectively-neutral stimuli. The findings of this study reveal the effect of valence on the neural activity associated with deception. Furthermore, the data also help to illustrate the complexity of the neural mechanisms underlying deception. PMID:20811624

  13. The Emotional Experience of People with Intellectual Disability: An Analysis Using the International Affective Pictures System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermejo, Belen G.; Mateos, Pedro M.; Sanchez-Mateos, Juan Degado

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides information on the emotional experience of people with intellectual disability. To evaluate this emotional experience, we have used the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS). The most important result from this study is that the emotional reaction of people with intellectual disability to affective stimuli is…

  14. Affective Pictures and the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF): Tools to Investigate Emotions toward Food in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Pedro; Versace, Francesco; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M. Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several sets of standardized food pictures have been created, supplying both food images and their subjective evaluations. However, to date only the OLAF (Open Library of Affective Foods), a set of food images and ratings we developed in adolescents, has the specific purpose of studying emotions toward food. Moreover, some researchers have argued that food evaluations are not valid across individuals and groups, unless feelings toward food cues are compared with feelings toward intense experiences unrelated to food, that serve as benchmarks. Therefore the OLAF presented here, comprising a set of original food images and a group of standardized highly emotional pictures, is intended to provide valid between-group judgments in adults. Emotional images (erotica, mutilations, and neutrals from the International Affective Picture System/IAPS) additionally ensure that the affective ratings are consistent with emotion research. The OLAF depicts high-calorie sweet and savory foods and low-calorie fruits and vegetables, portraying foods within natural scenes matching the IAPS features. An adult sample evaluated both food and affective pictures in terms of pleasure, arousal, dominance, and food craving, following standardized affective rating procedures. The affective ratings for the emotional pictures corroborated previous findings, thus confirming the reliability of evaluations for the food images. Among the OLAF images, high-calorie sweet and savory foods elicited the greatest pleasure, although they elicited, as expected, less arousal than erotica. The observed patterns were consistent with research on emotions and confirmed the reliability of OLAF evaluations. The OLAF and affective pictures constitute a sound methodology to investigate emotions toward food within a wider motivational framework. The OLAF is freely accessible at digibug.ugr.es. PMID:27513636

  15. Affective Pictures and the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF): Tools to Investigate Emotions toward Food in Adults.

    PubMed

    Miccoli, Laura; Delgado, Rafael; Guerra, Pedro; Versace, Francesco; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several sets of standardized food pictures have been created, supplying both food images and their subjective evaluations. However, to date only the OLAF (Open Library of Affective Foods), a set of food images and ratings we developed in adolescents, has the specific purpose of studying emotions toward food. Moreover, some researchers have argued that food evaluations are not valid across individuals and groups, unless feelings toward food cues are compared with feelings toward intense experiences unrelated to food, that serve as benchmarks. Therefore the OLAF presented here, comprising a set of original food images and a group of standardized highly emotional pictures, is intended to provide valid between-group judgments in adults. Emotional images (erotica, mutilations, and neutrals from the International Affective Picture System/IAPS) additionally ensure that the affective ratings are consistent with emotion research. The OLAF depicts high-calorie sweet and savory foods and low-calorie fruits and vegetables, portraying foods within natural scenes matching the IAPS features. An adult sample evaluated both food and affective pictures in terms of pleasure, arousal, dominance, and food craving, following standardized affective rating procedures. The affective ratings for the emotional pictures corroborated previous findings, thus confirming the reliability of evaluations for the food images. Among the OLAF images, high-calorie sweet and savory foods elicited the greatest pleasure, although they elicited, as expected, less arousal than erotica. The observed patterns were consistent with research on emotions and confirmed the reliability of OLAF evaluations. The OLAF and affective pictures constitute a sound methodology to investigate emotions toward food within a wider motivational framework. The OLAF is freely accessible at digibug.ugr.es. PMID:27513636

  16. Adaptation of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) for European Portuguese.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Paula; Pinheiro, Ana P; Costa, Ana; Frade, Carla Sofia; Comesaña, Montserrat; Pureza, Rita

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the results of the adaptation of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) for European Portuguese (EP). Following the original procedure of Lang et al., 2000 native speakers of EP rated the 1,182 pictures of the last version of the IAPS set on the three affective dimensions of valence, arousal, and dominance, using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). Results showed that the normative values of the IAPS for EP are properly distributed in the affective space of valence and arousal, showing the typical boomerang-shaped distribution observed in previous studies. Results also point to important differences in the way Portuguese females and males react to affective pictures that should be taken into consideration when planning and conducting research with Portuguese samples. Furthermore, the results from the cross-cultural comparisons between the EP ratings and the ratings from the American, Spanish, Brazilian, Belgian, Chilean, Indian, and Bosnian-Herzegovinian standardizations, showed that in spite of the fact that IAPS stimuli elicited affective responses that are similar across countries and cultures (at least in Western cultures), there are differences in the way Portuguese individuals react to IAPS pictures that strongly recommend the use of the normative values presented in this work. They can be downloaded as a supplemental archive at http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental or at http://p-pal.di.uminho.pt/about/databases. PMID:25381023

  17. 29. VIEW OF THE DIVERSION STRUCTURE PICTURED IN CO43A28 FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF THE DIVERSION STRUCTURE PICTURED IN CO-43-A-28 FROM THE CHANNEL OF THE LATERAL, SHOWING THE UPSTREAM FACE OF THE STRUCTURE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  18. Children with autism demonstrate circumscribed attention during passive viewing of complex social and nonsocial picture arrays.

    PubMed

    Sasson, Noah J; Turner-Brown, Lauren M; Holtzclaw, Tia N; Lam, Kristen S L; Bodfish, James W

    2008-02-01

    Although circumscribed interests are a hallmark characteristic of autism spectrum disorders, providing a means for quantifying their functional impairment has proven difficult. We developed a passive viewing task to measure aspects of visual attention in children with autism spectrum disorders and typically developing controls. Task stimuli included picture arrays that were matched for social and nonsocial content. Nonsocial content was balanced to include items related to circumscribed interests (e.g., trains) as well as more commonplace items (e.g., furniture). Discrete aspects of gaze behavior were quantified using eye-tracking technology. Results indicate that visual attention in the autism group was more circumscribed (as indicated by the exploration of fewer images), more perseverative (as indicated by longer fixation times per image explored), and more detail oriented (as indicated by a greater number of discrete fixations on explored images). This pattern of results was similar for both social and object arrays. Within the autism group, overall severity of repetitive behavior symptoms correlated positively with exploration of object pictures and negatively with perseveration on social pictures. Results suggest that children with autism have a domain-general pattern of atypical visual attention that may represent an exaggeration of a typical attentional process and is related to a tendency to perseverate on images of interest and explore them in a more detail-oriented manner. Discrete measures of visual attention may therefore provide a reasonable means of quantifying aspects of the repetitive behavior phenotype in autism. PMID:19360648

  19. Applicability of the International Affective Picture System in Chinese older adults: A validation study.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xianmin; Wang, Dahua

    2016-06-01

    The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a standardized tool widely used to induce emotions in psychological studies. The present study examined the reliability and validity of the IAPS in Chinese older adults. A sample consisting of 126 Chinese older adults (86 females; aged 67.3 ± 4.96 years; 13.2 ± 2.75 years of education) was recruited to rate valence and arousal for 942 IAPS pictures. The results showed a satisfactory reliability and validity of the IAPS among these participants. The reliability was supported by high internal consistency and low inter-individual variance of participants' ratings; the validity was supported by high similarities (in rating scores and in the distribution of the pictures in the valence-arousal affective space) and small differences (in mean ratings) between Chinese and German older adults. In conclusion, the study adds supportive evidence to the cross-cultural validity of the IAPS in older adults, and provides a set of normative emotional ratings that could be adopted as a criterion in the selection of emotional pictures in future studies engaging Chinese older adults. Comparison of the IAPS ratings across cultures and ages is also discussed. PMID:27256203

  20. Characterization of the Nencki Affective Picture System by discrete emotional categories (NAPS BE).

    PubMed

    Riegel, Monika; Żurawski, Łukasz; Wierzba, Małgorzata; Moslehi, Abnoss; Klocek, Łukasz; Horvat, Marko; Grabowska, Anna; Michałowski, Jarosław; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2016-06-01

    The Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS; Marchewka, Żurawski, Jednoróg, & Grabowska, Behavior Research Methods, 2014) is a standardized set of 1,356 realistic, high-quality photographs divided into five categories (people, faces, animals, objects, and landscapes). NAPS has been primarily standardized along the affective dimensions of valence, arousal, and approach-avoidance, yet the characteristics of discrete emotions expressed by the images have not been investigated thus far. The aim of the present study was to collect normative ratings according to categorical models of emotions. A subset of 510 images from the original NAPS set was selected in order to proportionally cover the whole dimensional affective space. Among these, using three available classification methods, we identified images eliciting distinguishable discrete emotions. We introduce the basic-emotion normative ratings for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS BE), which will allow researchers to control and manipulate stimulus properties specifically for their experimental questions of interest. The NAPS BE system is freely accessible to the scientific community for noncommercial use as supplementary materials to this article. PMID:26205422

  1. Implicit emotion regulation in the context of viewing artworks: ERP evidence in response to pleasant and unpleasant pictures.

    PubMed

    Van Dongen, Noah N N; Van Strien, Jan W; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2016-08-01

    Presenting affective pictures as a work of art could change perceivers' judgment and strength in emotional reactions. Aesthetic theory states that perceivers of art emotionally distance themselves, allowing them to appreciate works of art depicting gruesome events. To examine whether implicit emotion regulation is induced by an art context, we assessed whether presenting pleasant and unpleasant IAPS pictures as either "works of art comprising paintings, digital renderings, and photographs of staged scenes" or "photographs depicting real events" modulated perceivers' Late Positive Potentials (LPP) and likability ratings. In line with previous research and aesthetic theory, participants evaluated the IAPS pictures as more likable when they were presented as works of art than when they were presented as photographs. Moreover, participants' late LPP amplitudes (600-900ms post picture onset) in response to the pictures were attenuated in the art context condition. These results provide evidence for an implicit emotion regulation induced by the art context. PMID:27367861

  2. Food depictions in picture books for preschool children: Frequency, centrality, and affect.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Jane A; Descartes, Lara

    2016-01-01

    The food content and messages depicted in popular children's picture books were examined using a set of 100 "Favorite Books for Preschoolers." Sixty-nine of these books depicted food and comprised the sample. Examined were: the types and frequencies of food depicted in the text and/or illustrations of the books; the centrality (central, background); and the affect (positive, neutral, or negative) of those depictions. Each food item was counted, categorized by type, and where possible, coded for centrality and affect. Fruit was the most frequently depicted food, followed by sweetened baked goods, dairy, and vegetables. However, centrality and affect differed for these foods. For example, sweet baked goods were high in both centrality and affect. In contrast vegetables were relatively high in centrality but most often neutral in affect. Ice cream, although not in many books, always was associated with positive outcomes. Results were compared to findings in the literature on food messages presented in children's television programs. The ratio of healthy foods to nutrient-poor foods was higher in the books. However, as in television, the books emphasized the desirability of sweetened foods. The results point to the need for detailed analyses of the types of presentations associated with different foods presented in books for children, as well as for continued investigations into food messages in the growing range of media available to young children. PMID:26386301

  3. The association between chronic exposure to video game violence and affective picture processing: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Anderson, Craig A

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to video game violence (VGV) is known to result in desensitization to violent material and may alter the processing of positive emotion related to facial expressions. The present study was designed to address three questions: (1) Does the association between VGV and positive emotion extend to stimuli other than faces, (2) is the association between VGV and affective picture processing observed with a single presentation of the stimuli, and (3) is the association between VGV and the response to violent stimuli sensitive to the relevance of emotion for task performance? The data revealed that transient modulations of the event-related potentials (ERPs) related to attentional orienting and sustained modulations of the ERPs related to evaluative processing were sensitive to VGV exposure. PMID:21461985

  4. "Romantic", "Classic" and "Baroque" Views of Nature: An Analysis of Pictures about the Environment in Greek Primary School Textbooks--Diachronic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemoni, Rea; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2011-01-01

    Taking the view that pictures are not a transparent but rather a deforming mirror of reality, shaping representations of the world bound up with the interests of the social institutions within which pictures are circulated and read, our aim is to explore what view of nature and of the human-nature relationship is built in Greek natural science…

  5. Selective attention affects implicit and explicit memory for familiar pictures at different delay conditions.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Reales, José M; García, Eulalio; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-02-01

    Three experiments investigated the effects of two variables -selective attention during encoding and delay between study and test- on implicit (picture fragment completion and object naming) and explicit (free recall and recognition) memory tests. Experiments 1 and 2 consistently indicated that (a) at all delays (immediate to 1 month), picture-fragment identification threshold was lower for the attended than the unattended pictures; (b) the attended pictures were recalled and recognized better than the unattended; and (c) attention and delay interacted in both memory tests. For implicit memory, performance decreased as delay increased for both attended and unattended pictures, but priming was more pronounced and lasted longer for the attended pictures; it was still present after a 1-month delay. For explicit memory, performance decreased as delay increased for attended pictures, but for unattended pictures performance was consistent throughout delay. By using a perceptual object naming task, Experiment 3 showed reliable implicit and explicit memory for attended but not for unattended pictures. This study indicates that picture repetition priming requires attention at the time of study and that neither delay nor attention dissociate performance in explicit and implicit memory tests; both types of memory require attention, but explicit memory does so to a larger degree. PMID:17296015

  6. Emotion regulation of the affect-modulated startle reflex during different picture categories.

    PubMed

    Conzelmann, Annette; McGregor, Victoria; Pauli, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies on emotion regulation of the startle reflex found an increase in startle amplitude from down-, to non-, to up-regulation for pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. We wanted to clarify whether this regulation effect remains stable for different picture categories within pleasant and unpleasant picture sets. We assessed startle amplitude of 31 participants during down-, non-, or up-regulation of feelings elicited by pleasant erotic and adventure and unpleasant victim and threat pictures. Startle amplitude was smaller during adventure and erotic compared to victim and threat pictures and increased from down-, to non-, to up-regulation independently of the picture category. Results indicate that the motivational priming effect on startle modulation elicited by different picture categories is independent of emotion regulation instructions. In addition, the emotion regulation effect is independent of motivational priming effects. PMID:26061976

  7. Getting the Picture: Iconicity Does Not Affect Representation-Referent Confusion

    PubMed Central

    Wimmer, Marina C.; Robinson, Elizabeth J.; Koenig, Laura; Corder, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- to 5-year-olds' (N = 428) understanding of the relationship between pictorial iconicity (photograph, colored drawing, schematic drawing) and the real world referent. Experiments 1 and 2 explored pictorial iconicity in picture-referent confusion after the picture-object relationship has been established. Pictorial iconicity had no effect on referential confusion when the referent changed after the picture had been taken/drawn (Experiment 1) and when the referent and the picture were different from the outset (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 investigated whether children are sensitive to iconicity to begin with. Children deemed photographs from a choice of varying iconicity representations as best representations for object reference. Together, findings suggest that iconicity plays a role in establishing a picture-object relation per se but is irrelevant once children have accepted that a picture represents an object. The latter finding may reflect domain general representational abilities. PMID:25247708

  8. Does Colour Affect the Quality or Quantity of Children's Stories Elicited by Pictures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Phyillis; Rivard, Reane; Debreuil, Buffy

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of colour vs. black-and-white pictures on the stories children told using the pictures as stimuli. Participants were 22 preschool children aged 4-6 (M = 59.98, SD = 7.52) attending day-care centres in a Western Canadian city. Two story sets of five pictures each, depicting stories with similar structure,…

  9. The Negativity Bias in Affective Picture Processing Depends on Top-Down and Bottom-Up Motivational Significance

    PubMed Central

    Hilgard, Joseph; Weinberg, Anna; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Bartholow, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely believed that negative information is psychologically more meaningful than positive information, a phenomenon known generally as the negativity bias. However, findings concerning the possibility of a negativity bias in emotional picture processing have been mixed, with recent studies indicating the lack of such a bias in event-related brain potentials (ERPs) when pleasant and unpleasant images are equated for motivational relevance. Here, we investigated two factors that could influence the detection of a negativity bias: picture presentation paradigm and specific picture content. Across two studies, participants viewed pleasant-affiliative, pleasant-thrilling, unpleasant-threatening and neutral images presented in the context of oddball, blocked and random viewing paradigms. Across paradigms, emotional images elicited larger responses in the late positive potential (LPP) than did neutral images. A negativity bias was detected in the oddball paradigm and when thrilling, rather than affiliative, pleasant stimuli were used. Findings are discussed in terms of factors known to influence LPP amplitude and their relevance to differential effects across picture viewing paradigms. PMID:24866528

  10. Less is More: How manipulative features affect children’s learning from picture books

    PubMed Central

    Tare, Medha; Chiong, Cynthia; Ganea, Patricia; DeLoache, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Picture books are ubiquitous in young children’s lives and are assumed to support children’s acquisition of information about the world. Given their importance, relatively little research has directly examined children’s learning from picture books. We report two studies examining children’s acquisition of labels and facts from picture books that vary on two dimensions: iconicity of the pictures and presence of manipulative features (or “pop-ups”). In Study 1, 20-month-old children generalized novel labels less well when taught from a book with manipulative features than from standard picture books without such elements. In Study 2, 30- and 36-month-old children learned fewer facts when taught from a manipulative picture book with drawings than from a standard picture book with realistic images and no manipulative features. The results of the two studies indicate that children’s learning from picture books is facilitated by realistic illustrations, but impeded by manipulative features. PMID:20948970

  11. Visual Stability across Saccades While Viewing Complex Pictures. Technical Report No. 609.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConkie, George W.; Currie, Christopher B.

    A study explored the phenomenon of space constancy or visual stability of stimulus patterns across saccades (a series of small jerky movements of the eye) by making changes in natural, full-color pictures during selected saccades as observers (18 members of the University of Illinois community) examined them for 20 seconds in preparation for a…

  12. Hospital Views of Factors Affecting Telemedicine Use.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Kimberly A S; Ward, Marcia M; Mueller, Keith J

    2015-04-01

    Telemedicine (also known as telehealth) is a means to increase access to care, one of the foundations of the Triple Aim. However, the expansion of telemedicine services in the United States has been relatively slow. We previously examined the extent of uptake of hospital based telemedicine using the 2013 HIMSS (Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society) Analytics national database of 4,727 non-specialty hospitals. Our analysis indicated that the largest percentage of operational telemedicine implementations (15.7 percent) was in radiology departments, with a substantial number in emergency/trauma care (7.5 percent) and cardiology/stroke/heart attack programs (6.8 percent). However, existing databases are limited because they do not identify whether a respondent hospital is a "hub" (providing telemedicine services) or a "spoke" (receiving telemedicine services). Therefore, we used data from interviews with hospital representatives to deepen the research and understanding of telemedicine use and the factors affecting that use. Interviews were conducted with key informants at 18 hub hospitals and 18 spoke hospitals to explore their perceptions of barriers and motivators to telemedicine adoption and expansion. Key Findings. (1) Respondents from both hub and spoke hospitals reported that telemedicine helps them meet their mission, enhances access, keeps lower-acuity patients closer to home, and helps head off competition. (2) Respondents from both hub and spoke hospitals reported licensing and credentialing to be significant barriers to telemedicine expansion. Thus, half of hubs provide services only within their state. (3) A variety of one-time funding sources have been used to initiate and grow telemedicine services among hubs and spokes. However, reimbursement issues have impeded the development of workable business models for sustainability. Hub hospitals shoulder the responsibility for identifying sustainable business models. (4) Although respondents

  13. Erotic subset for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS ERO): cross-sexual comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Wierzba, Małgorzata; Riegel, Monika; Pucz, Anna; Leśniewska, Zuzanna; Dragan, Wojciech Ł.; Gola, Mateusz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples). The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50), male couple (50), female couple (50), male (25) and female (25). Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl. PMID:26441715

  14. Erotic subset for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS ERO): cross-sexual comparison study.

    PubMed

    Wierzba, Małgorzata; Riegel, Monika; Pucz, Anna; Leśniewska, Zuzanna; Dragan, Wojciech Ł; Gola, Mateusz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples). The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50), male couple (50), female couple (50), male (25) and female (25). Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl. PMID:26441715

  15. Affect and Cognition: An Examination of Zajonc's Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Anne E.

    In a recent controversial article, "Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need No Inferences" (l980), R. B. Zajonc argues in support of the independence of affect and cognition. Examination of the structure and assumptions of Zajonc's arguments suggests that they do not support the view that affect is non-cognitive. Zajonc appears to leap from the…

  16. Dr Syntax's view of Edinburgh medicine: the life and pictures of John Sheriff (1775-1844).

    PubMed

    Kennaway, J

    2015-01-01

    From the 1820s to the 1840s, one of the most recognisable figures in Edinburgh was the eccentric John Sheriff, generally known as Dr Syntax. He was a talented amateur artist, whose work provides a fascinating and strange insight into the mind of a troubled man and, because of his interest in medicine, into the history of medicine in Scotland at the time. This paper seeks to show that Sheriff and his pictures deserve to be remembered, since they offer intriguing insights for anyone interested in the history of medicine and of Edinburgh at the end of its Golden Age. PMID:27070894

  17. The Besançon Affective Picture Set-Adolescents (the BAPS-Ado): Development and validation.

    PubMed

    Szymanska, Monika; Monnin, Julie; Noiret, Nicolas; Tio, Grégory; Galdon, Lucie; Laurent, Eric; Nezelof, Sylvie; Vulliez-Coady, Lauriane

    2015-08-30

    Emotional pictures are commonly used as visual stimuli in a number of research fields. Choosing relevant visual stimuli to induce emotion is fundamental in attachment and affective research. Attachment theory provides a theoretical basis for the understanding of emotional and relational problems, and is especially related to two specific emotions: distress and comfort. The lack of normalized visual stimuli soliciting these attachment-related emotions has led us to create and validate a new photographic database: the Besançon Affective Picture Set-Adolescents. This novel stimulus set is composed of 93 photographs, divided into four categories: distress, comfort, joy-complicity and neutral. A group of 140 adolescents rated the pictures with the Self-Assessment Manikin system, yielding three dimensions: valence, emotional arousal, and dominance. The pictures were also assessed, using a continuous scale, for different emotions (distress, hate, horror, comfort, complicity and joy). The ANOVAs for arousal and the Kruskal-Wallis tests for valence and dominance showed strong effects for category. However, for comfort and complicity, the dimensions of valence and dominance were not significantly different, while results for arousal showed no significant difference between complicity and distress. Our study provides a tool that allows researchers to select visual stimuli to investigate attachment-related emotion processing in adolescence. PMID:26163722

  18. Pain modulation by intranasal oxytocin and emotional picture viewing — a randomized double-blind fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Zunhammer, Matthias; Geis, Sandra; Busch, Volker; Eichhammer, Peter; Greenlee, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    The hormone oxytocin has been hypothesized to influence the emotional dimension of pain. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study explored whether intranasal oxytocin and emotional context can affect heat pain perception in 30 healthy male volunteers. After receiving 36 IU oxytocin or placebo, participants underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during which noxious and non-noxious thermode heat stimuli were applied. Simultaneously, scenes from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS) with positive, neutral, and negative emotional valence were shown. Heat intensity and unpleasantness ratings were obtained. The activity of whole-brain correlates of heat processing was quantified via multi-voxel pattern analysis. We observed no appreciable main effects of oxytocin on ratings or neural pain correlates. Effects of emotional picture valence on ratings were smaller than reported in previous studies. Nevertheless, oxytocin was found to significantly enhance the influence of picture valence on unpleasantness ratings at noxious heat levels. No corresponding changes in whole-brain correlates of heat intensity processing were found. Our study provides evidence that intranasal oxytocin increases the effects of emotional context on the subjective unpleasantness of experimental heat pain. Future studies are needed to determine whether this effect can be utilized in clinical settings. PMID:27546446

  19. Pain modulation by intranasal oxytocin and emotional picture viewing - a randomized double-blind fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zunhammer, Matthias; Geis, Sandra; Busch, Volker; Eichhammer, Peter; Greenlee, Mark W

    2016-01-01

    The hormone oxytocin has been hypothesized to influence the emotional dimension of pain. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study explored whether intranasal oxytocin and emotional context can affect heat pain perception in 30 healthy male volunteers. After receiving 36 IU oxytocin or placebo, participants underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during which noxious and non-noxious thermode heat stimuli were applied. Simultaneously, scenes from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS) with positive, neutral, and negative emotional valence were shown. Heat intensity and unpleasantness ratings were obtained. The activity of whole-brain correlates of heat processing was quantified via multi-voxel pattern analysis. We observed no appreciable main effects of oxytocin on ratings or neural pain correlates. Effects of emotional picture valence on ratings were smaller than reported in previous studies. Nevertheless, oxytocin was found to significantly enhance the influence of picture valence on unpleasantness ratings at noxious heat levels. No corresponding changes in whole-brain correlates of heat intensity processing were found. Our study provides evidence that intranasal oxytocin increases the effects of emotional context on the subjective unpleasantness of experimental heat pain. Future studies are needed to determine whether this effect can be utilized in clinical settings. PMID:27546446

  20. Distinct Brain Systems Underlie the Processing of Valence and Arousal of Affective Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielen, M. M. A.; Heslenfeld, D. J.; Heinen, K.; Van Strien, J. W.; Witter, M. P.; Jonker, C.; Veltman, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Valence and arousal are thought to be the primary dimensions of human emotion. However, the degree to which valence and arousal interact in determining brain responses to emotional pictures is still elusive. This functional MRI study aimed to delineate neural systems responding to valence and arousal, and their interaction. We measured neural…

  1. Incidental Picture Exposure Affects Later Reading: Evidence from the N400

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppens, Leonora C.; Gootjes, Liselotte; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2012-01-01

    Language comprehenders form a mental representation of the implied shape of objects mentioned in the text. In the present study, the influence of prior visual experience on subsequent reading was assessed. In two separate phases, participants saw a picture of an object and read a text about the object, suggesting the same or a different shape.…

  2. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role. PMID:26149415

  3. Children's Subjective Emotional Reactivity to Affective Pictures: Gender Differences and Their Antisocial Correlates in an Unselected Sample of 7-11-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Carla; Van Goozen, Stephanie; Goodyer, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Background: Differential responses in terms of gender and antisocial behaviour in emotional reactivity to affective pictures using the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) have been demonstrated in adult and adolescent samples. Moreover, a quadratic relationship between the arousal (intensity) and valence (degree of unpleasantness) has…

  4. Students' Views on Factors Affecting Empathy in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…

  5. Double vision: an exploration of radiologists' and general practitioners' views on using picture archiving and communication systems (PACS).

    PubMed

    Carlin, Leslie; Smith, Helen; Henwood, Flis; Flowers, Steve; Jones, Andrea; Prentice, Rebecca; Miles, Ken

    2010-06-01

    This article explores the perspectives of two user groups, general practitioners (GPs) and consultant radiologists (CRs), on the rollout of picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) within acute trusts and eventually to primary care as part of the electronic patient record. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 CRs and 31 GPs. Analysis was carried out using a grounded theory approach. Radiologists expressed positive views about the implementation of PACS in secondary care, but were wary of GPs accessing radiological images. GPs expressed concerns about the added burdens that PACS might bring to primary care, but most felt that sharing images with patients could benefit doctor-patient communication and increase patient satisfaction. This study highlights both impediments and pathways to the implementation of PACS in primary care, and illustrates the importance of regarding PACS as socially embedded and users as culturally disparate. PMID:20573641

  6. Streamlining the discovery, evaluation, and integration of data, models, and decision support systems: a big picture view (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laniak, G.

    2013-12-01

    21st century environmental problems are wicked and require holistic systems thinking and solutions that integrate social and economic knowledge with knowledge of the environment. Computer-based technologies are fundamental to our ability to research and understand the relevant systems and to provide assessors and decision makers with appropriate data, tools, and strategies. There are significant science and technology challenges being confronted in an effort to streamline the movement of knowledge from its research and experience-based sources to its decision endpoints. In this presentation we explore this continuum and attempt to articulate a holistic and coherent picture of the relationship among the myriad elements of the environmental problem solving landscape. This is done in the hope that this view will enhance the ability of all environmental stakeholders to express their individual contributions in a technological form that will be accessible and usable to the greater community.

  7. The face of negative affect: Trial-by-trial corrugator responses to negative pictures are positively associated with amygdala and negatively associated with ventromedial prefrontal cortex activity

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Aaron S; Lapate, Regina C; Mayer, Kaitlyn; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The ability to simultaneously acquire objective physiological measures of emotion concurrent with fMRI holds the promise to enhance our understanding of the biological bases of affect, and thus improve our knowledge of the neural circuitry underlying psychiatric disorders. However, the vast majority of neuroimaging studies to date examining emotion have not anchored the examination of emotion-responding circuitry to objective measures of emotional processing. To that end, we acquired electromyographic (EMG) activity of a valence-sensitive facial muscle involved in the frowning response (corrugator muscle) concurrent with fMRI while twenty-six human participants viewed negative and neutral images. Trial-by-trial increases in corrugator EMG activity to negative pictures were associated with greater amygdala activity, and a concurrent decrease in ventromedial prefrontal cortex activity. Thus, this study highlights the reciprocal relation between amygdalar and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in the encoding of emotional valence as reflected by facial expression. PMID:24669790

  8. More than pretty pictures? How illustrations affect parent-child story reading and children's story recall

    PubMed Central

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Beyer, Alisa M.; Curtis, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that story illustrations fail to enhance young preschoolers' memories when they accompany a pre-recorded story (e.g., Greenhoot and Semb, 2008). In this study we tested whether young children might benefit from illustrations in a more interactive story-reading context. For instance, illustrations might influence parent-child reading interactions, and thus children's story comprehension and recall. Twenty-six 3.5- to 4.5-year-olds and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to an Illustrated or Non-Illustrated story-reading condition, and parents were instructed to “read or tell the story” as they normally would read with their child. Children recalled the story after a distracter and again after 1 week. Analyses of the story-reading interactions showed that the illustrations prompted more interactive story reading and more parent and child behaviors known to predict improved literacy outcomes. Furthermore, in the first memory interview, children in the Illustrated condition recalled more story events than those in the Non-Illustrated condition. Story reading measures predicted recall, but did not completely account for picture effects. These results suggest that illustrations enhance young preschoolers' story recall in an interactive story reading context, perhaps because the joint attention established in this context supports children's processing of the illustrations. PMID:25101018

  9. Emotion Recognition with Eigen Features of Frequency Band Activities Embedded in Induced Brain Oscillations Mediated by Affective Pictures.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Serap; Demirtaş, Serdar; Ateş, Kahraman; Tunga, M Alper

    2016-05-01

    In this study, singular spectrum analysis (SSA) has been used for the first time in order to extract emotional features from well-defined electroencephalography (EEG) frequency band activities (BAs) so-called delta (0.5-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-16 Hz), beta (16-32 Hz), gamma (32-64 Hz). These five BAs were estimated by applying sixth-level multi-resolution wavelet decomposition (MRWD) with Daubechies wavelets (db-8) to single channel nonaveraged emotional EEG oscillations of 6 s for each scalp location over 16 recording sites (Fp1, Fp2, F3, F4, F7, F8, C3, C4, P3, P4, T3, T4, T5, T6, O1, O2). Every trial was mediated by different emotional stimuli which were selected from international affective picture system (IAPS) to induce emotional states such as pleasant (P), neutral (N), and unpleasant (UP). Largest principal components (PCs) of BAs were considered as emotional features and data mining approaches were used for the first time in order to classify both three different (P, N, UP) and two contrasting (P and UP) emotional states for 30 healthy controls. Emotional features extracted from gamma BAs (GBAs) for 16 recording sites provided the high classification accuracies of 87.1% and 100% for classification of three emotional states and two contrasting emotional states, respectively. In conclusion, we found the followings: (1) Eigenspectra of high frequency BAs in EEG are highly sensitive to emotional hemispheric activations, (2) emotional states are mostly mediated by GBA, (3) pleasant pictures induce the higher cortical activation in contrast to unpleasant pictures, (4) contrasting emotions induce opposite cortical activations, (5) cognitive activities are necessary for an emotion to occur. PMID:26971786

  10. THE VIEWING OF ONESELF PERFORMING SELECTED MOTOR SKILLS IN MOTION PICTURES AND ITS EFFECT UPON THE EXPRESSED CONCEPT OF SELF IN MOVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLIFTON, MARGUERITE A.; SMITH, HOPE M.

    A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE IF ONE'S EXPRESSED CONCEPT OF HIS PERFORMANCE OF CERTAIN SELECTED MOTOR SKILLS IS CHANGED THROUGH THE PROCESS OF VIEWING MOTION PICTURES OF HIMSELF PERFORMING THESE SAME SKILLS. SIXTY-FIVE COLLEGE STUDENTS 17 TO 21 YEARS OF AGE, PARTICIPATED. EACH SUBJECT PERFORMED FIVE MOTOR SKILLS IN SEQUENCE (1) WALKED 30 FEET…

  11. A Sensitive and Specific Neural Signature for Picture-Induced Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Luke J.; Gianaros, Peter J.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Krishnan, Anjali; Wager, Tor D.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging has identified many correlates of emotion but has not yet yielded brain representations predictive of the intensity of emotional experiences in individuals. We used machine learning to identify a sensitive and specific signature of emotional responses to aversive images. This signature predicted the intensity of negative emotion in individual participants in cross validation (n =121) and test (n = 61) samples (high–low emotion = 93.5% accuracy). It was unresponsive to physical pain (emotion–pain = 92% discriminative accuracy), demonstrating that it is not a representation of generalized arousal or salience. The signature was comprised of mesoscale patterns spanning multiple cortical and subcortical systems, with no single system necessary or sufficient for predicting experience. Furthermore, it was not reducible to activity in traditional “emotion-related” regions (e.g., amygdala, insula) or resting-state networks (e.g., “salience,” “default mode”). Overall, this work identifies differentiable neural components of negative emotion and pain, providing a basis for new, brain-based taxonomies of affective processes. PMID:26098873

  12. Fear recognition in the voice is modulated by unconsciously recognized facial expressions but not by unconsciously recognized affective pictures

    PubMed Central

    de Gelder, Beatrice; Pourtois, Gilles; Weiskrantz, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Multisensory integration is a powerful mechanism for increasing adaptive responses, as illustrated by binding of fear expressed in a face with fear present in a voice. To understand the role of awareness in intersensory integration of affective information we studied multisensory integration under conditions of conscious and nonconscious processing of the visual component of an audiovisual stimulus pair. Auditory-event-related potentials were measured in two patients (GY and DB) who were unable to perceive visual stimuli consciously because of striate cortex damage. To explore the role of conscious vision of audiovisual pairing, we also compared audiovisual integration in either naturalistic pairings (a facial expression paired with an emotional voice) or semantic pairings (an emotional picture paired with the same voice). We studied the hypothesis that semantic pairings, unlike naturalistic pairings, might require mediation by intact visual cortex and possibly by feedback to primary cortex from higher cognitive processes. Our results indicate that presenting incongruent visual affective information together with the voice translates as an amplitude decrease of auditory-event-related potentials. This effect obtains for both naturalistic and semantic pairings in the intact field, but is restricted to the naturalistic pairings in the blind field. PMID:11904455

  13. "Romantic", "Classic" and "Baroque" Views of Nature: An Analysis of Pictures About the Environment in Greek Primary School Textbooks—Diachronic Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoni, Rea; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2011-11-01

    Taking the view that pictures are not a transparent but rather a deforming mirror of reality, shaping representations of the world bound up with the interests of the social institutions within which pictures are circulated and read, our aim is to explore what view of nature and of the human-nature relationship is built in Greek natural science school textbooks. The particular textbooks analysed have been recently introduced (in 2006 and 2007) into Greek education. The pictorial analysis suggests that a "baroque" view of nature and of the human-nature relationship predominantly emerges, according to which nature is constantly in motion, and therefore random and unpredictable natural change could be "normal". Natural environments are viewed in materialistic terms, being transformed by humans and serving as a resource. A comparison with our analysis of the older textbooks written in the early 1980s (Korfiatis et al. 2004) seems to indicate important conceptual differences between the two series of textbooks. The "romantic" and "classic" views of nature in the old textbooks could express the vigour, the optimism and the innocence characterising industrial societies (or in the process of industrialisation) about human interventions in the environment. Conversely, the "baroque" view found in the new textbooks probably marks the scepticism of post-industrial societies about natural phenomena.

  14. Does Viewing Documentary Films Affect Environmental Perceptions and Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janpol, Henry L.; Dilts, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This research explored whether viewing documentary films about the natural or built environment can exert a measurable influence on behaviors and perceptions. Different documentary films were viewed by subjects. One film emphasized the natural environment, while the other focused on the built environment. After viewing a film, a computer game…

  15. Does a clerkship affect students' views of psychiatric patients?

    PubMed

    Fabrega, H

    1995-12-01

    This study deals with the views of medical students toward real psychiatric patients. The students answered seven questions about ten patients who had been interviewed by a senior faculty member. The interviews were recorded on audiovisual tapes. The questions dealt with different aspects of mental illness and included views on how laypersons would evaluate and respond to patients, what it would be like to care for the patients, and whether the patients were potentially dangerous. Answers to questions were correlated. Gender and the student's accuracy in rating psychopathology were used as independent variables to examine students' views and the possible change in these views as a result of participating in a 6-week psychiatric clerkship. The pattern of intercorrelations is reported and discussed. Negative views correlated with anticipated difficulty in caring for patients, and positive views correlated with a higher accuracy in rating psychopathology. In general, student views about mental illness were relatively impervious to the effect of a clerkship. Results are discussed in terms of prior research and knowledge about gender differences in interpersonal sensitivity. Some of the social implications of the results are discussed. PMID:8522934

  16. Using Multiple Calibration Indices in Order to Capture the Complex Picture of What Affects Students' Accuracy of Feeling of Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekaerts, Monique; Rozendaal, Jeroen S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study used multiple calibration indices to capture the complex picture of fifth graders' calibration of feeling of confidence in mathematics. Specifically, the effects of gender, type of mathematical problem, instruction method, and time of measurement (before and after problem solving) on calibration skills were investigated. Fourteen…

  17. Values and Affectivity from a Piagetian Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Terrance

    This paper, which analyzes the evaluative aspect of affectivity, argues that the functional internalization of organic evolution for the formation of the intellectual system of human beings required that some means of selecting behavioral variations be devised, and that the selective mechanism devised was the affective system. From this…

  18. Picturing Iowa's History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue focuses on how advancements in photography affected Iowans and the pictures they took of their communities. Five famous and not so famous photographers who have taken pictures of Iowa's history are featured: (1) John Plumbe, Jr.; (2) Isaac A. Wetherby; (3) D. C. Hale; (4) Duluth Pieper; and (5) E. M. Clark. Instructions for making…

  19. Attentional disengagement is modulated by the offset of unpleasant pictures: a saccadic reaction time study.

    PubMed

    Machado-Pinheiro, Walter; Faria, Aydamari; Braga, Filipe; Guerra, Pedro; Perakakis, Pandelis; Caldas, Ariane Leão; Mocaiber, Izabela; Oliveira, Letícia; Pereira, Mirtes Garcia; Volchan, Eliane; Vila, Jaime

    2013-12-01

    We studied the influence of passively viewing a picture on saccade latencies to peripheral targets. Thirty-two volunteers were instructed to look at a central picture, wait for the onset of a peripheral target, and execute a saccade toward it as quickly as possible - saccadic reaction time (SRT). The central picture (neutral or unpleasant) could be turned off simultaneously with target onset (the no-gap condition) or 200ms prior to target onset (the gap-200 condition). We found that saccade latencies were influenced by emotional valence and condition. In the no-gap condition, SRTs were longer after viewing unpleasant pictures. In the gap-200 condition, the pattern was reversed, and unpleasant pictures induced shorter SRTs in relation to neutral pictures. Furthermore, the influence of unpleasant pictures gradually decreased when images were re-exposed to the participants - affective habituation. The results are discussed in terms of attentional avoidance and disengagement from unpleasant emotional pictures. PMID:24177247

  20. It takes a giraffe to see the big picture - citizens' view on decision makers in health care rationing.

    PubMed

    Broqvist, Mari; Garpenby, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies show that citizens usually prefer physicians as decision makers for rationing in health care, while politicians are downgraded. The findings are far from clear-cut due to methodological differences, and as the results are context sensitive they cannot easily be transferred between countries. Drawing on methodological experiences from previous research, this paper aims to identify and describe different ways Swedish citizens understand and experience decision makers for rationing in health care, exclusively on the programme level. We intend to address several challenges that arise when studying citizens' views on rationing by (a) using a method that allows for reflection, (b) using the respondents' nomination of decision makers, and (c) clearly identifying the rationing level. We used phenomenography, a qualitative method for studying variations and changes in perceiving phenomena. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 14 Swedish citizens selected by standard criteria (e.g. age) and by their attitude towards rationing. The main finding was that respondents viewed politicians as more legitimate decision makers in contrast to the results in most other studies. Interestingly, physicians, politicians, and citizens were all associated with some kind of risk related to self-interest in relation to rationing. A collaborative solution for decision making was preferred where the views of different actors were considered important. The fact that politicians were seen as appropriate decision makers could be explained by several factors: the respondents' new insights about necessary trade-offs at the programme level, awareness of the importance of an overview of different health care needs, awareness about self-interest among different categories of decision-makers, including physicians, and the national context of long-term political accountability for health care in Sweden. This study points to the importance of being aware of contextual and

  1. Lexical-semantic variables affecting picture and word naming in Chinese: a mixed logit model study in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Crepaldi, Davide; Che, Wei-Chun; Su, I-Fan; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Lexical-semantic variables (such as word frequency, imageability and age of acquisition) have been studied extensively in neuropsychology to address the structure of the word production system. The evidence available on this issue is still rather controversial, mainly because of the very complex interrelations between lexical-semantic variables. Moreover, it is not clear whether the results obtained in Indo-European languages also hold in languages with a completely different structure and script, such as Chinese. The objective of the present study is to investigate this specific issue by studying the effect of word frequency, imageability, age of acquisition, visual complexity of the stimuli, grammatical class and morphological structure in word and picture naming in Chinese. The effect of these variables on naming and reading accuracy of healthy and brain-damaged individuals is evaluated using mixed-effect models, a statistical technique that allows to model both fixed and random effects; this feature substantially enhances the statistical power of the technique, so that several variables - and their complex interrelations - can be handled effectively in a unique analysis. We found that grammatical class interacts consistently across tasks with morphological structure: all participants, both healthy and brain-damaged, found simple nouns significantly easier to read and name than complex nouns, whereas simple and complex verbs were of comparable difficulty. We also found that imageability was a strong predictor in picture naming, but not in word naming, whereas the contrary held true for age of acquisition. These results are taken to indicate the existence of a morphological level of processing in the Chinese word production system, and that reading aloud may occur along a non-semantic route (either lexical or sub-lexical) in this language. PMID:22713389

  2. Factors Affecting Parental Control over Children's Television Viewing: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Lynne Schafer; Walsh, R. Patricia

    1980-01-01

    Presents 10 questions pertaining to the amount of control over television viewing in the home to 100 families. Preliminary evidence included indications that (1) viewing habits are affected by the number of sets in the house and (2) parents who frequently watch television exert greater influence over their children's use. (MER)

  3. Shared and nonshared neural networks of cognitive and affective theory-of-mind: a neuroimaging study using cartoon picture stories.

