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Sample records for affective priming effect

  1. Priming Effects for Affective vs. Neutral Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Wyatt, Gwinne; Frohlich, Jonathan; Vardy, Susan B.; Dimitri, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Affective and Neutral Tasks (faces with negative or neutral content, with different lighting and orientation) requiring reaction time judgments of poser identity were administered to 32 participants. Speed and accuracy were better for the Affective than Neutral Task, consistent with literature suggesting facilitation of performance by affective…

  2. Affect is greater than, not equal to, condition: condition and person effects in affective priming paradigms.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Adam A; Larsen, Randy J; Elliot, Andrew J

    2013-08-01

    Affective primes may impact ensuing behavior through condition and person effects. However, previous research has not experimentally disentangled these two sources of influence in affective priming paradigms. In the current research, we simultaneously examine the influence of condition factors, in terms of prime valence, and person factors, in terms of affect reactivity and personality. In both studies, undergraduate participants (total N = 174) were primed with either positive or negative affective stimuli (words, Study 1; pictures, Study 2) prior to judging the likability of a neutral target (Arabic characters, Study 1; inkblots, Study 2). Although we did observe between-condition differences for positive and negative primes, person-level effects were more consistent predictors of target ratings. Affect reactivity (affect Time 2, controlling Time 1) to the primes predicted evaluative judgments, even in the absence of condition effects. In addition, the personality traits of Neuroticism (Study 1) and behavioral inhibition system sensitivity (Study 2) predicted evaluative judgments of neutral targets following negative affective primes. With effects for condition, affect reactivity, and personality, our results suggest that affective primes influence ensuing behaviors through both informational and affective means. Research using affective priming methodologies should take into account both condition and person-level effects. PMID:23253181

  3. Word Meaning Frequencies Affect Negative Compatibility Effects In Masked Priming

    PubMed Central

    Brocher, Andreas; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Negative compatibility effects (NCEs)—that is, slower responses to targets in related than unrelated prime-target pairs, have been observed in studies using stimulus-response (S-R) priming with stimuli like arrows and plus signs. Although there is no consensus on the underlying mechanism, explanations tend to locate NCEs within the motor-response system. A characteristic property of perceptuo-motor NCEs is a biphasic pattern of activation: A brief period in which very briefly presented (typically) masked primes facilitate processing of related targets is followed by a phase of target processing impairment. In this paper, we present data that suggest that NCEs are not restricted to S-R priming with low-level visual stimuli: The brief (50 ms), backward masked (250 ms) presentation of ambiguous words (bank) leads to slower responses than baseline to words related to the more frequent (rob) but not less frequent meaning (swim). Importantly, we found that slowed responses are preceded by a short phase of response facilitation, replicating the biphasic pattern reported for arrows and plus signs. The biphasic pattern of priming and the fact that the NCEs were found only for target words that are related to their prime word’s more frequent meaning has strong implications for any theory of NCEs that locate these effects exclusively within the motor-response system. PMID:27152129

  4. Affective Priming in a Lexical Decision Task: Is There an Effect of Words' Concreteness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferré, Pilar; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Affective priming occurs when responses to a target are facilitated when it is preceded by a prime congruent in valence. We conducted two experiments in order to test whether this is a genuine emotional effect or rather it can be accounted for by semantic relatedness between primes and targets. With this aim, semantic relatedness and emotional…

  5. The Affective Regulation of Cognitive Priming

    PubMed Central

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

    2008-01-01

    Semantic and affective priming are classic effects observed in cognitive and social psychology, respectively. We discovered that affect regulates such priming effects. In Experiment 1, positive and negative moods were induced prior to one of three priming tasks; evaluation, categorization, or lexical decision. As predicted, positive affect led to both affective priming (evaluation task) and semantic priming (category and lexical decision tasks). However, negative affect inhibited such effects. In Experiment 2, participants in their natural affective state completed the same priming tasks as in Experiment 1. As expected, affective priming (evaluation task) and category priming (categorization and lexical decision tasks) were observed in such resting affective states. Hence, we conclude that negative affect inhibits semantic and affective priming. These results support recent theoretical models, which suggest that positive affect promotes associations among strong and weak concepts, and that negative affect impairs such associations (Kuhl, 2000; Clore & Storbeck, 2006). PMID:18410195

  6. Effects of subliminal affective priming on helping behavior using the foot-in-the-door technique.

    PubMed

    Skandrani-Marzouki, Inès; Marzouki, Yousri; Joule, Robert-Vincent

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of subliminal affective priming on compliance using the foot-in-the-door (FITD) paradigm. Prior to the target request, participants were exposed to subliminal emotional expressions. FITD (presence vs. absence of initial request) was crossed with Priming (positive, negative, neutral, and absence of prime-blank screen) in a between-subjects design. 180 students volunteered as participants (M=22 years). 20 participants (10 females) were assigned to each of eight experimental conditions plus the control condition that neither involved the initial request nor the priming experiment. Participants were asked to judge whether target sentences were relevant or not for road safety instruction. In Experiment 1, emotional valence of prime stimuli affected both endorsement rate and time devoted to the target request but not participants' attitude. Affective priming effects did not interact significantly with the FITD effect. In experiment 2, in 180 more students, the attitude measure was replaced by an implicit recognition task. Results showed that regardless of priming condition, in the absence of FITD, participants recognized target sentences better than in the presence of FITD. Conversely, in the presence of the FITD, participants recognized more accurately previously seen sentences that were primed by positive emotions relative to other priming conditions. The latter result suggests that the presence of the FITD involves a significant amount of cognitive resources so that only stimuli emotionally relevant to the task's goal (i.e., positive) tend to be processed. Together, these results could explain how, contrary to helping behavior, compliant behavior that has no direct association with the prime stimuli was not easily influenced by the affective subliminal priming. PMID:23402037

  7. Affective Priming with Associatively Acquired Valence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguado, Luis; Pierna, Manuel; Saugar, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the effect of affectively congruent or incongruent primes on evaluation responses to positive or negative valenced targets (the "affective priming" effect). Experiment 1 replicated the basic affective priming effect with Spanish nouns: reaction time for evaluative responses (pleasant/unpleasant) were slower on…

  8. Use of affective priming to measure the implicit self-reference effect.

    PubMed

    Blaszczak, Wojciech; Imbir, Kamil

    2012-08-01

    A modified suboptimal affective priming paradigm was used to provide an implicit measure of the self-reference effect (Implicit Self-Reference effect, ISR). Hexagrams described to participants as "symbols of different human characteristics" served as judgment target stimuli. Participants (14 women, 12 men; age range = 21 to 25 years) were asked to judge the extent to which the characteristic symbolized by each hexagram was self-relevant to them. Twelve photographs of faces displaying either a neutral expression, disgust, or joy were used as suboptimal primes for each presentation and exposed for 17 msec. Results indicated that participants judged hexagrams affectively primed with faces showing disgust as having significantly lower reference to the self than hexagrams primed with joyful faces. PMID:23045852

  9. Affective Priming with Auditory Speech Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degner, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In Experiment 2, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was…

  10. What's in a face? The role of skin tone, facial physiognomy, and color presentation mode of facial primes in affective priming effects.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Elena V; Strube, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Participants (N = 106) performed an affective priming task with facial primes that varied in their skin tone and facial physiognomy, and, which were presented either in color or in gray-scale. Participants' racial evaluations were more positive for Eurocentric than for Afrocentric physiognomy faces. Light skin tone faces were evaluated more positively than dark skin tone faces, but the magnitude of this effect depended on the mode of color presentation. The results suggest that in affective priming tasks, faces might not be processed holistically, and instead, visual features of facial priming stimuli independently affect implicit evaluations. PMID:22468422

  11. The Amygdala Is Involved in Affective Priming Effect for Fearful Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, J.; Cao, Z.; Xu, X.; Chen, G.

    2012-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate whether the amygdala is involved in affective priming effect after stimuli are encoded unconsciously and consciously. During the encoding phase, each masked face (fearful or neutral) was presented to participants six times for 17 ms each, using a backward masking paradigm. During the retrieval phase,…

  12. Effects of autonomous motivational priming on motivation and affective responses towards high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Brown, Denver M Y; Teseo, Amanda J; Bray, Steven R

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effect of autonomous motivational priming on motivation, attitudes and intentions towards high-intensity interval training (HIT). Participants (N = 42) performed a graded exercise test to determine their peak aerobic power (WPEAK). At a subsequent testing session, participants were randomised to complete either an autonomous or neutral motivational priming task followed by a 10 × 1 HIT exercise protocol, alternating 1-min bouts of hard (70% WPEAK) and light (12.5% WPEAK) exercises for 20 min. Participants primed with autonomous motivation reported greater enjoyment, P = .009, ηp(2) = .16, and perceived competence, P = .005, ηp(2) = .18, post-exercise compared to those in the neutral priming condition. Participants in the autonomous motivational priming condition also reported more positive attitudes, P = .014, ηp(2) = .14, towards HIT; however, there was no difference between the conditions for task motivation during HIT or intentions, P = .53, ηp(2) = .01, to engage in HIT. These findings highlight autonomous motivational priming as a method of enhancing affective and motivational experiences regarding HIT.

  13. Affective priming effects of musical sounds on the processing of word meaning.

    PubMed

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Koelsch, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that music is capable of conveying semantically meaningful concepts. Several questions have subsequently arisen particularly with regard to the precise mechanisms underlying the communication of musical meaning as well as the role of specific musical features. The present article reports three studies investigating the role of affect expressed by various musical features in priming subsequent word processing at the semantic level. By means of an affective priming paradigm, it was shown that both musically trained and untrained participants evaluated emotional words congruous to the affect expressed by a preceding chord faster than words incongruous to the preceding chord. This behavioral effect was accompanied by an N400, an ERP typically linked with semantic processing, which was specifically modulated by the (mis)match between the prime and the target. This finding was shown for the musical parameter of consonance/dissonance (Experiment 1) and then extended to mode (major/minor) (Experiment 2) and timbre (Experiment 3). Seeing that the N400 is taken to reflect the processing of meaning, the present findings suggest that the emotional expression of single musical features is understood by listeners as such and is probably processed on a level akin to other affective communications (i.e., prosody or vocalizations) because it interferes with subsequent semantic processing. There were no group differences, suggesting that musical expertise does not have an influence on the processing of emotional expression in music and its semantic connotations.

  14. The nature of affective priming in music and speech.

    PubMed

    Goerlich, Katharina Sophia; Witteman, Jurriaan; Schiller, Niels O; Van Heuven, Vincent J; Aleman, André; Martens, Sander

    2012-08-01

    The phenomenon of affective priming has caught scientific interest for over 30 years, yet the nature of the affective priming effect remains elusive. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of cross-modal affective priming and the influence of affective incongruence in music and speech on negativities in the N400 time-window. In Experiment 1, participants judged the valence of affective targets (affective categorization). We found that music and speech targets were evaluated faster when preceded by affectively congruent visual word primes, and vice versa. This affective priming effect was accompanied by a significantly larger N400-like effect following incongruent targets. In this experiment, both spreading of activation and response competition could underlie the affective priming effect. In Experiment 2, participants categorized the same affective targets based on nonaffective characteristics. However, as prime valence was irrelevant to the response dimension, affective priming effects could no longer be attributable to response competition. In Experiment 2, affective priming effects were observed neither at the behavioral nor electrophysiological level. The results of this study indicate that both affective music and speech prosody can prime the processing of visual words with emotional connotations, and vice versa. Affective incongruence seems to be associated with N400-like effects during evaluative categorization. The present data further suggest a role of response competition during the affective categorization of music, prosody, and words with emotional connotations.

  15. Affective priming using facial expressions modulates liking for abstract art.

    PubMed

    Flexas, Albert; Rosselló, Jaume; Christensen, Julia F; Nadal, Marcos; Olivera La Rosa, Antonio; Munar, Enric

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of affective priming on the appreciation of abstract artworks using an evaluative priming task. Facial primes (showing happiness, disgust or no emotion) were presented under brief (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony, SOA = 20 ms) and extended (SOA = 300 ms) conditions. Differences in aesthetic liking for abstract paintings depending on the emotion expressed in the preceding primes provided a measure of the priming effect. The results showed that, for the extended SOA, artworks were liked more when preceded by happiness primes and less when preceded by disgust primes. Facial expressions of happiness, though not of disgust, exerted similar effects in the brief SOA condition. Subjective measures and a forced-choice task revealed no evidence of prime awareness in the suboptimal condition. Our results are congruent with findings showing that the affective transfer elicited by priming biases evaluative judgments, extending previous research to the domain of aesthetic appreciation.

  16. Social Anxiety Modulates Subliminal Affective Priming

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Elizabeth S.; Pope, Stuart A. J.; Fennell, John G.; Mendl, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well established that there is anxiety-related variation between observers in the very earliest, pre-attentive stage of visual processing of images such as emotionally expressive faces, often leading to enhanced attention to threat in a variety of disorders and traits. Whether there is also variation in early-stage affective (i.e. valenced) responses resulting from such images, however, is not yet known. The present study used the subliminal affective priming paradigm to investigate whether people varying in trait social anxiety also differ in their affective responses to very briefly presented, emotionally expressive face images. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants (n = 67) completed a subliminal affective priming task, in which briefly presented and smiling, neutral and angry faces were shown for 10 ms durations (below objective and subjective thresholds for visual discrimination), and immediately followed by a randomly selected Chinese character mask (2000 ms). Ratings of participants' liking for each Chinese character indicated the degree of valenced affective response made to the unseen emotive images. Participants' ratings of their liking for the Chinese characters were significantly influenced by the type of face image preceding them, with smiling faces generating more positive ratings than neutral and angry ones (F(2,128) = 3.107, p<0.05). Self-reported social anxiety was positively correlated with ratings of smiling relative to neutral-face primed characters (Pearson's r = .323, p<0.01). Individual variation in self-reported mood awareness was not associated with ratings. Conclusions Trait social anxiety is associated with individual variation in affective responding, even in response to the earliest, pre-attentive stage of visual image processing. However, the fact that these priming effects are limited to smiling and not angry (i.e. threatening) images leads us to propose that the pre-attentive processes involved in

  17. Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

  18. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  19. Priming effects in a subtropical forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qianru; Sun, Yue; Xu, Xingliang

    2015-04-01

    Priming effects can accelerate decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) and thus have great potential to change SOC dynamics. Although temperature and addition of fresh substrates could affect the intensity and direction of priming, it remains unclear how their interactions affect priming. Therefore we conducted an incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil. We incubated the soil for 10 days at two temperatures: 15oC and 25oC, with four treatments: CK (only adding water), G (13C-glucose addition), NT (13C-glucose and nitrate additions) and AM (13C-glucose and ammonium additions). The results showed that glucose addition significantly accelerated the decomposition of SOC in both temperatures, indicates that positive priming occurs in this subtropical soil. While negative priming was observed in soils with simultaneous additions of glucose and nitrogen addition, especially at 25oC. The effect of temperature on PE was not significant. This indicates that mining of nitrogen is a major mechanism responsible for priming in this subtropical soil and there is no strong interaction between temperature and substrate additions to induce priming.

  20. Letter search does not affect semantic priming in a probe naming task.

    PubMed

    Küper, Kristina; Heil, Martin

    2008-11-01

    The normally robust semantic priming effect observed in lexical decision is usually reduced to the point of being absent, when a letter search has to be performed on the prime. It has been argued that semantic activation is thus not an automatic process but rather cognitively controlled and therefore adaptable to task demands. We examined the effects of letter search priming on pronunciation times and found a reliable semantic priming effect, following letter search that was not affected at all relative to a standard condition, where participants silently read the prime. Thus the nature of the prime task did not seem to affect the processing mode employed, semantic access occurred even though attention was focused on surface properties of the prime.

  1. Subliminal affective priming in clinical depression and comorbid anxiety: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Dannlowski, Udo; Kersting, Anette; Lalee-Mentzel, Judith; Donges, Uta-Susan; Arolt, Volker; Suslow, Thomas

    2006-06-30

    In the present study, the sequential affective priming paradigm developed by Fazio et al. [Fazio, R.H., Sanbonmatsu, D.M., Powell, M.C., Kardes, F.R., 1986. On the automatic activation of attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50, 229-238.] was applied for the first time to investigate automatic cognitive bias in depressed patients. Unipolar depressed patients (n=22) were tested on admission and after about 7 weeks of inpatient psychotherapy. Half of the patients (n=11) were suffering from a comorbid anxiety disorder. Twenty-two healthy subjects served as controls. Affectively polarized prime words were presented subliminally followed by positive or negative target words, which had to be evaluated. Subjects' affective state was assessed by self-report measures. In the course of psychotherapy, patients recovered significantly. Study groups exhibited qualitatively different affective priming effects: In non-comorbid depressed patients, no affective priming was found. Instead, a highly significant main effect of prime valence emerged, indicating a Stroop-like interference of negative prime words at time 1. This negative bias was associated with depression level at time 1 and could not be found after recovery. Affective priming was observed in controls and comorbid patients, but in opposite directions. Direction and strength of affective priming was directly associated with anxiety level at both times. The affective priming paradigm provides evidence for differential group effects regarding unconscious emotional information processing. PMID:16725208

  2. Priming semantic concepts affects the dynamics of aesthetic appreciation.

    PubMed

    Faerber, Stella J; Leder, Helmut; Gerger, Gernot; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2010-10-01

    Aesthetic appreciation (AA) plays an important role for purchase decisions, for the appreciation of art and even for the selection of potential mates. It is known that AA is highly reliable in single assessments, but over longer periods of time dynamic changes of AA may occur. We measured AA as a construct derived from the literature through attractiveness, arousal, interestingness, valence, boredom and innovativeness. By means of the semantic network theory we investigated how the priming of AA-relevant semantic concepts impacts the dynamics of AA of unfamiliar product designs (car interiors) that are known to be susceptible to triggering such effects. When participants were primed for innovativeness, strong dynamics were observed, especially when the priming involved additional AA-relevant dimensions. This underlines the relevance of priming of specific semantic networks not only for the cognitive processing of visual material in terms of selective perception or specific representation, but also for the affective-cognitive processing in terms of the dynamics of aesthetic processing.

  3. Affective priming as an indirect measure of food preferences acquired through odor conditioning.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Dirk; Baeyens, Frank; Lamote, Sabine; Spruyt, Adriaan; Eelen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating affective priming for originally neutral food stimuli that recently acquired their affective meaning through odor conditioning. In a first phase, pictures of different brands of yogurts (CSs) were contingently presented with a positive or negative odor (US). In a subsequent phase, the yogurt CSs were used as primes in an affective priming procedure. Rating data showed that the acquisition procedure resulted in a reliable evaluative learning effect. This could be corroborated by the results of the priming task. Participants responded faster to positive target words and made fewer errors when they were preceded by a CS that had been associated with a positive odor, as compared to a CS that was associated with a negative odor. A reversed pattern was present for negative targets. Based on these findings, it is suggested that affective priming might be used as a demand-free measure of evaluative learning.

  4. Differential priming effect for subliminal fear and disgust facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Young; Kang, Jee In; Lee, Eun; Namkoong, Kee; An, Suk Kyoon

    2011-02-01

    Compared to neutral or happy stimuli, subliminal fear stimuli are known to be well processed through the automatic pathway. We tried to examine whether fear stimuli could be processed more strongly than other negative emotional stimuli using a modified subliminal affective priming paradigm. Twenty-six healthy subjects participated in two separated sessions. Fear, disgust and neutral facial expressions were adopted as primes, and 50% happy facial stimuli were adopted as a target to let only stronger negative primes reveal a priming effect. Participants were asked to appraise the affect of target faces in the affect appraisal session and to appraise the genuineness of target faces in the genuineness appraisal session. The genuineness instruction was developed to help participants be sensitive to potential threats. In the affect appraisal, participants judged 50% happy target faces significantly more 'unpleasant' when they were primed by fear faces than primed by 50% happy control faces. In the genuineness appraisal, participants judged targets significantly more 'not genuine' when they were primed by fear and disgust faces than primed by controls. These findings suggest that there may be differential priming effects between subliminal fear and disgust expressions, which could be modulated by a sensitive context of potential threat.

  5. The role of selective attention in perceptual and affective priming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Two kinds of perceptual priming (word identification and word fragment completion), as well as preference priming (that may rely on special affective mechanisms) were examined after participants either read or named the colors of words and nonwords at study. Participants named the colors of words more slowly than the colors of nonwords, indicating that lexical processing of the words occurred at study. Nonetheless, priming on all three tests was lower after color naming than after reading, despite evidence of lexical processing during color naming shown by slower responses to words than to nonwords. These results indicate that selective attention to (rather than the mere processing of) letter string identity at study is important for subsequent repetition priming.

  6. Rhizosphere priming effects in two contrasting soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Davidson; Kirk, Guy; Ritz, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Inputs of fresh plant-derived carbon may stimulate the turnover of existing soil organic matter by so-called priming effects. Priming may occur directly, as a result of nutrient 'mining' by existing microbial communities, or indirectly via population adjustments. However the mechanisms are poorly understood. We planted C4 Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) in pots with two contrasting C3 soils (clayey, fertile TB and sandy, acid SH), and followed the soil CO2 efflux and its δ13C. The extent of C deposition in the rhizosphere was altered by intermittently clipping the grass in half the pots; there were also unplanted controls. At intervals, pots were destructively sampled for root and shoot biomass. Total soil CO2 efflux was measured using a gas-tight PVC chamber fitted over bare soil, and connected to an infra-red gas analyser; the δ13C of efflux was measured in air sub-samples withdrawn by syringe. The extent of priming was inferred from the δ13C of efflux and the δ13C of the plant and soil end-members. In unclipped treatments, in both soils, increased total soil respiration and rhizosphere priming effects (RPE) were apparent compared to the unplanted controls. The TB soil had greater RPE overall. The total respiration in clipped TB soil was significantly greater than in the unplanted controls, but in the clipped SH soil it was not significantly different from the controls. Clipping affected plant C partitioning with greater allocation to shoot regrowth from about 4 weeks after planting. Total plant biomass decreased in the order TB unclipped > SH unclipped >TB clipped > SH clipped. The results are consistent with priming driven by microbial activation stimulated by rhizodeposits and by nitrogen demand from the growing plants under N limited conditions. Our data suggest that photosynthesis drives RPE and soil differences may alter the rate and intensity of RPE but not the direction.

  7. Extraversion and reward-related processing: probing incentive motivation in affective priming tasks.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael D; Moeller, Sara K; Ode, Scott

    2010-10-01

    Based on an incentive motivation theory of extraversion (Depue & Collins, 1999), it was hypothesized that extraverts (relative to introverts) would exhibit stronger positive priming effects in affective priming tasks, whether involving words or pictures. This hypothesis was systematically supported in four studies involving 229 undergraduates. In each of the four studies, and in a subsequent combined analysis, extraversion was positively predictive of positive affective priming effects, but was not predictive of negative affective priming effects. The results bridge an important gap in the literature between biological and trait models of incentive motivation and do so in a way that should be informative to subsequent efforts to understand the processing basis of extraversion as well as incentive motivation.

  8. The negative priming effect in cognitive conflict processing.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fada; Shi, Liang; Lu, Qingyun; Wu, Xiaogang; Xue, Song; Li, Qiwei

    2016-08-15

    The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the specific physiological mechanisms underlying the negative nature of cognitive conflict and its influence on affective word evaluations. The present study used an affective priming paradigm where Stroop stimuli were presented for 200ms after which affective target words had to be evaluated as being positive or negative. Behavioral results showed that reaction times (RTs) were shorter for positive targets following congruent primes relative to incongruent primes, and for negative targets following incongruent primes relative to congruent primes. The ERP results showed that the N2 amplitude (200-300ms) for incongruent stimuli was significantly larger than for congruent stimuli in the Stroop task, which indicated a significant conflict effect. Moreover, the N400 amplitude (300-500ms) was smaller for negative words following incongruent primes relative to congruent primes, and for positive words following congruent primes relative to incongruent primes. The results demonstrated that cognitive conflict modulated both behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of subsequent emotional processing, consistent with its hypothesized registration as an aversive signal.

  9. The negative priming effect in cognitive conflict processing.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fada; Shi, Liang; Lu, Qingyun; Wu, Xiaogang; Xue, Song; Li, Qiwei

    2016-08-15

    The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the specific physiological mechanisms underlying the negative nature of cognitive conflict and its influence on affective word evaluations. The present study used an affective priming paradigm where Stroop stimuli were presented for 200ms after which affective target words had to be evaluated as being positive or negative. Behavioral results showed that reaction times (RTs) were shorter for positive targets following congruent primes relative to incongruent primes, and for negative targets following incongruent primes relative to congruent primes. The ERP results showed that the N2 amplitude (200-300ms) for incongruent stimuli was significantly larger than for congruent stimuli in the Stroop task, which indicated a significant conflict effect. Moreover, the N400 amplitude (300-500ms) was smaller for negative words following incongruent primes relative to congruent primes, and for positive words following congruent primes relative to incongruent primes. The results demonstrated that cognitive conflict modulated both behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of subsequent emotional processing, consistent with its hypothesized registration as an aversive signal. PMID:27268038

  10. Identity Priming Consistently Affects Perceptual Fluency but Only Affects Metamemory When Primes Are Obvious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susser, Jonathan A.; Jin, Andy; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual fluency manipulations influence metamemory judgments, with more fluently perceived information judged as more memorable. However, it is not always clear whether this influence is driven by actual experienced processing fluency or by beliefs about memory. The current study used an identity-priming paradigm--in which words are preceded by…

  11. The Intervenor Effect in Masked Priming: How Does Masked Priming Survive across an Intervening Word?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Four masked priming experiments are reported investigating the effect of inserting an unrelated word between the masked prime and the target. When the intervening word is visible, identity priming is reduced to the level of one-letter-different form priming, but form priming is largely unaffected. However, when the intervening word is itself…

  12. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    PubMed

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms) and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women) participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states.

  13. Sandwich Priming: A Method for Overcoming the Limitations of Masked Priming by Reducing Lexical Competitor Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupker, Stephen J.; Davis, Colin J.

    2009-01-01

    An orthographically similar masked nonword prime facilitates responding in a lexical decision task (Forster & Davis, 1984). Recently, this masked priming paradigm has been used to evaluate models of orthographic coding--models that attempt to quantify prime-target similarity. One general finding is that priming effects often do not occur when…

  14. Is Long-Term Structural Priming Affected by Patterns of Experience with Individual Verbs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Borreggine, Kristin L.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported long-term structural priming effects in experiments where previous patterns of experience with the double object and prepositional object constructions are shown to affect later patterns of language production for those constructions. The experiments reported in this paper address the extent to which these…

  15. Concreteness of positive word contributions to affective priming: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhao; Wang, Zhenhong

    2014-09-01

    Recent behavioral data suggest that the concreteness of positive words modulates subsequent cognitive processing; however, the underlying physiological processes of this influence are not well understood. To explore this process, positive-abstract words or positive-concrete words were used as primes when participants performed a lexical decision task during the measurement of event-related potentials (ERPs). The behavioral data revealed a significant affective priming effect (i.e., incongruent>congruent) only for abstract word pairs. The N400 amplitude was larger for affectively incongruent pairs compared to affectively congruent pairs, independent of the prime concreteness. The amplitude of the late positive component (LPC) was modulated by prime concreteness. The processing of positive-abstract targets was facilitated by previous exposure to a congruent prime, as reflected by the reduced LPC, which has been thought to reflect attentional and memory processes. However, no differences in the LPC amplitude were found between congruent and incongruent-concrete pairs. These findings suggest that the influence of the concreteness of positive words mainly occurs during the decision-making processing and memory-related stages. PMID:24937349

  16. Oligomerizations of deoxyadenosine bis-phosphates and of their 3-prime-5-prime, 3-prime-3-prime, and 5-prime-5-prime dimers - Effects of a pyrophosphate-linked, poly(T) analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visscher, J.; Bakker, C. G.; Schwartz, Alan W.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a 3-prime-5-prime pyrophosphate-linked oligomer of pTp on oligomerizations of pdAp and of its 3-prime-5-prime, 3-prime-3-prime, and 5-prime-5-prime dimers was investigated, using HPLC to separate the reaction mixtures; peak detection was by absorbance monitoring at 254 nm. It was expected that the dimers would form stable complexes with the template, with the degree of stability depending upon the internal linkage of each dimer. It was found that, although the isomers differ substantially in their oligomerization behavior in the absence of template, the analog-template catalyzes the oligomerization to about the same extent in all three cases.

  17. The Effect of Prime Duration in Masked Orthographic Priming Depends on Neighborhood Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Christelle; Mathey, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    A lexical decision task was used with a masked priming procedure to investigate whether and to what extent neighborhood distribution influences the effect of prime duration in masked orthographic priming. French word targets had two higher frequency neighbors that were either distributed over two letter positions (e.g., "LOBE/robe-loge") or…

  18. Phonological and Orthographic Overlap Effects in Fast and Masked Priming

    PubMed Central

    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50ms in the fast priming version, and 50ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap), and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065

  19. Masked priming by misspellings: Word frequency moderates the effects of SOA and prime-target similarity.

    PubMed

    Burt, Jennifer S

    2016-02-01

    University students made lexical decisions to eight- or nine-letter words preceded by masked primes that were the target, an unrelated word, or a typical misspelling of the target. At a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 47 ms, primes that were misspellings of the target produced a priming benefit for low-, medium-, and high-frequency words, even when the misspelled primes were changed to differ phonologically from their targets. At a longer SOA of 80 ms, misspelled primes facilitated lexical decisions only to medium- and low-frequency targets, and a phonological change attenuated the benefit for medium-frequency targets. The results indicate that orthographic similarity can be preserved over changes in letter position and word length, and that the priming effect of misspelled words at the shorter SOA is orthographically based. Orthographic-priming effects depend on the quality of the orthographic learning of the target word. PMID:26530310

  20. The priming effect of military service on creativity performance.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Fa-Chung; Tu, Priscilla L P

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the service priming effect on creativity performance. In three experiments, the service priming was manipulated in three ways (Army priming, Air Force priming, and a Neutral condition). Participants' performances on the Chinese Remote Associates Test (CRAT), insight problems, and critical thinking problems were accordingly measured in each experiment. Results showed that the Air Force priming improved creativity and the Army priming enhanced critical thinking. The results suggest that the constructions and processes of these two manipulations are different. In addition, results also suggested that the branch of military service moderates the relationship between the service priming and the performance of creativity. PMID:24897904

  1. Subliminal repetition primes help detection of phonemes in a picture: Evidence for a phonological level of the priming effects.

    PubMed

    Manoiloff, Laura; Segui, Juan; Hallé, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we combine a cross-form word-picture visual masked priming procedure with an internal phoneme monitoring task to examine repetition priming effects. In this paradigm, participants have to respond to pictures whose names begin with a prespecified target phoneme. This task unambiguously requires retrieving the word-form of the target picture's name and implicitly orients participants' attention towards a phonological level of representation. The experiments were conducted within Spanish, whose highly transparent orthography presumably promotes fast and automatic phonological recoding of subliminal, masked visual word primes. Experiments 1 and 2 show that repetition primes speed up internal phoneme monitoring in the target, compared to primes beginning with a different phoneme from the target, or sharing only their first phoneme with the target. This suggests that repetition primes preactivate the phonological code of the entire target picture's name, hereby speeding up internal monitoring, which is necessarily based on such a code. To further qualify the nature of the phonological code underlying internal phoneme monitoring, a concurrent articulation task was used in Experiment 3. This task did not affect the repetition priming effect. We propose that internal phoneme monitoring is based on an abstract phonological code, prior to its translation into articulation.

  2. Subliminal repetition primes help detection of phonemes in a picture: Evidence for a phonological level of the priming effects.

    PubMed

    Manoiloff, Laura; Segui, Juan; Hallé, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we combine a cross-form word-picture visual masked priming procedure with an internal phoneme monitoring task to examine repetition priming effects. In this paradigm, participants have to respond to pictures whose names begin with a prespecified target phoneme. This task unambiguously requires retrieving the word-form of the target picture's name and implicitly orients participants' attention towards a phonological level of representation. The experiments were conducted within Spanish, whose highly transparent orthography presumably promotes fast and automatic phonological recoding of subliminal, masked visual word primes. Experiments 1 and 2 show that repetition primes speed up internal phoneme monitoring in the target, compared to primes beginning with a different phoneme from the target, or sharing only their first phoneme with the target. This suggests that repetition primes preactivate the phonological code of the entire target picture's name, hereby speeding up internal monitoring, which is necessarily based on such a code. To further qualify the nature of the phonological code underlying internal phoneme monitoring, a concurrent articulation task was used in Experiment 3. This task did not affect the repetition priming effect. We propose that internal phoneme monitoring is based on an abstract phonological code, prior to its translation into articulation. PMID:25679503

  3. Priming effects on the perceived grouping of ambiguous dot patterns.

    PubMed

    Kurylo, Daniel D; Bukhari, Farhan

    2015-09-01

    For ambiguous stimuli, complex dynamics guide processes of perceptual grouping. Previous studies have suggested two opposing effects on grouping that are produced by the preliminary stimulus state: one that enhances grouping towards the existing structure, and another that opposes this structure. To examine effects of the preliminary state on grouping directly, measurements were made of perceived grouping of dot patterns that followed a visual prime. Three stimuli were presented in sequence: prime, target, and mask. Targets were composed of an evenly spaced dot grid in which grouping was established by similarity in luminance. Subjects indicated the dominant perceived grouping. The prime either corresponded to or opposed the prevailing organization of the target. Contrary to the hypothesis, solid-line primes biased grouping away from the structure of the prime, even when the prevailing organization of dot patterns strongly favored the primes' structure. This effect occurred, although to a lesser extent, when primes did not occupy the same location of targets, but were presented in a marginal area surrounding the grid. Priming effects did not occur for primes constructed of dot patterns. Effects found here may be attributed to a forward masking effect by primes, which more effectively disrupts grouping of patterns matched to the prime. Effects may also be attributed to a type of pattern contrast, in which a grouped pattern dissimilar to primes gains salience. For the pattern contrast model, the partial activation of multiple grouped configurations is compared to the pattern of the solid-line primes. PMID:25281427

  4. Priming effects on the perceived grouping of ambiguous dot patterns.

    PubMed

    Kurylo, Daniel D; Bukhari, Farhan

    2015-09-01

    For ambiguous stimuli, complex dynamics guide processes of perceptual grouping. Previous studies have suggested two opposing effects on grouping that are produced by the preliminary stimulus state: one that enhances grouping towards the existing structure, and another that opposes this structure. To examine effects of the preliminary state on grouping directly, measurements were made of perceived grouping of dot patterns that followed a visual prime. Three stimuli were presented in sequence: prime, target, and mask. Targets were composed of an evenly spaced dot grid in which grouping was established by similarity in luminance. Subjects indicated the dominant perceived grouping. The prime either corresponded to or opposed the prevailing organization of the target. Contrary to the hypothesis, solid-line primes biased grouping away from the structure of the prime, even when the prevailing organization of dot patterns strongly favored the primes' structure. This effect occurred, although to a lesser extent, when primes did not occupy the same location of targets, but were presented in a marginal area surrounding the grid. Priming effects did not occur for primes constructed of dot patterns. Effects found here may be attributed to a forward masking effect by primes, which more effectively disrupts grouping of patterns matched to the prime. Effects may also be attributed to a type of pattern contrast, in which a grouped pattern dissimilar to primes gains salience. For the pattern contrast model, the partial activation of multiple grouped configurations is compared to the pattern of the solid-line primes.

  5. The Masked Onset Priming Effect in Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Niels O.

    2008-01-01

    Reading aloud is faster when targets (e.g., "PAIR") are preceded by visually masked primes sharing just the onset (e.g., "pole") compared to all different primes (e.g., "take"). This effect is known as the "masked onset priming effect" (MOPE). One crucial feature of this effect is its presumed non-lexical basis. This aspect of the MOPE is tested…

  6. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  7. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  8. Seeing emotions in the eyes – inverse priming effects induced by eyes expressing mental states

    PubMed Central

    Wagenbreth, Caroline; Rieger, Julia; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Zaehle, Tino

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Automatic emotional processing of faces and facial expressions gain more and more of relevance in terms of social communication. Among a variety of different primes, targets and tasks, whole face images and facial expressions have been used to affectively prime emotional responses. This study investigates whether emotional information provided solely in eye regions that display mental states can also trigger affective priming. Methods: Sixteen subjects answered a lexical decision task (LDT) coupled with an affective priming paradigm. Emotion-associated eye regions were extracted from photographs of faces and acted as primes, whereas targets were either words or pseudo-words. Participants had to decide whether the targets were real German words or generated pseudo-words. Primes and targets belonged to the emotional categories “fear,” “disgust,” “happiness,” and “neutral.” Results: A general valence effect for positive words was observed: responses in the LDT were faster for target words of the emotional category happiness when compared to other categories. Importantly, pictures of emotional eye regions preceding the target words affected their subsequent classification. While we show a classical priming effect for neutral target words – with shorter RT for congruent compared to incongruent prime-target pairs- , we observed an inverse priming effect for fearful and happy target words – with shorter RT for incongruent compared to congruent prime-target pairs. These inverse priming effects were driven exclusively by specific prime-target pairs. Conclusion: Reduced facial emotional information is sufficient to induce automatic implicit emotional processing. The emotional-associated eye regions were processed with respect to their emotional valence and affected the performance on the LDT. PMID:25278925

  9. Relational integrativity of prime-target pairs moderates congruity effects in evaluative priming.

    PubMed

    Ihmels, Max; Freytag, Peter; Fiedler, Klaus; Alexopoulos, Theodore

    2016-05-01

    In evaluative priming, positive or negative primes facilitate reactions to targets that share the same valence. While this effect is commonly explained as reflecting invariant structures in semantic long-term memory or in the sensorimotor system, the present research highlights the role of integrativity in evaluative priming. Integrativity refers to the ease of integrating two concepts into a new meaningful compound representation. In extended material tests using paired comparisons from two pools of positive and negative words, we show that evaluative congruity is highly correlated with integrativity. Therefore, in most priming studies, congruity and integrativity are strongly confounded. When both aspects are disentangled by manipulating congruity and integrativity orthogonally, three priming experiments show that evaluative-priming effects were confined to integrative prime-target pairs. No facilitation of prime-congruent targets was obtained for non-integrative stimuli. These findings are discussed from a broader perspective on priming conceived as flexible, context-dependent, and serving a generative adaptation function. PMID:26689705

  10. Does "Darkness" Lead to "Happiness"? Masked Suffix Priming Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Perea, Manuel; Carreiras, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Masked affix priming effects have usually been obtained for words sharing the initial affix (e.g., "reaction"-"REFORM"). However, prior evidence on masked suffix priming effects (e.g., "baker"-"WALKER") is inconclusive. In the present series of masked priming lexical decision experiments, a target word was briefly preceded by a morphologically or…

  11. Structural Priming and Frequency Effects Interact in Chinese Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hang; Dong, Yanping; Boland, Julie E; Yuan, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in several European languages has shown that the language processing system is sensitive to both structural frequency and structural priming effects. However, it is currently not clear whether these two types of effects interact during online sentence comprehension, especially for languages that do not have morphological markings. To explore this issue, the present study investigated the possible interplay between structural priming and frequency effects for sentences containing the Chinese ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 in a self-paced reading experiment. The sentences were disambiguated to either the more frequent/preferred NP structure or the less frequent VP structure. Each target sentence was preceded by a prime sentence of three possible types: NP primes, VP primes, and neutral primes. When the ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 was disambiguated to the dispreferred VP structure, participants experienced more processing difficulty following an NP prime relative to following a VP prime or a neutral baseline. When the ambiguity was resolved to the preferred NP structure, prime type had no effect. These results suggest that structural priming in comprehension is modulated by the baseline frequency of alternative structures, with the less frequent structure being more subject to structural priming effects. These results are discussed in the context of the error-based, implicit learning account of structural priming. PMID:26869954

  12. Structural Priming and Frequency Effects Interact in Chinese Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hang; Dong, Yanping; Boland, Julie E.; Yuan, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in several European languages has shown that the language processing system is sensitive to both structural frequency and structural priming effects. However, it is currently not clear whether these two types of effects interact during online sentence comprehension, especially for languages that do not have morphological markings. To explore this issue, the present study investigated the possible interplay between structural priming and frequency effects for sentences containing the Chinese ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 in a self-paced reading experiment. The sentences were disambiguated to either the more frequent/preferred NP structure or the less frequent VP structure. Each target sentence was preceded by a prime sentence of three possible types: NP primes, VP primes, and neutral primes. When the ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 was disambiguated to the dispreferred VP structure, participants experienced more processing difficulty following an NP prime relative to following a VP prime or a neutral baseline. When the ambiguity was resolved to the preferred NP structure, prime type had no effect. These results suggest that structural priming in comprehension is modulated by the baseline frequency of alternative structures, with the less frequent structure being more subject to structural priming effects. These results are discussed in the context of the error-based, implicit learning account of structural priming. PMID:26869954

  13. Priming tool actions: Are real objects more effective primes than pictures?

    PubMed

    Squires, Scott D; Macdonald, Scott N; Culham, Jody C; Snow, Jacqueline C

    2016-04-01

    Humans are faster to grasp an object such as a tool if they have previewed the same object beforehand. This priming effect is strongest when actors gesture the use of the tool rather than simply move it, possibly because the previewed tool activates action-specific routines in dorsal-stream motor networks. Here, we examined whether real tools, which observers could physically act upon, serve as more potent primes than two-dimensional images of tools, which do not afford physical action. Participants were presented with a prime stimulus that could be either a real tool or a visually matched photograph of a tool. After a brief delay, participants interacted with a real tool target, either by 'grasping to move,' or 'grasping to use' it. The identities of the prime and target tools were either the same (congruent trials; e.g., spatula-spatula) or different (incongruent trials; e.g., whisk-spatula). As expected, participants were faster to initiate grasps during trials when they had to move the tool rather than gesture its use. Priming effects were observed for grasp-to-use, but not grasp-to-move, responses. Surprisingly, however, both pictures of tools and real tools primed action responses equally. Our results indicate that tool priming effects are driven by pictorial cues and their implied actions, even in the absence of volumetric cues that reflect the tangibility and affordances of the prime.

  14. Positive Affective Priming: A Behavioral Technique to Facilitate Therapeutic Engagement by Families, Caregivers, and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    Affective priming is a technique used in experimental psychology to investigate the organization of emotional schemata not fully available to conscious awareness. The presentation of stimuli (the prime) with strong positive emotional valence alters the accessibility of positive stimuli within the individual's emotionally encoded cognitive system.…

  15. Novel Word Lexicalization and the Prime Lexicality Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in…

  16. Attentional Control and the Relatedness Proportion Effect in Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2 experiments, participants completed both an attentional control battery (OSPAN, antisaccade, and Stroop tasks) and a modified semantic priming task. The priming task measured relatedness proportion (RP) effects within subjects, with the color of the prime indicating the probability that the to-be-named target would be related. In Experiment…

  17. The effect of retinal illuminance on visual motion priming.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Tatsuto; Tuladhar, Anup; Yoshimoto, Sanae

    2011-05-25

    The perceived direction of a directionally ambiguous stimulus is influenced by the moving direction of a preceding priming stimulus. Previous studies have shown that a brief priming stimulus induces positive motion priming, in which a subsequent directionally ambiguous stimulus is perceived to move in the same direction as the primer, while a longer priming stimulus induces negative priming, in which the following ambiguous stimulus is perceived to move in the opposite direction of the primer. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism of motion priming by examining how retinal illuminance and velocity of the primer influences the perception of priming. Subjects judged the perceived direction of 180-deg phase-shifted (thus directionally ambiguous) sine-wave gratings displayed immediately after the offset of a primer stimulus. We found that perception of motion priming was greatly modulated by the retinal illuminance and velocity of the primer. Under low retinal illuminance, positive priming nearly disappeared even when the effective luminance contrast was equated between different conditions. Positive priming was prominent when the velocity of the primer was low, while only negative priming was observed when the velocity was high. These results suggest that the positive motion priming is induced by a higher-order mechanism that tracks prominent features of the visual stimulus, while a directionally selective motion mechanism induces negative motion priming.

  18. Implicitly Priming the Social Brain: Failure to Find Neural Effects

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Katherine E.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2013-01-01

    Humans have a fundamental need for social relationships. Rejection from social groups is especially detrimental, rendering the ability to detect threats to social relationships and respond in adaptive ways critical. Indeed, previous research has shown that experiencing social rejection alters the processing of subsequent social cues in a variety of socially affiliative and avoidant ways. Because social perception and cognition occurs spontaneously and automatically, detecting threats to social relationships may occur without conscious awareness or control. Here, we investigated the automaticity of social threat detection by examining how implicit primes affect neural responses to social stimuli. However, despite using a well-established implicit priming paradigm and large sample size, we failed to find any evidence that implicit primes induced changes at the neural level. That implicit primes influence behavior has been demonstrated repeatedly and across a variety of domains, and our goal is not to question these effects. Rather, we offer the present study as cautionary evidence that such a paradigm may not be amenable to scanning in an fMRI environment. PMID:23437183

  19. Common and segregated neural substrates for automatic conceptual and affective priming as revealed by event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyan; Hu, Zhiguo; Peng, Danling; Yang, Yanhui; Li, Kuncheng

    2010-02-01

    The brain activity associated with automatic semantic priming has been extensively studied. Thus far there has been no prior study that directly contrasts the neural mechanisms of semantic and affective priming. The present study employed event-related fMRI to examine the common and distinct neural bases underlying conceptual and affective priming with a lexical decision task. A special type of emotional word, a dual-meaning word containing both conceptual meaning and affective meaning, was adopted as target. Short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) (50 ms) was used to emphasize automatic processing. Fifteen participants were scanned in the present study. We found that the left middle/superior temporal gyrus was the brain region involved in both automatic conceptual and affective priming effects, suggesting general lexical-semantic processing that share in the two types of priming. The left inferior frontal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus were found to be the conceptual-specific areas in automatic priming effect, consistent with the role of these areas in more extensive within-category semantic processes. The results also revealed that the left fusiform gyrus and left insula were the affective-specific regions in automatic priming effect, demonstrating the involvement of the left fusiform gyrus in automatic affective priming effect, and clarifying the role of the insula in emotional processing rather than conceptual processing. Despite comparable behavioral effects of automatic conceptual priming and affective priming, the present study revealed a neural dissociation of the two types of priming, as well as the shared neural bases. PMID:20018360

  20. Influence of prime lexicality, frequency, and pronounceability on the masked onset priming effect.

    PubMed

    Dimitropoulou, Maria; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel

    2010-09-01

    The present study investigates the origins of the masked onset priming effect (MOPE). There are two alternative interpretations that account for most of the evidence reported on the MOPE, so far. The speech planning account (SP) identifies the locus of the MOPE in the preparation of the speech response. In contrast, the dual-route theory proposes that the effect arises as a result of the processing of the prime by the nonlexical route. In a series of masked onset priming word naming experiments we test the validity of these accounts by manipulating the primes' frequency, their lexical status, and pronounceability. We found consistent MOPEs of similar magnitude with high- and low-frequency prime words as well as with pronounceable nonwords. Contrarily, when primes consisted of unpronounceable consonantal strings the effect disappeared, suggesting that pronounceability of the prime is a prerequisite for the emergence of the MOPE. These results are in accordance with the predictions of the SP account. The pattern of effects obtained in the present study further defines the origins of the MOPE. PMID:20221948

  1. They know the words, but not the music: affective and semantic priming in individuals with psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Blair, K S; Richell, R A; Mitchell, D G V; Leonard, A; Morton, J; Blair, R J R

    2006-08-01

    Previous work has indicated dysfunctional affect-language interactions in individuals with psychopathy through use of the lexical decision task. However, it has been uncertain as to whether these deficits actually reflect impaired affect-language interactions or a more fundamental deficit in general semantic processing. In this study, we examined affective priming and semantic priming (dependent measures were reaction times and error rates) in individuals with psychopathy and comparison individuals, classified according to the psychopathy checklist revised (PCL-R) [Hare, R.D., 1991. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, Ont] Individuals with psychopathy showed significantly less affective priming relative to comparison individuals. In contrast, the two groups showed comparable levels of semantic priming. The results are discussed with reference to current models of psychopathy.

  2. Masked repetition priming and proportion effects under cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Glen E; Stalinski, Stephanie M

    2008-06-01

    The authors used a cognitive load manipulation (rehearsing a string of digits during the trial) to test the automaticity of (a) masked repetition priming and (b) the masked repetition proportion (RP) effect (i.e., greater priming when the proportion of repetition-prime trials is higher) in the lexical decision task. The RP (.2 vs. .8) was varied across blocks. Masked priming was not reduced under load compared with a no-load group. Surprisingly, only the load group showed an RP effect in response latencies, although the no-load group showed an RP effect in the error rates. Our results show that masked priming is automatic, yet the influence of masked primes can nonetheless be adjusted at an unconscious level. Implications for accounts of masked priming are discussed. PMID:18572990

  3. Task-Dependent Masked Priming Effects in Visual Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A method used widely to study the first 250 ms of visual word recognition is masked priming: These studies have yielded a rich set of data concerning the processes involved in recognizing letters and words. In these studies, there is an implicit assumption that the early processes in word recognition tapped by masked priming are automatic, and masked priming effects should therefore be invariant across tasks. Contrary to this assumption, masked priming effects are modulated by the task goal: For example, only word targets show priming in the lexical decision task, but both words and non-words do in the same-different task; semantic priming effects are generally weak in the lexical decision task but are robust in the semantic categorization task. We explain how such task dependence arises within the Bayesian Reader account of masked priming (Norris and Kinoshita, 2008), and how the task dissociations can be used to understand the early processes in lexical access. PMID:22675316

  4. Affective Priming by Simple Geometric Shapes: Evidence from Event-related Brain Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that simple geometric shapes may convey emotional meaning using various experimental paradigms. However, whether affective meaning of simple geometric shapes can be automatically activated and influence the evaluations of subsequent stimulus is still unclear. Thus the present study employed an affective priming paradigm to investigate whether and how two geometric shapes (circle vs. downward triangle) impact on the affective processing of subsequently presented faces (Experiment 1) and words (Experiment 2). At behavioral level, no significant effect of affective congruency was found. However, ERP results in Experiment 1 and 2 showed a typical effect of affective congruency. The LPP elicited by affectively incongruent trials was larger compared to congruent trials. Our results provide support for the notion that downward triangle is perceived as negative and circle as positive and their emotional meaning can be activated automatically and then exert an influence on the electrophysiological processing of subsequent stimuli. The lack of significant congruent effect in behavioral measures and the inversed N400 congruent effect might reveal that the affective meaning of geometric shapes is weak because they are just abstract threatening cues rather than real threat. In addition, because no male participants are included in the present study, our findings are limited to females. PMID:27379001

  5. Adult attachment orientation and automatic processing of emotional information on a semantic level: A masked affective priming study.

    PubMed

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Zeitschel, Frank; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-09-30

    Early adverse social experiences leading to attachment insecurity could cause heightened sensitivity to emotional information. Automatic processing of emotional stimuli conveys information about positive-negative differentiation and the so-called possessor vs. other-relevance of valence. The aim of the present study was to examine automatic processing of emotional and relevance type information on a semantic level as a function of adult attachment avoidance and anxiety. A masked affective priming task, varying valence and relevance of prime and target adjectives, was presented to a sample of 153 healthy adults. The Experiences in Close Relationships scale was administered to assess attachment orientation. Significant priming effects for valence and relevance were observed. Attachment avoidance, but not attachment anxiety, was significantly related to affective priming independently of trait anxiety and depression. Specifically, attachment avoidance was found to be related to affective priming effects based on other-relevant words. It can be concluded that automatic processing of emotional adjectives used to characterize safe or risky social environments is heightened in avoidant individuals. The avoidantly attached processing style has similarities with repressive coping, which is characterized by an enhanced early response to emotion stimuli followed by avoidant biases at a controlled processing level. PMID:26235477

  6. The Affective Meanings of Automatic Social Behaviors: Three Mechanisms that Explain Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Tobias; Thagard, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The priming of concepts has been shown to influence peoples' subsequent actions, often unconsciously. We propose 3 mechanisms (psychological, cultural, and biological) as a unified explanation of such effects. (a) Primed concepts influence holistic representations of situations by parallel constraint satisfaction. (b) The constraints among…

  7. Priming effects on cooperative behavior in social dilemmas: considering the prime and the person.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Mike; Sheldon, Kennon M

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. We test whether people with a relatively more intrinsic vs. extrinsic value orientation (RIEVO) are particularly likely to enact cooperative behavior in resource dilemmas when they are primed with relatedness goals. In Study 1, high RIEVO participants primed with relatedness exhibited more restrained fishing behavior in a resource dilemma than their unprimed counterparts or participants low in RIEVO. Study 2 replicated this effect and further showed that the prime must signal the possibility of satisfying a valued goal (relatedness satisfaction) in order to elicit the value-consistent behavior. We discuss these results in the context of recent process models of goal priming, and also discuss how these findings contribute to our understanding of cooperative behavior and the predictive power of value constructs more broadly.

  8. A prime a day keeps calories away: The effects of supraliminal priming on food consumption and the moderating role of gender and eating restraint.

    PubMed

    Minas, Randall K; Poor, Morgan; Dennis, Alan R; Bartelt, Valerie L

    2016-10-01

    The link between intentions and action in weight control is weaker than previously thought, so recent research has called for further investigation of ways to improve weight control that bypass conscious intentions. Priming has been shown to have effects on individual behavior in a variety of contexts by influencing subconscious cognition. This paper investigates the effects of semantic priming using healthy body image, goal-oriented words on food consumption. The moderating role of both restrained eating and gender is investigated. 161 participants were involved in an experiment using a novel version of a scrambled sentence priming game. The outcome measure was the number of kilocalories consumed, examined using a between subjects ANCOVA with priming, gender, restrained eating index, self-reported BMI, and two interaction terms (primingxgender, and primingxrestrained eating index). There was no main effect of priming but there was an interaction of priming with gender. Females consumed significantly fewer kilocalories after being exposed to priming words related to a healthy body image (i.e. "slim", "fit,") compared to females receiving the neutral prime, with a medium effect size (d = 0.58). The body image prime did not significantly affect food intake for males, nor did it have a differential effect on restrained eaters. This study shows that priming can be an effective method for influencing females to reduce food intake, regardless of whether they are restrained or unrestrained eaters. Future studies could investigate whether different priming words related to a male's healthy body image goal (i.e. "buff," "muscles," etc.) would similarly reduce food intake for males. PMID:27235824

  9. The effects of implicit and explicit security priming on creative problem solving.

    PubMed

    Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Rom, Eldad

    2011-04-01

    Attachment theory is a theory of affect regulation as it occurs in the context of close relationships. Early research focused on regulation of emotions through maintenance of proximity to supportive others (attachment figures) in times of need. Recently, emphasis has shifted to the regulation of emotion, and the benefits of such regulation for exploration and learning, via the activation of mental representations of attachment figures (security priming). We conducted two studies on the effects of implicit and explicit security priming on creative problem solving. In Study 1, implicit security priming (subliminal presentation of attachment figures' names) led to more creative problem solving (compared with control conditions) regardless of dispositional attachment anxiety and avoidance. In Study 2, the effects of explicit security priming (recalling experiences of being well cared for) were moderated by anxiety and avoidance. We discuss the link between attachment and exploration and the different effects of implicit and explicit security priming. PMID:21432691

  10. The effects of implicit and explicit security priming on creative problem solving.

    PubMed

    Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Rom, Eldad

    2011-04-01

    Attachment theory is a theory of affect regulation as it occurs in the context of close relationships. Early research focused on regulation of emotions through maintenance of proximity to supportive others (attachment figures) in times of need. Recently, emphasis has shifted to the regulation of emotion, and the benefits of such regulation for exploration and learning, via the activation of mental representations of attachment figures (security priming). We conducted two studies on the effects of implicit and explicit security priming on creative problem solving. In Study 1, implicit security priming (subliminal presentation of attachment figures' names) led to more creative problem solving (compared with control conditions) regardless of dispositional attachment anxiety and avoidance. In Study 2, the effects of explicit security priming (recalling experiences of being well cared for) were moderated by anxiety and avoidance. We discuss the link between attachment and exploration and the different effects of implicit and explicit security priming.

  11. Neural correlates of cross-modal affective priming by music in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lense, Miriam D; Gordon, Reyna L; Key, Alexandra P F; Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2014-04-01

    Emotional connection is the main reason people engage with music, and the emotional features of music can influence processing in other domains. Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder where musicality and sociability are prominent aspects of the phenotype. This study examined oscillatory brain activity during a musical affective priming paradigm. Participants with WS and age-matched typically developing controls heard brief emotional musical excerpts or emotionally neutral sounds and then reported the emotional valence (happy/sad) of subsequently presented faces. Participants with WS demonstrated greater evoked fronto-central alpha activity to the happy vs sad musical excerpts. The size of these alpha effects correlated with parent-reported emotional reactivity to music. Although participant groups did not differ in accuracy of identifying facial emotions, reaction time data revealed a music priming effect only in persons with WS, who responded faster when the face matched the emotional valence of the preceding musical excerpt vs when the valence differed. Matching emotional valence was also associated with greater evoked gamma activity thought to reflect cross-modal integration. This effect was not present in controls. The results suggest a specific connection between music and socioemotional processing and have implications for clinical and educational approaches for WS.

  12. Semantic priming is affected by real-time phonological competition: evidence for continuous cascading systems.

    PubMed

    Apfelbaum, Keith S; Blumstein, Sheila E; McMurray, Bob

    2011-02-01

    Lexical-semantic access is affected by the phonological structure of the lexicon. What is less clear is whether such effects are the result of continuous activation between lexical form and semantic processing or whether they arise from a more modular system in which the timing of accessing lexical form determines the timing of semantic activation. This study examined this issue using the visual world paradigm by investigating the time course of semantic priming as a function of the number of phonological competitors. Critical trials consisted of high or low density auditory targets (e.g., horse) and a visual display containing a target, a semantically related object (e.g., saddle), and two phonologically and semantically unrelated objects (e.g., chimney, bikini). Results showed greater magnitude of priming for semantically related objects of low than of high density words, and no differences for high and low density word targets in the time course of looks to the word semantically related to the target. This pattern of results is consistent with models of cascading activation, which predict that lexical activation has continuous effects on the level of semantic activation, with no delays in the onset of semantic activation for phonologically competing words. PMID:21327343

  13. Vowelling and semantic priming effects in Arabic.

    PubMed

    Mountaj, Nadia; El Yagoubi, Radouane; Himmi, Majid; Lakhdar Ghazal, Faouzi; Besson, Mireille; Boudelaa, Sami

    2015-01-01

    In the present experiment we used a semantic judgment task with Arabic words to determine whether semantic priming effects are found in the Arabic language. Moreover, we took advantage of the specificity of the Arabic orthographic system, which is characterized by a shallow (i.e., vowelled words) and a deep orthography (i.e., unvowelled words), to examine the relationship between orthographic and semantic processing. Results showed faster Reaction Times (RTs) for semantically related than unrelated words with no difference between vowelled and unvowelled words. By contrast, Event Related Potentials (ERPs) revealed larger N1 and N2 components to vowelled words than unvowelled words suggesting that visual-orthographic complexity taxes the early word processing stages. Moreover, semantically unrelated Arabic words elicited larger N400 components than related words thereby demonstrating N400 effects in Arabic. Finally, the Arabic N400 effect was not influenced by orthographic depth. The implications of these results for understanding the processing of orthographic, semantic, and morphological structures in Modern Standard Arabic are discussed. PMID:25528401

  14. Masked translation priming effects with low proficient bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Dimitropoulou, Maria; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-02-01

    Non-cognate masked translation priming lexical decision studies with unbalanced bilinguals suggest that masked translation priming effects are asymmetric as a function of the translation direction (significant effects only in the dominant [L1] to nondominant [L2] language translation direction). However, in contrast to the predictions of most current accounts of masked translation priming effects, bidirectional effects have recently been reported with a group of low proficient bilinguals Duyck & Warlop 2009 (Experimental Psychology 56:173-179). In a series of masked translation priming lexical decision experiments we examined whether the same pattern of effects would emerge with late and low proficient Greek (L1)-Spanish (L2) bilinguals. Contrary to the results obtained by Duyck and Warlop, and in line with the results found in most studies in the masked priming literature, significant translation priming effects emerged only when the bilinguals performed the task with L1 primes and L2 targets. The existence of the masked translation priming asymmetry with low proficient bilinguals suggests that cross-linguistic automatic lexico-semantic links may be established very early in the process of L2 acquisition. These findings could help to define models of bilingualism that consider L2 proficiency level to be a determining factor.

  15. The masked onset priming effect in picture naming.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Niels O

    2008-02-01

    Reading aloud is faster when targets (e.g., PAIR) are preceded by visually masked primes sharing just the onset (e.g., pole) compared to all different primes (e.g., take). This effect is known as the masked onset priming effect (MOPE). One crucial feature of this effect is its presumed non-lexical basis. This aspect of the MOPE is tested in the current study. Dutch participants named pictures having bisyllabic names, which were preceded by visually masked primes. Picture naming was facilitated by first-segment but not last-segment primes, and by first-syllable as well as last-syllable primes. Whole-word primes with first or last segment overlap slowed down picture naming latencies significantly. The first-segment priming effect (i.e., MOPE) cannot be accounted for by non-lexical response competition since pictures cannot be named via the non-lexical route. Instead, the effects obtained in this study can be accommodated by a speech-planning account of the MOPE.

  16. An electrophysiological investigation of early effects of masked morphological priming

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Joanna; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment examined event-related responses to targets preceded by semantically transparent morphologically related primes (e.g., farmer-farm), semantically opaque primes with an apparent morphological relation (cornercorn), and orthographically, but not morphologically, related primes (scandalscan) using the masked priming technique combined with a semantic categorisation task. In order to provide information about possible early effects of morphology we focused our analysis on the N250 ERP component. Priming effects for transparent and opaque items patterned together in the early phase of the N250 (200-250 ms), whereas the transparent and orthographic items patterned together in the latter phase of this component (250-300 ms). These results provide further evidence in support of the rapid extraction of morphemes from morphologically complex stimuli independently of the semantic relatedness of the whole and its parts. PMID:19779574

  17. Effect of Subliminal Lexical Priming on the Subjective Perception of Images: A Machine Learning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Faisal; Wong, Kian Foong; Agrawal, Abhishek; Elgendi, Mohamed; Shukla, Rohit; Ang, Natania; Ching, April; Dauwels, Justin; Chan, Alice H. D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of subliminal priming in terms of the perception of images influenced by words with positive, negative, and neutral emotional content, through electroencephalograms (EEGs). Participants were instructed to rate how much they like the stimuli images, on a 7-point Likert scale, after being subliminally exposed to masked lexical prime words that exhibit positive, negative, and neutral connotations with respect to the images. Simultaneously, the EEGs were recorded. Statistical tests such as repeated measures ANOVAs and two-tailed paired-samples t-tests were performed to measure significant differences in the likability ratings among the three prime affect types; the results showed a strong shift in the likeness judgment for the images in the positively primed condition compared to the other two. The acquired EEGs were examined to assess the difference in brain activity associated with the three different conditions. The consistent results obtained confirmed the overall priming effect on participants’ explicit ratings. In addition, machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines (SVMs), and AdaBoost classifiers were applied to infer the prime affect type from the ERPs. The highest classification rates of 95.0% and 70.0% obtained respectively for average-trial binary classifier and average-trial multi-class further emphasize that the ERPs encode information about the different kinds of primes. PMID:26866807

  18. Effect of Subliminal Lexical Priming on the Subjective Perception of Images: A Machine Learning Approach.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dhanya Menoth; Kumar, Parmod; Mahmood, Faisal; Wong, Kian Foong; Agrawal, Abhishek; Elgendi, Mohamed; Shukla, Rohit; Ang, Natania; Ching, April; Dauwels, Justin; Chan, Alice H D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of subliminal priming in terms of the perception of images influenced by words with positive, negative, and neutral emotional content, through electroencephalograms (EEGs). Participants were instructed to rate how much they like the stimuli images, on a 7-point Likert scale, after being subliminally exposed to masked lexical prime words that exhibit positive, negative, and neutral connotations with respect to the images. Simultaneously, the EEGs were recorded. Statistical tests such as repeated measures ANOVAs and two-tailed paired-samples t-tests were performed to measure significant differences in the likability ratings among the three prime affect types; the results showed a strong shift in the likeness judgment for the images in the positively primed condition compared to the other two. The acquired EEGs were examined to assess the difference in brain activity associated with the three different conditions. The consistent results obtained confirmed the overall priming effect on participants' explicit ratings. In addition, machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines (SVMs), and AdaBoost classifiers were applied to infer the prime affect type from the ERPs. The highest classification rates of 95.0% and 70.0% obtained respectively for average-trial binary classifier and average-trial multi-class further emphasize that the ERPs encode information about the different kinds of primes. PMID:26866807

  19. Priming Effects of Self-Reported Drinking and Religiosity

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Foster, Dawn W.

    2013-01-01

    Research has revealed negative associations between religiosity and alcohol consumption. Given these associations, the aim of the current research was to evaluate whether the order of assessing each construct might affect subsequent reports of the other. The present research provided an experimental evaluation of response biases of self-reported religiosity and alcohol consumption based on order of assessment. Participants (N = 301 undergraduate students) completed an online survey. Based on random assignment, religiosity was assessed either before or after questions regarding recent alcohol consumption. Social desirability bias was also measured. Results revealed a priming effect such that participants who answered questions about their religiosity prior to their alcohol consumption reported fewer drinks on their peak drinking occasions, drinking less on typical occasions, and drinking less frequently, even when controlling for social desirability and for the significant negative associations between their own religiosity and drinking. In contrast, assessment order was not significantly associated with religiosity. Results indicate priming religion results in reporting lower, but potentially more accurate, levels of health risk behaviors and that these effects are not simply the result of socially desirable responding. Results are interpreted utilizing several social–cognitive theories and suggest that retrospective self-reports of drinking may be more malleable than self-descriptions of religiosity. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23528191

  20. Global familiarity of visual stimuli affects repetition-related neural plasticity but not repetition priming

    PubMed Central

    Soldan, Anja; Zarahn, Eric; Hilton, H. John; Stern, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    In this study we tested the prediction of the component process model of priming (Henson, 2003) that repetition priming of familiar and unfamiliar objects produces qualitatively different neural repetition effects. In an fMRI study, subjects viewed four repetitions of familiar objects and globally unfamiliar objects with familiar components. Reliable behavioral priming occurred for both item types across the four presentations and was of a similar magnitude for both stimulus types. The imaging data was analyzed using multivariate linear modeling, which permits explicit testing of the hypothesis that the repetition effects for familiar and unfamiliar objects are qualitatively different (i.e., non-scaled versions of one another). The results showed the presence of two qualitatively different latent spatial patterns of repetition effects from presenation one to presentation four for familiar and unfamilar objects, indicating that familiarity with an object’s global structural, semantic, or lexical features is an important factor in priming-related neural plasticity. The first latent spatial pattern strongly weighted regions with a similar repetition effect for both item types. The second pattern strongly weighted regions contributing a repetition suppression effect for the familiar objects and repetition enhancement for the unfamiliar objects, particularly the posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus, and cingulate cortex. This differential repetition effect might reflect the formation of novel memory representations for the unfamiliar items, which already exist for the familiar objects, consistent with the component-process model of priming. PMID:17913513

  1. Immune Priming, Fat Reserves, Muscle Mass and Body Weight of the House Cricket is Affected by Diet Composition.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Nava-Sánchez, A; González-Tokman, D M; Munguía-Steyer, R; Gutiérrez-Cabrera, A E

    2016-08-01

    Some insect species are capable of producing an enhanced immune response after a first pathogenic encounter, a process called immune priming. However, whether and how such ability is driven by particular diet components (protein/carbohydrate) have not been explored. Such questions are sound given that, in general, immune response is dietary dependent. We have used adults of the house cricket Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) and exposed them to the bacteria Serratia marcescens. We first addressed whether survival rate after priming and nonpriming treatments is dietary dependent based on access/no access to proteins and carbohydrates. Second, we investigated how these dietary components affected fat reserves, muscle mass, and body weight, three key traits in insect fitness. Thus, we exposed adult house crickets to either a protein or a carbohydrate diet and measured the three traits. After being provided with protein, primed animals survived longer compared to the other diet treatments. Interestingly, this effect was also sex dependent with primed males having a higher survival than primed females when protein was supplemented. For the second experiment, protein-fed animals had more fat, muscle mass, and body weight than carbohydrate-fed animals. Although we are not aware of the immune component underlying immune priming, our results suggest that its energetic demand for its functioning and/or consequent survival requires a higher demand of protein with respect to carbohydrate. Thus, protein shortage can impair key survival-related traits related to immune and energetic condition. Further studies varying nutrient ratios should verify our results.

  2. Immune Priming, Fat Reserves, Muscle Mass and Body Weight of the House Cricket is Affected by Diet Composition.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Nava-Sánchez, A; González-Tokman, D M; Munguía-Steyer, R; Gutiérrez-Cabrera, A E

    2016-08-01

    Some insect species are capable of producing an enhanced immune response after a first pathogenic encounter, a process called immune priming. However, whether and how such ability is driven by particular diet components (protein/carbohydrate) have not been explored. Such questions are sound given that, in general, immune response is dietary dependent. We have used adults of the house cricket Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) and exposed them to the bacteria Serratia marcescens. We first addressed whether survival rate after priming and nonpriming treatments is dietary dependent based on access/no access to proteins and carbohydrates. Second, we investigated how these dietary components affected fat reserves, muscle mass, and body weight, three key traits in insect fitness. Thus, we exposed adult house crickets to either a protein or a carbohydrate diet and measured the three traits. After being provided with protein, primed animals survived longer compared to the other diet treatments. Interestingly, this effect was also sex dependent with primed males having a higher survival than primed females when protein was supplemented. For the second experiment, protein-fed animals had more fat, muscle mass, and body weight than carbohydrate-fed animals. Although we are not aware of the immune component underlying immune priming, our results suggest that its energetic demand for its functioning and/or consequent survival requires a higher demand of protein with respect to carbohydrate. Thus, protein shortage can impair key survival-related traits related to immune and energetic condition. Further studies varying nutrient ratios should verify our results. PMID:27037705

  3. Sequential congruency effects: disentangling priming and conflict adaptation.

    PubMed

    Puccioni, Olga; Vallesi, Antonino

    2012-09-01

    Responding to the color of a word is slower and less accurate if the word refers to a different color (incongruent condition) than if it refers to the same color (congruent condition). This phenomenon, known as the Stroop effect, is modulated by sequential effects: it is bigger when the current trial is preceded by a congruent condition than by an incongruent one in the previous trial. Whether this phenomenon is due to priming mechanisms or to cognitive control is still debated. To disentangle the contribution of priming with respect to conflict adaptation mechanisms in determining sequential effects, two experiments were designed here with a four-alternative forced choice (4-AFC) Stroop task: in the first one only trials with complete alternations of features were used, while in the second experiment all possible types of repetitions were presented. Both response times (RTs) and errors were evaluated. Conflict adaptation effects on RTs were limited to congruent trials and were exclusively due to priming: they disappeared in the priming-free experiment and, in the second experiment, they occurred in sequences with feature repetitions but not in complete alternation sequences. Error results, instead, support the presence of conflict adaptation effects in incongruent trials. In priming-free sequences (experiment 1 and complete alternation sequences of experiment 2) with incongruent previous trials there was no error Stroop effect, while this effect was significant with congruent previous trials. These results indicate that cognitive control may modulate performance above and beyond priming effects.

  4. Bridging music and speech rhythm: rhythmic priming and audio-motor training affect speech perception.

    PubMed

    Cason, Nia; Astésano, Corine; Schön, Daniele

    2015-02-01

    Following findings that musical rhythmic priming enhances subsequent speech perception, we investigated whether rhythmic priming for spoken sentences can enhance phonological processing - the building blocks of speech - and whether audio-motor training enhances this effect. Participants heard a metrical prime followed by a sentence (with a matching/mismatching prosodic structure), for which they performed a phoneme detection task. Behavioural (RT) data was collected from two groups: one who received audio-motor training, and one who did not. We hypothesised that 1) phonological processing would be enhanced in matching conditions, and 2) audio-motor training with the musical rhythms would enhance this effect. Indeed, providing a matching rhythmic prime context resulted in faster phoneme detection, thus revealing a cross-domain effect of musical rhythm on phonological processing. In addition, our results indicate that rhythmic audio-motor training enhances this priming effect. These results have important implications for rhythm-based speech therapies, and suggest that metrical rhythm in music and speech may rely on shared temporal processing brain resources. PMID:25553343

  5. Bridging music and speech rhythm: rhythmic priming and audio-motor training affect speech perception.

    PubMed

    Cason, Nia; Astésano, Corine; Schön, Daniele

    2015-02-01

    Following findings that musical rhythmic priming enhances subsequent speech perception, we investigated whether rhythmic priming for spoken sentences can enhance phonological processing - the building blocks of speech - and whether audio-motor training enhances this effect. Participants heard a metrical prime followed by a sentence (with a matching/mismatching prosodic structure), for which they performed a phoneme detection task. Behavioural (RT) data was collected from two groups: one who received audio-motor training, and one who did not. We hypothesised that 1) phonological processing would be enhanced in matching conditions, and 2) audio-motor training with the musical rhythms would enhance this effect. Indeed, providing a matching rhythmic prime context resulted in faster phoneme detection, thus revealing a cross-domain effect of musical rhythm on phonological processing. In addition, our results indicate that rhythmic audio-motor training enhances this priming effect. These results have important implications for rhythm-based speech therapies, and suggest that metrical rhythm in music and speech may rely on shared temporal processing brain resources.

  6. Congruency effects in the letter search task: semantic activation in the absence of priming.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Keith A; Bosco, Frank A

    2007-04-01

    Semantic priming is typically eliminated when participants perform a letter search on the prime, suggesting that semantic activation is conditional upon one's attentional goals. However, in such studies, semantic activation (or the lack thereof) is not measured during the letter search task itself but, instead, is inferred on the basis of the responses given to a later target. In the present study, direct online evidence for semanticactivation was tested using words whose meaning should bias either a positive or a negative response (e.g.,present vs. absent). In Experiment 1, a semantic congruency effect was obtained, with faster responses when the word meaning matched the required response. Experiment 2 replicated the congruency effect while, simultaneously, showing the elimination of semantic priming. It is concluded that letter search does not affect the initiation of semantic activation. Possible accounts for the elimination of priming following letter search include activation-based suppression and transfer-inappropriate processing.

  7. The activation of semantic memory: effects of prime exposure, prime-target relationship, and task demands.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Steve; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2008-06-01

    Priming facilitation was examined under conditions of brief incremental prime exposures (28, 43, 71, and 199 msec) under masked conditions for two types of lexical relationships (associative-semantic pairs, such as "wolf-fox," and semantic-feature pairs, such as "whale-dolphin") and in two tasks (primed lexical decision and semantic categorization). The results of eight experiments revealed, first, that priming elicits faster response times for semantic-feature pairs. The associative-semantic pairs produced priming only at the longer prime exposures. Second, priming was observed earlier for semantic categorization than for the lexical decision task, in which priming was observed only at the longer stimulus onset asynchronies. Finally, our results allowed us to discredit the congruency hypothesis, according to which priming is due to a common categorical response for the prime and target words. The implications of these results for current theories of semantic priming are discussed.

  8. Iconic gestures prime words: comparison of priming effects when gestures are presented alone and when they are accompanying speech

    PubMed Central

    So, Wing-Chee; Yi-Feng, Alvan Low; Yap, De-Fu; Kheng, Eugene; Yap, Ju-Min Melvin

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that iconic gestures presented in an isolated manner prime visually presented semantically related words. Since gestures and speech are almost always produced together, this study examined whether iconic gestures accompanying speech would prime words and compared the priming effect of iconic gestures with speech to that of iconic gestures presented alone. Adult participants (N = 180) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions in a lexical decision task: Gestures-Only (the primes were iconic gestures presented alone); Speech-Only (the primes were auditory tokens conveying the same meaning as the iconic gestures); Gestures-Accompanying-Speech (the primes were the simultaneous coupling of iconic gestures and their corresponding auditory tokens). Our findings revealed significant priming effects in all three conditions. However, the priming effect in the Gestures-Accompanying-Speech condition was comparable to that in the Speech-Only condition and was significantly weaker than that in the Gestures-Only condition, suggesting that the facilitatory effect of iconic gestures accompanying speech may be constrained by the level of language processing required in the lexical decision task where linguistic processing of words forms is more dominant than semantic processing. Hence, the priming effect afforded by the co-speech iconic gestures was weakened. PMID:24155738

  9. Context-specific control and the Stroop negative priming effect.

    PubMed

    Milliken, Bruce; Thomson, David R; Bleile, Karmen; MacLellan, Ellen; Giammarco, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The present study highlights the utility of context-specific learning for different probe types in accounting for the commonly observed dependence of negative priming on probe selection. Using a Stroop priming procedure, Experiments 1a and 1b offered a demonstration that Stroop priming effects can differ qualitatively for selection and no-selection probes when probe selection is manipulated between subjects, but not when it is manipulated randomly from trial to trial within subject (see also Moore, 1994). In Experiments 2 and 3, selection and no-selection probes served as two contexts that varied randomly from trial to trial, but for which proportion repeated was manipulated separately. A context-specific proportion repeated effect was observed in Experiment 2, characterized by modest quantitative shifts in the repetition effects as a function of the context-specific proportion repeated manipulation. However, with a longer intertrial interval in Experiment 3, a context-specific proportion repeated manipulation that focused on the no-selection probes changed the repetition effect qualitatively, from negative priming when the proportion repeated was .25 to positive priming when the proportion repeated was .75. The results are discussed with reference to the role of rapid, context-specific learning processes in the integration of prior experiences with current perception and action.

  10. Priming a new identity: self-monitoring moderates the effects of nonself primes on self-judgments and behavior.

    PubMed

    DeMarree, Kenneth G; Wheeler, S Christian; Petty, Richard E

    2005-11-01

    When a construct is primed, people often act in construct-consistent ways. Several accounts for this effect have been offered, including ideomotor theory and a social functional perspective. The authors tested an additional perspective, the Active-Self account, whereby primes can temporarily alter self-perceptions. In Study 1, non-African American participants reported feeling more aggressive on an implicit measure following an African American prime. In Study 2, participants reported feeling luckier on an implicit measure following a number 7 (vs. 13) prime. In both studies, these effects were obtained only for low self-monitors, who are more likely to change self-conceptions in response to diagnostic self-information and to use their internal states in guiding behavior. Study 3 showed that low self-monitors also show larger behavioral effects of primes.

  11. Soil Mineralogy and Substrate Quality Effects on Microbial Priming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, B. K.; Rasmussen, C.; Dijkstra, P.; Schwartz, E.; Mau, R. L.; Liu, X. J. A.; Hungate, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) cycling can slow or accelerate in response to new C inputs from fresh organic matter. This change in native C mineralization, known as the "microbial priming effect," is difficult to predict because the underlying mechanisms of priming are still poorly understood. We hypothesized that soil mineral assemblage, specifically short-range-order (SRO) minerals, influences microbial responses to different quality C substrate inputs. To test this, we added 350 μg C g-1soil weekly of an artificial root exudates mixture primarily comprised of glucose, sucrose, lactate and fructose (a simple C source) or ground ponderosa pine litter (a complex C source) for six weeks to three soil types from similar ecosystems derived from different parent material. The soils, from andesite, basalt, and granite parent materials, had decreasing abundance in SRO minerals, respectively. We found that the simple C substrate induced 63 ±16.3% greater positive priming than the complex C across all soil types. The quantity of soil SRO materials was negatively correlated with soil respiration, but positively correlated with priming. The lowest SRO soil amended with litter primed the least (14 ± 11 μgCO2-C g-1), while the largest priming effect occurring in the highest SRO soil amended with simple substrate (246 ± 18 μgCO2-C g-1). Our results indicate that higher SRO mineral content could accelerate microorganisms' capacity to mineralize native soil organic carbon and respond more strongly to labile C inputs. However, while all treatments exhibited positive priming, the amount of C added over the six-week incubation was greater than total CO2 respired. This suggests that despite a relative stimulation of native C mineralization, these soils act as C sinks rather than sources in response to fresh organic matter inputs.

  12. Effects of lexical status and morphological complexity in masked priming: An ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Joanna; Porter, James H.; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Two masked priming experiments examined behavioural and event-related potential responses to simplex target words (e.g., flex) preceded by briefly presented, masked, derived word primes (flexible-flex), complex nonword primes formed by an illegal combination of the target word and a real suffix (flexify-flex), and simplex nonword primes formed by adding a nonsuffix word ending to the target (flexint-flex). Subjects performed a lexical decision task. Behavioural results showed that all prime types significantly facilitated target recognition. Priming effects were reflected in the electrophysiological data by reduced N250 and N400 amplitudes, and these priming effects were statistically equivalent for the three types of prime. The strong priming effects found with simplex primes in the present study, compared with prior research, are thought to be due to the combination of targets always being completely embedded in prime stimuli plus the reduced lexical inhibition that arises with nonword primes. In line with prior behavioural research, however, there was evidence for differential priming effects as a function of prime type in the N400 ERP component in Experiment 2, with greater priming effects for derived and pseudocomplex primes relative to simplex primes at lateral posterior electrode sites. PMID:24771954

  13. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old-new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old-new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults. PMID:25628588

  14. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old-new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old-new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults.

  15. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old–new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old–new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults. PMID:25628588

  16. Color coherent effects in (e,e{prime}N) and (e,e{prime}N,N(h)) processes at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Frankfurt, L.L.; Sargsyan, M.M.; Strikman, M.I. |

    1994-04-01

    The options for investigating color coherent effects and competing nuclear effects of nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei, nuclear shell effects in (e, e{prime}N) and (e, e{prime}NN(h)) reactions are considered. They argue that extension of CEBAF energies to reach Q{sup 2} = 10 GeV{sup 2} will allow systematical investigations of color coherent effects in nonperturbative regime of QCD and their interplay with nuclear effects.

  17. A Time Course View of Sentence Priming Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Stephen T.; Kellas, George

    2004-01-01

    Meaning activation was estimated during (standard naming) and after (delayed naming) target presentation to chart the time course of priming effects during reading comprehension. Using sentences biasing homographs toward their dominant and subordinate meanings, two experiments evaluated context effects across three naming-cue delays: immediate,…

  18. Two Failures to Replicate High-Performance-Goal Priming Effects

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christine R.; Coburn, Noriko; Rohrer, Doug; Pashler, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Bargh et al. (2001) reported two experiments in which people were exposed to words related to achievement (e.g., strive, attain) or to neutral words, and then performed a demanding cognitive task. Performance on the task was enhanced after exposure to the achievement related words. Bargh and colleagues concluded that better performance was due to the achievement words having activated a "high-performance goal". Because the paper has been cited well over 1100 times, an attempt to replicate its findings would seem warranted. Two direct replication attempts were performed. Results from the first experiment (n = 98) found no effect of priming, and the means were in the opposite direction from those reported by Bargh and colleagues. The second experiment followed up on the observation by Bargh et al. (2001) that high-performance-goal priming was enhanced by a 5-minute delay between priming and test. Adding such a delay, we still found no evidence for high-performance-goal priming (n = 66). These failures to replicate, along with other recent results, suggest that the literature on goal priming requires some skeptical scrutiny. PMID:23977304

  19. Metaphor priming in sentence production: concrete pictures affect abstract language production.

    PubMed

    Sato, Manami; Schafer, Amy J; Bergen, Benjamin K

    2015-03-01

    People speak metaphorically about abstract concepts-for instance, a person can be "full of love" or "have a lot of love to give." Over the past decade, research has begun to focus on how metaphors are processed during language comprehension. Much of this work suggests that understanding a metaphorical expression involves activating brain and body systems involved in perception and motor control. However, no research to date has asked whether the same is true while speakers produce language. We address this gap using a sentence production task. Its results demonstrate that visually activating a concrete source domain can trigger the use of metaphorical language drawn from that same concrete domain, even in sentences that are thematically unrelated to the primes, a metaphorical priming effect. This effect suggests that conceptual metaphors play a part in language production. It also shows that activation in the perceptual system that is not part of an intended message can nevertheless influence sentence formulation.

  20. The Elusive Nature of Early Phonological Priming Effects: Are There Individual Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyk, Gregory G.; Pexman, Penny M.

    2004-01-01

    Lukatela and Turvey (2000) demonstrated a phonological priming effect in the lexical decision task (LDT) with a 14-ms prime and concluded that phonology plays a central role in word meaning activation. In contrast, several other researchers reported that phonological priming is significant only at much longer prime durations (e.g., Ferrand &…

  1. The Relative Position Priming Effect Depends on Whether Letters Are Vowels or Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The relative position priming effect is a type of subset priming in which target word recognition is facilitated as a consequence of priming the word with some of its letters, maintaining their relative position (e.g., "csn" as a prime for "casino"). Five experiments were conducted to test whether vowel-only and consonant-only subset primes…

  2. Embedded Stem Priming Effects in Prefixed and Suffixed Pseudowords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Cavalli, Eddy; Casalis, Séverine; Colé, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has repeatedly revealed evidence for morpho-orthographic priming effects in suffixed words. However, evidence for the morphological chunking of prefixed words is sparse and ambiguous. The goal of the present study was to directly contrast the processing of prefixed and suffixed pseudowords within the same experiment. We carried…

  3. Translation Priming Effect in Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramírez Sarmiento, Albeiro Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to establish the effects of masked priming by translation equivalents in Spanish-English bilinguals with a high-intermediate level of proficiency in their second language. Its findings serve as evidence to support the hypothesis that semantic representations mediate the mental association among non-cognates from a speaker's first…

  4. Priming and Organizational Level Effects on Ethical Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lautenschlager, Gary; Morris, Debbie

    The study of ethical decision making has gained considerable interest among organizational scientists due to the widespread occurrence of wrongdoing in business, industry, government and various other institutions. This study examined the effects of priming and organizational level manipulation on an individual's ethical decision-making behavior.…

  5. Land use and nutrient inputs affect priming in Andosols of Mt. Kilimanjaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mganga, Kevin; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Organic C and nutrients additions in soil can accelerate mineralisation of soil organic matter i.e. priming effects. However, only very few studies have been conducted to investigate the priming effects phenomenon in tropical Andosols. Nutrients (N, P, N+P) and 14C labelled glucose were added to Andosols from six natural and intensively used ecosystems at Mt. Kilimanjaro i.e. (1) savannah, (2) maize fields, (3) lower montane forest, (4) coffee plantation, (5) grasslands and (6) Chagga homegardens. Carbon-dioxide emissions were monitored over a 60 days incubation period. Mineralisation of glucose to 14CO2 was highest in coffee plantation and lowest in Chagga homegarden soils. Maximal and minimal mineralisation rates immediately after glucose additions were observed in lower montane forest with N+P fertilisation (9.1% ± 0.83 d -1) and in savannah with N fertilisation (0.9% ± 0.17 d -1), respectively. Glucose and nutrient additions accelerated native soil organic matter mineralisation i.e. positive priming. Chagga homegarden soils had the lowest 14CO2 emissions and incorporated the highest percent of glucose into microbial biomass. 50-60% of the 14C input was retained in soil. We attribute this mainly to the high surface area of non-crystalline constituents i.e. allophanes, present in Andosols and having very high sorption capacity for organic C. The allophanic nature of Andosols of Mt. Kilimanjaro especially under traditional Chagga homegarden agroforestry system shows great potential for providing essential environmental services, notably C sequestration. Key words: Priming Effects, Andosols, Land Use Changes, Mt. Kilimanjaro, Allophanes, Tropical Agroforestry

  6. The effect of priming materialism on women's responses to thin-ideal media.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga

    2012-12-01

    Consumer culture is characterized by two prominent ideals: the 'body perfect' and the material 'good life'. Although the impact of these ideals has been investigated in separate research literatures, no previous research has examined whether materialism is linked to women's responses to thin-ideal media. Data from several studies confirm that the internalization of materialistic and body-ideal values is positively linked in women. After developing a prime for materialism (N = 50), we present an experimental examination (N = 155) of the effects of priming materialism on women's responses to thin-ideal media, using multiple outcome measures of state body dissatisfaction. Priming materialism affects women's body dissatisfaction after exposure to thin media models, but differently depending on the dimension of body image measured. The two main novel findings are that (1) priming materialism heightens the centrality of appearance to women's self-concept and (2) priming materialism influences the activation of body-related self-discrepancies (BRSDs), particularly for highly materialistic women. Exposure to materialistic media has a clear influence on women's body image, with trait materialism a further vulnerability factor for negative exposure effects in response to idealized, thin media models.

  7. The effect of priming materialism on women's responses to thin-ideal media.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga

    2012-12-01

    Consumer culture is characterized by two prominent ideals: the 'body perfect' and the material 'good life'. Although the impact of these ideals has been investigated in separate research literatures, no previous research has examined whether materialism is linked to women's responses to thin-ideal media. Data from several studies confirm that the internalization of materialistic and body-ideal values is positively linked in women. After developing a prime for materialism (N = 50), we present an experimental examination (N = 155) of the effects of priming materialism on women's responses to thin-ideal media, using multiple outcome measures of state body dissatisfaction. Priming materialism affects women's body dissatisfaction after exposure to thin media models, but differently depending on the dimension of body image measured. The two main novel findings are that (1) priming materialism heightens the centrality of appearance to women's self-concept and (2) priming materialism influences the activation of body-related self-discrepancies (BRSDs), particularly for highly materialistic women. Exposure to materialistic media has a clear influence on women's body image, with trait materialism a further vulnerability factor for negative exposure effects in response to idealized, thin media models. PMID:21466563

  8. The Causal Effect of Market Priming on Trust: An Experimental Investigation Using Randomized Control

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ubaydli, Omar; Houser, Daniel; Nye, John; Paganelli, Maria Pia; Pan, Xiaofei Sophia

    2013-01-01

    We report data from laboratory experiments where participants were primed using phrases related to markets and trade. Participants then participated in trust games with anonymous strangers. The decisions of primed participants are compared to those of a control group. We find evidence that priming for market participation affects positively the beliefs regarding the trustworthiness of anonymous strangers and increases trusting decisions. PMID:23472068

  9. Degradation increase responses of priming effects to temperature in Tibetan alpine grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yue; Li, Qianru; Schleuss, Per; Hua, Ouyang; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Kobresia grassland in Tibet plateau, with a rich storage of soil organic carbon (SOC), is very important to both ecosystem function and the livelihoods of local pastoral communities. But its intensive degradation in recent decades has led to unclear consequences for SOC stocks and dynamics. Kobresia grassland acts as a critical "first response region" to climate change, where the SOC decomposition is highly sensitive to temperature, and can produce positive C climate feedback. Priming effects, induced by inputs of labile organic carbon (LOC), can also affect SOC dynamic. Therefore, knowledge about how the priming effects response to temperature, and how their interactions affect SOC decomposition are central to understanding the carbon cycle of Tibet plateau under global warming. To this ends, we conducted a laboratory incubation experiment with the non-degraded soil collected from intact Kobresia patches, and degraded soil collected from crust patches, labeled with 14C-glucose in high/low level and incubated under 0 °C, 10 °C and 20 °C for 80 days. Cumulated CO2 emission increased significantly with temperature. Degraded soil showed lower CO2 emission at 0 °C, but significant higher CO2 emission at higher temperature compared to that of non-degraded soil. Priming positively responded to increasing temperature, with 78.9% increment in degraded soil and 12.9% in non-degraded soil on average, and at 20 °C, it was significant higher in degraded soil than non-degraded soil. Low-level glucose input led to the positive priming effects, while high-level glucose induced the negative priming. Higher temperature led to higher microbial activity (i.e., qCO2) and enzyme activity (i.e., β-glucosidases, chitinase, cellobiohydrolase and Xylosidase). Vmax of enzyme was significantly higher in degraded soil than in non-degraded soil, exhibiting a positive linear regression with priming effects. In conclusion, increase in temperature improved priming effects via higher microbe

  10. Effects of psychological priming, video, and music on anaerobic exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Loizou, G; Karageorghis, C I

    2015-12-01

    Peak performance videos accompanied by music can help athletes to optimize their pre-competition mindset and are often used. Priming techniques can be incorporated into such videos to influence athletes' motivational state. There has been limited empirical work investigating the combined effects of such stimuli on anaerobic performance. The present study examined the psychological and psychophysiological effects of video, music, and priming when used as a pre-performance intervention for an anaerobic endurance task. Psychological measures included the main axes of the circumplex model of affect and liking scores taken pre-task, and the Exercise-induced Feeling Inventory, which was administered post-task. Physiological measures comprised heart rate variability and heart rate recorded pre-task. Fifteen males (age = 26.3 ± 2.8 years) were exposed to four conditions prior to performing the Wingate Anaerobic Test: music-only, video and music, video with music and motivational primes, and a no-video/no-music control. Results indicate that the combined video, music, and primes condition was the most effective in terms of influencing participants' pre-task affect and subsequent anaerobic performance; this was followed by the music-only condition. The findings indicate the utility of such stimuli as a pre-performance technique to enhance athletes' or exercisers' psychological states. PMID:25556962

  11. Effects of psychological priming, video, and music on anaerobic exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Loizou, G; Karageorghis, C I

    2015-12-01

    Peak performance videos accompanied by music can help athletes to optimize their pre-competition mindset and are often used. Priming techniques can be incorporated into such videos to influence athletes' motivational state. There has been limited empirical work investigating the combined effects of such stimuli on anaerobic performance. The present study examined the psychological and psychophysiological effects of video, music, and priming when used as a pre-performance intervention for an anaerobic endurance task. Psychological measures included the main axes of the circumplex model of affect and liking scores taken pre-task, and the Exercise-induced Feeling Inventory, which was administered post-task. Physiological measures comprised heart rate variability and heart rate recorded pre-task. Fifteen males (age = 26.3 ± 2.8 years) were exposed to four conditions prior to performing the Wingate Anaerobic Test: music-only, video and music, video with music and motivational primes, and a no-video/no-music control. Results indicate that the combined video, music, and primes condition was the most effective in terms of influencing participants' pre-task affect and subsequent anaerobic performance; this was followed by the music-only condition. The findings indicate the utility of such stimuli as a pre-performance technique to enhance athletes' or exercisers' psychological states.

  12. Temporal, but not spatial, context modulates a masked prime's effect on temporal order judgment, but not on response latency.

    PubMed

    Steglich, C; Neumann, O

    2000-01-01

    Three experiments investigated a dissociation originally described by Neumann, Esselmann, and Klotz. Stimuli were geometric shapes, preceded by similar shapes that were masked by metacontrast. Each experiment consisted of three parts. In the reaction time (RT) part, participants saw an array of geometric shapes, one of which was marked by bars, and had to respond to the marked shape's position by pressing an appropriate button. A prime (a similar, but smaller stimulus) preceded either the marked or an unmarked stimulus. In the temporal order judgment (TOJ) part, the task was to judge the temporal order of the marked and the unmarked stimulus. In the detection part, detectability of the prime was tested. Although its detectability was zero or close to zero, the prime affected both RT and the apparent onset as measured by TOJ. The effect on RT was significantly larger than the effect on TOJ (Exp. 1). Increasing the spatial context (number of non-target stimuli in the display) did not affect this pattern (Exp. 2). By contrast, reducing the temporal context (range of stimulus onset asynchronies) abolished the prime's effect in the TOJ task, although the prime affected RT under identical conditions. It is concluded that partially different mechanisms mediate the prime's effect in the two tasks and that the effect of stimulus context on TOJ found in the Neumann et al. study was due to temporal, not spatial context.

  13. Attachment Security Balances Perspectives: Effects of Security Priming on Highly Optimistic and Pessimistic Explanatory Styles.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanhe; Yan, Mengge; Chen, Henry; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Zeng, Xianglong; Liu, Xiangping; Lye, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Highly optimistic explanatory style (HOES) and highly pessimistic explanatory style (HPES) are two maladaptive ways to explain the world and may have roots in attachment insecurity. The current study aims to explore the effects of security priming - activating supportive representations of attachment security - on ameliorating these maladaptive explanatory styles. 57 participants with HOES and 57 participants with HPES were randomized into security priming and control conditions. Their scores of overall optimistic attribution were measured before and after priming. Security priming had a moderating effect: the security primed HOES group exhibited lower optimistic attribution, while the security primed HPES group evinced higher scores of optimistic attribution. Furthermore, the security primed HOES group attributed positive outcomes more externally, while the security primed HPES group attributed successful results more internally. The results support the application of security priming interventions on maladaptive explanatory styles. Its potential mechanism and directions for future study are also discussed.