    PubMed

    Schlaffke, Lara; Lissek, Silke; Lenz, Melanie; Juckel, Georg; Schultz, Thomas; Tegenthoff, Martin; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Brüne, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) refers to the ability to represent one's own and others' cognitive and affective mental states. Recent imaging studies have aimed to disentangle the neural networks involved in cognitive as opposed to affective ToM, based on clinical observations that the two can functionally dissociate. Due to large differences in stimulus material and task complexity findings are, however, inconclusive. Here, we investigated the neural correlates of cognitive and affective ToM in psychologically healthy male participants (n = 39) using functional brain imaging, whereby the same set of stimuli was presented for all conditions (affective, cognitive and control), but associated with different questions prompting either a cognitive or affective ToM inference. Direct contrasts of cognitive versus affective ToM showed that cognitive ToM recruited the precuneus and cuneus, as well as regions in the temporal lobes bilaterally. Affective ToM, in contrast, involved a neural network comprising prefrontal cortical structures, as well as smaller regions in the posterior cingulate cortex and the basal ganglia. Notably, these results were complemented by a multivariate pattern analysis (leave one study subject out), yielding a classifier with an accuracy rate of more than 85% in distinguishing between the two ToM-conditions. The regions contributing most to successful classification corresponded to those found in the univariate analyses. The study contributes to the differentiation of neural patterns involved in the representation of cognitive and affective mental states of others. PMID:25131828

  4. To eat or not to eat: Effects of food availability on reward system activity during food picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Blechert, Jens; Klackl, Johannes; Miedl, Stephan F; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2016-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies have started to explore the role of food characteristics (e.g., calorie-content) and psychological factors (e.g., restrained eating, craving) for the human appetitive system, motivated by the significant health implications of food-choice, overeating and overweight/obesity. However, one key aspect of modern food environments, food availability, especially of high energy foods, has not been adequately modeled in experimental research. Food that is immediately available for consumption could elicit stronger reward system activity and associated cognitive control than food that is not currently available for consumption and this could vary as a function of energy density. To examine this question, 32 healthy participants (16 women) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while passively viewing available foods - i.e. foods that could be eaten during and after the experiment - and unavailable foods of either high or low-caloric density in a 2 × 2 design. Available compared to unavailable foods elicited higher palatability ratings as well as stronger neural activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), amygdala, and left caudate nucleus as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) - and thus structures implicated in reward and appetitive motivation as well as cognitive control, respectively. Availability effects in the caudate were mainly attributable to the high calorie condition (availability × calorie density interaction). These neuroimaging results support the contention that foods are particularly rewarding when immediately available and particularly so when high in caloric density. Thus, our results are consistent with health promoting interventions utilizing a nudging approach, i.e. aiming at decreasing accessibility of high calorie and increasing accessibility of low calorie foods in daily life. Results also imply that controlling/manipulating food availability may be an important methodological aspect in neuroscientific

  5. Food as Risk: How Eating Habits and Food Knowledge Affect Reactivity to Pictures of Junk and Healthy Foods.

    PubMed

    Yegiyan, Narine S; Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how people respond to images of junk versus healthy food as a function of their eating habits and food knowledge. The experiment reported here proposed and tested the idea that those with unhealthy eating habits but highly knowledgeable about healthy eating would feel more positive and also more negative toward junk food images compared to images of healthy food because they may perceive them as risky--desirable but potentially harmful. The psychophysiological data collected from participants during their exposure to pictures of junk versus healthy food supported this idea. In addition, unhealthy eaters compared to healthy eaters with the same degree of food knowledge responded more positively to all food items. The findings are critical from a health communication perspective. Because unhealthy eaters produce stronger emotional responses to images of junk food, they are more likely to process information associated with junk food with more cognitive effort and scrutiny. Thus, when targeting this group and using images of junk food, it is important to combine these images with strong message claims and relevant arguments; otherwise, if the arguments are perceived as irrelevant or weak, the motivational activation associated with junk food itself may transfer into an increased desire to consume the unhealthy product. PMID:26503541

  6. Interference in Joint Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambi, Chiara; Van de Cavey, Joris; Pickering, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    In 4 experiments we showed that picture naming latencies are affected by beliefs about the task concurrently performed by another speaker. Participants took longer to name pictures when they believed that their partner concurrently named pictures than when they believed their partner was silent (Experiments 1 and 4) or concurrently categorized the…

  7. Views of Nature and the Human-Nature Relations: An Analysis of the Visual Syntax of Pictures about the Environment in Greek Primary School Textbooks—Diachronic Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoni, Rea; Lefkaditou, Ageliki; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Schizas, Dimitrios; Stamou, George P.

    2013-02-01

    This paper explores the function of the visual syntax of images in Greek primary school textbooks. By using a model for the formal analysis of the visual material, which will allow us to disclose the mechanisms through which meanings are manifested, our aim is to investigate the discursive transition relating to the view of nature and the human-nature relationship between two series of natural science textbooks. The model is applied to a total of 635 pictures; 434 coming from the old series of textbooks introduced in the early 1980s and 201 from the new introduced in 2006. The results show that a) no differences in the codes of the visual representation of nature or human-nature relationship were recorded between the two series of textbooks, b) the environmental rhetoric mediated by the pictorial material of the textbooks appears closer to its lay counterpart than to scientific rhetoric, c) both series of textbooks favor a viewer-picture relation which diverges from the epistemological (subject/object) ideas of the romantic worldview and comes closer to the baroque one that depicts the world as non-linear and disconnected, while gives more freedom to the viewer to proceed to subjective interpretations. Thus, we assert that the baroque approach adopted by both series of textbooks does not aim at the initiation of students to the highly conventionalized ways of expression, and ultimately to the formalized and scientific rhetoric. On the contrary, within a constructionist context, the textbooks' visual mode allows students to equally share power with a quite familiar world.

  8. Children's and Adults' Memory for Emotional Pictures: Examining Age-Related Patterns Using the Developmental Affective Photo System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordon, Ingrid M.; Melinder, Annika M. D.; Goodman, Gail S.; Edelstein, Robin S.

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine theoretical questions about children's and adults' memory for emotional visual stimuli. In Study 1, 7- to 9-year-olds and adults (N = 172) participated in the initial creation of the Developmental Affective Photo System (DAPS). Ratings of emotional valence, arousal, and complexity were obtained. In Study 2,…

  9. EEG study on affective valence elicited by novel and familiar pictures using ERD/ERS and SVM-RFE.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Muñoz, A R; López, M M; Galvao-Carmona, A; Pereira, A T; Santos, I M; Vázquez-Marrufo, M; Tomé, A M

    2014-02-01

    EEG signals have been widely explored in emotional processing analyses, both in time and frequency domains. However, in such studies, habituation phenomenon is barely considered in the discrimination of different emotional responses. In this work, spectral features of the event-related potentials (ERPs) are studied by means of event-related desynchronization/synchronization computation. In order to determine the most relevant ERP features for distinguishing how positive and negative affective valences are processed within the brain, support vector machine-recursive feature elimination is employed. The proposed approach was applied for investigating in which way the familiarity of stimuli affects the affective valence processing as well as which frequency bands and scalp regions are more involved in this process. In a group composed of young adult women, results prove that parietooccipital region and theta band are especially involved in the processing of novelty in emotional stimuli. Furthermore, the proposed method has shown to perform successfully using a moderated number of trials. PMID:24257836

  10. Picture Postage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2009-01-01

    With the popularity of e-mail cutting into revenues, Canada Post is always searching for a marketing strategy that would encourage people to use the mail. "Picture Postage" is such an initiative. This popular program allows individuals to create their own stamps for family and friends. This opportunity also provides a vehicle for businesses to…

  11. The Views of Mathematics Teachers on the Factors Affecting the Integration of Technology in Mathematics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaleli-Yilmaz, Gül

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the views of mathematics teachers on the factors that affect the integration of technology in mathematic courses. It is a qualitative case study. The sample size of the study is 10 teachers who are receiving postgraduate education in a university in Turkey. The current study was conducted in three stages. At…

  12. Vegetarianism and food perception. Selective visual attention to meat pictures.

    PubMed

    Stockburger, Jessica; Renner, Britta; Weike, Almut I; Hamm, Alfons O; Schupp, Harald T

    2009-04-01

    Vegetarianism provides a model system to examine the impact of negative affect towards meat, based on ideational reasoning. It was hypothesized that meat stimuli are efficient attention catchers in vegetarians. Event-related brain potential recordings served to index selective attention processes at the level of initial stimulus perception. Consistent with the hypothesis, late positive potentials to meat pictures were enlarged in vegetarians compared to omnivores. This effect was specific for meat pictures and obtained during passive viewing and an explicit attention task condition. These findings demonstrate the attention capture of food stimuli, deriving affective salience from ideational reasoning and symbolic meaning. PMID:18996158

  13. Semantic gradients in picture-word interference tasks: is the size of interference effects affected by the degree of semantic overlap?

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, James; Damian, Markus F.

    2014-01-01

    We report two experiments attempting to identify the role of semantic relatedness in picture-word interference studies. Previously published data sets have rendered results which directly contradict each other, with one study suggesting that the stronger the relation between picture and distractor, the more semantic interference is obtained, and another study suggesting the opposite pattern. We replicated the two key experiments with only minor procedural modifications, and found semantic interference effects in both. Critically, these were largely independent of the strength of semantic overlap. Additionally, we attempted to predict individual interference effects per target picture, via various measures of semantic overlap, which also failed to account for the effects. From our results it appears that semantic interference effects in picture-word tasks are similarly present for weakly and strongly overlapping combinations. Implications are discussed in the light of the recent debate on the role of competition in lexical selection. PMID:25161636

  14. Cover Picture.

    PubMed

    Krömer; Rios-Carreras; Fuhrmann; Musch; Wunderlin; Debaerdemaeker; Mena-Osteritz; Bäuerle

    2000-10-01

    The cover picture shows the synthesis of novel conjugated macrocycles assembled from oligothiophenes bearing terminal acetylene groups. Under pseudo-high-dilution conditions the oxidative cyclooligomerization first gives the oligothiophenediynes, the precursors to the new class of alpha-cyclo[n]thiophenes. The detailed structure of macrocycles with up to 76 ring members and cavities of up to 3 nm could be investigated by means of X-ray structure analysis, scanning tunneling microscopy, and quantum chemical calculations (see the molecular model top right). The novel rings combine the excellent electronic properties of the corresponding linearly conjugated oligomers with the possibility of complexing large organic guest molecules or other objects (the tower of the Cathedral at Ulm represents a nanometer-sized, rodlike entity), which should have new fundamental properties and applications. The background shows the image obtained by scanning electron microscopy of a self-assembled and perfectly ordered monolayer of macrocycles on a graphite surface. More on these fascinating nanometer-sized rings can be found in the communication by P. Bäuerle et al. on p. 3481 ff. PMID:11091367

  15. A Conceptual Paper on the Application of the Picture Word Inductive Model Using Bruner's Constructivist View of Learning and the Cognitive Load Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xuan; Perkins, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Bruner's constructs of learning, specifically the structure of learning, spiral curriculum, and discovery learning, in conjunction with the Cognitive Load Theory, are used to evaluate the Picture Word Inductive Model (PWIM), an inquiry-oriented inductive language arts strategy designed to teach K-6 children phonics and spelling. The PWIM reflects…

  16. Investigating the effect of respiratory bodily threat on the processing of emotional pictures.

    PubMed

    Juravle, Georgiana; Stoeckel, Maria Cornelia; Rose, Michael; Gamer, Matthias; Büchel, Christian; Wieser, Matthias Johannes; von Leupoldt, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that emotions can substantially impact the perception and neural processing of breathlessness, but little is known about the reverse interaction. Here, we examined the impact of breathlessness on emotional picture processing. The continuous EEG was recorded while volunteers viewed positive/neutral/negative emotional pictures under conditions of resistive-load-induced breathlessness, auditory noise, and an unloaded baseline. Breathlessness attenuated P1 and early posterior negativity (EPN) ERP amplitudes, irrespective of picture valence. Moreover, as expected, larger amplitudes for positive and negative pictures relative to neutral pictures were found for EPN and the late positive potential (LPP) ERPs, which were not affected by breathlessness. The results suggest that breathlessness impacts on the early attention-related neural processing of picture stimuli without influencing the later cognitive processing of emotional contents. PMID:24874555

  17. Views of Nature and the Human-Nature Relations: An Analysis of the Visual Syntax of Pictures about the Environment in Greek Primary School Textbooks--Diachronic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemoni, Rea; Lefkaditou, Ageliki; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Schizas, Dimitrios; Stamou, George P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the function of the visual syntax of images in Greek primary school textbooks. By using a model for the formal analysis of the visual material, which will allow us to disclose the mechanisms through which meanings are manifested, our aim is to investigate the discursive transition relating to the view of nature and the…

  18. Effects of viewing a pro-ana website: an experimental study on body satisfaction, affect, and appearance self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Delforterie, Monique J; Larsen, Junilla K; Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Scholte, Ron H J

    2014-01-01

    Pro-anorexia websites portray an extreme form of thin-ideal. This between-subjects experiment examined the effects of viewing such a website on body satisfaction, affect, and appearance self-efficacy compared to viewing control websites (fashion, home decoration, automutilation). The sample consisted of 124 normal weight, young adult, Dutch women (mean age 21.2, mean body mass index 21.4). Participants did not differ on affect and appearance self-efficacy. One body satisfaction measure showed that pro-anorexia viewers were more satisfied with their bodies than home decoration viewers. Our findings suggest that viewing a pro-anorexia website might not have detrimental effects on body satisfaction and affect among normal weight young women. PMID:24689982

  19. Do excessive internet use, television viewing and poor lifestyle habits affect low vision in school children?

    PubMed

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Mahdi, Huda S; Vachhani, Pankit J; Al-Nufal, Mohammed; Ali, Awab I

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether excessive internet use, television viewing and the ensuing poor lifestyle habits affect low vision in school children in a rapidly developing country. This is a cross-sectional study and 3000 school students aged between six and 18 years were approached and 2467 (82.2%) students participated. Of the studied school children 12.6 percent had low vision. Most of the low vision school children were in the 6-10 years age group and came from middle income backgrounds (41.8%; p = 0.008). A large proportion of the children with low vision spent ≥ 3 hours per day on the internet (48.2%; p< 0.001) and ≥ 3 hours reclining (62.4%; p < 0.001). A significantly smaller frequency of studied children with low vision participated in each of the reviewed forms of physical activity (p < 0.001) yet a larger proportion consumed fast food (86.8%; p < 0.001). Highly significant positive correlations were found between low vision and BMI, hours spent reclining and on the internet respectively. Blurred vision was the most commonly complained of symptom among the studied children (p < 0.001). The current study suggested a strong association between spending prolonged hours on the computer or TV, fast food eating, poor lifestyle habits and low vision. PMID:20823076

  20. Neural correlates of processing negative and sexually arousing pictures.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Mullaney, Kellie M

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has questioned whether the negativity bias is a distinct component of affective picture processing. The current study was designed to determine whether there are different neural correlates of processing positive and negative pictures using event-related brain potentials. The early posterior negativity and late positive potential were greatest in amplitude for erotic pictures. Partial Least Squares analysis revealed one latent variable that distinguished erotic pictures from neutral and positive pictures and another that differentiated negative pictures from neutral and positive pictures. The effects of orienting task on the neural correlates of processing negative and erotic pictures indicate that affective picture processing is sensitive to both stimulus-driven, and attentional or decision processes. The current data, together with other recent findings from our laboratory, lead to the suggestion that there are distinct neural correlates of processing negative and positive stimuli during affective picture processing. PMID:23029071

  1. Factors Affecting Student Affairs Administrators' Views of Campus Services for International Students at Five Public Universities in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Maria, David L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine factors affecting views of campus services for international students among student affairs administrators. Factors identified during the literature review were examined using a multiple perspectives framework, which combined concepts related to student affairs administration, strategic planning for…

  2. Is Accessing of Words Affected by Affective Valence Only? A Discrete Emotion View on the Emotional Congruency Effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuqian; Liu, Bo; Lin, Shouwen

    2016-01-01

    This paper advances the discussion on which emotion information affects word accessing. Emotion information, which is formed as a result of repeated experiences, is primary and necessary in learning and representing word meanings. Previous findings suggested that valence (i.e., positive or negative) denoted by words can be automatically activated and plays a role in many significant cognitive processes. However, there has been a lack of discussion about whether discrete emotion information (i.e., happiness, anger, sadness, and fear) is also involved in these processes. According to the hierarchy model, emotions are considered organized within an abstract-to-concrete hierarchy, in which emotion prototypes are organized following affective valence. By controlling different congruencies of emotion relations (i.e., matches or mismatches between valences and prototypes of emotion), the present study showed both an evaluative congruency effect (Experiment 1) and a discrete emotional congruency effect (Experiment 2). These findings indicate that not only affective valences but also discrete emotions can be activated under the present priming lexical decision task. However, the present findings also suggest that discrete emotions might be activated at the later priming stage as compared to valences. The present work provides evidence that information about discrete emotion could be involved in word processing. This might be a result of subjects' embodied experiences. PMID:27379000

  3. Is Accessing of Words Affected by Affective Valence Only? A Discrete Emotion View on the Emotional Congruency Effect

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuqian; Liu, Bo; Lin, Shouwen

    2016-01-01

    This paper advances the discussion on which emotion information affects word accessing. Emotion information, which is formed as a result of repeated experiences, is primary and necessary in learning and representing word meanings. Previous findings suggested that valence (i.e., positive or negative) denoted by words can be automatically activated and plays a role in many significant cognitive processes. However, there has been a lack of discussion about whether discrete emotion information (i.e., happiness, anger, sadness, and fear) is also involved in these processes. According to the hierarchy model, emotions are considered organized within an abstract-to-concrete hierarchy, in which emotion prototypes are organized following affective valence. By controlling different congruencies of emotion relations (i.e., matches or mismatches between valences and prototypes of emotion), the present study showed both an evaluative congruency effect (Experiment 1) and a discrete emotional congruency effect (Experiment 2). These findings indicate that not only affective valences but also discrete emotions can be activated under the present priming lexical decision task. However, the present findings also suggest that discrete emotions might be activated at the later priming stage as compared to valences. The present work provides evidence that information about discrete emotion could be involved in word processing. This might be a result of subjects’ embodied experiences. PMID:27379000

  4. Researching with Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Describes a class activity in which students gathered pictures and wrote and recorded narration relating to the first successful flight by the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Notes that, in the process of gathering pictures, the students were motivated to read the information accompanying the pictures. (RS)

  5. Viewing Nature Scenes Positively Affects Recovery of Autonomic Function Following Acute-Mental Stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor. PMID:23590163

  6. [How do adolescents view non-suicidal self-injury? Differences between affected and non-affected adolescents in a school sample].

    PubMed

    Rauber, Rachel; Weizenegger, Benedict; Schmeck, Klaus; Schmid, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing number of epidemiologic studies about the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), little knowledge exists regarding the way adolescents view NSSI, whether differences in the attitudes towards NSSI between affected and non-affected adolescents exist and whether the acquaintance with adolescents engaging in NSSI influence one's attitudes towards self-injury? In an epidemiological study of non-suicidal self-injury, we assessed the attitudes of 447 ninth grade students (age 15 years SD = 0.7, 52% male) NSSI using a self-constructed questionnaire with three factors. Sixty one (13.6%) pupils reported that they had intentionally injured themselves once in their life time. 43% (n = 179) indicated that they discuss the topic with others, though over half of these pupils 54% (n = 98) stated feeling burdened by discussions with friends affected by NSSI. Comparisons between affected and non-affected adolescents revealed that adolescents who had never exhibited NSSI tend to believe that NSSI is mostly interpersonally motivated. Moreover, the adolescents affected by NSSI assessed the emotional reaction as more appropriate than non-affected adolescents. This should be considered in the design and refinement of inpatient treatment concepts. Our results suggest focusing on intrapersonal motives in psychotherapeutic sessions and reducing interpersonal motives for self-injurious behaviour through the establishment of clear and transparent milieu therapeutic structural conditions. PMID:23057239

  7. Insular Activity during Passive Viewing of Aversive Stimuli Reflects Individual Differences in State Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriau, Katja; Wartenburger, Isabell; Kazzer, Philipp; Prehn, Kristin; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2009-01-01

    People differ with regard to how they perceive, experience, and express negative affect. While trait negative affect reflects a stable, sustained personality trait, state negative affect represents a stimulus limited and temporally acute emotion. So far, little is known about the neural systems mediating the relationship between negative affect…

  8. Affecting Students? Points of View in a Survey of Media Class. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, William J.

    2004-01-01

    The introductory survey of media course is a standard offering in many media studies programs. Students' points of view about controversial issues treated in this class are quite susceptible to change. Indeed, a deliberately value-added approach to teaching this class acknowledges and appreciates that student opinions are likely to change in the…

  9. How Different Media Affect Adolescents' Views of the Hero: Lessons from Amistad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, Ellen S.; Phelps, Stephen; del Prado Hill, Pixita

    2006-01-01

    "Amistad," the story of a group of Mende people illegally brought to the United States from West Africa in 1839, was taught to a group of 90 eighth grade students. To learn about the "Amistad," these eighth graders visited a replica of the ship, read a nonfiction account of the Amistad story, and viewed the Steven Spielberg film "Amistad." Two…

  10. Viewing Violence: How Media Violence Affects Your Child's and Adolescent's Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Madeline

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing media violence encourages aggression, desensitization, and pessimism in children. This book reviews research on the effects of television and movie violence on children and adolescents, offering parents suggestions for dealing with the problems it creates. It is asserted that parents frequently…

  11. Affect-related synesthesias: a prospective view on their existence, expression and underlying mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dael, Nele; Sierro, Guillaume; Mohr, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The literature on developmental synesthesia has seen numerous sensory combinations, with surprisingly few reports on synesthesias involving affect. On the one hand, emotion, or more broadly affect, might be of minor importance to the synesthetic experience (e.g., Sinke et al., 2012). On the other hand, predictions on how affect could be relevant to the synesthetic experience remain to be formulated, in particular those that are driven by emotion theories. In this theoretical paper, we hypothesize that a priori studies on synesthesia involving affect will observe the following. Firstly, the synesthetic experience is not merely about discrete emotion processing or overall valence (positive, negative) but is determined by or even altered through cognitive appraisal processes. Secondly, the synesthetic experience changes temporarily on a quantitative level according to (i) the affective appraisal of the inducing stimulus or (ii) the current affective state of the individual. These hypotheses are inferred from previous theoretical and empirical accounts on synesthesia (including the few examples involving affect), different emotion theories, crossmodal processing accounts in synesthetes, and non-synesthetes, and the presumed stability of the synesthetic experience. We hope that the current review will succeed in launching a new series of studies on “affective synesthesias.” We particularly hope that such studies will apply the same creativity in experimental paradigms as we have seen and still see when assessing and evaluating “traditional” synesthesias. PMID:24151478

  12. The relationship between affect and constructivism as viewed by middle school science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Denise L.

    The purpose of this research was to examine middle school science teachers' perceptions of their students' affective behaviors at each level of the affective domain (receiving, responding, valuing, organization, characterization of value system), perceptions of the usefulness of constructivism as a curricular theory, and constructivist teaching strategies. This study investigated the relationship between affect and constructivism to determine if constructivist strategies can predict levels of affective behavior. Affect is a broad generalization that includes elements (i.e., interests, attitudes, values, emotions, and feelings). The importance of this research relates to enhancing learning, increasing achievement, participatory democracy, and facilitating understanding of science, as well as promoting the development of higher order thinking skills. A nonexperimental, descriptive research design was used to determine the relationship between affect and constructivism. A total of 111 middle school teachers participated in this study. Three instruments were used in this study: Taxonomy of Affective Behavior (TAB), Survey of Science Instruction (SSI), and a short demographic survey. Statistical significance obtained from one-sample t-tests provided evidence that teachers were aware that the affective domain was a viable construct. Statistical evidence of one-sample t-tests provided evidence that teachers perceived constructivism was useful to teach science to middle school students. Pearson product moment correlations results indicated statistically significant relationships between perceptions of constructivism and associated constructivist teaching strategies. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed a relationship between affect and constructivism. Teacher responses indicated they felt constrained from implementing constructivism due to an emphasis on testing. Colleges of education, curriculum specialists, science teachers, and school districts may

  13. Emotional picture processing in children: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Beylul; DeCicco, Jennifer M; Dennis, Tracy A

    2012-01-01

    The late positive potential (LPP) reflects increased attention to emotional versus neutral stimuli in adults. To date, very few studies have examined the LPP in children, and whether it can be used to measure patterns of emotional processing that are related to dispositional mood characteristics, such as temperamental fear and anxiety. To examine this question,39 typically developing 5–7 year olds (M age in months = 75.27, SD = 5.83) passively viewed complex emotional and neutral pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System.Maternal report of temperamental fear and anxiety was obtained and fearful behavior during an emotional challenge was observed. As documented in adults, LPP amplitudes to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli were larger than to neutral stimuli, although some gender differences emerged. Larger LPP amplitude differences between unpleasant and neutral stimuli were associated with greater observed fear. The LPP as a measure of individual differences in emotional processing is discussed. PMID:22163263

  14. Can Pictures Be Arguments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, David

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that widening the study of argumentation to include the visual unjustifiably expands common understandings of argument, particularly those that define argument as a two-part, two-sided act. Contends that by calling pictures "arguments," it is possible that attention will be diverted away from the rhetorical functions pictures can and do…

  15. Greek Secondary School Students' Views about Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Koumparou, Helen; Kyriakoudi, Margarita; Papacharalampous, Irene; Trimandili, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to give a picture of Greek students' views about biology and some of the factors that affect them. A questionnaire measuring students' intrinsic motivation to learn biology, individual interest in biology and perceived difficulty of biology, along with information about students' gender, level, parents' occupation and educational…

  16. Gaze differences in processing pictures with emotional content.

    PubMed

    Budimir, Sanja; Palmović, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a set of standardized emotionally evocative color photographs developed by NIMH Center for Emotion and Attention at the University of Florida. It contains more than 900 emotional pictures indexed by emotional valence, arousal and dominance. However, when IAPS pictures were used in studying emotions with the event-related potentials, the results have shown a great deal of variation and inconsistency. In this research arousal and dominance of pictures were controlled while emotional valence was manipulated as 3 categories, pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures. Two experiments were conducted with an eye-tracker in order to determine to what the participants turn their gaze. Participants were 25 psychology students with normal vision. Every participant saw all pictures in color and same pictures in black/white version. This makes 200 analyzed units for color pictures and 200 for black and white pictures. Every picture was divided into figure and ground. Considering that perception can be influenced by color, edges, luminosity and contrast and since all those factors are collapsed on the pictures in IAPS, we compared color pictures with same black and white pictures. In first eye-tracking IAPS research we analyzed 12 emotional pictures and showed that participants have higher number of fixations for ground on neutral and unpleasant pictures and for figure on pleasant pictures. Second experiment was conducted with 4 sets of emotional complementary pictures (pleasant/unpleasant) which differ only on the content in the figure area and it was shown that participants were more focused on the figure area than on the ground area. Future ERP (event related potential) research with IAPS pictures should take into consideration these findings and to either choose pictures with blank ground or adjust pictures in the way that ground is blank. For the following experiments suggestion is to put emotional content in the figure

  17. Television Images: Exploring How They Affect People's View of Self and Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrin, Julie R.

    2009-01-01

    Through television, many different images of ethnic, cultural, and ability groups are presented. Different people perceive these images in different ways. These perceptions affect how people value themselves and judge and interact with others. This article first summaries research on TV images and people's meaning and reaction to them. Second, it…

  18. Evaluation of a WorldView-2 image for soil salinity monitoring in a moderately affected irrigated area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, Divan; van Niekerk, Adriaan

    2016-04-01

    Conventional methods for monitoring salt accumulation within irrigation schemes involve regular field visits to collect soil samples for laboratory analysis. Remote sensing has been proposed as a less time-consuming, more cost-effective alternative as it provides imagery covering large areas throughout the year. This study evaluated the efficacy of very high resolution (VHR) WorldView-2 imagery to map areas affected by salt accumulation. Classifications based on thresholds obtained from Jeffries-Matusita distance, regression modeling, classification and regression trees, as well as supervised classification approaches, were evaluated for discriminating between salt-affected and unaffected soils in Vaalharts, South Africa. The WorldView-2 bands were supplemented with salinity indices (SIs), principal components, and texture measures to increase the number of predictive variables. In situ soil samples were used for model development, classifier training, and accuracy assessment. The results showed that a simple threshold implemented on a normalized difference SI was the most successful in separating classes, with an overall accuracy of 80%. The findings suggest that VHR satellite imagery holds much potential for monitoring salt accumulation, but more research is needed to investigate why the classification results tend to overestimate salt-affected areas. More work is also needed to evaluate the transferability of the techniques to other irrigation schemes.

  19. Metaphor in pictures.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, J M

    1982-01-01

    Pictures can be literal or metaphoric. Metaphoric pictures involve intended violations of standard modes of depiction that are universally recognizable. The types of metaphoric pictures correspond to major groups of verbal metaphors, with the addition of a class of pictorial runes. Often the correspondence between verbal and pictorial metaphors depends on individual features of objects and such physical parameters as change of scale. A more sophisticated analysis is required for some pictorial metaphors, involving juxtapositions of well-known objects and indirect reference. PMID:6193482

  20. A cross-sectional observational study of healthcare professional views of factors affecting teenage adherence with antipsychotic medication.

    PubMed

    Ramdour, S; Duxbury, J A; Becket, G; Wilson, S

    2015-09-01

    Delays in effective treatment of a first episode psychosis can result in more severe symptoms, a longer time to achieve symptom control and a poorer quality of life; yet around 40% do not take antipsychotic medication as prescribed. There is evidence that patients and staff have different perceptions of what affects adherence with medication. Research in adults suggests healthcare professionals and patients understand the importance of good insight in promoting adherence with medication for schizophrenia; however, healthcare staff may overestimate the impact of side effects and underestimate the importance of medication effectiveness. There is also some evidence to suggest that motivations to take prescribed medication may differ in first and multi-episode psychosis. This research therefore sought views of staff working with adolescents diagnosed with first episode psychosis about what factors affected adherence with antipsychotic medication. Staff responding to the survey felt that young people were more likely to take medication if they felt it would make them better, prevent relapse and if they had a positive rapport with staff. As in an adult population, side effects, particularly weight gain, sedation and muscular side effects, were expressed as a common reason for poor adherence. Doctors and nurses assigned differing importance to parameters such as family views of medication, fear of admission and a preference for cannabis over medication suggesting that views may differ between professional groups Views of young people will be obtained in the next phase of the research study to enable comparison with staff views and consideration of staff interventions to better promote medication adherence. Antipsychotic medication is an effective treatment for first episode psychosis; yet 40% of patients do not take medication as prescribed. Previous research in adults with schizophrenia comparing healthcare professional and patient views suggests that while healthcare

  1. Vision and Motion Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

  2. Picturing the Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information You are here Home » SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ... Links for Students Glossary Picturing the Heart SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ...

  3. Losing focus: how lens position and viewing angle affect the function of multifocal lenses in fishes.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Wilby, David; Temple, Shelby Eric

    2016-09-01

    Light rays of different wavelengths are focused at different distances when they pass through a lens (longitudinal chromatic aberration [LCA]). For animals with color vision this can pose a serious problem, because in order to perceive a sharp image the rays must be focused at the shallow plane of the photoreceptor's outer segments in the retina. A variety of fish and tetrapods have been found to possess multifocal lenses, which correct for LCA by assigning concentric zones to correctly focus specific wavelengths. Each zone receives light from a specific beam entrance position (BEP) (the lateral distance between incoming light and the center of the lens). Any occlusion of incoming light at specific BEPs changes the composition of the wavelengths that are correctly focused on the retina. Here, we calculated the effect of lens position relative to the plane of the iris and light entering the eye at oblique angles on how much of the lens was involved in focusing the image on the retina (measured as the availability of BEPs). We used rotational photography of fish eyes and mathematical modeling to quantify the degree of lens occlusion. We found that, at most lens positions and viewing angles, there was a decrease of BEP availability and in some cases complete absence of some BEPs. Given the implications of these effects on image quality, we postulate that three morphological features (aphakic spaces, curvature of the iris, and intraretinal variability in spectral sensitivity) may, in part, be adaptations to mitigate the loss of spectral image quality in the periphery of the eyes of fishes. PMID:27607515

  4. What Makes Sports Fans Interactive? Identifying Factors Affecting Chat Interactions in Online Sports Viewing

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Jaeryong; Lee, Juyeong

    2016-01-01

    Sports fans are able to watch games from many locations using TV services while interacting with other fans online. In this paper, we identify the factors that affect sports viewers’ online interactions. Using a large-scale dataset of more than 25 million chat messages from a popular social TV site for baseball, we extract various game-related factors, and investigate the relationships between these factors and fans’ interactions using a series of multiple regression analyses. As a result, we identify several factors that are significantly related to viewer interactions. In addition, we determine that the influence of these factors varies according to the user group; i.e., active vs. less active users, and loyal vs. non-loyal users. PMID:26849568

  5. What Makes Sports Fans Interactive? Identifying Factors Affecting Chat Interactions in Online Sports Viewing.

    PubMed

    Ko, Minsam; Yeo, Jaeryong; Lee, Juyeong; Lee, Uichin; Jang, Young Jae

    2016-01-01

    Sports fans are able to watch games from many locations using TV services while interacting with other fans online. In this paper, we identify the factors that affect sports viewers' online interactions. Using a large-scale dataset of more than 25 million chat messages from a popular social TV site for baseball, we extract various game-related factors, and investigate the relationships between these factors and fans' interactions using a series of multiple regression analyses. As a result, we identify several factors that are significantly related to viewer interactions. In addition, we determine that the influence of these factors varies according to the user group; i.e., active vs. less active users, and loyal vs. non-loyal users. PMID:26849568

  6. Ubiquitous picture-rich content representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wiley; Dean, Jennifer; Muzzolini, Russ

    2010-02-01

    The amount of digital images taken by the average consumer is consistently increasing. People enjoy the convenience of storing and sharing their pictures through online (digital) and offline (traditional) media. A set of pictures can be uploaded to: online photo services, web blogs and social network websites. Alternatively, these images can be used to generate: prints, cards, photo books or other photo products. Through uploading and sharing, images are easily transferred from one format to another. And often, a different set of associated content (text, tags) is created across formats. For example, on his web blog, a user may journal his experiences of his recent travel; on his social network website, his friends tag and comment on the pictures; in his online photo album, some pictures are titled and keyword-tagged. When the user wants to tell a complete story, perhaps in a photo book, he must collect, across all formats: the pictures, writings and comments, etc. and organize them in a book format. The user has to arrange the content of his trip in each format. The arrangement, the associations between the images, tags, keywords and text, cannot be shared with other formats. In this paper, we propose a system that allows the content to be easily created and shared across various digital media formats. We define a uniformed data association structure to connect: images, documents, comments, tags, keywords and other data. This content structure allows the user to switch representation formats without reediting. The framework under each format can emphasize (display or hide) content elements based on preference. For example, a slide show view will emphasize the display of pictures with limited text; a blog view will display highlighted images and journal text; and the photo book will try to fit in all images and text content. In this paper, we will discuss the strategy to associate pictures with text content, so that it can naturally tell a story. We will also list

  7. Attracting Views and Going Viral: How Message Features and News-Sharing Channels Affect Health News Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Suk

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how intrinsic as well as perceived message features affect the extent to which online health news stories prompt audience selections and social retransmissions, and how news-sharing channels (e-mail vs. social media) shape what goes viral. The study analyzed actual behavioral data on audience viewing and sharing of New York Times health news articles, and associated article content and context data. News articles with high informational utility and positive sentiment invited more frequent selections and retransmissions. Articles were also more frequently selected when they presented controversial, emotionally evocative, and familiar content. Informational utility and novelty had stronger positive associations with e-mail-specific virality, while emotional evocativeness, content familiarity, and exemplification played a larger role in triggering social media-based retransmissions. PMID:26441472

  8. Consideration of vision and picture quality: psychological effects induced by picture sharpness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusaka, Hideo

    1989-08-01

    A psychological hierarchy model of human vision(1)(2) suggests that the visual signals are processed in a serial manner from lower to higher stages: that is "sensation" - "perception" - "emotion." For designing a future television system, it is important to find out what kinds of physical factors affect the "emotion" experienced by an observer in front of the display. This paper describes the psychological effects induced by the sharpness of the picture. The subjective picture quality was evaluated for the same pictures with five different levels of sharpness. The experiment was performed on two kinds of printed pictures: (A) a woman's face, and (B) a town corner. From these experiments, it was found that the amount of high-frequency peaking (physical value of the sharpness) which psychologically gives the best picture quality, differs between pictures (A) and (B). That is, the optimum picture sharpness differs depending on the picture content. From these results, we have concluded that the psychophysical sharpness of the picture is not only determined at the stage of "perception" (e.g., resolution or signal to noise ratio, which everyone can judge immediately), but also at the stage of "emotion" (e.g., sensation of reality or beauty).

  9. Startle modulation by affective faces

    PubMed Central

    Anokhin, Andrey P.; Golosheykin, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Startle reflex modulation by affective pictures is a well-established effect in human emotion research. However, much less is known about startle modulation by affective faces, despite the growing evidence that facial expressions robustly activate emotion-related brain circuits. In this study, acoustic startle probes were administered to 33 young adult participants (16 women) during the viewing of slides from the Pictures of Facial Affect set including neutral, happy, angry, and fearful faces. The effect of expression valence (happy, neutral, negative) on startle magnitude was highly significant (p<.001). Startle reflex was strongly potentiated by negative expressions (fearful and angry), however, no attenuation by happy faces was observed. A significant valence by gender interaction suggests stronger startle potentiation effects in females. These results demonstrate that affective facial expressions can produce significant modulation of the startle reflex. PMID:19833169

  10. Science's Big Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gregg

    2007-01-01

    The state of science is a moving target, and its ever-shifting horizons can best be gleaned by the contents of scientific journals. However, the bigger picture of the scientific enterprise, which also encompasses its past, its future, and its overarching philosophies, can often be better represented through the more reflective pace of popular…

  11. Picture Books for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Kat

    2002-01-01

    Discusses picture books that are suitable for teens, particularly middle school readers, and provides detailed reviews for five titles that have appealing story themes and illustrations including: Tony Millionaires' Sock Monkey: A Children's Book; Mick Foley's Christmas Chaos; Mick Foley's Halloween Hijinx; The Book of Jack; and Moby Dick. (LRW)

  12. Voyager picture of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Voyager 1 took this picture of the planet Jupiter on Saturday, Jan. 6, the first in its three-month-long, close-up investigation of the largest planet. The spacecraft, flying toward a March 5 closest approach, was 35.8 million miles (57.6 million kilometers) from Jupiter and 371.7 million miles (598.2 million kilometers) from Earth when the picture was taken. As the Voyager cameras begin their meteorological surveillance of Jupiter, they reveal a dynamic atmosphere with more convective structure than had previously been thought. While the smallest atmospheric features seen in this picture are still as large as 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) across, Voyager will be able to detect individual storm systems as small as 3 miles (5 kilometers) at closest approach. The Great Red Spot can be seen near the limb at the far right. Most of the other features are too small to be seen in terrestrial telescopes. This picture was transmitted to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory through the Deep Space Network's tracking station at Madrid, Spain. The Voyager Project is managed for NASA by Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  13. Picturing Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…

  14. Apollo 15 mission. Temporary loss of command module television picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was made into the temporary loss of command module color television picture by the ground station converter at Mission Control Center. Results show the picture loss was caused by a false synchronization pulse that resulted from the inability of the black level clipping circuit to respond adequately to the video signal when bright sunlight suddenly entered the camera's field of view.