  14. Attachment Security Balances Perspectives: Effects of Security Priming on Highly Optimistic and Pessimistic Explanatory Styles

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yanhe; Yan, Mengge; Chen, Henry; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Zeng, Xianglong; Liu, Xiangping; Lye, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Highly optimistic explanatory style (HOES) and highly pessimistic explanatory style (HPES) are two maladaptive ways to explain the world and may have roots in attachment insecurity. The current study aims to explore the effects of security priming – activating supportive representations of attachment security – on ameliorating these maladaptive explanatory styles. 57 participants with HOES and 57 participants with HPES were randomized into security priming and control conditions. Their scores of overall optimistic attribution were measured before and after priming. Security priming had a moderating effect: the security primed HOES group exhibited lower optimistic attribution, while the security primed HPES group evinced higher scores of optimistic attribution. Furthermore, the security primed HOES group attributed positive outcomes more externally, while the security primed HPES group attributed successful results more internally. The results support the application of security priming interventions on maladaptive explanatory styles. Its potential mechanism and directions for future study are also discussed. PMID:27610092

  15. Attachment Security Balances Perspectives: Effects of Security Priming on Highly Optimistic and Pessimistic Explanatory Styles

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yanhe; Yan, Mengge; Chen, Henry; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Zeng, Xianglong; Liu, Xiangping; Lye, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Highly optimistic explanatory style (HOES) and highly pessimistic explanatory style (HPES) are two maladaptive ways to explain the world and may have roots in attachment insecurity. The current study aims to explore the effects of security priming – activating supportive representations of attachment security – on ameliorating these maladaptive explanatory styles. 57 participants with HOES and 57 participants with HPES were randomized into security priming and control conditions. Their scores of overall optimistic attribution were measured before and after priming. Security priming had a moderating effect: the security primed HOES group exhibited lower optimistic attribution, while the security primed HPES group evinced higher scores of optimistic attribution. Furthermore, the security primed HOES group attributed positive outcomes more externally, while the security primed HPES group attributed successful results more internally. The results support the application of security priming interventions on maladaptive explanatory styles. Its potential mechanism and directions for future study are also discussed.

  16. Attachment Security Balances Perspectives: Effects of Security Priming on Highly Optimistic and Pessimistic Explanatory Styles.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanhe; Yan, Mengge; Chen, Henry; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Zeng, Xianglong; Liu, Xiangping; Lye, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Highly optimistic explanatory style (HOES) and highly pessimistic explanatory style (HPES) are two maladaptive ways to explain the world and may have roots in attachment insecurity. The current study aims to explore the effects of security priming - activating supportive representations of attachment security - on ameliorating these maladaptive explanatory styles. 57 participants with HOES and 57 participants with HPES were randomized into security priming and control conditions. Their scores of overall optimistic attribution were measured before and after priming. Security priming had a moderating effect: the security primed HOES group exhibited lower optimistic attribution, while the security primed HPES group evinced higher scores of optimistic attribution. Furthermore, the security primed HOES group attributed positive outcomes more externally, while the security primed HPES group attributed successful results more internally. The results support the application of security priming interventions on maladaptive explanatory styles. Its potential mechanism and directions for future study are also discussed. PMID:27610092

  17. Priming Ability-Relevant Social Categories Improves Intellectual Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Phoebe S.; Kennette, Lynne N.; Van Havermaet, Lisa R.; Frank, Nichole M.; McIntyre, Rusty B.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that priming affects behavioral tasks; fewer studies, however, have been conducted on how social category primes affect cognitive tasks. The present study aimed to examine the effects of social category primes on math performance and word recall. It was hypothesized that Asian prime words would improve math performance and word…

  18. An Electrophysiological Investigation of Early Effects of Masked Morphological Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Joanna; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment examined event-related responses to targets preceded by semantically transparent morphologically related primes (e.g., farmer-farm), semantically opaque primes with an apparent morphological relation (corner-corn), and orthographically, but not morphologically, related primes (scandal-scan) using the masked priming technique…

  19. Is Perceptual Priming Affected by Culture? A Study With German Middle-Class and Cameroonian Nso Farmer Children.

    PubMed

    Vöhringer, Isabel Aline; Poloczek, Sonja; Graf, Frauke; Lamm, Bettina; Teiser, Johanna; Fassbender, Ina; Freitag, Claudia; Suhrke, Janina; Teubert, Manuel; Keller, Heidi; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Knopf, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The authors explored priming in children from different cultural environments with the aim to provide further evidence for the robustness of the priming effect. Perceptual priming was assessed by a picture fragment completion task in 3-year-old German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer children. As expected, 3-year-olds from both highly diverging cultural contexts under study showed a priming effect, and, moreover, the effect was of comparable size in both cultural contexts. Hence, the children profited similarly from priming, which was supported by the nonsignificant interaction between cultural background and identification performance as well as the analysis of absolute difference scores. However, a culture-specific difference regarding the level of picture identification was found in that German middle-class children identified target as well as control pictures with less perceptual information than children in the Nso sample. Explanations for the cross-cultural demonstration of the priming effect as well as for the culturally diverging levels on which priming occurs are discussed.

  20. Examining an Affective Aggression Framework: Weapon and Temperature Effects on Aggressive Thoughts, Affect, and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A general framework for studying affective aggression, integrating many insights from previous models, is presented. New research examining effects of extreme temperature and photos of guns on arousal, cognition, and affect is presented. Hostile cognition was assessed using automatic priming tasks (i.e., Stroop interference). Hostile affect was…

  1. Priming effects of biochar elucidated using stable isotope techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood-Nowotny, R.; Vanlauwe, B.

    2012-04-01

    Organic residues are routinely used in tropical agricultural systems; as mulches to reduce water losses and for their fertiliser value. The addition of high N content organic residues to soils has been promoted in tropical countries as a means to achieve sustainable intensification of tropical farming systems and increasing soil organic matter status on infertile low income farms. Improving the nutrient release from these materials could have positive feedback effects in terms of improved food security and increased organic matter return to the soil through improved crop yields. Unfortunately the fertiliser value of most organic residues is such that only 10 -20% of the available nitrogen in the residue is mineralised to plant available nitrogen and taken up by the plant in the first cropping year, dropping to less than 2% in the subsequent years; thus having marginal overall impact on crop yields. Improving the fertiliser benefit of residues by combining them with the biochar addition could lead to significant increases in crop yields, an immediately tangible benefit for farmers. The addition of charcoal in boreal forest systems has been shown to increase the rate of soil organic matter decomposition, suggesting there is a priming effect of a biochar analogue on organic matter decomposition. The priming effect is the increase in soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition rate after the addition of fresh organic matter or other compounds to soil. The implication is that is biochar if addition leads to the loss of native SOM it negates the carbon benefit of adding biochar to soil. However there could also be potential benefits of priming effects of biochar under specific circumstances, for example if biochar addition leads to the priming of freshly added organic matter breakdown it may in turn improve nutrient synchronisation and overall nutrient use efficiency. We conducted a series of experiments conducted in Kenya and Austria using stable isotope tools to look at

  2. Validity of Eye Movement Methods and Indices for Capturing Semantic (Associative) Priming Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odekar, Anshula; Hallowell, Brooke; Kruse, Hans; Moates, Danny; Lee, Chao-Yang

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the usefulness of eye movement methods and indices as a tool for studying priming effects by verifying whether eye movement indices capture semantic (associative) priming effects in a visual cross-format (written word to semantically related picture) priming paradigm. Method: In the…

  3. Learning Associations between Action and Perception: Effects of Incompatible Training on Body Part and Spatial Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggett, Alison J.; Hudson, Matt; Tipper, Steve P.; Downing, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    Observation of another person executing an action primes the same action in the observer's motor system. Recent evidence has shown that these priming effects are flexible, where training of new associations, such as making a foot response when viewing a moving hand, can reduce standard action priming effects (Gillmeister, Catmur, Liepelt, Brass,…

  4. Reversed Priming Effects May Be Driven by Misperception Rather than Subliminal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A new paradigm for investigating whether a cognitive process is independent of perception was recently suggested. In the paradigm, primes are shown at an intermediate signal strength that leads to trial-to-trial and inter-individual variability in prime perception. Here, I used this paradigm and an objective measure of perception to assess the influence of prime identification responses on Stroop priming. I found that sensory states producing correct and incorrect prime identification responses were also associated with qualitatively different priming effects. Incorrect prime identification responses were associated with reversed priming effects but in contrast to previous studies, I interpret this to result from the (mis-)perception of primes rather than from a subliminal process. Furthermore, the intermediate signal strength also produced inter-individual variability in prime perception that strongly influenced priming effects: only participants who on average perceived the primes were Stroop primed. I discuss how this new paradigm, with a wide range of d′ values, is more appropriate when regression analysis on inter-individual identification performance is used to investigate perception-dependent processing. The results of this study, in line with previous results, suggest that drawing conclusions about subliminal processes based on data averaged over individuals may be unwarranted. PMID:26925016

  5. "Fahrenheit 9-11," Need for Closure and the Priming of Affective Ambivalence: An Assessment of Intra-Affective Structures by Party Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbert, R. Lance; Hansen, Glenn J.

    2006-01-01

    This study extends priming research in political communication by focusing on an alternative political information source (i.e., Michael Moore's Fahrenheit 9-11), affect rather than cognitions, and the existence of intra-affective ambivalence. In addition, two moderator variables are analyzed: political party identification and need for closure.…

  6. Soil C and N availability determine the priming effect: microbial N mining and stoichiometric decomposition theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruirui; Senbayram, Mehmet; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Dittert, Klaus; Lin, Xiangui; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    The increasing input of anthropogenically derived nitrogen (N) to ecosystems raises a crucial question: how does available N modify the decomposer community and thus affects the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM). Moreover, N input modifies the priming effect (PE), that is, the effect of fresh organics on the microbial decomposition of SOM. We studied the interactive effects of C and N on SOM mineralization (by natural 13C labelling adding C4-sucrose or C4-maize straw to C3-soil) in relation to microbial growth kinetics and to the activities of five hydrolytic enzymes. This encompasses the groups of parameters governing two mechanisms of priming effects - microbial N mining and stoichiometric decomposition theories. In sole C treatments, positive PE was accompanied by a decrease in specific microbial growth rates, confirming a greater contribution of K-strategists to the decomposition of native SOM. Sucrose addition with N significantly accelerated mineralization of native SOM, whereas mineral N added with plant residues accelerated decomposition of plant residues. This supports the microbial mining theory in terms of N limitation. Sucrose addition with N was accompanied by accelerated microbial growth, increased activities of β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase, and decreased activities of xylanase and leucine amino peptidase. This indicated an increased contribution of r-strategists to the PE and to decomposition of cellulose but the decreased hemicellulolytic and proteolytic activities. Thus, the acceleration of the C cycle was primed by exogenous organic C and was controlled by N. This confirms the stoichiometric decomposition theory. Both K- and r-strategists were beneficial for priming effects, with an increasing contribution of K-selected species under N limitation. Thus, the priming phenomenon described in 'microbial N mining' theory can be ascribed to K-strategists. In contrast, 'stoichiometric decomposition' theory, that is, accelerated OM

  7. Soil C and N availability determine the priming effect: microbial N mining and stoichiometric decomposition theories.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruirui; Senbayram, Mehmet; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Myachina, Olga; Dittert, Klaus; Lin, Xiangui; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-07-01

    The increasing input of anthropogenically derived nitrogen (N) to ecosystems raises a crucial question: how does available N modify the decomposer community and thus affects the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM). Moreover, N input modifies the priming effect (PE), that is, the effect of fresh organics on the microbial decomposition of SOM. We studied the interactive effects of C and N on SOM mineralization (by natural (13) C labelling adding C4 -sucrose or C4 -maize straw to C3 -soil) in relation to microbial growth kinetics and to the activities of five hydrolytic enzymes. This encompasses the groups of parameters governing two mechanisms of priming effects - microbial N mining and stoichiometric decomposition theories. In sole C treatments, positive PE was accompanied by a decrease in specific microbial growth rates, confirming a greater contribution of K-strategists to the decomposition of native SOM. Sucrose addition with N significantly accelerated mineralization of native SOM, whereas mineral N added with plant residues accelerated decomposition of plant residues. This supports the microbial mining theory in terms of N limitation. Sucrose addition with N was accompanied by accelerated microbial growth, increased activities of β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase, and decreased activities of xylanase and leucine amino peptidase. This indicated an increased contribution of r-strategists to the PE and to decomposition of cellulose but the decreased hemicellulolytic and proteolytic activities. Thus, the acceleration of the C cycle was primed by exogenous organic C and was controlled by N. This confirms the stoichiometric decomposition theory. Both K- and r-strategists were beneficial for priming effects, with an increasing contribution of K-selected species under N limitation. Thus, the priming phenomenon described in 'microbial N mining' theory can be ascribed to K-strategists. In contrast, 'stoichiometric decomposition' theory, that is, accelerated OM

  8. No priming for global motion in crowding.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Andrea; Gall, Martin G; Manassi, Mauro; Greenlee, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    There is psychophysical evidence that low-level priming, e.g., from oriented gratings, as well as high-level semantic priming, survives crowding. We investigated priming for global translational motion in crowded and noncrowded conditions. The results indicated that reliable motion priming occurs in the noncrowded condition, but motion priming does not survive crowding. Crowding persisted despite variations in the direction of the flankers with respect to the prime's direction. Motion priming was still absent under crowding when 85% of the flankers moved in the same direction as the prime. Crowding also persisted despite variations in the speed of the flankers relative to the prime even when the flankers' speed was four times slower than the speed of the prime. However, a priming effect was evident when the prime's spatial location was precued and its distance to the flankers increased, suggesting a release from crowding. These results suggest that transient attention induced by precueing the spatial location of the prime may improve subjects' ability to discriminate its direction. Spatial cueing could act to decrease the integration field, thereby diminishing the influence of nearby distracters. In an additional experiment in which we used fewer flankers, we found a priming effect under conditions in which the interelement distance varied between flankers and prime. Overall, the results suggest that motion priming is strongly affected by crowding, but transient attention can partially retrieve such facilitation.

  9. Syntactic Priming Effects between Modalities: A Study of Indirect Questions/Requests among Persian English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biria, Reza; Ameri-Golestan, Ahmad; Antón-Méndez, Inés

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the impact of syntactic priming on production of indirect questions/requests by Persian learners of English as a foreign language. Eighty learners participated in two experiments investigating the impact of syntactic priming on oral production and the possibility of transfer of the priming effects to a different modality.…

  10. Transposed-letter priming effects in reading aloud words and nonwords.

    PubMed

    Mousikou, Petroula; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Wu, Simon; Norris, Dennis

    2015-10-01

    A masked nonword prime generated by transposing adjacent inner letters in a word (e.g., jugde) facilitates the recognition of the target word (JUDGE) more than a prime in which the relevant letters are replaced by different letters (e.g., junpe). This transposed-letter (TL) priming effect has been widely interpreted as evidence that the coding of letter position is flexible, rather than precise. Although the TL priming effect has been extensively investigated in the domain of visual word recognition using the lexical decision task, very few studies have investigated this empirical phenomenon in reading aloud. In the present study, we investigated TL priming effects in reading aloud words and nonwords and found that these effects are of equal magnitude for the two types of items. We take this result as support for the view that the TL priming effect arises from noisy perception of letter order within the prime prior to the mapping of orthography to phonology.

  11. Social Anxiety and Interpretation Bias: Effect of Positive Priming.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoling; Qian, Mingyi; Yu, Hongyu; Sun, Yang; Li, Songwei; Yang, Peng; Lin, Muyu; Yao, Nishao; Zhang, Xilin

    2016-10-01

    This study examined how positive-scale assessment of ambiguous social stimuli affects interpretation bias in social anxiety. Participants with high and low social anxiety (N = 60) performed a facial expression discrimination task to assess interpretation bias. Participants were then randomly assigned to assess the emotion of briefly presented faces either on a negative or on a positive scale. They subsequently repeated the facial expression discrimination task. Participants with high versus low social anxiety made more negative interpretations of ambiguous facial expressions. However, those in the positive-scale assessment condition subsequently showed reduced negative interpretations of ambiguous facial expressions. These results suggest that interpretation bias in social anxiety could be mediated by positive priming rather than an outright negative bias.

  12. Perceptual effects of linguistic category priming: the Stapel and Semin (2007) paradigm revisited in twelve experiments.

    PubMed

    IJzerman, Hans; Regenberg, Nina F E; Saddlemyer, Justin; Koole, Sander L

    2015-05-01

    Linguistic category priming is a novel paradigm to examine automatic influences of language on cognition (Semin, 2008). An initial article reported that priming abstract linguistic categories (adjectives) led to more global perceptual processing, whereas priming concrete linguistic categories (verbs) led to more local perceptual processing (Stapel & Semin, 2007). However, this report was compromised by data fabrication by the first author, so that it remains unclear whether or not linguistic category priming influences perceptual processing. To fill this gap in the literature, the present article reports 12 studies among Dutch and US samples examining the perceptual effects of linguistic category priming. The results yielded no evidence of linguistic category priming effects. These findings are discussed in relation to other research showing cultural variations in linguistic category priming effects (IJzerman, Saddlemyer, & Koole, 2014). The authors conclude by highlighting the importance of conducting and publishing replication research for achieving scientific progress.

  13. Ego depletion in color priming research: self-control strength moderates the detrimental effect of red on cognitive test performance.

    PubMed

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris; Furley, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Colors have been found to affect psychological functioning. Empirical evidence suggests that, in test situations, brief perceptions of the color red or even the word "red" printed in black ink prime implicit anxious responses and consequently impair cognitive performance. However, we propose that this red effect depends on people's momentary capacity to exert control over their prepotent responses (i.e., self-control). In three experiments (Ns = 66, 78, and 130), first participants' self-control strength was manipulated. Participants were then primed with the color or word red versus gray prior to completing an arithmetic test or an intelligence test. As expected, self-control strength moderated the red effect. While red had a detrimental effect on performance of participants with depleted self-control strength (ego depletion), it did not affect performance of participants with intact self-control strength. We discuss implications of the present findings within the current debate on the robustness of priming results. PMID:25567999

  14. Effects of high-intensity intermittent priming on physiology and cycling performance.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Jordan P R; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    The pre-event warm-up or "priming" routine for optimising cycling performance is not well-defined or uniform to a specific event. We aimed to determine the effects of varying the intensity of priming on 3 km cycling performance. Ten endurance-trained male cyclists completed four 3 km time-trials (TT) on four separate occasions, each preceded by a different priming strategy including "self-selected" priming and three intermittent priming strategies incorporating 10 min of constant-load cycling followed by 5 × 10 s bouts of varying relative intensity (100% and 150% of peak aerobic power, Wpeak, and all-out priming). The self-selected priming trial (379 ± 44 W) resulted in similar mean power during the 3 km TT to intermittent priming at 100% (376 ± 45 W; -0.7%; unclear) and 150% (374 ± 48 W; -1.5%, unclear) of Wpeak, but significantly greater than all-out priming (357 ± 45 W; -5.8%, almost certainly harmful). Differences between intermittent and self-selected priming existed with regards to heart rate (6.2% to 11.5%), blood lactate (-22.9% to 125%) and VO2 kinetics (-22.9% to 8.2%), but these were not related to performance outcomes. In conclusion, prescribed intermittent priming strategies varying in intensity did not substantially improve 3 km TT performance compared to self-selected priming.

  15. The effects of temperature priming on cooperation in the iterated prisoner's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Storey, Simon; Workman, Lance

    2013-01-01

    Based on initial research findings by Williams and Bargh (2008) and Kang, Williams, Clark, Gray and Bargh (2011) on the interaction between interpersonal and physical warmth, theoretical models such as cognitive scaffolding and the importance of evaluations of interpersonal warmth in trust-based decisions, this experiment investigated the effect of temperature priming on 30 pairs of British university students with hot and cold objects on frequency of cooperation in a game of iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. Participants were found to cooperate significantly more frequently when primed with hot objects than with cold objects, supporting the assertion that physical warmth sensation positively affects interpersonal trust evaluation. No support was found for the prediction that male-male pairs would cooperate less than female-female pairs. The implications of these findings to evolutionary and developmental theories of interpersonal warmth are discussed. PMID:23348419

  16. The effects of temperature priming on cooperation in the iterated prisoner's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Storey, Simon; Workman, Lance

    2013-01-01

    Based on initial research findings by Williams and Bargh (2008) and Kang, Williams, Clark, Gray and Bargh (2011) on the interaction between interpersonal and physical warmth, theoretical models such as cognitive scaffolding and the importance of evaluations of interpersonal warmth in trust-based decisions, this experiment investigated the effect of temperature priming on 30 pairs of British university students with hot and cold objects on frequency of cooperation in a game of iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. Participants were found to cooperate significantly more frequently when primed with hot objects than with cold objects, supporting the assertion that physical warmth sensation positively affects interpersonal trust evaluation. No support was found for the prediction that male-male pairs would cooperate less than female-female pairs. The implications of these findings to evolutionary and developmental theories of interpersonal warmth are discussed.

  17. When less is more: feedback, priming, and the pseudoword superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Massol, Stéphanie; Midgley, Katherine J; Holcomb, Phillip J; Grainger, Jonathan

    2011-04-22

    The present study combined masked priming with electrophysiological recordings to investigate orthographic priming effects with nonword targets. Targets were pronounceable nonwords (e.g., STRENG) or consonant strings (e.g., STRBNG), that both differed from a real word by a single letter substitution (STRONG). Targets were preceded by related primes that could be the same as the target (e.g., streng-STRENG, strbng-STRBNG) or the real word neighbor of the target (e.g., strong-STRENG, strong-STRBNG). Independently of priming, pronounceable nonwords were associated with larger negativities than consonant strings, starting at 290ms post-target onset. Overall, priming effects were stronger and longer-lasting with pronounceable nonwords than consonant strings. However, consonant string targets showed an early effect of word neighbor priming in the absence of an effect of repetition priming, whereas pronounceable nonwords showed both repetition and word neighbor priming effects in the same time window. This pattern of priming effects is taken as evidence for feedback from whole-word orthographic representations activated by the prime stimulus that influences bottom-up processing of prelexical representations during target processing. PMID:21354110

  18. When Less is More: Feedback, Priming, and the Pseudoword Superiority Effect

    PubMed Central

    Massol, Stéphanie; Midgley, Katherine J.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The present study combined masked priming with electrophysiological recordings to investigate orthographic priming effects with nonword targets. Targets were pronounceable nonwords (e.g., STRENG) or consonant strings (e.g., STRBNG), that both differed from a real word by a single letter substitution (STRONG). Targets were preceded by related primes that could be the same as the target (e.g., streng – STRENG, strbng-STRBNG) or the real word neighbor of the target (e.g., strong – STRENG, strong-STRBNG). Independently of priming, pronounceable nonwords were associated with larger negativities than consonant strings, starting at 290 ms post-target onset. Overall, priming effects were stronger and more long-lasting with pronounceable nonwords than consonant strings. However, consonant string targets showed an early effect of word neighbor priming in the absence of an effect of repetition priming, whereas pronounceable nonwords showed both repetition and word neighbor priming effects in the same time window. This pattern of priming effects is taken as evidence for feedback from whole-word orthographic representations activated by the prime stimulus that influences bottom-up processing of prelexical representations during target processing. PMID:21354110

  19. Common and Segregated Neural Substrates for Automatic Conceptual and Affective Priming as Revealed by Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hongyan; Hu, Zhiguo; Peng, Danling; Yang, Yanhui; Li, Kuncheng

    2010-01-01

    The brain activity associated with automatic semantic priming has been extensively studied. Thus far there has been no prior study that directly contrasts the neural mechanisms of semantic and affective priming. The present study employed event-related fMRI to examine the common and distinct neural bases underlying conceptual and affective priming…

  20. Prime Knowledge about Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Several proofs demonstrating that there are infinitely many primes, different types of primes, tests of primality, pseudo primes, prime number generators and open questions about primes are discussed in Section 1. Some of these notions are elaborated upon in Section 2, with discussions of the Riemann zeta function and how algorithmic complexity…

  1. "The Bitter Laughter". When Parody Is a Moral and Affective Priming in Political Persuasion.

    PubMed

    D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Research on socially aware systems requires fine-grained knowledge of the mechanisms of persuasion in order to promote civic knowledge and aware political participation. Within humor studies, political parody is generally considered a simple pleasant weapon for political evaluation, currently explained by referring to the so called "just a joke effect" (Nabi et al., 2007). Indeed the funny side of parody can induce positive emotions, but it also includes a discrediting act that sometimes produces a "bitter laughter." The present study aims to understand the role played by negative and moral emotions aroused by parody. A parody is defined as a communicative behavior (a discourse, text, body movement, song) that imitates a communicative behavior or trait displayed by some Target by reproducing it in a distorted way, with the aim of making fun of the Target. Based on a socio-cognitive approach, a distinction is made between "surface" and "deep" parody (Poggi and D'Errico, 2013), with the former simply imitating behaviors actually displayed by the Target, and the latter implying a (humorous) re-categorization of the Target. The paper studies the effect of these two different types of parody on persuasion processes. Results show that the deep parody, as opposed to surface parody, triggers more negative emotions, and in particular indignation, that in turn lead to more negative evaluations of the Target. Moreover, the moral priming of parody is influenced by the Target politician's gender.

  2. "The Bitter Laughter". When Parody Is a Moral and Affective Priming in Political Persuasion.

    PubMed

    D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Research on socially aware systems requires fine-grained knowledge of the mechanisms of persuasion in order to promote civic knowledge and aware political participation. Within humor studies, political parody is generally considered a simple pleasant weapon for political evaluation, currently explained by referring to the so called "just a joke effect" (Nabi et al., 2007). Indeed the funny side of parody can induce positive emotions, but it also includes a discrediting act that sometimes produces a "bitter laughter." The present study aims to understand the role played by negative and moral emotions aroused by parody. A parody is defined as a communicative behavior (a discourse, text, body movement, song) that imitates a communicative behavior or trait displayed by some Target by reproducing it in a distorted way, with the aim of making fun of the Target. Based on a socio-cognitive approach, a distinction is made between "surface" and "deep" parody (Poggi and D'Errico, 2013), with the former simply imitating behaviors actually displayed by the Target, and the latter implying a (humorous) re-categorization of the Target. The paper studies the effect of these two different types of parody on persuasion processes. Results show that the deep parody, as opposed to surface parody, triggers more negative emotions, and in particular indignation, that in turn lead to more negative evaluations of the Target. Moreover, the moral priming of parody is influenced by the Target politician's gender. PMID:27555825

  3. The effect of feedback schedule manipulation on speech priming patterns and reaction time.

    PubMed

    Slocomb, Dana; Spencer, Kristie A

    2009-02-01

    Speech priming tasks are frequently used to delineate stages in the speech process such as lexical retrieval and motor programming. These tasks, often measured in reaction time (RT), require fast and accurate responses, reflecting maximized participant performance, to result in robust priming effects. Encouraging speed and accuracy in responding can take many forms, including verbal instructions and feedback, and often involves visually displayed RT feedback. However, it is uncertain how manipulation of the schedule of this RT feedback influences speech RT speed and, ultimately, the priming effect. This experiment examined the effect of visually presented RT feedback schedules on priming patterns in 20 older healthy adults. Results suggested that feedback schedule manipulation had a differential effect on reaction time, depending on the interstimulus interval between the prime and the target, but no effect on response priming patterns.

  4. Immediate priming and cognitive aftereffects.

    PubMed

    Huber, David E

    2008-05-01

    Three forced-choice perceptual word identification experiments tested the claim that transitions from positive to negative priming as a function of increasing prime duration are due to cognitive aftereffects. These aftereffects are similar in nature to perceptual aftereffects that produce a negative image due to overexposure and habituation to a stimulus. Each experiment tested critical predictions that come from including habituation in a dynamic neural network with multiple levels of processing. The success of this account in explaining the dynamics of repetition priming, associative-semantic priming, and forward masking effects suggests that habituation is a useful mechanism for reducing source confusion between successively presented stimuli. Implications are considered for visible persistence, repetition blindness, attention-based negative priming, attentional blink, inhibition of return, the negative compatibility effect, affect priming, and flanker preview effects. PMID:18473662

  5. A hormone priming regimen and hibernation affect oviposition in the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas).

    PubMed

    Calatayud, N E; Langhorne, C J; Mullen, A C; Williams, C L; Smith, T; Bullock, L; Kouba, A J; Willard, S T

    2015-09-01

    Declines of the southern Rocky Mountain population of boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) have led to the establishment of a captive assurance population and reintroduction program, in an attempt to preserve and propagate this geographically isolated population. One of the unique adaptations of this species is its ability to survive in cold environments by undergoing long periods of hibernation. In captivity, hibernation can be avoided altogether, decreasing morbidity caused by compromised immune systems. However, it is not entirely clear how essential hibernation is to reproductive success. In this study, the effects of hibernation versus nonhibernation, and exogenous hormones on oviposition, were examined in boreal toad females in the absence of males. In the summers of 2011 and 2012, 20 females housed at Mississippi State University were treated with a double priming dose of hCG and various ovulatory doses of hCG and LH-releasing hormone analog but denied hibernation. Exogenous hormones, in the absence of hibernation, could not induce oviposition over two breeding seasons (2011-2012). In contrast, during the summer of 2012 and 2013, 17 of 22 females (77%) housed at the Native Aquatic Species Restoration Facility (Alamosa, CO, USA) oviposited after they were treated with two priming doses of hCG (3.7 IU/g each) and a single ovulation dose of hCG (13.5 IU/g) and LH-releasing hormone analog (0.4 μg/g) after hibernation. There was a significant difference in oviposition between females that were hibernated and received hormones (2012, P < 0.05 and 2013, P < 0.01) compared to hibernated control females. In 2013, 12 of 16 remaining Mississippi State University females from the same group used in 2011 and 2012 were hibernated for 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively and then treated with the same hormone regimen administered to females at the Native Aquatic Species Restoration Facility. Together, hibernation and hormone treatments significantly increased

  6. “The Bitter Laughter”. When Parody Is a Moral and Affective Priming in Political Persuasion

    PubMed Central

    D’Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Research on socially aware systems requires fine-grained knowledge of the mechanisms of persuasion in order to promote civic knowledge and aware political participation. Within humor studies, political parody is generally considered a simple pleasant weapon for political evaluation, currently explained by referring to the so called “just a joke effect” (Nabi et al., 2007). Indeed the funny side of parody can induce positive emotions, but it also includes a discrediting act that sometimes produces a “bitter laughter.” The present study aims to understand the role played by negative and moral emotions aroused by parody. A parody is defined as a communicative behavior (a discourse, text, body movement, song) that imitates a communicative behavior or trait displayed by some Target by reproducing it in a distorted way, with the aim of making fun of the Target. Based on a socio-cognitive approach, a distinction is made between “surface” and “deep” parody (Poggi and D’Errico, 2013), with the former simply imitating behaviors actually displayed by the Target, and the latter implying a (humorous) re-categorization of the Target. The paper studies the effect of these two different types of parody on persuasion processes. Results show that the deep parody, as opposed to surface parody, triggers more negative emotions, and in particular indignation, that in turn lead to more negative evaluations of the Target. Moreover, the moral priming of parody is influenced by the Target politician’s gender. PMID:27555825

  7. Effects of dose and time on the ability of alcohol to prime social drinkers.

    PubMed

    Rose, Abigail K; Duka, Theodora

    2006-02-01

    Interoceptive drug cues, through associations with the drug's reinforcing properties, may act as conditioned stimuli and elicit conditioned responses. For instance, a dose of alcohol, given to alcohol-experienced people, can lead to an enhancement of alcohol drinking, a phenomenon known as the priming effect. The present study aimed to investigate the alcohol priming effect in non-dependent social drinkers with respect to the dose of alcohol preload and the time of testing after preload. Fifteen social drinkers participated in five daily consecutive sessions. On days 1 and 2 (training sessions), participants consumed a 500 ml beverage of either 0.6 g/kg of alcohol or placebo (50 ml aliquots) presented in 10 colour-coded cups. During days 3, 4 and 5 (testing sessions), a preload of placebo, 0.3 or 0.6 g/kg of alcohol was given (in randomized sequence) in 10 opaque colourless cups. Thirty, 60 and 90 min following the preload, participants responded to an imagery script referring to the drinks sampled at training including a question on the number of aliquots participants would consume from each of the drinks if given the opportunity (hypothetical choice). Participants completed questionnaires evaluating mood and alcohol desires at baseline (before the beverages were given) and after the hypothetical choice. The hypothetical choice showed significant interactions between dose and time: the greatest number of alcohol aliquots were wanted 30 min following the 0.6 g/kg dose of alcohol preload. Ratings from the Desires for Alcohol Questionnaire also showed that alcohol desires peaked 30 min following the 0.6 g/kg of alcohol preload. These data support previous evidence that priming with alcohol can occur and indicate that dose of, and time after preload might affect the strength of, the priming effect for alcohol-related behaviours.

  8. Effects of dose and time on the ability of alcohol to prime social drinkers.

    PubMed

    Rose, Abigail K; Duka, Theodora

    2006-02-01

    Interoceptive drug cues, through associations with the drug's reinforcing properties, may act as conditioned stimuli and elicit conditioned responses. For instance, a dose of alcohol, given to alcohol-experienced people, can lead to an enhancement of alcohol drinking, a phenomenon known as the priming effect. The present study aimed to investigate the alcohol priming effect in non-dependent social drinkers with respect to the dose of alcohol preload and the time of testing after preload. Fifteen social drinkers participated in five daily consecutive sessions. On days 1 and 2 (training sessions), participants consumed a 500 ml beverage of either 0.6 g/kg of alcohol or placebo (50 ml aliquots) presented in 10 colour-coded cups. During days 3, 4 and 5 (testing sessions), a preload of placebo, 0.3 or 0.6 g/kg of alcohol was given (in randomized sequence) in 10 opaque colourless cups. Thirty, 60 and 90 min following the preload, participants responded to an imagery script referring to the drinks sampled at training including a question on the number of aliquots participants would consume from each of the drinks if given the opportunity (hypothetical choice). Participants completed questionnaires evaluating mood and alcohol desires at baseline (before the beverages were given) and after the hypothetical choice. The hypothetical choice showed significant interactions between dose and time: the greatest number of alcohol aliquots were wanted 30 min following the 0.6 g/kg dose of alcohol preload. Ratings from the Desires for Alcohol Questionnaire also showed that alcohol desires peaked 30 min following the 0.6 g/kg of alcohol preload. These data support previous evidence that priming with alcohol can occur and indicate that dose of, and time after preload might affect the strength of, the priming effect for alcohol-related behaviours. PMID:16377964

  9. Contrasting Effects of Phonological Priming in Aphasic Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilshire, Carolyn E.; Saffran, Eleanor M.

    2005-01-01

    Two fluent aphasics, IG and GL, performed a phonological priming task in which they repeated an auditory prime then named a target picture. The two patients both had selective deficits in word production: they were at or near ceiling on lexical comprehension tasks, but were significantly impaired in picture naming. IG's naming errors included both…

  10. Reading Spoken Words: Orthographic Effects in Auditory Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chereau, Celine; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Dumay, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments examined the involvement of orthography in spoken word processing using a task--unimodal auditory priming with offset overlap--taken to reflect activation of prelexical representations. Two types of prime-target relationship were compared; both involved phonological overlap, but only one had a strong orthographic overlap (e.g.,…

  11. How the interval between prime and boost injection affects the immune response in a computational model of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Castiglione, F; Mantile, F; De Berardinis, P; Prisco, A

    2012-01-01

    The immune system is able to respond more vigorously to the second contact with a given antigen than to the first contact. Vaccination protocols generally include at least two doses, in order to obtain high antibody titers. We want to analyze the relation between the time elapsed from the first dose (priming) and the second dose (boost) on the antibody titers. In this paper, we couple in vivo experiments with computer simulations to assess the effect of delaying the second injection. We observe that an interval of several weeks between the prime and the boost is necessary to obtain optimal antibody responses.

  12. The effect of color priming on infant brain and behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Teresa; Hirshkowitz, Amy; Hawkins, Laura; Boas, David A

    2014-01-15

    Behavioral studies have identified select experiences that can prime infants to attend to color information as the basis for individuating objects prior to the time they do so spontaneously. For example, viewing pretest events in which the color of an object predicts the function in which it will engage leads 9-month-olds (who typically do not attend to color differences) to demonstrate increased sensitivity to color information in a subsequent individuation task (Wilcox and Chapa, 2004). In contrast, viewing pretest events in which the color of an object predicts distinct object motions, but the motions are not functionally relevant, does not produce color priming. The purpose of the present research was to identify the cortical underpinnings of these behavioral effects. Infants aged 8 and 9 months viewed function or motion pretest events and then their capacity to individuate-by-color was assessed in an object individuation task. Behavioral and neuroimaging data were collected. Two main findings emerged. First, as predicted, the infants who viewed the function but not the motion pretest events showed prolonged looking to the test event, a behavioral indicator of object individuation. In addition, they evidenced increased activation in anterior temporal cortex, thought to be a cortical signature of object individuation. A second and unexpected finding was that viewing either type of pretest events led to increased activation in the posterior temporal cortex, as compared to infants who did not see pretest events, revealing that prior exposure to the motion pretest events does influence infants' processing of the test event, even though it is not evident in the behavioral results. The cognitive processes involved, and the cortical structures that mediate these processes, are discussed.

  13. Effects of facial identity on age judgments: evidence from repetition priming.

    PubMed

    Dagovitch, Yuly; Ganel, Tzvi

    2010-01-01

    According to current face recognition models, facial identity is processed independently from other visually derived facial aspects, such as facial age. Here we used a repetition priming paradigm to investigate the relationship between the processing of facial identity and facial age. In Experiment 1, participants made speeded age classifications for primed and unprimed faces of famous celebrities. Performance was faster and more accurate for primed compared to unprimed faces, which indicates that the processing of facial age benefits from priming effects. In Experiment 2, priming was also found for preexperimentally unfamiliar faces which were familiarized during the experimental session. In Experiment 3, priming effects were found even when different photos of the same people were presented at study and at test. These results suggest that the processing of age is mediated by memory representations of facial identity. PMID:20178927

  14. Modulating the masked congruence priming effect with the hands and the mouth.

    PubMed

    Finkbeiner, Matthew; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2008-08-01

    The authors report a series of experiments in which they use the masked congruence priming paradigm to investigate the processing of masked primes in the manual and verbal response modalities. In the manual response modality, they found that masked incongruent primes produced interference relative to both congruent and neutral primes. This finding, which replicates the standard finding in the masked congruence priming literature, is presumed to reflect the conflict that arises between two incompatible responses and, thus, to index the extent of processing of the masked prime. Somewhat surprisingly, when participants were asked to respond verbally in the same task, masked incongruent primes no longer produced interference, but masked congruent primes produced facilitation. These findings are surprising because they suggest that the processing of nonconsciously perceived primes extends to the response level in the manual, but not verbal, response modality. The authors propose that the modulation of the masked congruence priming effect by response modality is due to verbal, but not manual, responses being mediated by the lexical-phonological production system. PMID:18665734

  15. Effect of Varying Resonator Length for Thermoacoustic Prime Movers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heward, Cory; Andersen, Bonnie

    2011-10-01

    Improvement of performance of thermoacoustic engines is critical to advancing the technology. Bottle-shaped themoacoustic prime movers have a quarter-wave resonator neck and a large cavity. The cylindrical neck region consists of a cold side and a hot side with the heat exchangers and the ``stack'' between the two. The geometric parameters of these parts determine the resonant frequency and affect the acoustic pressure of the device. To achieve an optimum of acoustic power, the stack should be positioned at the center of the neck where contributions of the pressure and velocity waves are a maximu,, giving an ideal ratio of hot to cold side length of 50%. However, radiation loss is directly proportional to the length of the hot side. Thus, the optimum ratio will be less than 50%. Studies show that increasing the length of the neck decreases the resonant frequency according to a transcendental equation that is independent of this ratio. Results confirm that decreasing the ratio increases the acoustic pressure within the device. Three cold side lengths were tested with up to eight hot side lengths. For the longest cold side tested, the ratio of 36% is optimum.

  16. Contrasting effects of phonological priming in aphasic word production.

    PubMed

    Wilshire, Carolyn E; Saffran, Eleanor M

    2005-02-01

    Two fluent aphasics, IG and GL, performed a phonological priming task in which they repeated an auditory prime then named a target picture. The two patients both had selective deficits in word production: they were at or near ceiling on lexical comprehension tasks, but were significantly impaired in picture naming. IG's naming errors included both semantic and phonemic paraphasias, as well as failures to respond, whereas GL's errors were mainly phonemic and formal paraphasias. The two patients responded very differently to phonological priming: IG's naming was facilitated (both accuracy and speed) only by begin-related primes (e.g. ferry-feather), whereas GL benefited significantly only from end-related primes (e.g. brother-feather), showing no more than a facilitatory trend with begin-related primes. We interpret these results within a two-stage model of word production, in which begin-related and end-related primes are said to operate at different stages. We then discuss implications for models of normal and aphasic word production in general and particularly with respect to sequential aspects of the phonological encoding process. PMID:15629473

  17. Distinguishing stereotype threat from priming effects: on the role of the social self and threat-based concerns.

    PubMed

    Marx, David M; Stapel, Diederick A

    2006-08-01

    It has been argued that priming negative stereotypic traits is sufficient to cause stereotype threat. The present research challenges this assumption by highlighting the role of the social self and targets' concerns about confirming a negative group-based stereotype. Specifically, in 3 experiments the authors demonstrate that stereotype threat adversely affects the test performance and threat-based concerns of targets (but not nontargets) because only targets' social self is linked to the negative group stereotype. Trait priming, however, harms the test performance of both targets and nontargets but has no effect on their threat-based concerns because trait priming does not require such a link between the social self and the group stereotype. Moreover, the authors show that merely increasing the accessibility of the social self in nonthreatening situations leads to the underperformance of targets but has no meaningful effect on nontargets' test performance.

  18. Effect of carrier priming on immunogenicity of saccharide-protein conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, C C; Tenbergen-Meekes, A M; Poolman, J T; Beurret, M; Zegers, B J; Rijkers, G T

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies with saccharide-protein conjugates have demonstrated that antibody responses to the saccharide can be improved by the preexistence of carrier immunity. Here we report that prior exposure to the carrier protein can either enhance or suppress antibody response to polysaccharides administered in saccharide-protein conjugates. A dose-dependent role for carrier priming in the antisaccharide antibody response to three saccharide-protein conjugate vaccines, i.e., a Streptococcus pneumoniae type 4 polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate (PS4TT), a Neisseria meningitidis group C polysaccharide-TT conjugate (MenCTT), and a N. meningitidis group C oligosaccharide-diphtheria mutant toxin conjugate (MenCCRM), was investigated. The results showed that an increase in the antipolysaccharide antibody response could be obtained for both PS4TT and MenCTT but not for MenCCRM with low-dose carrier priming (0.025 to 0.25 microgram). However, suppression of the antipolysaccharide antibody response was observed with the PS4TT and MenCTT vaccines with high-dose (25-micrograms) carrier priming. There was no suppression effect with MenCCRM. The increase in the antipolysaccharide antibody response was shown to be restricted to the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) subclass, whereas suppression with high-dose carrier priming affected all antipolysaccharide subclass antibodies induced by PS4TT (IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3) and only two of the four subclass antibodies induced by MenCTT (IgG2a and IgG2b). The increase in the antipolysaccharide antibody response was also present at the antipolysaccharide IgM antibody level but was not observed at the anti-carrier IgG antibody level. PMID:1894357

  19. Priming interdependence affects processing of context information in causal inference--but not how you might think.

    PubMed

    Goedert, Kelly M; Grimm, Lisa R; Markman, Arthur B; Spellman, Barbara A

    2014-02-01

    Cultural mindset is related to performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. In particular, studies of both chronic and situationally-primed mindsets show that individuals with a relatively interdependent mindset (i.e., an emphasis on relationships and connections among individuals) are more sensitive to background contextual information than individuals with a more independent mindset. Two experiments tested whether priming cultural mindset would affect sensitivity to background causes in a contingency learning and causal inference task. Participants were primed (either independent or interdependent), and then saw complete contingency information on each of 12 trials for two cover stories in Experiment 1 (hiking causing skin rashes, severed brakes causing wrecked cars) and two additional cover stories in Experiment 2 (school deadlines causing stress, fertilizers causing plant growth). We expected that relative to independent-primed participants, those interdependent-primed would give more weight to the explicitly-presented data indicative of hidden alternative background causes, but they did not do so. In Experiment 1, interdependents gave less weight to the data indicative of hidden background causes for the car accident cover story and showed a decreased sensitivity to the contingencies for that story. In Experiment 2, interdependents placed less weight on the observable data for cover stories that supported more extra-experimental causes, while independents' sensitivity did not vary with these extra-experimental causes. Thus, interdependents were more sensitive to background causes not explicitly presented in the experiment, but this sensitivity hurt rather than improved their acquisition of the explicitly-presented contingency information. PMID:24374491

  20. The Masked Semantic Priming Effect Is Task Dependent: Reconsidering the Automatic Spreading Activation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Semantic priming effects are popularly explained in terms of an automatic spreading activation process, according to which the activation of a node in a semantic network spreads automatically to interconnected nodes, preactivating a semantically related word. It is expected from this account that semantic priming effects should be routinely…

  1. Effects of Repetition Priming on Recognition Memory: Testing a Perceptual Fluency-Disfluency Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, David E.; Clark, Tedra F.; Curran, Tim; Winkielman, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments explored the effects of immediate repetition priming on episodic recognition (the "Jacoby-Whitehouse effect") as measured with forced-choice testing. These experiments confirmed key predictions of a model adapted from D. E. Huber and R. C. O'Reilly's (2003) dynamic neural network of perception. In this model, short prime durations…

  2. The Specificity of Priming Effects over the First Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    DeFrancisco, Becky Sweeney; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Despite its significance for the enduring effect of early experience, the specificity of priming on infants’ forgotten memories is unknown. This study determined the impact of cue and context changes on the initial priming and retrieval of the reactivated memory over the first postnatal year. Infants were operantly trained with a distinctive cue in a particular context. After forgetting, they were primed and tested for renewed retention with combinations of old and new cues and contexts. Priming was hyperspecific to the original cue and original context at all but 12 months, when the memory was reactivated in a novel context. At 9−12 months, the reactivated memory generalized to a novel cue or context. At younger ages, the reactivated memory generalized only after a very brief prime. These findings indicate that priming in early infancy is initially conservative, buffering against recovering memories in contexts that might no longer be appropriate. PMID:18551465

  3. Alignment as a consequence of expectation adaptation: syntactic priming is affected by the prime's prediction error given both prior and recent experience.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, T Florian; Snider, Neal E

    2013-04-01

    Speakers show a remarkable tendency to align their productions with their interlocutors'. Focusing on sentence production, we investigate the cognitive systems underlying such alignment (syntactic priming). Our guiding hypothesis is that syntactic priming is a consequence of a language processing system that is organized to achieve efficient communication in an ever-changing (subjectively non-stationary) environment. We build on recent work suggesting that comprehenders adapt to the statistics of the current environment. If such adaptation is rational or near-rational, the extent to which speakers adapt their expectations for a syntactic structure after processing a prime sentence should be sensitive to the prediction error experienced while processing the prime. This prediction is shared by certain error-based implicit learning accounts, but not by most other accounts of syntactic priming. In three studies, we test this prediction against data from conversational speech, speech during picture description, and written production during sentence completion. All three studies find stronger syntactic priming for primes associated with a larger prediction error (primes with higher syntactic surprisal). We find that the relevant prediction error is sensitive to both prior and recent experience within the experiment. Together with other findings, this supports accounts that attribute syntactic priming to expectation adaptation.

  4. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W.; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-05-01

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two 13C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change.

  5. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two (13)C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change. PMID:25960162

  6. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two (13)C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change.