  15. [How do Affected Children and Adolescents Experience their Short Stature, and what is the Point of View of their Parents?].

    PubMed

    Quitmann, Julia; Rohenkohl, Anja; Sommer, Rachel; Petzold, Sophie; Bullinger-Naber, Monika

    2014-01-01

    How do Affected Children and Adolescents Experience their Short Stature, and what is the Point of View of their Parents? Despite a large number of publications on the psychosocial situation of short statured children and their parents only a few qualitative studies focus on the perspective of the affected families. Within the European QoLISSY study ("Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth") an instrument to assess the health related quality of life of short statured children was developed. The aim of this project was to examine the self-perceived quality of life of the children themselves in comparison to their parents' perspective. During the development of the QoLISSY instrument, focus groups were conducted as a first step of this study. A total of 23 short statured children and 31 parents participated and discussed their experiences in separate groups with trained moderators. The discussions were analyzed qualitatively und results were used to generate a first list of items for the questionnaire to be developed. While parents focused on socio-emotional problems, children talked much more about their growth hormone treatment and problems in their social environment. In comparison to other studies children rated their quality of life worse than their parents. Not only medical treatment but also a psychological and socio-emotional intervention seems to be indicated. PMID:25524035

  16. Knowledge From Pictures (KFP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Paterra, Frank; Bailin, Sidney

    1993-01-01

    The old maxim goes: 'A picture is worth a thousand words'. The objective of the research reported in this paper is to demonstrate this idea as it relates to the knowledge acquisition process and the automated development of an expert system's rule base. A prototype tool, the Knowledge From Pictures (KFP) tool, has been developed which configures an expert system's rule base by an automated analysis of and reasoning about a 'picture', i.e., a graphical representation of some target system to be supported by the diagnostic capabilities of the expert system under development. This rule base, when refined, could then be used by the expert system for target system monitoring and fault analysis in an operational setting. Most people, when faced with the problem of understanding the behavior of a complicated system, resort to the use of some picture or graphical representation of the system as an aid in thinking about it. This depiction provides a means of helping the individual to visualize the bahavior and dynamics of the system under study. An analysis of the picture augmented with the individual's background information, allows the problem solver to codify knowledge about the system. This knowledge can, in turn, be used to develop computer programs to automatically monitor the system's performance. The approach taken is this research was to mimic this knowledge acquisition paradigm. A prototype tool was developed which provides the user: (1) a mechanism for graphically representing sample system-configurations appropriate for the domain, and (2) a linguistic device for annotating the graphical representation with the behaviors and mutual influences of the components depicted in the graphic. The KFP tool, reasoning from the graphical depiction along with user-supplied annotations of component behaviors and inter-component influences, generates a rule base that could be used in automating the fault detection, isolation, and repair of the system.

  17. Impaired picture recognition in transient epileptic amnesia.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Michaela; Hoefeijzers, Serge; Zeman, Adam; Butler, Christopher; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is an epileptic syndrome characterized by recurrent, brief episodes of amnesia. Transient epileptic amnesia is often associated with the rapid decline in recall of new information over hours to days (accelerated long-term forgetting - 'ALF'). It remains unknown how recognition memory is affected in TEA over time. Here, we report a systematic study of picture recognition in patients with TEA over the course of one week. Sixteen patients with TEA and 16 matched controls were presented with 300 photos of everyday life scenes. Yes/no picture recognition was tested 5min, 2.5h, 7.5h, 24h, and 1week after picture presentation using a subset of target pictures as well as similar and different foils. Picture recognition was impaired in the patient group at all test times, including the 5-minute test, but it declined normally over the course of 1week. This impairment was associated predominantly with an increased false alarm rate, especially for similar foils. High performance on a control test indicates that this impairment was not associated with perceptual or discrimination deficits. Our findings suggest that, at least in some TEA patients with ALF in verbal recall, picture recognition does not decline more rapidly than in controls over 1week. However, our findings of an early picture recognition deficit suggest that new visual memories are impoverished after minutes in TEA. This could be the result of deficient encoding or impaired early consolidation. The early picture recognition deficit observed could reflect either the early stages of the process that leads to ALF or a separable deficit of anterograde memory in TEA. Lastly, our study suggests that at least some patients with TEA are prone to falsely recognizing new everyday visual information that they have not in fact seen previously. This deficit, alongside their ALF in free recall, likely affects everyday memory performance. PMID:25506793

  18. Different Loci of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming vs. Word-Picture Matching Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Denise Y.; Schnur, Tatiana T.

    2016-01-01

    Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category impairs performance relative to when stimuli come from different semantic categories (i.e., semantic interference). Despite similar semantic interference phenomena in both picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, the locus of interference has been attributed to different levels of the language system – lexical in naming and semantic in word-picture matching. Although both tasks involve access to shared semantic representations, the extent to which interference originates and/or has its locus at a shared level remains unclear, as these effects are often investigated in isolation. We manipulated semantic context in cyclical picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, and tested whether factors tapping semantic-level (generalization of interference to novel category items) and lexical-level processes (interactions with lexical frequency) affected the magnitude of interference, while also assessing whether interference occurs at a shared processing level(s) (transfer of interference across tasks). We found that semantic interference in naming was sensitive to both semantic- and lexical-level processes (i.e., larger interference for novel vs. old and low- vs. high-frequency stimuli), consistent with a semantically mediated lexical locus. Interference in word-picture matching exhibited stable interference for old and novel stimuli and did not interact with lexical frequency. Further, interference transferred from word-picture matching to naming. Together, these experiments provide evidence to suggest that semantic interference in both tasks originates at a shared processing stage (presumably at the semantic level), but that it exerts its effect at different loci when naming pictures vs. matching words to pictures. PMID:27242621

  19. Ariel - Highest Resolution Color Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The complex terrain of Ariel is viewed in this image, the best Voyager 2 color picture of the Uranian moon. The individual photos used to construct this composite were taken Jan. 24, 1986, from a distance of 170,000 kilometers (105,000 miles. Voyager captured this view of Ariel's southern hemisphere through the green, blue and violet filters of the narrow-angle camera; the resolution is about 3 km (2 mi). Most of the visible surface consists of relatively intensely cratered terrain transected by fault scarps and fault-bounded valleys (graben). Some of the largest valleys, which can be seen near the terminator (at right), are partly filled with younger deposits that are less heavily cratered. Bright spots near the limb and toward the left are chiefly the rims of small craters. Most of the brightly rimmed craters are too small to be resolved here, although one about 30 km (20 mi) in diameter can be easily distinguished near the center. These bright-rim craters, though the youngest features on Ariel, probably have formed over a long span of geological time. Although Ariel has a diameter of only about 1,200 km (750 mi), it has clearly experienced a great deal of geological activity in the past. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  20. Picture Stories for ESL Health Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Kate

    These picture stories help English as a Second Language teachers address topics affecting their students' health and wellbeing. They are useful for beginner and low-literacy students, offering a safe, impromptu way to discuss difficult topics, ask questions, and obtain information. As the stories are about cartoon characters, students are not…

  1. Communicating with Pictures and Precision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royce, Christine Anne

    2009-01-01

    From the earliest civilizations, humans have used drawings and pictures as a form of communication and to convey information--whether it was the seasons or location of good hunting grounds. In this month's column, simple alphabet picture books show students how pictures can be used to communicate information about a topic. In the first activity,…

  2. Nation's water picture mixed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The nation's water picture for April showed mixed trends: More than half of the index gaging stations reported normal streamflow conditions during the month, while the spring snowmelt boosted streamflow in the Northeast and Northwest to well above normal levels. Parts of the Southeast, however, from West Virginia south to the Carolinas, reported well-below normal streamflow conditions, according to a month-end check on water resources conditions by the U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior.After nearly 2 years of drought conditions the three major reservoirs supplying New York City reached full storage capacity and were spilling during April. Combined contents of the three reservoirs on May 1, 1982, was 272 billion gallons, 101% of their full usable capacity. The full reservoirs and the generally good surface and groundwater conditions throughout the Delaware River basin allowed the Delaware River Basin Commission to lift its drought emergency warning on April 27.

  3. When Do Motor Behaviors (Mis)Match Affective Stimuli? An Evaluative Coding View of Approach and Avoidance Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eder, Andreas B.; Rothermund, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Affective-mapping effects between affective stimuli and lever movements are critically dependent upon the evaluative meaning of the response labels that are used in the task instructions. In Experiments 1 and 2, affective-mapping effects predicted by specific-muscle-activation and distance-regulation accounts were replicated when the standard…

  4. The lack of a big picture in tuberculosis: the clinical point of view, the problems of experimental modeling and immunomodulation. The factors we should consider when designing novel treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Vilaplana, Cristina; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2014-01-01

    This short review explores the large gap between clinical issues and basic science, and suggests why tuberculosis research should focus on redirect the immune system and not only on eradicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillus. Along the manuscript, several concepts involved in human tuberculosis are explored in order to understand the big picture, including infection and disease dynamics, animal modeling, liquefaction, inflammation and immunomodulation. Scientists should take into account all these factors in order to answer questions with clinical relevance. Moreover, the inclusion of the concept of a strong inflammatory response being required in order to develop cavitary tuberculosis disease opens a new field for developing new therapeutic and prophylactic tools in which destruction of the bacilli may not necessarily be the final goal. PMID:24592258

  5. Painting Pictures with Whisky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoungsoo; Boulogne, François; Um, Eujin; Jacobi, Ian; Stone, Howard

    2014-11-01

    Have you ever looked at the dried mark of whisky on the glass? While the whisky evaporates, various solid components inside the whisky are deposited with a peculiar pattern, which creates a beautiful picture. This particle patterning is induced by the solutal Marangoni effect. We investigate this effect on both the flow behavior and the particle deposition patterns in binary-mixture droplet evaporation by varying the concentration ratio between ethanol and water. To visualize the particle and fluid motion, we perform Particle Image Velocimetry. We observe that at the beginning stage complex circulating flow patterns occurred, which are triggered by the surface tension gradient, i.e. Marangoni effect. Ethanol first evaporates due to the lower vapor pressure compared to water. When the ethanol has vanished, a radial flow pattern is observed. Furthermore, we find that as the initial ethanol concentration increases, the mobility of the receding contact line increased. At high ethanol concentrations, the contact line kept receding so as to draw groups of particles that deposited in an annular pattern. We thank Ernie Button for sharing with us many beautiful images of whisky after it had dried.

  6. Teacher in Space trainees work with Arriflex motion picture camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Teacher in Space trainees work with Arriflex motion picture camera. Photos include view of Sharon Christa McAuliffe (left) and Barbara Morgan having hands-on experience with an Arriflex motion picture camera following a briefing on space photography (40668); Morgan adjusts a lens as a studious McAuliffe looks on (40669); McAuliffe zeroes in on a test subject during a practice session with the Arriflex (40670); Morgan focuses on a subject (40671).

  7. PICTURE PERFECT: IN DEPTH LOOK AT THE PICTURE FORMAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAS picture format is a very powerful tool. The different options allow the display of data in a more picturesque manner adding symbols, qualifiers, and comments to the data points without modifying the data. With a picture format one can create a series of templates for displ...

  8. PICTURE PERFECT: IN DEPTH LOOK AT THE PICTURE FORMAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAS PICTURE format is a very powerful tool. The different options allow the display of data in a more picturesque manner adding symbols, qualifiers, and comments to the data points without modifying the data. With a PICTURE format one can create a series of templates for displa...

  9. The Big Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains a series of activities which focus on the process of extinction, how the increasing human population affects other species, and on the reasons for helping endangered species. Includes diagrams and illustrations of endangered species. (ML)

  10. Trust and Confidence in the Courts: Does the Quality of Treatment Young Offenders Receive Affect Their Views of the Courts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprott, Jane B.; Greene, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    It is assumed that legitimacy of the legal system is important, yet almost nothing is known about how young offenders view this institution. A sample of youths were interviewed at their first appearance in court and asked about their feelings regarding how they have been treated (procedural justice) by their lawyer, by the crown attorney, and by…

  11. Understanding How Resources and Capabilities Affect Performance: Actively Applying the Resource-Based View in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Norman T.

    2006-01-01

    The resource-based view is a strategic framework for understanding why some firms outperform others. Its importance is reflected in its wide inclusion in strategy texts as a tool for assessing a firm's internal strengths and weaknesses. This article outlines an experiential exercise that demonstrates how different bundles of resources and…

  12. How a Picture Book Happens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonners, Susan

    1994-01-01

    The author and illustrator of a picture book about the life cycle of the lynx describes the research and development process she used to create the book. Contacts with wildlife biologists, presenting the predator/prey relationship, creating pictures and text, drawing from life, and creating the book jacket are among the topics covered. (KRN)

  13. Multicolor well-composed pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latecki, Longin J.

    1995-01-01

    As was noted early in the history of computer vision, using the same adjacency relation for the entire digital picture leads to so-called `paradoxes' related to the Jordan Curve Theorem. The most popular idea to avoid these paradoxes in binary images was using different adjacency relations for the foreground and the background: 8-adjacency for black points and 4-adjacency for white points, or vice versa. This idea cannot be extended in a straightforward way to multicolor pictures. In this paper a solution is presented which guarantees avoidance of the connectivity paradoxes related to the Jordan Curve Theorem for all multicolor pictures. Only one connectedness relation is used for the entire digital picture, i.e., for every component of every color. The idea is not to allow a certain `critical configuration' which can be detected locally to occur in digital pictures; such pictures are called `well-composed.' Well-composed pictures have very nice topological properties. For example, the Jordan Curve Theorem holds and the Euler characteristic is locally computable. This implies that properties of algorithms used in computer vision can be stated and proved in a clear way, and that the algorithms themselves become simpler and faster. Moreover, if a digitization process is guaranteed to preserve topology, then the obtained digital pictures must be well-composed.

  14. Behavioral modulation by mutilation pictures in women.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M G; Volchan, E; Oliveira, L; Machado-Pinheiro, W; Rodrigues, J A; Nepomuceno, F V P; Pessoa, L

    2004-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that women are more emotionally expressive than men. It is unclear, however, if women are also more susceptible to the emotional modulation of behavior imposed by an affective stimulus. To investigate this issue, we devised a task in which female subjects performed six sequential trials of visual target detection following the presentation of emotional (mutilation and erotic) or neutral pictures (domestic utensils and objects) and compared the data obtained in the present study with those described in a previous study with male subjects. The experiment consisted of three blocks of 24 pictures and each block had an approximate duration of 4 min. Our sample consisted of 36 subjects (age range: 18 to 26 years) and each subject performed all blocks. Trials following the presentation of mutilation pictures (283 ms) had significantly slower reaction times than those following neutral (270 ms) pictures. None of the trials in the "pleasant block" (271 ms) was significantly different from those in the "neutral block". The increase in reaction time observed in the unpleasant block may be related in part to the activation of motivational systems leading to an avoidance behavior. The interference effect observed in this study was similar to the pattern previously described for men. Thus, although women may be more emotionally expressive, they were not more reactive to aversive stimuli than men, as measured by emotional interference in a simple reaction time task. PMID:15060703

  15. [On Bian Que and the culture of witch doctor of Eastern Yi Ethnic Group as viewed from the Picture of Bian Que's Needling in the stone-carved figure of Han Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Yang, J P; Wang, Z G; Lu, X

    2016-01-28

    The culture of witch doctor of the Eastern Ethnic Yi Group exerted profound influence on early acupuncture art and medicine. There is a score of Bian Que's Needling Picture in the stone-carved figure unearthed in Shandong Province, demonstrating the origin of acupuncture in the region of Eastern Yi Ethnic Group. Bian Que, with the identity of witch doctor, and"doctor stone needling witch"with the legend of a professional acupuncturing indicates the important influence of witch doctor on the origin of acupuncture art.The archeological discovery of tortoise shell, divination carved on bones, and conical needles all buried together in the Da-wen-kou culture indicates that the earliest therapy witch doctor applied was related to needling. As a representative of the Eastern Yi Ethnic Group, Bian Que,"the Father of Medical Prescription"was the embryonic form of early acupuncture art, promoted the formation and development of early medical theory, the theory of pulse feeling, being the important part of the early stage of origin of needling-pulse feeling theory. PMID:27049738

  16. Venus in motion. [Mariner 10 television pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Danielson, G. E.; Evans, N.; Soha, J. M.; Belton, M. J. S.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive set of television pictures of Venus taken by the Mariner 10 spacecraft is presented. Included is a chronological sequence of television images illustrating the development, variety, and circulation of Venus upper-atmospheric phenomena as viewed in the near-ultraviolet. The higher-resolution images have been assembled into global mosaics to facilitate comparison. Figures and tables describing the imaging sequences have been included to provide a guide to the more complete set of 3400 Venus images on file at the National Space Science Data Center.

  17. The early atmosphere - A new picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last few years, discoveries in astronomy, geochemistry, and atmospheric chemistry have resulted in a new picture of how our planet and its atmosphere formed. The traditional view held that the early atmosphere was composed of methane, ammonia, and molecular hydrogen, but the actual composition may have been nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. The history leading to the present understanding is discussed and topics covered include: chemical evolution, origin of the atmosphere, atmospheric evolution on earth, Venus, and Mars, and prebiological atmospheric oxygen and the early sun.

  18. Novelty and emotion: Pupillary and cortical responses during viewing of natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Vera; De Cesarei, Andrea; Mastria, Serena; Lugli, Luisa; Baroni, Giulia; Nicoletti, Roberto; Codispoti, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Given the remarkable similarities in the antecedent conditions-stimulus motivational relevance and novelty (i.e., probability of occurrence)-that elicit amplitude modulation of the late positive potential (LPP) and the pupillary dilation response, the present study examines whether these two indexes of orienting response reflect common processes that are responsible for modulatory patterns in motivationally relevant contexts. In the present study, the LPP and the pupillary dilation response were co-registered in a free-picture viewing context in which stimulus novelty was manipulated through repeated presentation of the same picture exemplar. More specifically, pictures depicting both emotional and neutral contents could be novel, that is never seen before in the course of the study, or repeated 4-8 times in a row (i.e., massed repetition). Results showed that, despite massed repetitions, the late positive potential amplitude continued to be highly modulated by picture content, whereas affective modulation of pupil dilation decreased with picture repetition. These findings indicate that, although the LPP and pupil dilation are similarly affected by motivational relevance during the viewing of novel pictures, they differ when pictures are highly familiar, possibly reflecting different functional meanings in the context of the orienting response. PMID:26631353

  19. How do field of view and resolution affect the information content of panoramic scenes for visual navigation? A computational investigation.

    PubMed

    Wystrach, Antoine; Dewar, Alex; Philippides, Andrew; Graham, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The visual systems of animals have to provide information to guide behaviour and the informational requirements of an animal's behavioural repertoire are often reflected in its sensory system. For insects, this is often evident in the optical array of the compound eye. One behaviour that insects share with many animals is the use of learnt visual information for navigation. As ants are expert visual navigators it may be that their vision is optimised for navigation. Here we take a computational approach in asking how the details of the optical array influence the informational content of scenes used in simple view matching strategies for orientation. We find that robust orientation is best achieved with low-resolution visual information and a large field of view, similar to the optical properties seen for many ant species. A lower resolution allows for a trade-off between specificity and generalisation for stored views. Additionally, our simulations show that orientation performance increases if different portions of the visual field are considered as discrete visual sensors, each giving an independent directional estimate. This suggests that ants might benefit by processing information from their two eyes independently. PMID:26582183

  20. Pictures in Pictures: Art History and Art Museums in Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yohlin, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Children's picture books that recreate, parody, or fictionalize famous artworks and introduce the art museum experience, a genre to which I will refer as "children's art books," have become increasingly popular over the past decade. This essay explores the pedagogical implications of this trend through the family program "Picture Books and Picture…

  1. Corneal Transplantation in Disease Affecting Only One Eye: Does It Make a Difference to Habitual Binocular Viewing?

    PubMed Central

    Bandela, Praveen K.; Satgunam, PremNandhini; Garg, Prashant; Bharadwaj, Shrikant R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Clarity of the transplanted tissue and restoration of visual acuity are the two primary metrics for evaluating the success of corneal transplantation. Participation of the transplanted eye in habitual binocular viewing is seldom evaluated post-operatively. In unilateral corneal disease, the transplanted eye may remain functionally inactive during binocular viewing due to its suboptimal visual acuity and poor image quality, vis-à-vis the healthy fellow eye. Methods and Findings This study prospectively quantified the contribution of the transplanted eye towards habitual binocular viewing in 25 cases with unilateral transplants [40yrs (IQR: 32–42yrs) and 25 age-matched controls [30yrs (25–37yrs)]. Binocular functions including visual field extent, high-contrast logMAR acuity, suppression threshold and stereoacuity were assessed using standard psychophysical paradigms. Optical quality of all eyes was determined from wavefront aberrometry measurements. Binocular visual field expanded by a median 21% (IQR: 18–29%) compared to the monocular field of cases and controls (p = 0.63). Binocular logMAR acuity [0.0 (0.0–0.0)] almost always followed the fellow eye’s acuity [0.00 (0.00 –-0.02)] (r = 0.82), independent of the transplanted eye’s acuity [0.34 (0.2–0.5)] (r = 0.04). Suppression threshold and stereoacuity were poorer in cases [30.1% (13.5–44.3%); 620.8arc sec (370.3–988.2arc sec)] than in controls [79% (63.5–100%); 16.3arc sec (10.6–25.5arc sec)] (p<0.001). Higher-order wavefront aberrations of the transplanted eye [0.34μ (0.21–0.51μ)] were higher than the fellow eye [0.07μ (0.05–0.11μ)] (p<0.001) and their reduction with RGP contact lenses [0.09μ (0.08–0.12μ)] significantly improved the suppression threshold [65% (50–72%)] and stereoacuity [56.6arc sec (47.7–181.6arc sec)] (p<0.001). Conclusions In unilateral corneal disease, the transplanted eye does participate in gross binocular viewing but offers limited support

  2. Perceptual representations in false recognition and priming of pictures.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2008-12-01

    Using a new procedure, we investigate whether imagination can induce false memory by creating a perceptual representation. Participants studied pictures and words with and without an imagery task and at test performed both a direct recognition test and an indirect perceptual identification test on pictorial stimuli. Corrected false recognition rates were 7% for pictures studied in word form (Experiment 1), 26% for pictures imagined once (Experiment 2), and 48% for pictures imagined multiple times (Experiment 3), although on the indirect test, no priming was found for these items. Furthermore, a perceptual/conceptual imagery manipulation did not affect the tendency to claim that imagined items had been studied as pictures (Experiment 4). These results suggest that the false memories reported on direct tests are not driven by perceptual representations. PMID:19015501

  3. How Do You Picture Electricity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Describes an action-research project conducted by student teachers in Edinburgh designed to explore ways in which children picture what happens inside an electric circuit. The student teachers also explored their own understanding of electricity. (Author/WRM)

  4. Pictures, images, and recollective experience.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, S A; Conway, M A

    1994-09-01

    Five experiments investigated the influence of picture processing on recollective experience in recognition memory. Subjects studied items that differed in visual or imaginal detail, such as pictures versus words and high-imageability versus low-imageability words, and performed orienting tasks that directed processing either toward a stimulus as a word or toward a stimulus as a picture or image. Standard effects of imageability (e.g., the picture superiority effect and memory advantages following imagery) were obtained only in recognition judgments that featured recollective experience and were eliminated or reversed when recognition was not accompanied by recollective experience. It is proposed that conscious recollective experience in recognition memory is cued by attributes of retrieved memories such as sensory-perceptual attributes and records of cognitive operations performed at encoding. PMID:7931096

  5. Factors Negatively Affecting University Adjustment from the Views of First-Year University Students: The Case of Mersin University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevinç, Seda; Gizir, Cem Ali

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study aims to investigate the most common factors that negatively affect adjustment to university and coping strategies used by first-year university students in the adaptation process from the viewpoint of first-year university students. The participants were 25 first-year university students from various faculties at Mersin…

  6. TV or not TV? Does the immediacy of viewing images of a momentous news event affect the quality and stability of flashbulb memories?

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Evelyn G; Halldorson, Michael K; Dizon-Reynante, Cheryl

    2011-04-01

    The flashbulb accounts of 38 participants concerning the September 11th 2001 terrorist attack reported at both 28 hours and 6 months following the event were examined for quantity, quality, and consistency as a function of the time lapse between first learning of the event and initial viewing of media images. The flashbulb accounts of those who reported seeing images at least an hour after learning of the event differed qualitatively, but not quantitatively, from accounts of participants who reported seeing images at the same time as or within minutes of learning of the event. Delayed viewing of images resulted in less elaborate and generally less consistent accounts across the 6-month interval. The results are discussed in terms of factors affecting flashbulb memory formation and individual differences in connectedness to the event. PMID:21500086

  7. Distinct Effects of Lexical and Semantic Competition during Picture Naming in Younger Adults, Older Adults, and People with Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Britt, Allison E.; Ferrara, Casey; Mirman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Producing a word requires selecting among a set of similar alternatives. When many semantically related items become activated, the difficulty of the selection process is increased. Experiment 1 tested naming of items with either multiple synonymous labels (“Alternate Names,” e.g., gift/present) or closely semantically related but non-equivalent responses (“Near Semantic Neighbors,” e.g., jam/jelly). Picture naming was fastest and most accurate for pictures with only one label (“High Name Agreement”), slower and less accurate in the Alternate Names condition, and slowest and least accurate in the Near Semantic Neighbors condition. These results suggest that selection mechanisms in picture naming operate at two distinct levels of processing: selecting between similar but non-equivalent names requires two selection processes (semantic and lexical), whereas selecting among equivalent names only requires one selection at the lexical level. Experiment 2 examined how these selection mechanisms are affected by normal aging and found that older adults had significantly more difficulty in the Near Semantic Neighbors condition, but not in the Alternate Names condition. This suggests that aging affects semantic processing and selection more strongly than it affects lexical selection. Experiment 3 examined the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in these selection processes by testing individuals with aphasia secondary to stroke lesions that either affected the LIFG or spared it. Surprisingly, there was no interaction between condition and lesion group: the presence of LIFG damage was not associated with substantively worse naming performance for pictures with multiple acceptable labels. These results are not consistent with a simple view of LIFG as the locus of lexical selection and suggest a more nuanced view of the neural basis of lexical and semantic selection. PMID:27458393

  8. Distinct Effects of Lexical and Semantic Competition during Picture Naming in Younger Adults, Older Adults, and People with Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Britt, Allison E; Ferrara, Casey; Mirman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Producing a word requires selecting among a set of similar alternatives. When many semantically related items become activated, the difficulty of the selection process is increased. Experiment 1 tested naming of items with either multiple synonymous labels ("Alternate Names," e.g., gift/present) or closely semantically related but non-equivalent responses ("Near Semantic Neighbors," e.g., jam/jelly). Picture naming was fastest and most accurate for pictures with only one label ("High Name Agreement"), slower and less accurate in the Alternate Names condition, and slowest and least accurate in the Near Semantic Neighbors condition. These results suggest that selection mechanisms in picture naming operate at two distinct levels of processing: selecting between similar but non-equivalent names requires two selection processes (semantic and lexical), whereas selecting among equivalent names only requires one selection at the lexical level. Experiment 2 examined how these selection mechanisms are affected by normal aging and found that older adults had significantly more difficulty in the Near Semantic Neighbors condition, but not in the Alternate Names condition. This suggests that aging affects semantic processing and selection more strongly than it affects lexical selection. Experiment 3 examined the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in these selection processes by testing individuals with aphasia secondary to stroke lesions that either affected the LIFG or spared it. Surprisingly, there was no interaction between condition and lesion group: the presence of LIFG damage was not associated with substantively worse naming performance for pictures with multiple acceptable labels. These results are not consistent with a simple view of LIFG as the locus of lexical selection and suggest a more nuanced view of the neural basis of lexical and semantic selection. PMID:27458393

  9. Pornographic picture processing interferes with working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Laier, Christian; Schulte, Frank P; Brand, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Some individuals report problems during and after Internet sex engagement, such as missing sleep and forgetting appointments, which are associated with negative life consequences. One mechanism potentially leading to these kinds of problems is that sexual arousal during Internet sex might interfere with working memory (WM) capacity, resulting in a neglect of relevant environmental information and therefore disadvantageous decision making. In this study, 28 healthy individuals performed 4 experimental manipulations of a pictorial 4-back WM task with neutral, negative, positive, or pornographic stimuli. Participants also rated 100 pornographic pictures with respect to sexual arousal and indicated masturbation urges previous to and following pornographic picture presentation. Results revealed worse WM performance in the pornographic picture condition of the 4-back task compared with the three remaining picture conditions. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis indicated an explanation of variance of the sensitivity in the pornographic picture condition by the subjective rating of the pornographic pictures as well as by a moderation effect of masturbation urges. Results contribute to the view that indicators of sexual arousal due to pornographic picture processing interfere with WM performance. Findings are discussed with respect to Internet sex addiction because WM interference by addiction-related cues is well known from substance dependencies. PMID:23167900

  10. Extensions of the picture superiority effect in associative recognition.

    PubMed

    Hockley, William E; Bancroft, Tyler

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that the picture superiority effect (PSE) is seen in tests of associative recognition for random pairs of line drawings compared to pairs of concrete words (Hockley, 2008). In the present study we demonstrated that the PSE for associative recognition is still observed when subjects have correctly identified the individual items of each pair as old (Experiment 1), and that this effect is not due to rehearsal borrowing (Experiment 2). The PSE for associative recognition also is shown to be present but attenuated for mixed picture-word pairs (Experiment 3), and similar in magnitude for pairs of simple black and white line drawings and coloured photographs of detailed objects (Experiment 4). The results are consistent with the view that the semantic meaning of nameable pictures is activated faster than that of words thereby affording subjects more time to generate and elaborate meaningful associations between items depicted in picture form. PMID:21728402

  11. THE USE OF MOTION PICTURES IN TEACHING SLOW LEARNERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BABCOCK, DAVID

    A 3-YEAR PROGRAM, "MODERN SOCIETY--ITS VALUES AND ITS DEMANDS," WAS DEVISED TO MAKE USE OF THE VISUAL AND ORAL ABILITIES OF "RELUCTANT" SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS. SEVENTEEN MODERN NOVELS AND PLAYS IN CONJUNCTION WITH THEIR MOTION PICTURE ADAPTATIONS WERE STUDIED AND VIEWED. STUDENTS GRADED THE FILMS ON THE BASES OF CHARACTERIZATION, THEME, SOUND…

  12. Enhancing English Learners' Language Development Using Wordless Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louie, Belinda; Sierschynski, Jarek

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an approach to use wordless picture books to enhance the language development of English language learners. This approach is grounded in best practices to teach ELLs. The process starts with viewing and analyzing the visual images, engaging ELLs in discussion, and ending with students' self-authored texts. The wordless…

  13. 7. Another picture of workers laying up the graphite core ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Another picture of workers laying up the graphite core of the 105-B pile. This view is towards the rear of the pile. The gun barrels can be seen protruding into the pile. D-3047 - B Reactor, Richland, Benton County, WA

  14. Center of parcel with picture tube wall along walkway. Leaning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Center of parcel with picture tube wall along walkway. Leaning Tower of Bottle Village at frame right; oblique view of Rumpus Room, remnants of Little Hut destroyed by Northridge earthquake at frame left. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  15. Quentin Blake, The Children's Laureate: Selected Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doonan, Jane

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a small group of picture books that display two of Quentin Blake's great strengths: (1) the inventiveness of his concept and design; and (2) the representation of his own view that a children's book can be a place where adults and children meet on equal footing. (NH)

  16. Methods For Electronic 3-D Moving Pictures Without Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collender, Robert B.

    1987-06-01

    This paper describes implementation approaches in image acquisition and playback for 3-D computer graphics, 3-D television and 3-D theatre movies without special glasses. Projection lamps, spatial light modulators, CRT's and dynamic scanning are all eliminated by the application of an active image array, all static components and a semi-specular screen. The resulting picture shows horizontal parallax with a wide horizontal view field (up to 360 de-grees) giving a holographic appearance in full color with smooth continuous viewing without speckle. Static component systems are compared with dynamic component systems using both linear and circular arrays. Implementation of computer graphic systems are shown that allow complex shaded color images to extend from the viewer's eyes to infinity. Large screen systems visible by hundreds of people are feasible by the use of low f-stops and high gain screens in projection. Screen geometries and special screen properties are shown. Viewing characteristics offer no restrictions in view-position over the entire view-field and have a "look-around" feature for all the categories of computer graphics, television and movies. Standard video cassettes and optical discs can also interface the system to generate a 3-D window viewable without glasses. A prognosis is given for technology application to 3-D pictures without glasses that replicate the daily viewing experience. Super-position of computer graphics on real-world pictures is shown feasible.

  17. Difference between seeing a random color dot picture and reading shapes from the same color dot picture in the Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Nakadomari, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Miyauchi, Satoru; Kitahara, Kenji

    2002-06-01

    When we are viewing colored picture, what is the difference in our brain between a random Color dot picture and a digit figure pattern picture seen through its colored dots? We created 3 patterns that are a functional magnetic resonance imaging version of the Ishihara plate patterns to test multiple color-sensitive areas in human ventral occipitotemporal cortex. The results showed that area V4 is activated by the stimulus of reading shapes from its color dots in the Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates but not by the stimulus of seeing a random color dot picture. We suggest that area V4 is activated not by color processing but by segregation.

  18. A Picture Is Not Always Worth a Thousand Words: Pictures as Distractors in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willows, Dale M.

    1978-01-01

    Children read sets of words under three conditions: with no pictures, with related pictures, and with unrelated pictures. Results indicated that words were read more slowly whenever pictures were present; that unrelated pictures produced more interference than related pictures; and that both effects were inversely related to reading ability.…

  19. Viewing Olfactory Affective Responses Through the Sniff Prism: Effect of Perceptual Dimensions and Age on Olfactomotor Responses to Odors

    PubMed Central

    Ferdenzi, Camille; Fournel, Arnaud; Thévenet, Marc; Coppin, Géraldine; Bensafi, Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sniffing, which is the active sampling of olfactory information through the nasal cavity, is part of the olfactory percept. It is influenced by stimulus properties, affects how an odor is perceived, and is sufficient (without an odor being present) to activate the olfactory cortex. However, many aspects of the affective correlates of sniffing behavior remain unclear, in particular the modulation of volume and duration as a function of odor hedonics. The present study used a wide range of odorants with contrasted hedonic valence to test: (1) which psychophysical function best describes the relationship between sniffing characteristics and odor hedonics (e.g., linear, or polynomial); (2) whether sniffing characteristics are sensitive to more subtle variations in pleasantness than simple pleasant-unpleasant contrast; (3) how sensitive sniffing is to other perceptual dimensions of odors such as odor familiarity or edibility; and (4) whether the sniffing/hedonic valence relationship is valid in other populations than young adults, such as the elderly. Four experiments were conducted, using 16–48 odorants each, and recruiting a total of 102 participants, including a group of elderly people. Results of the four experiments were very consistent in showing that sniffing was sensitive to subtle variations in unpleasantness but not to subtle variations in pleasantness, and that, the more unpleasant the odor, the more limited the spontaneous sampling of olfactory information through the nasal cavity (smaller volume, shorter duration). This also applied, although to a lesser extent, to elderly participants. Relationships between sniffing and other perceptual dimensions (familiarity, edibility) were less clear. It was concluded that sniffing behavior might be involved in adaptive responses protecting the subject from possibly harmful substances. PMID:26635683

  20. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Digital Photographs versus Picture Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonaitis, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative system (AAC) used to improve and increase communication for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders. Research addressing the efficacy of this system is increasing; however, there is limited information published that evaluates…

  1. [Sleep and dreams in pictures].

    PubMed

    Stoll, R T

    1995-04-11

    Human life is divided into two thirds wakefulness and one third sleep. A newborn child sleeps to strengthen, the adult for regeneration. At the end of life man sinks down into the sleep of death: Hypnos and Thanatos are twin sons of the Queen of Night. Myths from different cultures are influenced by the experience of sleep and its inner world of pictures, the dreams. Artists, painters and sculptors let their visions float steadily into new pictures, and creatures of sleep formed out of diverse materials. Devine sleep, sleep for new life, sleep of health, creative sleep, prophetic sleep, sleep for revelation and for decisions. PMID:7732243

  2. Affective engagement for facial expressions and emotional scenes: The influence of social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Wangelin, Bethany C.; Bradley, Margaret M.; Kastner, Anna; Lang, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Pictures of emotional facial expressions or natural scenes are often used as cues in emotion research. We examined the extent to which these different stimuli engage emotion and attention, and whether the presence of social anxiety symptoms influences responding to facial cues. Sixty participants reporting high or low social anxiety viewed pictures of angry, neutral, and happy faces, as well as violent, neutral, and erotic scenes, while skin conductance and event-related potentials were recorded. Acoustic startle probes were presented throughout picture viewing, and blink magnitude, probe P3 and reaction time to the startle probe also were measured. Results indicated that viewing emotional scenes prompted strong reactions in autonomic, central, and reflex measures, whereas pictures of faces were generally weak elicitors of measurable emotional response. However, higher social anxiety was associated with modest electrodermal changes when viewing angry faces and mild startle potentiation when viewing either angry or smiling faces, compared to neutral. Taken together, pictures of facial expressions do not strongly engage fundamental affective reactions, but these cues appeared to be effective in distinguishing between high and low social anxiety participants, supporting their use in anxiety research. PMID:22643041

  3. Effects of picture and even-a-penny-will-help appeals on anonymous donations to charity.

    PubMed

    Perrine, R M; Heather, S

    2000-04-01

    The present research explored the effectiveness of a picture and the phrase "even a penny will help" on contributions to charity. Two experiments were conducted, one in the laboratory and one in the field. In both experiments the manipulation of a pleasant picture and the phrase created four types of signs: (1) picture-no phrase, (2) phrase-no picture, (3) picture-phrase, and (4) no picture-no phrase. In the field experiment patrons of local business anonymously put money in a donation box that displayed one of the four signs. In the laboratory experiment, 129 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to view one of the four signs placed on a donation box for a local charity. Analyses for both studies showed that more money was donated when the boxes displayed pictures. The phrase "even a penny will help" had no significant effect on donations. PMID:10840912

  4. Zograscopic viewing

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; Wijntjes, Maarten; van Doorn, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The “zograscope” is a “visual aid” (commonly known as “optical machine” in the 18th century) invented in the mid-18th century, and in general use until the early 20th century. It was intended to view single pictures (thus not stereographic pairs) with both eyes. The optics approximately eliminates the physiological cues (binocular disparity, vergence, accommodation, movement parallax, and image blur) that might indicate the flatness of the picture surface. The spatial structure of pictorial space is due to the remaining pictorial cues. As a consequence, many (or perhaps most) observers are aware of a heightened “plasticity” of the pictorial content for zograscopic as compared with natural viewing. We discuss the optics of the zograscope in some detail. Such an analysis is not available in the literature, whereas common “explanations” of the apparatus are evidently nonsensical. We constructed a zograscope, using modern parts, and present psychophysical data on its performance. PMID:23799196

  5. Sex Stereotype Effects in Children's Picture Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cann, Arnie; Newbern, Sara R.

    1984-01-01

    Reports an experiment in which 80 male and female six and eight year olds were presented with pictures consistent or inconsistent with sex stereotypes and pictures of neutral activities. Later, subjects performed a picture-recognition task. Among the variables investigated were subjects' labeling of pictures and sex-stereotype consistency. (CB)

  6. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not…

  7. Children's Picture Interpretation: Appearance or Intention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, Emma; Allen, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Pictures are defined by their creator's intentions and resemblance to their real world referents. Here we examine whether young children follow a realist route (e.g., focusing on how closely pictures resemble their referents) or intentional route (e.g., focusing on what a picture is intended to represent by its artist) when identifying a picture's…

  8. Pikchul Nioki Chulda (Picture Dictionary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Joan; And Others

    Developed for students in kindergarten through second grade, this alphabet book is one in a series of picture dictionaries in the Pima language developed to instill pride in Pima students by presenting their language in print and to increase their vocabularies in both Pima and English. Introductory sections provide a brief history of the project…

  9. How familiarization and repetition modulate the picture naming network

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Anaïs; Trébuchon, Agnès; Riès, Stéphanie; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Alario, F.-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    A common strategy to reveal the components of the speech production network is to use psycholinguistic manipulations previously tested in behavioral protocols. This often disregards how implementation aspects that are nonessential for interpreting behavior may affect the neural response. We compared the electrophysiological (EEG) signature of two popular picture naming protocols involving either unfamiliar pictures without repetitions or repeated familiar pictures. We observed significant semantic interference effects in behavior but not in the EEG, contrary to some previous findings. Remarkably, the two protocols elicited clearly distinct EEG responses. These were not due to naming latency differences nor did they reflect a homogeneous modulation of amplitude over the trial time-window. The effect of protocol is attributed to the familiarization induced by the first encounter with the materials. Picture naming processes can be substantially modulated by specific protocol requirements controlled by familiarity and, to a much lesser degree, the repetition of materials. PMID:24785306

  10. East meets West: Differing views of the Aleutian Low's role in affecting Holocene productivity in the Subarctic North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addison, J. A.; Finney, B. P.; Harada, N.

    2012-12-01

    Modern instrumental and monitoring observations indicate strong multi-decadal changes and spatial heterogeneities affect climate and marine ecosystems in the North Pacific Ocean. Networks of high-resolution paleoclimate archives from this dynamic region are therefore required to describe changes prior to historical records. We present new decadally-resolved marine sediment core data from the Kuril Islands in the Sea of Okhotsk, together with sub-decadal data from the temperate fjords of the Gulf of Alaska (GoAK). These distant sites are located along the western (Kuril) and eastern (GoAK) boundaries of the Subarctic North Pacific Ocean, where micronutrient-rich coastal waters interact with North Pacific high-nutrient-low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters to drive highly productive marine ecosystems. In the Sea of Okhotsk, a notable increase in opal concentrations (a proxy for past siliceous primary productivity) occurs during the middle Holocene between ~5000 and 6000 yrs ago, while alkenone-based warm season SST proxies either decline or remain relatively constant. A similar middle Holocene increase in opal concentrations is also observed in the GoAK during an interval of declining warm season coastal SAT as inferred from pollen transfer functions [Heusser et al., 1985]. Declining summer solar insolation during the middle Holocene can explain the overall decline in warm-season SST in both the Sea of Okhotsk and the Gulf of Alaska. However, as the increase in opal likely reflects an improvement in North Pacific phytoplankton growing conditions during the spring/summer bloom season, then the opal increase seems unlikely to be related directly to summer solar insolation. We propose a middle Holocene intensification of the Aleutian Low (AL) pressure cell and concomitant changes in North Pacific circulation may be responsible. In both regions, several potential mechanisms related to an intensified AL could result in greater productivity including: (i) increased advection

  11. Spatiotemporal analysis of single-trial EEG of emotional pictures based on independent component analysis and source location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiangang; Tian, Jie

    2007-03-01

    The present study combined the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) algorithms to identify the spatial distribution and time course of single-trial EEG record differences between neural responses to emotional stimuli vs. the neutral. Single-trial multichannel (129-sensor) EEG records were collected from 21 healthy, right-handed subjects viewing the emotion emotional (pleasant/unpleasant) and neutral pictures selected from International Affective Picture System (IAPS). For each subject, the single-trial EEG records of each emotional pictures were concatenated with the neutral, and a three-step analysis was applied to each of them in the same way. First, the ICA was performed to decompose each concatenated single-trial EEG records into temporally independent and spatially fixed components, namely independent components (ICs). The IC associated with artifacts were isolated. Second, the clustering analysis classified, across subjects, the temporally and spatially similar ICs into the same clusters, in which nonparametric permutation test for Global Field Power (GFP) of IC projection scalp maps identified significantly different temporal segments of each emotional condition vs. neutral. Third, the brain regions accounted for those significant segments were localized spatially with LORETA analysis. In each cluster, a voxel-by-voxel randomization test identified significantly different brain regions between each emotional condition vs. the neutral. Compared to the neutral, both emotional pictures elicited activation in the visual, temporal, ventromedial and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulated gyrus. In addition, the pleasant pictures activated the left middle prefrontal cortex and the posterior precuneus, while the unpleasant pictures activated the right orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulated gyrus and somatosensory region. Our results were well consistent with other functional imaging

  12. Excitation picture of an interacting Bose gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kira, M.

    2014-12-15

    Atomic Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) can be viewed as macroscopic objects where atoms form correlated atom clusters to all orders. Therefore, the presence of a BEC makes the direct use of the cluster-expansion approach–lucrative e.g. in semiconductor quantum optics–inefficient when solving the many-body kinetics of a strongly interacting Bose. An excitation picture is introduced with a nonunitary transformation that describes the system in terms of atom clusters within the normal component alone. The nontrivial properties of this transformation are systematically studied, which yields a cluster-expansion friendly formalism for a strongly interacting Bose gas. Its connections and corrections to the standard Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov approach are discussed and the role of the order parameter and the Bogoliubov excitations are identified. The resulting interaction effects are shown to visibly modify number fluctuations of the BEC. Even when the BEC has a nearly perfect second-order coherence, the BEC number fluctuations can still resolve interaction-generated non-Poissonian fluctuations. - Highlights: • Excitation picture expresses interacting Bose gas with few atom clusters. • Semiconductor and BEC many-body investigations are connected with cluster expansion. • Quantum statistics of BEC is identified in terms of atom clusters. • BEC number fluctuations show extreme sensitivity to many-body correlations. • Cluster-expansion friendly framework is established for an interacting Bose gas.

  13. Strategies in Reading Comprehension: VIII. Pictures, Imagery, and Retarded Children's Story Recall. Working Paper No. 214.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Bruce G.; Levin, Joel R.

    Ninety-six educable mentally retarded individuals (10-16 years old) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions to listen to a 20-sentence story. Picture Ss viewed illustrations of the story, Imagery Ss were instructed to generate mental pictures of the story, Repitition Control Ss heard each sentence of the story twice, and…

  14. The psychophysiology of social anxiety: emotional modulation of the startle reflex during socially-relevant and -irrelevant pictures.

    PubMed

    Gros, Daniel F; Hawk, Larry W; Moscovitch, David A

    2009-09-01

    The present study examined affective processes of social anxiety (SA) through emotional modulation of the startle reflex. Eighty-four high and low trait socially anxious undergraduates viewed socially-relevant and socially-irrelevant pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures, and acoustic startle probes were presented during pictures and the inter-trial interval. Startle was potentiated during unpleasant compared to pleasant stimuli, but this valence modulation did not reliably vary between groups or socially-relevant and -irrelevant stimuli. However, when participants were categorized based on public-speaking fears rather than general SA symptoms, the high fear group demonstrated reliable valence modulation, whereas the low fear group did not. These findings are interpreted within the context of the broader literature suggesting that the specificity of fear in SA may influence psychophysiological reactivity. PMID:19272854

  15. Heritability of the neural response to emotional pictures: evidence from ERPs in an adult twin sample

    PubMed Central

    Venables, Noah C.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Affect-modulated event-related potentials (ERPs) are increasingly used to study psychopathology and individual differences in emotion processing. Many have suggested that variation in these neural responses reflects genetically mediated risk. However, to date, no studies have demonstrated genetic contributions to affect-modulated ERPs. The present study therefore sought to examine the heritability of a range of ERPs elicited during affective picture viewing. One hundred and thirty monozygotic and 124 dizygotic twin pairs passively viewed 30 pleasant, 30 neutral and 30 unpleasant images for 6 s each. The early posterior negativity was scored for each subject; in addition, the P300/late positive potential (LPP) was scored in multiple time windows and sites. Results indicate that the centro-parietal P300 (occurring between 300 and 600 ms) is subject to substantial genetic contributions. Furthermore, variance in the P300 elicited by affective stimuli was moderately heritable even after controlling for the P300 elicited by neutral stimuli. Later and more frontal activation (i.e. between 1000 and 3000 ms) also showed evidence of heritablity. Early parietal, and perhaps later frontal portions of the P300/LPP complex, may therefore represent promising neurobehavioral markers of genetically influenced processing of emotional information. PMID:24795435

  16. Discussion of medical x ray picture normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dezong; Xiong, Yingen; Cheng, Liping

    1996-01-01

    There is great significance in comparing medical x-ray pictures, which are taken in different periods. For the orthopaedics surgeon comparing the density of bone is one important way of clinical diagnosis. Some persons think that if these orthopaedics pictures are processed by histogram normalization their gray level and pseudo color can be compared directly. But for one picture we know that the gray distribution is different between the original picture and the processed picture. Comparing these pictures is not authentic. In this paper we discuss that subject and describe the basis of histogram normalization. The distribution on original x-ray pictures and processed pictures is provided. The methods to compare different pictures are mentioned.

  17. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not have a cost for the binding of nearby pictures to their locations. Thus, arousal can enhance binding of an arousing picture’s content to its location without interfering with picture-location binding for nearby pictures. In addition, arousal-enhanced picture-location memory binding is not just a side effect of enhanced memory for the picture itself, as it occurs both when recognition memory is good and when it is poor. PMID:19190722

  18. Self-Reported Trait Mindfulness and Affective Reactivity: A Motivational Approach Using Multiple Psychophysiological Measures

    PubMed Central

    Cosme, Danielle; Wiens, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51) passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels) electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses during picture

  19. Self-reported trait mindfulness and affective reactivity: a motivational approach using multiple psychophysiological measures.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Danielle; Wiens, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51) passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels) electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses during picture

  20. [Study on pictures in Waike Xinfa Yaojue].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Hong-Xiao

    2011-07-01

    Collecting 265 pictures, Waike Xinfa Yaojue (written in Qing Dynasty) is the extant ancient surgical book with most pictures. Pictures could be divided into four kinds, i.e. disease and symptoms, meridians, pulse taking and taboos. Pictures on disease and symptoms account for the largest number and appeared most often and those pictures are also with special subject characteristics and of great importance to the diagnosis of surgical diseases. Pictures in ancient medical books played an important role in academic heritage. PMID:22169494

  1. Showing Where To Go by Maps or Pictures: An Empirical Case Study at Subway Exits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Toru; Yamazaki, Tetsuo

    This study empirically examined the effectiveness of different methods of presenting route information on a mobile navigation sysyem, for accurate and effortless orientation at subway exits. Specifically, it compared participants’ spatial orientation performance with pictures and maps, in relation to the levels of their spatial ability. Participants identified the directions toward the goals after coming onto the ground faster when viewing pictures than when viewing maps. Spatial orientation with maps was more difficult than that with pictures at exits where body rotation was necessary, especially for people with low mental-rotation ability. In contrast, pictures were equally effective for people with low and high mental-rotation ability. Reasons for the effectiveness of pictures and possibilities of using other presentation formats are discussed.

  2. Timed picture naming in seven languages

    PubMed Central

    BATES, ELIZABETH; D’AMICO, SIMONA; JACOBSEN, THOMAS; SZÉKELY, ANNA; ANDONOVA, ELENA; DEVESCOVI, ANTONELLA; HERRON, DAN; LU, CHING CHING; PECHMANN, THOMAS; PLÉH, CSABA; WICHA, NICOLE; FEDERMEIER, KARA; GERDJIKOVA, IRINI; GUTIERREZ, GABRIEL; HUNG, DAISY; HSU, JEANNE; IYER, GOWRI; KOHNERT, KATHERINE; MEHOTCHEVA, TEODORA; OROZCO-FIGUEROA, ARACELI; TZENG, ANGELA; TZENG, OVID

    2012-01-01

    Timed picture naming was compared in seven languages that vary along dimensions known to affect lexical access. Analyses over items focused on factors that determine cross-language universals and cross-language disparities. With regard to universals, number of alternative names had large effects on reaction time within and across languages after target–name agreement was controlled, suggesting inhibitory effects from lexical competitors. For all the languages, word frequency and goodness of depiction had large effects, but objective picture complexity did not. Effects of word structure variables (length, syllable structure, compounding, and initial frication) varied markedly over languages. Strong cross-language correlations were found in naming latencies, frequency, and length. Other-language frequency effects were observed (e.g., Chinese frequencies predicting Spanish reaction times) even after within-language effects were controlled (e.g., Spanish frequencies predicting Spanish reaction times). These surprising cross-language correlations challenge widely held assumptions about the lexical locus of length and frequency effects, suggesting instead that they may (at least in part) reflect familiarity and accessibility at a conceptual level that is shared over languages. PMID:12921412

  3. Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

    Science.gov Websites

    Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive | Index | Search | Today's Picture | 2016 June 03: NGC 4631: The Whale Galaxy 2016 June 02: Three Planets from Pic du Midi 2016 June 01: Tychos ...

  4. Directed forgetting: Comparing pictures and words.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Chelsea K; Taylor, Tracy L; Fawcett, Jonathan M

    2010-03-01

    The authors investigated directed forgetting as a function of the stimulus type (picture, word) presented at study and test. In an item-method directed forgetting task, study items were presented 1 at a time, each followed with equal probability by an instruction to remember or forget. Participants exhibited greater yes-no recognition of remember than forget items for each of the 4 study-test conditions (picture-picture, picture-word, word-word, word-picture). However, this difference was significantly smaller when pictures were studied than when words were studied. This finding demonstrates that the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect can be reduced by high item memorability, such as when the picture superiority effect is operating. This suggests caution in using pictures at study when the goal of an experiment is to examine potential group differences in the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect. PMID:20384417

  5. Interactive and Non-Interactive Pictures in Multimedia Learning Environments: Effects on Learning Outcomes and Learning Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasch, Thorsten; Schnotz, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    New technologies enable flexible combinations of text and interactive or non-interactive pictures. The aim of the present study was to investigate (a) whether adding pictures to texts is generally beneficial for learning or whether it can also have detrimental effects, (b) how interactivity of pictures affects learning, (c) whether the…

  6. Contrast control for sonar pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Francoise; Bonnaud, Laurent; Collet, Christophe

    1996-11-01

    During the sonar image acquisition, several physical phenomena degrade the final picture a lot. We examine particularly two damages: the energy loss function of the distance covered by the acoustical wave and the speckle noise. For the first phenomenon, we suggest a corrective post processing which takes some acquisition parameters into account. For the second phenomenon, we apply filtering algorithms like the maximum a posteriori filter, a modified version of the Lee algorithm or an adaptive weighted median filter. The results are shown on real sonar images.

  7. The Role of Decorative Pictures in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenzner, Alwine; Schnotz, Wolfgang; Müller, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments with students from 7th and 8th grade were performed to investigate the effects of decorative pictures in learning as compared to instructional pictures. Pictures were considered as instructional, when they were primarily informative, and as decorative, when they were primarily aesthetically appealing. The experiments…

  8. Pictures in United States History Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Surveys twenty-two U.S. history textbooks for pictures which suggest possible heroes and role models. Results show a domination of pictures of male political leaders with several minority members and women scattered throughout. Includes list of books reviewed and a chart showing the number of pictures per person for junior high and high school…

  9. Cognitive Style Influence in Reacting to Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Darlene H.

    Free verbal responses to pictures as an indication of cognitive style were studied for 199 college students, at Eastern Kentucky University. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) was administered following presentation of the pictures, a series of colored pictures of simple, medium and complex configuration. Responses given to three graduate…

  10. Pattern Perception and Pictures for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Morton A.; McCarthy, Melissa; Clark, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews recent research on perception of tangible pictures in sighted and blind people. Haptic picture naming accuracy is dependent upon familiarity and access to semantic memory, just as in visual recognition. Performance is high when haptic picture recognition tasks do not depend upon semantic memory. Viewpoint matters for the ease…

  11. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motion pictures. 705.8 Section 705.8 National... OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.8 Motion pictures. (a) The rules and procedures given in... Navy assists in the production of commercial, privately financed, nontheatrical motion pictures...

  12. Using Picture Books Kindergarten through High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Maurine V.; Miller, Margaret B.

    A picture book is defined as a book in which the illustrations are as important as the text or written story. Picture books published today seem appropriate and exciting for anyone from 1 to 100 years old. Among the many kinds of picture books are Mother Goose books; toy books (board books, pop-up books, concept books, flap books, cloth books, and…

  13. Control point measurements on Mariner 9 pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements are given of the control points on the Mariner 9 pictures which were used in the computation of the June 1973 control net of Mars. The method of making the measurements is discussed along with the picture coordinate system and the removal of distortions. Table are presented of the 9804 measurements of 1645 points on 660 pictures.

  14. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motion pictures. 705.8 Section 705.8 National... OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.8 Motion pictures. (a) The rules and procedures given in the preceding for TV will also apply to cooperation with commercial motion picture producers. (b)...

  15. Cascaded Processing in Written Naming: Evidence from the Picture-Picture Interference Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roux, Sebastien; Bonin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The issue of how information flows within the lexical system in written naming was investigated in five experiments. In Experiment 1, participants named target pictures that were accompanied by context pictures having phonologically and orthographically related or unrelated names (e.g., a picture of a "ball" superimposed on a picture of a "bed").…

  16. Picture recognition improves with subsequent verbal information.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, S; MacLeod, C M; Lootsteen, P J

    1985-07-01

    In three experiments, subjects studied photographs presented alone or followed by a descriptive sentence. The sentence provided additional information not available in the picture. Subsequent yes-no recognition tests for the pictures demonstrated better memory for those pictures that had been followed by descriptive sentences. Experiment 1 showed that described pictures were remembered better regardless of whether comparison was to undescribed pictures presented in immediate succession or to undescribed pictures followed by a blank period equal in duration to the descriptive sentence. Experiment 2 demonstrated that although both unrelated and related sentences aided picture recognition, related sentences were significantly more helpful. Experiment 3 revealed that increasing the amount of related information (low, medium, and high) had no differential effect on picture recognition. Three explanations of these results are considered: integration of the sentence with the picture, formation of a semantic representation in addition to the pictorial one, and elaboration of the pictorial representation initiated by the sentence. Taken together, the findings seem most consistent with the elaboration account--A post-picture sentence improves attention to and perhaps rehearsal of the representation of the picture following its display. PMID:3160818

  17. A review of brain oscillations in perception of faces and emotional pictures.

    PubMed

    Güntekin, Bahar; Başar, Erol

    2014-05-01

    The differentiation of faces, facial expressions and affective pictures involves processes of higher mental activity that have considerable applications in the psychology of moods and emotions. At present, the search for functional correlates of brain oscillations is an important trend in neuroscience. Furthermore, analyses of oscillatory responses provide key knowledge on the physiology of brain dynamics. Studies analysing oscillatory dynamics in face perception and emotional pictures have increased in recent years; however, the literature lacks a review of the current state of the art. This study provides a comprehensive review of the delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma oscillatory responses on presentation of faces, facial expressions and affective pictures (International Affective Picture System, IAPS). The reviewed literature revealed that the brain is more sensitive to emotional stimuli than neutral stimuli. A common and reliable finding from all reviewed studies was the increased brain responsiveness towards negative emotional pictures (face expression or IAPS). PMID:24709570

  18. ERP dynamics underlying successful directed forgetting of neutral but not negative pictures.

    PubMed

    Hauswald, Anne; Schulz, Hannah; Iordanov, Todor; Kissler, Johanna

    2011-09-01

    Subjective experience suggests that negatively arousing memories are harder to control than neutral ones. Here, we investigate this issue in an item-cued directed forgetting experiment. Electroencephalogram event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded as participants viewed un-arousing neutral and highly arousing negative photographs, each followed by a cue to remember or forget it. Directed forgetting, that is reduced recognition of 'to-be-forgotten' items, occurred for neutral but not negative pictures. ERPs revealed three underlying effects: first, during picture viewing a late parietal positive potential (LPP) was more pronounced for negative than for neutral pictures. Second, 'remember' cues were associated with larger LPPs than 'forget' cues. Third, an enhanced frontal positivity appeared for 'forget' cues. This frontal positivity was generated in right dorso-lateral prefrontal regions following neutral pictures and in medial frontal cortex following negative pictures. LPP magnitude when viewing negative pictures was correlated with reduced directed forgetting, whereas both the enhanced frontal positivity for forget cues and the larger parietal positivity for remember cues predicted more directed forgetting. This study indicates that both processes of selective rehearsal (parietal positivities) and frontally controlled inhibition contribute to successful directed forgetting. However, due to their deeper incidental processing, highly arousing negative pictures are exempt from directed forgetting. PMID:20601423

  19. Developmental Shifts in Children's Sensitivity to Visual Speech: A New Multimodal Picture-Word Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; Spence, Melanie J.; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Herve

    2009-01-01

    This research developed a multimodal picture-word task for assessing the influence of visual speech on phonological processing by 100 children between 4 and 14 years of age. We assessed how manipulation of seemingly to-be-ignored auditory (A) and audiovisual (AV) phonological distractors affected picture naming without participants consciously…

  20. Picture Naming of Cognate and Non-Cognate Nouns in Bilingual Aphasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Patricia M.; Deslauriers, Louise

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated whether cognateness affected verbal-confrontation naming performance in balanced French/English bilingual (N-15 aphasic and 15 nonaphasic) subjects. Results of a picture-naming test showed that cognate pictures were more often correctly named in both languages than were noncognates. Some error types and self-correction…

  1. Portrayals of Bullying: A Content Analysis of Picture Books for Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppliger, Patrice A.; Davis, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Bullying affects a significant number of school children in the United States. Great concern for teaching children about bullying is apparent in the number of picture books published with bullying themes. The following study is a content analysis of how bullies and victims are portrayed in picture books suitable for preschoolers. Many of the…

  2. The picture exchange communication system.

    PubMed

    Bondy, A S; Frost, L A

    1998-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) was developed as a means to teach children with autism and related developmental disabilities a rapidly acquired, self-initiating, functional communication system. Its theoretical roots combine principles from applied behavior analysis and guidelines established within the field of alternative and augmentative communication. This approach has several potential advantages relative to imitation-based strategies (both vocal and gestural) and symbol selection strategies. The system begins with the exchange of simple icons but rapidly builds "sentence" structure. The system also emphasizes developing the request function prior to developing responding to simple questions and commenting. The development of requesting with a sentence structure also permits the rapid development of attributes more traditionally taught within a receptive mode. The relationship between the introduction of PECS and various other behavioral issues (i.e., social approach and behavior management) as well as its relationship to the codevelopment of speech are reviewed. PMID:9857393

  3. MIP- MULTIMISSION INTERACTIVE PICTURE PLANNING PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    The Multimission Interactive Picture Planner, MIP, is a scientifically accurate and fast, 3D animation program for deep space. MIP is also versatile, reasonably comprehensive, portable, and will run on microcomputers. New techniques were developed to rapidly perform the calculations and transformations necessary to animate scientifically accurate 3D space. At the same time, portability is maintained, as the transformations and clipping have been written in FORTRAN 77 code. MIP was primarily designed to handle Voyager, Galileo, and the Space Telescope. It can, however, be adapted to handle other missions. The space simulation consists of a rotating body (usually a planet), any natural satellites, a spacecraft, the sun, stars, descriptive labelling, and field of view boxes. The central body and natural satellites are tri-axial wireframe representations with terminators, limbs, and landmarks. Hidden lines are removed for the central body and natural satellites, but not for the scene as a whole so that bodies may be seen behind one another. The program has considerable flexibility in its step time, observer position, viewed object, field of view, etc. Most parameters may be changed from the keyboard while the simulation is running. When MIP is executed it will ask the user for a control file, which should be prepared before execution. The control file identifies which mission MIP should simulate, the star catalog files, the ephemerides files to be used, the central body, planets, asteroids, and comets, and solar system landmarks and constants such as planets, asteroids, and comets. The control file also describes the fields of view. Control files are included to simulate the Voyager 1 encounter at Jupiter and the Giotto spacecraft's flyby of Halley's comet. Data is included for Voyager 1 and 2 (all 6 planetary encounters) and Giotto. MIP was written for an IBM PC or compatibles. It requires 512K of RAM, a CGA or compatible graphics adapter, and DOS 2.0 or higher. Users

  4. Painting a Picture of Numeracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David

    2011-01-01

    In the September 2010 issue of "Mathematics Teaching," Tom O'Brien offered practical advice about how to teach addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division and contrasted his point of view with that of H.H. Wu. In this article, the author revisits Tom's examples, drawing on his methodology while, hopefully, simplifying it and giving it…

  5. Picture Details in Recognition Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, James A.; Madigan, Stephen

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of symbolic format of test material on short- and long-term recognition. Subjects, 104 undergraduate students, viewed slides of either a black-and-white photograph, a one-sentence verbal description of the photo, a black-and-white drawing based on the verbal description, or a black-and-white line…

  6. Affective Primacy vs. Cognitive Primacy: Dissolving the Debate

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Vicky Tzuyin; Hagoort, Peter; Casasanto, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    When people see a snake, they are likely to activate both affective information (e.g., dangerous) and non-affective information about its ontological category (e.g., animal). According to the Affective Primacy Hypothesis, the affective information has priority, and its activation can precede identification of the ontological category of a stimulus. Alternatively, according to the Cognitive Primacy Hypothesis, perceivers must know what they are looking at before they can make an affective judgment about it. We propose that neither hypothesis holds at all times. Here we show that the relative speed with which affective and non-affective information gets activated by pictures and words depends upon the contexts in which stimuli are processed. Results illustrate that the question of whether affective information has processing priority over ontological information (or vice versa) is ill-posed. Rather than seeking to resolve the debate over Cognitive vs. Affective Primacy in favor of one hypothesis or the other, a more productive goal may be to determine the factors that cause affective information to have processing priority in some circumstances and ontological information in others. Our findings support a view of the mind according to which words and pictures activate different neurocognitive representations every time they are processed, the specifics of which are co-determined by the stimuli themselves and the contexts in which they occur. PMID:22822403

  7. The picture superiority effect in a cross-modality recognition task.

    PubMed

    Stenbert, G; Radeborg, K; Hedman, L R

    1995-07-01

    Words and pictures were studied and recognition tests given in which each studied object was to be recognized in both word and picture format. The main dependent variable was the latency of the recognition decision. The purpose was to investigate the effects of study modality (word or picture), of congruence between study and test modalities, and of priming resulting from repeated testing. Experiments 1 and 2 used the same basic design, but the latter also varied retention interval. Experiment 3 added a manipulation of instructions to name studied objects, and Experiment 4 deviated from the others by presenting both picture and word referring to the same object together for study. The results showed that congruence between study and test modalities consistently facilitated recognition. Furthermore, items studied as pictures were more rapidly recognized than were items studied as words. With repeated testing, the second instance was affected by its predecessor, but the facilitating effect of picture-to-word priming exceeded that of word-to-picture priming. The finds suggest a two- stage recognition process, in which the first is based on perceptual familiarity and the second uses semantic links for a retrieval search. Common-code theories that grant privileged access to the semantic code for pictures or, alternatively, dual-code theories that assume mnemonic superiority for the image code are supported by the findings. Explanations of the picture superiority effect as resulting from dual encoding of pictures are not supported by the data. PMID:7666756

  8. Mental Imagery Affects Subsequent Automatic Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hagenaars, Muriel A.; Mesbah, Rahele; Cremers, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing) during subsequent analog trauma (affective picture viewing). Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1, 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome) or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast) than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (n = 51), again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative-related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations. PMID:26089801

  9. Affective recognition memory processing and event-related brain potentials

    PubMed Central

    Kaestner, Erik J.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition memory was examined for visual affective stimuli using behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures. Images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) that varied systematically in arousal level (low, high) and valence direction (unpleasant, pleasant) were first viewed passively. Then, during a response phase, the original images were intermixed with an equal number of new images and presented, and participants were instructed to press a button to indicate whether each stimulus picture was previously viewed (target) or new (foil). Participants were more sensitive to unpleasant- than to pleasant-valence stimuli and were biased to respond to high-arousal unpleasant stimuli as targets, whether the stimuli were previously viewed or new. Response times (RTs) to target stimuli were systematically affected by valence, whereas RTs to foil stimuli were influenced by arousal level. ERP component amplitudes were generally larger for high than for low arousal levels. The P300 (late positive component) amplitude was largest for high-arousal unpleasant target images. These and other amplitude effects suggest that high-arousal unpleasant stimuli engage a privileged memory-processing route during stimulus processing. Theoretical relationships between affective and memory processes are discussed. PMID:21384231

  10. Baby Picture of our Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Fahrenheit scales.

    The reddish haze all around the picture is dust. The white dots are other stars, mostly in the background.

    L1157 is located 800 light-years away in the constellation Cepheus.

    This image was taken by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Infrared light of 8 microns is colored red; 4.5-micron infrared light is green; and 3.6-micron infrared light is blue.

    The visible-light picture is from the Palomar Observatory-Space Telescope Science Institute Digitized Sky Survey. Blue visible light is blue; red visible light is green, and near-infrared light is red.

    The artist's animation begins by showing a dark and dusty corner of space where little visible light can escape. The animation then transitions to the infrared view taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, revealing the embryonic star and its dramatic jets.

  11. Better Pictures in a Snap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Retinex Imaging Processing, winner of NASA's 1999 Space Act Award, is commercially available through TruView Imaging Company. With this technology, amateur photographers use their personal computers to improve the brightness, scene contrast, detail, and overall sharpness of images with increased ease. The process was originally developed for remote sensing of the Earth by researchers at Langley Research Center and Science and Technology Corporation (STC). It automatically enhances a digital image in terms of dynamic range compression, color independence from the spectral distribution of the scene illuminant, and color/lightness rendition. As a result, the enhanced digital image is much closer to the scene perceived by the human visual system, under all kinds and levels of lighting variations. TruView believes there are other applications for the software in medical imaging, forensics, security, recognizance, mining, assembly, and other industrial areas.

  12. What's wrong with this picture?

    PubMed

    Hage, S J

    1994-01-01

    According to Mr. Hage, when the government tries to measure economic output, "the 1930's mentality sticks like bubble gum to the sole of a shoe." He is alarmed that the current debate about healthcare reform is based on economic data derived from antiquated methods of analysis and that we are "rocketing into the 21st century with our eyes firmly fixed on the rear-view mirror." PMID:10132557

  13. An innovative technique for recording picture-in-picture ultrasound videos.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Sathish; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2013-08-01

    Many ultrasound educational products and ultrasound researchers present diagnostic and interventional ultrasound information using picture-in-picture videos, which simultaneously show the ultrasound image and transducer and patient positions. Traditional techniques for creating picture-in-picture videos are expensive, nonportable, or time-consuming. This article describes an inexpensive, simple, and portable way of creating picture-in-picture ultrasound videos. This technique uses a laptop computer with a video capture device to acquire the ultrasound feed. Simultaneously, a webcam captures a live video feed of the transducer and patient position and live audio. Both sources are streamed onto the computer screen and recorded by screen capture software. This technique makes the process of recording picture-in-picture ultrasound videos more accessible for ultrasound educators and researchers for use in their presentations or publications. PMID:23887962

  14. Teaching Picture Reading as an Enabling Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberto, Paul A.; Fredrick, Laura D.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a five-step sequence for teaching children with disabilities to read pictures. Steps are sequenced for content and complexity of picture, student response requirement, and language demands. They include: (1) identify person, (2) identify object, (3) identify person and object, (4) identify action, and (5) identify sequence.…

  15. Positioning Picture Books within the Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Most teachers feel confident espousing the benefits of using picture books in English lessons, talking about the importance of using the illustrations to enhance the text, engaging students and fostering a love and appreciation of literature. How many teachers passionately advocate the use of these same picture books in mathematics lessons? This…

  16. Magazine Picture Collage in Group Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Blythe C.; Guenette, Francis L.

    2010-01-01

    A magazine picture collage activity was used with three female counsellor education students as a vehicle to support them in processing their experience as counsellors in training. The use of magazine picture collage in group supervision is described, and the benefits and challenges are presented. The collages served as jumping-off points for…

  17. Communicating with Pictures. P-8A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    In early 1976, the National Development Service of Nepal and UNICEF conducted a study designed to determine whether it would be possible to communicate ideas and information to Nepalese villagers who cannot read by using pictures only, the kinds of pictures that are most meaningful for villagers, and whether different colors have special meanings…

  18. The Picture Book and Visual Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polette, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Discusses importance of the ability to visualize images evoked by the written word in the development of children's skills in both reading and creative writing. Specific skills involved are noted, examples from picture books are given, and 48 picture books that would be useful to developing such skills are listed. (EM)

  19. The Untapped Potential of Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the role picture books play in helping young writers. Third-grade students were read engaging picture books for the sole purpose of noticing and naming different features they encountered during the read-alouds. Students were able to recognize the tools many authors and illustrators use such as onomatopoeia, varied font…

  20. Examining Lateralized Semantic Access Using Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2010-01-01

    A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs.…

  1. Real-time computerized annotation of pictures.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Wang, James Z

    2008-06-01

    Developing effective methods for automated annotation of digital pictures continues to challenge computer scientists. The capability of annotating pictures by computers can lead to breakthroughs in a wide range of applications, including Web image search, online picture-sharing communities, and scientific experiments. In this work, the authors developed new optimization and estimation techniques to address two fundamental problems in machine learning. These new techniques serve as the basis for the Automatic Linguistic Indexing of Pictures - Real Time (ALIPR) system of fully automatic and high speed annotation for online pictures. In particular, the D2-clustering method, in the same spirit as k-means for vectors, is developed to group objects represented by bags of weighted vectors. Moreover, a generalized mixture modeling technique (kernel smoothing as a special case) for non-vector data is developed using the novel concept of Hypothetical Local Mapping (HLM). ALIPR has been tested by thousands of pictures from an Internet photo-sharing site, unrelated to the source of those pictures used in the training process. Its performance has also been studied at an online demo site where arbitrary users provide pictures of their choices and indicate the correctness of each annotation word. The experimental results show that a single computer processor can suggest annotation terms in real-time and with good accuracy. PMID:18421105

  2. Picture Books and the Art of Collage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prudhoe, Catherine M.

    2003-01-01

    Explores how teachers can use picture book illustrations to teach children the art of collage. Focuses on three children's picture books and offers art activities showcasing three collage techniques: (1) cut and torn paper collage; (2) photomontage; and (3) texture collages and collage constructions. Relates each activity to the National Standards…

  3. Aristotle on Pictures of Ignoble Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Socher, David

    2005-01-01

    Noting that the "Poetics" is a widely read, accessible classic, the author points to a minor flaw of some interest. In a well-known passage early in the "Poetics," Aristotle is in error about pictures. The matter is significant to both the theory of pictures and to Aristotle scholarship. The author sets out Aristotle's position as follows: (1) It…

  4. Grandparenting: Using Pictures To Transform the Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, David L.; Hunt, Sara Stockard

    The importance of the grandparent-grandchild relationship can be used effectively in group work with the aged by using pictures of grandchildren to stimulate personal interaction. Participants are asked to bring pictures of their grandchildren, great-grandchildren, or surrogate grandchildren to a two-hour training session on grandparenting. During…

  5. Picture Books Peek behind Cultural Curtains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marantz, Sylvia; Marantz, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses culture in picture books in three general categories: legends and histories; current life in particular areas; and the immigrant experience. Considers the translation of visual images, discusses authentic interpretations, and presents an annotated bibliography of picture books showing cultural diversity including African, Asian, Mexican,…

  6. Postmodern Picture Books in the Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Laurie

    In this lesson plan, middle school students analyze the structure of a postmodern picture book to uncover how authors form relationships between words and illustrations. An online teacher resource explains the intent of the picture book "Black and White" and provides background information and suggestions for classroom discussion. During one…

  7. Effects of Uncertainty on ERPs to Emotional Pictures Depend on Emotional Valence

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huiyan; Jin, Hua; Liang, Jiafeng; Yin, Ruru; Liu, Ting; Wang, Yiwen

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty about the emotional content of an upcoming event has found to modulate neural activity to the event before its occurrence. However, it is still under debate whether the uncertainty effects occur after the occurrence of the event. To address this issue, participants were asked to view emotional pictures that were shortly after a cue, which either indicated a certain emotion of the picture or not. Both certain and uncertain cues were used by neutral symbols. The anticipatory phase (i.e., inter-trial interval, ITI) between the cue and the picture was short to enhance the effects of uncertainty. In addition, we used positive and negative pictures that differed only in valence but not in arousal to investigate whether the uncertainty effect was dependent on emotional valence. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded during the presentation of the pictures. Event-related potential (ERP) results showed that negative pictures evoked smaller P2 and late LPP but larger N2 in the uncertain as compared to the certain condition; whereas we did not find the uncertainty effect in early LPP. For positive pictures, the early LPP was larger in the uncertain as compared to the certain condition; however, there were no uncertainty effects in some other ERP components (e.g., P2, N2, and late LPP). The findings suggest that uncertainty modulates neural activity to emotional pictures and this modulation is altered by the valence of the pictures, indicating that individuals alter the allocation of attentional resources toward uncertain emotional pictures dependently on the valence of the pictures. PMID:26733916

  8. Effects of Uncertainty on ERPs to Emotional Pictures Depend on Emotional Valence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huiyan; Jin, Hua; Liang, Jiafeng; Yin, Ruru; Liu, Ting; Wang, Yiwen

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty about the emotional content of an upcoming event has found to modulate neural activity to the event before its occurrence. However, it is still under debate whether the uncertainty effects occur after the occurrence of the event. To address this issue, participants were asked to view emotional pictures that were shortly after a cue, which either indicated a certain emotion of the picture or not. Both certain and uncertain cues were used by neutral symbols. The anticipatory phase (i.e., inter-trial interval, ITI) between the cue and the picture was short to enhance the effects of uncertainty. In addition, we used positive and negative pictures that differed only in valence but not in arousal to investigate whether the uncertainty effect was dependent on emotional valence. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded during the presentation of the pictures. Event-related potential (ERP) results showed that negative pictures evoked smaller P2 and late LPP but larger N2 in the uncertain as compared to the certain condition; whereas we did not find the uncertainty effect in early LPP. For positive pictures, the early LPP was larger in the uncertain as compared to the certain condition; however, there were no uncertainty effects in some other ERP components (e.g., P2, N2, and late LPP). The findings suggest that uncertainty modulates neural activity to emotional pictures and this modulation is altered by the valence of the pictures, indicating that individuals alter the allocation of attentional resources toward uncertain emotional pictures dependently on the valence of the pictures. PMID:26733916

  9. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2010-07-01

    Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories. PMID:20623419

  10. Parallel processing for digital picture comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, H. D.; Kou, L. T.

    1987-01-01

    In picture processing an important problem is to identify two digital pictures of the same scene taken under different lighting conditions. This kind of problem can be found in remote sensing, satellite signal processing and the related areas. The identification can be done by transforming the gray levels so that the gray level histograms of the two pictures are closely matched. The transformation problem can be solved by using the packing method. Researchers propose a VLSI architecture consisting of m x n processing elements with extensive parallel and pipelining computation capabilities to speed up the transformation with the time complexity 0(max(m,n)), where m and n are the numbers of the gray levels of the input picture and the reference picture respectively. If using uniprocessor and a dynamic programming algorithm, the time complexity will be 0(m(3)xn). The algorithm partition problem, as an important issue in VLSI design, is discussed. Verification of the proposed architecture is also given.

  11. Neuropsychological picture of 33 spinocerebellar ataxia cases.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Laura; D'Agata, Federico; Caroppo, Paola; Franco, Alessandra; Caglio, Marcella Maria; Avidano, Federica; Manzone, Cristina; Mortara, Paolo

    2011-03-01

    We administered a large battery of neuropsychological tests to an heterogeneous cohort of genetically defined spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) patients in order to assess their cognitive profile and to compare cognitive impairment among different SCA genotypes, particularly between SCA with the classical pattern of olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (SCA1 and SCA2) and those with a relatively "pure" olivo-cerebellar atrophy (SCA6 and SCA8). Our data revealed a neuropsychological picture characterized by fronto-parietal involvement with mnestic, linguistic, visuospatial, attentional, executive, and mood changes, in agreement with the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome definition. We found a homogeneous neuropsychological profile among SCA subgroups with a prominent role of frontal dysfunction--particularly, attention, memory, and executive functions. We analyzed the possible interactions between neuropsychological pattern and clinical, demographical, and genetic variables. We found the presence of a cognitive impairment at the early stages of the disease, without visuospatial alterations, which appeared later. Age and education represented the most important demographic factors to predict the neuropsychological performance in SCA and in controls, but their effect in patients had definitely more impact. In our sample education could represent a protective factor and a marker of an enriched environment or a better developmental cognitive differentiation. We demonstrated that in our patients there was a distinct subgroup of high functional subjects and that triplet repeats modulated the effect of aging on cognition and progression of motor disability. PMID:21302172

  12. Fish monitoring: Getting a complete picture

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehl, E.S.; Johnson, G.E. ); Olson, F.W. )

    1991-02-01

    During licensing or relicensing procedures, resource agencies often recommend that hydroelectric project owners monitor fish passage at the site of the power plant. By using multiple sampling techniques, an owner can made a comprehensive assessment of the fish population surrounding a site and determine how the project affects these fish. This approach was recently used at a hydro project in southern Ohio along the Ohio River. Recognizing that each commonly used biological sampling method has strengths and weaknesses, the plant owner, its consultants, and agency representatives decided on a strategy that employed four techniques to study the effects of the project on fish. Combining various monitoring methods provided complementary sampling of fish distributions and behavior in the river and at the dam. In this study, hydroacoustic techniques allowed extensive sampling over time and space. When complemented with species composition information from net sampling, hydroacoustic techniques produced useful information on fish population and entrainment. Radiotelemetry was used to estimate minimum survival rates of fish passing through a dam gate and turbine unit. In combination, the use of hydroacoustics, netting, electrofishing, and radio telemetry provided a complete picture of the fish population at Greenup Dam over three seasons, and facilitated an accurate assessment of the project's effects on fish.