  7. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Feike A; Carrillo, Yolima; Pendall, Elise; Morgan, Jack A

    2013-01-01

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N) through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P) limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilization of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils. PMID:23908649

  8. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Feike A.; Carrillo, Yolima; Pendall, Elise; Morgan, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N) through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P) limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilization of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils. PMID:23908649

  9. A Puzzle Unsolved: Failure to Observe Different Effects of God and Religion Primes on Intergroup Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Jonathan E; Tong, Eddie M W; Pang, Joyce S; Chowdhury, Avijit

    2016-01-01

    Religious priming has been found to have both positive and negative consequences, and recent research suggests that the activation of God-related and community-related religious cognitions may cause outgroup prosociality and outgroup derogation respectively. The present research sought to examine whether reminders of God and religion have different effects on attitudes towards ingroup and outgroup members. Over two studies, little evidence was found for different effects of these two types of religious primes. In study 1, individuals primed with the words "religion", "God" and a neutral control word evaluated both ingroup and outgroup members similarly, although a marginal tendency towards more negative evaluations of outgroup members by females exposed to religion primes was observed. In study 2, no significant differences in attitudes towards an outgroup member were observed between the God, religion, and neutral priming conditions. Furthermore, the gender effect observed in study 1 did not replicate in this second study. Possible explanations for these null effects are discussed.

  10. Factors affecting taste scores of early season seedless table grape cv. Mystery and Prime.

    PubMed

    Sonego, Lilian; Lurie, Susan; Zuthi, Yohanan; Kaplonov, Tatiana; Ben-Arie, Ruth; Kosto, Itzhak

    2002-01-30

    Table grapes of cv. Mystery and Prime were harvested from 10 farms in two growing areas of Israel over two seasons. The grapes were separated on the basis of sucrose solutions from 12 to 18%; soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and pH were determined; and taste tests were conducted. SSC gave the best correlation with taste tests, and multiple regression of SSC, TA, and pH improved the correlation. There were both seasonal and regional differences in the measured maturity parameters. Lower TA and higher pH were found in grapes from the Jordan Valley. Volatiles were predominantly C(6) compounds hexanal and 2-hexanal, contributing a fresh aroma to the grapes. It is concluded that Mystery and Prime grapes have good organoleptic quality if harvested at SSC levels of >14%. PMID:11804527

  11. Alignment as a Consequence of Expectation Adaptation: Syntactic Priming Is Affected by the Prime's Prediction Error Given both Prior and Recent Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, T. Florian; Snider, Neal E.

    2013-01-01

    Speakers show a remarkable tendency to align their productions with their interlocutors'. Focusing on sentence production, we investigate the cognitive systems underlying such alignment (syntactic priming). Our guiding hypothesis is that syntactic priming is a consequence of a language processing system that is organized to achieve efficient…

  12. Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Main Outcome Measures Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Results Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone. PMID:19594263

  13. The Effect of Feedback Schedule Manipulation on Speech Priming Patterns and Reaction Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocomb, Dana; Spencer, Kristie A.

    2009-01-01

    Speech priming tasks are frequently used to delineate stages in the speech process such as lexical retrieval and motor programming. These tasks, often measured in reaction time (RT), require fast and accurate responses, reflecting maximized participant performance, to result in robust priming effects. Encouraging speed and accuracy in responding…

  14. Congruence Effect in Semantic Categorization with Masked Primes with Narrow and Broad Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Wendy Maree; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2008-01-01

    In semantic categorization, masked primes that are category-congruent with the target (e.g., "Planets: mars-VENUS") facilitate responses relative to category-incongruent primes (e.g., "tree-VENUS"). The present study investigated why this category congruence effect is more consistently found with narrow categories (e.g., "Numbers larger/smaller…

  15. Exploring Mental Representations for Literal Symbols Using Priming and Comparison Distance Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Courtney; Leon Guerrero, Sibylla; Star, Jon R.

    2016-01-01

    Higher-level mathematics requires a connection between literal symbols (e.g., "x") and their mental representations. The current study probes the nature of mental representations for literal symbols using both the priming distance effect, in which ease of comparing a target number to a fixed standard is a function of prime-target…

  16. Reading Aloud in Persian: ERP Evidence for an Early Locus of the Masked Onset Priming Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmer, Kalinka; Vahid-Gharavi, Narges; Schiller, Niels O.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates reading aloud words in Persian, a language that does not mark all its vowels in the script. Behaviorally, a "masked onset priming effect" (MOPE) was revealed for transparent words, with faster speech onset latencies in the phoneme-matching condition (i.e. phonological prime and target onset overlap; e.g. [image…

  17. Effects of normal aging on event-related potentials and oscillatory brain activity during a haptic repetition priming task.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, Manuel; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2012-03-01

    This study reports neural repetition effects in young and older adults while performing a haptic repetition priming task consisting in the detection of the bilateral symmetry of familiar objects. To examine changes in event-related potentials (ERPs) and induced brain oscillations of object repetition priming with aging, we recorded EEGs of healthy groups of young (n=14; mean age=29.93 years) and older adults (n=15; mean age=66.4). Both groups exhibited similar behavioral haptic priming across repetitions, although young adults responded faster than the older group. Young and older adults showed ERP repetition enhancement at the 500-900 ms time window. In contrast, only the young participants showed ERP repetition suppression at the 1200-1500 ms segment. The results from the induced oscillations showed more positive amplitudes in young than in older adults at theta, alpha and beta frequencies (4-30 Hz). In addition, we found amplitude modulation related to stimulus repetition in the upper alpha and low beta sub-bands only in young adults (1250-1750 ms).The results suggest that although behavioral priming is spared with age, normal aging affects ERPs and oscillatory responses when performing an incidental priming symmetry detection task with haptically explored objects. PMID:22155374

  18. The Effect Of Alcohol Priming On Neural Markers Of Alcohol Cue-Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Kelly E.; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Priming doses of alcohol are associated with increased desire to drink and disinhibitory effects on subsequent control over drinking. Despite the importance of alcohol priming in the cue-reactivity literature, the effects of priming on brain responses to alcohol cues remains unclear. Further, evidence suggests this relationship may be moderated by OPRM1 genotype. Methods Twenty individuals with alcohol dependence (6 females; 90% Caucasian; mean age=29.4) who were prospectively genotyped on the OPRM1 gene underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, before and after a priming dose of alcohol, each including a gustatory alcohol cue reactivity paradigm and self-reported craving measures. Results Self-reported alcohol craving generally increased and remained higher for alcohol versus water cue presentations across pre- and post-priming scans. Compared to alcohol cues delivered during the post-priming scan, alcohol cues delivered pre-priming were associated with greater activation in regions including the hippocampus, amygdala, inferior frontal gyrus, temporal cortex, and occipital cortex. Controlling for alcoholism severity increased statistical significance of activation in these regions. Follow-up analyses revealed a positive correlation between alcoholism severity and pre- versus post-priming alcohol cue-reactivity primarily in frontal regions. OPRM1 genotype was also found to moderate alcohol cue-reactivity across scans. Conclusion This study provides initial evidence of alcohol cue-elicited habituation in fronto-temporal regions, despite continued craving, following a priming dose of alcohol. Further, it provides preliminary evidence for moderating roles of alcoholism severity and OPRM1 genotype on priming-related changes in cue-reactivity, adding to our understanding of the function of alcohol priming in alcohol dependence. PMID:26125586

  19. Bioremediation of high organic load lagoon sediments: compost addition and priming effects.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, G; Giovannelli, D; Montano, C; Milanovic, V; Ciani, M; Manini, E

    2013-03-01

    Lagoons are often affected by eutrophication phenomena, due to their shallow nature, high productivity, weak hydrodynamism and anthropic exploitation. Bioremediation techniques have been widely used in the treatment of chemical pollution; however, no information is available on the use of bioremediation of organic-rich sediments. In the present study, we investigated the priming effects following compost addition to organic-rich lagoon sediments, and the effects of this compost addition on degradation and cycling of organic detritus, transfer of organic matter to higher trophic levels, and in situ prokaryotic community structure. There was a positive response to treatment, particularly during the first days after compost addition. The compost had a stimulating effect on degradation activity of the prokaryotic community. This occurred despite an increase in available organic matter, as the community was more efficient at removing it. These data are supported by the prokaryotic community structure analysis, which revealed no changes in the in situ community following compost addition. This priming effect enhancement through compost addition represents an efficient method to treat organic-rich sediments. PMID:23273326

  20. Semantic priming from crowded words.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Su-Ling; He, Sheng; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Vision in a cluttered scene is extremely inefficient. This damaging effect of clutter, known as crowding, affects many aspects of visual processing (e.g., reading speed). We examined observers' processing of crowded targets in a lexical decision task, using single-character Chinese words that are compact but carry semantic meaning. Despite being unrecognizable and indistinguishable from matched nonwords, crowded prime words still generated robust semantic-priming effects on lexical decisions for test words presented in isolation. Indeed, the semantic-priming effect of crowded primes was similar to that of uncrowded primes. These findings show that the meanings of words survive crowding even when the identities of the words do not, suggesting that crowding does not prevent semantic activation, a process that may have evolved in the context of a cluttered visual environment.

  1. Age-related priming effects in social judgments.

    PubMed

    Hess, T M; McGee, K A; Woodburn, S M; Bolstad, C A

    1998-03-01

    Two experiments investigated adult age differences in the impact of previously activated (and thus easily accessible) trait-related information on judgments about people. The authors hypothesized that age-related declines in the efficiency of controlled processing mechanisms during adulthood would be associated with increased susceptibility to judgment biases associated with such information. In each study, different-aged adults made impression judgments about a target, and assimilation of these judgments to trait constructs activated in a previous, unrelated task were examined. Consistent with the authors' hypotheses, older adults were likely to form impressions that were biased toward the primed trait constructs. In contrast, younger adults exhibited greater awareness of the primed information and were more likely to correct for its perceived influence, especially when distinctive contextual cues regarding the source of the primes were available. PMID:9533195

  2. Effects of parietal lesions in humans on color and location priming.

    PubMed

    Marangolo, P; Di Pace, E; Rafal, R; Scabini, D

    1998-11-01

    To determine whether the parietal lobes contribute tot he selection of nonspatial features known to be processed in the ventral stream, the current study examined the effect of chronic unilateral parietal lobe lesions in humans on color and location priming. Patients and normal controls performed a go/no-go color discrimination task in which either the same color and different color pairs of stimuli (prime and probe) were projected sequentially either in the same hemifield or in opposite hemifields. Control subjects and patients both showed independent effects of color and location priming. In the patients, primes in either field produced color priming for target probes in the ipsilesional field but not for probes in the contralesional field. This observation implicates the parietal cortex in processing activated codes of stimulus attributes not only for spatial information but also for visual features processed in the ventral visual pathways.

  3. Automatic and controlled semantic processing: a masked prime-task effect.

    PubMed

    Valdés, B; Catena, A; Marí-Beffa, P

    2005-06-01

    A classical definition of automaticity establishes that automatic processing occurs without attention or consciousness, and cannot be controlled. Previous studies have demonstrated that semantic priming can be reduced if attention is directed to a low-level of analysis. This finding suggests that semantic processing is not automatic since it can be controlled. In this paper, we present two experiments that demonstrate that semantic processing may occur in the absence of attention and consciousness. A negative semantic priming effect was found when a low-level prime-task was required and when a masked lexical decision prime-task was performed (Experiment 1). This paper also discusses the limitations of the inhibitory mechanism involved in negative semantic priming effect.

  4. Effect of Onset and Rhyme Primes in Preschoolers with Typical Development and Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Shelley; Reiser, Mark; Brinkley, Shara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study used cued shadowing to examine children’s phonological word form representations by studying the effects of onset and rhyme primes on lexical access. Method Twenty-five preschoolers with SLI, 24 age- and gender-matched (AM) and 20 vocabulary- and gender-matched (VM) children participated. Children listened to pairs of words and repeated the second word as quickly as they could. Primes included overlapping onsets, overlapping rimes, identical, or unrelated words. Results As expected, unrelated words inhibited production in the AM and VM groups. Overlapping rimes primed production in the AM group. No inhibitory or priming effects were found for the SLI group. Conclusion Phonological priming may be used to study the phonological representations of preschool-age children. Results suggest that none of the groups accessed words incrementally. Priming for overlapping rimes by the AM, but not the VM or SLI groups, may indicate that the AM group benefitted from lexical organization favoring nucleus + rime organization that has not yet developed for the VM or SLI groups. The lack of inhibition in the SLI group suggests that their phonological representations were not detailed enough to prime words in their lexicon, or that they did not process the prime or target words. PMID:22199187

  5. Endocrine effects of 2,2{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl in the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)

    SciTech Connect

    Diana, S.; Hansen, L.; Foley, G.; Beasley, V.

    1995-12-31

    Ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls are known to exhibit estrogenic activity and, in some cases, to enhance excretion of tetraiodothyronine (T4), resulting in hypothyroxinemia in mammals. Since thyroxine activity is essential for amphibian metamorphosis, and amphibian sex determination can be altered or reversed by exposure to exogenous estrogens or androgens, the effects of exposure of larvae of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) to 2,2{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl (CB 47) were investigated. Eggs and larvae of X. laevis were exposed to nominal concentrations of CB 47 of 0.05 or 0.25 ppm (1 ppm was found to result in 100% mortality) throughout the period of larval development, and effects on rates of metamorphosis and body growth and on gonad morphology were determined. Stage of metamorphosis, body length and body weight did not differ between treatment and control groups, following exposure to these sub-lethal concentrations, at any time during larval development. Effects of exposure on gonad morphology will be discussed. The failure of CB 47 to delay or prevent metamorphosis under these conditions may be due to poor responsiveness of hepatic UDP-glucuronyl transferases to induction, or novel systems of thyroxine and/or PCB transport, metabolism and excretion in larval amphibians.

  6. The effect of stereotypical primes on the neural processing of racially ambiguous faces.

    PubMed

    Dickter, Cheryl L; Kittel, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that an early attentional component of the event-related potential (ERP), the P2, is sensitive to the distinction between the processing of racial outgroup and ingroup faces but may not be sensitive to the distinction between racially ambiguous and ingroup faces. Recent behavioral work, however, has suggested that contextual information may affect the processing of racially ambiguous faces. Thus, the first goal of this study was to examine whether the early neural processing of racially ambiguous faces would be affected by primed stereotypes. White college student participants (n = 29) completed a task in which they racially categorized monoracial Black and White faces and racially ambiguous Black-White morphs. These faces were preceded by positive and negative Black and White stereotypical primes. Results indicated that P2 amplitude to the racially ambiguous faces was moderated by the valence of the primes such that negative primes led to greater neural processing of the racially ambiguous faces than positive primes. Furthermore, the extent to which P2 amplitude was affected by prime valence was moderated by individual differences in preference for structure and categorical thinking, as well as comfort with ambiguity.

  7. Religion priming and an oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism interact to affect self-control in a social context.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Joni Y; Mojaverian, Taraneh; Kim, Heejung S

    2015-02-01

    Using a genetic moderation approach, this study examines how an experimental prime of religion impacts self-control in a social context, and whether this effect differs depending on the genotype of an oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism (rs53576). People with different genotypes of OXTR seem to have different genetic orientations toward sociality, which may have consequences for the way they respond to religious cues in the environment. In order to determine whether the influence of religion priming on self-control is socially motivated, we examine whether this effect is stronger for people who have OXTR genotypes that should be linked to greater rather than less social sensitivity (i.e., GG vs. AA/AG genotypes). The results showed that experimentally priming religion increased self-control behaviors for people with GG genotypes more so than people with AA/AG genotypes. Furthermore, this Gene × Religion interaction emerged in a social context, when people were interacting face to face with another person. This research integrates genetic moderation and social psychological approaches to address a novel question about religion's influence on self-control behavior, which has implications for coping with distress and psychopathology. These findings also highlight the importance of the social context for understanding genetic moderation of psychological effects.

  8. Selective attention modulates visual and haptic repetition priming: effects in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Reales, José M; Mayas, Julia; Heller, Morton A

    2008-08-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of selective attention at encoding on repetition priming in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients for objects presented visually (experiment 1) or haptically (experiment 2). We used a repetition priming paradigm combined with a selective attention procedure at encoding. Reliable priming was found for both young adults and healthy older participants for visually presented pictures (experiment 1) as well as for haptically presented objects (experiment 2). However, this was only found for attended and not for unattended stimuli. The results suggest that independently of the perceptual modality, repetition priming requires attention at encoding and that perceptual facilitation is maintained in normal aging. However, AD patients did not show priming for attended stimuli, or for unattended visual or haptic objects. These findings suggest an early deficit of selective attention in AD. Results are discussed from a cognitive neuroscience approach.

  9. Priming effect in indicative and subjunctive exceptive conditionals.

    PubMed

    Espino, Orlando; Sánchez-Curbelo, Isana

    2016-03-01

    We report the results of three experiments that examine the mental representations underlying the comprehension stages of negative exceptive conditionals using subjunctive mood ('B a menos que A', 'B a no ser que A'; 'B excepto que A'='B unless A') and indicative mood ('B excepto si A' and 'B salvo si A'='B except if A'). The mental representations during the comprehension stage were analyzed using a priming methodology. All experiments showed that participants read the true possibility 'not-B & A' faster when it was primed by exceptive conditionals requiring the subjunctive mood than when it was primed by exceptive conditionals requiring the indicative mood; other possibilities ('B & A', 'B & not-A', 'not-B & not-A') were primed equally by both connectives. The experiments showed that (a) when people understand negative exceptive conditionals using the subjunctive mood, such as 'B a menos que A'/'B a no ser que A'/'B excepto que A', they access the true possibilities 'not-B & A' and 'B & not-A', and (b) when they understand negative exceptive conditionals using the indicative mood, such as 'B excepto si A'/'B salvo si A', they access 'B & not-A', but not 'not-B & A'. We discuss the implications of this for current theories of reasoning.

  10. Persistent Structural Priming and Frequency Effects during Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Martin J.; McLean, Janet F.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2013-01-01

    We report 2 experiments using a sentence--picture matching task concerned with the interpretation of prepositional phrases that were ambiguous between high and low attachment (Branigan, Pickering, & McLean, 2005). After reading a prime sentence with a particular interpretation, participants tended to interpret an ambiguous prepositional phrase…

  11. The left-to-right nature of the masked onset priming effect in naming.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, S

    2000-03-01

    Two experiments were performed to investigate the nature of the masked onset priming effect in naming, that is, the facilitation in naming latency that is observed when a target shares the initial grapheme/phoneme with a masked prime. Experiment 1 showed that the effect is not due to position-independent letter priming, since the naming of nonword targets preceded by masked primes was facilitated only if the prime shared the initial letter with the target (e.g., suf-SIB) and not if the prime shared the final letter (e.g., mub-SIB). Experiment 2 showed that the effect reflects the sharing of onsets rather than the initial letter, since facilitation due to an overlap of the initial letter was observed only for the simple onset target (e.g., penny-PASTE) for which the letter corresponded to the onset, and not for complex onset targets (e.g., bingo-BLISS). It is argued that the serial nature of the masked onset priming effect is best interpreted as the planning of articulation, rather than as the computation of phonology from orthography.

  12. Effects of 3′ Untranslated Region Mutations on Plus-Strand Priming during Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Nicole D.; Telesnitsky, Alice

    1999-01-01

    A conserved purine-rich motif located near the 3′ end of retroviral genomes is involved in the initiation of plus-strand DNA synthesis. We mutated sequences both within and flanking the Moloney murine leukemia virus polypurine tract (PPT) and determined the effects of these alterations on viral DNA synthesis and replication. Our results demonstrated that both changes in highly conserved PPT positions and a mutation that left only the cleavage-proximal half of the PPT intact led to delayed replication and reduced the colony-forming titer of replication defective retroviral vectors. A mutation that altered the cleavage proximal half of the PPT and certain 3′ untranslated region mutations upstream of the PPT were incompatible with or severely impaired viral replication. To distinguish defects in plus-strand priming from other replication defects and to assess the relative use of mutant and wild-type PPTs, we examined plus-strand priming from an ectopic, secondary PPT inserted in U3. The results demonstrated that the analyzed mutations within the PPT primarily affected plus-strand priming whereas mutations upstream of the PPT appeared to affect both plus-strand priming and other stages of viral replication. PMID:9882295

  13. "Letting Go" (Implicitly): Priming Mindfulness Mitigates the Effects of a Moderate Social Stressor.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Catherine M; Almgren-Doré, Isabelle; Dandeneau, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    This experimental study investigated whether implicitly priming mindfulness would facilitate psychological and cortisol recovery after undergoing a standardized psychological stressor. After completing baseline measures of well-being, all participants (N = 91) completed a public speaking stress task, were implicitly primed with "mindfulness" or "neutral" concepts using a scrambled sentence task, and finally, reported their situational well-being and provided cortisol samples. Simple moderation regression analyses revealed that the implicit mindfulness condition had significant beneficial effects for participants with low trait mindfulness. These participants reported higher situational self-esteem as well as less negative affect, perceived stress, and self-reported physiological arousal than their counterparts in the control condition. Cortisol analyses revealed that participants in the implicit mindfulness condition, regardless of level of trait mindfulness, showed a greater decline in cortisol during the early recovery stage compared to those in the control condition. Overall, results suggest that implicitly activating mindfulness can mitigate the psychological and physiological effects of a social stressor. PMID:27378973

  14. “Letting Go” (Implicitly): Priming Mindfulness Mitigates the Effects of a Moderate Social Stressor

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Catherine M.; Almgren-Doré, Isabelle; Dandeneau, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    This experimental study investigated whether implicitly priming mindfulness would facilitate psychological and cortisol recovery after undergoing a standardized psychological stressor. After completing baseline measures of well-being, all participants (N = 91) completed a public speaking stress task, were implicitly primed with “mindfulness” or “neutral” concepts using a scrambled sentence task, and finally, reported their situational well-being and provided cortisol samples. Simple moderation regression analyses revealed that the implicit mindfulness condition had significant beneficial effects for participants with low trait mindfulness. These participants reported higher situational self-esteem as well as less negative affect, perceived stress, and self-reported physiological arousal than their counterparts in the control condition. Cortisol analyses revealed that participants in the implicit mindfulness condition, regardless of level of trait mindfulness, showed a greater decline in cortisol during the early recovery stage compared to those in the control condition. Overall, results suggest that implicitly activating mindfulness can mitigate the psychological and physiological effects of a social stressor. PMID:27378973

  15. Activating Situation Schemas: The Effects of Multiple Thematic Roles on Related Verbs in a Continuous Priming Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlofsky, Stacey M.; Edmonds, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence has shown that presentation of a word (target) following a related word (prime) results in faster reaction times compared to unrelated words. Two primes preceding a target have been used to examine the effects of multiple influences on a target. Several studies have observed greater, or additive, priming effects of multiple…

  16. Is the rhizosphere priming effect an important mechanism for nitrogen mineralisation in soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Conor; Baggs, Elizabeth; Morley, Nicholas; Wall, David; Paterson, Eric

    2015-04-01

    In soil, nitrogen is mobilised from soil organic matter (SOM) to pools more readily available to plants (mineralisation), mediated by the microbial biomass. Multiple mechanisms underpin this process, including the priming effect (PE) which is increasingly recognised as an important driver of N mineralisation. The PE is where microbes utilize labile carbon from roots (root exudates or senescing plant material) for energy and subsequently mineralise SOM for nutrients, inevitably mobilising nutrients from SOM to plant available pools. However, the mechanism and regulators underpinning PE's are virtually unknown. This work investigates the importance of priming for N mineralisation. We hypothesized that 1) addition of labile C would increase gross N mineralisation and plant N uptake, and that this is soil-specific; 2) the stoichiometry of primed and basal mineralisation fluxes would be different, indicative of these processes being functionally distinct; and 3) the presence of fertilizer nitrogen and grazing would reduce primed and basal mineralisation and reduce plant uptake of SOM derived N. To do this we coupled continuous steady-state 13C labelling and 15N isotope dilution to measure specific gross C and N fluxes from two contrasting soils. Addition of carbon increased gross C and N fluxes from SOM, but the effect was soil-specific. The C-to-N ratio of the flux from 'primed' SOM was much lower than that of the basal flux indicating that the release of labile carbon from plant roots functions as a nutrient acquisition response, increasing mineralisation of SOM. Addition of N fertiliser resulted in negative priming of SOM, but overall and in both soils, the plant accessed more SOM-derived N. Grazing and priming were closely coupled, with grazing increasing SOM priming. Our results demonstrate that priming effects are an integral component of N mineralisation and should be incorporated into nitrogen cycling models.

  17. Plant inter-species effects on rhizosphere priming effect and nitrogen acquisition by plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yue; Xu, Xingliang; Yang, Baijie; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Rhizosphere interactions play a central role linking roots-soil system and regulate various aspects of nutrient cycling. Rhizodeposition inputs are known to change soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition via rhizosphere priming effects (RPEs) through enhancing soil biological activity and altering microbial community structure. The magnitude of RPEs varies widely among plant-species and root biomass possibly due to different quality and quantity of rhizodeposits. However, it is virtually unknown whether the RPEs are influenced by plant inter-species interactions and how these processes affect N mineralization and available N for plants. Monocultures of maize (M) and soybean (S), and mixed cultures of maize/maize (MM), soybean/soybean (SS), maize/soybean (MS) were grown over a 45-day greenhouse experiment. We labeled them with plant litter that was enriched in13C and 15N. The 15N distributions in plants and microbial biomass were measured at 14, 35, and 45days after labeling. The RPEs were positive under all plants, ranging from 11.7% to 138.3% and gradually decreased with plant growth. The RPE in the SS was significantly higher than these in others treatments at 14 days, while at 45 days it was higher in the MS than these from their monocultures, suggesting that the RPE was enhanced by the inter-species effects of maize and soybean. The litter decomposition ratio and 15N recovery of plants and microorganism increased with the root growth across all plants. The 15N recovery of plants in the MS (14.2%) was higher than these in the MM (12.3%) and SS(9.7%) at 45 days. Similarly, the 15N recovery of microorganism in the corresponding treatments was 6.7%, 2.2%, and 6.8%, respectively. The MS showed higher soil organic N mineralization amount than that from all soybean and maize monocultures at 45 days. We conclude that plant inter-species interactions may have significant effect on rhizosphere priming and modify the plant N uptake from litter resource and SOM.

  18. The effect of priming with a love concept on blood donation promise.

    PubMed

    Charles-Sire, Virginie; Guéguen, Nicolas; Meineri, Sébastien; Martin, Angélique; Bullock, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    This field study on blood donor behavior tests the effectiveness of semantic priming on donor intention and commitment. Using face-to-face interactions, participants were primed with the concept of love and solicited to promise blood to the French National Blood Bank. Results showed a significant effect on willingness to donate blood and on donor commitment. The relatively simple and easily implemented technique used in this study could be of interest in improving performance of recruitment and retention campaigns.

  19. Modification of {Delta}{sup Prime} by magnetic feedback and kinetic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yueqiang; Hastie, R. J.; Hender, T. C.

    2012-09-15

    Two possible ways of modifying the linear tearing mode index, by active magnetic feedback and by drift kinetic effects of deeply trapped particles, are analytically investigated. Magnetic feedback schemes, studied in this work, are found generally stabilizing for {Delta}{sup Prime }. The drift kinetic effects from both thermal particles and hot ions tend to reduce the power of the large solution from the outer region. This generally leads to a destabilization of {Delta} Prime for the toroidal analytic equilibria considered here.

  20. Temporal effects in priming of masked and degraded speech

    PubMed Central

    Freyman, Richard L.; Morse-Fortier, Charlotte; Griffin, Amanda M.

    2015-01-01

    When listeners know the content of the message they are about to hear, the clarity of distorted or partially masked speech increases dramatically. The current experiments investigated this priming phenomenon quantitatively using a same-different task where a typed caption and auditory message either matched exactly or differed by one key word. Four conditions were tested with groups of normal-hearing listeners: (a) natural speech presented in two-talker babble in a non-spatial configuration, (b) same as (a) but with the masker time reversed, (c) same as (a) but with target-masker spatial separation, and (d) vocoded sentences presented in speech-spectrum noise. The primary manipulation was the timing of the caption relative to the auditory message, which varied in 20 steps with a resolution of 200 ms. Across all four conditions, optimal performance was achieved when the initiation of the text preceded the acoustic speech signal by at least 400 ms, driven mostly by a low number of “different” responses to Same stimuli. Performance was slightly poorer with simultaneous delivery and much poorer when the auditory signal preceded the caption. Because priming may be used to facilitate perceptual learning, identifying optimal temporal conditions for priming could help determine the best conditions for auditory training. PMID:26428780

  1. Contextual Influences on Distress Intolerance: Priming Effects on Behavioral Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Szuhany, Kristin L.; Otto, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Distress intolerance (DI), the inability to tolerate stressful experiences, has been linked to multiple psychiatric conditions and maladaptive coping patterns. Although DI is often considered a trait-like variable, evidence indicates that self-report and behavioral indices of DI can be manipulated by contextual factors. Understanding such contextual influences is important given evidence of unexpected variability in these presumed trait-like measures over brief intervals. The current study examined the influence of context (manipulated by priming concepts of “Interminability” and “Brevity”) in predicting behavioral persistence, in relation to self-reported DI. Results indicated that priming Brevity was associated with terminating a cold-pressor task more quickly. Self-reported DI was linked to earlier termination, but there was no interaction between self-reported DI and priming condition. Results indicate that contextual cues modulate performance on behavioral measures of DI. Hence, models of DI should consider both trait-like and contextual factors in understanding variability in DI measures. PMID:26366022

  2. Exploring the boundary conditions of unconscious numerical priming effects with continuous flash suppression.

    PubMed

    Hesselmann, G; Darcy, N; Sterzer, P; Knops, A

    2015-01-01

    The scope and limits of unconscious processing are a controversial topic of research in experimental psychology. Particularly within the visual domain, a wide range of paradigms have been used to experimentally manipulate perceptual awareness. A recent study reported unconscious numerical processing during continuous flash suppression (CFS), which is a powerful variant of interocular suppression and disrupts the conscious perception of visual stimuli for up to seconds. Since this finding of a distance-dependent priming effect contradicts earlier results showing that interocular suppression abolishes semantic processing, we sought to investigate the boundary conditions of this effect in two experiments. Using statistical analyses and experimental designs that precluded an effect of target numerosity, we found evidence for identity priming, but no conclusive evidence for distance-dependent numerical priming under CFS. Our results suggest that previous conclusions on high-level numerical priming under interocular suppression may have been premature. PMID:25460241

  3. Strength and duration of priming effects in normal subjects and amnesic patients.

    PubMed

    Squire, L R; Shimamura, A P; Graf, P

    1987-01-01

    In three separate experiments, we assessed the strength and duration of word completion effects in amnesic patients and two control groups. In Experiment 1 subjects studied words under a semantic orienting condition and were given tests of word completion and recognition memory after an immediate, 2-hr or 4-day delay. In the word completion test for Experiment 1, we presented three-letter word stems that could be completed to form several common words, one of which had been presented previously (e.g. MOT for MOTEL), and subjects completed each stem with the first word that came to mind. Priming effects were equivalent in amnesic patients and control subjects and they reached baseline levels within 2 hr. In Experiments 2 and 3, subjects studied words under either a semantic or a nonsemantic orienting condition, and word completion was tested at the same three delays using cues that uniquely specified the study words (e.g. JUI for JUICE; or A--A--In for ASSASSIN). In these experiments, amnesic patients exhibited both smaller and shorter lasting word completion effects than control subjects. Specifically, amnesic patients exhibited word completion effects that seldom lasted as long as 2 hr, whereas control subjects usually exhibited completion effects lasting 4 days. An important additional finding was that control subjects exhibited larger and longer-lasting word completion effects when tested under the semantic orienting condition than when tested under the nonsemantic orienting condition. Amnesic patients were not affected by this manipulation. Moreover, under the nonsemantic orienting condition, control subjects and amnesic patients performed similarly. The results show that word completion performance is not always fully intact in amnesic patients. Long-lasting word completion effects found in normal subjects may be mediated by declarative or elaborative retrieval processes, which are impaired in amnesic patients. If so, priming as measured by word completion

  4. What's in a link: associative and taxonomic priming effects in the infant lexicon.

    PubMed

    Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Plunkett, Kim

    2013-08-01

    Infants develop a lexical-semantic system of associatively and semantically related words by the end of the second year of life. However, the precise nature of the lexical relationships that underpin the structure-building process remains under-determined. We compare two types of lexical-semantic relationship, associative and taxonomic, using a lexical-priming adaption of the intermodal preferential looking task with 21- and 24-month-olds. Prime-target word pairs were either associatively or taxonomically related or unrelated. A further control condition evaluated the facility of a prime word, in the absence of a target word, to promote target preferences. Twenty-four-month-olds, but not 21-month-old infants, exhibited a priming effect in both associative and taxonomic conditions, pointing to the formation of a lexical-semantic network driven by both associative and taxonomic relatedness late in the second year. The pattern of priming in 24-month-olds indicates the operation of inhibitory processes: unrelated primes interfere with target recognition whereas related primes do not. We argue that taxonomic and associative relationships between words are integral to the emergence of a structured lexicon and discuss the importance of inhibitory mechanisms in shaping early lexical-semantic memory. PMID:23688648

  5. The myotonic dystrophy kinase 3{prime}-untranslated region and its effect on gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, C.W.Y.; Sabourin, L.A.; Narang, M.A.

    1994-09-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disease involving the expansion of an unstable CTG repeat in the 3{prime}-untranslated (3{prime}-UTR) region of the DM kinase (DMK) gene. Increased levels of mRNA in congenital compared to normal tissue have been shown, suggesting elevated DMK levels may be responsible for the disease phenotype. To study the effect of the DMK 3{prime}UTR on gene expression, a reporter gene system was constructed using the constitutive CMV promoter with the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) open reading frame and the DMK 3{prime}UTR containing from 5 repeats up to 90 repeats. Transient transfection into a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line shows a three-fold increase in CAT activity from constructs containing a wildtype 3{prime}UTR (5 and 20 repeats) compared to a control construct containing only a poly(A) signal. Reporter constructs with repeats in the protomutation (50 repeats) and mutation (90 repeats) range show a greater than 10-fold increase over control CAT activity. These results suggest the presence of elements in the DMK 3{prime}UTR capable of conferring increased gene expression. We are currently investigating cell-specific activity of the constructs and conducting deletion mapping to identify regulatory elements in the 3{prime}-UTR.

  6. Eating less from bigger packs: Preventing the pack size effect with diet primes.

    PubMed

    Versluis, Iris; Papies, Esther K

    2016-05-01

    An increase in the package size of food has been shown to lead to an increase in energy intake from this food, the so-called pack size effect. Previous research has shown that providing diet-concerned individuals with a reminder, or prime, of their dieting goal can help them control their consumption. Here, we investigated if providing such a prime is also effective for reducing the magnitude of the pack size effect. We conducted two experiments in which the cover of a dieting magazine (Experiment 1) and diet-related commercials (Experiment 2) served as diet goal primes. Both experiments had a 2 (pack size: small vs. large) × 2 (prime: diet vs. control) × 2 (dietary restraint: high vs. low) between participants design. We measured expected consumption of four snack foods in Experiment 1 (N = 477), and actual consumption of M&M's in Experiment 2 (N = 224). Results showed that the diet prime reduced the pack size effect for both restrained and unrestrained eaters in Experiment 1 and for restrained eaters only in Experiment 2. Although effect sizes were small, these findings suggest that a diet prime motivates restrained eaters to limit their consumption, and as a result the pack size has less influence on the amount consumed. We discuss limitations of this research as well as potential avenues for further research and theoretical and practical implications. PMID:26876911

  7. Dissociating Local and Global Levels of Perceptuo-Motor Control in Masked Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlaghecken, Friederike; Bowman, Howard; Eimer, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Masked prime stimuli presented near the threshold of conscious awareness affect responses to subsequent targets. The direction of these priming effects depends on the interval between masked prime and target. With short intervals, benefits for compatible trials (primes and targets mapped to the same response) and costs for incompatible trials are…

  8. Code-Switching Effects in Bilingual Word Recognition: A Masked Priming Study with Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauncey, Krysta; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments tested language switching effects with bilingual participants in a priming paradigm with masked primes (duration of 50ms in Experiment 1 and 100ms in Experiment 2). Participants had to monitor target words for animal names, and ERPs were recorded to critical (non-animal) words in L1 and L2 primed by unrelated words from the same or…

  9. The time course of semantic and associative priming effects is different in an attentional blink task.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Karen; Hunt, Hayley

    2013-08-01

    When two targets are presented using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) and the interval between the targets is 200-500 ms, report of the second target is impaired, a phenomena known as the attentional blink (AB). This study examined the time course of semantic-only and associate-semantic priming effects during an AB task. Three RSVP experiments were conducted using targets that shared either a semantic-only or an associative-semantic relationship. The results of the three experiments demonstrated semantic-only priming effects at the shortest stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Associative-semantic priming was evident at shorter and longer SOAs. This suggests that priming in an AB task is driven by conceptual overlap facilitating lexical access at short SOAs and with longer SOAs lexical access benefits from word associations links between targets. PMID:23589233

  10. Systematic effects of the quenched approximation on the strong penguin contribution to epsilon-prime / epsilon

    SciTech Connect

    Aubin, C.; Christ, N.H.; Dawson, C.; Laiho, J.W.; Noaki, J.; Li, S.; Soni, A.; /Brookhaven

    2006-03-01

    We discuss the implementation and properties of the quenched approximation in the calculation of the left-right, strong penguin contributions (i.e. Q{sub 6}) to {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}. The coefficient of the new chiral logarithm, discovered by Golterman and Pallante, which appears at leading order in quenched chiral perturbation theory is evaluated using both the method proposed by those authors and by an improved approach which is free of power divergent corrections. The result implies a large quenching artifact in the contribution of Q{sub 6} to {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}. This failure of the quenched approximation affects only the strong penguin operators and so does not affect the Q8 contribution to {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon} nor ReA{sub 0}, ReAP{sub 2} and thus, the {Delta}I = 1/2 rule at tree level in chiral perturbation theory.

  11. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qiang; Qiu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA) for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants’ WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain. PMID:26439926

  12. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Li, Diandian; Shen, Qiang; Qiu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA) for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants' WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain.

  13. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Li, Diandian; Shen, Qiang; Qiu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA) for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants' WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain. PMID:26439926

  14. Unconscious Desire: The Affective and Motivational Aspects of Subliminal Sexual Priming.

    PubMed

    Gillath, Omri; Collins, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Sexual arousal is thought to be the result of the processing of sexual cues at two levels: conscious and unconscious. Whereas numerous studies have examined the affective and motivational responses to supraliminal (consciously processed) sexual cues, much less is known regarding the responses to subliminal (processed outside of one's awareness) sexual cues. Five studies examined responses to subliminal sexual cues. Studies 1–3 demonstrated increases in adults' positive affect following exposure to subliminal sexual cues compared to control cues. Study 4 demonstrated that the positive affect resulting from exposure to subliminal sexual cues increased motivation to further engage in a neutral task. Study 5 provided evidence suggesting that the affect and motivation found in Studies 1–4 were associated with motivation to engage in sex specifically, rather than a general approach motivation. The implications of these findings for the processing of subliminal sexual cues and for human sexuality are discussed. PMID:26494359

  15. The priming effect of translation equivalents across languages for concrete and abstract words.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baoguo; Liang, Lijuan; Cui, Peng; Dunlap, Susan

    2014-11-01

    The present study used a masked priming paradigm and two language tasks (lexical decision, semantic categorical judgment) to investigate whether concrete and abstract words share the same degree of conceptual representation across languages for bilinguals. The results showed that the priming effect of translation equivalents did not differ for concrete and abstract words in the lexical decision task, in both prime-target directions (in Experiment 1). The same results were also found in the semantic categorical judgment task in either prime-target direction (in Experiment 2). Our results do not provide support for the representation difference hypothesis of concrete and abstract words of Distributed Representation Model (De Groot, 1992a, 1992b; Van Hell & De Groot, 1998), which assumes that concrete words share more semantic components in the conceptual representations across languages, compared with abstract words. Rather, our findings suggest that both concrete and abstract words have the same degree of overlap in conceptual representations across a bilingual's two languages.

  16. Time Course of Free-Choice Priming Effects Explained by a Simple Accumulator Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattler, Uwe; Palmer, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Unconscious visual stimuli can be processed by human observers and modulate their behavior. This has been shown for masked prime stimuli that influence motor responses to subsequent target stimuli. Beyond this, masked stimuli can also affect participants' behavior when they are free to choose one of two response alternatives. This finding…

  17. Uncovering underlying processes of semantic priming by correlating item-level effects.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Tom; Hutchison, Keith A; Storms, Gert

    2016-04-01

    The current study examines the underlying processes of semantic priming using the largest priming database available (i.e., Semantic Priming Project, Hutchison et al. Behavior Research Methods, 45(4), 1099-1114, 2013). Specifically, it compares priming effects in two tasks: lexical decision and pronunciation. Task similarities were assessed at two different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) (i.e., 200 and 1,200 ms) and for both primary and other associates. To evaluate how consistent priming is across these two tasks, item-level priming effects obtained in each task were correlated for each condition separately. The results revealed significant correlations at the short SOA for both primary and other associates. The correlations at the long SOA were significantly smaller and only reached significance when z-transformed response times were used. Furthermore, this pattern remained essentially the same when only asymmetric forward associates (e.g., panda-bear) were considered, suggesting that the cross-task stability at the short SOA was not merely caused by retrospective processes such as semantic matching. Instead, these findings provide evidence for a rapidly operating, item-based, relational characteristic such as spreading activation. PMID:26335412

  18. Potential carrier priming effect in Australian infants after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction

    PubMed Central

    Tashani, Mohamed; Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Harboe, Zitta B; Rashid, Harunor; Booy, Robert

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate evidence of clinical protection in infants after one dose of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) owing to carrier priming. METHODS Using Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System data, we conducted a descriptive analysis of cases of vaccine type invasive pneumococcal disease (VT-IPD) during “catch-up” years, when 7vPCV was carrier primed by prior administration of DTPa vaccine. We compared the number of VT-IPD cases occurring 2-9 wk after a single dose of 7vPCV (carrier primed), with those < 2 wk post vaccination, when no protection from 7vPCV was expected yet. Further comparison was conducted to compare the occurrence of VT-IPD cases vs non-VT-IPD cases after a single carrier-primed dose of 7vPCV. RESULTS We found four VT-IPD cases occurring < 2 wk after one carrier primed dose of 7vPCV while only one case occurred 2-9 wk later. Upon further comparison with the non-VT-IPD cases that occurred after one carrier primed dose of 7vPCV, two cases were detected within 2 wk, whereas seven occurred within 2-9 wk later; suggesting a substantial level of protection from VT-IPD occurring from 2 wk after carrier-primed dose of 7vPCV. CONCLUSION This data suggest that infants may benefit from just one dose of 7vPCV, likely through enhanced immunity from carrier priming effect. If this is proven, an adjusted 2-dose schedule (where the first dose of PCV is not given until after DTPa) may be sufficient and more cost-effective. PMID:27610348

  19. Potential carrier priming effect in Australian infants after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction

    PubMed Central

    Tashani, Mohamed; Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Harboe, Zitta B; Rashid, Harunor; Booy, Robert

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate evidence of clinical protection in infants after one dose of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) owing to carrier priming. METHODS Using Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System data, we conducted a descriptive analysis of cases of vaccine type invasive pneumococcal disease (VT-IPD) during “catch-up” years, when 7vPCV was carrier primed by prior administration of DTPa vaccine. We compared the number of VT-IPD cases occurring 2-9 wk after a single dose of 7vPCV (carrier primed), with those < 2 wk post vaccination, when no protection from 7vPCV was expected yet. Further comparison was conducted to compare the occurrence of VT-IPD cases vs non-VT-IPD cases after a single carrier-primed dose of 7vPCV. RESULTS We found four VT-IPD cases occurring < 2 wk after one carrier primed dose of 7vPCV while only one case occurred 2-9 wk later. Upon further comparison with the non-VT-IPD cases that occurred after one carrier primed dose of 7vPCV, two cases were detected within 2 wk, whereas seven occurred within 2-9 wk later; suggesting a substantial level of protection from VT-IPD occurring from 2 wk after carrier-primed dose of 7vPCV. CONCLUSION This data suggest that infants may benefit from just one dose of 7vPCV, likely through enhanced immunity from carrier priming effect. If this is proven, an adjusted 2-dose schedule (where the first dose of PCV is not given until after DTPa) may be sufficient and more cost-effective.

  20. Effects of Acute Cortisol Administration on Perceptual Priming of Trauma-Related Material

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Markus; Pfaltz, Monique; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Intrusive memories are a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They reflect excessive and uncontrolled retrieval of the traumatic memory. Acute elevations of cortisol are known to impair the retrieval of already stored memory information. Thus, continuous cortisol administration might help in reducing intrusive memories in PTSD. Strong perceptual priming for neutral stimuli associated with a “traumatic” context has been shown to be one important learning mechanism that leads to intrusive memories. However, the memory modulating effects of cortisol have only been shown for explicit declarative memory processes. Thus, in our double blind, placebo controlled study we aimed to investigate whether cortisol influences perceptual priming of neutral stimuli that appeared in a “traumatic” context. Two groups of healthy volunteers (N = 160) watched either neutral or “traumatic” picture stories on a computer screen. Neutral objects were presented in between the pictures. Memory for these neutral objects was tested after 24 hours with a perceptual priming task and an explicit memory task. Prior to memory testing half of the participants in each group received 25 mg of cortisol, the other half received placebo. In the placebo group participants in the “traumatic” stories condition showed more perceptual priming for the neutral objects than participants in the neutral stories condition, indicating a strong perceptual priming effect for neutral stimuli presented in a “traumatic” context. In the cortisol group this effect was not present: Participants in the neutral stories and participants in the “traumatic” stories condition in the cortisol group showed comparable priming effects for the neutral objects. Our findings show that cortisol inhibits perceptual priming for neutral stimuli that appeared in a “traumatic” context. These findings indicate that cortisol influences PTSD-relevant memory processes and thus further support

  1. Does cleanliness influence moral judgments? Response effort moderates the effect of cleanliness priming on moral judgments

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    Whether cleanliness influences moral judgments has recently become a topic of debate in the psychological literature. After the initial report that activating the notion of physical purity can result in less severe moral judgments (Schnall et al., 2008a), a direct replication (Johnson et al., 2014a) with much larger sample sizes failed to yield similar findings. The current paper examines the possibility that only non-conscious activation of the cleanliness concept, as achieved in participants with low response effort on priming materials, can produce the expected effect. An online replication (Study 1, N = 214) provided evidence that, when participants exerted low (yet still acceptable) levels of response effort to the experimental material, cleanliness priming led to more lenient moral judgments than neutral priming. An online experiment (Study 2, N = 440; replicated in Study 2a, N = 436) manipulating participants’ effort on the priming task (low vs. high) supported the hypothesized mechanism. Specifically, respondents in the low response effort group were instructed to complete the priming task as quickly as possible without too much attention, and the cleanliness priming resulted in less extreme moral judgments than the neutral condition as expected. In contrast, respondents in the high response effort group were instructed to perform to the best of their ability on the priming task, with a non-significant difference on moral ratings between cleanliness and neutral conditions. In addition to helping resolve the controversy regarding the cleanliness hypothesis, the current paper calls into attention the role of response effort in the execution and replication of priming studies. PMID:25414690

  2. Will Julia Roberts harm Nicole Kidman? Semantic priming effects during face naming.

    PubMed

    Vitkovitch, Melanie; Potton, Anita; Bakogianni, Christina; Kinch, Laura

    2006-06-01

    Three experiments are reported, which examine whether face naming is vulnerable to semantic competition in a similar way to object naming. Previous experiments with object naming have shown that a related prime picture presented 3 trials before a target picture results in an increase in error rate and naming latencies when compared to unrelated prime conditions. The experiments here use the same paradigm, with errors as the main dependent variable. In Experiment 1, the prime and target faces were from the same occupational category (e.g., politicians, actors), and in Experiment 2, the primes and target faces were also associated to each other. In Experiment 3, the prime was presented as a name to be read aloud. Unrelated filler stimuli intervened between prime and target. In all experiments, there was a reduction in target-naming errors in the related conditions, and in Experiment 3 this was shown to be largely a reduction in naming failures. The results suggest that related name representations for famous people are not activated in parallel and in competition, and that there is some evidence for a relatively long lasting facilitatory effect. These results require some modification to any serial account of face naming to differentiate it from the generally well-established serial account of object naming.