  13. Chemistry--The Big Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassell, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Chemistry produces materials and releases energy by ionic or electronic rearrangements. Three structure types affect the ease with which a reaction occurs. In the Earth's crust, "solid crystals" change chemically only with extreme heat and pressure, unless their fixed ions touch moving fluids. On the other hand, in living things, "liquid crystals"…

  14. HIV Infection: The Cellular Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Jonathan N.; Weiss, Robin A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains a key finding of the research which revealed that initial infection resulted from the binding of the human immunodeficiency virus to a molecule known as the CD4 antigen. Describes various assays used to determine the affect of antibodies on the ability of the virus to infect the cells. (RT)

  15. Automatic facial responses to affective stimuli in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-17

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate atypical behavioural responses to affective stimuli, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Investigating automatic responses to these stimuli may help elucidate these mechanisms. 18 high-functioning adults with ASDs and 18 typically developing controls viewed 54 extreme pleasant (erotica), extreme unpleasant (mutilations), and non-social neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Two-thirds of images received an acoustic startle probe 3s post-picture onset. Facial electromyography (EMG) activity (orbicularis, zygomaticus, corrugator), skin conductance (SCR) and cardiac responses were recorded. The adults with ASDs demonstrated typical affective startle modulation and automatic facial EMG responses but atypical autonomic (SCRs and cardiac) responses, suggesting a failure to orient to, or a deliberate effort to disconnect from, socially relevant stimuli (erotica, mutilations). These results have implications for neural systems known to underlie affective processes, including the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. PMID:23142408

  16. Neural Correlates of Emotion: Acquisition versus Innate View Point

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Korde, Sakshi P.; Kanungo, Silpa; Thamodharan, A.; Rajeswaran, Jamuna; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Upadhya, Neeraj; Panda, Rajanikanth; Rao, Shobini L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emotion entails cognitive processes that may either be conscious or unconscious. Emotions influence all aspects of cognition. Aim: The aim of the following study was to study the effect of education on neural correlates of emotions in healthy normal volunteers. Materials and Methods: Sample consisted total of 61 healthy young educated adults in the age range of 18-40 years. The volunteers were asked to view neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures from international affective picture system in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Statistics Analysis: Rest-active block design paradigm, functional MRI results analyzed in statistical parametric mapping 8. Results and Conclusion: Activations associated with emotions were present in cerebral and cerebellar regions. Education influences emotion. PMID:25336770

  17. An Introduction to Recording, Editing, and Streaming Picture-in-Picture Ultrasound Videos.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Sathish; Hall, Mederic M; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the process by which high-definition resolution (up to 1920 × 1080 pixels) ultrasound video can be captured in conjunction with high-definition video of the transducer position (picture-in-picture). In addition, we describe how to edit the recorded video feeds to combine both feeds, and to crop, resize, split, stitch, cut, annotate videos, and also change the frame rate, insert pictures, edit the audio feed, and use chroma keying. We also describe how to stream a picture-in-picture ultrasound feed during a videoconference. PMID:27543992

  18. Children's picture interpretation: Appearance or intention?

    PubMed

    Armitage, Emma; Allen, Melissa L

    2015-09-01

    Pictures are defined by their creator's intentions and resemblance to their real world referents. Here we examine whether young children follow a realist route (e.g., focusing on how closely pictures resemble their referents) or intentional route (e.g., focusing on what a picture is intended to represent by its artist) when identifying a picture's referent. In 3 experiments, we contrasted an artist's intention with her picture's appearance to investigate children's use of appearance and intentional cues. In Experiment 1, children aged 3-4 and 5-6 years (N = 151) were presented with 4 trials of 3-object arrays (e.g., a pink duck, a blue duck, and a teddy). The experimenter photographed or drew 1 of the objects (e.g., blue duck), however, the subsequent picture depicted the referent in grayscale (black and white condition) or the color of its shape-matched object, for example, a pink duck (color change condition). Children were asked 3 questions regarding the identity of the pictures; responses were guided by intentional cues in the black and white condition, but appearance in the color change condition. Experiment 2 confirmed that appearance responses were not due to the artist's changing knowledge state. Experiment 3 replicated the results of Experiment 1 with adult participants. Together, these studies show that children and adults are neither strictly realist nor intentional route followers. They are realists until resemblance cues fail, at which point they defer to intentional cues. PMID:26192043

  19. How Views about the Nature of Management Can Affect the Content of Management Education Programmes: The Advance of the Political Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bob; Piper, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Although management has always been viewed as a subject from different perspectives, it is argued in this article that the developing emphasis in management theory on the political nature of organizational processes is radically different from earlier approaches. (Author/CT)

  20. A Call for Policy Action in Sub-Saharan Africa to Rethink Diagnostics for Pregnancy Affected by Sickle Cell Disease: Differential Views of Medical Doctors, Parents and Adult Patients Predict Value Conflicts in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Samia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a debilitating illness that affects the life expectancy of patients. It is possible to test for SCD before birth, to allow for reproductive options to parents. However, under Cameroonian Law, voluntary abortion is a criminal offense and medical abortion is permitted only “…if it is done by an authorized professional and justified by the need to save the mother from grave health jeopardy.” The objective of the present study was to compare the views of Cameroonian doctors, parents with at least one living SCD-affected child, and adult SCD patients, regarding prenatal genetic diagnosis and termination of SCD-affected pregnancy. We conducted a quantitative sociological survey of 110 doctors, 130 parents, and 89 adult patients. The majority accepted the prenatal genetic diagnosis for SCD (78.7%, 89.8%, and 89.2%, respectively). Parents (62.5%) were more in favor of termination of SCD-affected pregnancy, than doctors and adults patients (36.1% and 40.9% acceptance, respectively). Parents and patients who found medical abortion acceptable cited fear to have a SCD-affected child (98.1 and 88.9%) and the poor quality of the affected child's health (92.6% and 81.5%). The data underscore the urgency of policy action to place emphasis on: premarital screening, early detection and care of SCD, socio-economic measures to assist SCD-affected families, appropriateness to consider maternal distress due to fetal anomalies in medical abortion legislation. These novel findings signal potential value-based conflicts on the horizon, and can usefully inform the future policy actions in the African continent as OMICS biotechnologies are increasingly employed in global health. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first attempt in sub-Saharan Africa to attempt to triangulate the views of multiple stakeholders towards prenatal diagnosis of SCD and termination of an affected pregnancy. PMID:24754796

  1. Meet OLAF, a Good Friend of the IAPS! The Open Library of Affective Foods: A Tool to Investigate the Emotional Impact of Food in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Miccoli, Laura; Delgado, Rafael; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Guerra, Pedro; García-Mármol, Eduardo; Fernández-Santaella, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, food pictures have been repeatedly employed to investigate the emotional impact of food on healthy participants as well as individuals who suffer from eating disorders and obesity. However, despite their widespread use, food pictures are typically selected according to each researcher's personal criteria, which make it difficult to reliably select food images and to compare results across different studies and laboratories. Therefore, to study affective reactions to food, it becomes pivotal to identify the emotional impact of specific food images based on wider samples of individuals. In the present paper we introduce the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF), which is a set of original food pictures created to reliably select food pictures based on the emotions they prompt, as indicated by affective ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance and by an additional food craving scale. OLAF images were designed to allow simultaneous use with affective images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), which is a well-known instrument to investigate emotional reactions in the laboratory. The ultimate goal of the OLAF is to contribute to understanding how food is emotionally processed in healthy individuals and in patients who suffer from eating and weight-related disorders. The present normative data, which was based on a large sample of an adolescent population, indicate that when viewing affective non-food IAPS images, valence, arousal, and dominance ratings were in line with expected patterns based on previous emotion research. Moreover, when viewing food pictures, affective and food craving ratings were consistent with research on food cue processing. As a whole, the data supported the methodological and theoretical reliability of the OLAF ratings, therefore providing researchers with a standardized tool to reliably investigate the emotional and motivational significance of food. The OLAF database is publicly available at zenodo

  2. Focusing on the big picture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ingfei

    2003-09-10

    As a postdoc in cognitive neuroscience who's also a neurology fellow, Adam Gazzaley is a meld of basic science expertise and clinical experience: He studies brain aging in people by using functional magnetic resonance imaging at the University of California (UC), Berkeley, and he also sees patients at UC San Francisco's Memory and Aging Center. The 34-year-old native New Yorker dives with equal fervor into scientific research and nature photography, two lenses for viewing a single world of discovery. Growing up in Queens, Gazzaley knew from age 7 that he wanted to become a scientist, and as a teenager, he commuted long hours to attend the Bronx High School of Science. He earned an M.D.-Ph.D. from the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. Gazzaley's hobby as a shutterbug periodically takes him on backpacking trips to document the beauty of the great outdoors. He sells fine-art prints of his photographs to individuals, hospitals, and clinics through his company, Wanderings Inc. PMID:12968055

  3. Global power: The big picture

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    In this presentation, the author reviews the current activity in global power (GP) based on the most recent data gathered by Hagler Bailly which has maintained for the last five years a very comprehensive data base on global power transactions and project announcements. The firm has also worked with dozens of global power companies since 1990. The presentation reviews the trends in the number of GP closings for 1992-1995 and gives a preview of what the worldwide pipeline of activities looks like for the next 4-5 years. The analysis covers all GP activities (i.e., generation, distribution and transmission) as well as the various types of transactions that are taking place (i.e., greenfield projects, privatizations, secondary purchases). Key country markets are also highlighted. The author also presents a review of recent positive and negative developments in terms of regulatory changes, project cost trends, developers` project experiences, and financing issues. This systematic review serves as a preamble to the author`s projection of future GP market activity (e.g., number of closings by type of project through 2000). Finally, the author presents an updated view of the competition in the GP market including the number and various types of competitors; the newcomers; the winners and the losers; and the changes in leaders` market shares.

  4. Failure to detect meaning in RSVP at 27 ms per picture.

    PubMed

    Maguire, John F; Howe, Piers D L

    2016-07-01

    The human visual system has the remarkable ability to rapidly detect meaning from visual stimuli. Potter, Wyble, Hagmann, and McCourt (Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 76, 270-279, 2014) tested the minimum viewing time required to obtain meaning from a stream of pictures shown in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sequence containing either six or 12 pictures. They reported that observers could detect the presence of a target picture specified by name (e.g., smiling couple) even when the pictures in the sequence were presented for just 13 ms each. Potter et al. claimed that this was insufficient time for feedback processing to occur, so feedforward processing alone must be able to generate conscious awareness of the target pictures. A potential confound in their study is that the pictures in the RSVP sequence sometime contained areas with no high-contrast edges, and so may not have adequately masked each other. Consequently, iconic memories of portions of the target pictures may have persisted in the visual system, thereby increasing the effective presentation time. Our study addressed this issue by redoing the Potter et al. study, but using four different types of masks. We found that when adequate masking was used, no evidence emerged that observers could detect the presence of a specific target picture, even when each picture in the RSVP sequence was presented for 27 ms. On the basis of these findings, we cannot rule out the possibility that feedback processing is necessary for individual pictures to be recognized. PMID:27048442

  5. NIH Abroad: Pictures Are Crowd Pullers

    MedlinePlus

    ... culture, and the Internet combine to intervene against malaria in Uganda NLM's Julia Royall and Makerere University ... the international team that developed a tutorial on malaria for Africa. Photo courtesy of Julia Royall "Pictures ...

  6. NIH Abroad: Pictures Are Crowd Pullers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Internet combine to intervene against malaria in Uganda NLM's Julia Royall and Makerere University medical student- ... William Lubega, a fourth-year medical student in Uganda. "They look at the pictures and get the ...

  7. Interframe transform coding of picture data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, N.; Natarajan, T. R.

    1976-01-01

    This semi-tutorial paper describes the process of using orthogonal transforms for the purposes of encoding TV picture data. Results pertaining to a 6:1 data compression experiment using the Walsh-Hadamard transform are included.

  8. Using Picture Books to Support Young Children's Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Janis; Seplocha, Holly

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of using picture books to support young children's literacy. A picture book is different from a children's book, because it contains illustrations. In a picture book, both the picture and text are equally important. The text and illustrations of high-quality picture books weave rich stories that can excite and…

  9. Painting a Data-Rich Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, Lorna; Katz, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Using data for school reform is like painting a series of pictures--pictures that are subtle and capture the nuances of the subject. This is a far cry from drawing stick figures or paint-by-numbers. Imagine the experiences of the French painter Claude Monet as he wandered through his garden at Giverny at different times of the day and year,…

  10. Pictorial communication: Pictures and the synthetic universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    1989-01-01

    Principles for the design of dynamic spatial instruments for communicating quantitative information to viewers are considered through a brief review of the history of pictorial communication. Pictorial communication is seen to have two directions: (1) from the picture to the viewer; and (2) from the viewer to the picture. Optimization of the design of interactive instruments using pictorial formats requires an understanding of the manipulative, perceptual, and cognitive limitations of human viewers.

  11. Mesoscale wake clouds in Skylab pictures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.; Tecson, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The recognition of cloud patterns formed in the wake of orographic obstacles was investigated using pictures from Skylab, for the purpose of estimating atmospheric motions. The existence of ship-wake-type wave clouds in contrast to vortex sheets were revealed during examination of the pictures, and an attempt was made to characterize the pattern of waves as well as the transition between waves and vortices. Examples of mesoscale cloud patterns which were analyzed photogrammetrically and meteorologically are presented.

  12. Musicality in the Language of Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heald, Robin

    2008-01-01

    The authors of picture books who write especially melodic language are doing more than simply offering up work that is pleasing to the ear. They are accessing more of the whole child. In this article five picture books will be discussed for their musical attributes: "Now One Foot, Now the Other", by Tomie dePaola, "The Cat in the Hat", by Dr.…

  13. Views from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.

    2002-01-01

    aircraft like the high-flying U-2 spy planes for. Weather satellites permitted weather predictions as never before. Satellites were developed in the first ten years of the space program for earth resources and mapping. In this paper and presentation we will observe some of the best views taken in space and from space...of the Earth, and the moon and beyond. We will travel in space with our astronauts. Some of the photographs we will see are famous and others not nearly so. We will discuss some of the history behind the pictures and some of the benefits that have been gained from the views from space.

  14. Neuromagnetic activity during recognition of emotional pictures.

    PubMed

    Kissler, Johanna; Hauswald, Anne

    2008-06-01

    Recently studied 'old' stimuli lead to larger frontal and parietal ERP responses than 'new' stimuli. The present experiment investigated the neuromagnetic correlates (MEG) of this 'old-new' effect and its modulation by emotional stimulus content. Highly arousing pleasant, highly arousing unpleasant and un-arousing neutral photographs were presented to the participants with the instruction to memorize them. They were later re-presented together with new photographs in an old-new decision task. In line with previous ERP studies, a long-lasting old-new effect (350-700 ms) was found. Independently, an emotion effect also occurred, as reflected in a, particularly left temporal, activity increase for emotional pictures between 450 and 580 ms. Moreover, only for the pleasant pictures did the early part of the old-new effect, which is thought to reflect familiarity based recognition processes, interact with picture content: The old-new effect for pleasant pictures in frontal regions was larger than the one for neutral or unpleasant pictures between 350 and 450 ms. In parallel, subjects' responses were accelerated towards and biased in favour of classifying pleasant pictures as old. However, when false alarm rate was taken into account, there was no significant effect of emotional content on recognition accuracy. In sum, this MEG study demonstrates an effect of particularly pleasant emotional content on recognition memory which may be mediated by a familiarity based process. PMID:18335310

  15. Mariner Mars 1971 television picture catalog: Sequence design and picture coverage, volume 2, addendum 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koskela, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    This addendum to the Mariner Mars 1971 Television Picture Catalog, Volume 2 (for abstract, see N73-20850) contains data for the Mariner 9 TV pictures taken after Rev 262. Some of the data presented in Volume 2 is brought up to date. The new provisional mapping pole is discussed, and tables provide the latitude and longitude with respect to the new pole, prime meridian, and rotation rate for the centerpoints of all the Mariner 9 TV pictures.

  16. Children's and Adults' Recall of Sex-Stereotyped Toy Pictures: Effects of Presentation and Memory Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2005-01-01

    Gender schema theories predict a memory bias toward sex-congruent information. The present study examined how presentation of stimuli and encoding conditions influence gender schematic processing in children and adults. One hundred and sixty 5- to 13-year olds and adult males and females viewed 36 sex-stereotyped toy pictures that were presented…

  17. Motion Pictures and Real-Life Violence; What the Research Says.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Wilbur

    There is evidence that violence in motion pictures viewed by children on screen or television can contribute to violence in real life, although the movies can rarely be blamed as the sole cause of anti-social conduct. Clinical reports cite instances of the effect on "susceptible" youngsters; e.g., emotionally disturbed individuals. Long-term…

  18. Time-lapse motion picture technique applied to the study of geological processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.D.; Crandell, D.R.

    1959-01-01

    Light-weight, battery-operated timers were built and coupled to 16-mm motion-picture cameras having apertures controlled by photoelectric cells. The cameras were placed adjacent to Emmons Glacier on Mount Rainier. The film obtained confirms the view that exterior time-lapse photography can be applied to the study of slow-acting geologic processes.

  19. "'Look More Closely,' Said Mum": Mothers in Anthony Browne's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joosen, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Vanessa Joosen explores Anthony Browne's construction of motherhood in four of his picture books that focus on family. She focuses on the use of narratological perspective, visual point of view, and intertextual references to explain how an ideology of motherhood is evoked. While Browne makes use of child narrators and focalizers…

  20. Lack of sleep affects the evaluation of emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Tempesta, Daniela; Couyoumdjian, Alessandro; Curcio, Giuseppe; Moroni, Fabio; Marzano, Cristina; De Gennaro, Luigi; Ferrara, Michele

    2010-04-29

    Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively affects various cognitive performances, but surprisingly evidence about a specific impact of sleep loss on subjective evaluation of emotional stimuli remains sparse. In the present study, we assessed the effect of SD on the emotional rating of standardized visual stimuli selected from the International Affective Picture System. Forty university students were assigned to the sleep group (n=20), tested before and after one night of undisturbed sleep at home, or to the deprivation group, tested before and after one night of total SD. One-hundred and eighty pictures (90 test, 90 retest) were selected and categorized as pleasant, neutral and unpleasant. Participants were asked to judge their emotional reactions while viewing pictures by means of the Self-Assessment Manikin. Subjective mood ratings were also obtained by means of Visual Analog Scales. No significant effect of SD was observed on the evaluation of pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. On the contrary, SD subjects perceived the neutral pictures more negatively and showed an increase of negative mood and a decrease of subjective alertness compared to non-deprived subjects. Finally, an analysis of covariance on mean valence ratings of neutral pictures using negative mood as covariate confirmed the effect of SD. Our results indicate that sleep is involved in regulating emotional evaluation. The emotional labeling of neutral stimuli biased toward negative responses was not mediated by the increase of negative mood. This effect can be interpreted as an adaptive reaction supporting the "better safe than sorry" principle. It may also have applied implications for healthcare workers, military and law-enforcement personnel. PMID:20117179

  1. Earth View, Art View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dambekalns, Lydia

    2005-01-01

    Educational practice today encourages interdisciplinary teaching as teachers address important basic themes from a variety of angles. In this article, the author talks about one of her successful projects that focuses on "sense of place" as one such theme, with the more specific charge of viewing Earth from both scientific and artistic…

  2. The Role of Symbol-Based Experience in Early Learning and Transfer from Pictures: Evidence from Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Caren M.; Walker, Lisa B.; Ganea, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive exposure to representational media is common for infants in Western culture, and previous research has shown that soon after their 1st birthday, infants can acquire and extend new information from pictures to real objects. Here we explore the extent to which lack of exposure to pictures during infancy affects children's learning…

  3. Self-regulation and Beyond: Affect Regulation and the Infant–Caregiver Dyad

    PubMed Central

    Taipale, Joona

    2016-01-01

    In the available psychological literature, affect regulation is fundamentally considered in terms of self-regulation, and according to this standard picture, the contribution of other people in our affect regulation has been viewed in terms of socially assisted self-regulation. The present article challenges this standard picture. By focusing on affect regulation as it unfolds in early infancy, it will be argued that instead of being something original and fundamental, self-regulation developmentally emerges from the basis of a further type of affect regulation. While infants’ capacities in recognizing, understanding, and modifying their own affective states are initially immature and undeveloped, affect regulation is initially managed by the other: it is initially the self, and not the other, that plays the role of an assistant in affect regulation. To capture this phenomenon, the concepts of “auto-matic,” “hetero-matic,” and “altero-matic” affect regulation will be introduced and their interrelations elaborated. By showing how the capacity of affective self-regulation, which is characteristic to maturity, is developmentally achieved by internalizing regulative functions that, at the outset of development, are managed by the caregiver, it will be argued that altero-matic affect regulation is an autonomous type of affect regulation and the developmental basis for self-regulation. PMID:27378984

  4. Global plastic surgeons images depicted in motion pictures.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Se Jin; Park, Sowhey; Hwang, Kun

    2013-03-01

    Motion pictures are made to entertain and enlighten people, but they are viewed differently by different people. What one considers to be a tearjerker may induce giggles in another. We have gained added interest in this because our professional pictures contain plastic surgery in their venue. We have recently reviewed 21 motion pictures that were made from 1928 to 2006 and that includes plastic surgical procedures in their content. As a habit, we tried to analyze them from a surgical point of view. About one third (35.7%) of the patients were criminals, whereas 14.3% of them were spies. One third of the procedures were done by illegitimate "surgeons," whereas a quarter of the procedures (25%) were performed by renowned surgeons. Surgeons who were in love with the patients did the rest (25%) of the operations. The complication rate was 14.3%; the surgery was successful in 85.7% of cases, but were the patients happy with the results? This was not the case in the movies. Only 7.7% were happy; 14.5 % of them were eminently unhappy. Why the discrepancy? It is difficult to analyze the minds of the people in the film, but considering that the majority of the characters in the films were rather unsavory, one may deduce that a crooked mind functions differently. Motion pictures have advanced greatly in the past several decades with the advent of improved mechanical and electronic devices, and plastic surgery as also advanced in tandem. This surgical field has become a common procedure in our daily life. It is readily available and mostly painless. However, the public sees it in only one way, that is, that the performing physicians are highly compensated. Very few consider the efforts and the suffering that accompanies each and every surgical procedure as it is performed. Perhaps, it is too much to hope for a day that will come when we will see a film that portrays the mental anguish that accompanies each and every procedure the plastic surgeon makes. PMID:23524799

  5. PixMail: Pictures through mail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blattner, Meera; Sierra, Francisco; Prassinos, Peter

    1989-02-01

    PixMail is a set of procedures for sending pictures through internet mail. The pictures can be sent or received by personal computers, terminals with or without raster capability, and facsimile machines. Optical scanners may be used as input to the picture file and printers may be used as an output device once the raster file is stored in a form used by a paint editor. No additional equipment needs to be purchased by the users to send or receive PixMail (unless facsimile input/output is desired) and it is no more difficult to send or receive than ordinary UNIX mail. PixMail uses the protocols of existing electronic mail for transmission from any ARPAnet or MILnet user to any other.

  6. PixMail: Pictures through mail

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M.; Sierra, F.; Prassinos, P.

    1989-02-01

    PixMail is a set of procedures for sending pictures through internet mail. The pictures can be sent or received by personal computers, terminals with or without raster capability, and facsimile machines. Optical scanners may be used as input to the picture file and printers may be used as an output device once the raster file is stored in a form used by a paint editor. No additional equipment needs to be purchased by the users to send or receive PixMail (unless facsimile input/output is desired) and it is no more difficult to send or receive than ordinary UNIX mail. PixMail uses the protocols of existing electronic mail for transmission from any ARPAnet or MILnet user to any other. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  7. [Counselling with modern expressions of mystic pictures].

    PubMed

    Bögle, Robert Michael

    2004-10-01

    The picture-worlds of children in the 21th century are not only evoked anymore by fairytales of the Brothers Grimm, but also by modern audio-visual stories (in books, comics, mangas, swap cards, films, videos and computer games). In psychological counselling and psychotherapy of children and adolescents we like to use such picture-worlds, modern myths and metaphors, to tie up with the experiences of the children and to kick start corresponding processes of maturation. Consultants can not only use their own treasures of myths remembering their own childhood (reading), but should also be familiar with the modern picture-worlds common to children in order to develop images which are shared by both counsellor and child, and should be capable of understanding the meaning of the characters and their actions. Some narratives and forms will be presented here in relation to developmental psychology. PMID:15543710

  8. The Role of Pictures in Picture Books on Children's Cognitive Engagement with Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elia, Iliada; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Georgiou, Alexia

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the cognitive activity that is evoked in young children when they are read a picture book that is written for the purpose of teaching mathematics. The focus of this study is to explore the effects of pictures on children's spontaneous mathematical cognitive engagement. The study is based on the assumption that the…

  9. Picture or Text First? Explaining Sequence Effects When Learning with Pictures and Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eitel, Alexander; Scheiter, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    The present article reviews 42 studies investigating the role of sequencing of text and pictures for learning outcomes. Whereas several of the reviewed studies revealed better learning outcomes from presenting the picture before the text rather than after it, other studies demonstrated the opposite effect. Against the backdrop of theories on…

  10. Is a Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words? Creating Effective Questionnaires with Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds-Keefer, Laura; Johnson, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In developing attitudinal instruments for young children, researchers, program evaluators, and clinicians often use response scales with pictures or images (e.g., smiley faces) as anchors. This article considers connections between word-based and picture based Likert scales and highlights the value in translating conventions used in word-based…

  11. [Influence of the type of visualization on the construction of mental models during picture and text comprehension].

    PubMed

    Schnotz, W; Bannert, M

    1999-01-01

    The following article describes an integrative model of text and picture comprehension. Text and picture comprehension is considered as a task oriented process of constructing descriptive and depictive mental representations by selection and organisation of information, parsing of symbols, mapping of analog structures as well as mental model construction and model inspection. Based on this theoretical model an experiment was conducted in which subjects had to acquire knowledge about a complex learning content (time and date differences on the earth) through self directed learning with a hypertext and different, but informationally equivalent pictures. The study aimed to investigate under which conditions learners prefer which kind of information and whether the kind of visualisation has an effect on the mental model structure created during the comprehension of texts and pictures. The results indicate that simple pictures induce more superficial processing, in which picture comprehension replaces text comprehension to some extent and vice versa. Demanding pictures, on the contrary, induce more intensive processing in which text comprehension and picture comprehension stimulate each other. Furthermore, the results suggest that the surface structure of pictures affects the structure of mental models. Accordingly, the presentation of a visualisation which is not task adequate may interfere with the required mental model construction. In designing texts combined with pictures the form of visualisation deserves therefore special attention. PMID:10474324

  12. Automated Selection Of Pictures In Sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorvig, Mark E.; Shelton, Robert O.

    1995-01-01

    Method of automated selection of film or video motion-picture frames for storage or examination developed. Beneficial in situations in which quantity of visual information available exceeds amount stored or examined by humans in reasonable amount of time, and/or necessary to reduce large number of motion-picture frames to few conveying significantly different information in manner intermediate between movie and comic book or storyboard. For example, computerized vision system monitoring industrial process programmed to sound alarm when changes in scene exceed normal limits.

  13. Mariner Mars 1971 television picture catalog. Volume 2: Sequence design and picture coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koskela, P. E.; Helton, M. R.; Seeley, L. N.; Zawacki, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    A collection of data relating to the Mariner 9 TV picture is presented. The data are arranged to offer speedy identification of what took place during entire science cycles, on individual revolutions, and during individual science links or sequences. Summary tables present the nominal design for each of the major picture-taking cycles, along with the sequences actually taken on each revolution. These tables permit identification at a glance, all TV sequences and the corresponding individual pictures for the first 262 revolutions (primary mission). A list of TV pictures, categorized according to their latitude and longitude, is also provided. Orthographic and/or mercator plots for all pictures, along with pertinent numerical data for their center points are presented. Other tables and plots of interest are also included. This document is based upon data contained in the Supplementary Experiment Data Record (SEDR) files as of 21 August 1972.

  14. Infant VEPs reveal neural correlates of implicit naming: Lateralized differences between lexicalized versus name-unknown pictures

    PubMed Central

    Styles, Suzy J.; Plunkett, Kim; Duta, Mihaela D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent behavioural studies with toddlers have demonstrated that simply viewing a picture in silence triggers a cascade of linguistic processing which activates a representation of the picture’s name (Mani and Plunkett, 2010, 2011). Electrophysiological studies have also shown that viewing a picture modulates the auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) triggered by later speech, from early in the second year of life (Duta et al., 2012; Friedrich and Friederici, 2005; Mani et al., 2011) further supporting the notion that picture viewing gives rise to a representation of the picture’s name against which later speech can be matched. However, little is known about how and when the implicit name arises during picture viewing, or about the electrophysiological activity which supports this linguistic process. We report differences in the visual evoked potentials (VEPs) of fourteen-month-old infants who saw photographs of animals and objects, some of which were name-known (lexicalized), while waiting for an auditory label to be presented. During silent picture viewing, lateralized neural activity was selectively triggered by lexicalized items, as compared to nameless items. Lexicalized items generated a short-lasting negative-going deflection over frontal, left centro-temporal, and left occipital regions shortly after the picture appeared (126–225 ms). A positive deflection was also observed over the right hemisphere (particularly centro-temporal regions) in a later, longer-lasting window (421–720 ms). The lateralization of these differences in the VEP suggests the possible involvement of linguistic processes during picture viewing, and may reflect activity involved in the implicit activation of the picture’s name. PMID:26232744

  15. View of southeastern Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of southeastern Washington States as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. The Snake River flows into the Columbia River in the most southerly corner of the picture. The Wallula Lake is below the junction of the two rivers. The Yakima Valley is at the southwestern edge of the photograph. The Columbia Basin is in the center of the picture. The Cascade Range extends across the northwest corner of the photograph.

  16. A revised picture of the structure of the ``monsoon'' and land ITCZ over West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Sharon E.

    2009-06-01

    This article presents an overview of the land ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone) over West Africa, based on analysis of NCAR-NCEP Reanalysis data. The picture that emerges is much different than the classic one. The most important feature is that the ITCZ is effectively independent of the system that produces most of the rainfall. Rainfall linked directly to this zone of surface convergence generally affects only the southern Sahara and the northern-most Sahel, and only in abnormally wet years in the region. A second feature is that the rainbelt normally assumed to represent the ITCZ is instead produced by a large core of ascent lying between the African Easterly Jet and the Tropical Easterly Jet. This region corresponds to the southern track of African Easterly Waves, which distribute the rainfall. This finding underscores the need to distinguish between the ITCZ and the feature better termed the “tropical rainbelt”. The latter is conventionally but improperly used in remote sensing studies to denote the surface ITCZ over West Africa. The new picture also suggests that the moisture available for convection is strongly coupled to the strength of the uplift, which in turn is controlled by the characteristics of the African Easterly Jet and Tropical Easterly Jet, rather than by moisture convergence. This new picture also includes a circulation feature not generally considered in most analyses of the region. This feature, a low-level westerly jet termed the African Westerly Jet, plays a significant role in interannual and multidecadal variability in the Sahel region of West Africa. Included are discussions of the how this new view relates to other aspects of West Africa meteorology, such as moisture sources, rainfall production and forecasting, desertification, climate monitoring, hurricanes and interannual variability. The West African monsoon is also related to a new paradigm for examining the interannual variability of rainfall over West Africa, one that

  17. Implicit and Explicit Attention to Pictures and Words: An fMRI-Study of Concurrent Emotional Stimulus Processing.

    PubMed

    Flaisch, Tobias; Imhof, Martin; Schmälzle, Ralf; Wentz, Klaus-Ulrich; Ibach, Bernd; Schupp, Harald T

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural processing of concurrently presented emotional stimuli under varying explicit and implicit attention demands. Specifically, in separate trials, participants indicated the category of either pictures or words. The words were placed over the center of the pictures and the picture-word compound-stimuli were presented for 1500 ms in a rapid event-related design. The results reveal pronounced main effects of task and emotion: the picture categorization task prompted strong activations in visual, parietal, temporal, frontal, and subcortical regions; the word categorization task evoked increased activation only in left extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, beyond replicating key findings regarding emotional picture and word processing, the results point to a dissociation of semantic-affective and sensory-perceptual processes for words: while emotional words engaged semantic-affective networks of the left hemisphere regardless of task, the increased activity in left extrastriate cortex associated with explicitly attending to words was diminished when the word was overlaid over an erotic image. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between Picture Category and Task within dorsal visual-associative regions, inferior parietal, and dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal cortices: during the word categorization task, activation was increased in these regions when the words were overlaid over erotic as compared to romantic pictures. During the picture categorization task, activity in these areas was relatively decreased when categorizing erotic as compared to romantic pictures. Thus, the emotional intensity of the pictures strongly affected brain regions devoted to the control of task-related word or picture processing. These findings are discussed with respect to the interplay of obligatory stimulus processing with task-related attentional control mechanisms. PMID:26733895

  18. Implicit and Explicit Attention to Pictures and Words: An fMRI-Study of Concurrent Emotional Stimulus Processing

    PubMed Central

    Flaisch, Tobias; Imhof, Martin; Schmälzle, Ralf; Wentz, Klaus-Ulrich; Ibach, Bernd; Schupp, Harald T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural processing of concurrently presented emotional stimuli under varying explicit and implicit attention demands. Specifically, in separate trials, participants indicated the category of either pictures or words. The words were placed over the center of the pictures and the picture-word compound-stimuli were presented for 1500 ms in a rapid event-related design. The results reveal pronounced main effects of task and emotion: the picture categorization task prompted strong activations in visual, parietal, temporal, frontal, and subcortical regions; the word categorization task evoked increased activation only in left extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, beyond replicating key findings regarding emotional picture and word processing, the results point to a dissociation of semantic-affective and sensory-perceptual processes for words: while emotional words engaged semantic-affective networks of the left hemisphere regardless of task, the increased activity in left extrastriate cortex associated with explicitly attending to words was diminished when the word was overlaid over an erotic image. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between Picture Category and Task within dorsal visual-associative regions, inferior parietal, and dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal cortices: during the word categorization task, activation was increased in these regions when the words were overlaid over erotic as compared to romantic pictures. During the picture categorization task, activity in these areas was relatively decreased when categorizing erotic as compared to romantic pictures. Thus, the emotional intensity of the pictures strongly affected brain regions devoted to the control of task-related word or picture processing. These findings are discussed with respect to the interplay of obligatory stimulus processing with task-related attentional control mechanisms. PMID:26733895

  19. Individual Differences in Distraction by Pictures in a Reading Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willows, Dale M.

    1978-01-01

    Good, normal, and poor third grade readers were required to read easy, moderate, and difficult one-syllable nouns under three conditions: control condition with no pictures, identifying-picture condition, and unrelated-picture condition. Reading performance of poor readers was influenced by pictures under all conditions. Individual differences…

  20. Strategy Shifts during Learning from Texts and Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnotz, Wolfgang; Ludewig, Ulrich; Ullrich, Mark; Horz, Holger; McElvany, Nele; Baumert, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Reading for learning frequently requires integrating text and picture information into coherent knowledge structures. This article presents an experimental study aimed at analyzing the strategies used by students for integrating text and picture information. Four combinations of texts and pictures (text-picture units) were selected from textbooks…

  1. Picture Perfect: Document What You Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothe, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Incorporating photographs into reports or promotional materials is an effective means of communicating needs and activities of the library media center. Provides techniques on how to improve picture taking with a standard camera. Discusses photo composition, positioning subjects, photographing reflective objects, lighting and focus tips,…

  2. Teaching Students with Autism to Read Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the use of teaching three students with autism how to comprehend pictures. Students were elementary-aged, did not speak, and needed communication training. Students were provided systematic visual literacy instruction. Visual literacy instruction consisted of comprehending familiar people, objects, actions, and sequences…

  3. Picture Communication in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bruce L.

    1980-01-01

    Reports the major findings of a study that investigated the effectiveness of using pictures of different art styles (stick figures, faceless outline drawings, detailed black-and-white, detailed black-and-white with watercolor wash, and black-and-white photographs) with 423 new readers in Papua New Guinea. (JD)

  4. Picture Preferences of Children and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myatt, Barbara; Carter, Juliet Mason

    1979-01-01

    Defines six types of illustrations and reports on a study of student preference for those picture styles. The subjects (380 students in grades K, 1, 2, 3, 5, 9, and 11) generally preferred photographs, with realistic drawings ranked second. But there were significant differences between sexes and age groups. (Author/JEG)

  5. Electronic pictures from charged-coupled devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccann, D. H.; Turly, A. P.; White, M.

    1979-01-01

    Imaging system uses charge-coupled devices (CCD's) to generate TV-like pictures with high resolution, sensitivity, and signal-to-noise ratio. It combines detectors for five spectral bands as well as processing and control circuitry all on single silicon chip.

  6. Art Guide: Let's Make a Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowerfind, Ibby Hallam; And Others

    Guidelines for art education at the elementary through upper grade levels provide guidance and encouragement for students without excessive correction and evaluation procedures on the part of teachers. Elements of a picture and general approaches to teaching art emphasize creative and imaginative expression and skill development. The main body of…

  7. Transmittal Letters: Communicating the Financial Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Craig L.

    1987-01-01

    The transmittal letter, part of a school district's comprehensive annual financial report, provides a creative opportunity to communicate the financial picture of a district to readers. After the introduction, the letter should include sections on (1) mission, services, and environment; (2) financial highlights; (3) systems and controls; and (4)…

  8. Using Picture Storybooks To Teach Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Susan

    To help aid teachers and librarians in the search for appropriate resources to emphasize good character traits, this book provides an annotated guide to picture storybooks and the character traits each describes. It begins with an introduction that defines character, offers a history of character education, discusses what character education is,…

  9. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... produced film. (4) Imply endorsement of a product. (5) Permit the use of official Navy seals. (c) Navy... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Navy assists in the production of commercial, privately financed, nontheatrical motion pictures...

  10. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... produced film. (4) Imply endorsement of a product. (5) Permit the use of official Navy seals. (c) Navy... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Navy assists in the production of commercial, privately financed, nontheatrical motion pictures...

  11. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... produced film. (4) Imply endorsement of a product. (5) Permit the use of official Navy seals. (c) Navy... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Navy assists in the production of commercial, privately financed, nontheatrical motion pictures...