  3. Cherry pit primes Brad Pitt: Homophone priming effects on young and older adults' production of proper names.

    PubMed

    Burke, Deborah M; Locantore, Jill Kester; Austin, Ayda A; Chae, Bryan

    2004-03-01

    This study investigated why proper names are difficult to retrieve, especially for older adults. On intermixed trials, young and older adults produced a word for a definition or a proper name for a picture of a famous person. Prior production of a homophone (e.g., pit) as the response on a definition trial increased correct naming and reduced tip-of-the-tongue experiences for a proper name (e.g., Pitt) on a picture-naming trial. Among participants with no awareness of the homophone manipulation, older but not young adults showed these homophone priming effects. With a procedure that reduced awareness effects (Experiment 2), prior production of a homophone improved correct naming only for older adults, but speeded naming latency for both age groups. We suggest that representations of proper names are susceptible to weak connections that cause deficits in the transmission of excitation, impairing retrieval especially in older adults. We conclude that homophone production strengthens phonological connections, increasing the transmission of excitation. PMID:15016287

  4. Graded effects of regularity in language revealed by N400 indices of morphological priming.

    PubMed

    Kielar, Aneta; Joanisse, Marc F

    2010-07-01

    Differential electrophysiological effects for regular and irregular linguistic forms have been used to support the theory that grammatical rules are encoded using a dedicated cognitive mechanism. The alternative hypothesis is that language systematicities are encoded probabilistically in a way that does not categorically distinguish rule-like and irregular forms. In the present study, this matter was investigated more closely by focusing specifically on whether the regular-irregular distinction in English past tenses is categorical or graded. We compared the ERP priming effects of regulars (baked-bake), vowel-change irregulars (sang-sing), and "suffixed" irregulars that display a partial regularity (suffixed irregular verbs, e.g., slept-sleep), as well as forms that are related strictly along formal or semantic dimensions. Participants performed a visual lexical decision task with either visual (Experiment 1) or auditory prime (Experiment 2). Stronger N400 priming effects were observed for regular than vowel-change irregular verbs, whereas suffixed irregulars tended to group with regular verbs. Subsequent analyses decomposed early versus late-going N400 priming, and suggested that differences among forms can be attributed to the orthographic similarity of prime and target. Effects of morphological relatedness were observed in the later-going time period, however, we failed to observe true regular-irregular dissociations in either experiment. The results indicate that morphological effects emerge from the interaction of orthographic, phonological, and semantic overlap between words.

  5. Graded effects of regularity in language revealed by N400 indices of morphological priming.

    PubMed

    Kielar, Aneta; Joanisse, Marc F

    2010-07-01

    Differential electrophysiological effects for regular and irregular linguistic forms have been used to support the theory that grammatical rules are encoded using a dedicated cognitive mechanism. The alternative hypothesis is that language systematicities are encoded probabilistically in a way that does not categorically distinguish rule-like and irregular forms. In the present study, this matter was investigated more closely by focusing specifically on whether the regular-irregular distinction in English past tenses is categorical or graded. We compared the ERP priming effects of regulars (baked-bake), vowel-change irregulars (sang-sing), and "suffixed" irregulars that display a partial regularity (suffixed irregular verbs, e.g., slept-sleep), as well as forms that are related strictly along formal or semantic dimensions. Participants performed a visual lexical decision task with either visual (Experiment 1) or auditory prime (Experiment 2). Stronger N400 priming effects were observed for regular than vowel-change irregular verbs, whereas suffixed irregulars tended to group with regular verbs. Subsequent analyses decomposed early versus late-going N400 priming, and suggested that differences among forms can be attributed to the orthographic similarity of prime and target. Effects of morphological relatedness were observed in the later-going time period, however, we failed to observe true regular-irregular dissociations in either experiment. The results indicate that morphological effects emerge from the interaction of orthographic, phonological, and semantic overlap between words. PMID:19803689

  6. A Puzzle Unsolved: Failure to Observe Different Effects of God and Religion Primes on Intergroup Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Jonathan E.; Tong, Eddie M. W.; Pang, Joyce S.; Chowdhury, Avijit

    2016-01-01

    Religious priming has been found to have both positive and negative consequences, and recent research suggests that the activation of God-related and community-related religious cognitions may cause outgroup prosociality and outgroup derogation respectively. The present research sought to examine whether reminders of God and religion have different effects on attitudes towards ingroup and outgroup members. Over two studies, little evidence was found for different effects of these two types of religious primes. In study 1, individuals primed with the words “religion”, “God” and a neutral control word evaluated both ingroup and outgroup members similarly, although a marginal tendency towards more negative evaluations of outgroup members by females exposed to religion primes was observed. In study 2, no significant differences in attitudes towards an outgroup member were observed between the God, religion, and neutral priming conditions. Furthermore, the gender effect observed in study 1 did not replicate in this second study. Possible explanations for these null effects are discussed. PMID:26812526

  7. A Puzzle Unsolved: Failure to Observe Different Effects of God and Religion Primes on Intergroup Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Jonathan E; Tong, Eddie M W; Pang, Joyce S; Chowdhury, Avijit

    2016-01-01

    Religious priming has been found to have both positive and negative consequences, and recent research suggests that the activation of God-related and community-related religious cognitions may cause outgroup prosociality and outgroup derogation respectively. The present research sought to examine whether reminders of God and religion have different effects on attitudes towards ingroup and outgroup members. Over two studies, little evidence was found for different effects of these two types of religious primes. In study 1, individuals primed with the words "religion", "God" and a neutral control word evaluated both ingroup and outgroup members similarly, although a marginal tendency towards more negative evaluations of outgroup members by females exposed to religion primes was observed. In study 2, no significant differences in attitudes towards an outgroup member were observed between the God, religion, and neutral priming conditions. Furthermore, the gender effect observed in study 1 did not replicate in this second study. Possible explanations for these null effects are discussed. PMID:26812526

  8. The more you ignore me the closer I get: An ERP study of evaluative priming.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Henning; Bachmann, Olga; Stahl, Jutta

    2014-12-01

    We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate the various mental processes contributing to evaluative priming-that is, more positive judgments for targets preceded by affectively positive, as opposed to negative, prime stimuli. To ensure ecological validity, we employed a priori meaningful landscape pictures as targets and emotional adjectives as visual primes and presented both primes and targets for relatively long durations (>1 s). Prime-related lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs) revealed response priming as one source of the significant evaluative priming effect. On the other hand, greater right-frontal positive slow wave in the ERP for pictures following negative, as compared with positive, primes indicated altered impression formation, thus supporting automatic spreading activation and/or affect misattribution accounts. Moreover, target LRPs suggested conscious counter-control to reduce the evaluative priming net effect. Finally, when comparing prime ERPs for two groups of participants showing strong versus weak evaluative priming, we found strong evidence for the role of depth of prime processing: In the weak-effect group, prime words evoked an increased visual P1/N1 complex, a larger posterior P2 component, and a greater left-parietal processing negativity presumably reflecting semantic processing. By contrast, a larger medial-frontal P2/N2 complex in the strong-effect group suggested top-down inhibition of the prime's emotional content. Thus, trying to ignore the primes can actually increase, rather than decrease, the evaluative priming effect.

  9. Watch the target! Effects in the affective misattribution procedure become weaker (but not eliminated) when participants are motivated to provide accurate responses to the target.

    PubMed

    Eder, Andreas B; Deutsch, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Previous research showed that priming effects in the affective misattribution procedure (AMP) are unaffected by direct warnings to avoid an influence of the primes. The present research examined whether a priming influence is diminished by task procedures that encourage accurate judgments of the targets. Participants were motivated to categorize the affective meaning of nonsense targets accurately by being made to believe that a true word was presented in each trial and by providing feedback on (allegedly) incorrect responses. This condition produced robust priming effects. Priming was however reduced and less reliable relative to more typical AMP conditions in which participants guessed the meaning of openly presented nonsense targets. Affective judgments of nonsense targets were not affected by advance knowledge of the response mapping during the priming phase, which argues against a response-priming explanation of AMP effects. These findings show that affective primes influence evaluative judgments even in conditions in which the motivation to provide accurate responses is high and a priming of motor responses is not possible. Priming effects were however weaker with high accuracy motivation, suggesting that a focus on accurate judgments is an effective strategy to control for an unwanted priming influence in the AMP. PMID:26441807

  10. Young women's attitudes toward continuous use of oral contraceptives: the effect of priming positive attitudes toward menstruation on women's willingness to suppress menstruation.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jennifer Gorman; Chrisler, Joan C; Couture, Samantha

    2008-08-01

    The present study investigated American women's attitudes toward menstrual suppression and the effect of priming attitudes toward menstruation on women's willingness to suppress menstruation. One hundred college women randomly were assigned to either a positive priming group or a negative priming group. The positive priming group first completed the menstrual joy questionnaire (MJQ) followed by a willingness to suppress menstruation (WSM) questionnaire, the beliefs and attitudes toward menstruation (BATM) questionnaire, the menstrual distress questionnaire (MDQ), and a demographic questionnaire. The negative priming group completed, in the following order: the MDQ, WSM, BATM, MJQ, and demographics. Priming affected women's reports of positive cycle-related changes on the MDQ, but not women's willingness to suppress menstruation. Higher scores on the MJQ, positive attitudes toward menstrual suppression, and previous oral contraceptive (OC) use were predictors of women's willingness to suppress menstruation. Women's primary source of information about menstrual suppression was "media," and their primary concern was "safety." Thus, researchers should continue to investigate the long-term effects of continuous OC use and to analyze information about menstrual suppression in the popular press.

  11. The Situated Inference Model: An Integrative Account of the Effects of Primes on Perception, Behavior, and Motivation.

    PubMed

    Loersch, Chris; Payne, B Keith

    2011-05-01

    The downstream consequences of a priming induction range from changes in the perception of objects in the environment to the initiation of prime-related behavior and goal striving. Although each of these outcomes has been accounted for by separate mechanisms, we argue that a single process could produce all three priming effects. In this article, we introduce the situated inference model of priming, discuss its potential to account for these divergent outcomes with one mechanism, and demonstrate its ability to organize the priming literatures surrounding these effects. According to the model, primes often do not cause direct effects, instead altering only the accessibility of prime-related mental content. This information produces downstream effects on judgment, behavior, or motivation when it is mistakenly viewed as originating from one's own internal thought processes. When this misattribution occurs, the prime-related mental content becomes a possible source of information for solving whatever problems are afforded by the current situation. Because different situations afford very different questions and concerns, the inferred meaning of this prime-related content can vary greatly. The use of this information to answer qualitatively different questions can lead a single prime to produce varied effects on judgment, behavior, and motivation.

  12. Priming of anti-herbivore defence in Nicotiana attenuata by insect oviposition: herbivore-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Bandoly, Michele; Grichnik, Roland; Hilker, Monika; Steppuhn, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Oviposition by Spodoptera exigua on Nicotiana attenuata primes plant defence against its larvae that consequently suffer reduced performance. To reveal whether this is a general response of tobacco to insect oviposition or species-specific, we investigated whether also Manduca sexta oviposition primes N. attenuata's anti-herbivore defence. The plant response to M. sexta and S. exigua oviposition overlapped in the egg-primed feeding-induced production of the phenylpropanoid caffeoylputrescine. While M. sexta larvae were unaffected in their performance, they showed a novel response to the oviposition-mediated plant changes: a reduced antimicrobial activity in their haemolymph. In a cross-resistance experiment, S. exigua larvae suffered reduced performance on M. sexta-oviposited plants like they did on S. exigua-oviposited plants. The M. sexta oviposition-mediated plant effects on the S. exigua larval performance and on M. sexta larval immunity required expression of the NaMyb8 transcription factor that is governing biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids such as caffeoylputrescine. Thus, NaMyb8-dependent defence traits mediate the effects that oviposition by both lepidopteran species exerts on the plant's anti-herbivore defence. These results suggest that oviposition by lepidopteran species on N. attenuata leaves may generally prime the feeding-induced production of certain plant defence compounds but that different herbivore species show different susceptibility to egg-primed plant effects. PMID:26566692

  13. Feature activation during word recognition: action, visual, and associative-semantic priming effects

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kevin J. Y.; Dijkstra, Ton; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Embodied theories of language postulate that language meaning is stored in modality-specific brain areas generally involved in perception and action in the real world. However, the temporal dynamics of the interaction between modality-specific information and lexical-semantic processing remain unclear. We investigated the relative timing at which two types of modality-specific information (action-based and visual-form information) contribute to lexical-semantic comprehension. To this end, we applied a behavioral priming paradigm in which prime and target words were related with respect to (1) action features, (2) visual features, or (3) semantically associative information. Using a Go/No-Go lexical decision task, priming effects were measured across four different inter-stimulus intervals (ISI = 100, 250, 400, and 1000 ms) to determine the relative time course of the different features. Notably, action priming effects were found in ISIs of 100, 250, and 1000 ms whereas a visual priming effect was seen only in the ISI of 1000 ms. Importantly, our data suggest that features follow different time courses of activation during word recognition. In this regard, feature activation is dynamic, measurable in specific time windows but not in others. Thus the current study (1) demonstrates how multiple ISIs can be used within an experiment to help chart the time course of feature activation and (2) provides new evidence for embodied theories of language. PMID:26074836

  14. Moving to solution: effects of movement priming on problem solving.

    PubMed

    Werner, K; Raab, M

    2013-01-01

    Embodied cognition theories suggest a link between bodily movements and cognitive functions. Given such a link, it is assumed that movement influences the two main stages of problem solving: creating a problem space and creating solutions. This study explores how specific the link between bodily movements and the problem-solving process is. Seventy-two participants were tested with variations of the two-string problem (Experiment 1) and the water-jar problem (Experiment 2), allowing for two possible solutions. In Experiment 1 participants were primed with arm-swing movements (swing group) and step movements on a chair (step group). In Experiment 2 participants sat in front of three jars with glass marbles and had to sort these marbles from the outer jars to the middle one (plus group) or vice versa (minus group). Results showed more swing-like solutions in the swing group and more step-like solutions in the step group, and more addition solutions in the plus group and more subtraction solutions in the minus group. This specificity of the connection between movement and problem-solving task will allow further experiments to investigate how bodily movements influence the stages of problem solving. PMID:23820945

  15. Moving to solution: effects of movement priming on problem solving.

    PubMed

    Werner, K; Raab, M

    2013-01-01

    Embodied cognition theories suggest a link between bodily movements and cognitive functions. Given such a link, it is assumed that movement influences the two main stages of problem solving: creating a problem space and creating solutions. This study explores how specific the link between bodily movements and the problem-solving process is. Seventy-two participants were tested with variations of the two-string problem (Experiment 1) and the water-jar problem (Experiment 2), allowing for two possible solutions. In Experiment 1 participants were primed with arm-swing movements (swing group) and step movements on a chair (step group). In Experiment 2 participants sat in front of three jars with glass marbles and had to sort these marbles from the outer jars to the middle one (plus group) or vice versa (minus group). Results showed more swing-like solutions in the swing group and more step-like solutions in the step group, and more addition solutions in the plus group and more subtraction solutions in the minus group. This specificity of the connection between movement and problem-solving task will allow further experiments to investigate how bodily movements influence the stages of problem solving.

  16. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Modulates Semantic Negative Priming from Single Prime Words

    PubMed Central

    Ortells, Juan J.; Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Houghton, George

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether semantic negative priming from single prime words depends on the availability of cognitive control resources. Participants with high vs. low working memory capacity (as assessed by their performance in complex span and attentional control tasks) were instructed to either attend to or ignore a briefly presented single prime word that was followed by either a semantically related or unrelated target word on which participants made a lexical decision. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) mainly affected the processing of the ignored primes, but not the processing of the attended primes: While the latter produced reliable positive semantic priming for both high- and low-WMC participants, the former gave rise to reliable semantic negative priming only for high WMC participants, with low WMC participants showing the opposite positive priming effect. The present results extend previous findings in demonstrating that (a) single negative priming can reliably generalize to semantic associates of the prime words, and (b) a differential availability of cognitive control resources can reliably modulate the negative priming effect at a semantic level of representation.

  17. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Modulates Semantic Negative Priming from Single Prime Words

    PubMed Central

    Ortells, Juan J.; Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Houghton, George

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether semantic negative priming from single prime words depends on the availability of cognitive control resources. Participants with high vs. low working memory capacity (as assessed by their performance in complex span and attentional control tasks) were instructed to either attend to or ignore a briefly presented single prime word that was followed by either a semantically related or unrelated target word on which participants made a lexical decision. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) mainly affected the processing of the ignored primes, but not the processing of the attended primes: While the latter produced reliable positive semantic priming for both high- and low-WMC participants, the former gave rise to reliable semantic negative priming only for high WMC participants, with low WMC participants showing the opposite positive priming effect. The present results extend previous findings in demonstrating that (a) single negative priming can reliably generalize to semantic associates of the prime words, and (b) a differential availability of cognitive control resources can reliably modulate the negative priming effect at a semantic level of representation. PMID:27621716

  18. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Modulates Semantic Negative Priming from Single Prime Words.

    PubMed

    Ortells, Juan J; Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Houghton, George

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether semantic negative priming from single prime words depends on the availability of cognitive control resources. Participants with high vs. low working memory capacity (as assessed by their performance in complex span and attentional control tasks) were instructed to either attend to or ignore a briefly presented single prime word that was followed by either a semantically related or unrelated target word on which participants made a lexical decision. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) mainly affected the processing of the ignored primes, but not the processing of the attended primes: While the latter produced reliable positive semantic priming for both high- and low-WMC participants, the former gave rise to reliable semantic negative priming only for high WMC participants, with low WMC participants showing the opposite positive priming effect. The present results extend previous findings in demonstrating that (a) single negative priming can reliably generalize to semantic associates of the prime words, and (b) a differential availability of cognitive control resources can reliably modulate the negative priming effect at a semantic level of representation. PMID:27621716

  19. Audience Duplication in the Video Age: Changes in Prime Time Inheritance Effects between 1976 and 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, James R.

    Evaluating the impact of the changing media environment on television programming, a study examined inheritance effects--the percentage of one television program's audience that also watches the program immediately following--in network prime time programming between 1976 and 1985. Inheritance effect was calculated as the correlation between a…

  20. The Case of Watson vs. James: Effect-Priming Studies Do Not Support Ideomotor Theory

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Ralf F. A.; Hasselman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we show that response facilitation in choice reaction tasks achieved by priming the (previously perceived) effect is based on stimulus-response associations rather than on response-effect associations. The reduced key-press response time is not accounted for by earlier established couplings between the key-press movement and its subsequent effect, but instead results from couplings between this effect and the contingent key-release movement. This key-release movement is an intrinsic part of the entire performed response action in each trial of a reaction-time task, and always spontaneously follows the key-press movement. Eliminating the key-release movement from the task leads to the disappearance of the response facilitation, which raises the question whether response-effect associations actually play a role in studies that use the effect-priming paradigm. Together the three experiments presented in the paper cast serious doubts on the claim that action-effect couplings are acquired and utilized by the cognitive system in the service of action selection, and that the priming paradigm by itself can provide convincing evidence for this claim. As a corollary, we question whether the related two-step model for the ideomotor principle holds a satisfying explanation for how anticipation of future states guides action planning. The results presented here may have profound implications for priming studies in other disciplines of psychology as well. PMID:23349793

  1. Priming effects from young-old to very old age on a word-stem completion task: minimizing explicit contamination.

    PubMed

    Spaan, Pauline E J; Raaijmakers, Jeroen G W

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the size of repetition priming effects from young-old to very old age using a newly developed Word-Stem Completion (WSC) task. Retrospectively, we examined the role of explicit, intentional retrieval strategies in priming. We constructed our task by taking factors into account that were known to complicate the measurement of significant and valid priming effects. Within our sample of 170 cognitively healthy elderly persons of 55-94 years old, we found no effects on priming of age, gender, education, intelligence, cognitive status, memory complaints, or depressive symptoms. Participants that subsequent to task administration reported awareness of the study-test relationship obtained higher priming scores. However, analysis of stem-completion times showed that explicit contamination during the task was unlikely. The results suggest that WSC priming is age-invariant up to very old age. This task with increased validity might contribute to the differentiation with Alzheimer's disease by improving specificity of assessment.

  2. Impacts of religious semantic priming on an intertemporal discounting task: Response time effects and neural correlates.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jonathan; Clark, Dustin; Tripodis, Yorghos; Halloran, Christopher S; Minsky, April; Wildman, Wesley J; Durso, Raymon; McNamara, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that religious primes would influence intertemporal discounting behaviors in neurotypical older adults, but not in participants with Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, we predicted that this priming effect would be related to functional connectivity within neural networks mediating religious cognition, decision-making, reward valuing, and prospection processes. Contrary to past research with young adults, we found a significant positive relationship between religiosity and discounting rates. Religious semantic primes did not reliably shift individual discounting rates. But religious controls did respond more quickly to intertemporal decisions under the religious priming condition than the neutral condition, compared to response time differences among the participants with PD. Differences in response time were significantly associated with functional connectivity between the nucleus accumbens and various regions, including the left anterior cingulate cortex and Brodmann areas 10 and 46 in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that religious primes influence discounting behavior via dopaminergic meso-limbic and right dorsolateral prefrontal supporting cognitive valuation and prospection processes. PMID:27450269

  3. Translation-priming effects on tip-of-the-tongue states

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Ferreira, Victor S.; Cera, Cynthia; Flett, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals experience more tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states than monolinguals, but it is not known if this is caused in part by access of representations from both of bilinguals’ languages, or dual-language activation. In two translation priming experiments, bilinguals were given three Spanish primes and produced either semantically (Experiment 1) or phonologically related Spanish words (Experiment 2) to each. They then named a picture in English. On critical trials, one of the primes was the Spanish translation of the English picture name. Translation primes significantly increased TOTs regardless of task, and also speeded correct retrievals but only with the semantic task. In both experiments translation-primed TOTs were significantly more likely to resolve spontaneously. These results illustrate an effect of non-dominant language activation on dominant-language retrieval, as well as imply that TOTs can arise during (not after) lexical retrieval, at a level of processing where translation equivalent lexical representations normally interact (possibly competing for selection, or mutually activating each other, or both depending on the locus of retrieval failure). PMID:24644375

  4. Electrophysiological correlates of the masked translation priming effect with highly proficient simultaneous bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Dimitropoulou, Maria; Uribe-Etxebarria, Oxel; Laka, Itziar; Carreiras, Manuel

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, we examined whether there is a symmetrical masked translation priming effect for non-cognate words in a group of highly proficient (native-like) Basque-Spanish simultaneous bilinguals using event-related brain potentials. Participants were presented with a set of Spanish and Basque words that could be preceded by their repetitions (an identity condition), their translations in the other language, or by two unrelated words (one in each language). Results showed a significant masked repetition effect for Spanish as well as for Basque targets, mainly evident in the N250 and N400 components. Interestingly, a masked translation priming effect was also found in the N400 component in both language directions (L1-to-L2 and L2-to-L1). Furthermore, the magnitude of the N400 modulation for the translation priming effect was similar in the two directions. Finally, we also found a language switch cost effect in the N250 and N400 components, associated with primes (related and unrelated) that did not match the target word's language. This language switch cost effect was also highly similar across the two language directions.

  5. Think the thought, walk the walk - social priming reduces the Stroop effect.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Liat; Aisenberg, Daniela; Henik, Avishai

    2011-02-01

    In the Stroop task, participants name the color of the ink that a color word is written in and ignore the meaning of the word. Naming the color of an incongruent color word (e.g., RED printed in blue) is slower than naming the color of a congruent color word (e.g., RED printed in red). This robust effect is known as the Stroop effect and it suggests that the intentional instruction - "do not read the word" - has limited influence on one's behavior, as word reading is being executed via an automatic path. Herein is examined the influence of a non-intentional instruction - "do not read the word" - on the Stroop effect. Social concept priming tends to trigger automatic behavior that is in line with the primed concept. Here participants were primed with the social concept "dyslexia" before performing the Stroop task. Because dyslectic people are perceived as having reading difficulties, the Stroop effect was reduced and even failed to reach significance after the dyslectic person priming. A similar effect was replicated in a further experiment, and overall it suggests that the human cognitive system has more success in decreasing the influence of another automatic process via an automatic path rather than via an intentional path.

  6. Repetition Priming in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Sean; Palmer, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The authors explore priming effects of pitch repetition in music in 3 experiments. Musically untrained participants heard a short melody and sang the last pitch of the melody as quickly as possible. Each experiment manipulated (a) whether or not the tone to be sung (target) was heard earlier in the melody (primed) and (b) the prime-target distance…

  7. Different effects of paternal trans-generational immune priming on survival and immunity in step and genetic offspring

    PubMed Central

    Eggert, Hendrik; Kurtz, Joachim; Diddens-de Buhr, Maike F.

    2014-01-01

    Paternal trans-generational immune priming, whereby fathers provide immune protection to offspring, has been demonstrated in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum exposed to the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. It is currently unclear how such protection is transferred, as in contrast to mothers, fathers do not directly provide offspring with a large amount of substances. In addition to sperm, male flour beetles transfer seminal fluids in a spermatophore to females during copulation. Depending on whether paternal trans-generational immune priming is mediated by sperm or seminal fluids, it is expected to either affect only the genetic offspring of a male, or also their step offspring that are sired by another male. We therefore conducted a double-mating experiment and found that only the genetic offspring of an immune primed male show enhanced survival upon bacterial challenge, while phenoloxidase activity, an important insect immune trait, and the expression of the immune receptor PGRP were increased in all offspring. This indicates that information leading to enhanced survival upon pathogen exposure is transferred via sperm, and thus potentially constitutes an epigenetic effect, whereas substances transferred with the seminal fluid could have an additional influence on offspring immune traits and immunological alertness. PMID:25355479

  8. Effect of dietary selenium on the 5 prime -deiodinase activity of washed microsomes from rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Vadhanavikit, S.; Ganther, H.E. )

    1991-03-11

    Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a Torula yeast-based diet containing 0.1 ppm Se as selenite (+Se) or the diet without selenium supplementation ({minus}Se). At 6 months, rats were sacrificed and liver microsomes and cytosol were prepared. Glutathione peroxidase activity of (+SE) and ({minus}Se) cytosol was 0.86 {plus minus} 0.07 and 0.02 {plus minus} 0.01 U/mg, respectively. Microsomal 5{prime}-deiodinase, Type I (5{prime}-DI) was assayed in the presence of 3 mM DTT using ({sup 125}I) reverse triiodothyronine (rT{sub 3}) as substrate and the released {sup 125}I{sup {minus}} was determined. 5{prime}-DI activity of (+Se) and ({minus}Se) microsomes was 3.99 {plus minus} 0.29 and 0.43 {plus minus} 0.12 U/mg, respectively. Mixing experiments showed that (a) cytosol from (+Se) animals had very little or no stimulating effect on 5{prime}-DI activity of ({minus}Se) microsomes, and (b) ({minus}Se) cytosol as well as ({minus}Se) microsomes had no inhibitory effect on (+Se) microsomes. It is concluded that 5{prime}-DI activity is greatly decreased in microsomes of Se-deficient rats, and is not restored to normal by the addition of cytosol from Se-adequate animals. These results confirm and extend the authors' previous report of reduced 5{prime}-DI activity in Se-deficient rats when measured as the conversion of thyroxine to T{sub 3} in whole homogenates.

  9. A neutral face is not neutral even if you have not seen it: social anxiety disorder and affective priming with facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Lange, Wolf-Gero; Allart, Esther; Keijsers, Ger P J; Rinck, Mike; Becker, Eni S

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive theories suggest that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by biased processing of negative facial expressions. Recently, however, it has been proposed that the fear of positive evaluation may play an additional, important role. In order to investigate which specific expressions evoke biased processing, 15 patients diagnosed with SAD and 15 non-anxious controls (NACs) completed an affective priming procedure: they rated neutral symbols which were preceded by sub-optimally presented primes of angry, neutral, and smiling faces. Patients with SAD rated the symbols significantly more negatively than NACs when they were primed with a neutral face. In addition, SAD patients tended to rate all symbols significantly more negatively suggesting that all faces (negative, positive, and neutral) are threatening to SAD patients. PMID:22428556

  10. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  11. Effects of Material Emotional Valence on the Time Course of Massive Repetition Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Zhiguo; Liu, Hongyan; Zhang, John X.

    2010-01-01

    Learning through repetition is a fundamental form and also an effective method of language learning critical for achieving proficient and automatic language use. Massive repetition priming as a common research paradigm taps into the dynamic processes involved in repetition learning. Research with this paradigm has so far used only emotionally…

  12. Lexical Priming Effects of Textbooks on EFL Learners' Use of "Give"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to investigate to what extent Chinese EFL learners' language use is influenced by English textbooks. Such influence may suggest the existence of lexical priming effects. Based on detailed and systematic analysis of a learner English corpus, in comparison with a textbook corpus, the present study revealed striking similarities of the…

  13. Effect of Onset and Rhyme Primes in Preschoolers with Typical Development and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Shelley; Reiser, Mark; Brinkley, Shara

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors used cued shadowing to examine children's phonological word-form representations by studying the effects of onset and rhyme primes on lexical access. Method: Twenty-five preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI; hereafter known as the SLI group), 24 age- and gender-matched children (AM group), and 20…

  14. The Effects of Priming on Spontaneous Verbal Language in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    A multi-element design was used to investigate the effect of priming on spontaneous verbal communication in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Three children with ASD engaged in 20-minute thematic activity sessions (ACT) with the investigator. Prior to the ACTs, they met with another trained researcher for 10-minute presessions. Half…

  15. Impact of pyrogenic organic matter decomposition and induced priming effect on soil C budget.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestrini, Bernardo; Abiven, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) results from the incomplete combustion of biomass and may contribute to constitute an important fraction of soil C in forest and agricultural soils, in the form of charcoal (produced by wildfires) or biochar (anthropogenic). Although many evidences exist on the long mean residence time of PyOM there is still a large uncertainty on PyOM loss processes and rate and on possible induced priming effect on non-PyOM. Therefore determining PyOM mineralization rate, loss processes and possible induced priming effect on soil organic matter decomposition are key issues to understand the impact of PyOM on the carbon (C) cycle. We investigated the impact of PyOM on soil C budget by combining results from three independent studies: (i) a field study to investigate PyOM mineralization rate and the relative importance of PyOM loss processes, (ii) a PyOM and soil incubation experiment to correlate C and N mineralization rates, (iii) a review of the priming effect induced by PyOM on soil organic C. We employed 13C labelled pinewood-derived PyOM for the field experiment and 13C labelled ryegrass-derived PyOM in the incubation experiment to trace PyOM losses. In the field experiment it was observed that: (i) Pyrolysis process reduced pinewood decomposition by a factor of 60, (ii) leaching and translocation of fresh PyOM along the soil profile were negligible compared to losses as CO2. In the incubation experiment we found that ryegrass induced a two phase priming effect on native soil organic matter, with a positive priming effect followed by a negative priming effect phase, we also found that ryegrass-derived PyOM decomposition was much slower than pinewood one. The different decomposition rate results probably from the different aromaticity of the two PyOM together with the different set-up of the two experiments. Both the incubation experiment and the meta-analysis revealed that PyOM may induce a two-phase priming effect on native soil organic matter

  16. Syntactic Priming and the Lexical Boost Effect during Sentence Production and Sentence Comprehension: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segaert, Katrien; Kempen, Gerard; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral syntactic priming effects during sentence comprehension are typically observed only if both the syntactic structure and lexical head are repeated. In contrast, during production syntactic priming occurs with structure repetition alone, but the effect is boosted by repetition of the lexical head. We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal…

  17. Repetition priming in music.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Sean; Palmer, Caroline

    2008-06-01

    The authors explore priming effects of pitch repetition in music in 3 experiments. Musically untrained participants heard a short melody and sang the last pitch of the melody as quickly as possible. Each experiment manipulated (a) whether or not the tone to be sung (target) was heard earlier in the melody (primed) and (b) the prime-target distance (measured in events). Experiment 1 used variable-length melodies, whereas Experiments 2 and 3 used fixed-length melodies. Experiment 3 changed the timbre of the target tone. In all experiments, fast-responding participants produced repeated tones faster than nonrepeated tones, and this repetition benefit decreased as prime-target distances increased. All participants produced expected tonic endings faster than less expected nontonic endings. Repetition and tonal priming effects are compared with harmonic priming effects in music and with repetition priming effects in language. PMID:18505332

  18. Repetition priming in music.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Sean; Palmer, Caroline

    2008-06-01

    The authors explore priming effects of pitch repetition in music in 3 experiments. Musically untrained participants heard a short melody and sang the last pitch of the melody as quickly as possible. Each experiment manipulated (a) whether or not the tone to be sung (target) was heard earlier in the melody (primed) and (b) the prime-target distance (measured in events). Experiment 1 used variable-length melodies, whereas Experiments 2 and 3 used fixed-length melodies. Experiment 3 changed the timbre of the target tone. In all experiments, fast-responding participants produced repeated tones faster than nonrepeated tones, and this repetition benefit decreased as prime-target distances increased. All participants produced expected tonic endings faster than less expected nontonic endings. Repetition and tonal priming effects are compared with harmonic priming effects in music and with repetition priming effects in language.

  19. Priming and trial spacing in extinction: effects on extinction performance, spontaneous recovery, and reinstatement in appetitive conditioning.

    PubMed

    Moody, Erik W; Sunsay, Ceyhun; Bouton, Mark E

    2006-05-01

    Previous research in this laboratory suggests that priming of the conditional stimulus (CS) in short-term memory may play a role in the trial-spacing effects in appetitive conditioning. For example, a non-reinforced presentation of a CS 60 s before a reinforced trial with the same CS produced slower acquisition than a CS presentation that occurred 240 s before the reinforced trial. The results were consistent with the self-generated priming mechanism proposed by Wagner (e.g., Wagner 1978, 1981). The present experiments extended the earlier work by examining the effects of trial spacing in extinction rather than acquisition. After conditioning with a mixture of intertrial intervals (ITIs), rats received extinction with ITIs of 60 or 240 s, longer or shorter values, or different ways of "chunking" extinction trials in time. Although trial spacing produced effects on extinction performance that were consistent with our previous research on acquisition, there were few long-term differences in spontaneous recovery or in reinstatement. Short ITIs in extinction appear to affect extinction performance more than they affect extinction learning. Mechanisms of trial spacing in conditioning and extinction are discussed.

  20. Buffering effect of money priming on negative emotions—An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Hu, Yue; Pei, Guanxiong; Xiang, Ting

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have accumulated evidences that merely reminding people of money could lead to behavioral changes including alleviating both physical pain and social distress. However, the underlying neural mechanism regarding such pain-buffering effect of money is not clear. In this paper, we applied event-related potentials (ERP) to investigate the neural effect of money reminders on induced negative emotions. Subjects were first primed of money images and subsequently viewing unpleasant pictures, while EEG was recorded. Behavioral results suggested a reduced sensitivity to unpleasant pictures after participants being reminded of money. ERP data showed that money priming, compared to neutral priming, generated a larger N2 in frontal and posterior areas, reflecting an endogenous mental conflict and the recruitment of attention resources, and a smaller late positive potential (LPP) in parietal and occipital regions, indicating a regulating process of negative emotions. Additionally, how brain responded to money and neutral stimuli were also examined, indexed by "N170-P2" complex. This study provided additional neurophysiological evidences to support previous behavioral researches on money priming and discussed the two separated neural dynamic stages involved in emotion regulation.

  1. Buffering effect of money priming on negative emotions—An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Hu, Yue; Pei, Guanxiong; Xiang, Ting

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have accumulated evidences that merely reminding people of money could lead to behavioral changes including alleviating both physical pain and social distress. However, the underlying neural mechanism regarding such pain-buffering effect of money is not clear. In this paper, we applied event-related potentials (ERP) to investigate the neural effect of money reminders on induced negative emotions. Subjects were first primed of money images and subsequently viewing unpleasant pictures, while EEG was recorded. Behavioral results suggested a reduced sensitivity to unpleasant pictures after participants being reminded of money. ERP data showed that money priming, compared to neutral priming, generated a larger N2 in frontal and posterior areas, reflecting an endogenous mental conflict and the recruitment of attention resources, and a smaller late positive potential (LPP) in parietal and occipital regions, indicating a regulating process of negative emotions. Additionally, how brain responded to money and neutral stimuli were also examined, indexed by "N170-P2" complex. This study provided additional neurophysiological evidences to support previous behavioral researches on money priming and discussed the two separated neural dynamic stages involved in emotion regulation. PMID:26320024

  2. Substituted-letter and transposed-letter effects in a masked priming paradigm with French developing readers and dyslexics.

    PubMed

    Lété, Bernard; Fayol, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to undertake a behavioral investigation of the development of automatic orthographic processing during reading acquisition in French. Following Castles and colleagues' 2007 study (Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 97, 165-182) and their lexical tuning hypothesis framework, substituted-letter and transposed-letter primes were used in a masked priming paradigm with third graders, fifth graders, adults, and phonological dyslexics matched on reading level with the third graders. No priming effect was found in third graders. In adults, only a transposed-letter priming effect was found; there was no substituted-letter priming effect. Finally, fifth graders and dyslexics showed both substituted-letter and transposed-letter priming effects. Priming effects between the two groups were of the same magnitude after response time (RT) z-score transformation. Taken together, our results show that the pattern of priming effects found by Castles and colleagues in English normal readers emerges later in French normal readers. In other words, language orthographies seem to constrain the tuning of the orthographic system, with an opaque orthography producing faster tuning of orthographic processing than more transparent orthographies because of the high level of reliance on phonological decoding while learning to read. PMID:23046691

  3. Code-switching effects in bilingual word recognition: a masked priming study with event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Chauncey, Krysta; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J

    2008-06-01

    Two experiments tested language switching effects with bilingual participants in a priming paradigm with masked primes (duration of 50ms in Experiment 1 and 100ms in Experiment 2). Participants had to monitor target words for animal names, and ERPs were recorded to critical (non-animal) words in L1 and L2 primed by unrelated words from the same or the other language. Both experiments revealed language priming (switching) effects that depended on target language. For target words in L1, most of the language switch effect appeared in the N400 ERP component, with L2 primes generating a more negative going wave than L1 primes. For L2 target words, on the other hand, the effects of a language switch appeared mainly in an earlier ERP component (N250) peaking at approximately 250ms post-target onset, and showing greater negativity following an L1 prime than an L2 prime. This is the first evidence for fast-acting language-switching effects occurring in the absence of overt task switching.

  4. Priming effects on seed germination in Tecoma stans (Bignoniaceae) and Cordia megalantha (Boraginaceae), two tropical deciduous tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado-López, Sandra; Soriano, Diana; Velázquez, Noé; Orozco-Segovia, Alma; Gamboa-deBuen, Alicia

    2014-11-01

    Successful revegetation necessarily requires the establishment of a vegetation cover and one of the challenges for this is the scarce knowledge about germination and seedling establishment of wild tree species. Priming treatments (seed hydration during a specific time followed by seed dehydration) could be an alternative germination pre-treatment to improve plant establishment. Natural priming (via seed burial) promotes rapid and synchronous germination as well as the mobilisation of storage reserves; consequently, it increases seedling vigour. These metabolic and physiological responses are similar to those occurring as a result of the laboratory seed priming treatments (osmopriming and matrix priming) applied successfully to agricultural species. In order to know if natural priming had a positive effect on germination of tropical species we tested the effects of natural priming on imbibition kinetics, germination parameters (mean germination time, lag time and germination rate and percentage) and reserve mobilisation in the seeds of two tree species from a tropical deciduous forest in south-eastern México: Tecoma stans (L Juss. Ex Kunth) and Cordia megalantha (S.F Blake). The wood of both trees are useful for furniture and T. stans is a pioneer tree that promotes soil retention in disturbed areas. We also compared the effect of natural priming with that of laboratory matrix priming (both in soil). Matrix priming improved germination of both studied species. Natural priming promoted the mobilisation of proteins and increased the amount of free amino acids and of lipid degradation in T. stans but not in C. megalantha. Our results suggest that the application of priming via the burial of seeds is an easy and inexpensive technique that can improve seed germination and seedling establishment of tropical trees with potential use in reforestation and restoration practices.

  5. Syntactic Priming in Comprehension: Parallelism Effects with and without Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturt, Patrick; Keller, Frank; Dubey, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Although previous research has shown a processing facilitation for conjoined phrases that share the same structure, it is currently not clear whether this parallelism advantage is specific to particular syntactic environments such as coordination, or whether it is an example of more general effect in sentence comprehension. Here, we report three…

  6. Effect of laser priming on canola yield and its components under salt stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, S. K.; Shekari, F.; Fotovat, R.; Darudi, A.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of laser priming at different irradiation times on canola yield and its components under saline conditions were investigated. The results showed that laser priming had a positive effect on yield and its components and caused yield increase under saline conditions. Increase in salt levels had a negative and significant effect on seed yield, number of seeds per pod, number of pod per plant, pod length and plant height. The results showed that 45-min laser priming had the strongest effect on yield and yield components and reduced significantly the adverse effects of salinity. By contrast, laser radiation applied for 60 and 75 min, resulted in a dramatic decrease in yield and its components. Correlation coefficients between the attributes showed that canola yield had a positive and significant correlation with plant height, number of seeds, pod per main branch and lateral branches, length of pod and number of lateral branches. Effects of laser and salinity were significant on lateral branch pod length but not on main branch pods.

  7. Event-related lateralized readiness potential correlates of the emotion-priming Simon effect.

    PubMed

    Shang, Qian; Fu, Huijian; Qiu, Wenwei; Ma, Qingguo

    2016-08-01

    The Simon effect indicates that the reaction time (RT) is shorter when the stimulus and response locations are congruent than when they are not. This study used a priming-target paradigm to explore the emotion-priming Simon effect with event-related potential techniques. The technique of residue iteration decomposition was employed to analyze the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) component, which contributed to disentangling the overlap between LRP and N2 central contralateral in the Simon task with horizontal stimulus-response arrangements. The behavioral result revealed significant Simon effect in RT. In the neural process, the Simon effect was reflected by both the stimulus-locked LRP (S-LRP) and the response-locked LRP (R-LRP), with the incongruent condition showing longer onset latency, larger Gratton-dip, and smaller negative-going deflection of S-LRP and smaller negative-going deflection of R-LRP. These findings suggest that the interference of irrelevant location information is located at the perceptual-encoding (indicated by S-LRP) and response-execution stages (indicated by R-LRP), providing evidence for both the perceptual-interference and response-interference accounts. However, the further linear regression result signaled that the Simon effect might be more closely related to the response-execution stage than the perceptual-encoding stage. In addition, the influence of emotion on the Simon effect was salient only in the incongruent condition, showing longer onset latency of S-LRP and larger Gratton-dip of R-LRP in the negative emotion-priming condition than in the neutral emotion-priming condition, which revealed that the emotional interference effect arose from the stages of perceptual encoding and early response execution only when the locations of a stimulus and the corresponding response were incongruent.

  8. Event-related lateralized readiness potential correlates of the emotion-priming Simon effect.

    PubMed

    Shang, Qian; Fu, Huijian; Qiu, Wenwei; Ma, Qingguo

    2016-08-01

    The Simon effect indicates that the reaction time (RT) is shorter when the stimulus and response locations are congruent than when they are not. This study used a priming-target paradigm to explore the emotion-priming Simon effect with event-related potential techniques. The technique of residue iteration decomposition was employed to analyze the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) component, which contributed to disentangling the overlap between LRP and N2 central contralateral in the Simon task with horizontal stimulus-response arrangements. The behavioral result revealed significant Simon effect in RT. In the neural process, the Simon effect was reflected by both the stimulus-locked LRP (S-LRP) and the response-locked LRP (R-LRP), with the incongruent condition showing longer onset latency, larger Gratton-dip, and smaller negative-going deflection of S-LRP and smaller negative-going deflection of R-LRP. These findings suggest that the interference of irrelevant location information is located at the perceptual-encoding (indicated by S-LRP) and response-execution stages (indicated by R-LRP), providing evidence for both the perceptual-interference and response-interference accounts. However, the further linear regression result signaled that the Simon effect might be more closely related to the response-execution stage than the perceptual-encoding stage. In addition, the influence of emotion on the Simon effect was salient only in the incongruent condition, showing longer onset latency of S-LRP and larger Gratton-dip of R-LRP in the negative emotion-priming condition than in the neutral emotion-priming condition, which revealed that the emotional interference effect arose from the stages of perceptual encoding and early response execution only when the locations of a stimulus and the corresponding response were incongruent. PMID:26993492

  9. What we remember and what we tell: the effects of culture and self-priming on memory representations and narratives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Ross, Michael

    2005-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to explore culture and self-priming effects on memories of Caucasian and Asian American adults (N=526). In the experimental conditions, either the collective or private self was primed prior to retrieval. Participants then described their earliest childhood memories (Study 1) or recalled a fictional story (Study 2). Systematic cultural differences in memory content were obtained across both memory tasks, independent of priming conditions. Caucasians tended to recall specific, one-moment-in-time events that focused on the individual as the central character. Asians tended to provide memories of general, routine events centering on collective activities and social interactions. Priming effects also emerged: memory content reflected the particular aspect of the self being primed. Findings are discussed in light of the interactive relation between memory representations and memory narratives and the role culture plays in remembering.

  10. Factors driving carbon mineralization priming effect in a soil amended with different types of biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cely, P.; Tarquis, A. M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

    2014-03-01

    The effect of biochar on soil carbon mineralization priming effect depends on the characteristics of the raw materials, production method and pyrolysis conditions. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the impact of three different types of biochar on soil CO2 emissions and in different physicochemical properties. For this purpose, a sandy-loam soil was amended with the three biochars (BI, BII and BIII) at a rate of 8 wt % and soil CO2 emissions were measured for 45 days. BI is produced from a mixed wood sieving's from wood chip production, BII from a mixture of paper sludge and wheat husks and BIII from sewage sludge. Cumulative CO2 emissions of biochars, soil and amended soil were well fit to a simple first-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.97. Results shown a negative priming effect in the soil after addition of BI and a positive priming effect in the case of soil amended with BII and BIII. These results can be related with different biochar properties such as ash content, volatile matter, fixed carbon, organic carbon oxidised with dichromate, soluble carbon and metal and phenolic substances content in addition to surface biochar properties. Three biochars increased the values of soil field capacity and wilting point, while effects over pH and cation exchange capacity were not observed.

  11. Reduction of interference effect by low spatial frequency information priming in an emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Beffara, Brice; Wicker, Bruno; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Ouellet, Marc; Bret, Amélie; Molina, Maria Jesus Funes; Mermillod, Martial

    2015-01-01

    The affective prediction hypothesis assumes that visual expectation allows fast and accurate processing of emotional stimuli. The prediction corresponds to what an object is likely to be. It therefore facilitates its identification by setting aside what the object is unlikely to be. It has then been suggested that prediction might be inevitably associated with the inhibition of irrelevant possibilities concerning the object to identify. Several studies highlighted that the facilitation of emotional perception depends on low spatial frequency (LSF) extraction. However, most of them used paradigms in which only the object to identify was present in the scene. As a consequence, there have yet been no studies investigating the efficiency of prediction in the visual perception of stimuli among irrelevant information. In this study, we designed a novel priming emotional Stroop task in which participants had to identify emotional facial expressions (EFEs) presented along with a congruent or incongruent word. To further investigate the role of early extraction of LSF information in top-down prediction during emotion recognition, the target EFE was primed with the same EFE filtered in LSF or high spatial frequency (HSF). Results reveal a reduction of the Stroop interference in the LSF compared to the HSF priming condition, which supports that visual expectation, depending on early LSF information extraction, facilitates the inhibition of irrelevant information during emotion recognition. PMID:26024463

  12. Reduction of interference effect by low spatial frequency information priming in an emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Beffara, Brice; Wicker, Bruno; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Ouellet, Marc; Bret, Amélie; Molina, Maria Jesus Funes; Mermillod, Martial

    2015-01-01

    The affective prediction hypothesis assumes that visual expectation allows fast and accurate processing of emotional stimuli. The prediction corresponds to what an object is likely to be. It therefore facilitates its identification by setting aside what the object is unlikely to be. It has then been suggested that prediction might be inevitably associated with the inhibition of irrelevant possibilities concerning the object to identify. Several studies highlighted that the facilitation of emotional perception depends on low spatial frequency (LSF) extraction. However, most of them used paradigms in which only the object to identify was present in the scene. As a consequence, there have yet been no studies investigating the efficiency of prediction in the visual perception of stimuli among irrelevant information. In this study, we designed a novel priming emotional Stroop task in which participants had to identify emotional facial expressions (EFEs) presented along with a congruent or incongruent word. To further investigate the role of early extraction of LSF information in top-down prediction during emotion recognition, the target EFE was primed with the same EFE filtered in LSF or high spatial frequency (HSF). Results reveal a reduction of the Stroop interference in the LSF compared to the HSF priming condition, which supports that visual expectation, depending on early LSF information extraction, facilitates the inhibition of irrelevant information during emotion recognition.

  13. Where are we coming from versus who we will become: the effect of priming different contents of European identity on cooperation.

    PubMed

    La Barbera, Francesco; Ferrara, Pia Cariota; Boza, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how priming European identity as common project versus common heritage affects participants' cooperation in a social dilemma; an additional aim was to explore the mediators involved in the process. In the first experiment, 82 students played a public good dilemma with a European bogus partner and then completed self-report measures of identification with the European Union (EU), group-based trust and collective interest. Results showed that priming a common project-based but not a common heritage-based European social identity fostered cooperative behaviour; this effect was mediated by two sequential mediators: the common project prime increased participants' strength of identification with EU (mediator 1) which, in turn, positively affected group-based trust (mediator 2), fostering greater cooperation. Experiment 2 was conducted with a similar procedure on a sample of 124 students, using a different measure of trust and changing the order of mediators. Results supported those of previous experiment: Priming a project-based EU identity content (compared to heritage-based one) had significant direct and indirect effects on cooperation.

  14. Where are we coming from versus who we will become: the effect of priming different contents of European identity on cooperation.

    PubMed

    La Barbera, Francesco; Ferrara, Pia Cariota; Boza, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how priming European identity as common project versus common heritage affects participants' cooperation in a social dilemma; an additional aim was to explore the mediators involved in the process. In the first experiment, 82 students played a public good dilemma with a European bogus partner and then completed self-report measures of identification with the European Union (EU), group-based trust and collective interest. Results showed that priming a common project-based but not a common heritage-based European social identity fostered cooperative behaviour; this effect was mediated by two sequential mediators: the common project prime increased participants' strength of identification with EU (mediator 1) which, in turn, positively affected group-based trust (mediator 2), fostering greater cooperation. Experiment 2 was conducted with a similar procedure on a sample of 124 students, using a different measure of trust and changing the order of mediators. Results supported those of previous experiment: Priming a project-based EU identity content (compared to heritage-based one) had significant direct and indirect effects on cooperation. PMID:25355671

  15. Does culture influence what and how we think? Effects of priming individualism and collectivism.

    PubMed

    Oyserman, Daphna; Lee, Spike W S

    2008-03-01

    Do differences in individualism and collectivism influence values, self-concept content, relational assumptions, and cognitive style? On the one hand, the cross-national literature provides an impressively consistent picture of the predicted systematic differences; on the other hand, the nature of the evidence is inconclusive. Cross-national evidence is insufficient to argue for a causal process, and comparative data cannot specify if effects are due to both individualism and collectivism, only individualism, only collectivism, or other factors (including other aspects of culture). To address these issues, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of the individualism and collectivism priming literature, with follow-up moderator analyses. Effect sizes were moderate for relationality and cognition, small for self-concept and values, robust across priming methods and dependent variables, and consistent in direction and size with cross-national effects. Results lend support to a situated model of culture in which cross-national differences are not static but dynamically consistent due to the chronic and moment-to-moment salience of individualism and collectivism. Examination of the unique effects of individualism and collectivism versus other cultural factors (e.g., honor, power) awaits the availability of research that primes these factors.

  16. Spatiotemporal distribution of cortical processing of first and second languages in bilinguals. II. Effects of phonologic and semantic priming.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Hillel; Abbasi, Dalal Abu-Amneh; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi; Starr, Arnold

    2013-11-01

    This study determined the effects of phonology and semantics on the distribution of cortical activity to the second of a pair of words in first and second language (mixed pairs). The effects of relative proficiency in the two languages and linguistic setting (monolinguistic or mixed) are reported in a companion paper. Ten early bilinguals and 14 late bilinguals listened to mixed pairs of words in Arabic (L1) and Hebrew (L2) and indicated whether both words in the pair had the same or different meanings. The spatio-temporal distribution of current densities of event-related potentials were estimated for each language and according to semantic and phonologic relationship (same or different) compared with the first word in the pair. During early processing (<300 ms), brain activity in temporal and temporoparietal auditory areas was enhanced by phonologic incongruence between words in the pair and in Wernicke's area by both phonologic and semantic priming. In contrast, brain activities during late processing (>300 ms) were enhanced by semantic incongruence between the two words, particularly in temporal areas and in left hemisphere Broca's and Wernicke's areas. The latter differences were greater when words were in L2. Surprisingly, no significant effects of relative proficiency on processing the second word in the pair were found. These results indicate that the distribution of brain activity to the second of two words presented bilingually is affected differently during early and late processing by both semantic and phonologic priming by- and incongruence with the immediately preceding word.

  17. Photoproduction of the eta prime meson in the effective Lagrangian approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.; Zhang, J.F.; Benmerrouche, M.

    1994-04-01

    In the framework of the effective Lagrangian approach, the authors study the {eta}{prime} photoproduction off protons, of great interest at CEBAF I and II. They calculate the contributions from the leading nucleon Born terms, vector meson exchanges, and estimate the resonance contributions, using the transition amplitudes from the recent quark model estimates by Capstick and Roberts. They discuss implications for the CEBAF experiments.

  18. Modeling priming effects on microbial consumption of dissolved organic carbon in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotchkiss, E. R.; Hall, R. O.; Baker, M. A.; Rosi-Marshall, E. J.; Tank, J. L.

    2014-05-01

    Rivers receive and process large quantities of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Biologically available (unstable) DOC leached from primary producers may stimulate (i.e., prime) the consumption of more stable terrestrially derived DOC by heterotrophic microbes. We measured microbial DOC consumption (i.e., decay rates) from contrasting C sources in 10 rivers in the western and Midwestern United States using short-term bioassays of river water, soil and algal leachates, glucose, and commercial humate. We added inorganic nutrients (ammonium and phosphorus) to a subset of bioassays. We also amended a subset of river, soil, and commercial humate bioassays with glucose or algal leachates to test the hypothesis that unstable DOC primes consumption of more stable DOC. We used prior measurements of source-specific DOC bioavailability, linked with a Bayesian process model, to estimate means and posterior probability distributions for source-specific DOC decay rates in multisource bioassays. Modeled priming effects ranged from a -130 to +370% change in more stable DOC decay when incubated with unstable DOC. Glucose increased modeled river DOC decay by an average of 87% among all rivers. Glucose and algal leachates increased soil leachate and commercial humate decay by an average of 25% above background rates. Inorganic nutrient additions did not have consistent effects on DOC decay, likely because most of the study rivers had high ambient background nutrients. Our results demonstrate that the priming effect can augment DOC decay in rivers. In addition, Bayesian models can be used to estimate mechanisms driving aquatic ecosystem processes that are difficult to measure directly.

  19. Cognitive Processes in Associative and Categorical Priming: A Diffusion Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Andreas; Rothermund, Klaus; Gast, Anne; Wentura, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive processes and mechanisms underlying different forms of priming were investigated using a diffusion model approach. In a series of 6 experiments, effects of prime-target associations and of a semantic and affective categorical match of prime and target were analyzed for different tasks. Significant associative and categorical priming…

  20. Priming of Social Distance? Failure to Replicate Effects on Social and Food Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Pashler, Harold; Coburn, Noriko; Harris, Christine R.

    2012-01-01

    Williams and Bargh (2008) reported an experiment in which participants were simply asked to plot a single pair of points on a piece of graph paper, with the coordinates provided by the experimenter specifying a pair of points that lay at one of three different distances (close, intermediate, or far, relative to the range available on the graph paper). The participants who had graphed a more distant pair reported themselves as being significantly less close to members of their own family than did those who had plotted a more closely-situated pair. In another experiment, people's estimates of the caloric content of different foods were reportedly altered by the same type of spatial distance priming. Direct replications of both results were attempted, with precautions to ensure that the experimenter did not know what condition the participant was assigned to. The results showed no hint of the priming effects reported by Williams and Bargh (2008). PMID:22952597

  1. Priming of social distance? Failure to replicate effects on social and food judgments.

    PubMed

    Pashler, Harold; Coburn, Noriko; Harris, Christine R

    2012-01-01

    Williams and Bargh (2008) reported an experiment in which participants were simply asked to plot a single pair of points on a piece of graph paper, with the coordinates provided by the experimenter specifying a pair of points that lay at one of three different distances (close, intermediate, or far, relative to the range available on the graph paper). The participants who had graphed a more distant pair reported themselves as being significantly less close to members of their own family than did those who had plotted a more closely-situated pair. In another experiment, people's estimates of the caloric content of different foods were reportedly altered by the same type of spatial distance priming. Direct replications of both results were attempted, with precautions to ensure that the experimenter did not know what condition the participant was assigned to. The results showed no hint of the priming effects reported by Williams and Bargh (2008).

  2. Priming of social distance? Failure to replicate effects on social and food judgments.

    PubMed

    Pashler, Harold; Coburn, Noriko; Harris, Christine R

    2012-01-01

    Williams and Bargh (2008) reported an experiment in which participants were simply asked to plot a single pair of points on a piece of graph paper, with the coordinates provided by the experimenter specifying a pair of points that lay at one of three different distances (close, intermediate, or far, relative to the range available on the graph paper). The participants who had graphed a more distant pair reported themselves as being significantly less close to members of their own family than did those who had plotted a more closely-situated pair. In another experiment, people's estimates of the caloric content of different foods were reportedly altered by the same type of spatial distance priming. Direct replications of both results were attempted, with precautions to ensure that the experimenter did not know what condition the participant was assigned to. The results showed no hint of the priming effects reported by Williams and Bargh (2008). PMID:22952597

  3. Are flood-driven turbidity currents hot spots for priming effect in lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, Damien; Perga, Marie-Elodie

    2016-06-01

    In deep stratified lakes, such as Lake Geneva, flood-driven turbidity currents are thought to contribute to the replenishment of deep oxygen by significant transport of river waters saturated with oxygen into the hypolimnion. The overarching aim of this study was to test this long-standing hypothesis directly. It combines direct observational data collected during an extreme flooding event that occurred in May 2015 with dark bioassays designed to evaluate the consequences of river-borne inputs for the hypolimnetic respiration. The exceptional precipitation events of May 2015 caused floods with an annual return time for the Rhône River, the dominant tributary of Lake Geneva, and with 50-year return time for the Dranse River, the second-most important tributary. Sediment-loaded river flows generated turbidity currents plunging into the lake hypolimnion. The observed river intrusions contributed to the redistribution of dissolved oxygen, with no net gain, when occurring in the lowermost hypolimnetic layer. In the uppermost hypolimnion above the last deep-mixing event, the intrusions coincided with a net oxygen deficit. Consistent with field observations, dark bioassays showed that 1 to 50 % substitution of riverine organic matter to deep (< 200 m) hypolimnetic water did not affect microbial respiration, while the addition of 1 to 10 % of riverine water to the uppermost hypolimnetic waters resulted in a respiration over-yielding, i.e. excess respiration of both river-borne and lacustrine organic matter. The results of our study conflict with the hypothesis that flood-driven turbidity currents necessarily increase hypolimnetic oxygen stocks in Lake Geneva. In contrast, results show that flood-driven turbidity currents can be potential hot spots for priming effect in lakes.

  4. Water uptake, priming, drying and storage effects in Cassia excelsa Schrad seeds.

    PubMed

    Jeller, H; Perez, S C; Raizer, J

    2003-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of osmotic potential on the water uptake curve in Cassia excelsa seeds and use the results to analyze the effects of dehydration and storage on primed seed germination. Seeds were imbibed in distilled water and polyethylene glicol (PEG 6000) osmotic solutions at -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa, at 20 degrees C. The radicle emergence and seed moisture content were evaluated at 6-hour intervals during 240 hours. Afterwards, seeds were primed in distilled water and PEG 6000 solutions at -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa for 48, 72, 96, and 168 hours at 20 degrees C, followed by air drying and storage for 15 days at 5 degrees C. The lower the osmotic potential, the higher the time required for priming. The osmoconditioning yields benefits with PEG solutions at 0.0 and -0.2 MPa; seed improvements were maintained during storage for 15 days at 5 degrees C, but were reverted by seed drying.

  5. The effects of varenicline on methamphetamine self-administration and drug-primed reinstatement in female rats.

    PubMed

    Pittenger, Steven T; Barrett, Scott T; Chou, Shinnyi; Bevins, Rick A

    2016-03-01

    While research has revealed heightened vulnerability to meth addiction in women, preclinical models rarely use female subjects when investigating meth seeking and relapse. The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of varenicline (Chantix(®)), a partial α4β2 and full α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, on meth self-administration and reinstatement in female rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were surgically implanted with an indwelling jugular catheter. Half of the rats were then trained to self-administer meth (0.056 mg/kg/infusion) on a variable ratio 3 schedule of reinforcement; the other half earned intravenous saline during daily, 2h sessions. When responding stabilized, varenicline (0.0, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0mg/kg) was tested to determine how it altered meth taking. Varenicline was probed on 4 test days; each test separated by 2 standard self-administration sessions to assure responding remained stable. Following this testing was 15 extinction sessions. Twenty-four hours after the last extinction session were four consecutive days of meth-primed reinstatement. The same 4 doses of varenicline were examined to determine how it altered reinstatement triggered by 0.3mg/kg meth (IP). Rats readily self-administered meth. The higher doses of varenicline did not affect meth-taking in a specific fashion as active lever pressing was also slightly reduced in rats that has access to saline in the self-administration phase. Female rats displayed robust meth-primed reinstatement. Notably, the lower doses of varenicline increased meth-primed reinstatement. This amplified susceptibility to reinstatement (i.e., relapse) may be an impediment for the use of varenicline as a therapeutic to treat meth use disorder. PMID:26638833

  6. Domains of the cucumber mosaic virus 2b silencing suppressor protein affecting inhibition of salicylic acid-induced resistance and priming of salicylic acid accumulation during infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tao; Murphy, Alex M.; Lewsey, Mathew G.; Westwood, Jack H.; Zhang, Heng-Mu; González, Inmaculada; Canto, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b silencing suppressor protein allows the virus to overcome resistance to replication and local movement in inoculated leaves of plants treated with salicylic acid (SA), a resistance-inducing plant hormone. In Arabidopsis thaliana plants systemically infected with CMV, the 2b protein also primes the induction of SA biosynthesis during this compatible interaction. We found that CMV infection of susceptible tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) also induced SA accumulation. Utilization of mutant 2b proteins expressed during infection of tobacco showed that the N- and C-terminal domains, which had previously been implicated in regulation of symptom induction, were both required for subversion of SA-induced resistance, while all mutants tested except those affecting the putative phosphorylation domain had lost the ability to prime SA accumulation and expression of the SA-induced marker gene PR-1. PMID:24633701

  7. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizospher...

  8. It Matters How Much You Talk: On the Automaticity of Affective Connotations of First and Second Language Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degner, Juliane; Doycheva, Cveta; Wentura, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an affective priming study conducted with proficient sequential German and French bilinguals to assess automatic affective word processing in L1 and L2. Additionally, a semantic priming task was conducted in both languages. Whereas semantic priming effects occurred in L1 and L2, and significant affective priming effects…

  9. Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Devin; Fiacconi, Chris M.; Köhler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know (RK) paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift toward a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked. PMID:24795678

  10. Semantic priming effect during REM-sleep inertia in patients with narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Michela; Campi, Claudio; Mattarozzi, Katia; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Tuozzi, Giovanni; Vandi, Stefano; Vignatelli, Luca; Cipolli, Carlo

    2006-12-11

    Patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC) present excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy and an altered architecture of nocturnal sleep, with frequent episodes of REM-sleep at sleep onset (SOREM-sleep). This altered organization of nocturnal sleep may be accompanied by some differences in the functioning of the cognitive processes involved in the access, organization and consolidation of information during sleep. This study attempts to ascertain whether the activation of semantic memory during REM-sleep, as measured using a technique of semantic priming (namely, the facilitation of the activation of strongly-related rather than weakly-related and, overall, unrelated pairs of prime-target words) is different in NC patients compared to normal subjects. A lexical decision task (LDT) was carried out twice in wakefulness (at 10a.m. and after a 24h interval) and twice in the period of sleep inertia following awakening from SOREM and 4th-cycle REM-sleep on 12 NC patients and from 1st- and 4th-cycle REM-sleep on 12 matched controls. Reaction time (RT) to target words, taken as a measure of the semantic priming effect, proved to be longer (a) in NC patients than in control subjects; (b) in the period of REM-sleep inertia than in wakefulness; (c) in the first rather than the second session; and (d) for unrelated compared to weakly-related and, overall, strongly-related prime-target pairs. RT in post-REM-sleep sessions was less impaired, compared to waking sessions, and less dependent on the associative strength of prime-target pairs in NC patients than in normal subjects. Finally, RT of NC patients, although longer than that of normal subjects in waking sessions, significantly improved in the second session, as a consequence of either the amount of exercise or the consolidation advantage provided by REM-sleep for the procedural components of the task. The whole picture suggests a greater effectiveness of the activation of semantic memory during (SO)REM-sleep in NC

  11. The effect of priming a thin ideal on the subsequent perception of conceptually related body image words.

    PubMed

    Markis, Teresa A; McLennan, Conor T

    2011-09-01

    Our research examined the effects of thin ideal priming on the perception of body image words in participants without an eating disorder. Half of the participants were primed by viewing thin models, and half were primed with gender-neutral shoes. Subsequently, all participants (N=56) completed a Stroop task for three categories of words: neutral (BOOKS), shoe (CLOGS), and body (THIGHS). Lastly, all participants completed a body dissatisfaction questionnaire. We predicted that body dissatisfaction scores would be correlated with the Stroop effect. We found a significant correlation between body dissatisfaction and the body effect of slower color naming times for the body related words compared to the neutral words. Our study demonstrates that body dissatisfaction and a brief priming with thin models results in subsequent differences in performing a Stroop task in a non clinical population of female participants.

  12. An investigation of the time course of category congruence and priming distance effects in number classification tasks.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jason R; Lupker, Stephen J

    2012-09-01

    The issue investigated in the present research is the nature of the information that is responsible for producing masked priming effects (e.g., semantic information or stimulus-response [S-R] associations) when responding to number stimuli. This issue was addressed by assessing both the magnitude of the category congruence (priming) effect and the nature of the priming distance effect across trials using single-digit primes and targets. Participants made either magnitude (i.e., whether the number presented was larger or smaller than 5) or identification (i.e., press the left button if the number was either a 1, 2, 3, or 4 or the right button if the number was either a 6, 7, 8, or 9) judgments. The results indicated that, regardless of task instruction, there was a clear priming distance effect and a significantly increasing category congruence effect. These results indicated that both semantic activation and S-R associations play important roles in producing masked priming effects.

  13. Computational modeling of the negative priming effect based on inhibition patterns and working memory

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Dongil; Raz, Amir; Lee, Jaewon; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2013-01-01

    Negative priming (NP), slowing down of the response for target stimuli that have been previously exposed, but ignored, has been reported in multiple psychological paradigms including the Stroop task. Although NP likely results from the interplay of selective attention, episodic memory retrieval, working memory, and inhibition mechanisms, a comprehensive theoretical account of NP is currently unavailable. This lacuna may result from the complexity of stimuli combinations in NP. Thus, we aimed to investigate the presence of different degrees of the NP effect according to prime-probe combinations within a classic Stroop task. We recorded reaction times (RTs) from 66 healthy participants during Stroop task performance and examined three different NP subtypes, defined according to the type of the Stroop probe in prime-probe pairs. Our findings show significant RT differences among NP subtypes that are putatively due to the presence of differential disinhibition, i.e., release from inhibition. Among the several potential origins for differential subtypes of NP, we investigated the involvement of selective attention and/or working memory using a parallel distributed processing (PDP) model (employing selective attention only) and a modified PDP model with working memory (PDP-WM, employing both selective attention and working memory). Our findings demonstrate that, unlike the conventional PDP model, the PDP-WM successfully simulates different levels of NP effects that closely follow the behavioral data. This outcome suggests that working memory engages in the re-accumulation of the evidence for target response and induces differential NP effects. Our computational model complements earlier efforts and may pave the road to further insights into an integrated theoretical account of complex NP effects. PMID:24312046

  14. A genetic locus and gene expression patterns associated with the priming effect on lettuce seed germination at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Schwember, Andrés R; Bradford, Kent J

    2010-05-01

    Seeds of most cultivated varieties of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) fail to germinate at warm temperatures (i.e., above 25-30 degrees C). Seed priming (controlled hydration followed by drying) alleviates this thermoinhibition by increasing the maximum germination temperature. We conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of seed germination responses to priming using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between L. sativa cv. Salinas and L. serriola accession UC96US23. Priming significantly increased the maximum germination temperature of the RIL population, and a single major QTL was responsible for 47% of the phenotypic variation due to priming. This QTL collocated with Htg6.1, a major QTL from UC96US23 associated with high temperature germination capacity. Seeds of three near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying an Htg6.1 introgression from UC96US23 in a Salinas genetic background exhibited synergistic increases in maximum germination temperature in response to priming. LsNCED4, a gene encoding a key enzyme (9-cis-epoxycarotinoid dioxygenase) in the abscisic acid biosynthetic pathway, maps precisely with Htg6.1. Expression of LsNCED4 after imbibition for 24 h at high temperature was greater in non-primed seeds of Salinas, of a second cultivar (Titan) and of NILs containing Htg6.1 compared to primed seeds of the same genotypes. In contrast, expression of genes encoding regulated enzymes in the gibberellin and ethylene biosynthetic pathways (LsGA3ox1 and LsACS1, respectively) was enhanced by priming and suppressed by imbibition at elevated temperatures. Developmental and temperature regulation of hormonal biosynthetic pathways is associated with seed priming effects on germination temperature sensitivity.

  15. Phonological effects in handwriting production: evidence from the implicit priming paradigm.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Olivia; Álvarez, Carlos J

    2011-11-01

    In the present article, we report 3 experiments using the odd-man-out variant of the implicit priming paradigm, aimed at determining the role played by phonological information during the handwriting process. Participants were asked to write a small set of words learned in response to prompts. Within each block, response words could share initial segments (constant homogeneous) or not (heterogeneous). Also, 2 variable homogeneous blocks were created by including a response word that did not share orthographic onset with the other response (odd-man-out). This odd-man-out could be phonologically related to the targets or not. Experiment 1 showed a preparation effect in the constant homogeneous condition, which disappeared (spoil effect) in the variable condition not phonologically related. However, no spoil effect was found when the odd-man-out shared the phonological initial segment with the targets. In Experiment 2, we obtained a spoil effect in the variable phonologically related condition, but it was significantly smaller than in the variable not phonologically related condition. The effects observed in Experiment 2 vanished in Experiment 3 under articulatory suppression, suggesting that they originated at a sublexical level. These findings suggest that phonological sublexical information is used during handwriting and provide evidence that the implicit priming paradigm (and the odd-man-out version of this) is a suitable tool for handwriting production research.

  16. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts—orthographically related, but which—in their commonly written form—share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  17. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts-orthographically related, but which-in their commonly written form-share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  18. The Effects of Feature-Based Priming and Visual Working Memory on Oculomotor Capture

    PubMed Central

    Silvis, Jeroen D.; Belopolsky, Artem V.; Murris, Jozua W. I.; Donk, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that objects held in working memory can influence rapid oculomotor selection. This has been taken as evidence that perceptual salience can be modified by active working memory representations. The goal of the present study was to examine whether these results could also be caused by feature-based priming. In two experiments, participants were asked to saccade to a target line segment of a certain orientation that was presented together with a to-be-ignored distractor. Both objects were given a task-irrelevant color that varied per trial. In a secondary task, a color had to be memorized, and that color could either match the color of the target, match the color of the distractor, or it did not match the color of any of the objects in the search task. The memory task was completed either after the search task (Experiment 1), or before it (Experiment 2). The results showed that in both experiments the memorized color biased oculomotor selection. Eye movements were more frequently drawn towards objects that matched the memorized color, irrespective of whether the memory task was completed after (Experiment 1) or before (Experiment 2) the search task. This bias was particularly prevalent in short-latency saccades. The results show that early oculomotor selection performance is not only affected by properties that are actively maintained in working memory but also by those previously memorized. Both working memory and feature priming can cause early biases in oculomotor selection. PMID:26566137

  19. Interactions between recalcitrant and labile organic carbon in streams - Can stream biofilms mediate a priming effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, M. M.; Wagner, K.; Herberg, E. R.; Burns, N. R.; Wanek, W.; Battin, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    Inland waters - such as streams, rivers and lakes - are increasingly recognized as important components in the global carbon cycle. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in these systems is diverse in structure, origin and reactivity, and a fraction of it is regarded as recalcitrant to microbial degradation. In soils, degradation of recalcitrant carbon is often controlled by the availability of labile carbon sources. This is linked to the priming effect (PE). Mounting evidence suggests that PE is also important in aquatic ecosystems but there are so far very few studies addressing this topic. Biofilms are vital components of aquatic ecosystems. In stream biofilms, heterotrophic bacteria and algae coexist in close proximity, exposing the bacteria to both recalcitrant DOC of terrestrial origin and labile organic carbon from the algae. We hypothesize that this makes stream biofilms hotspots for PE. We used plug-flow bioreactors inoculated with natural stream biofilm bacterial communities to test the potential of a priming effect in aquatic ecosystems. The bioreactors were amended with an isotope-labeled plant extract serving as a model of recalcitrant DOC in streams. Labile carbon sources, in the form of glucose and an algal extract were added to induce PE. Nitrate and phosphate were also added to assess the role of these inorganic nutrients on carbon uptake. Microbial uptake of the different carbon sources was monitored by measuring the concentrations and isotopic ratios of respired CO2, biomass and DOC. Our results suggest that the priming effect plays a role in stream carbon cycling and that it is potentially an important process in other aquatic ecosystems.

  20. Repetition priming in the stop signal task: the electrophysiology of sequential effects of stopping.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, J F E; Roger, C; Assecondi, S; Verbruggen, F; Fias, W

    2012-10-01

    Inhibition of a response affects the processing of subsequent stimuli. When a response has to be made to a stimulus to which a response was previously inhibited, response time increases. In this study, we investigated the neurophysiological underpinnings of this repetition priming phenomenon. We aimed at distinguishing between two possible mechanisms. Firstly, it could be that slowing after a successful inhibition trial originates at the response execution level and is due to the reactivation of the system responsible for motor inhibition interfering with execution of the go response. The second possibility is that interference occurs at the more abstract level of conflicting action goals or plans (i.e. "stop" and "go") that are activated prior to response execution. We analyzed activity over primary motor cortices and the parietal cortex in a stop signal task. Stimulus repetition led to a decrease in activity over primary motor cortices but irrespective of history of stopping. Stopping on the previous trial did affect the stimulus-locked parietal P300 only on repetition of the stimulus, mimicking the behavioral pattern. Furthermore, the P300 was lateralized and affected by both stimulus onset and response time, suggesting that the interference caused by inhibition priming is situated between stimulus perception and response execution. Taken together, these findings show that the prolonged response times to a stimulus that was previously successfully inhibited to, do not originate from reactivated suppression of motor output, but are caused by interference between a stop and a go goal in parietal cortex that hampers translation from stimulus to response.

  1. Effects of Contextual Similarity and Target-Repetition Proportion on Negative Priming in RT Distributional Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Hutchison, Keith A.; Li, Yongna

    2011-01-01

    Participants' reaction time (RT) data in a prime-probe flanker task (e.g., ABA-CAC) were analyzed in terms of the characteristics of RT distribution to examine possible mechanisms that produce negative priming. When the prime and probe were presented in the same context and the proportion of repetition-target trials (TRP) was 0.33, negative…

  2. Effects of hormonal priming on seed germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Sneideris, Larissa C; Gavassi, Marina A; Campos, Marcelo L; D'Amico-Damião, Victor; Carvalho, Rogério F

    2015-09-01

    In this work we investigated whether priming with auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and ethylene, alters the physiological responses of seeds of pigeon pea germinated under water and cadmium stress. Seeds treated with water or non-treated seeds were used as control. Although compared to non-treated seeds we found that the hormone treatments improve the germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress, however, these treatments did not differ from water. However, we also observed a trend of tolerance to the effects of cadmium in the presence of ethylene, suggesting that the use of this hormone may be an efficient method to overcome seed germination under metal stress. PMID:26221985

  3. Effects of hormonal priming on seed germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Sneideris, Larissa C; Gavassi, Marina A; Campos, Marcelo L; D'Amico-Damião, Victor; Carvalho, Rogério F

    2015-09-01

    In this work we investigated whether priming with auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and ethylene, alters the physiological responses of seeds of pigeon pea germinated under water and cadmium stress. Seeds treated with water or non-treated seeds were used as control. Although compared to non-treated seeds we found that the hormone treatments improve the germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress, however, these treatments did not differ from water. However, we also observed a trend of tolerance to the effects of cadmium in the presence of ethylene, suggesting that the use of this hormone may be an efficient method to overcome seed germination under metal stress.

  4. Boundary conditions for the influence of unfamiliar non-target primes in unconscious evaluative priming: The moderating role of attentional task sets.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Markus; Sim, Eun-Jim; Wentura, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Evaluative priming by masked emotional stimuli that are not consciously perceived has been taken as evidence that affective stimulus evaluation can also occur unconsciously. However, as masked priming effects were small and frequently observed only for familiar primes that there also presented as visible targets in an evaluative decision task, priming was thought to reflect primarily response activation based on acquired S-R associations and not evaluative semantic stimulus analysis. The present study therefore assessed across three experiments boundary conditions for the emergence of masked evaluative priming effects with unfamiliar primes in an evaluative decision task and investigated the role of the frequency of target repetition on priming with pictorial and verbal stimuli. While familiar primes elicited robust priming effects in all conditions, priming effects by unfamiliar primes were reliably obtained for low repetition (pictures) or unrepeated targets (words), but not for targets repeated at a high frequency. This suggests that unfamiliar masked stimuli only elicit evaluative priming effects when the task set associated with the visible target involves evaluative semantic analysis and is not based on S-R triggered responding as for high repetition targets. The present results therefore converge with the growing body of evidence demonstrating attentional control influences on unconscious processing. PMID:25680827

  5. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour.

  6. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour. PMID:26210606

  7. From primed concepts to action: A meta-analysis of the behavioral effects of incidentally presented words.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Evan; Chen, Qijia; McAdams, Maxwell; Yi, Jessica; Hepler, Justin; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-05-01

    A meta-analysis assessed the behavioral impact of and psychological processes associated with presenting words connected to an action or a goal representation. The average and distribution of 352 effect sizes (analyzed using fixed-effects and random-effects models) was obtained from 133 studies (84 reports) in which word primes were incidentally presented to participants, with a nonopposite control group, before measuring a behavioral dependent variable. Findings revealed a small behavioral priming effect (dFE = 0.332, dRE = 0.352), which was robust across methodological procedures and only minimally biased by the publication of positive (vs. negative) results. Theory testing analyses indicated that more valued behavior or goal concepts (e.g., associated with important outcomes or values) were associated with stronger priming effects than were less valued behaviors. Furthermore, there was some evidence of persistence of goal effects over time. These results support the notion that goal activation contributes over and above perception-behavior in explaining priming effects. In summary, theorizing about the role of value and satisfaction in goal activation pointed to stronger effects of a behavior or goal concept on overt action. There was no evidence that expectancy (ease of achieving the goal) moderated priming effects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26689090

  8. Priming effect of abscisic acid on alkaline stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li-Xing; Lv, Bing-Sheng; Wang, Ming-Ming; Ma, Hong-Yuan; Yang, Hao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Chang-Jie; Liang, Zheng-Wei

    2015-05-01

    Saline-alkaline stress is characterized by high salinity and high alkalinity (high pH); alkaline stress has been shown to be the primary factor inhibiting rice seedling growth. In this study, we investigated the potential priming effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on tolerance of rice seedlings to alkaline stress simulated by Na2CO3. Seedlings were pretreated with ABA at concentrations of 0 (control), 10, and 50 μM by root-drench for 24 h and then transferred to a Na2CO3 solution that did not contain ABA. Compared to control treatment, pretreatment with ABA substantially improved the survival rate of rice seedlings and increased biomass accumulation after 7 days under the alkaline condition. ABA application at 10 μM also alleviated the inhibitory effects of alkaline stress on the total root length and root surface area. Physiologically, ABA increased relative water content (RWC) and decreased cell membrane injury degree (MI) and Na(+)/K(+) ratios. In contrast, fluridone (an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) decreased the RWC and increased MI in shoots under the alkaline conditions. These data suggest that ABA has a potent priming effect on the adaptive response to alkaline stress in rice and may be useful for improving rice growth in saline-alkaline paddy fields.

  9. Priming effect in agricultural and forest soils depending on glucose level and N addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splettstoesser, Thomas; Kumar, Amit; Sun, Yue

    2015-04-01

    Growing plants continuously release easily available organic compounds into the rhizosphere. By their interactions with soil microbial biomass (MB) these compounds result in changes of organic matter turnover rates. The understanding of this priming effect (PE) is important for the estimation of climate change impacts on different land use systems. In order to investigate the PE, we conducted a soil incubation experiment under laboratory conditions with two loamy soils: one under cropland and the second under a deciduous forest near Göttingen. 13C and 14C Glucose were added in four levels reaching from 10% to 300% of MB-C. Furthermore two nitrogen levels were established in order to investigate the effects of fertilization on PE. During the whole experiment CO2 release was monitored by trapping in a NaOH solution. Nitrogen mineralization rate, activity of enzymes, and composition of MB were analyzed at the start, after one day, after one week and at the end of the experiment. The results on priming effects induced in agricultural and forest soils depending on N and glucose levels will be presented.

  10. Promoting the avoidance of high-calorie snacks: priming autonomy moderates message framing effects.

    PubMed

    Pavey, Louisa; Churchill, Sue

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial effects of gain-framed vs. loss-framed messages promoting health protective behaviors have been found to be inconsistent, and consideration of potential moderating variables is essential if framed health promotion messages are to be effective. This research aimed to determine the influence of highlighting autonomy (choice and freedom) and heteronomy (coercion) on the avoidance of high-calorie snacks following reading gain-framed or loss-framed health messages. In Study 1 (N = 152) participants completed an autonomy, neutral, or heteronomy priming task, and read a gain-framed or loss-framed health message. In Study 2 (N = 242) participants read a gain-framed or loss-framed health message with embedded autonomy or heteronomy primes. In both studies, snacking intentions and behavior were recorded after seven days. In both studies, when autonomy was highlighted, the gain-framed message (compared to the loss-framed message) resulted in stronger intentions to avoid high-calorie snacks, and lower self-reported snack consumption after seven days. Study 2 demonstrated this effect occurred only for participants to whom the information was most relevant (BMI>25). The results suggest that messages promoting healthy dietary behavior may be more persuasive if the autonomy-supportive vs. coercive nature of the health information is matched to the message frame. Further research is needed to examine potential mediating processes. PMID:25078965

  11. Promoting the Avoidance of High-Calorie Snacks: Priming Autonomy Moderates Message Framing Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pavey, Louisa; Churchill, Sue

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial effects of gain-framed vs. loss-framed messages promoting health protective behaviors have been found to be inconsistent, and consideration of potential moderating variables is essential if framed health promotion messages are to be effective. This research aimed to determine the influence of highlighting autonomy (choice and freedom) and heteronomy (coercion) on the avoidance of high-calorie snacks following reading gain-framed or loss-framed health messages. In Study 1 (N = 152) participants completed an autonomy, neutral, or heteronomy priming task, and read a gain-framed or loss-framed health message. In Study 2 (N = 242) participants read a gain-framed or loss-framed health message with embedded autonomy or heteronomy primes. In both studies, snacking intentions and behavior were recorded after seven days. In both studies, when autonomy was highlighted, the gain-framed message (compared to the loss-framed message) resulted in stronger intentions to avoid high-calorie snacks, and lower self-reported snack consumption after seven days. Study 2 demonstrated this effect occurred only for participants to whom the information was most relevant (BMI>25). The results suggest that messages promoting healthy dietary behavior may be more persuasive if the autonomy-supportive vs. coercive nature of the health information is matched to the message frame. Further research is needed to examine potential mediating processes. PMID:25078965

  12. Priming effect of abscisic acid on alkaline stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li-Xing; Lv, Bing-Sheng; Wang, Ming-Ming; Ma, Hong-Yuan; Yang, Hao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Chang-Jie; Liang, Zheng-Wei

    2015-05-01

    Saline-alkaline stress is characterized by high salinity and high alkalinity (high pH); alkaline stress has been shown to be the primary factor inhibiting rice seedling growth. In this study, we investigated the potential priming effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on tolerance of rice seedlings to alkaline stress simulated by Na2CO3. Seedlings were pretreated with ABA at concentrations of 0 (control), 10, and 50 μM by root-drench for 24 h and then transferred to a Na2CO3 solution that did not contain ABA. Compared to control treatment, pretreatment with ABA substantially improved the survival rate of rice seedlings and increased biomass accumulation after 7 days under the alkaline condition. ABA application at 10 μM also alleviated the inhibitory effects of alkaline stress on the total root length and root surface area. Physiologically, ABA increased relative water content (RWC) and decreased cell membrane injury degree (MI) and Na(+)/K(+) ratios. In contrast, fluridone (an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) decreased the RWC and increased MI in shoots under the alkaline conditions. These data suggest that ABA has a potent priming effect on the adaptive response to alkaline stress in rice and may be useful for improving rice growth in saline-alkaline paddy fields. PMID:25780993

  13. Individual differences in the joint effects of semantic priming and word frequency: The role of lexical integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Melvin J.; Tse, Chi-Shing; Balota, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Word frequency and semantic priming effects are among the most robust effects in visual word recognition, and it has been generally assumed that these two variables produce interactive effects in lexical decision performance, with larger priming effects for low-frequency targets. The results from four lexical decision experiments indicate that the joint effects of semantic priming and word frequency are critically dependent upon differences in the vocabulary knowledge of the participants. Specifically, across two Universities, additive effects of the two variables were observed in participants with more vocabulary knowledge, while interactive effects were observed in participants with less vocabulary knowledge. These results are discussed with reference to Borowsky and Besner’s (1993) multistage account and Plaut and Booth’s (2000) single-mechanism model. In general, the findings are also consistent with a flexible lexical processing system that optimizes performance based on processing fluency and task demands. PMID:20161653

  14. The Therapeutic Effects of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Primed with Sphingosine-1 Phosphate on Pulmonary Artery Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyunsook; Kim, Kang-Hyun; Lim, Jisun; Kim, You-Sun; Heo, Jinbeom; Choi, Jongjin; Jeong, Jaeho; Kim, YongHwan; Kim, Seong Who; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Choo, Myung-Soo; Son, Jaekyoung; Kim, Su Jung; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Oh, Wonil; Choi, Soo Jin

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell (SC) therapy has become a potential treatment modality for pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH), but the efficacy of human SC and priming effects have not yet been established. The mobilization and homing of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are modulated by priming factors that include a bioactive lipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which stimulates CXCR4 receptor kinase signaling. Here, we show that priming human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with S1P enhances their therapeutic efficacy in PAH. Human MSCs, similar to HSCs, showed stronger chemoattraction to S1P in transwell assays. Concomitantly, MSCs treated with 0.2 μM S1P showed increased phosphorylation of both MAPKp42/44 and AKT protein compared with nonprimed MSCs. Furthermore, S1P-primed MSCs potentiated colony forming unit-fibroblast, anti-inflammatory, and angiogenic activities of MSCs in culture. In a PAH animal model induced by subcutaneously injected monocrotaline, administration of human cord blood-derived MSCs (hCB-MSCs) or S1P-primed cells significantly attenuated the elevated right ventricular systolic pressure. Notably, S1P-primed CB-MSCs, but not unprimed hCB-MSCs, also elicited a significant reduction in the right ventricular weight ratio and pulmonary vascular wall thickness. S1P-primed MSCs enhanced the expression of several genes responsible for stem cell trafficking and angiogenesis, increasing the density of blood vessels in the damaged lungs. Thus, this study demonstrates that human MSCs have potential utility for the treatment of PAH, and that S1P priming increases the effects of SC therapy by enhancing cardiac and vascular remodeling. By optimizing this protocol in future studies, SC therapy might form a basis for clinical trials to treat human PAH. PMID:25761906

  15. Priming Gestures with Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Guillaume; Heller, Laurie M.; Navolio, Nicole; Zúñiga-Peñaranda, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We report a series of experiments about a little-studied type of compatibility effect between a stimulus and a response: the priming of manual gestures via sounds associated with these gestures. The goal was to investigate the plasticity of the gesture-sound associations mediating this type of priming. Five experiments used a primed choice-reaction task. Participants were cued by a stimulus to perform response gestures that produced response sounds; those sounds were also used as primes before the response cues. We compared arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds (key lifts and pure tones) created during the experiment (i.e. no pre-existing knowledge) with ecological associations corresponding to the structure of the world (tapping gestures and sounds, scraping gestures and sounds) learned through the entire life of the participant (thus existing prior to the experiment). Two results were found. First, the priming effect exists for ecological as well as arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds. Second, the priming effect is greatly reduced for ecologically existing associations and is eliminated for arbitrary associations when the response gesture stops producing the associated sounds. These results provide evidence that auditory-motor priming is mainly created by rapid learning of the association between sounds and the gestures that produce them. Auditory-motor priming is therefore mediated by short-term associations between gestures and sounds that can be readily reconfigured regardless of prior knowledge. PMID:26544884

  16. Boron Induces Lymphocyte Proliferation and Modulates the Priming Effects of Lipopolysaccharide on Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Routray, Indusmita; Ali, Shakir

    2016-01-01

    Chemical mediators of inflammation (CMI) are important in host defense against infection. The reduced capacity of host to induce the secretion of these mediators following infection is one of the factors in host susceptibility to infection. Boron, which has been suggested for its role in infection, is reported in this study to increase lymphocyte proliferation and the secretion of CMI by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages in BALB/c mice. Boron was administered to mice orally as borax at different doses for 10 consecutive days, followed by the stimulation of animals with ovalbumin and isolation of splenocytes for proliferation assay. The lymphocyte subsets were determined by flow cytometry in spleen cell suspension. The mediators of inflammation, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and nitric oxide (NO), were measured in culture supernatant of LPS-primed macrophages isolated from borax treated mice. TNF and ILs were measured by ELISA. NO was determined by Griess test. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in macrophages was studied by confocal microscopy. Results showed a significant increase in T and B cell populations, as indicated by an increase in CD4 and CD19, but not CD8, cells. Boron further stimulated the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, NO and the expression of iNOS by the LPS-primed macrophages. The effect was dose dependent and most significant at a dose level of 4.6 mg/kg b. wt. Taken together, the study concludes that boron at physiological concentration induces lymphocyte proliferation and increases the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by the LPS-primed macrophages, more specifically the M1 macrophages, possibly acting through Toll-like receptor. The study implicates boron as a regulator of the immune and inflammatory reactions and macrophage polarization, thus playing an important role in augmenting host defense against infection, with possible role in cancer and other diseases. PMID:26934748

  17. Boron Induces Lymphocyte Proliferation and Modulates the Priming Effects of Lipopolysaccharide on Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Routray, Indusmita; Ali, Shakir

    2016-01-01

    Chemical mediators of inflammation (CMI) are important in host defense against infection. The reduced capacity of host to induce the secretion of these mediators following infection is one of the factors in host susceptibility to infection. Boron, which has been suggested for its role in infection, is reported in this study to increase lymphocyte proliferation and the secretion of CMI by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages in BALB/c mice. Boron was administered to mice orally as borax at different doses for 10 consecutive days, followed by the stimulation of animals with ovalbumin and isolation of splenocytes for proliferation assay. The lymphocyte subsets were determined by flow cytometry in spleen cell suspension. The mediators of inflammation, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and nitric oxide (NO), were measured in culture supernatant of LPS-primed macrophages isolated from borax treated mice. TNF and ILs were measured by ELISA. NO was determined by Griess test. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in macrophages was studied by confocal microscopy. Results showed a significant increase in T and B cell populations, as indicated by an increase in CD4 and CD19, but not CD8, cells. Boron further stimulated the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, NO and the expression of iNOS by the LPS-primed macrophages. The effect was dose dependent and most significant at a dose level of 4.6 mg/kg b. wt. Taken together, the study concludes that boron at physiological concentration induces lymphocyte proliferation and increases the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by the LPS-primed macrophages, more specifically the M1 macrophages, possibly acting through Toll-like receptor. The study implicates boron as a regulator of the immune and inflammatory reactions and macrophage polarization, thus playing an important role in augmenting host defense against infection, with possible role in cancer and other diseases. PMID:26934748

  18. Boron Induces Lymphocyte Proliferation and Modulates the Priming Effects of Lipopolysaccharide on Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Routray, Indusmita; Ali, Shakir

    2016-01-01

    Chemical mediators of inflammation (CMI) are important in host defense against infection. The reduced capacity of host to induce the secretion of these mediators following infection is one of the factors in host susceptibility to infection. Boron, which has been suggested for its role in infection, is reported in this study to increase lymphocyte proliferation and the secretion of CMI by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages in BALB/c mice. Boron was administered to mice orally as borax at different doses for 10 consecutive days, followed by the stimulation of animals with ovalbumin and isolation of splenocytes for proliferation assay. The lymphocyte subsets were determined by flow cytometry in spleen cell suspension. The mediators of inflammation, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and nitric oxide (NO), were measured in culture supernatant of LPS-primed macrophages isolated from borax treated mice. TNF and ILs were measured by ELISA. NO was determined by Griess test. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in macrophages was studied by confocal microscopy. Results showed a significant increase in T and B cell populations, as indicated by an increase in CD4 and CD19, but not CD8, cells. Boron further stimulated the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, NO and the expression of iNOS by the LPS-primed macrophages. The effect was dose dependent and most significant at a dose level of 4.6 mg/kg b. wt. Taken together, the study concludes that boron at physiological concentration induces lymphocyte proliferation and increases the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by the LPS-primed macrophages, more specifically the M1 macrophages, possibly acting through Toll-like receptor. The study implicates boron as a regulator of the immune and inflammatory reactions and macrophage polarization, thus playing an important role in augmenting host defense against infection, with possible role in cancer and other diseases.

  19. Social priming of dyslexia and reduction of the Stroop effect: what component of the Stroop effect is actually reduced?

    PubMed

    Augustinova, Maria; Ferrand, Ludovic

    2014-03-01

    Recently, Goldfarb, Aisenberg, and Henik (2011) showed that in a manual format of the Stroop task, dyslexia priming eliminates the normal magnitude of the interference-based Stroop-like findings otherwise exhibited by individuals participating in such research. Goldfarb et al. (2011) consequently concluded that the effect of word reading in a Stroop task (i.e., one automatic behavior) can be effectively controlled through an automatic instruction "do not read" (i.e., another automatic behavior). The present study further investigated these ideas by examining when and how dyslexia priming controls different processes involved in a Stroop task. To this end, the original finding was first replicated (Experiment 1) and subsequently extended to the vocal (instead of manual) response modality to examine whether previously reported eliminations of the Stroop effect persist with this response format (i.e., format producing larger Stroop effects). Since past work (e.g., Augustinova & Ferrand, 2012a; Brown, Joneleit et al., 2002; Ferrand & Augustinova, 2013) had suggested that various interventions were likely to reduce (rather than eliminate) the interference-based Stroop-like findings with vocal responses, a further aim of these experiments was to identify the component of these findings that dyslexia priming actually reduces. To this end, the effects of this intervention were examined in a more fine-grained variant of the Stroop task that distinguished between interference resulting from task-irrelevant processes involved in computing the lexical and semantic representations of the word (i.e., a written distractor to ignore) and task-relevant processes involved in the selection of a response (i.e., a color target to name) that are both involved in this task. In line with our past work (e.g., Augustinova & Ferrand, 2012a; Ferrand & Augustinova, 2013), the results of two experiments (Experiments 2 and 3) showed that in the vocal format, dyslexia priming reduces but does not

  20. Smelly primes – when olfactory primes do or do not work

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, M. A. M.; Dijksterhuis, G. B.