  12. Princess Picture Books: Content and Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Lourdes P.; Higgins, Brittany E.; Pinkerton, Nick; Couto, Michelle; Mansolillo, Victoria; Weisinger, Nica; Flores, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Because many girls develop their understanding of what it means to be a girl from books about princesses, the researchers coded the messages and content in 58 princess books (picture, fairy tales, and fractured fairy tales). Results indicate that gender stereotypes are present in the books--the princesses were more likely to be nurturing, in…

  13. Picture Books Stimulate the Learning of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; van den Boogaard, Sylvia; Doig, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe our experiences using picture books to provide young children (five- to six-year-olds) with a learning environment where they can explore and extend preliminary notions of mathematics-related concepts, without being taught these concepts explicitly. We gained these experiences in the PICO-ma project, which aimed to…

  14. Author! Author! Picture Artist: Stephen Gammell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of illustrator Stephen Gammell, well-known for both his black-and-white and his brightly colored children's picture book art. Stephen Gammell has made a long career illustrating children's stories and poems. The first book he illustrated, "A Nutty Business" (written by Ida Chittum), was published in 1973 and…

  15. The Oxford Picture Dictionary. Beginning Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Marjorie

    The beginning workbook of the Oxford Picture Dictionary is in full color and offers vocabulary reinforcement activities that correspond page for page with the dictionary. Clear and simple instructions with examples make it suitable for independent use in the classroom or at home. The workbook has up-to-date art and graphics, explaining over 3700…

  16. Many Ways to Picture a Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2005-01-01

    Some innovations in the images of cells and molecules that keep changing for new techniques and as a result of using new approaches to old methods are explored and new ways of illustrating cell and molecular structures are discussed. The three elements that play an important role in any biological image are aesthetic factors such as picture style…

  17. Bilingual Picture Books: Libros Para Todos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosto, Denise

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of including bilingual English/Spanish picture books in library collections, introduces some recent titles, and describes some programming ideas. Topics include second language study, children teaching English to Spanish-speaking parents, cultural studies, and bilingual presentations. (LRW)

  18. The Work of the Motion Picture Cameraman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Freddie; Petzold, Paul

    Meant to serve as an authoritative source of information on camera work in large scale feature productions, this book attempts to give some basic understanding of the problems of motion picture photography, the working conditions and artistry of lighting for mood and dramatic effect, budget problems for making films, and facts about working with a…

  19. Hypermnesia for Pictures But Not Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Shelly Rae; Erdelyi, Matthew Hugh

    1974-01-01

    This experiment investigated the time course of recall (from 1/2 to 5 min.) for pictorial and verbal inputs. A hypermnesic (incremental recall) effect was found for pictures but not words, and was shown to be independent of multiple-recall trials. (Editor)

  20. Localism: The Changing Picture for Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Penny

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly changing picture on localism and the government's focus on local economic growth have significant implications for adult learning and skills providers in England. Government now sees a sense of place as key to economic growth and recognises the need for a renewed debate on how business and state interact with localities. There is a…

  1. Track Picture Book. Elementary Science Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, David; And Others

    This picture book was designed to be used with an Elementary Science Study unit that provides opportunities for students in grades 4-6 to study animal tracks. Shown within this book are numerous examples of tracks, including those of tires, human beings, animal tracks, and others in various media, such as snow, sand, mud, dust, and cement. (CS)

  2. A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribisi, Stephen, Jr.; Yu, Kristina; Lambertson, Lori

    2007-01-01

    The old adage that a picture is worth a thousand words also holds true in cell biology. Much of the knowledge that we have of the structures and functions of cells has been acquired by biologists peering through the eyepieces of microscopes. The point of this lesson is to provide an opportunity for students to observe cell biological data while…

  3. Attitude determination using digital earth pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunshol, L. P.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program called PICATT is reported, which stands for picture attitude determination. Described are the particular satellite to which this technique of attitude determination has been applied, the method of solution, and the results that have been attained using the PICATT program.

  4. Aesthetics and Children's Picture-Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leddy, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Some writers on children's picture-books seem to believe that comfort and reassurance are their most important goals. Yet these books may also provide a context for imaginative adventure, and even for a journey into the dark night of the soul. As Nietzsche would put it, there is a Dionysian as well as an Apollonian element in children's…

  5. Explaining the Modality Effect in Multimedia Learning: Is It Due to a Lack of Temporal Contiguity with Written Text and Pictures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuler, Anne; Scheiter, Katharina; Rummer, Ralf; Gerjets, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The study examined whether the modality effect is caused by either high visuo-spatial load or a lack of temporal contiguity when processing written text and pictures. Students (N = 147) viewed pictures on the development of tornados, which were accompanied by either spoken or written explanations presented simultaneously with, before, or after the…

  6. Improving the resolution of the mantle picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salters, V. J.; Bizimis, M.; Langmuir, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    Although the identification of the mantle components provided a simple framework into which to place the isotopic variation of MORB and OIB, in the modern day such a picture is too simplistic and the actual components present in the mantle can be quite different. Recent improvements in measurement techniques allow for more precise isotope analyses as well as higher sample throughput. Consequently, we are now at the beginning of an era of discovery that follows from obtaining a higher resolution images. For three decades Hf and Nd isotopic compositions in ocean island basalts have been very well correlated, but MORB have not show a good correlation between the two isotope systems. Is this a lack of correlation in MORB is related to sample density or are the Nd and Hf isotope systems are truly uncorrelated? We present detailed investigations of the variations in Nd and Hf isotopic compositions in MORBs at normal ridges and from restricted geographic areas to determine whether, on a local scale, Nd and Hf isotopic compositions are correlated. This requires high precision data as the isotopic variations in N-type MORB are relatively small. For example, at the Mid-Cayman Rise the Hf-isotopic composition varies by 1.2 epsilon units. Our data from the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Ocean show that, on a local scale, despite the limited variations the Nd and Hf isotopic compositions are well correlated. On a Hf-Nd isotope correlation diagram MORB from ridges far removed from hot-spots form parallel "local" arrays with similar slope as MORB from hotspot-influenced ridges, indicating that the nature of the heterogeneity that causes the local Hf-Nd isotope variation can be related to contamination by "enriched" OIB-type mantle. The parallel "local" arrays (differing Hf-isotopic composition) suggest a second larger scale length heterogeneity most likely related varying amounts of recycled oceanic lithosphere, which has a radiogenic Hf-isotopic composition. We also resampled and

  7. Get the picture? The effects of iconicity on toddlers' reenactment from picture books.

    PubMed

    Simcock, Gabrielle; DeLoache, Judy

    2006-11-01

    What do toddlers learn from everyday picture-book reading interactions? To date, there has been scant research exploring this question. In this study, the authors adapted a standard imitation procedure to examine 18- to 30-month-olds' ability to learn how to reenact a novel action sequence from a picture book. The results provide evidence that toddlers can imitate specific target actions on novel real-world objects on the basis of a picture-book interaction. Children's imitative performance after the reading interaction varied both as a function of age and the level of iconicity of the pictures in the book. These findings are discussed in terms of children's emerging symbolic capacity and the flexibility of the cognitive representation. PMID:17087568

  8. Arousal and exposure duration affect forward step initiation.

    PubMed

    Bouman, Daniëlle; Stins, John F; Beek, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Emotion influences parameters of goal-directed whole-body movements in several ways. For instance, previous research has shown that approaching (moving toward) pleasant stimuli is easier compared to approaching unpleasant stimuli. However, some studies found that when emotional pictures are viewed for a longer time, approaching unpleasant stimuli may in fact be facilitated. The effect of viewing duration may have modulated whole-body approach movement in previous research but this has not been investigated to date. In the current study, participants initiated a step forward after viewing neutral, high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. The viewing duration of the stimuli was set to seven different durations, varying from 100 to 4000 ms. Valence and arousal scores were collected for all stimuli. The results indicate that both viewing duration and the arousal of the stimuli influence kinematic parameters in forward gait initiation. Specifically, longer viewing duration, compared to shorter viewing duration, (a) diminished the step length and peak velocity in both neutral and emotional stimuli, (b) increased reaction time in neutral stimuli and, (c) decreased reaction time in pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. Strikingly, no differences were found between high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. In other words, the valence of the stimuli did not influence kinematic parameters of forward step initiation. Instead the arousal level (neutral: low; pleasant and unpleasant: high) explained the variance found in the results. The kinematics of forward gait initiation seemed to be reflected in the subjective arousal scores, but not the valence scores. So it seems arousal affects forward gait initiation parameters more strongly than valence. In addition, longer viewing duration seemed to cause diminished alertness, affecting GI parameters. These results shed new light on the prevailing theoretical interpretations regarding approach motivation

  9. Arousal and exposure duration affect forward step initiation

    PubMed Central

    Bouman, Daniëlle; Stins, John F.; Beek, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion influences parameters of goal-directed whole-body movements in several ways. For instance, previous research has shown that approaching (moving toward) pleasant stimuli is easier compared to approaching unpleasant stimuli. However, some studies found that when emotional pictures are viewed for a longer time, approaching unpleasant stimuli may in fact be facilitated. The effect of viewing duration may have modulated whole-body approach movement in previous research but this has not been investigated to date. In the current study, participants initiated a step forward after viewing neutral, high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. The viewing duration of the stimuli was set to seven different durations, varying from 100 to 4000 ms. Valence and arousal scores were collected for all stimuli. The results indicate that both viewing duration and the arousal of the stimuli influence kinematic parameters in forward gait initiation. Specifically, longer viewing duration, compared to shorter viewing duration, (a) diminished the step length and peak velocity in both neutral and emotional stimuli, (b) increased reaction time in neutral stimuli and, (c) decreased reaction time in pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. Strikingly, no differences were found between high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. In other words, the valence of the stimuli did not influence kinematic parameters of forward step initiation. Instead the arousal level (neutral: low; pleasant and unpleasant: high) explained the variance found in the results. The kinematics of forward gait initiation seemed to be reflected in the subjective arousal scores, but not the valence scores. So it seems arousal affects forward gait initiation parameters more strongly than valence. In addition, longer viewing duration seemed to cause diminished alertness, affecting GI parameters. These results shed new light on the prevailing theoretical interpretations regarding approach motivation

  10. Atomic tunneling ionization in a photon picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yujun; Esry, B. D.

    2015-05-01

    Above-threshold ionization (ATI) and high-harmonic generation (HHG) are studied by the photon-phase formalism in the tunneling regime. Different from the commonly used three-step model for understanding such strong-field phenomena, we show that each order of the ATI or HHG peaks is strongly associated with a single ``photon channel'' in the photon-phase picture. This simplicity allows an identification of pathways for each of the orders. This picture not only provides a convenient means to understand the electron dynamics in the strong field, but also gives insights that may help engineer laser pulses to manipulate the output of the ATI or HHG. We apply this method to quantify the strong-field-induced ionization threshold shift and study the carrier-envelope phase dependence of the HHG. Supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy

  11. Picture Detection in RSVP: Features or Identity?

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Mary C.; Wyble, Brad; Pandav, Rijuta; Olejarczyk, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    A pictured object can be readily detected in an RSVP sequence when the target is specified by a superordinate category name such as animal or vehicle. Are category features the initial basis for detection, with identification of the specific object occurring in a second stage (Evans & Treisman, 2005), or is identification of the object the basis for detection? When two targets in the same superordinate category are presented successively (lag 1), only the identification-first hypothesis predicts lag 1 sparing of the second target. The results of two experiments with novel pictures and a wide range of categories supported the identification-first hypothesis and a transient-attention model of lag 1 sparing and the attentional blink (Wyble, Bowman, & Potter, 2009). PMID:20695696

  12. Discussion of medical x-ray picture normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dezong; Xiong, Yingen; Cheng, Liping

    1996-01-01

    There is great significance in comparing medical x-ray pictures, which are taken in different periods. For the orthopaedics surgeon comparing the density of bone is one important way of clinical diagnosis. Some persons think that if these orthopaedics pictures are processed by histogram normalization their gray level and pseudo color can be compared directly. But for one picture we know that the gray distribution is different between the original picture and the processed picture. Comparing these pictures is not authentic. In this paper we discuss that subject and describe the basis of histogram normalization. The distribution on original x-ray pictures and processed pictures is provided. The methods to compare different pictures are mentioned.

  13. 77 FR 25082 - Picture Permit Imprint Indicia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ...The Postal Service will revise Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) 604.5 to add picture permit imprint indicia standards allowing customers to include business-related color images, such as corporate logos, company brand or trademarks, in the permit indicia area of First-Class Mail[supreg] full-service automation letters and postcards, and......

  14. Childhood Picture of Dr. von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1912-01-01

    This is a childhood picture of Dr. von Braun (center) with his brothers. Dr. Wernher von Braun was born in Wirsitz, Germany, March 23, 1912. His childhood dreams of marned space flight were fulfilled when giant Saturn rockets, developed under his direction at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, boosted the manned Apollo spacecraft to the Moon. His life was dedicated to expanding man's knowledge through the exploration of space.

  15. A motion picture presentation of magnetic pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, A.; Kim, J. S.; Sugura, M.; Nagano, H.

    1981-01-01

    Using the data obtained from the IMS North American magnetometer network stations at high latitudes, a motion picture was made by a computer technique, describing time changes of Pc5 and Pi3 magnetic pulsation vectors. Examples of pulsation characteristics derived from this presentation are regional polarization changes including shifts of polarization demarcation lines, changes in the extent of an active region and its movement with time.

  16. A Spectrum is Worth a Thousand Pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelderman, Richard F.

    2006-12-01

    A wise astronomer once pointed out that if a picture is worth a thousand words, then a spectrum is worth a thousand pictures. Unfortunately, spectra are rarely emphasized in the introductory astronomy courses and few students exit such a course with any meaningful understanding or appreciation of spectroscopy. Part of the problem is lack of background knowledge; the typical introductory astronomy student has little experience with spectroscopy or atomic physics. Another issue is that spectra are not pretty pictures and are not intuitively understandable. We present and discuss a series of “minds-on” exercises and activities built into a college-level “stars, galaxies, and cosmology” intro astronomy course. The lessons are structured to help students improve their ability to recognize patterns and improve their ability to really see the details in front of them. Another goal is for students to realize there is “more than meets the eye” to learn how to discover “hidden” diagnostics, such as different sources of light their eyes see as white light. A curriculum that emphasizes spectroscopy also provides the opportunity to stress the story of the “Harvard Women,” a tale that bridges gender gaps and often humanizes scientists in the eyes of non-science majors. Finally, with a solid foundation in spectroscopy, students are better prepared to understand exciting topics such as Hubble’s Law and the importance of primordial nucleosynthesis.

  17. Pictures of pain: their contribution to the neuroscience of empathy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The study of empathy, a translation of the term ‘Einfühlung’, originated in 19th century Germany in the sphere of aesthetics, and was followed by studies in psychology and then neuroscience. During the past decade the links between empathy and art have started to be investigated, but now from the neuroscientific perspective, and two different approaches have emerged. Recently, the primacy of the mirror neuron system and its association with automaticity and imitative, simulated movement has been envisaged. But earlier, a number of eminent art historians had pointed to the importance of cognitive responses to art; these responses might plausibly be subserved by alternative neural networks. Focusing here mainly on pictures depicting pain and evoking empathy, both approaches are considered by summarizing the evidence that either supports the involvement of the mirror neuron system, or alternatively suggests other neural networks are likely to be implicated. The use of such pictures in experimental studies exploring the underlying neural processes, however, raises a number of concerns, and suggests caution is exercised in drawing conclusions concerning the networks that might be engaged. These various networks are discussed next, taking into account the affective and sensory components of the pain experience, before concluding that both mirror neuron and alternative neural networks are likelyto be enlisted in the empathetic response to images of pain. A somewhat similar duality of spontaneous and cognitive processes may perhaps also be paralleled in the creation of such images. While noting that some have repudiated the neuroscientific approach to the subject, pictures are nevertheless shown here to represent an unusual but invaluable tool in the study of pain and empathy. PMID:25614024

  18. Attachment style impacts behavior and early oculomotor response to positive, but not negative, pictures.

    PubMed

    Silva, Catarina; Chaminade, Thierry; David, Da Fonseca; Santos, Andreia; Esteves, Francisco; Soares, Isabel; Deruelle, Christine

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated whether oculomotor behavior is influenced by attachment styles. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire was used to assess attachment styles of forty-eight voluntary university students and to classify them into attachment groups (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing). Eye-tracking was recorded while participants engaged in a 3-seconds free visual exploration of stimuli presenting either a positive or a negative picture together with a neutral picture, all depicting social interactions. The task consisted in identifying whether the two pictures depicted the same emotion. Results showed that the processing of negative pictures was impermeable to attachment style, while the processing of positive pictures was significantly influenced by individual differences in insecure attachment. The groups highly avoidant regarding to attachment (dismissing and fearful) showed reduced accuracy, suggesting a higher threshold for recognizing positive emotions compared to the secure group. The groups with higher attachment anxiety (preoccupied and fearful) showed differences in automatic capture of attention, in particular an increased delay preceding the first fixation to a picture of positive emotional valence. Despite lenient statistical thresholds induced by the limited sample size of some groups (p < 0.05 uncorrected for multiple comparisons), the current findings suggest that the processing of positive emotions is affected by attachment styles. These results are discussed within a broader evolutionary framework. PMID:25693911

  19. View of south tower looking north. Note inspection team suspended ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south tower looking north. Note inspection team suspended by basket from crane examining underside of deck at top of picture. - Sidney Lanier Bridge, Spanning Brunswick River, Brunswick, Glynn County, GA

  20. 23. VIEW LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM WEST BANK OF HEADRACE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM WEST BANK OF HEAD-RACE SHOWING RECONSTRUCTED MAIN AND DIVERSION DAMS; HEAD-RACE IS JUST OUT OF PICTURE AT LEFT. - Forge Creek Dam-John Cable Mill, Townsend, Blount County, TN

  1. Exterior view looking northwest with construction facilities of "new" pumping ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view looking northwest with construction facilities of "new" pumping station in foreground. Doug Hine is man in picture. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  2. 1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING RIBS AND KEELSON OF HULL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING RIBS AND KEELSON OF HULL IN CENTER OF PICTURE ON SHINGLE BEACH Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 84, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  3. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) IN CENTER OF PICTURE WITH FOUR HATCHES SHOWING IN SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  4. The Perception of Aversiveness of Surgical Procedure Pictures Is Modulated by Personal/Occupational Relevance.

    PubMed

    Paes, Juliana; de Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes Garcia; David, Isabel; Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal; Sobral, Ana Paula; Machado-Pinheiro, Walter; Mocaiber, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that emotions are organized around two motivational systems: the defensive and the appetitive. Individual differences are relevant factors in emotional reactions, making them more flexible and less stereotyped. There is evidence that health professionals have lower emotional reactivity when viewing scenes of situations involving pain. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the rating of pictures of surgical procedure depends on their personal/occupational relevance. Fifty-two female Nursing (health discipline) and forty-eight Social Work (social science discipline) students participated in the experiment, which consisted of the presentation of 105 images of different categories (e.g., neutral, food), including 25 images of surgical procedure. Volunteers judged each picture according to its valence (pleasantness) and arousal using the Self-Assessment Manikin scale (dimensional approach). Additionally, the participants chose the word that best described what they felt while viewing each image (discrete emotion perspective). The average valence score for surgical procedure pictures for the Nursing group (M = 4.57; SD = 1.02) was higher than the score for the Social Work group (M = 3.31; SD = 1.05), indicating that Nursing students classified those images as less unpleasant than the Social Work students did. Additionally, the majority of Nursing students (65.4%) chose "neutral" as the word that best described what they felt while viewing the pictures. In the Social Work group, disgust (54.2%) was the emotion that was most frequently chosen. The evaluation of emotional stimuli differed according to the groups' personal/occupational relevance: Nursing students judged pictures of surgical procedure as less unpleasant than the Social Work students did, possibly reflecting an emotional regulation skill or some type of habituation that is critically relevant to their future professional work. PMID:27518897

  5. The Perception of Aversiveness of Surgical Procedure Pictures Is Modulated by Personal/Occupational Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Paes, Juliana; de Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes Garcia; David, Isabel; Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal; Sobral, Ana Paula; Machado-Pinheiro, Walter; Mocaiber, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that emotions are organized around two motivational systems: the defensive and the appetitive. Individual differences are relevant factors in emotional reactions, making them more flexible and less stereotyped. There is evidence that health professionals have lower emotional reactivity when viewing scenes of situations involving pain. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the rating of pictures of surgical procedure depends on their personal/occupational relevance. Fifty-two female Nursing (health discipline) and forty-eight Social Work (social science discipline) students participated in the experiment, which consisted of the presentation of 105 images of different categories (e.g., neutral, food), including 25 images of surgical procedure. Volunteers judged each picture according to its valence (pleasantness) and arousal using the Self-Assessment Manikin scale (dimensional approach). Additionally, the participants chose the word that best described what they felt while viewing each image (discrete emotion perspective). The average valence score for surgical procedure pictures for the Nursing group (M = 4.57; SD = 1.02) was higher than the score for the Social Work group (M = 3.31; SD = 1.05), indicating that Nursing students classified those images as less unpleasant than the Social Work students did. Additionally, the majority of Nursing students (65.4%) chose “neutral” as the word that best described what they felt while viewing the pictures. In the Social Work group, disgust (54.2%) was the emotion that was most frequently chosen. The evaluation of emotional stimuli differed according to the groups' personal/occupational relevance: Nursing students judged pictures of surgical procedure as less unpleasant than the Social Work students did, possibly reflecting an emotional regulation skill or some type of habituation that is critically relevant to their future professional work. PMID:27518897

  6. An ERP study of recognition memory for concrete and abstract pictures in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Olivier; Chouinard-Leclaire, Christine; Muckle, Gina; Westerlund, Alissa; Burden, Matthew J; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Recognition memory for concrete, nameable pictures is typically faster and more accurate than for abstract pictures. A dual-coding account for these findings suggests that concrete pictures are processed into verbal and image codes, whereas abstract pictures are encoded in image codes only. Recognition memory relies on two successive and distinct processes, namely familiarity and recollection. Whether these two processes are similarly or differently affected by stimulus concreteness remains unknown. This study examined the effect of picture concreteness on visual recognition memory processes using event-related potentials (ERPs). In a sample of children involved in a longitudinal study, participants (N=96; mean age=11.3years) were assessed on a continuous visual recognition memory task in which half the pictures were easily nameable, everyday concrete objects, and the other half were three-dimensional abstract, sculpture-like objects. Behavioral performance and ERP correlates of familiarity and recollection (respectively, the FN400 and P600 repetition effects) were measured. Behavioral results indicated faster and more accurate identification of concrete pictures as "new" or "old" (i.e., previously displayed) compared to abstract pictures. ERPs were characterized by a larger repetition effect, on the P600 amplitude, for concrete than for abstract images, suggesting a graded recollection process dependent on the type of material to be recollected. Topographic differences were observed within the FN400 latency interval, especially over anterior-inferior electrodes, with the repetition effect more pronounced and localized over the left hemisphere for concrete stimuli, potentially reflecting different neural processes underlying early processing of verbal/semantic and visual material in memory. PMID:27329352

  7. Phonological processing of ignored distractor pictures, an fMRI investigation

    PubMed Central

    Bles, Mart; Jansma, Bernadette M

    2008-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies of attention often focus on interactions between stimulus representations and top-down selection mechanisms in visual cortex. Less is known about the neural representation of distractor stimuli beyond visual areas, and the interactions between stimuli in linguistic processing areas. In the present study, participants viewed simultaneously presented line drawings at peripheral locations, while in the MRI scanner. The names of the objects depicted in these pictures were either phonologically related (i.e. shared the same consonant-vowel onset construction), or unrelated. Attention was directed either at the linguistic properties of one of these pictures, or at the fixation point (i.e. away from the pictures). Results Phonological representations of unattended pictures could be detected in the posterior superior temporal gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the insula. Conclusion Under some circumstances, the name of ignored distractor pictures is retrieved by linguistic areas. This implies that selective attention to a specific location does not completely filter out the representations of distractor stimuli at early perceptual stages. PMID:18267005

  8. Do pictures of faces, and which ones, capture attention in the inattentional-blindness paradigm?

    PubMed

    Devue, Christel; Laloyaux, Cédric; Feyers, Dorothée; Theeuwes, Jan; Brédart, Serge

    2009-01-01

    Faces and self-referential material (eg one's own name) are more likely to capture attention in the inattentional-blindness (IB) paradigm than other stimuli. This effect is presumably due to the meaning of these stimuli rather than to their familiarity [Mack and Rock, 1998 Inattentional Blindness (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press)]. In previous work, IB has been investigated mostly with schematic stimuli. In the present study, the generalisability of this finding was tested with photographic stimuli. In support of the view that faces constitute a special category of stimuli, pictures of faces were found to resist more to IB than pictures of common objects (experiment 1) or than pictures of inverted faces (experiment 2). In a third experiment, the influence of face familiarity and identity (the participant's own face, a friend's face, and an unknown face) on IB rates was evaluated. Unexpectedly, no differential resistence to blindness across these three kinds of faces was found. In conclusion, pictures of faces attracted attention more than pictures of objects or inverted faces in the IB paradigm. However, this effect was not dependent on face familiarity or identity. PMID:19522323

  9. A mental picture of the greenhouse effect - A pedagogic explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benestad, Rasmus E.

    2016-01-01

    The popular picture of the greenhouse effect emphasises the radiation transfer but fails to explain the observed climate change. An old conceptual model for the greenhouse effect is revisited and presented as a useful resource in climate change communication. It is validated against state-of-the-art data, and nontraditional diagnostics show a physically consistent picture. The earth's climate is constrained by well-known and elementary physical principles, such as energy balance, flow, and conservation. Greenhouse gases affect the atmospheric optical depth for infrared radiation, and increased opacity implies higher altitude from which earth's equivalent bulk heat loss takes place. Such an increase is seen in the reanalyses, and the outgoing long-wave radiation has become more diffuse over time, consistent with an increased influence of greenhouse gases on the vertical energy flow from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. The reanalyses further imply increases in the overturning in the troposphere, consistent with a constant and continuous vertical energy flow. The increased overturning can explain a slowdown in the global warming, and the association between these aspects can be interpreted as an entanglement between the greenhouse effect and the hydrological cycle, where reduced energy transfer associated with increased opacity is compensated by tropospheric overturning activity.

  10. Can a Picture Ruin a Thousand Words? The Effects of Visual Resources in Exam Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria; Sweiry, Ezekiel

    2006-01-01

    Background: When an exam question is read, a mental representation of the task is formed in each student's mind. This processing can be affected by features such as visual resources (e.g. pictures, diagrams, photographs, tables), which can come to dominate the mental representation due to their salience. Purpose: The aim of this research was to…

  11. Using Children's Picture Books about Autism as Resources in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Miranda L.; Tackett, Mary E.; Azano, Amy Price

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on developing teacher understanding of how to carefully select and use children's picture books about autism as a tool for teaching awareness, empathy, and acceptance in an elementary classroom setting. We describe how the increased rate of autism and growing practice of inclusive educational settings affect classroom practice…

  12. Using Picture Books to Create Peer Awareness about Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maich, Kimberly; Belcher, E. Christina

    2012-01-01

    Students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may exhibit behaviors that can negatively affect peer relationships. A process for raising awareness about this exceptionality to their peers can build a foundation for authentic inclusion in the classroom environment. This article suggests that deliberately planned interventions using picture books to…

  13. How to reinforce perception of depth in single two-dimensional pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagata, S.

    1989-01-01

    The physical conditions of the display of single 2-D pictures, which produce images realistically, were studied by using the characteristics of the intake of the information for visual depth perception. Depth sensitivity, which is defined as the ratio of viewing distance to depth discrimination threshold, was introduced in order to evaluate the availability of various cues for depth perception: binocular parallax, motion parallax, accommodation, convergence, size, texture, brightness, and air-perspective contrast. The effects of binocular parallax in different conditions, the depth sensitivity of which is greatest at a distance of up to about 10 m, were studied with the new versatile stereoscopic display. From these results, four conditions to reinforce the perception of depth in single pictures were proposed, and these conditions are met by the old viewing devices and the new high-definition and wide television displays.

  14. Visualizing the quantum interaction picture in phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmani, Bahar; Aiello, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    We present a graphical example of the interaction picture-time evolution. Our aim is to help students understand in a didactic manner the simplicity that this picture provides. Visualizing the interaction picture unveils its advantages, which are hidden behind the involved mathematics. Specifically, we show that the time evolution of a driven harmonic oscillator in the interaction picture corresponds to a local transformation of a phase space-reference frame into the one that is co-rotating with the Wigner function.

  15. Recovering Spirit Sends a New Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took and returned this image on January 28, 2004, the first picture from Spirit since problems with communications began a week earlier. The image from the rover's front hazard identification camera shows the robotic arm extended to the rock called Adirondack. As it had been instructed a week earlier, the Moessbauer spectrometer, an instrument for identifying the minerals in rocks and soils, is still placed against the rock. Engineers are working to restore Spirit to working order so that the rover can resume the scientific exploration of its landing area.

  16. Interaction picture density matrix quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Fionn D. Lee, D. K. K.; Foulkes, W. M. C.; Blunt, N. S.; Shepherd, James J.; Spencer, J. S.

    2015-07-28

    The recently developed density matrix quantum Monte Carlo (DMQMC) algorithm stochastically samples the N-body thermal density matrix and hence provides access to exact properties of many-particle quantum systems at arbitrary temperatures. We demonstrate that moving to the interaction picture provides substantial benefits when applying DMQMC to interacting fermions. In this first study, we focus on a system of much recent interest: the uniform electron gas in the warm dense regime. The basis set incompleteness error at finite temperature is investigated and extrapolated via a simple Monte Carlo sampling procedure. Finally, we provide benchmark calculations for a four-electron system, comparing our results to previous work where possible.

  17. [Asperger syndrome. Diagnosis criteria and clinical picture].

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Ernesto

    2005-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (A.S) is not a very well-known disorder due to its recent incorporation to the international nosography of mental disorders during the early 90s. The intention of this article is to describe the clinical picture with its symptomatic diversity. It will show how the diagnostic criteria were developed since the presentation by Asperger in 1944, to the classification consensed nowadays. It also presents the situations in which this diagnosis is most frequent to facilitate its detection and to permit a more extensive assessment leading to a more accurate treatment. PMID:16077869

  18. Predicting naming latencies for action pictures: Dutch norms.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zeshu; Roelofs, Ardi; Meyer, Antje S

    2014-03-01

    The present study provides Dutch norms for age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, word frequency, and word length (in syllables) for 124 line drawings of actions. Ratings were obtained from 117 Dutch participants. Word frequency was determined on the basis of the SUBTLEX-NL corpus (Keuleers, Brysbaert, & New, Behavior Research Methods, 42, 643-650, 2010). For 104 of the pictures, naming latencies and name agreement were determined in a separate naming experiment with 74 native speakers of Dutch. The Dutch norms closely corresponded to the norms for British English. Multiple regression analysis showed that age of acquisition, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, and name agreement were significant predictors of naming latencies, whereas word frequency and word length were not. Combined with the results of a principal-component analysis, these findings suggest that variables influencing the processes of conceptual preparation and lexical selection affect latencies more strongly than do variables influencing word-form encoding. PMID:23771428

  19. How to Take a Picture of A Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This movie first shows an artist's animation of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander snapping a picture of its arm, then transitions to the actual picture of the arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier unpeeled.

    The arm is still folded up, with its 'elbow' shown at upper left and its scoop at bottom right. The biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm in this view.

    The barrier is an extra precaution to protect Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

    Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have come about during the final steps before launch, and during the journey to Mars, will not contact the robotic arm.

    After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy. The arm is scheduled to begin to unlatch on the third Martian day of the mission, or Sol 3 (May 28, 2008).

    This image was taken on Sol 1 (May 26, 2008) by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Science-Oriented Picture Books for Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flack, Jerry; Sullivan, Marie

    1995-01-01

    Describes a project that encouraged combining pictures and words by middle school students to create science picture books. Suggests six steps to help students plan, research, and create picture books. Discusses a variety of final products that emerged, and benefits of the project. (BAC)

  1. 29 CFR 541.709 - Motion picture producing industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motion picture producing industry. 541.709 Section 541.709... SALES EMPLOYEES Definitions and Miscellaneous Provisions § 541.709 Motion picture producing industry... motion picture producing industry who is compensated at a base rate of at least $695 a week (exclusive...

  2. Teaching with Picture Books in the Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiedt, Iris McClellan

    Arguing that picture books have much to offer students in the upper grades (including middle school and even high school students), this book discusses using picture books to stimulate students' thinking in a variety of topic areas. Chapter 1, Using Picture Books in the Middle School To Stimulate Thinking, introduces the topic of using picture…

  3. Age-of-Acquisition Effects in Word and Picture Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    Words and pictures with earlier learned labels are processed faster than words and pictures with later learned labels. This age-of-acquisition (AoA) effect has been extensively investigated in many different types of tasks. This article provides a review of these studies including picture naming, word naming, speeded word naming, word…

  4. Decomposition of Repetition Priming Components in Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Wendy S.; Corral, Nuvia I.; Jones, Mary L.; Saenz, Silvia P.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive mechanisms underlying repetition priming in picture naming were decomposed in several experiments. Sets of encoding manipulations meant to selectively prime or reduce priming in object identification or word production components of picture naming were combined factorially to dissociate processes underlying priming in picture naming.…

  5. 78 FR 57570 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL (78 FR 20241, August 20, 2013). This updated schedule... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago....T09-0676 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL and 5 U.S.C. 552(a). Because this...

  6. Using Pictures to Assist in Comprehension and Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Rebecca Z.; Blake, Sylvia

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a picture drawing strategy to enhance the comprehension of fourth- and fifth-grade students with language and reading problems. Students used adhesive notes to draw pictures of main ideas as they read aloud or listened. Students learned the strategy rapidly and were able to use the pictures to generate summary statements.…

  7. The Development of the Picture-Superiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    When pictures and words are presented serially in an explicit memory task, recall of the pictures is superior. While this effect is well established in the adult population, little is known of the development of this picture-superiority effect in typical development. This task was administered to 80 participants from middle childhood to…

  8. Memory for Pictorial Information and the Picture Superiority Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisto, Albert A.; Queen, Debbie Elaine

    1992-01-01

    The performance of 53 younger adults (mean age 20.7) and 52 older adults (mean age 68.3) was compared in a memory task involving pictures, words, and pictures-plus-words. Results showed (1) significantly higher recall scores for younger adults; (2) equivalent picture superiority effect for both groups; and (3) decline in older adults' performance…

  9. A Middle School Teacher's Guide for Selecting Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Bill; Kolodziej, Nancy J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of picture books as supplementary material for middle level classrooms is becoming more common. Picture books are being created specifically to address the needs and interests of middle school students. Society is becoming more visually oriented and the visual format of picture books appeals to adolescents, who today are exposed to various…

  10. View How Glaucoma May Affect Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Grant Terms & Conditions Patent & Intellectual Property Policy For Current Awardees FAQs Our Funding Philosophy News Science News Publications Newsletters Multimedia Press Releases Media Coverage Media Kit Events Contact Main menu Disease Toolkit Disease Toolkit Which ...

  11. Quantifying Precision and Availability of Location Memory in Everyday Pictures and Some Implications for Picture Database Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansdale, Mark W.; Oliff, Lynda; Baguley, Thom S.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated whether memory for object locations in pictures could be exploited to address known difficulties of designing query languages for picture databases. M. W. Lansdale's (1998) model of location memory was adapted to 4 experiments observing memory for everyday pictures. These experiments showed that location memory is…

  12. Picturewise inter-view prediction selection for multiview video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Junyan; Chang, Yilin; Li, Ming; Yang, Haitao

    2010-11-01

    Inter-view prediction is introduced in multiview video coding (MVC) to exploit the inter-view correlation. Statistical analyses show that the coding gain benefited from inter-view prediction is unequal among pictures. On the basis of this observation, a picturewise interview prediction selection scheme is proposed. This scheme employs a novel inter-view prediction selection criterion to determine whether it is necessary to apply inter-view prediction to the current coding picture. This criterion is derived from the available coding information of the temporal reference pictures. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can improve the performance of MVC with a comprehensive consideration of compression efficiency, computational complexity, and random access ability.

  13. A new bandwidth compression system of picture signals - The TAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, M.; Chiba, N.; Yasui, H.; Murakami, M.

    A new bandwidth compression system of picture signals called the Time-Axis Transform (TAT) system is presented. It can be applied to the various fields of transmission and recording of picture signals such as the satellite broadcast of high-definition televison. The TAT compresses the bandwidth by reducing the number of transmitted pixels. The transmitted pixels consist of two kinds of pixels: the basic pixels and the additional pixels. The location of the former is fixed and that of the latter varies from picture to picture to minimize the interpolation error in the reconstructed picture. It compresses the bandwidth of the picture signal to one half or less, keeping high picture quality. Both the average power and the peak value of the distortion due to the interpolation error of the deleted pixels are greatly improved.

  14. Motion Pictures and Motion-Picture Equipment: A Handbook of General Information. Bulletin, 1919, No. 82

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, F. W.; Anderson, Carl

    1920-01-01

    Motion-picture films have come to be recognized quite generally as a valuable and practical means of instruction in schools, college, and universities and for clubs and societies organized for educational purposes. The number of persons making such use of them is now very large and constantly becoming larger. To all these, a handbook of general…

  15. The Hundred Pictures Naming Test. Pictures, Manual, and HPNT Response Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, John P.; Glenister, Jennifer M.

    Designed for use by speech pathologists, psychologists, special educators, English-as-a-Second-Language teachers, classroom teachers, and other professionals investigating child, adolescent, and adult language, this test--the Hundred Pictures Naming Test (HPNT)--is a confrontation naming test designed to evaluate rapid naming ability across age…

  16. Picturing Economic Childhoods: Agency, Inevitability and Social Class in Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue

    2007-01-01

    This article considers ideological, pedagogical and constitutive functions of children's picture books, with particular emphasis on the ways in which texts construct children and childhood in economic terms. Through an analysis of Lauren Childs' "Hubert Horatio Bartle Bobton-Trent" and Anthony Browne's "Voices in the Park", the article…

  17. Revisiting the picture-superiority effect in symbolic comparisons: do pictures provide privileged access?

    PubMed

    Amrhein, Paul C; McDaniel, Mark A; Waddill, Paula

    2002-09-01

    In 4 experiments, symbolic comparisons were investigated to test semantic-memory retrieval accounts espousing processing advantages for picture over word stimuli. In Experiment 1, participants judged pairs of animal names or pictures by responding to questions probing concrete or abstract attributes (texture or size, ferocity or intelligence). Per pair, attributes were salient or nonsalient concerning their prerated relevance to animals being compared. Distance (near or far) between attribute magnitudes was also varied. Pictures did not significantly speed responding relative to words across all other variables. Advantages were found forfar attribute magnitudes (i.e., the distance effect) and salient attributes. The distance effect was much less for salient than nonsalient concrete-attribute comparisons. These results were consistently found in additional experiments with increased statistical power to detect modality effects. Our findings argue against dual-coding and some common-code accounts of conceptual attribute processing, urging reexamination of the assumption that pictures confer privileged access to long-term knowledge. PMID:12219794

  18. Apparent Frequency of Words and Pictures as a Function of Pronunciation and Imagery. Technical Report No. 238.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghatala, Elizabeth S.; And Others

    This study applied a frequency theory to measure the superiority of pictures over words in both discrimination learning and recognition memory tasks. Three groups of sixth grade students were given separate instructions before viewing slides of either common objects or words. The first group (control) was asked to study the items shown, the second…

  19. Accuracy of food portion size estimation from digital pictures acquired by a chest-worn camera

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wenyan; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Yue, Yaofeng; Li, Zhaoxin; Fernstrom, John; Bai, Yicheng; Li, Chengliu; Sun, Mingui

    2014-01-01

    Objective Accurate estimation of food portion size is of paramount importance in dietary studies. We have developed a small, chest-worn electronic device called eButton which automatically takes pictures of consumed foods for objective dietary assessment. From the acquired pictures, the food portion size can be calculated semi-automatically with the help of computer software. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the accuracy of the calculated food portion size (volumes) from eButton pictures. Design Participants wore an eButton during their lunch. The volume of food in each eButton picture was calculated using software. For comparison, three raters estimated the food volume by viewing the same picture. The actual volume was determined by physical measurement using seed displacement. Setting Dining room and offices in a research laboratory. Subjects Seven lab member volunteers. Results Images of 100 food samples (fifty Western and fifty Asian foods) were collected and each food volume was estimated from these images using software. The mean relative error between the estimated volume and the actual volume over all the samples was −2.8 % (95 % CI −6.8 %, 1.2%) with SD of 20.4 %. For eighty-five samples, the food volumes determined by computer differed by no more than 30 % from the results of actual physical measurements. When the volume estimates by the computer and raters were compared, the computer estimates showed much less bias and variability. Conclusions From the same eButton pictures, the computer-based method provides more objective and accurate estimates of food volume than the visual estimation method. PMID:24476848

  20. Picturing and modelling catchments by representative hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loritz, Ralf; Hassler, Sibylle; Jackisch, Conrad; Zehe, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological modelling studies often start with a qualitative sketch of the hydrological processes of a catchment. These so-called perceptual models are often pictured as hillslopes and are generalizations displaying only the dominant and relevant processes of a catchment or hillslope. The problem with these models is that they are prone to become too much predetermined by the designer's background and experience. Moreover it is difficult to know if that picture is correct and contains enough complexity to represent the system under study. Nevertheless, because of their qualitative form, perceptual models are easy to understand and can be an excellent tool for multidisciplinary exchange between researchers with different backgrounds, helping to identify the dominant structures and processes in a catchment. In our study we explore whether a perceptual model built upon an intensive field campaign may serve as a blueprint for setting up representative hillslopes in a hydrological model to reproduce the functioning of two distinctly different catchments. We use a physically-based 2D hillslope model which has proven capable to be driven by measured soil-hydrological parameters. A key asset of our approach is that the model structure itself remains a picture of the perceptual model, which is benchmarked against a) geo-physical images of the subsurface and b) observed dynamics of discharge, distributed state variables and fluxes (soil moisture, matric potential and sap flow). Within this approach we are able to set up two behavioral model structures which allow the simulation of the most important hydrological fluxes and state variables in good accordance with available observations within the 19.4 km2 large Colpach catchment and the 4.5 km2 large Wollefsbach catchment in Luxembourg without the necessity of calibration. This corroborates, contrary to the widespread opinion, that a) lower mesoscale catchments may be modelled by representative hillslopes and b) physically

  1. What Is an eBook? What Is a Book App? And Why Should We Care? An Analysis of Contemporary Digital Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargeant, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Book apps have developed into a new format for the picture book. Given the crucial role that picture books have played in early childhood education, it seems pertinent to ascertain the ways in which they have been affected by digitisation. In response to concerns regarding a lack of models and design principles within children's digital…

  2. Interaction picture density matrix quantum Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Malone, Fionn D; Blunt, N S; Shepherd, James J; Lee, D K K; Spencer, J S; Foulkes, W M C

    2015-07-28

    The recently developed density matrix quantum Monte Carlo (DMQMC) algorithm stochastically samples the N-body thermal density matrix and hence provides access to exact properties of many-particle quantum systems at arbitrary temperatures. We demonstrate that moving to the interaction picture provides substantial benefits when applying DMQMC to interacting fermions. In this first study, we focus on a system of much recent interest: the uniform electron gas in the warm dense regime. The basis set incompleteness error at finite temperature is investigated and extrapolated via a simple Monte Carlo sampling procedure. Finally, we provide benchmark calculations for a four-electron system, comparing our results to previous work where possible. PMID:26233116

  3. Dwarfism and gigantism in historical picture postcards.

    PubMed

    Enderle, A

    1998-05-01

    A collection of 893 historical picture postcards from 1900 to 1935, depicting dwarfs and giants, was analysed from medical and psychosocial viewpoints. In conditions such as 'bird headed dwarfism', achondroplasia, cretinism, so-called Aztecs or pinheads, Grebe chondrodysplasia, and acromegalic gigantism, the disorder could be diagnosed easily. In hypopituitary dwarfism, exact diagnosis was more difficult because of heterogeneity. The most common conditions depicted were pituitary dwarfism and achondroplasia. Most of those with gigantism had pituitary gigantism and acromegaly. Brothers and sisters or parents and their children provided evidence of mendelian inheritance of some of these disorders. The cards suggest that being put on show provided, at least in some cases, social benefits. PMID:9764085

  4. A Picture of the Moon's Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Flynn, B; Mendillo, M

    1993-07-01

    Atomic sodium is a useful tracer of the tenuous lunar atmosphere because of its high efficiency in scattering sunlight at the D(1) (5896 angstroms) and D(2) (5890 angstroms) wavelengths. In 1988, Earth-based instruments revealed the presence of sodium at a density of less than 50 atoms per cubic centimeter at lunar altitudes below 100 kilometers. Telescopic observations that are made with a coronograph technique to block out the disk of the moon allow a true picture of the circumiunar atmosphere to be obtained and show the presence of sodium out to a distance of several lunar radii. The distribution of sodium has a solar zenith angle dependence, suggesting that most of the sodium that reaches great altitudes is liberated from the moon's surface by solar photons (by heating or sputtering) or by solar wind impact, in contrast to a source driven by uniform micrometeor bombardment. PMID:17829272

  5. A picture of the moon's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Brian; Mendillo, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Atomic sodium is a useful tracer of the tenuous lunar atmosphere because of its high efficiency in scattering sunlight at the D1 (5896 angstroms) and D2 (5890 angstroms) wavelengths. In 1988, Earth-based instruments revealed the presence of sodium at a density of less than 50 atoms per cubic centimeter at lunar altitudes below 100 kilometers. Telescopic observations that are made with a coronograph technique to block out the disk of the moon allow a true picture of the circumlunar atmosphere to be obtained and show the presence of sodium out to a distance of several lunar radii. The distribution of sodium has a solar zenith angle dependence, suggesting that most of the sodium that reaches great altitudes is liberated from the moon's surface by solar photons (by heating or sputtering) or by solar wind impact, in contrast to a source driven by uniform micrometeor bombardment.