    2014-01-01

    In applied olfactory cognition the effects that olfactory stimulation can have on (human) behavior are investigated. To enable an efficient application of olfactory stimuli a model of how they may lead to a change in behavior is proposed. To this end we use the concept of olfactory priming. Olfactory priming may prompt a special view on priming as the olfactory sense has some unique properties which make odors special types of primes. Examples of such properties are the ability of odors to influence our behavior outside of awareness, to lead to strong affective evaluations, to evoke specific memories, and to associate easily and quickly to other environmental stimuli. Opportunities and limitations for using odors as primes are related to these properties, and alternative explanations for reported findings are offered. Implications for olfactory semantic, construal, behavior and goal priming are given based on a brief overview of the priming literature from social psychology and from olfactory perception science. We end by formulating recommendations and ideas for a future research agenda and applications for olfactory priming. PMID:24575071

  1. The modality-switch effect: visually and aurally presented prime sentences activate our senses.

    PubMed

    Scerrati, Elisa; Baroni, Giulia; Borghi, Anna M; Galatolo, Renata; Lugli, Luisa; Nicoletti, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Verifying different sensory modality properties for concepts results in a processing cost known as the modality-switch effect. It has been argued that this cognitive cost is the result of a perceptual simulation. This paper extends this argument and reports an experiment investigating whether the effect is the result of an activation of sensory information which can also be triggered by perceptual linguistically described stimuli. Participants were first exposed to a prime sentence describing a light or a sound's perceptual property (e.g., "The light is flickering", "The sound is echoing"), then required to perform a property-verification task on a target sentence (e.g., "Butter is yellowish", "Leaves rustle"). The content modalities of the prime and target sentences could be compatible (i.e., in the same modality: e.g., visual-visual) or not (i.e., in different modalities). Crucially, we manipulated the stimuli's presentation modality such that half of the participants was faced with written sentences while the other half was faced with aurally presented sentences. Results show a cost when two different modalities alternate, compared to when the same modality is repeated with both visual and aural stimuli presentations. This result supports the embodied and grounded cognition view which claims that conceptual knowledge is grounded into the perceptual system. Specifically, this evidence suggests that sensory modalities can be pre-activated through the simulation of either read or listened linguistic stimuli describing visual or acoustic perceptual properties.

  2. Testing the Affiliation Hypothesis of Homoerotic Motivation in Humans: The Effects of Progesterone and Priming.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Diana S; Fessler, Daniel M T; Cholakians, Argine Evelyn

    2015-07-01

    The frequency of homoerotic behavior among individuals who do not identify as having an exclusively homosexual sexual orientation suggests that such behavior potentially has adaptive value. Here, we define homoerotic behavior as intimate erotic contact between members of the same sex and affiliation as the motivation to make and maintain social bonds. Among both male and female nonhuman primates, affiliation is one of the main drivers of homoerotic behavior. Correspondingly, in humans, both across cultures and across historical periods, homoerotic behavior appears to play a role in promoting social bonds. However, to date, the affiliation explanation of human homoerotic behavior has not been adequately tested experimentally. We developed a measure of homoerotic motivation with a sample of 244 men and women. Next, we found that, in women (n = 92), homoerotic motivation was positively associated with progesterone, a hormone that has been shown to promote affiliative bonding. Lastly, we explored the effects of affiliative contexts on homoerotic motivation in men (n = 59), finding that men in an affiliative priming condition were more likely to endorse engaging in homoerotic behavior compared to those primed with neutral or sexual concepts, and this effect was more pronounced in men with high progesterone. These findings constitute the first experimental support for the affiliation account of the evolution of homoerotic motivation in humans. PMID:25420899

  3. Neural Processing of Familiar and Unfamiliar Children's Faces: Effects of Experienced Love Withdrawal, but No Effects of Neutral and Threatening Priming.

    PubMed

    Heckendorf, Esther; Huffmeijer, Renske; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2016-01-01

    In the face of a potential threat to his or her child, a parent's caregiving system becomes activated, motivating the parent to protect and care for the child. However, the neural correlates of these responses are not yet well understood. The current study was a pilot study to investigate the processing of subliminally presented threatening primes and their effects on neural responses to familiar and unfamiliar children's faces. In addition, we studied potential moderating effects of empathy and childhood experiences of love-withdrawal. A total of 45 students participated in an fMRI experiment in which they were shown pictures of familiar children (pictures morphed to resemble the participant like an own child would) and unfamiliar children preceded by neutral and threatening primes. Participants completed a modified version of the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory to measure parental love withdrawal, and the Empathic Concern scale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index to measure affective empathy. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find evidence for subliminal priming effects. However, we did find enhanced activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; involved in self-referential processing) and in face processing areas (infero-lateral occipital cortex and fusiform areas) in response to the familiar child, indicating preferential processing of these faces. Effects of familiarity in face processing areas were larger for participants reporting more love withdrawal, suggesting enhanced attention to and processing of these highly attachment relevant stimuli. Unfamiliar faces elicited enhanced activity in bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) and other regions associated with theory of mind (ToM), which may indicate more effortful ToM processing of these faces. We discuss the potential difference between a familiarity and a caregiving effect triggered by the morphed faces, and emphasize the need for replication in parents with pictures of

  4. Neural Processing of Familiar and Unfamiliar Children’s Faces: Effects of Experienced Love Withdrawal, but No Effects of Neutral and Threatening Priming

    PubMed Central

    Heckendorf, Esther; Huffmeijer, Renske; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2016-01-01

    In the face of a potential threat to his or her child, a parent’s caregiving system becomes activated, motivating the parent to protect and care for the child. However, the neural correlates of these responses are not yet well understood. The current study was a pilot study to investigate the processing of subliminally presented threatening primes and their effects on neural responses to familiar and unfamiliar children’s faces. In addition, we studied potential moderating effects of empathy and childhood experiences of love-withdrawal. A total of 45 students participated in an fMRI experiment in which they were shown pictures of familiar children (pictures morphed to resemble the participant like an own child would) and unfamiliar children preceded by neutral and threatening primes. Participants completed a modified version of the Children’s Report of Parental Behavior Inventory to measure parental love withdrawal, and the Empathic Concern scale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index to measure affective empathy. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find evidence for subliminal priming effects. However, we did find enhanced activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; involved in self-referential processing) and in face processing areas (infero-lateral occipital cortex and fusiform areas) in response to the familiar child, indicating preferential processing of these faces. Effects of familiarity in face processing areas were larger for participants reporting more love withdrawal, suggesting enhanced attention to and processing of these highly attachment relevant stimuli. Unfamiliar faces elicited enhanced activity in bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) and other regions associated with theory of mind (ToM), which may indicate more effortful ToM processing of these faces. We discuss the potential difference between a familiarity and a caregiving effect triggered by the morphed faces, and emphasize the need for replication in parents with pictures

  5. Neural Processing of Familiar and Unfamiliar Children's Faces: Effects of Experienced Love Withdrawal, but No Effects of Neutral and Threatening Priming.

    PubMed

    Heckendorf, Esther; Huffmeijer, Renske; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2016-01-01

    In the face of a potential threat to his or her child, a parent's caregiving system becomes activated, motivating the parent to protect and care for the child. However, the neural correlates of these responses are not yet well understood. The current study was a pilot study to investigate the processing of subliminally presented threatening primes and their effects on neural responses to familiar and unfamiliar children's faces. In addition, we studied potential moderating effects of empathy and childhood experiences of love-withdrawal. A total of 45 students participated in an fMRI experiment in which they were shown pictures of familiar children (pictures morphed to resemble the participant like an own child would) and unfamiliar children preceded by neutral and threatening primes. Participants completed a modified version of the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory to measure parental love withdrawal, and the Empathic Concern scale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index to measure affective empathy. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find evidence for subliminal priming effects. However, we did find enhanced activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; involved in self-referential processing) and in face processing areas (infero-lateral occipital cortex and fusiform areas) in response to the familiar child, indicating preferential processing of these faces. Effects of familiarity in face processing areas were larger for participants reporting more love withdrawal, suggesting enhanced attention to and processing of these highly attachment relevant stimuli. Unfamiliar faces elicited enhanced activity in bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) and other regions associated with theory of mind (ToM), which may indicate more effortful ToM processing of these faces. We discuss the potential difference between a familiarity and a caregiving effect triggered by the morphed faces, and emphasize the need for replication in parents with pictures of

  6. Does removing Mannitol and Voluven from the priming fluid of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit have clinical effects?

    PubMed

    Haydock, Matthew D; Kruger, Cornelis; Willcox, Timothy; Haydock, David A

    2014-03-01

    The Auckland Hospital cardiothoracic unit recently removed Mannitol and Voluven from its Plasma-lyte-based cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) priming fluid. Like with any change to practice, a comprehensive audit should be performed to identify positive or negative effects. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to investigate the effect of changing the CPB prime constituents on fluid balance and clinical outcome parameters. Clinical records were reviewed for 100 consecutive patients undergoing primary, isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 50 patients before the prime change and 50 after. All data were collated into a central database for analysis. Mean arterial pressure while on bypass was higher in the new prime group (61.5 mmHg versus 57.5 mmHg, p = .002). There was no significant difference in hematocrit, hemoglobin, serum sodium, serum potassium, or creatinine postoperatively between groups. In regard to important outcomes such as postoperative weight and fluid balance, time on ventilation, length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) or hospital, and mortality, there were no significant differences. Interestingly, new prime group spent a smaller proportion of their time in the ICU on mechanical ventilation (23% versus 36%, p = .022). Mannitol and Voluven, like with all drugs, carry their own potential adverse effects. This study demonstrates that removing Mannitol and Voluven from priming fluid did not have any detrimental effect on electrolytes, fluid status, and other important outcomes in this consecutive series of patients having primary isolated CABG surgery. The risk-benefit balance combined with the obvious economic benefit clearly favors removing Mannitol and Voluven from priming fluids.

  7. Accounting for sequential trial effects in the flanker task: conflict adaptation or associative priming?

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Stins, John F; Posthuma, Danielle; Polderman, Tinca J C; Boomsma, Dorret I; de Geus, Eco J

    2006-09-01

    The conflict-control loop theory proposes that the detection of conflict in information processing triggers an increase in cognitive control, resulting in improved performance on the subsequent trial. This theory seems consistent with the robust finding that conflict susceptibility is reduced following correct trials associated with high conflict: the conflict adaptation effect. However, despite providing favorable conditions for eliciting and detecting conflict-triggered performance adjustments, none of the five experiments reported here provide unequivocal evidence of such adjustments. Instead, the results corroborate and extend earlier findings by demonstrating that the conflict adaptation effect, at least in the flanker task, is only present for a specific subset of trial sequences that is characterized by a response repetition. This pattern of results provides strong evidence that the conflict adaptation effect reflects associative stimulus-response priming instead of conflict-driven adaptations in cognitive control. PMID:17225507

  8. The Effects of Age, Priming, and Working Memory on Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Meagan; Black, Sheila; Gilpin, Ansley

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the effects of priming and personality on risky decision-making while playing the Game of Dice Task (GDT). In the GDT, participants decide how risky they wish to be on each trial. In this particular study prior to playing the GDT, participants were randomly assigned to one of three priming conditions: Risk-Aversive, Risk-Seeking, or Control. In the Risk-Seeking condition, a fictional character benefitted from risky behavior while in the Risk-Aversive condition, a fictional character benefitted from exercising caution. Although not explicitly stated in the instructions, participants need to make “safe” rather than risky choices to optimize performance on the GDT. Participants were also given Daneman and Carpenter’s assessment of working memory task. Interestingly, although older adults self-reported being more cautious than younger adults on the Domain Specific Risk Attitude scale (DOSPERT), older adults made riskier decisions than younger adults on the GDT. However, after controlling for working memory, the age differences on the GDT became insignificant, indicating that working memory mediated the relation between age and risky decisions on the GDT. PMID:26761023

  9. [Interindividual differences in priming and memory effects of threatening stimuli: effect of cognitive avoidance and vigilant anxiety coping].

    PubMed

    Hock, M; Egloff, B

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the influence of dispositional coping strategies (cognitive avoidance, vigilance) on priming and memory effects of emotional stimuli. In the first phase of the study participants performed a lexical decision task that involved threat-related and neutral words. Subsequently, a previously unannounced recognition memory test for a subset of the words presented during the first phase was carried out. Repressers (i.e. individuals high in avoidance and low in vigilance) showed stronger emotional priming effects than nonavoiders. Repressers also showed a memory deficit for emotional relative to neutral words, whereas sensitizers (vigilance high, avoidance low) remembered emotional words comparatively well. Results raise the question of whether repressers' memory deficits for threat-related stimuli are actually based on a less differentiated network of emotional information, as assumed by recent theoretical accounts of individual differences in coping.

  10. The semantic priming project.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Keith A; Balota, David A; Neely, James H; Cortese, Michael J; Cohen-Shikora, Emily R; Tse, Chi-Shing; Yap, Melvin J; Bengson, Jesse J; Niemeyer, Dale; Buchanan, Erin

    2013-12-01

    Speeded naming and lexical decision data for 1,661 target words following related and unrelated primes were collected from 768 subjects across four different universities. These behavioral measures have been integrated with demographic information for each subject and descriptive characteristics for every item. Subjects also completed portions of the Woodcock-Johnson reading battery, three attentional control tasks, and a circadian rhythm measure. These data are available at a user-friendly Internet-based repository ( http://spp.montana.edu ). This Web site includes a search engine designed to generate lists of prime-target pairs with specific characteristics (e.g., length, frequency, associative strength, latent semantic similarity, priming effect in standardized and raw reaction times). We illustrate the types of questions that can be addressed via the Semantic Priming Project. These data represent the largest behavioral database on semantic priming and are available to researchers to aid in selecting stimuli, testing theories, and reducing potential confounds in their studies.

  11. Plant inter-species effects on rhizosphere priming of soil organic matter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausch, Johanna; Zhu, Biao; Cheng, Weixin

    2015-04-01

    Living roots and their rhizodeposits can stimulate microbial activity and soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition up to several folds. This so-called rhizosphere priming effect (RPE) varies widely among plant species possibly due to species-specific differences in the quality and quantity of rhizodeposits and other root functions. However, whether the RPE is influenced by plant inter-species interactions remains largely unexplored, even though these interactions can fundamentally shape plant functions such as carbon allocation and nutrient uptake. In a 60-day greenhouse experiment, we continuously labeled monocultures and mixtures of sunflower, soybean and wheat with 13C-depleted CO2 and partitioned total CO2 efflux released from soil at two stages of plant development for SOM- and root-derived CO2. The RPE was calculated as the difference in SOM-derived CO2 between the planted and the unplanted soil, and was compared among the monocultures and mixtures. We found that the RPE was positive under all plants, ranging from 43% to 136% increase above the unplanted control. There were no significant differences in RPE at the vegetative stage. At the flowering stage however, the RPE in the soybean-wheat mixture was significantly higher than those in the sunflower monoculture, the sunflower-wheat mixture, and the sunflower-soybean mixture. These results indicated that the influence of plant inter-specific interactions on the RPE is case-specific and phenology-dependent. To evaluate the intensity of inter-specific effects on priming, we calculated an expected RPE for the mixtures based on the RPE of the monocultures weighted by their root biomass and compared it to the measured RPE under mixtures. At flowering, the measured RPE was significantly lower for the sunflower-wheat mixture than what can be expected from their monocultures, suggesting that RPE was significantly reduced by the inter-species effects of sunflower and wheat. In summary, our results clearly demonstrated

  12. The effects of total sleep deprivation on semantic priming: event-related potential evidence for automatic and controlled processing strategies.

    PubMed

    López Zunini, Rocío; Muller-Gass, Alexandra; Campbell, Kenneth

    2014-02-01

    There is general consensus that performance on a number of cognitive tasks deteriorates following total sleep deprivation. At times, however, subjects manage to maintain performance. This may be because of an ability to switch cognitive strategies including the exertion of compensatory effort. The present study examines the effects of total sleep deprivation on a semantic word priming task. Word priming is unique because it can be carried out using different strategies involving either automatic, effortless or controlled, effortful processing. Twelve subjects were presented with word pairs, a prime and a target, that were either highly semantically associated (cat…dog), weakly associated (cow…barn) or unassociated (apple…road). In order to increase the probability of the use of controlled processing following normal sleep, the subject's task was to determine if the target word was semantically related to the prime. Furthermore, the time between the offset of the prime and the onset of the target was relatively long, permitting the use of an effortful, expectancy-predictive strategy. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 64 electrode sites. After normal sleep, RTs were faster and accuracy higher to highly associated targets; this performance advantage was also maintained following sleep deprivation. A large negative deflection, the N400, was larger to weakly associated and unassociated targets in both sleep-deprived and normal conditions. The overall N400 was however larger in the normal sleep condition. Moreover, a long-lasting negative slow wave developed between the offset of the prime and the onset of the target. These physiological measures are consistent with the use of an effortful, predictive strategy following normal sleep but an automatic, effortless strategy following total sleep deprivation. A picture priming task was also run. This task benefits less from the use of a predictive strategy. Accordingly, in this task, ERPs following the

  13. Repeated Masked Category Primes Interfere With Related Exemplars: New Evidence for Negative Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentura, Dirk; Frings, Christian

    2005-01-01

    In 4 experiments, the authors found evidence for negatively signed masked semantic priming effects (with category names as primes and exemplars as targets) using a new technique of presenting the masked primes. By rapidly interchanging prime and mask during the stimulus onset asynchrony, they increased the total prime exposure to a level…

  14. Retro-priming, priming, and double testing: psi and replication in a test–retest design

    PubMed Central

    Rabeyron, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Numerous experiments have been conducted in recent years on anomalous retroactive influences on cognition and affect (Bem, 2010), yet more data are needed to understand these processes precisely. For this purpose, we carried out an initial retro-priming study in which the response times of 162 participants were measured (Rabeyron and Watt, 2010). In the current paper, we present the results of a second study in which we selected those participants who demonstrated the strongest retro-priming effect during the first study, in order to see if we could replicate this effect and therefore select high scoring participants. An additional objective was to try to find correlations between psychological characteristics (anomalous experiences, mental health, mental boundaries, trauma, negative life events) and retro-priming results for the high scoring participants. The retro-priming effect was also compared with performance on a classical priming task. Twenty-eight participants returned to the laboratory for this new study. The results, for the whole group, on the retro-priming task, were negative and non-significant (es = −0.25, ns) and the results were significant on the priming task (es = 0.63, p < 0.1). We obtained overall negative effects on retro-priming results for all the sub-groups (students, male, female). Ten participants were found to have positive results on the two retro-priming studies, but no specific psychological variables were found for these participants compared to the others. Several hypotheses are considered in explaining these results, and the author provide some final thoughts concerning psi and replicability. PMID:24672466

  15. Effect of particle association on 2,2{prime}-bipyridyl adsorption onto kaolinite

    SciTech Connect

    Helmy, A.K.; Ferreiro, E.A.; Bussetti, S.G. de

    2000-05-15

    The effect of particle concentration, in kaolin suspensions, on the adsorption of 2,2{prime}-bipyridyl was studied. Adsorption expressed in units of micromoles per gram decreased as a result of the increase in particle concentration and also as a result of the presence of coagulant (0.25 M NaCl). Dispersion treatment with sodium hexametaphosphate increased the adsorption of bipyridyl. The decrease in adsorption with the increase in particle concentration suggests a possible relation between adsorption and flocculation phenomena. On the basis of classic flocculation theory a straight-line relation was obtained between the square root of the adsorption maximum (mmol/L) and particle concentration (g/L). It is concluded that particle association, which is a function of particle concentration, reduces the surface/aqueous interface and consequently the adsorption of bipyridyl.

  16. Additive and Interactive Effects in Semantic Priming: Isolating Lexical and Decision Processes in the Lexical Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Tan, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study sheds light on the interplay between lexical and decision processes in the lexical decision task by exploring the effects of lexical decision difficulty on semantic priming effects. In 2 experiments, we increased lexical decision difficulty by either using transposed letter wordlike nonword distracters (e.g., JUGDE; Experiment 1)…

  17. Prime Diagnosticity in Short-Term Repetition Priming: Is Primed Evidence Discounted, Even when It Reliably Indicates the Correct Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidemann, Christoph T.; Huber, David E.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 repetition priming experiments that manipulated prime duration and prime diagnosticity in a visual forced-choice perceptual identification task. The strength and direction of prime diagnosticity produced marked effects on identification accuracy, but those effects were resistant to subsequent changes of diagnosticity.…

  18. Negative priming effect on organic matter mineralisation in NE Atlantic slope sediments.

    PubMed

    Gontikaki, Evangelia; Thornton, Barry; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Witte, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    The priming effect (PE) is a complex phenomenon which describes a modification (acceleration or retardation) in the mineralisation rate of refractory organic matter (OM) following inputs of labile material. PEs are well-studied in terrestrial ecosystems owing to their potential importance in the evolution of soil carbon stocks but have been largely ignored in aquatic systems despite the fact that the prerequisite for their occurrence, i.e. the co-existence of labile and refractory OM, is also true for sediments. We conducted stable isotope tracer experiments in continental margin sediments from the NE Atlantic (550-950 m) to study PE occurrence and intensity in relation to labile OM input. Sediment slurries were treated with increasing quantities of the (13)C-labelled diatom Thalassiosira rotula and PE was quantified after 7, 14 and 21 days. There was a stepwise effect of diatom quantity on its mineralisation although mineralisation efficiency dropped with increasing substrate amounts. The addition of diatomaceous OM yielded a negative PE (i.e. retardation of existing sediment OM mineralisation) at the end of the experiment regardless of diatom quantity. Negative PE is often the result of preferential utilisation of the newly deposited labile material by the microbial community ("preferential substrate utilization", PSU) which is usually observed at excessive substrate additions. The fact that PSU and the associated negative PE occurred even at low substrate levels in this study could be attributed to limited amounts of OM subject to priming in our study area (~0.2% organic carbon [OC]) which seems to be an exception among continental slopes (typically >0.5%OC). We postulate that PEs will normally be positive in continental slope sediments and that their intensity will be a direct function of sediment OC content. More experiments with varying supply of substrate targeting C-poor vs. C-rich sediments are needed to confirm these hypotheses.

  19. The modality-switch effect: visually and aurally presented prime sentences activate our senses

    PubMed Central

    Scerrati, Elisa; Baroni, Giulia; Borghi, Anna M.; Galatolo, Renata; Lugli, Luisa; Nicoletti, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Verifying different sensory modality properties for concepts results in a processing cost known as the modality-switch effect. It has been argued that this cognitive cost is the result of a perceptual simulation. This paper extends this argument and reports an experiment investigating whether the effect is the result of an activation of sensory information which can also be triggered by perceptual linguistically described stimuli. Participants were first exposed to a prime sentence describing a light or a sound’s perceptual property (e.g., “The light is flickering”, “The sound is echoing”), then required to perform a property-verification task on a target sentence (e.g., “Butter is yellowish”, “Leaves rustle”). The content modalities of the prime and target sentences could be compatible (i.e., in the same modality: e.g., visual–visual) or not (i.e., in different modalities). Crucially, we manipulated the stimuli’s presentation modality such that half of the participants was faced with written sentences while the other half was faced with aurally presented sentences. Results show a cost when two different modalities alternate, compared to when the same modality is repeated with both visual and aural stimuli presentations. This result supports the embodied and grounded cognition view which claims that conceptual knowledge is grounded into the perceptual system. Specifically, this evidence suggests that sensory modalities can be pre-activated through the simulation of either read or listened linguistic stimuli describing visual or acoustic perceptual properties. PMID:26579049

  20. Negative priming effect on organic matter mineralisation in NE Atlantic slope sediments.

    PubMed

    Gontikaki, Evangelia; Thornton, Barry; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Witte, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    The priming effect (PE) is a complex phenomenon which describes a modification (acceleration or retardation) in the mineralisation rate of refractory organic matter (OM) following inputs of labile material. PEs are well-studied in terrestrial ecosystems owing to their potential importance in the evolution of soil carbon stocks but have been largely ignored in aquatic systems despite the fact that the prerequisite for their occurrence, i.e. the co-existence of labile and refractory OM, is also true for sediments. We conducted stable isotope tracer experiments in continental margin sediments from the NE Atlantic (550-950 m) to study PE occurrence and intensity in relation to labile OM input. Sediment slurries were treated with increasing quantities of the (13)C-labelled diatom Thalassiosira rotula and PE was quantified after 7, 14 and 21 days. There was a stepwise effect of diatom quantity on its mineralisation although mineralisation efficiency dropped with increasing substrate amounts. The addition of diatomaceous OM yielded a negative PE (i.e. retardation of existing sediment OM mineralisation) at the end of the experiment regardless of diatom quantity. Negative PE is often the result of preferential utilisation of the newly deposited labile material by the microbial community ("preferential substrate utilization", PSU) which is usually observed at excessive substrate additions. The fact that PSU and the associated negative PE occurred even at low substrate levels in this study could be attributed to limited amounts of OM subject to priming in our study area (~0.2% organic carbon [OC]) which seems to be an exception among continental slopes (typically >0.5%OC). We postulate that PEs will normally be positive in continental slope sediments and that their intensity will be a direct function of sediment OC content. More experiments with varying supply of substrate targeting C-poor vs. C-rich sediments are needed to confirm these hypotheses. PMID:23840766

  1. Early, Equivalent ERP Masked Priming Effects for Regular and Irregular Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Joanna; Stockall, Linnaea

    2012-01-01

    Converging evidence from behavioral masked priming (Rastle & Davis, 2008), EEG masked priming (Morris, Frank, Grainger, & Holcomb, 2007) and single word MEG (Zweig & Pylkkanen, 2008) experiments has provided robust support for a model of lexical processing which includes an early, automatic, visual word form based stage of morphological parsing…

  2. Dynamic Adaptation to History of Trial Difficulty Explains the Effect of Congruency Proportion on Masked Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Mozer, Michael C.; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    In reaction time research, there has been an increasing appreciation that response-initiation processes are sensitive to recent experience and, in particular, the difficulty of previous trials. From this perspective, the authors propose an explanation for a perplexing property of masked priming: Although primes are not consciously identified,…

  3. Generation and Perceptual Implicit Memory: Different Generation Tasks Produce Different Effects on Perceptual Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Dew, Ilana T. Z.

    2009-01-01

    The generation manipulation has been critical in delineating differences between implicit and explicit memory. In contrast to past research, the present experiments indicate that generating from a rhyme cue produces as much perceptual priming as does reading. This is demonstrated for 3 visual priming tasks: perceptual identification, word-fragment…

  4. Effects of Seed Cryopreservation and Priming on Germination in Several Cultivars of Apium graveolens.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Benito, M E; Iriondo, J M; Pita, J M; Pérez-García, F

    1995-01-01

    Seed germination of seven celery cultivars was studied after storage in liquid nitrogen for 1 or 30 d. Cryopreservation was also carried out on pelleted and primed seeds. None of the treatments applied reduced germination percentages. T(50) (time for germination to reach 50%) significantly decreased in Florida, Utah and Istar cultivars when priming, alone or in combination with cryopreservation, was used.

  5. Rhizosphere priming effect on soil organic carbon decomposition under plant species differing in soil acidification and root exudation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Tang, Caixian; Severi, Julia; Butterly, Clayton R; Baldock, Jeff A

    2016-08-01

    Effects of rhizosphere properties on the rhizosphere priming effect (RPE) are unknown. This study aimed to link species variation in RPE with plant traits and rhizosphere properties. Four C3 species (chickpea, Cicer arietinum; field pea, Pisum sativum; wheat, Triticum aestivum; and white lupin, Lupinus albus) differing in soil acidification and root exudation, were grown in a C4 soil. The CO2 released from soil was trapped using a newly developed NaOH-trapping system. White lupin and wheat showed greater positive RPEs, in contrast to the negative RPE produced by chickpea. The greatest RPE of white lupin was in line with its capacity to release root exudates, whereas the negative RPE of chickpea was attributed to its great ability to acidify rhizosphere soil. The enhanced RPE of field pea at maturity might result from high nitrogen deposition and release of structural root carbon components following root senescence. Root biomass and length played a minor role in the species variation in RPE. Rhizosphere acidification was shown to be an important factor affecting the magnitude and direction of RPE. Future studies on RPE modelling and mechanistic understanding of the processes that regulate RPE should consider the effect of rhizosphere pH.

  6. Rhizosphere priming effect on soil organic carbon decomposition under plant species differing in soil acidification and root exudation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Tang, Caixian; Severi, Julia; Butterly, Clayton R; Baldock, Jeff A

    2016-08-01

    Effects of rhizosphere properties on the rhizosphere priming effect (RPE) are unknown. This study aimed to link species variation in RPE with plant traits and rhizosphere properties. Four C3 species (chickpea, Cicer arietinum; field pea, Pisum sativum; wheat, Triticum aestivum; and white lupin, Lupinus albus) differing in soil acidification and root exudation, were grown in a C4 soil. The CO2 released from soil was trapped using a newly developed NaOH-trapping system. White lupin and wheat showed greater positive RPEs, in contrast to the negative RPE produced by chickpea. The greatest RPE of white lupin was in line with its capacity to release root exudates, whereas the negative RPE of chickpea was attributed to its great ability to acidify rhizosphere soil. The enhanced RPE of field pea at maturity might result from high nitrogen deposition and release of structural root carbon components following root senescence. Root biomass and length played a minor role in the species variation in RPE. Rhizosphere acidification was shown to be an important factor affecting the magnitude and direction of RPE. Future studies on RPE modelling and mechanistic understanding of the processes that regulate RPE should consider the effect of rhizosphere pH. PMID:27101777

  7. The effects of study-task relevance on perceptual repetition priming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbrook, Jon B.; Bost, Preston R.; Cave, Carolyn Backer

    2003-01-01

    Repetition priming is easily elicited in many traditional paradigms, and the possibility that perceptual priming may be other than an automatic consequence of perception has received little consideration. This issue is explored in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants named the target from a four-item category search study task more quickly than the nontarget study items at a later naming test. Experiment 2 extended this finding to conditions in which stimuli were individually presented at study. In three different study tasks, stimuli relevant to study-task completion elicited priming on a later test, but stimuli presented outside the context of a task did not. In both experiments, recognition was above chance for nonrelevant stimuli, suggesting that participants explicitly remembered stimuli that did not elicit priming. Results suggest that priming is sensitive to study-task demands and may reflect a more adaptive and flexible mechanism for modification of perceptual processing than previously appreciated.

  8. Priming dose of phenylhydrazine protects against hemolytic and lethal effects of 2-butoxyethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Palkar, Prajakta S.; Philip, Binu K.; Reddy, Ramesh N.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2007-11-15

    Protection against a high dose of a toxicant by prior exposure to another toxicant is called heteroprotection. Our objective was to establish a heteroprotection model in RBCs. Female Sprague Dawley rats treated with an LD90 dose of 2-butoxyethanol (BE, 1500 mg/kg in water, 5 ml/kg po) 14 days after priming with 0.9% NaCl suffered 90% mortality by 15 days, whereas all rats receiving the LD90 dose of BE 14 days after priming with phenylhydrazine (PHZ, 125 mg/kg in 0.9% NaCl, 3 ml/kg po) survived. Hematocrit decreased from normal 45% to 24% by day 3 after PHZ priming and improved thereafter. Increasing the time interval between the priming and LD90 dose to 21 days abolished the heteroprotection. RBCs obtained on days 7 and 14 after PHZ priming unlike those on day 21 were resilient to the hemotoxic metabolite of BE, butoxyacetic acid (BAA). Unaltered hepatic alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities upon PHZ priming suggested that bioactivation of BE to BAA was unaffected. Lower renal (6 and 12 h) and hepatic (12 h) BAA levels and 3 fold higher excretion of BAA in PHZ-primed rat urine suggested a protective role of toxicokinetics. Higher erythropoietin, reticulocytes, and resiliency of PHZ-primed rat RBCs indicated that newly formed RBCs are resilient to hemolytic BAA. The antioxidant levels in the PHZ-primed rat RBCs did not indicate a protective role in heteroprotection. In conclusion, the resistance of PHZ-primed rats against BE-induced hemotoxicity and lethality is mediated by a combination of altered toxicokinetics, robust erythropoiesis, and resiliency of new RBCs.

  9. Selection bias, vote counting, and money-priming effects: A comment on Rohrer, Pashler, and Harris (2015) and Vohs (2015).

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Hardwicke, Tom E; Shanks, David R

    2016-05-01

    When a series of studies fails to replicate a well-documented effect, researchers might be tempted to use a "vote counting" approach to decide whether the effect is reliable-that is, simply comparing the number of successful and unsuccessful replications. Vohs's (2015) response to the absence of money priming effects reported by Rohrer, Pashler, and Harris (2015) provides an example of this approach. Unfortunately, vote counting is a poor strategy to assess the reliability of psychological findings because it neglects the impact of selection bias and questionable research practices. In the present comment, we show that a range of meta-analytic tools indicate irregularities in the money priming literature discussed by Rohrer et al. and Vohs, which all point to the conclusion that these effects are distorted by selection bias, reporting biases, or p-hacking. This could help to explain why money-priming effects have proven unreliable in a number of direct replication attempts in which biases have been minimized through preregistration or transparent reporting. Our major conclusion is that the simple proportion of significant findings is a poor guide to the reliability of research and that preregistered replications are an essential means to assess the reliability of money-priming effects. PMID:27077759

  10. Selection Bias, Vote Counting, and Money-Priming Effects: A Comment on Rohrer, Pashler, and Harris (2015) and Vohs (2015)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    When a series of studies fails to replicate a well-documented effect, researchers might be tempted to use a “vote counting” approach to decide whether the effect is reliable—that is, simply comparing the number of successful and unsuccessful replications. Vohs’s (2015) response to the absence of money priming effects reported by Rohrer, Pashler, and Harris (2015) provides an example of this approach. Unfortunately, vote counting is a poor strategy to assess the reliability of psychological findings because it neglects the impact of selection bias and questionable research practices. In the present comment, we show that a range of meta-analytic tools indicate irregularities in the money priming literature discussed by Rohrer et al. and Vohs, which all point to the conclusion that these effects are distorted by selection bias, reporting biases, or p-hacking. This could help to explain why money-priming effects have proven unreliable in a number of direct replication attempts in which biases have been minimized through preregistration or transparent reporting. Our major conclusion is that the simple proportion of significant findings is a poor guide to the reliability of research and that preregistered replications are an essential means to assess the reliability of money-priming effects. PMID:27077759

  11. Selection bias, vote counting, and money-priming effects: A comment on Rohrer, Pashler, and Harris (2015) and Vohs (2015).

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Hardwicke, Tom E; Shanks, David R

    2016-05-01

    When a series of studies fails to replicate a well-documented effect, researchers might be tempted to use a "vote counting" approach to decide whether the effect is reliable-that is, simply comparing the number of successful and unsuccessful replications. Vohs's (2015) response to the absence of money priming effects reported by Rohrer, Pashler, and Harris (2015) provides an example of this approach. Unfortunately, vote counting is a poor strategy to assess the reliability of psychological findings because it neglects the impact of selection bias and questionable research practices. In the present comment, we show that a range of meta-analytic tools indicate irregularities in the money priming literature discussed by Rohrer et al. and Vohs, which all point to the conclusion that these effects are distorted by selection bias, reporting biases, or p-hacking. This could help to explain why money-priming effects have proven unreliable in a number of direct replication attempts in which biases have been minimized through preregistration or transparent reporting. Our major conclusion is that the simple proportion of significant findings is a poor guide to the reliability of research and that preregistered replications are an essential means to assess the reliability of money-priming effects.

  12. Immunoregulatory effects of covalent antigen-antibody complexes. IV. Priming and tolerance in T-dependent responses.

    PubMed Central

    Tite, J P; Morrison, C A; Taylor, R B

    1982-01-01

    Stable, covalently bonded, monomeric complexes of rabbit anti-NAP (4-azido-2-nitrophenyl) antibodies and NAP-bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase), when injected into mice, prime the subsequent response to a soluble challenge of RNase. This effect is shown to be dependent on an intact Fc portion of the rabbit antibody and not simply due to foreign determinants recognized on the latter. A study of the kinetics of elimination of radioiodinated complexes from the serum indicates that the generation of a primary anti-rabbit IgG response and subsequent clearance of the complex leads to priming of the anti-RNase response. If mice are previously rendered tolerant to rabbit IgG or the complexes are ultracentrifuged, the priming to RNase is often abolished and tolerance may be induced. PMID:6179858

  13. Seeing and Being Green? The Effect of Money Priming on Willingness to Perform Sustainable Actions, Social Connectedness, and Prosociality.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, Colin A; Zelenski, John M

    2016-01-01

    This investigation attempted to conceptually replicate/extend research that suggests that reminders of money can inhibit prosociality, promote self-sufficiency, and influence political beliefs. Based on these results, we hypothesized that money primes would decrease willingness to engage in sustainable actions. We also predicted that people would distribute points less prosocially and feel less socially connected when money was primed. Individuals were recruited from an undergraduate participant pool and MTurk. Meta-analytic results across the two samples revealed that money priming did not have a significant impact on willingness to act sustainably, but it did cause participants to distribute points less prosocially and report lower social connectedness than individuals in the control condition. While effects were smaller than those reported in Vohs, Mead, and Goode (2006), this study still offers support for the detrimental impact of reminders of money on interpersonal relations. PMID:25950374

  14. Seeing and Being Green? The Effect of Money Priming on Willingness to Perform Sustainable Actions, Social Connectedness, and Prosociality.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, Colin A; Zelenski, John M

    2016-01-01

    This investigation attempted to conceptually replicate/extend research that suggests that reminders of money can inhibit prosociality, promote self-sufficiency, and influence political beliefs. Based on these results, we hypothesized that money primes would decrease willingness to engage in sustainable actions. We also predicted that people would distribute points less prosocially and feel less socially connected when money was primed. Individuals were recruited from an undergraduate participant pool and MTurk. Meta-analytic results across the two samples revealed that money priming did not have a significant impact on willingness to act sustainably, but it did cause participants to distribute points less prosocially and report lower social connectedness than individuals in the control condition. While effects were smaller than those reported in Vohs, Mead, and Goode (2006), this study still offers support for the detrimental impact of reminders of money on interpersonal relations.

  15. The effect of porosity and gamma-gamma-prime eutectic content on the fatigue behavior of hydrogen charged PWA 1480

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, J.; Dreshfield, R. L.; Gabb, T. P.

    1991-01-01

    The study addresses the effect of systematically varying gamma-gamma-prime eutectic content and porosity level on the fatigue life of a hydrogen-charged single crystal PWA 1480 superalloy. Four microstructural variants are produced, and differences in gamma-gamma-prime eutectic morphology among the four processing variants are analyzed. Single valued tensile test data indicate that the tensile and yield strength of the PWA 1480 are degraded by hydrogen charging, with the exception of the material given a eutectic solution treatment. It is shown that the reduction of the fatigue life can be minimized by a duplex thermomechanical treatment consisting of a eutectic solution followed by hot isostatic pressing.

  16. A meta-analysis of priming effects on impression formation supporting a general model of informational biases.

    PubMed

    DeCoster, Jamie; Claypool, Heather M

    2004-01-01

    Priming researchers have long investigated how providing information about traits in one context can influence the impressions people form of social targets in another. The literature has demonstrated that this can have 3 different effects: Sometimes primes become incorporated in the impression of the target (assimilation), sometimes they are used as standards of comparison (anchoring), and sometimes they cause people to consciously alter their judgments (correction). In this article, we present meta-analyses of these 3 effects. The mean effect size was significant in each case, such that assimilation resulted in impressions biased toward the primes, whereas anchoring and correction resulted in impressions biased away from the primes. Additionally, moderator analyses uncovered a number of variables that influence the strength of these effects, such as applicability, processing capacity, and the type of response measure. Based on these results, we propose a general model of how irrelevant information can bias judgments, detailing when and why assimilation and contrast effects result from default and corrective processes. PMID:15121538

  17. Effect of thermal cycling in a Mach 0.3 burner rig on properties and structure of directionally solidified gamma/gamma prime-delta eutectic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.; Sanders, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the effect of cyclic thermal exposures on the mechanical properties of a gamma/gamma prime-delta eutectic alloy parallel to the growth direction. The alloy had a nominal composition by weight of Ni-20 Nb-6 Cr-2.5 Al and was directionally solidified at 3 cm/hr in a furnace with a thermal gradient of at least 200 C/cm. Bars of the alloy were exposed in a Mach 0.3 burner rig and cycled 300 times between 1100 and 425 C. Oxidation-erosion characteristics of the alloy were determined by weight loss measurements at 300-cycle intervals. After cyclic exposure, stress rupture and tensile tests were performed at both 760 and 1040 C. Microstructural changes from cyclic exposure were determined. Thermal cycling resulted in gamma prime coarsening and Widmanstaetten delta precipitation in the gamma phase. An unidentified precipitate, presumably gamma prime, was observed within the delta phase. These microstructural changes did not affect the mechanical properties of the eutectic. High oxidation-erosion weight loss rate was observed.

  18. The combined effects of neurostimulation and priming on creative thinking. A preliminary tDCS study on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Barbara; Bartesaghi, Noemi; Simonelli, Luisa; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in influencing creative thinking has been investigated by many researchers who, while succeeding in proving an effective involvement of PFC, reported suggestive but sometimes conflicting results. In order to better understand the relationships between creative thinking and brain activation in a more specific area of the PFC, we explored the role of dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC). We devised an experimental protocol using transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). The study was based on a 3 (kind of stimulation: anodal vs. cathodal vs. sham) × 2 (priming: divergent vs. convergent) design. Forty-five healthy adults were randomly assigned to one stimulation condition. Participants’ creativity skills were assessed using the Product Improvement subtest from the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). After 20 min of tDCS stimulation, participants were presented with visual images of common objects. Half of the participants were instructed to visualize themselves using the object in an unusual way (divergent priming), whereas the other half were asked to visualize themselves while using the object in a common way (convergent priming). Priming was aimed at inducing participants to adopt different attitudes toward the creative task. Afterwards, participants were asked to describe all of the possible uses of the objects that were presented. Participants’ physiological activation was recorded using a biofeedback equipment. Results showed a significant effect of anodal stimulation that enhanced creative performance, but only after divergent priming. Participants showed lower skin temperature values after cathodal stimulation, a finding which is coherent with studies reporting that, when a task is not creative or creative thinking is not prompted, people show lower levels of arousal. Differences in individual levels of creativity as assessed by the Product Improvement test were not influential. The involvement of DLPFC in creativity

  19. Carbon and nitrogen additions induce distinct priming effects along an organic-matter decay continuum

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Na; Xu, Xingliang; Hu, Yuehua; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Liu, Yongwen; Schaefer, Douglas; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition of organic matter (OM) in soil, affecting carbon (C) cycling and climate feedbacks, depends on microbial activities driven by C and nitrogen (N) availability. However, it remains unknown how decomposition of various OMs vary across global supplies and ratios of C and N inputs. We examined OM decomposition by incubating four types of OM (leaf litter, wood, organic matter from organic and mineral horizons) from a decay continuum in a subtropical forest at Ailao Mountain, China with labile C and N additions. Decomposition of wood with high C:N decreased for 3.9 to 29% with these additions, while leaf decomposition was accelerated only within a narrow C:N range of added C and N. Decomposition of OM from organic horizon was accelerated by high C:N and suppressed by low C:N, but mineral soil was almost entirely controlled by high C:N. These divergent responses to C and N inputs show that mechanisms for priming (i.e. acceleration or retardation of OM decomposition by labile inputs) vary along this decay continuum. We conclude that besides C:N ratios of OM, those of labile inputs control the OM decay in the litter horizons, while energy (labile C) regulates decomposition in mineral soil. This suggests that OM decomposition can be predicted from its intrinsic C:N ratios and those of labile inputs. PMID:26806914

  20. Carbon and nitrogen additions induce distinct priming effects along an organic-matter decay continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Na; Xu, Xingliang; Hu, Yuehua; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Liu, Yongwen; Schaefer, Douglas; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition of organic matter (OM) in soil, affecting carbon (C) cycling and climate feedbacks, depends on microbial activities driven by C and nitrogen (N) availability. However, it remains unknown how decomposition of various OMs vary across global supplies and ratios of C and N inputs. We examined OM decomposition by incubating four types of OM (leaf litter, wood, organic matter from organic and mineral horizons) from a decay continuum in a subtropical forest at Ailao Mountain, China with labile C and N additions. Decomposition of wood with high C:N decreased for 3.9 to 29% with these additions, while leaf decomposition was accelerated only within a narrow C:N range of added C and N. Decomposition of OM from organic horizon was accelerated by high C:N and suppressed by low C:N, but mineral soil was almost entirely controlled by high C:N. These divergent responses to C and N inputs show that mechanisms for priming (i.e. acceleration or retardation of OM decomposition by labile inputs) vary along this decay continuum. We conclude that besides C:N ratios of OM, those of labile inputs control the OM decay in the litter horizons, while energy (labile C) regulates decomposition in mineral soil. This suggests that OM decomposition can be predicted from its intrinsic C:N ratios and those of labile inputs.

  1. Pain-related and negative semantic priming enhances perceived pain intensity

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Maria; Schroeter, Christoph; Puensch, Theresa; Straube, Thomas; Hecht, Holger; Ritter, Alexander; Miltner, Wolfgang HR; Weiss, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Negative affective and pain-related cues, such as pictures or words, have been shown to act as primes and enhance the perceived intensity of subsequent painful events. For pain-related semantic primes, it remains unclear whether this effect depends on negative valence itself or, specifically, on the pain-relatedness of the words. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of pain-related, negative affective (pain-unrelated) and neutral semantic primes on the perception of subsequent noxious target stimuli. METHODS: Pain ratings in response to noxious electrical stimulation of light and moderate intensity were examined in 39 healthy subjects after subjects were exposed to semantic primes of different meaning and valence (pain-related, negative, positive and neutral adjectives) presented with different interstimulus intervals (0 ms, 500 ms and 1500 ms). RESULTS: Increased pain ratings of noxious stimuli were observed following pain-related and negative compared with neutral primes. DISCUSSION: The results support the motivational priming theory for semantic stimuli, indicating that affectively negative semantic primes increase subjective pain intensity. However, a specific pain-related priming effect was not reliably demonstrated. Additionally, it is shown that experimental parameters (ie, stimulus intensity and interstimulus interval) modify the extent of negative and pain-related semantic priming. CONCLUSIONS: Verbal priming plays a role for the perception of noxious stimuli in a time-dependent manner. PMID:24716197

  2. DIBROMOACETIC ACID-INDUCED ELEVATIONS IN CIRCULATING ESTRADIOL: EFFECTS IN BOTH CYCLING AND OVARIECTOMIZED/STEROID-PRIMED FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RTD-03-031
    Goldman, JM and Murr, AS. Dibromoacetic Acid-induced Elevations in Circulating Estradiol: Effects in Both Cycling and Ovariectomized/Steroid-primed Female Rats. Reproductive Toxicology (in press).

    Abstract

    Oral exposures to high concentrations of th...

  3. Effects of Part- and Whole-Object Primes on Early MEG Responses to Mooney Faces and Houses.

    PubMed

    Steinberg Lowe, Mara; Lewis, Gwyneth A; Poeppel, David

    2016-01-01

    Results from neurophysiological experiments suggest that face recognition engages a sensitive mechanism that is reflected in increased amplitude and decreased latency of the MEG M170 response compared to non-face visual targets. Furthermore, whereas recognition of objects (e.g., houses) has been argued to be based on individual features (e.g., door, window), face recognition may depend more on holistic information. Here we analyzed priming effects of component and holistic primes on 20 participants' early MEG responses to two-tone (Mooney) images to determine whether face recognition in this context engages "featural" or "configural" processing. Although visually underspecified, the Mooney images in this study elicited M170 responses that replicate the typical face vs. house effect. However, we found a distinction between holistic vs. component primes that modulated this effect dependent upon compatibility (match) between the prime and target. The facilitatory effect of holistic faces and houses for Mooney faces and houses, respectively, suggests that both Mooney face and house recognition-both low spatial frequency stimuli-are based on holistic information.