  6. A picture of the moon's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, B.; Mendillo, M.

    1993-07-01

    Atomic sodium is a useful tracer of the tenuous lunar atmosphere because of its high efficiency in scattering sunlight at the D1 (5896 angstroms) and D2 (5890 angstroms) wavelengths. In 1988, Earth-based instruments revealed the presence of sodium at a density of less than 50 atoms per cubic centimeter at lunar altitudes below 100 kilometers. Telescopic observations that are made with a coronograph technique to block out the disk of the moon allow a true picture of the circumlunar atmosphere to be obtained and show the presence of sodium out to a distance of several lunar radii. The distribution of sodium has a solar zenith angle dependence, suggesting that most of the sodium that reaches great altitudes is liberated from the moon's surface by solar photons (by heating or sputtering) or by solar wind impact, in contrast to a source driven by uniform micrometeor bombardment.

  7. Identifying Occupationally Specific Affective Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)

  8. Low Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Wai; Yeh, Pen-Shu; Sank, Victor; Nyugen, Xuan; Xia, Wei; Duran, Steve; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Low-Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) is a proposed standard for direct broadcast transmission of satellite weather images. This standard is a joint effort by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As a digital transmission scheme, its purpose is to replace the current analog Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) system for use in the Meteorological Operational (METOP) satellites. Goddard Space Flight Center has been tasked to build an LRPT Demonstration System (LDS). It's main objective is to develop or demonstrate the feasibility of a low-cost receiver utilizing a Personal Computer (PC) as the primary processing component and determine the performance of the protocol in the simulated Radio Frequency (RF) environment. The approach would consist of two phases. In the phase 1, a Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) Modulator-Demodulator (MODEM) board that would perform RF demodulation would be purchased allowing the Central Processing Unit (CPU) to perform the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) protocol processing. Also since the weather images are compressed the PC would perform the decompression. Phase 1 was successfully demonstrated on December 1997. Phase 2 consists of developing a high-fidelity receiver, transmitter and environment simulator. Its goal is to find out how the METOP Specification performs in a simulated noise environment in a cost-effective receiver. The approach would be to produce a receiver using as much software as possible to perform front-end processing to take advantage of the latest high-speed PCs. Thus the COTS MODEM used in Phase 1 is performing RF demodulation along with data acquisition providing data to the receiving software. Also, environment simulator is produced using the noise patterns generated by Institute for Telecommunications Sciences (ITS) from their noise environment study.

  9. MONTANA VIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:Montana View is a decision support tool designed to assist with environmental and natural resource management in Montana. Montana View is based on a review platform and provides an interface for various environmental queries. It also provides online access...

  10. Affective responsiveness, betrayal, and childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Reichmann-Decker, Aimee; DePrince, Anne P; McIntosh, Daniel N

    2009-01-01

    Several trauma-specific and emotion theories suggest that alterations in children's typical affective responses may serve an attachment function in the context of abuse by a caregiver or close other. For example, inhibiting negative emotional responses or expressions might help the child preserve a relationship with an abusive caregiver. Past research in this area has relied on self-report methods to discover links between affective responsiveness and caregiver abuse. Extending this literature, the current study used facial electromyography to assess affective responsiveness with 2 measures: mimicry of emotional facial expressions and affective modulation of startle. We predicted that women who reported childhood abuse by close others would show alterations in affective responsiveness relative to their peers. We tested 100 undergraduate women who reported histories of (a) childhood sexual or physical abuse by someone close, such as a parent (high-betrayal); (b) childhood abuse by someone not close (low-betrayal); or (c) no abuse in childhood (no-abuse). Especially when viewing women's emotional expressions, the high-betrayal group showed more mimicry of happy and less mimicry of angry faces relative to women who reported no- or low-betrayal abuse, who showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, women who reported high-betrayal abuse showed less affective modulation of startle during pictures depicting men threatening women than did the other two groups. Findings suggest that, as predicted by betrayal trauma theory, women who have experienced high-betrayal abuse show alterations in automatic emotional processes consistent with caregiving-maintenance goals in an abusive environment. PMID:19585337

  11. Identifying Core Affect in Individuals from fMRI Responses to Dynamic Naturalistic Audiovisual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wang, Jing; Wedell, Douglas H; Shinkareva, Svetlana V

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that affective states elicited by viewing pictures varying in valence and arousal are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Identification of affective states from more naturalistic stimuli has clinical relevance, but the feasibility of identifying these states on an individual trial basis from fMRI data elicited by dynamic multimodal stimuli is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether affective states can be similarly identified when participants view dynamic naturalistic audiovisual stimuli. Eleven participants viewed 5s audiovisual clips in a passive viewing task in the scanner. Valence and arousal for individual trials were identified both within and across participants based on distributed patterns of activity in areas selectively responsive to audiovisual naturalistic stimuli while controlling for lower level features of the stimuli. In addition, the brain regions identified by searchlight analyses to represent valence and arousal were consistent with previously identified regions associated with emotion processing. These findings extend previous results on the distributed representation of affect to multimodal dynamic stimuli. PMID:27598534

  12. From archives to picture archiving and communications systems.

    PubMed

    Verhelle, F; Van den Broeck, R; Osteaux, M

    1995-12-01

    Keeping organised and consistent film archives is a well-known problem in the radiological world. With the introduction of digital modalities (CT, MR,...) the idea of archiving the image data in a non common way was born. The aim is to keep the information in digital form from acquisition to destination, e.g. archives, viewing station, teleradiology, a task that was not as easy as some people believed, due to bare technical possibilities and to the lack of standards concerning medical image data. These reasons made it not so common to integrate components of different origins into a digital Picture Archiving and Communication environment. How should we attempt to integrate the analogue examinations? It is ridiculous to exclude the conventional XR-examination that accounts for more than 70% of the total production. We believe that there will be a migration to light-stimulable phosphor plates, but these are not yet user friendly and certainly not cost effective. We have similar problems of immature technology as we had for the digital modalities. In a first attempt the bridge can be crossed, between the two worlds by means of converters (laser scanner, CCD camera). PACS will become a reality in the future as almost all examinations will be digitalized. We are now in a transition period with its inconveniences, but we will gain a lot soon. The migration from piles of films through a computer assisted radiological archiving system to a full digital environment is sketched in a historical survey. PMID:8576029

  13. DeepTalk: A complete conference in a picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Gordon

    2010-04-01

    Particle physics conferences lasting a week (like CHEP) can have 100's of talks and posters presented. Current conference web interfaces (like Indico) are well suited to finding a talk by author or by time-slot. However, browsing the complete material in a modern large conference is not user friendly. Browsing involves continually making the expensive transition between HTML viewing and talk-slides (which are either PDF files or some other format). Further the web interfaces aren't designed for undirected browsing. The advent of multi-core computing and advanced video cards means that we have more processor power available for visualization than any time in the past. This poster describes a technique of rendering a complete conference's slides and posters as a single very large picture. Standard plug-in software for a browser allows a user to zoom in on a portion of the conference that looks interesting. As the user zooms further more and more details become visible, allowing the user to make a quick and chep decision on whether to spend more time on a particular talk. The project, DeepConference, has been implemented as a public web site and can render any conference whose agenda is powered by Indico. The rendering technology is powered by the free download, Silverlight. The poster discusses the implementation and use as well as cross platform performance and possible future directions. A demo will be shown.

  14. Vector representation of user's view using self-organizing map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ae, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Tomohisa; Monden, Eri; Kawabata, Shunji; Kamitani, Motoki

    2004-05-01

    There exist various objects, such as pictures, music, texts, etc., around our environment. We have a view for these objects by looking, reading or listening. Our view is concerned with our behaviors deeply, and is very important to understand our behaviors. Therefore, we propose a method which acquires a view as a vector, and apply the vector to sequence generation. We focus on sequences of the data of which a user selects from a multimedia database containing pictures, music, movie, etc.. These data cannot be stereotyped because user's view for them changes by each user. Therefore, we represent the structure of the multimedia database as the vector representing user's view and the stereotyped vector, and acquire sequences containing the structure as elements. We demonstrate a city-sequence generation system which reflects user's intension as an application of sequence generation containing user's view. We apply the self-organizing map to this system to represent user's view.

  15. The Big Picture. Spotlight: Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Joy

    1995-01-01

    Examines the influence of prenatal sex hormones on later behavior and social learning that results from differential treatment of boys and girls by parents and peers. Also explores differences in academic achievement between boys and girls. Concludes that, contrary to the views of some parents and teachers in the 1970s and 1980s, inborn gender…

  16. Picture THIS: Taking Human Impact Seriously

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia; Patrick, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Unfortunately, middle school students often view human impact as an abstract idea over which they have no control and do not see themselves as contributing to the Earth's environmental decline. How better to uncover students' ideas concerning human impact in their local community than to have them take photographs. With this objective in mind, the…

  17. Introducing Students to "The Big Picture."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Lawrence

    2001-01-01

    Business students view commercial films depicting management issues such as hostile takeover, organizational culture, and international business competition. Lectures, readings, and interviews give students background information with which to assess the films. The technique enables students to observe and understand stakeholder interactions in…

  18. The Big Picture: Developing Musical Capacities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaschub, Michele; Smith, Janice P.

    2016-01-01

    Creating, performing, responding, and connecting are often central foci in the development of music education curricula. While these meta-organizers provide a sense of direction for planning instruction, greater depths of knowledge and skill could be achieved if these actions were viewed as means rather than ends in music education. The profession…

  19. Social Attitudes toward Cerebral Palsy and Potential Uses in Medical Education Based on the Analysis of Motion Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Jóźwiak, Marek; Chen, Brian Po-Jung; Musielak, Bartosz; Fabiszak, Jacek; Grzegorzewski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    This study presents how motion pictures illustrate a person with cerebral palsy (CP), the social impact from the media, and the possibility of cerebral palsy education by using motion pictures. 937 motion pictures were reviewed in this study. With the criteria of nondocumentary movies, possibility of disability classification, and availability, the total number of motion pictures about CP was reduced to 34. The geographical distribution of movie number ever produced is as follows: North America 12, Europe 11, India 2, East Asia 6, and Australia 3. The CP incidences of different motor types in real world and in movies, respectively, are 78–86%, 65% (Spastic); 1.5–6%, 9% (Dyskinetic); 6.5–9%, 26% (Mixed); 3%, 0% (Ataxic); 3-4%, 0% (Hypotonic). The CP incidences of different Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels in real world and in movies, respectively, are 40–51%, 47% (Level I + II); 14–19%, 12% (Level III); 34–41%, 41% (Level IV + V). Comparisons of incidence between the real world and the movies are surprisingly matching. Motion pictures honestly reflect the general public's point of view to CP patients in our real world. With precise selection and medical professional explanations, motion pictures can play the suitable role making CP understood more clearly. PMID:26257472

  20. Social Attitudes toward Cerebral Palsy and Potential Uses in Medical Education Based on the Analysis of Motion Pictures.

    PubMed

    Jóźwiak, Marek; Chen, Brian Po-Jung; Musielak, Bartosz; Fabiszak, Jacek; Grzegorzewski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    This study presents how motion pictures illustrate a person with cerebral palsy (CP), the social impact from the media, and the possibility of cerebral palsy education by using motion pictures. 937 motion pictures were reviewed in this study. With the criteria of nondocumentary movies, possibility of disability classification, and availability, the total number of motion pictures about CP was reduced to 34. The geographical distribution of movie number ever produced is as follows: North America 12, Europe 11, India 2, East Asia 6, and Australia 3. The CP incidences of different motor types in real world and in movies, respectively, are 78-86%, 65% (Spastic); 1.5-6%, 9% (Dyskinetic); 6.5-9%, 26% (Mixed); 3%, 0% (Ataxic); 3-4%, 0% (Hypotonic). The CP incidences of different Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels in real world and in movies, respectively, are 40-51%, 47% (Level I + II); 14-19%, 12% (Level III); 34-41%, 41% (Level IV + V). Comparisons of incidence between the real world and the movies are surprisingly matching. Motion pictures honestly reflect the general public's point of view to CP patients in our real world. With precise selection and medical professional explanations, motion pictures can play the suitable role making CP understood more clearly. PMID:26257472

  1. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIVING ROOM. NOTE THE FIVEPANEL DOUBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIVING ROOM. NOTE THE FIVE-PANEL DOUBLE ACTING DOOR TO THE KITCHEN AND SINGLE-PANEL DOORS TO THE CHINA CABINET IN THE DINING ROOM. ALSO NOTE THAT THE NARROW GAP BETWEEN THE PICTURE RAIL AND CEILING IS NOT FILLED IN. VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type K, 304 Sixth Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  2. INTERIOR VIEW OF BEDROOM 1. SHOWING THE BOARD AND BATTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BEDROOM 1. SHOWING THE BOARD AND BATTEN WALLS WITH PICTURE RAIL. NOTE THE MIRROR-PANEL CLOSET DOOR AND FIVE-PANEL DOOR TO THE HALL. VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Y, 27 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  3. INTERIOR VIEW OF BEDROOM 1. SHOWING THE BOARD AND BATTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BEDROOM 1. SHOWING THE BOARD AND BATTEN WALLS AND CEILING, AND FRONT WINDOWS WITH TOP LIGHTS DIVIDED BY DIAGONAL MUNTINS. NOTE THE PICTURE RAIL AND SHOULDERED WINDOW CASINGS. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Z, 19 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  4. North looking view of portion of Massachusetts and New Hampshire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A north looking view of portions of Massachusetts and New Hampshire in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This picture includes a view of Boston and Boston Bay, Lowell, Manchester, Lawrence, and Salem.

  5. [FEATURES MORPHOLOGICAL PICTURE FACIES ORAL LIQUID IN PREGNANT].

    PubMed

    Iakovets, O V

    2015-01-01

    The features of morphological picture facies oral fluid of pregnant women with intact periodontal inflammatory diseases periodontal tissues. Results of the study were compared with the clinical picture. The features of morphological picture of the oral liquid with a healthy non-pregnant and periodontal inflammatory periodontal diseases in pregnant women. Revealed signs of inflammation markers in oral fluid facies in inflammatory processes in periodontal tissues. PMID:27089718

  6. False Recollection of Emotional Pictures in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, David A.; Foster, Katherine T.; Wong, Jessica T.; Bennett, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) can reduce the effects of emotional content on memory for studied pictures, but less is known about false memory. In healthy adults, emotionally arousing pictures can be more susceptible to false memory effects than neutral pictures, potentially because emotional pictures share conceptual similarities that cause memory confusions. We investigatedthese effects in AD patients and healthy controls. Participants studied pictures and their verbal labels, and then picture recollection was tested using verbal labels as retrieval cues. Some of the test labels had been associated with a picture at study, whereas other had not. On this picture recollection test, we found that both AD patients and controlsincorrectly endorsed some of the test labels that had not been studiedwith pictures. These errors were associated with medium to high levels of confidence, indicating some degree of false recollection. Critically, these false recollection judgments were greater for emotionalcompared to neutral items, especially for positively valenced items, in both AD patients and controls. Dysfunction of the amygdala and hippocampusin early AD may impairrecollection, but ADdid not disrupt the effect of emotion on false recollection judgments. PMID:20727904

  7. Development of NATO's recognized environmental picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teufert, John F.; Trabelsi, Mourad

    2006-05-01

    An important element for the fielding of a viable, effective NATO Response Force (NRF) is access to meteorological, oceanographic, geospatial data (GEOMETOC) and imagery. Currently, the available GEOMETOC information suffers from being very fragmented. NATO defines the Recognised Environmental Picture as controlled information base for GEOMETOC data. The NATO REP proposes an architecture that is both flexible and open. The focus lies on enabling a network-centric approach. The key into achieving this is relying on using open, well recognized standards that apply to both the data exchange protocols and the data formats. Communication and information exchange based on open standards enables system interoperability. Diverse systems, each with unique, specialized contributions to an increased understanding of the battlespace, can now cooperate to a manageable information sphere. By clearly defining responsibilities in the generation of information, a reduction in data transfer overhead is achieved . REP identifies three main stages in the dissemination of GEOMETOC data. These are Collection, Fusion (and Analysis) and Publication. A REP architecture has been successfully deployed during the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (CWID) in Lillehammer, Norway during June 2005. CWID is an annual event to validate and improve the interoperability of NATO and national Consultation and command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. With a test case success rate of 84%, it was able to provide relevant GEOMETOC support to the main NRF component headquarters. In 2006, the REP architecture will be deployed and validated during the NATO NRF Steadfast live exercises.

  8. A simple picture for structural glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gennes, Pierre-Gilles

    2002-11-01

    This paper is an essay on mosaic structures in glasses, and their possible role in relaxation phenomena. (a) Near Tg the fluid is assumed to contain clusters, slightly more compact than the matrix: they cannot grow in size because of frustration effects, as noted by Kivelson and others. (Mode/mode coupling theories cannot describe this, because they do not incorporate frustration.) The size of the clusters corresponds to the Boson peak wavelength. (b) We propose that the standard free volume picture may be transposed: (i) clusters move rather than molecules, (ii) the required cavity space ('vacancy') for cluster motion is not empty, but filled with the low density matrix. (The old criticism against free volume based on pressure effects is thus removed.) (c) To reach one cluster, a 'vacancy' must hop through many 'traps': the distribution of hopping times ultimately leads to a stretched exponential for the relaxation, as argued by Bendler and Schlesinger. To cite this article: P.-G. de Gennes, C. R. Physique 3 (2002) 1263-1268.

  9. Affective disturbance associated with premenstrual dysphoric disorder does not disrupt emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception.

    PubMed

    Rhudy, Jamie L; Bartley, Emily J; Palit, Shreela; Kuhn, Bethany L; Kerr, Kara L; Martin, Satin L; DelVentura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L

    2014-10-01

    In healthy individuals, emotions modulate pain and spinal nociception according to a valence linear trend (ie, pain/nociception is highest during negative emotions and lowest during positive emotions). However, emerging evidence suggests that emotional modulation of pain (but not spinal nociception) is disrupted in fibromyalgia and disorders associated with chronic pain risk (eg, major depression, insomnia). The present study attempted to extend this work and to examine whether women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), a cyclical syndrome associated with debilitating affective symptoms during the late-luteal (premenstrual) phase of the menstrual cycle, is also associated with disrupted emotional modulation of pain. To do so, an affective picture-viewing procedure was used to study emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in 14 women with PMDD and 14 control women during mid-follicular, ovulatory, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle (verified by salivary hormone levels and luteinizing hormone tests). At each phase, mutilation, neutral, and erotic pictures were presented to manipulate emotion. During picture viewing, suprathreshold electrocutaneous stimuli were presented to evoke pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR; a physiological measure of spinal nociception). Statistically powerful linear mixed model analyses confirmed that pictures evoked the intended emotional states in both groups across all menstrual phases. Furthermore, emotion modulated pain and NFR according to a valence linear trend in both groups and across all menstrual phases. Thus, PMDD-related affective disturbance is not associated with a failure to emotionally modulate pain, suggesting that PMDD does not share this pain phenotype with major depression, insomnia, and fibromyalgia. PMID:25139588

  10. Picture Norms for Chinese Preschool Children: Name Agreement, Familiarity, and Visual Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lamei; Chen, Chia-Wen; Zhu, Liqi

    2014-01-01

    Pictorial stimuli standardized for Chinese children are still absent although it is needed in order to test the development of children's cognitive functions. This study presents normative measures for Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures, viewed by 4- and 6-year old Chinese children. Name agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity were obtained for each age group. The data indicate substantial differences between young and older children in name agreement based on expected name, familiarity and visual complexity. The correlation pattern of the variables collected in the present study were consistent with children's norms in other languages and norms of Chinese adults, while there are cross-age and cross-culture differences in specific variables. The obtained measures represent a useful tool for further research on Chinese children's pictorial processing and constitute the first picture normative study for children in this language. PMID:24599271

  11. Immersive Photography Renders 360 degree Views

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    An SBIR contract through Langley Research Center helped Interactive Pictures Corporation, of Knoxville, Tennessee, create an innovative imaging technology. This technology is a video imaging process that allows real-time control of live video data and can provide users with interactive, panoramic 360 views. The camera system can see in multiple directions, provide up to four simultaneous views, each with its own tilt, rotation, and magnification, yet it has no moving parts, is noiseless, and can respond faster than the human eye. In addition, it eliminates the distortion caused by a fisheye lens, and provides a clear, flat view of each perspective.

  12. Human freezing in response to affective films.

    PubMed

    Hagenaars, Muriel A; Roelofs, Karin; Stins, John F

    2014-01-01

    Human freezing has been objectively assessed using a passive picture viewing paradigm as an analog for threat. These results should be replicated for other stimuli in order to determine their stability and generalizability. Affective films are used frequently to elicit affective responses, but it is unknown whether they also elicit freezing-like defense responses. To test whether this is the case, 50 participants watched neutral, pleasant and unpleasant film fragments while standing on a stabilometric platform and wearing a polar band to assess heart rate. Freezing-like responses (indicated by overall reduced body sway and heart rate deceleration) were observed for the unpleasant film only. The unpleasant film also elicited early reduced body sway (1-2 s after stimulus onset). Heart rate and body sway were correlated during the unpleasant film only. The results suggest that ecologically valid stimuli like films are adequate stimuli in evoking defense responses. The results also underscore the importance of including time courses in human experimental research on defense reactions in order to delineate different stages in the defense response. PMID:23805855

  13. MISR Views Hurricane Carlotta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    With winds reaching 155 mph, this year's Hurricane Carlotta became the second strongest eastern Pacific June hurricane on record. These images from MISR show the hurricane on June 21, the day of its peak intensity. The pictures are oriented so that the spacecraft's flight path is from left to right; north is at the left.

    The top image is a color view from MISR's vertical (nadir) camera, showing Carlotta's location in the eastern Pacific Ocean, about 500 km south of Puerto Vallarta, Mexico.

    The middle image is a stereoscopic 'anaglyph' created using MISR's nadir camera plus one of its aftward-viewing cameras, and shows a closer view of the area around the hurricane. Viewing with red/blue glasses (red filter over the left eye) is required to obtain a 3-D stereo effect.

    Near the center of the storm, the eye is about 25 km in diameter and partially obscured by a thin cloud. About 50 km to the left of the eye, the sharp drop-off from high-level to low-level cloud gives a sense of the vertical extent of the hidden eye wall. The low-level cloud is spiraling counterclockwise into the center of the cyclone. It then rises in the vicinity of the eye wall and emerges with a clockwise rotation at high altitude. Maximum surface winds are found near the eye wall.

    The bottom stereo image is a zoomed-in view of convective clouds in the hurricane's spiral arms. The arms are breeding grounds for severe thunderstorms, with associated heavy rain and flooding, frequent lightning, and tornadoes. Thunderstorms rise in dramatic fashion to about the same altitude as the high cloud near the hurricane's center, and are made up of individual cells that are typically less than 20 km in diameter. This image shows a number of these cells, some fairly isolated, and others connected together. Their three-dimensional structure is clearly apparent in this stereo view.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science

  14. Picture archiving and communications systems (PACS).

    PubMed

    Honeyman, J C; Frost, M M; Huda, W; Loeffler, W; Ott, M; Staab, E V

    1994-01-01

    Although there has been a recent increase in interest in picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) topics, little has been published to assist the non-technical person in understanding the complexities of the technologies required for a PACS implementation. This issue of Current Problems in Radiology defines each PACS component and explains why each is important in a system design. PACS installations at the University of Florida are used as examples to tie the concepts together. The infrastructure required for PACS consists of the information system interfaces, networks, and databases. Information system interfaces guarantee consistent patient data across all platforms and reduce labor requirements by eliminating duplicate data entry. Data networks move information from the originating location to users around the hospital, clinic, campus, city, or world. In the PACS environment, the data consist of patient and study information as well as images and information about these images. Databases organize the data from multiple sources into a coherent package that can be queried for many different purposes, such as retrieving images, reviewing patient and study information, studying practice statistics, and performing outcomes analysis. PACS components consist of acquisition nodes, archives, and output devices. Acquisition nodes may include "digital modalities" such as CT, MRI, nuclear medicine, and computed radiography (CR), along with devices to convert from analog to digital, such as digitizers and frame grabbers. Options for archives are discussed along with configuration schemes. Output devices include both hard copy (film and paper prints) and soft copy (workstations for display and diagnosis). Finally, a description of the PACS installations at the University of Florida is presented, with comments on some of the difficulties and complexities encountered. A discussion of the cost and benefits of PACS is included, along with a forecast of the future of

  15. Images of Chinese and Chinese Americans Mirrored in Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Mingshui

    1994-01-01

    Examines how 73 picture storybooks portrayed Chinese and Chinese Americans and how the books reflect the Chinese culture. Finds that most present positive images of Chinese and Chinese Americans, that cultural inauthenticity is the main flaw of many books, and that more picture books are needed that feature flesh and blood contemporary Chinese and…

  16. The Mariner 6 and 7 pictures of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, S. A., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    A comprehensive set of high quality reproductions of the final, computer-processed television pictures of Mars is presented. The genesis and unique characteristics of the pictures are explained, interesting features are pointed out, and some indication of their significance in the history of Mars investigations is provided.

  17. Evoking the World of Poetic Nonfiction Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Ted

    2012-01-01

    An increasingly prevalent and accessible form of hybrid nonfiction picture books blends factual information with poetry or poetic devices to create literary nonfiction. This important form of hybrid text has been sparsely examined. This article addresses three questions about poetic nonfiction picture books: first, how might we categorize picture…

  18. Picture Book Exposure Elicits Positive Visual Preferences in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston-Price, Carmel; Burton, Eliza; Hickinson, Rachel; Inett, Jade; Moore, Emma; Salmon, Katherine; Shiba, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Although the relationship between "mere exposure" and attitude enhancement is well established in the adult domain, there has been little similar work with children. This article examines whether toddlers' visual attention toward pictures of foods can be enhanced by repeated visual exposure to pictures of foods in a parent-administered picture…

  19. Effects of Strategy Instructions on Learning from Text and Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leopold, Claudia; Doerner, Marcel; Leutner, Detlev; Dutke, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    In two experiments, we compared effects of instructions that encourage learners to create referential connections between words and pictures with instructions that distract learners from creating referential connections. In Experiment 1, students read a scientific text under four conditions. In the text-picture condition, students read the…

  20. Classic Classroom Activities: The Oxford Picture Dictionary Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Renee; Adelson-Goldstein, Jayme; Shapiro, Norma

    This teacher resource book offers over 100 reproducible communicative practice activities and 768 picture cards based on the vocabulary of the Oxford Picture Dictionary. Teacher's notes and instructions, including adaptations for multilevel classes, are provided. The activities book has up-to-date art and graphics, explaining over 3700 words. The…

  1. Teaching Thinking Skills with Picture Books, K-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polette, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Many of the most talented authors and artists of the past and present have shared their thoughts and their gifts with young children through picture books. Many picture books allow young children to explore important ideas and to stretch their minds far beyond rote memorization. Young children absorb knowledge at a very rapid pace. In an age of…

  2. A Factor Analytic Study of Children's Picture Interpretation Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Leslie C.

    1978-01-01

    This study focused on the psychological process involved in drawing inferences from pictures. Nineteen reference tests and two tests of picture interpretation behavior were administered to a random sample of 95 children aged 10-12: the Production of Inference Tests (PIT) and the Discovery of Similarities Test (DST). (JEG)

  3. The History of Black Star Picture Agency: "Life's" European Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. Zoe

    Historians of photography have failed to explore the origins of the Black Star Picture Agency and how it introduced experienced photojournalists to Henry Luce, a publisher attempting to break new ground in American journalism with the introduction of a picture magazine, "Life," in 1936. Black Star's founders, Ernest Mayer, Kurt Kornfeld, and Kurt…

  4. The Big Picture College: A Model High School Program Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scurry, Jamie E.; Littky, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The Providence-based Big Picture Company has transformed the American high school experience for low-income, urban students. Now it is ready to take on a new challenge: redesigning the American college. In this article, the authors discuss how the Big Picture College will build a curriculum that emphasizes students' interests, integrates…

  5. Electrophysiological Evidence for Size Invariance in Masked Picture Repetition Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Marianna D.; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment examined invariance in object representations through measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) to pictures in a masked repetition priming paradigm. Pairs of pictures were presented where the prime was either the same size or half the size of the target object and the target was either presented in a normal orientation or was a…

  6. Visualising Cultures: The "European Picture Book Collection" Moves "Down Under"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Penni; Daly, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The potential for picture books in national collections to act as mirrors reflecting the reader's cultural identity, is widely accepted. This paper shows that the books in a New Zealand Picture Book Collection can also become windows into unfamiliar worlds for non-New Zealand readers, giving them the opportunity to learn more about a context in…

  7. Individual Differences in Distraction by Pictures in a Reading Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willows, Dale M.

    Recent research projects demonstrate that pictures in reading textbooks have a negative effect on the word-decoding ability of young readers. This particular study questioned whether the relative difficulty of the words being read determines the effect that pictures have on good, normal, and poor readers. After pretesting to determine reading…

  8. Teaching Fractions and Decimals: Fun with Picture Grids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stix, Andi

    In these two companion papers, a learning activity is introduced that teaches students how mathematics works through the visual aid of picture grids. The picture grids are composed of 60 different acrylic stained-glass window overlays. Each fractional part is represented by a different color: fifths are green, quarters are yellow, etc. The square…

  9. Magazine Geography: Using Magazine Pictures To Enhance Social Studies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This lesson focuses on student use of magazine pictures of a region in Australia to understand the region and discover more about it. The students begin by mental mapping of the area to discover what they already know, then proceed to explore the pictures for verification or for new ideas which they had not considered previously. This is an…

  10. Screen of cylindrical lenses produces stereoscopic television pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nork, C. L.

    1966-01-01

    Stereoscopic television pictures are produced by placing a colorless, transparent screen of adjacent parallel cylindrical lenses before a raster from two synchronized TV cameras. Alternate frames from alternate cameras are displayed. The viewers sensory perception fuses the two images into one three-dimensional picture.

  11. The Motion Picture in Science Education: "One Hundred Percent Efficiency."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth P.

    1999-01-01

    Provides an historical overview of the development of the motion picture as a tool within the context of science education. Examines the use of technology as a teaching tool in terms of scientific literacy and the means by which the motion picture helped to accomplish scientific literacy goals. (Author/CCM)

  12. Distance-Dependent Processing of Pictures and Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amit, Elinor; Algom, Daniel; Trope, Yaacov

    2009-01-01

    A series of 8 experiments investigated the association between pictorial and verbal representations and the psychological distance of the referent objects from the observer. The results showed that people better process pictures that represent proximal objects and words that represent distal objects than pictures that represent distal objects and…

  13. Exploring the World of Music through Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1990-01-01

    Describes how children's picture books with musical themes explore the world of music and how the use of these books can enrich a whole language curriculum. Shares how picture books with musical themes can be integrated into various curriculum plans. (MG)

  14. Using Picture Books as Paired Texts to Teach Educational Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yang; Bintz, William P.

    2015-01-01

    Picture books, when used thoughtfully and artfully, can teach theories to graduate students in literacy and foreign language education. In this article, the authors described how a pair of picture books is used to teach Vygotsky's "Zone of Proximal Development" and Krashen's "Input Hypothesis" in the fields of literacy…

  15. Creating Science Picture Books for an Authentic Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFauw, Danielle L.; Saad, Klodia

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an authentic writing opportunity to help ninth-grade students use the writing process in a science classroom to write and illustrate picture books for fourth-grade students to demonstrate and share their understanding of a biology unit on cells. By creating a picture book, students experience the writing process, understand…

  16. Developmental Differences in Frequency Judgments of Words and Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghatala, Elizabeth S.; Levin, Joel R.

    Children in kindergarten, third grade, and fifth grade were presented a list of either pictures or words (with items presented varying numbers of times on the study trail). In both picture and word conditions, half of the subjects estimated how many times each item had been presented (absolute judgments) and the other half judged which of two…

  17. A Semiotic Perspective of Text: The Picture Story Book Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Joanne M.; Gerber, Annyce

    1990-01-01

    Explores the nature of the picture story book event from a semiotic perspective. Describes a classroom event in which a picture story book was constructed during teacher-student-text interaction in a second grade classroom using involving oral reading and discussion, interpretations of the main character's traits, letters to the author, and…

  18. Child Readers and the Worlds of the Picture Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Adela; Laugharne, Janet; Maagerø, Eva; Tønnessen, Elise Seip

    2016-01-01

    Children as readers of picture books and the ways they respond to, and make meaning from, such texts are the focus of this article, which reports on a small-scale study undertaken in Norway and Wales, UK. The theoretical framing of the research draws on concepts of the multimodal ensemble in picture books and of the reading event as part of a…

  19. Familiar Fairy Tale Picture Books Transformed into Teen Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Rosemary

    2003-01-01

    Describes characteristics of fairy tales. Discusses use of fairy tales and novels for teens in the classroom. Presents annotations of 31 titles including both picture books and young adult novels grouped by nine popular tales. Concludes that through comparing picture books and teen novels, there is one last chance to introduce fairy tales to older…

  20. Predicting Subjective Affective Salience from Cortical Responses to Invisible Object Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Schmack, Katharina; Burk, Julia; Haynes, John-Dylan; Sterzer, Philipp

    2016-08-01

    The affective value of a stimulus substantially influences its potency to gain access to awareness. Here, we sought to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying such affective salience in a combined behavioral and fMRI experiment. Healthy individuals with varying degrees of spider phobia were presented with pictures of spiders and flowers suppressed from view by continuous flash suppression. Applying multivoxel pattern analysis, we found that the average time that spider stimuli took relative to flowers to gain access to awareness in each participant could be decoded from fMRI signals evoked by suppressed spider versus flower stimuli in occipitotemporal and orbitofrontal cortex. Our results indicate neural signals during unconscious processing of complex visual information in orbitofrontal and ventral visual areas predict access to awareness of this information, suggesting a crucial role for these higher-level cortical regions in mediating affective salience. PMID:26232987

  1. Picture-to-picture switching in full-color thermochromic paper displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennerdal, Lars-Olov; Berggren, Magnus

    2011-10-01

    Presently, we contemplate the merger of paper and electronics in different forms. There is a great desire to further explore this twinning of the information displaying features of printed papers and electronic inks. Here, we report a full-color paperboard display technology comprised of thermochromic and static inks combined with a patterned heater foil. Black and full-color thermochromic ink dots were screen-printed adjacent to, and on top of, static ink dots using a zero-angle mesh and template pattern orientation. As the heater is turned on and off, the display alter its content in between two predefined four-color pictures.

  2. Mariner Mars 1971 television picture catalog. Volume 1: Experiment design and picture data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A compilation of Mariner 9 television data is presented for the study of the planet Mars and of its two satellites, Phobos and Deimos. The concept of the basic mission, camera characteristics, and various processing techniques of the raw television data recovered from the spacecraft are discussed. Data are arranged into the following disciplines; (1) mapping and geology, (2) polar studies, (3) geodesy, (4) variable surface features, (5) atmospheric phenomena, and (6) satellites. Reproduction and arrangements of approximately 3000 individual pictures and photomosaics are provided.

  3. The effects of viewpoint on the virtual space of pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedgwick, H. A.

    1989-01-01

    Pictorial displays whose primary purpose is to convey accurate information about the 3-D spatial layout of an environment are discussed. How and how well, pictures can convey such information is discussed. It is suggested that picture perception is not best approached as a unitary, indivisible process. Rather, it is a complex process depending on multiple, partially redundant, interacting sources of visual information for both the real surface of the picture and the virtual space beyond. Each picture must be assessed for the particular information that it makes available. This will determine how accurately the virtual space represented by the picture is seen, as well as how it is distorted when seen from the wrong viewpoint.

  4. Pigeons use high spatial frequencies when memorizing pictures.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Matthew S; Brooks, Daniel I; Cook, Robert G

    2015-07-01

    The ability of animals to visually memorize and categorize a large number of pictures is well established. Determining the kinds of information animals use to accomplish these goals has been more difficult. This experiment examined the contribution of spatial frequency information to picture memorization by pigeons. A series of grayscale pictures were notch-filtered to eliminate different portions of the spatial frequency spectrum of memorized pictures. The results indicated that the higher spatial frequencies in the pictures were most important to accurate recognition, suggesting that the detection of fine detail at the high range of pigeon visual acuity was a critical component to their memorized representations. Subsequent tests with band-pass and hybrid conflict stimuli confirmed this conclusion. It is suggested that cognitive and task demands may determine how spatial frequency is used by pigeons, with higher frequencies more important to item memorization, while lower spatial frequencies may contribute to categorization in other types of discrimination tasks. PMID:25915753

  5. Reducing the familiarity of conjunction lures with pictures.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Marianne E

    2013-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to test whether conjunction errors were reduced after pictorial encoding and whether the semantic overlap between study and conjunction items would impact error rates. Across 4 experiments, compound words studied with a single-picture had lower conjunction error rates during a recognition test than those words studied with 2 pictures. This effect occurred even when participants were asked to respond quickly (Experiment 3) or to respond positively to any word that overlapped with the study phase (Experiment 2), as well as when the number of pictures shown at study was manipulated within-participants (Experiment 4). The effect of semantic overlap was ambiguous, with only Experiment 2 showing a difference between high and low overlap items. Overall, these results are inconsistent with a metacognitive interpretation of the role of pictures in reducing memory errors and are more consistent with impoverished familiarity after single-picture encoding. PMID:23356239

  6. Contextual modulation of hippocampal activity during picture naming.

    PubMed

    Llorens, A; Dubarry, A-S; Trébuchon, A; Chauvel, P; Alario, F-X; Liégeois-Chauvel, C

    2016-08-01

    Picture naming is a standard task used to probe language processes in healthy and impaired speakers. It recruits a broad neural network of language related areas, among which the hippocampus is rarely included. However, the hippocampus could play a role during picture naming, subtending, for example, implicit learning of the links between pictured objects and their names. To test this hypothesis, we recorded hippocampal activity during plain picture naming, without memorization requirement; we further assessed whether this activity was modulated by contextual factors such as repetition priming and semantic interference. Local field potentials recorded from intracerebral electrodes implanted in the healthy hippocampi of epileptic patients revealed a specific and reliable pattern of activity, markedly modulated by repetition priming and semantic context. These results indicate that the hippocampus is recruited during picture naming, presumably in relation to implicit learning, with contextual factors promoting differential hippocampal processes, possibly subtended by different sub-circuitries. PMID:27380274

  7. Semi-supervised classification of emotional pictures based on feature combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Zhang, Yu-Jin

    2011-02-01

    Can the abundant emotions reflected in pictures be classified automatically by computer? Only the visual features extracted from images are considered in the previous researches, which have the constrained capability to reveal various emotions. In addition, the training database utilized by previous methods is the subset of International Affective Picture System (IAPS) that has a relatively small scale, which exerts negative effects on the discrimination of emotion classifiers. To solve the above problems, this paper proposes a novel and practical emotional picture classification approach, using semi-supervised learning scheme with both visual feature and keyword tag information. Besides the IAPS with both emotion labels and keyword tags as part of the training dataset, nearly 2000 pictures with only keyword tags that are downloaded from the website Flickr form an auxiliary training dataset. The visual feature of the latent emotional semantic factors is extracted by probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (pLSA) model, while the text feature is described by binary vectors on the tag vocabulary. A first Linear Programming Boost (LPBoost) classifier which is trained on the samples from IAPS combines the above two features, and aims to label the other training samples from the internet. Then the second SVM classifier which is trained on all training images using only visual feature, focuses on the test images. In the experiment, the categorization performance of our approach is better than the latest methods.

  8. Lexical frequency effects on articulation: a comparison of picture naming and reading aloud

    PubMed Central

    Mousikou, Petroula; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether lexical frequency, a variable that is known to affect the time taken to utter a verbal response, may also influence articulation. Pairs of words that differed in terms of their relative frequency, but were matched on their onset, vowel, and number of phonemes (e.g., map vs. mat, where the former is more frequent than the latter) were used in a picture naming and a reading aloud task. Low-frequency items yielded slower response latencies than high-frequency items in both tasks, with the frequency effect being significantly larger in picture naming compared to reading aloud. Also, initial-phoneme durations were longer for low-frequency items than for high-frequency items. The frequency effect on initial-phoneme durations was slightly more prominent in picture naming than in reading aloud, yet its size was very small, thus preventing us from concluding that lexical frequency exerts an influence on articulation. Additionally, initial-phoneme and whole-word durations were significantly longer in reading aloud compared to picture naming. We discuss our findings in the context of current theories of reading aloud and speech production, and the approaches they adopt in relation to the nature of information flow (staged vs. cascaded) between cognitive and articulatory levels of processing. PMID:26528223

  9. Acute Borrelia infection inducing an APMPPE-like picture.

    PubMed

    Al Mousa, Munjid; Koch, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) is an uncommon disorder of unknown etiology affecting the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium, and the choroid. Although several etiological factors have been suggested, none has been confirmed. We report a case of APMPPE associated with acute infection of Borreliosis. A 30-year-old man presented with a decrease in vision in the right eye of about 1-week duration. His visual acuity in the right eye was 6/36. Fundus exam revealed the presence of multiple placoid creamy retinal/subretinal lesions in the right eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography supported the diagnosis of APMPPE. Blood tests revealed the presence of concomitant acute Borreliosis infection, as confirmed by IgM. The patient received oral prednisone therapy and amoxicillin. Six weeks later, the visual acuity returned to 6/6, and the patient was symptom free. Borreliosis can have several manifestations in the eye. One of the less common presentations is an APMPPE-like picture. The clinician should suspect acute Borreliosis infection in patients presenting with APMPPE, especially when there is a history of a tick bite, when the patient has systemic symptoms, or when living in/visiting endemic areas. This may help in the prompt management of APMPPE, avoiding complications due to the condition itself, or systemic involvement secondary to the Borreliosis infection. PMID:27294731

  10. Brief report: enhanced picture naming in autism.

    PubMed

    Walenski, Matthew; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Gidley-Larson, Jennifer C; Ullman, Michael T

    2008-08-01

    Language and communication deficits are key diagnostic criteria for autism. However, not all aspects of language are equally affected. Here we present evidence of enhanced performance of a critical aspect of language-word processing-in children with autism. The results have implications for explanatory theories of autism and language, and for the development of therapeutic approaches. PMID:18163206

  11. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH TOWARDS THE SITE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH TOWARDS THE SITE OF THE HISTORIC THOMAS FURNACES WITH ACTIVE DOLOMITE EXTRACTION ONGOING IN THE FOREGROUND. FURNACE FOUNDATION RUINS ARE PICTURED ON THE TOP LEDGE (CENTER LEFT) OF THE QUARRY. ALSO PICTURED IS THE HISTORIC THOMAS COKEWORKERS WITH (LEFT TO RIGHT) THE POWER PLANT, BOILER HOUSE, AND COKEWORKS. JUST SOUTH OF THE COKEWORKS, IS AN ACTIVE DOLOMITE CRUSHING, SIZING, AND SCREENING PLANT - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  12. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH TOWARDS THE SITE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH TOWARDS THE SITE OF THE HISTORIC THOMAS FURNACES WITH ACTIVE DOLOMITE EXTRACTION ONGOING IN THE FOREGROUND. FURNACE FOUNDATION RUINS ARE PICTURED ON THE TOP LEDGE (CENTER LEFT) OF THE QUARRY. ALSO PICTURED IS THE HISTORIC THOMAS COKEWORKS WITH (LEFT TO RIGHT) THE POWER PLANT, BOILER HOUSE, AND COKEWORKS. JUST SOUTH OF THE COKEWORKS IS AN ACTIVE DOLOMITE CRUSHING, SIZING, AND SCREENING PLANT. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  13. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  14. Face-Sensitive Processes One Hundred Milliseconds after Picture Onset

    PubMed Central

    Dering, Benjamin; Martin, Clara D.; Moro, Sancho; Pegna, Alan J.; Thierry, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    The human face is the most studied object category in visual neuroscience. In a quest for markers of face processing, event-related potential (ERP) studies have debated whether two peaks of activity – P1 and N170 – are category-selective. Whilst most studies have used photographs of unaltered images of faces, others have used cropped faces in an attempt to reduce the influence of features surrounding the “face–object” sensu stricto. However, results from studies comparing cropped faces with unaltered objects from other categories are inconsistent with results from studies comparing whole faces and objects. Here, we recorded ERPs elicited by full front views of faces and cars, either unaltered or cropped. We found that cropping artificially enhanced the N170 whereas it did not significantly modulate P1. In a second experiment, we compared faces and butterflies, either unaltered or cropped, matched for size and luminance across conditions, and within a narrow contrast bracket. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the main findings of Experiment 1. We then used face–car morphs in a third experiment to manipulate the perceived face-likeness of stimuli (100% face, 70% face and 30% car, 30% face and 70% car, or 100% car) and the N170 failed to differentiate between faces and cars. Critically, in all three experiments, P1 amplitude was modulated in a face-sensitive fashion independent of cropping or morphing. Therefore, P1 is a reliable event sensitive to face processing as early as 100 ms after picture onset. PMID:21954382

  15. Picture Books Are for Little Kids, Aren't They? Using Picture Books with Adolescent Readers to Enhance Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senokossoff, Gwyn W.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the benefits of using picture books with adolescent readers, describes strategies that can be taught with picture books, and provides examples of books the author has used. Some of the topics discussed include: reading comprehension, visual literacy, interactive read-aloud with facilitative talk, literary elements, and…

  16. Picture archiving and computing systems: the key to enterprise digital imaging.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Richard

    2002-09-01

    The utopian view of the electronic medical record includes the digital transformation of all aspects of patient information. Historically, imagery from the radiology, cardiology, ophthalmology, and pathology departments, as well as the emergency room, has been a morass of paper, film, and other media, isolated within each department's system architecture. In answer to this dilemma, picture archiving and computing systems have become the focal point of efforts to create a single platform for the collection, storage, and distribution of clinical imagery throughout the health care enterprise. PMID:12244648

  17. Where do we stand with a 3-D picture of the proton?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacchetta, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    We are on the way to obtaining multi-dimensional "pictures" of the proton. The field is bursting with activities, both from the theoretical and experimental side. A brief selection of important achievements of the last years and open challenges for the future is presented. They are already well documented in the various reviews of this Topical Issue, but they are gathered here in a more condensed way for convenience, together with some additional remarks. The choice of the items included in this short overview is far from being complete and represents the view of the author.

  18. Getting the Bigger Picture With Digital Surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Through a Space Act Agreement, Diebold, Inc., acquired the exclusive rights to Glenn Research Center's patented video observation technology, originally designed to accelerate video image analysis for various ongoing and future space applications. Diebold implemented the technology into its AccuTrack digital, color video recorder, a state-of- the-art surveillance product that uses motion detection for around-the- clock monitoring. AccuTrack captures digitally signed images and transaction data in real-time. This process replaces the onerous tasks involved in operating a VCR-based surveillance system, and subsequently eliminates the need for central viewing and tape archiving locations altogether. AccuTrack can monitor an entire bank facility, including four automated teller machines, multiple teller lines, and new account areas, all from one central location.

  19. When left is not right: handedness effects on learning object-manipulation words using pictures with left- or right-handed first-person perspectives.

    PubMed

    de Nooijer, Jacqueline A; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Zwaan, Rolf A

    2013-12-01

    According to the body-specificity hypothesis, hearing action words creates body-specific mental simulations of the actions. Handedness should, therefore, affect mental simulations. Given that pictures of actions also evoke mental simulations and often accompany words to be learned, would pictures that mismatch the mental simulation of words negatively affect learning? We investigated effects of pictures with a left-handed, right-handed, or bimanual perspective on left- and right-handers' learning of object-manipulation words in an artificial language. Right-handers recalled fewer definitions of words learned with a corresponding left-handed-perspective picture than with a right-handed-perspective picture. For left-handers, there was no effect of perspective. These findings suggest that mismatches between pictures and mental simulations evoked by hearing action words can negatively affect right-handers' learning. Left-handers, who encounter the right-handed perspective frequently, could presumably overcome the lack of motor experience with visual experience and, therefore, not be influenced by picture perspective. PMID:24142812

  20. Emotion Elicitation: A Comparison of Pictures and Films

    PubMed Central

    Uhrig, Meike K.; Trautmann, Nadine; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Henrich, Florian; Hiller, Wolfgang; Marschall, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Pictures and film clips are widely used and accepted stimuli to elicit emotions. Based on theoretical arguments it is often assumed that the emotional effects of films exceed those of pictures, but to date this assumption has not been investigated directly. The aim of the present study was to compare pictures and films in terms of their capacity to induce emotions verified by means of explicit measures. Stimuli were (a) single pictures presented for 6 s, (b) a set of three consecutive pictures with emotionally congruent contents presented for 2 s each, (c) short film clips with a duration of 6 s. A total of 144 participants rated their emotion and arousal states following stimulus presentation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the film clips and 3-picture version were as effective as the classical 1-picture method to elicit positive emotions, however, modulation toward positive valence was little. Modulation toward negative valence was more effective in general. Film clips were less effective than pictorial stimuli in producing the corresponding emotion states (all p < 0.001) and were less arousing (all p ≤ 0.02). Possible reasons for these unexpected results are discussed. PMID:26925007

  1. Emotion Elicitation: A Comparison of Pictures and Films.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, Meike K; Trautmann, Nadine; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Henrich, Florian; Hiller, Wolfgang; Marschall, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Pictures and film clips are widely used and accepted stimuli to elicit emotions. Based on theoretical arguments it is often assumed that the emotional effects of films exceed those of pictures, but to date this assumption has not been investigated directly. The aim of the present study was to compare pictures and films in terms of their capacity to induce emotions verified by means of explicit measures. Stimuli were (a) single pictures presented for 6 s, (b) a set of three consecutive pictures with emotionally congruent contents presented for 2 s each, (c) short film clips with a duration of 6 s. A total of 144 participants rated their emotion and arousal states following stimulus presentation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the film clips and 3-picture version were as effective as the classical 1-picture method to elicit positive emotions, however, modulation toward positive valence was little. Modulation toward negative valence was more effective in general. Film clips were less effective than pictorial stimuli in producing the corresponding emotion states (all p < 0.001) and were less arousing (all p ≤ 0.02). Possible reasons for these unexpected results are discussed. PMID:26925007

  2. Reduced cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics during sustained affective stimulation in young women with chronic low blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Cellini, Nicola; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Covassin, Naima; Gallicchio, Germano; Stegagno, Luciano; Sarlo, Michela

    2015-05-01

    Although low blood pressure has been associated with lower affect and higher depressive symptoms in the elderly, the presence of possible impairment in emotional reactivity in chronic hypotensive individuals in early adulthood remains largely unexplored. Using a combination of transcranial Doppler sonography, beat-to-beat blood pressure recording and impedance cardiography we assessed central and peripheral hemodynamic changes in 15 undergraduate women with chronic hypotension (Age: 23.9 ± 2.7 years) and 15 normotensive controls (Age: 23.7 ± 3.1 years) during sustained exposure to pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures. Overall, systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased in normotensives and decreased in hypotensives during picture viewing as compared to baseline. Also, compared to normotensives, in hypotensives mean cerebral blood flow velocity increased to a lesser extent during the viewing of pleasant pictures and the magnitude of this increase was negatively associated with subjective emotional arousal. In addition, in hypotensives screening SBP was positively associated with valence rating of pleasant contents. These findings indicate a close association between chronic low blood pressure and reduced processing of pleasant stimuli in young adulthood. PMID:25727023

  3. Feeling body dissatisfied after viewing thin-ideal pictures is mediated by self-activation.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Elke; Jansen, Anita; Vossen, Ellis; Ruf, Laura; Roefs, Anne

    2010-09-01

    The present study sought to investigate the influence of self-activation on body and weight satisfaction in restrained and unrestrained eaters, after exposure to thin-ideal images. Restrained eaters (n=39) and unrestrained eaters (n=40) were randomly assigned to a self-activation manipulation versus a control manipulation. After the manipulation, all participants were exposed to eight thin-ideal images. Measures of state body and weight satisfaction and of social comparison tendencies were assessed throughout the experiment. Self-activated restrained eaters showed a significant decrease in body and weight satisfaction after exposure to thin-ideal images, compared to restrained eaters who were not self-activated. In unrestrained eaters, the self-activation manipulation did not have any effect on body or weight dissatisfaction. In conclusion, exposure to fashion models only had a negative influence on women's self-evaluations when two conditions were met: (1) the participant was 'self-activated' and (2) the participant classified as a restrained eater. PMID:20801727

  4. The View from the Seats: Student Input Provides a Clearer Picture of What Works in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    As school districts create systems to identify, monitor, and assess teacher effectiveness, they consider a variety of sources, including observations of teaching practices and analysis of student assessments. A new voice--student perceptions--has emerged as a valuable source of information. In many districts, leaders are collecting data from a…

  5. Ice Sheets from Space: The Big Picture View (Louis Agassiz Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joughin, I. R.

    2012-04-01

    Instead of heroic efforts to acquire a few dozen field-based measurements of ice-flow velocity at some of the Earth's most remote locations, computer servers now crunch satellite data to spew out millions of measurements, providing a whole new perspective on how ice sheets function. Prior to such observations, outlet glaciers and ice streams were perceived to respond slowly to climate change, with little change at timescales of months to decades. While some glaciers flow at steady rates, a remarkable number have responded to recent warming with large variations in speed over periods as short as seconds. A wide variety of behavior is observed with some glaciers steadily gaining speed, others accelerating and then leveling off, and a handful varying substantially with no clear trend. While in the minority, a few glaciers have steadily decelerated over the last decade. As examples ofrecent change, two of the most rapidly changing glaciers are examined: Jakobshavn Isbrae in Greenland and Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica. In addition to documenting the dramatic changes on these glaciers, satellite observations provide important new spatio-temporal data sets with which to understand such change, particularly when used in conjunction with ice sheet models. Although models constrained by these data reveal that ice-shelf buttressing is an important control on ice-sheet flow, the actual speedups are a complex response to the loss of buttressing, involving several other feedbacks that contribute to the acceleration.Although satellite observations have produced tremendous progress in understanding ice sheets, so far these data have raised more questions than they have answered. The contribution that ice dynamics will make to future sea level remains poorly understood and remains a grand challenge for glaciology. The ongoing record of spaceborne measurements is and will remain a key component in addressing this challenge.

  6. Gender differences in response to pictures of nudes: a magnetoencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marco; Braun, Christoph; Birbaumer, Niels

    2003-05-01

    The magnetic equivalent of the contingent negative variation (CMV) and visual evoked magnetic fields (VEF) in anticipation of pictures of opposite-sex nude, same-sex nude, and neutral photographs has been recorded with whole-head MEG in 12 males and 12 females. Subjective ratings of valence indicated a strong gender effect. While females rated both male and female nudes as neutral, males rated male nudes similar to neutrals but female nudes received higher scores of pleasantness. Gender differences were also found for ratings of picture-induced arousal. While females rated male and female nudes as equally arousing, males attributed more arousal to opposite-sex nudes. The CMV instead revealed, for both male and female participants, higher amplitudes for opposite-sex nudes. VEF in response to nudes revealed two components with mean latencies of 126 and 203 ms. The amplitude of the first component was stronger in males than in females, and only in males the magnetic activity was increased in response to male and female nudes compared to neutral pictures. For the second component the mean magnetic activity was higher in response to nudes than to neutral contents for both male and female participants. The results are discussed in terms of an evolutionary view of sexual selection, which predicts a greater response in male subjects to stimuli relevant for mate choice. PMID:12738404

  7. Viking Lander 2's First Picture On The Surface Of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Viking 2 s first picture on the surface of Mars was taken within minutes after the spacecraft touched down on September 3. The scene reveals a wide variety of rocks littering a surface of fine-grained deposit. Boulders in the 10 to 20-centimeter (4 to 8-inch) size range-- some vesicular (holes) and some apparently fluted by wind--are common. Many of the pebbles have tabular or platy shapes, suggesting that they may be derived from layered strata. The fluted boulder just above the Lander s footpad displays a dust-covered or scraped surface, suggesting it was overturned or altered by the foot at touchdown. Just as occurred with Viking l s first picture on July 20, brightness variations at the beginning of the picture scan (left edge) probably are due to dust settling after landing. A substantial amount of fine-grained material kicked up by the descent engines has accumulated in the concave interior of the footpad. Center of the image is about 1.4 meters (5 feet) from the camera. Field of view extends 70 from left to right and 20 from top to bottom. Viking 2 landed at a region called Utopia in the northern latitudes about 7500 kilometers (4600 miles) northeast of Viking l s landing on the Chryse plain 45 days earlier.

  8. Automated cloud tracking using precisely aligned digital ATS pictures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. A.; Phillips, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the interactive man-computer system (WIMDCO) for measuring cloud motion from ATS pictures. The multipicture model of ATS navigation is used for consecutive ATS digital picture alignment to provide the required precision in cloud motion measurements by automated tracking techniques. Cloud motion is measured by tracking clouds between two digital pictures with the aid of two-dimensional cross correlation analysis. The fast Fourier transform method and other programming techniques are used for time and cost minimization. Cloud motion vectors were computed over three time intervals in July, 1969. The EW and NS components were reproducible within roughly 2 knots.

  9. Geographic correlation of television pictures obtained from weather satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushuyev, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    The geographical control of satellite pictures, using the terminology of aerial photography, can be treated as the problem of analysis of a single picture with the objective of obtaining a ground contour map. Studies have shown the possibility and capability of the method of composing photographic maps from transformed television pictures. Optico-mechanical transformation solves the problem of geographical correlation for operational purposes. However, this technique does not compensate for electronic distortion, and accounts for earth sphericity only approximately. However, for certain purposes (studying ice drift), the maximum possible accuracy is required. Analytic geographical correlation methods using digital computers should be considered promising.

  10. The blocked-random effect in pictures and words.

    PubMed

    Toglia, M P; Hinman, P J; Dayton, B S; Catalano, J F

    1997-06-01

    Picture and word recall was examined in conjunction with list organization. 60 subjects studied a list of 30 items, either words or their pictorial equivalents. The 30 words/pictures, members of five conceptual categories, each represented by six exemplars, were presented either blocked by category or in a random order. While pictures were recalled better than words and a standard blocked-random effect was observed, the interaction indicated that the recall advantage of a blocked presentation was restricted to the word lists. A similar pattern emerged for clustering. These findings are discussed in terms of limitations upon the pictorial superiority effect. PMID:9172212

  11. Multimedia Effects on Processing and Perception of Online News: A Study of Picture, Audio, and Video Downloads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundar, S. Shyam

    2000-01-01

    Considers how multimedia enhancements affect how much individuals learn from online news websites. Suggests that picture and audio are particularly powerful psychological cues. Finds that multimedia tends to hinder memory for story content and leads to negative evaluations of the site and its content, but improves memory for advertisements.…

  12. Sex differences in the brain response to affective scenes with or without humans.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Adorni, Roberta; Zani, Alberto; Trestianu, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that women might be more reactive than men to viewing painful stimuli (vicarious response to pain), and therefore more empathic [Han, S., Fan, Y., & Mao, L. (2008). Gender difference in empathy for pain: An electrophysiological investigation. Brain Research, 1196, 85-93]. We investigated whether the two sexes differed in their cerebral responses to affective pictures portraying humans in different positive or negative contexts compared to natural or urban scenarios. 440 IAPS slides were presented to 24 Italian students (12 women and 12 men). Half the pictures displayed humans while the remaining scenes lacked visible persons. ERPs were recorded from 128 electrodes and swLORETA (standardized weighted Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography) source reconstruction was performed. Occipital P115 was greater in response to persons than to scenes and was affected by the emotional valence of the human pictures. This suggests that processing of biologically relevant stimuli is prioritized. Orbitofrontal N2 was greater in response to positive than negative human pictures in women but not in men, and not to scenes. A late positivity (LP) to suffering humans far exceeded the response to negative scenes in women but not in men. In both sexes, the contrast suffering-minus-happy humans revealed a difference in the activation of the occipito/temporal, right occipital (BA19), bilateral parahippocampal, left dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) and left amygdala. However, increased right amygdala and right frontal area activities were observed only in women. The humans-minus-scenes contrast revealed a difference in the activation of the middle occipital gyrus (MOG) in men, and of the left inferior parietal (BA40), left superior temporal gyrus (STG, BA38) and right cingulate (BA31) in women (270-290 ms). These data indicate a sex-related difference in the brain response to humans, possibly supporting human empathy. PMID:19061906

  13. More Than Pretty Pictures: How Translating Science Concepts into Pictures Advances Scientific Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Felice

    2010-02-01

    The judgment and decision-making required to render science visual clarifies thinking. One must decide on a hierarchy of information--what must be included and what might be left out? What is the main point of the visual? Just as in writing an article or responding to an essay question, we must understand and then plan what we want to ``say'' in a drawing or other forms of representation. And since a visual representation of a scientific concept (or data) is a re-presentation, and not the thing itself, interpretation or translation is involved. The process tends to transcend barriers of linguistic facility and educational background; it attracts and communicates students and teachers of all backgrounds, where other methods intimidate. The rendered images are, in essence More Than Pretty Pictures. )

  14. New Horizons’ Best View of Pluto’s Craters, Mountains and Icy Plains

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie is composed of the sharpest views of Pluto that NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft obtained during its flyby on July 14, 2015. The pictures are part of a sequence taken near New Horizons’ cl...

  15. Accounting Concepts and Economic Opportunities in a Tarascan Village: Emic and Etic Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, James M.

    1972-01-01

    The degree to which accounting systems influence perceptions of opportunities is demonstrated by comparing the local view of accounts ( emic'') with the very different picture we get utilizing conceptual tools from formal economics ( etic''). (Author/NQ)

  16. 57. Historic American Buildings Survey From Motion Picture 'Ghost of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Historic American Buildings Survey From Motion Picture 'Ghost of Romance' Date of Photo: August 4, 1920 CONVENTS - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  17. Directory of the Florida Motion Picture and Television Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Commerce, Tallahassee. Div. of Economic Development.

    Designed to assist the motion picture or television producer, this directory lists organizations (producers, distributors, talent agencies, laboratories, etc.) by geographical section in Florida. Each entry includes the company address, telephone, services available, a contact person, and credits. (DAG)

  18. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, H. Robert; Stone, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised assesses standard American English receptive vocabulary in individuals, both handicapped and nonhandicapped, ages 2 to 40. This paper describes the test's administration, summation of data, standardization, reliability, and validity. (JDD)

  19. Astronaut Robert Gibson prepares to use motion picture camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Astronaut Robert L. Gibson, STS 61-C mission commander, partially floats on the aft flight deck of the Shuttle Columbia while preparing to use a motion picture camera. The windows overlooking the cargo bay are visible in the background.

  20. 7. CHIEF JOSEPH DAM AND POWERHOUSE TO LEFT OF PICTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CHIEF JOSEPH DAM AND POWERHOUSE TO LEFT OF PICTURE COLUMBIA RIVER BRIDGE AT BRIDGEPORT TO RIGHT OF DOWNSTREAM - Columbia River Bridge at Bridgeport, State Route 17 spanning Columbia River, Bridgeport, Douglas County, WA

  1. 7. MOTION PICTURE CAMERA STAND AT BUILDING 8768. Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. MOTION PICTURE CAMERA STAND AT BUILDING 8768. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Photocopy of postcard (original in Picture Group 800, Connecticut State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of postcard (original in Picture Group 800, Connecticut State Library, Hartford, Connecticut), C.G. Talbot, publisher, Putnam, Conn., No. 1478. Postmarked 1905. Grammar School, Putnam, Conn. - Israel Putnam School, School & Oak Streets, Putnam, Windham County, CT

  3. Miscellaneous artifacts relating to experiments with talking motion pictures about ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Miscellaneous artifacts relating to experiments with talking motion pictures about 1912 and to loudspeaking phonographs in the 1920s, third floor. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  4. Adolescents' Motivations for Viewing Graphic Horror.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Deirdre D.

    1995-01-01

    Identifies four motivations adolescents report for viewing graphic horror films: gore watching, thrill watching, independent watching, and problem watching. Argues that viewing motivations are predictors of responses to graphic horror. Finds that viewing motivations were related to viewers' cognitive and affective responses and a tendency to…

  5. Development of integral holographic motion pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.

    1995-02-01

    In 1985 Anne-Marie Christakis selected me to make the first pulse holographic feature-fiction movie. Up to that time, the process had only been used for laboratory tests. The running time for the movie was to be 1 minute 20 seconds. Apparently quite long compared with previous tests, but an extremely short time in which to tell a story. I chose the characters of Beauty and the Beast. A lot of time was spent in preparatory work: triple distilling the scenario to get it down to 80 seconds; paintings and masks, and I extracted the music from a suite I had already written in medieval style. The movie was made in 1986 in the laboratory of Professeur Smigielsky, which was located in the Franco-German Defense Research Establishment, at St. Louis in France. Prof. Smigielsky's staff operated all the equipment and Anne-Marie Christakis coordinated everything, as she had done throughout the project. As soon as we arrived at the laboratory, we were told not to look beyond a certain angle towards the laser, otherwise we could be blinded for life. With all that dangerous power however, it was only possible to illuminate a volume for the set of half a meter wide by half a meter deep by one third of a meter high. Such a set gives real meaning to the expression `cramp one's style.' The layout used was, in principle, the same as for making a simple hologram. A pulsed YAG laser was used and each pulse was synchronized with a new frame to be exposed in the camera. When the movie was finished, it was not very bright, and one had to look through a small aperture to view it.

  6. A SWIRE Picture is Worth Billions of Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: SWIRE View of Distant Galaxies [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2Figure 3 Figure 4

    These spectacular images, taken by the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) Legacy project, encapsulate one of the primary objectives of the Spitzer mission: to connect the evolution of galaxies from the distant, or early, universe to the nearby, or present day, universe.

    The Tadpole galaxy (main image) is the result of a recent galactic interaction in the local universe. Although these galactic mergers are rare in the universe's recent history, astronomers believe that they were much more common in the early universe. Thus, SWIRE team members will use this detailed image of the Tadpole galaxy to help understand the nature of the 'faint red-orange specks' of the early universe.

    The larger picture (figure 2) depicts one-sixteenth of the SWIRE survey field called ELAIS-N1. In this image, the bright blue sources are hot stars in our own Milky Way, which range anywhere from 3 to 60 times the mass of our Sun. The fainter green spots are cooler stars and galaxies beyond the Milky Way whose light is dominated by older stellar populations. The red dots are dusty galaxies that are undergoing intense star formation. The faintest specks of red-orange are galaxies billions of light-years away in the distant universe.

    Figure 3 features an unusual ring-like galaxy called CGCG 275-022. The red spiral arms indicate that this galaxy is very dusty and perhaps undergoing intense star formation. The star-forming activity could have been initiated by a near head-on collision with another galaxy.

    The most distant galaxies that SWIRE is able to detect are revealed in a zoom of deep space (figure 4). The colors in this feature represent the same objects as those in the larger field image of ELAIS

  7. Completing the Picture of the Roper Resonance.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Jorge; El-Bennich, Bruno; Rojas, Eduardo; Cloët, Ian C; Roberts, Craig D; Xu, Shu-Sheng; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2015-10-23

    We employ a continuum approach to the three valence-quark bound-state problem in relativistic quantum field theory to predict a range of properties of the proton's radial excitation and thereby unify them with those of numerous other hadrons. Our analysis indicates that the nucleon's first radial excitation is the Roper resonance. It consists of a core of three dressed quarks, which expresses its valence-quark content and whose charge radius is 80% larger than the proton analogue. That core is complemented by a meson cloud, which reduces the observed Roper mass by roughly 20%. The meson cloud materially affects long-wavelength characteristics of the Roper electroproduction amplitudes but the quark core is revealed to probes with Q(2)≳3m(N)(2). PMID:26551101

  8. The pharmacoeconomic picture in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah

    2014-08-01

    Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field. PMID:24953076

  9. Choice to view cocaine images predicts concurrent and prospective drug use in cocaine addiction*

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Scott J.; Beebe-Wang, Nicasia; Woicik, Patricia A.; Konova, Anna B.; Maloney, Thomas; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background Identifying variables that predict drug use in treatment-seeking drug addicted individuals is a crucial research and therapeutic goal. This study tested the hypothesis that choice to view cocaine images is associated with concurrent and prospective drug use in cocaine addiction. Methods To establish choice-concurrent drug use associations, 71 cocaine addicted subjects (43 current users and 28 treatment seekers) provided data on (A) choice to view cocaine images and affectively pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images [collected under explicit contingencies (when choice was made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more probabilistic contingencies (when choice was made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)]; and (B) past-month cocaine and other drug use. To establish choice-prospective drug use associations, 20 of these treatment-seeking subjects were followed over the next six months. Results Baseline cocaine-related picture choice as measured by both tasks positively correlated with subjects’ concurrent cocaine and other drug use as driven by the actively-using subjects. In a subsequent multiple regression analysis, choice to view cocaine images as compared with affectively pleasant images (under probabilistic contingencies) was the only predictor that continued to be significantly associated with drug use. Importantly, this same baseline cocaine>pleasant probabilistic choice also predicted the number of days drugs were used (cocaine, alcohol, and marijuana) over the next six months. Conclusions Simulated cocaine choice – especially when probabilistic and when compared with other positive reinforcers – may provide a valid laboratory marker of current and future drug use in cocaine addiction. PMID:23218913

  10. Socially triggered negative affect impairs performance in simple cognitive tasks.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Svenja; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of a social-evaluative context on simple cognitive tasks. While another person present in the room evaluated photographs of beautiful women or landscapes by beauty/attractiveness, female participants had to perform a combination of digit-categorization and spatial-compatibility task. There, before every trial, one of the women or landscape pictures was presented. Results showed selective performance impairments: the numerical distance effects increased on trials that followed women pictures but only, if another person concurrently evaluated these women pictures. In a second experiment, using the affective priming paradigm, the authors show that female pictures have a more negative connotation when they are concurrently evaluated by another person (social-evaluative context) than when they are not evaluated (neutral context). Together, these results suggest that the social-evaluative context triggers mild negative affective reactions to women pictures which then impair performance in an unrelated task. PMID:23423348

  11. On the Primacy of Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Reasserts view that there can be emotional or affective arousal without prior cognitive appraisal. Criticizes Lazarus's rejection of this view on the grounds that it presents no empirical evidence, is based on an arbitrary definition of emotion, and obliterates all distinctions between cognition, sensation, and perception. (CMG)

  12. Does a picture tell a thousand words? The uses of digitally produced, multimodal pictures for communicating information about Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dobos, Amy R; Orthia, Lindy A; Lamberts, Rod

    2015-08-01

    This study explored the science communication potential of visual imagery by gauging an audience's interpretations of digitally enhanced, multimodal pictures depicting topics from recent Alzheimer's disease research. Guided by social semiotic theory, we created four pictures intended to communicate information about Alzheimer's disease unidirectionally, for an audience who had expressed interest in receiving such information (subscribers to an Alzheimer's disease research newsletter). We then disseminated the pictures to that audience via an online survey, to determine whether respondents received the messages we intended to convey. Our results demonstrated that, without accompanying explanatory text, pictures are most useful for evoking emotions or making loose connections between major concepts, rather than for communicating specific messages based on Alzheimer's research. In addition, participants more often expressed anger and frustration when the meaning of scientific imagery was unclear than when the meaning of emotional-social imagery was unclear. PMID:24867131

  13. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    PubMed

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control. PMID:23999330

  14. Metaphor priming in sentence production: concrete pictures affect abstract language production.

    PubMed

    Sato, Manami; Schafer, Amy J; Bergen, Benjamin K

    2015-03-01

    People speak metaphorically about abstract concepts-for instance, a person can be "full of love" or "have a lot of love to give." Over the past decade, research has begun to focus on how metaphors are processed during language comprehension. Much of this work suggests that understanding a metaphorical expression involves activating brain and body systems involved in perception and motor control. However, no research to date has asked whether the same is true while speakers produce language. We address this gap using a sentence production task. Its results demonstrate that visually activating a concrete source domain can trigger the use of metaphorical language drawn from that same concrete domain, even in sentences that are thematically unrelated to the primes, a metaphorical priming effect. This effect suggests that conceptual metaphors play a part in language production. It also shows that activation in the perceptual system that is not part of an intended message can nevertheless influence sentence formulation. PMID:25443987

  15. Affective Visual Stimuli: Characterization of the Picture Sequences Impacts by Means of Nonlinear Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Goshvarpour, Ateke; Abbasi, Ataollah; Goshvarpour, Atefeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of preceding pictorial stimulus on the emotional autonomic responses of the subsequent one. Methods: To this effect, physiological signals, including Electrocardiogram (ECG), Pulse Rate (PR), and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) were collected. As these signals have random and chaotic nature, nonlinear dynamics of these physiological signals were evaluated with the methods of nonlinear system theory. Considering the hypothesis that emotional responses are usually associated with previous experiences of a subject, the subjective ratings of 4 emotional states were also evaluated. Four nonlinear characteristics (including Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), based parameters, Lyapunov exponent, and approximate entropy) were implemented. Nine standard features (including mean, standard deviation, minimum, maximum, median, mode, the second, third, and fourth moment) were also extracted. Results: To evaluate the ability of features in discriminating different types of emotions, some classification approaches were appraised, of them, Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) led to the best classification rate of 100%. The results show that considering the emotional sequences, GSR is the best candidate for the representation of the physiological changes. Discussion: Lower discrimination was attained when the sequence occurred in the diagonal line of valence-arousal coordinates (for instance, positive valence and positive arousal versus negative valence and negative arousal). By employing self-assessment ranks, no obvious improvement was achieved. PMID:26649159

  16. Micro to the Macro Biome: Can Biology Affect the Big Picture Through Small Changes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Life has had a profound impact on the geological history of our planet, which in turn has had a profound impact back on the evolution of life. Life has been able to adapt and spread into every planetary nook and cranny. At this point in history, life is becoming able to engineer itself, with extreme consequences we are only dimly able to foresee. One probable outcome will be the facilitation of the expansion of the range of life to beyond our planetary cradle, an evolutionary step as profound as the ancient transition from sea to land. Current efforts at NASA and aboard the International Space Station will be discussed in this context.

  17. Micro to the Macro Biome Can Biology Affect the Big Picture Through Small Changes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Life has had a profound impact on the geological history of our planet, which in turn has had a profound impact back on the evolution of life. Life has been able to adapt and spread into every planetary nook and cranny. At this point in history, life is becoming able to engineer itself, with extreme consequences we are only dimly able to foresee. One probable outcome will be the facilitation of the expansion of the range of life to beyond our planetary cradle, an evolutionary step as profound as the ancient transition from sea to land. Current efforts at NASA and aboard the International Space Station will be discussed in this context.

  18. Children with schizophrenia: clinical picture and pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    Masi, Gabriele; Mucci, Maria; Pari, Cinzia

    2006-01-01

    Awareness of childhood-onset schizophrenia is rapidly increasing, with a more precise definition now available of the clinical picture and early signs, the outcome and the treatment strategies. Premorbid developmental impairments, including language, motor and social deficits, are more frequent and more pronounced in earlier- than in later-onset forms of schizophrenia. This 'pan-dysmaturation' is reported from the first months of life in more than half of the children who will develop childhood-onset schizophrenia, and it suggests a more severe and early disruption of brain development compared with the adolescent- and adult-onset disorder. The insidious onset in at least 75% of children, the high rates of premorbid problems and the hesitancy on the part of clinicians to make a diagnosis of schizophrenia in a child usually delay the recognition of the syndrome. Elementary auditory hallucinations are the most frequent positive symptom, while visual and tactile hallucinations are rarer. Delusions are less complex than in adolescents and are usually related to childhood themes. Negative symptoms are largely predominant, namely flat or inappropriate affect. A marked deterioration from the previous level of functioning is present in all these children, and an impaired outcome is reported in approximately 50-60% of them. The main diagnostic challenges are with differentiating childhood-onset schizophrenia from affective disorders (both depression and bipolar disorder) with psychotic symptoms, pervasive developmental disorders and severe personality disorders. Post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder without insight may also be misdiagnosed as schizophrenia. Furthermore, approximately 10% of children from the community report nonpsychotic hallucinations or delusions. Finally, children with atypical psychotic features that do not strictly fit diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia have been described, and new labels have been proposed to categorise

  19. VISTA Views the Sculptor Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-06-01

    A spectacular new image of the Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253) has been taken with the ESO VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile as part of one of its first major observational campaigns. By observing in infrared light VISTA's view is less affected by dust and reveals a myriad of cooler stars as well as a prominent bar of stars across the central region. The VISTA image provides much new information on the history and development of the galaxy. The Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253) lies in the constellation of the same name and is one of the brightest galaxies in the sky. It is prominent enough to be seen with good binoculars and was discovered by Caroline Herschel from England in 1783. NGC 253 is a spiral galaxy that lies about 13 million light-years away. It is the brightest member of a small collection of galaxies called the Sculptor Group, one of the closest such groupings to our own Local Group of galaxies. Part of its visual prominence comes from its status as a starburst galaxy, one in the throes of rapid star formation. NGC 253 is also very dusty, which obscures the view of many parts of the galaxy (eso0902). Seen from Earth, the galaxy is almost edge on, with the spiral arms clearly visible in the outer parts, along with a bright core at its centre. VISTA, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope. After being handed over to ESO at the end of 2009 (eso0949) the telescope was used for two detailed studies of small sections of the sky before it embarked on the much larger surveys that are now in progress. One of these "mini surveys" was a detailed study of NGC 253 and its environment. As VISTA works at infrared wavelengths it can see right through most of the dust that is such a prominent feature of the Sculptor Galaxy when viewed in visible light. Huge numbers of cooler stars that are barely detectable with visible

  20. Signaling in T cells - is anything the m(a)TOR with the picture(s)?

    PubMed

    Boothby, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The excitement surrounding checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of patients with cancer exemplifies a triumph of the long-term value of investing in basic science and fundamental questions of T-cell signaling. The pharmaceutical future actively embraces ways of making more patients' cancers responsive to these inhibitors. Such a process will be aided by elucidation of signaling and regulation. With thousands of articles spread across almost 30 years, this commentary can touch only on portions of the canonical picture of T-cell signaling and provide a few parables from work on mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways as they link to early and later phases of lymphocyte activation. The piece will turn a critical eye to some issues with models about these pathways in T cells. Many of the best insights lie in the future despite all that is uncovered already, but a contention is that further therapeutic successes will be fostered by dealing with disparities among findings and attention to the temporal, spatial, and stochastic aspects of T-cell responses. Finally, thoughts on some (though not all) items urgently needed for future progress will be mooted. PMID:26949528