  4. Effects of Part- and Whole-Object Primes on Early MEG Responses to Mooney Faces and Houses

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg Lowe, Mara; Lewis, Gwyneth A.; Poeppel, David

    2016-01-01

    Results from neurophysiological experiments suggest that face recognition engages a sensitive mechanism that is reflected in increased amplitude and decreased latency of the MEG M170 response compared to non-face visual targets. Furthermore, whereas recognition of objects (e.g., houses) has been argued to be based on individual features (e.g., door, window), face recognition may depend more on holistic information. Here we analyzed priming effects of component and holistic primes on 20 participants' early MEG responses to two-tone (Mooney) images to determine whether face recognition in this context engages “featural” or “configural” processing. Although visually underspecified, the Mooney images in this study elicited M170 responses that replicate the typical face vs. house effect. However, we found a distinction between holistic vs. component primes that modulated this effect dependent upon compatibility (match) between the prime and target. The facilitatory effect of holistic faces and houses for Mooney faces and houses, respectively, suggests that both Mooney face and house recognition—both low spatial frequency stimuli—are based on holistic information. PMID:26909056

  5. Language Context Effects on Interlingual Homograph Recognition: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials and Response Times in Semantic Priming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Ellen R. A.; Dijkstra, Ton; Chwilla, Dorothee J.; Schriefers, Herbert J.

    2001-01-01

    Dutch-English bilinguals performed a generalized lexical decision task on triplets of items, responding with "yes" if all items wee correct Dutch and/or English words, and with "no" if one or ore of the items was not a word in wither language. Semantic priming effects were found in on-line response times. Event-related potentials that were…

  6. Driving experience moderates the effect of implicit versus explicit threat priming on hazard perception test.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Yaakov; Rosenbloom, Tova

    2016-07-01

    Due to the controversial evidence regarding the efficacy of threat campaigns on driving behavior, we addressed the effects of explicit vs. implicit threats. As in other areas of advertisements, we hypothesized that an implicit threat would be more effective, i.e., generate more anxiety than an explicit threat. Furthermore, we hypothesized that such effects would be moderated by driving experience: more experienced drivers when threatened will rely on driving skills and perform in a less cautious manner vs. less experienced drivers who have not yet acquired these skills, and therefore will tend to calm their fear by exercising more caution. Driving behavior in this experimental design was addressed by the Hazard Perception (HP) task. Results were as expected. Anxiety was higher under implicit vs. explicit threat. HP scores however were overall the same for both groups. Implicit priming generated less-cautious behavior in high-experienced drivers while generating more caution for less-experienced drivers. Demonstrating in a single experiment all three driving patterns following threat, namely, no change in driving behavior (whole sample), more cautious driving behavior (less-experience) and less cautious behavior (more-experience), potentially comprises an important step in resolving the aforementioned disparity concerning effects of threat campaigns on driving behavior.

  7. There is a fire burning in my heart: the role of causal attribution in affect transfer.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Masanori; Aarts, Henk; Oikawa, Haruka

    2011-01-01

    The role of causal attribution in affect transfer of primes was addressed by examining the consequences of explicit evaluation of primes within the framework of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP; Payne, Cheng, Govorun, & Stewart, 2005). We reasoned that affect transfer occurs when primed affect remains diffuse and not bound to a specific object, hence capable of freely colouring subsequent evaluations of ambiguous objects. Accordingly, we propose that when people explicitly evaluate the prime, affect is clearly bound to the prime and becomes less capable of influencing subsequent judgements. Supporting this notion, affect transfer in the AMP was observed when participants ignored the primes, thereby keeping the primed affect relatively unbound. However, this effect disappeared when participants explicitly evaluated the primes before target stimuli were presented. Implications of these findings in determining how and when affect arising from one object carries over to another is discussed.

  8. Lack of effect of ethanol on cocaine prime-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Czoty, Paul W

    2016-10-01

    Cocaine and alcohol are commonly co-abused for reasons that are incompletely understood. Laboratory animal studies have suggested that, although the reinforcing effects of low cocaine doses are increased following chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption, acute EtOH administration does not consistently alter cocaine self-administration. The present study examined whether EtOH influences another abuse-related effect of cocaine: reinstatement of extinguished responding. Rhesus monkeys that had previously consumed EtOH for 8 weeks (2.0 g/kg over 1 h, 5 days/week) self-administered up to 10 injections per day of 0.1 mg/kg cocaine under a fixed-interval 300-s schedule. After responding had been extinguished by substituting saline for cocaine, a pre-session infusion of saline or EtOH (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg, intravenously over 10 min) was followed by a 'priming' injection of saline or cocaine (intravenously). Responding was increased significantly by priming injections of cocaine, but not saline. EtOH infusions neither reinstated behavior when administered before a saline prime nor altered the priming effect of cocaine. The inability of EtOH to alter the response-reinstating ability of cocaine provides further evidence for a lack of acute behavioral interactions between cocaine and EtOH. PMID:27509315

  9. Calorie restriction hysteretically primes aging Saccharomyces cerevisiae toward more effective oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Erich B; Cunha, Fernanda M; Basso, Thiago O; Della Bianca, Bianca E; Gombert, Andreas K; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2013-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is an intervention known to extend the lifespan of a wide variety of organisms. In S. cerevisiae, chronological lifespan is prolonged by decreasing glucose availability in the culture media, a model for CR. The mechanism has been proposed to involve an increase in the oxidative (versus fermentative) metabolism of glucose. Here, we measured wild-type and respiratory incompetent (ρ(0)) S. cerevisiae biomass formation, pH, oxygen and glucose consumption, and the evolution of ethanol, glycerol, acetate, pyruvate and succinate levels during the course of 28 days of chronological aging, aiming to identify metabolic changes responsible for the effects of CR. The concomitant and quantitative measurements allowed for calculations of conversion factors between different pairs of substrates and products, maximum specific substrate consumption and product formation rates and maximum specific growth rates. Interestingly, we found that the limitation of glucose availability in CR S. cerevisiae cultures hysteretically increases oxygen consumption rates many hours after the complete exhaustion of glucose from the media. Surprisingly, glucose-to-ethanol conversion and cellular growth supported by glucose were not quantitatively altered by CR. Instead, we found that CR primed the cells for earlier, faster and more efficient metabolism of respiratory substrates, especially ethanol. Since lifespan-enhancing effects of CR are absent in respiratory incompetent ρ(0) cells, we propose that the hysteretic effect of glucose limitation on oxidative metabolism is central toward chronological lifespan extension by CR in this yeast.

  10. Semantic priming of familiar songs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah K; Halpern, Andrea R

    2012-05-01

    We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck the Hall") than following unrelated tunes ("God Bless America"). However, a category label (e.g., Christmas) did not prime tunes from within that category. Lyrics were primed by a related category label, but not by a related tune. These results support the conceptual organization of music in semantic memory, but with potentially weaker associations across modalities.

  11. An accrual model for primed digit classification.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, E; Saal, A; Page, R

    2010-03-01

    This article describes a chronometric experiment of digit classification with masked primes. EEG experiments have shown that the subliminal prime activates the cortex prior to the target signal, thusly modifying the response: Congruent primes lead to faster correct answers, while incongruent primes result in slower response. It is noticed that incorrect answers show an inverted effect: A congruent prime inhibits incorrect answers, and the reverse for incongruent primes. Within the evidence accrual paradigm, it is suggested that the prime activity in the motor cortex effectively behaves as a shift in the decision threshold. This model assumption is consistent with our experimental findings. The correct and incorrect answers and the error percentage are discussed.

  12. Negative visuospatial priming in isolation-reared rats: Evidence of resistance to the disruptive effects of amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Nurith; Powell, Susan; Weber, Martin; Swerdlow, Neal R; Young, Jared W

    2015-12-01

    Negative visuospatial priming (NP) represents a quantifiable measure of inhibitory information processing that is disrupted in several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. We developed a novel rodent NP task to investigate mechanisms underlying NP and its role in various disorders, and to test potential therapeutics. In the present studies, we further characterized this novel paradigm by investigating whether NP is disrupted in rats reared in isolation, a developmental manipulation that produces a range of abnormalities in behavior, neurochemistry, and brain structure that mirror aspects of schizophrenia pathology. We also further explored the role of monoaminergic signaling in NP and the effects of isolation rearing by challenging both socially reared and isolation-reared rats with D-amphetamine during the NP task. Although fewer isolation-reared animals learned the complex NP task, those that learned exhibited unaffected NP compared with socially reared rats. Consistent with previous reports, D-amphetamine impaired NP and increased motor impulsivity in socially reared rats. In contrast, D-amphetamine did not affect NP or motor impulsivity in isolation-reared rats. These data confirm a monoaminergic influence on NP behavior and indicate that rats reared in isolation have altered dopaminergic sensitivity. PMID:26220402

  13. Is Accessing of Words Affected by Affective Valence Only? A Discrete Emotion View on the Emotional Congruency Effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuqian; Liu, Bo; Lin, Shouwen

    2016-01-01

    This paper advances the discussion on which emotion information affects word accessing. Emotion information, which is formed as a result of repeated experiences, is primary and necessary in learning and representing word meanings. Previous findings suggested that valence (i.e., positive or negative) denoted by words can be automatically activated and plays a role in many significant cognitive processes. However, there has been a lack of discussion about whether discrete emotion information (i.e., happiness, anger, sadness, and fear) is also involved in these processes. According to the hierarchy model, emotions are considered organized within an abstract-to-concrete hierarchy, in which emotion prototypes are organized following affective valence. By controlling different congruencies of emotion relations (i.e., matches or mismatches between valences and prototypes of emotion), the present study showed both an evaluative congruency effect (Experiment 1) and a discrete emotional congruency effect (Experiment 2). These findings indicate that not only affective valences but also discrete emotions can be activated under the present priming lexical decision task. However, the present findings also suggest that discrete emotions might be activated at the later priming stage as compared to valences. The present work provides evidence that information about discrete emotion could be involved in word processing. This might be a result of subjects' embodied experiences. PMID:27379000

  14. Is Accessing of Words Affected by Affective Valence Only? A Discrete Emotion View on the Emotional Congruency Effect

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuqian; Liu, Bo; Lin, Shouwen

    2016-01-01

    This paper advances the discussion on which emotion information affects word accessing. Emotion information, which is formed as a result of repeated experiences, is primary and necessary in learning and representing word meanings. Previous findings suggested that valence (i.e., positive or negative) denoted by words can be automatically activated and plays a role in many significant cognitive processes. However, there has been a lack of discussion about whether discrete emotion information (i.e., happiness, anger, sadness, and fear) is also involved in these processes. According to the hierarchy model, emotions are considered organized within an abstract-to-concrete hierarchy, in which emotion prototypes are organized following affective valence. By controlling different congruencies of emotion relations (i.e., matches or mismatches between valences and prototypes of emotion), the present study showed both an evaluative congruency effect (Experiment 1) and a discrete emotional congruency effect (Experiment 2). These findings indicate that not only affective valences but also discrete emotions can be activated under the present priming lexical decision task. However, the present findings also suggest that discrete emotions might be activated at the later priming stage as compared to valences. The present work provides evidence that information about discrete emotion could be involved in word processing. This might be a result of subjects’ embodied experiences. PMID:27379000

  15. Do lemmas speak German? A verb position effect in German structural priming.

    PubMed

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-07-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was performed which varied syntactic structure, verb position (encoded by tense and aspect), and verb overlap. Abstract structural priming was found, both within and across verb position, but priming was larger when the verb position was the same between prime and target. Priming was boosted by verb overlap, but there was no interaction with verb position. The results can be explained by a lemma model where tense and aspect are linked to structural choices in German. Since the architecture of this lemma model is not consistent with results from English, a connectionist model was developed which could explain the cross-linguistic variation in the production system. Together, these findings support the view that language learning plays an important role in determining the nature of structural priming in different languages.

  16. Age of Acquisition and Repetition Priming Effects on Picture Naming of Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Julie D.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of age of acquisition and repetition priming on picture naming latencies and errors were studied in 22 children who stutter (CWS) and 22 children who do not stutter (CWNS) between the ages of 3;1 and 5;7. Children participated in a computerized picture naming task where they named pictures of both early and late acquired (AoA) words in two consecutive stages. Findings revealed that all children's picture naming latencies and errors were reduced following repetition priming and in response to early AoA words relative to late AoA words. AoA and repetition priming effects were similar for children in both talker groups, with one exception. Namely, CWS benefitted significantly more, in terms of error reduction, than CWNS from repetition priming for late AoA words. In addition, CWNS exhibited a significant, positive association between linguistic speed and measures of vocabulary, but CWS did not. These findings were taken to suggest that the (a) semantic-phonological connections of CWS may not be as strong as those of CWNS, and (b) lexical measures may not be sensitive enough to differentiate CWS from CWNS in lexically-related aspects of language production. PMID:18617053

  17. [Priming Effects of Soil Moisture on Soil Respiration Under Different Tillage Practices].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Liang, Ai-zhen; Zhang, Xiao-ping; Chen, Sheng-long; Sun, Bing-jie; Liu, Si-yi

    2016-03-15

    In the early stage of an incubation experiment, soil respiration has a sensitive response to different levels of soil moisture. To investigate the effects of soil moisture on soil respiration under different tillage practices, we designed an incubation trial using air-dried soil samples collected from tillage experiment station established on black soils in 2001. The tillage experiment consisted of no-tillage (NT), ridge tillage (RT), and conventional tillage (CT). According to field capacity (water-holding capacity, WHC), we set nine moisture levels including 30%, 60%, 90%, 120%, 150%, 180%, 210%, 240%, 270% WHC. During the 22-day short-term incubation, soil CO₂ emission was measured. In the early stage of incubation, the priming effects occurred under all tillage practices. There were positive correlations between soil respiration and soil moisture. In addition to drought and flood conditions, soil CO₂ fluxes followed the order of NT > RT > CT. We fitted the relationship between soil moisture and soil CO₂ fluxes under different tillage practices. In the range of 30%-270% WHC, soil CO₂ fluxes and soil moisture fitted a quadratic regression equation under NT, and linear regression equations under RT and CT. Under the conditions of 30%-210% WHC of both NT and RT, soil CO₂ fluxes and soil moisture were well fitted by the logarithmic equation with fitting coefficient R² = 0.966 and 0.956, respectively.

  18. Priming and Backward Influences in the Human Brain: Processing Interactions during the Stroop Interference Effect

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, L. G.; Meyerhoff, K. L.; Woldorff, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated neural processing interactions during Stroop interference by varying the temporal separation of relevant and irrelevant features of congruent, neutral, and incongruent colored-bar/color-word stimulus components. High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral performance were measured as participants reported the bar color as quickly as possible, while ignoring the color words. The task-irrelevant color words could appear at 1 of 5 stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) relative to the task-relevant bar-color occurrence: −200 or −100 ms before, +100 or +200 ms after, or simultaneously. Incongruent relative to congruent presentations elicited slower reaction times and higher error rates (with neutral in between), and ERP difference waves containing both an early, negative-polarity, central-parietal deflection, and a later, more left-sided, positive-polarity component. These congruency-related differences interacted with SOA, showing the greatest behavioral and electrophysiological effects when irrelevant stimulus information preceded the task-relevant target and reduced effects when the irrelevant information followed the relevant target. We interpret these data as reflecting 2 separate processes: 1) a ‘priming influence’ that enhances the magnitude of conflict-related facilitation and conflict-related interference when a task-relevant target is preceded by an irrelevant distractor; and 2) a reduced ‘backward influence’ of stimulus conflict when the irrelevant distractor information follows the task-relevant target. PMID:19321654

  19. Biochar stability and priming effect on SOM decomposition in two European short rotation coppices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Maurizio; Alberti, Giorgio; Viger, Maud; Jenkins, Joe; Girardin, Cyril; Baronti, Silvia; Zaldei, Alessandro; Taylor, Gail; Miglietta, Franco; Tonon, Giustino

    2014-05-01

    Biochar application to agricultural soils has been proposed as a promising strategy for carbon (C) sequestration and climate change mitigation. However, most of the knowledge on biochar stability is based on short-term lab incubation experiments, as field studies are scarce. Therefore, little is known about the interactions between biochar and roots and the related effects on biochar stability in field conditions. In two (Italy and UK) short rotation coppice systems (SRCs) the present study aimed to asses, through continuous soil respiration monitoring and δ13C periodic measurements, the stability of biochar in field conditions, the effect of plant roots on biochar stability, the effect of biochar on original soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition. The percentage of biochar-derived soil respiration (fB) varied according to the site and sampling date: at the Italian site, it was between 7% and 37%; at the UK site, it varied between 12% and 32%. At both sites, fB was generally higher in the presence of roots (Rtot) than in trenched plots (Rh) where the root growth was excluded. This suggests a positive priming effect of roots on biochar decomposition. On the other hand, a decreased decomposition rate of original SOM after soil biochar addition (-10% and -14% at Italian and UK site, respectively) was observed, suggesting a protective effect of biochar on SOM. In summary, regardless of the experimental site, biochar showed a slow decomposition and a protective effect on original SOM, confirming the carbon mitigation potential of this technology. However, the mechanisms that are behind the observed results deserve to be investigated more deeply in a long-term perspective, in order to understand the real potential of biochar as a strategy for soil C sequestration.

  20. Priming for JA-dependent defenses using hexanoic acid is an effective mechanism to protect Arabidopsis against B. cinerea.

    PubMed

    Kravchuk, Zhana; Vicedo, Begonya; Flors, Víctor; Camañes, Gemma; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2011-03-01

    Soil drench treatments with hexanoic acid can effectively protect Arabidopsis plants against Botrytis cinerea through a mechanism based on a stronger and faster accumulation of JA-dependent defenses. Plants impaired in ethylene, salicylic acid, abscisic acid or glutathion pathways showed intact protection by hexanoic acid upon B. cinerea infection. Accordingly, no significant changes in the SA marker gene PR-1 in either the SA or ABA hormone balance were observed in the infected and treated plants. In contrast, the JA signaling pathway showed dramatic changes after hexanoic acid treatment, mainly when the pathogen was present. The impaired JA mutants, jin1-2 and jar1, were unable to display hexanoic acid priming against the necrotroph. In addition, hexanoic acid-treated plants infected with B. cinerea showed priming in the expression of the PDF1.2, PR-4 and VSP1 genes implicated in the JA pathways. Moreover, JA and OPDA levels were primed at early stages by hexanoic acid. Treatments also stimulated increased callose accumulation in response to the pathogen. Although callose accumulation has proved an effective IR mechanism against B. cinerea, it is apparently not essential to express hexanoic acid-induced resistance (HxAc-IR) because the mutant pmr4.1 (callose synthesis defective mutant) is protected by treatment. We recently described how hexanoic acid treatments can protect tomato plants against B. cinerea by stimulating ABA-dependent callose deposition and by priming OPDA and JA-Ile production. We clearly demonstrate here that Hx-IR is a dependent plant species, since this acid protects Arabidopsis plants against the same necrotroph by priming JA-dependent defenses without enhancing callose accumulation.

  1. Cryptosporidium Priming Is More Effective than Vaccine for Protection against Cryptosporidiosis in a Murine Protein Malnutrition Model

    PubMed Central

    Bartelt, Luther A.; Bolick, David T.; Kolling, Glynis L.; Zaenker, Edna I.; Lara, Ana M.; Noronha, Francisco Jose; Cowardin, Carrie A.; Moore, John H.; Turner, Jerrold R.; Warren, Cirle A.; Buck, Gregory A.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a major cause of severe diarrhea, especially in malnourished children. Using a murine model of C. parvum oocyst challenge that recapitulates clinical features of severe cryptosporidiosis during malnutrition, we interrogated the effect of protein malnutrition (PM) on primary and secondary responses to C. parvum challenge, and tested the differential ability of mucosal priming strategies to overcome the PM-induced susceptibility. We determined that while PM fundamentally alters systemic and mucosal primary immune responses to Cryptosporidium, priming with C. parvum (106 oocysts) provides robust protective immunity against re-challenge despite ongoing PM. C. parvum priming restores mucosal Th1-type effectors (CD3+CD8+CD103+ T-cells) and cytokines (IFNγ, and IL12p40) that otherwise decrease with ongoing PM. Vaccination strategies with Cryptosporidium antigens expressed in the S. Typhi vector 908htr, however, do not enhance Th1-type responses to C. parvum challenge during PM, even though vaccination strongly boosts immunity in challenged fully nourished hosts. Remote non-specific exposures to the attenuated S. Typhi vector alone or the TLR9 agonist CpG ODN-1668 can partially attenuate C. parvum severity during PM, but neither as effectively as viable C. parvum priming. We conclude that although PM interferes with basal and vaccine-boosted immune responses to C. parvum, sustained reductions in disease severity are possible through mucosal activators of host defenses, and specifically C. parvum priming can elicit impressively robust Th1-type protective immunity despite ongoing protein malnutrition. These findings add insight into potential correlates of Cryptosporidium immunity and future vaccine strategies in malnourished children. PMID:27467505

  2. Cryptosporidium Priming Is More Effective than Vaccine for Protection against Cryptosporidiosis in a Murine Protein Malnutrition Model.

    PubMed

    Bartelt, Luther A; Bolick, David T; Kolling, Glynis L; Roche, James K; Zaenker, Edna I; Lara, Ana M; Noronha, Francisco Jose; Cowardin, Carrie A; Moore, John H; Turner, Jerrold R; Warren, Cirle A; Buck, Gregory A; Guerrant, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    Cryptosporidium is a major cause of severe diarrhea, especially in malnourished children. Using a murine model of C. parvum oocyst challenge that recapitulates clinical features of severe cryptosporidiosis during malnutrition, we interrogated the effect of protein malnutrition (PM) on primary and secondary responses to C. parvum challenge, and tested the differential ability of mucosal priming strategies to overcome the PM-induced susceptibility. We determined that while PM fundamentally alters systemic and mucosal primary immune responses to Cryptosporidium, priming with C. parvum (106 oocysts) provides robust protective immunity against re-challenge despite ongoing PM. C. parvum priming restores mucosal Th1-type effectors (CD3+CD8+CD103+ T-cells) and cytokines (IFNγ, and IL12p40) that otherwise decrease with ongoing PM. Vaccination strategies with Cryptosporidium antigens expressed in the S. Typhi vector 908htr, however, do not enhance Th1-type responses to C. parvum challenge during PM, even though vaccination strongly boosts immunity in challenged fully nourished hosts. Remote non-specific exposures to the attenuated S. Typhi vector alone or the TLR9 agonist CpG ODN-1668 can partially attenuate C. parvum severity during PM, but neither as effectively as viable C. parvum priming. We conclude that although PM interferes with basal and vaccine-boosted immune responses to C. parvum, sustained reductions in disease severity are possible through mucosal activators of host defenses, and specifically C. parvum priming can elicit impressively robust Th1-type protective immunity despite ongoing protein malnutrition. These findings add insight into potential correlates of Cryptosporidium immunity and future vaccine strategies in malnourished children.

  3. Cryptosporidium Priming Is More Effective than Vaccine for Protection against Cryptosporidiosis in a Murine Protein Malnutrition Model.

    PubMed

    Bartelt, Luther A; Bolick, David T; Kolling, Glynis L; Roche, James K; Zaenker, Edna I; Lara, Ana M; Noronha, Francisco Jose; Cowardin, Carrie A; Moore, John H; Turner, Jerrold R; Warren, Cirle A; Buck, Gregory A; Guerrant, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    Cryptosporidium is a major cause of severe diarrhea, especially in malnourished children. Using a murine model of C. parvum oocyst challenge that recapitulates clinical features of severe cryptosporidiosis during malnutrition, we interrogated the effect of protein malnutrition (PM) on primary and secondary responses to C. parvum challenge, and tested the differential ability of mucosal priming strategies to overcome the PM-induced susceptibility. We determined that while PM fundamentally alters systemic and mucosal primary immune responses to Cryptosporidium, priming with C. parvum (106 oocysts) provides robust protective immunity against re-challenge despite ongoing PM. C. parvum priming restores mucosal Th1-type effectors (CD3+CD8+CD103+ T-cells) and cytokines (IFNγ, and IL12p40) that otherwise decrease with ongoing PM. Vaccination strategies with Cryptosporidium antigens expressed in the S. Typhi vector 908htr, however, do not enhance Th1-type responses to C. parvum challenge during PM, even though vaccination strongly boosts immunity in challenged fully nourished hosts. Remote non-specific exposures to the attenuated S. Typhi vector alone or the TLR9 agonist CpG ODN-1668 can partially attenuate C. parvum severity during PM, but neither as effectively as viable C. parvum priming. We conclude that although PM interferes with basal and vaccine-boosted immune responses to C. parvum, sustained reductions in disease severity are possible through mucosal activators of host defenses, and specifically C. parvum priming can elicit impressively robust Th1-type protective immunity despite ongoing protein malnutrition. These findings add insight into potential correlates of Cryptosporidium immunity and future vaccine strategies in malnourished children. PMID:27467505

  4. Priming effect of (13)C-labelled wheat straw in no-tillage soil under drying and wetting cycles in the Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enke; Wang, Jianbo; Zhang, Yanqing; Angers, Denis A; Yan, Changrong; Oweis, Theib; He, Wenqing; Liu, Qin; Chen, Baoqing

    2015-09-08

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of drying and wetting (DW) cycles on soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralisation and on the priming effect (PE) induced by the addition of (13)C-labelled wheat straw to long-term no-tillage (NT) and conventional-tillage (CT) soils. We observed that the SOC mineralisation rate in rewetted soils was greater than that in soils that were kept at constant water content. The proportion of CO2 derived from the straw declined dramatically during the first 10 days. The priming direction was first positive, and then became slightly negative. The PE was higher under DW cycles than under constant water content. There was no significant effect of the tillage system on the SOC mineralisation rate or PE. The data indicate that the DW cycles had a significant effect on the SOC mineralisation rate and on the PE, demonstrating a positive combined effect between wheat straw and moisture fluctuations. Further research is needed to study the role of microbial communities and C pools in affecting the SOC mineralisation response to DW cycles.

  5. Priming effect of 13C-labelled wheat straw in no-tillage soil under drying and wetting cycles in the Loess Plateau of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Enke; Wang, Jianbo; Zhang, Yanqing; Angers, Denis A.; Yan, Changrong; Oweis, Theib; He, Wenqing; Liu, Qin; Chen, Baoqing

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of drying and wetting (DW) cycles on soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralisation and on the priming effect (PE) induced by the addition of 13C-labelled wheat straw to long-term no-tillage (NT) and conventional-tillage (CT) soils. We observed that the SOC mineralisation rate in rewetted soils was greater than that in soils that were kept at constant water content. The proportion of CO2 derived from the straw declined dramatically during the first 10 days. The priming direction was first positive, and then became slightly negative. The PE was higher under DW cycles than under constant water content. There was no significant effect of the tillage system on the SOC mineralisation rate or PE. The data indicate that the DW cycles had a significant effect on the SOC mineralisation rate and on the PE, demonstrating a positive combined effect between wheat straw and moisture fluctuations. Further research is needed to study the role of microbial communities and C pools in affecting the SOC mineralisation response to DW cycles. PMID:26345303

  6. Different effects of plant-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) and urea on the priming of soil organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qingyan; Wu, Lanfang; Ouyang, Zhu; Li, Binbin; Xu, Yanyan

    2016-03-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization is important for the regulation of the global climate and soil fertility. Decomposition of SOC may be significantly affected by the supply of plant-derived labile carbon (C). To investigate the impact of plant-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) and urea (N) additions on the decomposition of native SOC as well as to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of priming effects (PEs), a batch of incubation experiments was conducted for 250 days by application of (13)C-labeled plant-derived DOM and urea to soils. The direction of PE induced by the addition of DOM was different from the addition of N, i.e. it switched from negative to positive in DOM-amended soils, whereas in the N-treated soil it switched from positive to negative. Adding DOM alone was favorable for soil C sequestration (59 ± 5 mg C per kg soil), whereas adding N alone or together with DOM accelerated the decomposition of native SOC, causing net C losses (-62 ± 4 and -34 ± 31 mg C per kg soil, respectively). These findings indicate that N addition and its interaction with DOM are not favorable for soil C sequestration. Adding DOM alone increased the level of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), but it did not increase the level of soil mineral N. Changes in the ratio of microbial biomass carbon (MBC) to microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) after the addition of DOM and N suggest that a possible shift in the microbial community composition may occur in the present study. Adding DOM with or without N increased the activities of β-glucosidase and urease. Changes in the direction and magnitude of PE were closely related to changes in soil C and N availability. Soil C and N availability might influence the PE through affecting the microbial biomass and extracellular enzyme activity as well as causing a possible shift in the microbial community composition.

  7. The long and the short of priming in visual search.

    PubMed

    Kruijne, Wouter; Meeter, Martijn

    2015-07-01

    Memory affects visual search, as is particularly evident from findings that when target features are repeated from one trial to the next, selection is faster. Two views have emerged on the nature of the memory representations and mechanisms that cause these intertrial priming effects: independent feature weighting versus episodic retrieval of previous trials. Previous research has attempted to disentangle these views focusing on short term effects. Here, we illustrate that the episodic retrieval models make the unique prediction of long-term priming: biasing one target type will result in priming of this target type for a much longer time, well after the bias has disappeared. We demonstrate that such long-term priming is indeed found for the visual feature of color, but only in conjunction search and not in singleton search. Two follow-up experiments showed that it was the kind of search (conjunction versus singleton) and not the difficulty, that determined whether long-term priming occurred. Long term priming persisted unaltered for at least 200 trials, and could not be explained as the result of explicit strategy. We propose that episodic memory may affect search more consistently than previously thought, and that the mechanisms for intertrial priming may be qualitatively different for singleton and conjunction search. PMID:25832185

  8. Effect of cold exposure on thyroxine 5 prime -deiodinase activity in iron-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Brigham, D.E.; Beard, J.L. )

    1991-03-11

    When exposed to cold, severely anemic iron-deficient (ID) rats become hypothermic, fail to adequately increase metabolic rate, and have lower interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) thyroxine 5{prime}-deiodinase (5{prime}-DI) activity compared to control (CN) rats. Less severely anemic rats and CN rats were exposed to 4C for 6h. Rectal temperatures were measured hourly, and VO{sub 2} was measured both prior to and throughout the cold exposure period. IBAT 5{prime}-DI activity was measured in cold-exposed ID and CN rats and compared to ID and CN rats that were not cold exposed. During cold exposure, both ID and CN rats increased metabolic rate similarly. IBAT 5{prime}-DI activity also increased similarly in both groups after cold exposure. These results show that moderately anemic DI rats acutely increase metabolic rate and IBAT 5{prime}-DI activity in the cold. This suggests brown fat production of thyroid hormone is not limiting thermoregulatory performance.

  9. 5[prime] to 3[prime] nucleic acid synthesis using 3[prime]-photoremovable protecting group

    DOEpatents

    Pirrung, M.C.; Shuey, S.W.; Bradley, J.C.

    1999-06-01

    The present invention relates, in general, to a method of synthesizing a nucleic acid, and, in particular, to a method of effecting 5[prime] to 3[prime] nucleic acid synthesis. The method can be used to prepare arrays of oligomers bound to a support via their 5[prime] end. The invention also relates to a method of effecting mutation analysis using such arrays. The invention further relates to compounds and compositions suitable for use in such methods.

  10. Factors driving the carbon mineralization priming effect in a sandy loam soil amended with different types of biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cely, P.; Tarquis, A. M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of biochar on the soil carbon mineralization priming effect depends on the characteristics of the raw materials, production method and pyrolysis conditions. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the impact of three different types of biochar on physicochemical properties and CO2 emissions of a sandy loam soil. For this purpose, soil was amended with three different biochars (BI, BII and BIII) at a rate of 8 wt% and soil CO2 emissions were measured for 45 days. BI is produced from a mixed wood sieving from wood chip production, BII from a mixture of paper sludge and wheat husks and BIII from sewage sludge. Cumulative CO2 emissions of biochars, soil and amended soil were well fit to a simple first-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.97. Results show a negative priming effect in the soil after addition of BI and a positive priming effect in the case of soil amended with BII and BIII. These results can be related to different biochar properties such as carbon content, carbon aromaticity, volatile matter, fixed carbon, easily oxidized organic carbon or metal and phenolic substance content in addition to surface biochar properties. Three biochars increased the values of soil field capacity and wilting point, while effects over pH and cation exchange capacity were not observed.

  11. The priming effect of soluble carbon inputs in organic and mineral soils from a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Dai, Weiwei; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-08-01

    The priming effect (PE) is one of the most important interactions between C input and output in soils. Here we aim to quantify patterns of PE in response to six addition rates of (13)C-labeled water-soluble C (WSC) and determine if these patterns are different between soil organic and mineral layers in a temperate forest. Isotope mass balance was used to distinguish WSC derived from SOC-derived CO2 respiration. The relative PE was 1.1-3.3 times stronger in the mineral layer than in the organic layer, indicating higher sensitivity of the mineral layer to WSC addition. However, the magnitude of cumulative PE was significantly higher in the organic layer than in the mineral layer due to higher SOC in the organic layer. With an increasing WSC addition rate, cumulative PE increased for both layers, but tended to level off when the addition rate was higher than 400 mg C kg(-1) soil. This saturation effect indicates that stimulation of soil C loss by exogenous substrate would not be as drastic as the increase of C input. In fact, we found that the mineral layer with an WSC addition rate of 160-800 mg C kg(-1) soil had net C storage although positive PE was observed. The addition of WSC basically caused net C loss in the organic layer due to the high magnitude of PE, pointing to the importance of the organic layer in C cycling of forest ecosystems. Our findings provide a fundamental understanding of PE on SOC mineralization of forest soils and warrant further in situ studies of PE in order to better understand C cycling under global climate change.

  12. It is our destiny to die: the effects of mortality salience and culture-priming on fatalism and karma belief.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chih-Long

    2013-01-01

    The current study explores whether Asians use culture-specific belief systems to defend against their death anxiety. The effects of mortality salience (MS) and cultural priming on Taiwanese beliefs in fatalism and karma were investigated. Study 1 showed that people believe in fatalism and karma more following MS compared with the control condition. Study 2 found that the effect of MS on fatalism belief was stronger when Taiwanese were exposed to an Eastern cultural context than to a Western cultural context. However, a matched sample of Western participants did not show increased fatalism belief after either a West- or East-prime task. The present research provides evidence that Asians may use some culture-specific beliefs, particularly fatalism belief, to cope with their death awareness.

  13. Timing of presentation of an audience: aggressive priming and audience effects in male displays of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Matos, Ricardo J.; Peake, Tom M.; McGregor, Peter K.

    2003-05-28

    Studies of animal communication often underestimate the presence of individuals other than the signaller-receiver dyad. Signalling interactions often occur in the presence of non-participating individuals (audiences); the effect of these individuals upon the dynamics of interactions has been called the audience effect. Recent studies of fighting fish Betta splendens have shown that the presence of a male audience can increase aggression during interactions. However, in many of these studies males were allowed to see the audience prior to the interaction, thus such pre-exposure may have facilitated aggressive behaviour (aggressive priming). Here we present results of two experiments designed to examine the relative importance of priming and audience effects on the dynamics of aggressive interactions. Males that were pre-exposed showed higher levels of aggression during subsequent interactions regardless of the presence or absence of an audience. When only one of the interactants had been pre-exposed to the audience, the non-exposed male showed similar increases in aggressive behaviour, i.e. matching the level of aggression showed by his opponent. Taken together these results suggest that aggressive priming may have resulted in an over-estimation of the audience effect in previous studies. The results still highlight the importance of social environment in determining the dynamics and outcomes of aggressive contests.

  14. Timing of presentation of an audience: aggressive priming and audience effects in male displays of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Matos, Ricardo J.; Peake, Tom M.; McGregor, Peter K.

    2003-05-28

    Studies of animal communication often underestimate the presence of individuals other than the signaller-receiver dyad. Signalling interactions often occur in the presence of non-participating individuals (audiences); the effect of these individuals upon the dynamics of interactions has been called the audience effect. Recent studies of fighting fish Betta splendens have shown that the presence of a male audience can increase aggression during interactions. However, in many of these studies males were allowed to see the audience prior to the interaction, thus such pre-exposure may have facilitated aggressive behaviour (aggressive priming). Here we present results of two experiments designed to examine the relative importance of priming and audience effects on the dynamics of aggressive interactions. Males that were pre-exposed showed higher levels of aggression during subsequent interactions regardless of the presence or absence of an audience. When only one of the interactants had been pre-exposed to the audience, the non-exposed male showed similar increases in aggressive behaviour, i.e. matching the level of aggression showed by his opponent. Taken together these results suggest that aggressive priming may have resulted in an over-estimation of the audience effect in previous studies. The results still highlight the importance of social environment in determining the dynamics and outcomes of aggressive contests. PMID:12763268

  15. Priming Macho Attitudes and Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Erik D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated the effects of reading one of four priming stimuli stories (control, consenting sex, rape, or family) on males' evaluations of, and emotional reactions to, two videotaped date-rape scenarios. Results supported the concepts of a macho personality and revealed interactive effects for both the rape and family prime. (RJM)

  16. Priming for Social Activities: Effects on Interactions between Children with Autism and Typically Developing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gengoux, Grace W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether brief priming sessions (i.e., previewing activities with an adult ahead of time) would increase the rate of initiations made by children with autism to peers in inclusive settings. A multiple baseline across participants design assessed changes in rate of initiations, as well as statements reflecting target child…

  17. Reduced N400 Semantic Priming Effects in Adult Survivors of Paediatric and Adolescent Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knuepffer, C.; Murdoch, B. E.; Lloyd, D.; Lewis, F. M.; Hinchliffe, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    The immediate and long-term neural correlates of linguistic processing deficits reported following paediatric and adolescent traumatic brain injury (TBI) are poorly understood. Therefore, the current research investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited during a semantic picture-word priming experiment in two groups of highly functioning…

  18. Do Lemmas Speak German? A Verb Position Effect in German Structural Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was…

  19. The Sensory Nature of Episodic Memory: Sensory Priming Effects Due to Memory Trace Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunel, Lionel; Labeye, Elodie; Lesourd, Mathieu; Versace, Remy

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence that memory and perceptual processing are underpinned by the same mechanisms. Specifically, the authors conducted 3 experiments that emphasized the sensory aspect of memory traces. They examined their predictions with a short-term priming paradigm based on 2 distinct phases: a learning phase consisting…

  20. Negative Priming Effect after Inhibition of Weight/Number Interference in a Piaget-Like Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirlin, Olivier; Houde, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Piagetian tasks have more to do with the child's ability to inhibit interference than they do with the ability to grasp their underlying logic. Here we used a chronometric paradigm with 11-year-olds, who succeed in Piaget's conservation-of-weight task, to test the role of cognitive inhibition in a priming version of this classical task. The…

  1. Phonological Effects in Handwriting Production : Evidence from the Implicit Priming Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afonso, Olivia; Alvarez, Carlos J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present article, we report 3 experiments using the odd-man-out variant of the implicit priming paradigm, aimed at determining the role played by phonological information during the handwriting process. Participants were asked to write a small set of words learned in response to prompts. Within each block, response words could share initial…

  2. Aging and IQ Effects on Associative Recognition and Priming in Item Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Two ways to examine memory for associative relationships between pairs of words were tested: an explicit method, associative recognition, and an implicit method, priming in item recognition. In an experiment with both kinds of tests, participants were asked to learn pairs of words. For the explicit test, participants were asked to decide whether…

  3. Exploring Perceptual Processing of ASL and Human Actions: Effects of Inversion and Repetition Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corina, David P.; Grosvald, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we compare responses of deaf signers and hearing non-signers engaged in a categorization task of signs and non-linguistic human actions. We examine the time it takes to make such categorizations under conditions of 180 degrees stimulus inversion and as a function of repetition priming, in an effort to understand whether the…

  4. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  5. Effect of input power on cooling property of a thermoacoustic cooling system with diameter-expanded prime movers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, So; Sakamoto, Shin-ichi; Orino, Yuichiro; Wada, Takahiro; Inui, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2016-07-01

    We studied a thermoacoustic cooling system driven at low temperatures to make practical use of the system. Aiming to reduce the driving temperature of the thermoacoustic system, we developed a loop-tube-type thermoacoustic system with diameter-expanded two-stage prime movers, i.e., a heat-to-sound transducer. The system drove at 67 °C. Additionally, we developed a prototype for a thermoacoustic cooling system with a diameter-expanded two-stage prime mover. In the experiment, the cooling point temperature was decreased by 4.4 °C from room temperature, i.e., 20 °C. To improve the cooling performance of the prototype thermoacoustic cooling system, we experimentally investigated the effect of increasing the input power on the cooling performance.

  6. D-serine facilitates the effects of extinction to reduce cocaine-primed reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Kelamangalath, Lakshmi; Seymour, Claire M; Wagner, John J

    2009-11-01

    Male Sprague Dawley rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine (0.5 mg/kg) during 90 min sessions for a period of 15 days. On day 16, rats were either held abstinent in their home cage environment or experienced an extinction session in which the active lever had no programmed consequences. Facilitating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity with the coagonist D-serine (100 mg/kg i.p.) before or following the extinction session significantly reduced the subsequent cocaine-primed reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior tested on day 17. D-serine significantly reduced drug-primed reinstatement only when combined with extinction, and its effectiveness when administered following the training session suggested that an enhancement of consolidation of extinction learning had occurred. In contrast, D-serine treatment did not reduce sucrose-primed reinstatement, indicating that the beneficial effects of this adjunct pharmacotherapy with extinction training were specific to an addictive substance (cocaine) and did not generalize to a natural reward (sucrose).

  7. Endocrine and Ovarian Changes in Response to the Ram Effect in Medroxyprogesterone Acetate-primed Corriedale Ewes During the Breeding and Nonbreeding Season

    PubMed Central

    Ungerfeld, R; Carbajal, B; Rubianes, E; Forsberg, M

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the endocrine and ovarian changes in medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP)-primed ewes after ram introduction. Experiment 1 was performed during the mid-breeding season with 71 ewes primed with an intravaginal MAP sponge for 12 days. While the control (C) ewes (n = 35) were in permanent contact with rams, the ram effect (RE) ewes (n = 36) were isolated for 34 days prior to contact with rams. At sponge withdrawal, all ewes were joined with eight sexually experienced marking Corriedale rams and estrus was recorded over the next 4 days. The ovaries were observed by laparoscopy 4–6 days after estrus. Four weeks later, pregnancy was determined by transrectal ultrasonography. In eight ewes from each group, ovaries were ultrasonographically scanned; FSH, LH, and estradiol-17β were measured every 12 hours until ovulation or 96 hours after estrus. The response to the rams was not affected by the fact that ewes had been kept or not in close contact with males before teasing. No differences were found in FSH, LH, estradiol-17β concentrations, growth of the ovulatory follicle, onset of estrus, ovulation rate, or pregnancy rate. Experiment 2 was performed with 14 ewes during the nonbreeding season. Ewes were isolated from rams for 1 month, and received a 6-day MAP priming. Ovaries were ultrasonographically scanned every 12 hours, and FSH, LH, estradiol-17β, and progesterone were measured. Ewes that ovulated and came into estrus had higher FSH and estradiol-17β levels before introduction of the rams than did ewes that had a silent ovulation. The endocrine pattern of the induced follicular phase of ewes that came into estrus was more similar to a normal follicular phase, than in ewes that had a silent ovulation. The follicle that finally ovulated tended to emerge earlier and in a more synchronized fashion in those ewes that did come into estrus. All ewes that ovulated had an LH surge and reached higher maximum FSH levels than ewes

  8. Amount of Priming in the Difference of Mental Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanamori, Nobuhiro; Yagi, Akihiro

    2005-01-01

    We examined in detail effects of priming in 2 mental rotation strategies: spinning (rotating in a picture plane) and flipping (rotating in depth around a horizontal axis) by using a priming paradigm of Kanamori and Yagi (2002). The priming paradigm included prime and probe tasks within 1 trial. In the prime task, 16 participants were asked to…

  9. Na+/H+ exchanger 1 participates in tobacco disease defence against Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae by affecting vacuolar pH and priming the antioxidative system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xianyang; Bao, Hexigeduleng; Guo, Jie; Jia, Weitao; Tai, Fang; Nie, Lingling; Jiang, Ping; Feng, Juanjuan; Lv, Sulian; Li, Yinxin

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of NHX1 (Na+/H+ exchanger 1) in plant salt tolerance, little is known about its other functions. In this study, intriguingly, it was found that NHX1 participated in plant disease defence against Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae (Ppn) in Nicotiana benthamiana. NbNHX1 was originally isolated from N. benthamiana, and characterized. The subcellular localization of NbNHX1 with its C-terminus fused with green fluorescent protein indicated that NbNHX1 localized primarily to the tonoplast. Tobacco rattle virus-induced NbNHX1 silencing led to reduced H+ efflux from the vacuole to cytoplasts, and decreased Ppn resistance in N. benthamiana. After attack by Ppn, NbNHX1-silenced plants exhibited impaired ability to scavenge reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by the pathogen. Pea early browning virus-mediated ectopic expression of SeNHX1 (from Salicornia europaea) or AtNHX1 (from Arabidopsis thaliana) both conferred enhanced Ppn resistance to N. benthamiana, with a lower H2O2 concentration after Ppn inoculation. Further investigation of the role of NHX1 demonstrated that transient overexpression of NbNHX1 improved the vacuolar pH and cellular ROS level in N. benthamiana, which was coupled with an enlarged NAD(P) (H) pool and higher expression of ROS-responsive genes. In contrast, NbNHX1 silencing led to a lower pH in the vacuole and a lower cellular ROS level in N. benthamiana, which was coupled with a decreased NAD(P) (H) pool and decreased expression of ROS-responsive genes. These results suggest that NHX1 is involved in plant disease defence; and regulation of vacuolar pH by NHX1, affecting the cellular oxidation state, primes the antioxidative system which is associated with Ppn resistance in tobacco. PMID:25170102

  10. Assessing the Effects of Momentary Priming on Memory Retention During an Interference Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    A memory aid, that used brief (33ms) presentations of previously learned information (target words), was assessed on its ability to reinforce memory for target words while the subject was performing an interference task. The interference task required subjects to learn new words and thus interfered with their memory of the target words. The brief presentation (momentary memory priming) was hypothesized to refresh the subjects memory of the target words. 143 subjects, in a within subject design, were given a 33ms presentation of the target memory words during the interference task in a treatment condition and a blank 33ms presentation in the control condition. The primary dependent measure, memory loss over the interference trial, was not significantly different between the two conditions. The memory prime did not appear to hinder the subjects performance on the interference task. This paper describes the experiment and the results along with suggestions for future research.

  11. [Effect of atypical pathogen colonization on cervical priming in cervix insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Kesternich, P; Jung, H; Markos-Pusztai, S; Schmitz, F J; Hauspy, F

    1988-01-01

    In a prospective study the cervical bacterial flora of pregnant women with insufficiency of the cervix is compared with the flora of asymptomatic pregnant women. It could be demonstrated, that in case of insufficiency of the cervix a different bacterial flora is found: in addition to the incidence of pathological bacterial groups, a shift of the physiological flora with Doederlein's bacilli to a mixed flora is observed. New findings in the cervical priming lead to the idea, that an atypical cervical flora could influence the cervical priming. The changing of the cervical environment is able to induce an increased production of prostaglandins with cervical dilatation of its structure. Regarding the different cervical flora in case of cervical insufficiency, the importance of the circular suture in the prophylactic management of premature delivery will be discussed. The results lead to the necessity of precise vaginal check-up and therapy of genital infections during pregnancy.

  12. When canary primes yellow: effects of semantic memory on overt attention.

    PubMed

    Léger, Laure; Chauvet, Elodie

    2015-02-01

    This study explored how overt attention is influenced by the colour that is primed when a target word is read during a lexical visual search task. Prior studies have shown that attention can be influenced by conceptual or perceptual overlap between a target word and distractor pictures: attention is attracted to pictures that have the same form (rope--snake) or colour (green--frog) as the spoken target word or is drawn to an object from the same category as the spoken target word (trumpet--piano). The hypothesis for this study was that attention should be attracted to words displayed in the colour that is primed by reading a target word (for example, yellow for canary). An experiment was conducted in which participants' eye movements were recorded whilst they completed a lexical visual search task. The primary finding was that participants' eye movements were mainly directed towards words displayed in the colour primed by reading the target word, even though this colour was not relevant to completing the visual search task. This result is discussed in terms of top-down guidance of overt attention in visual search for words. PMID:24838307

  13. The effect of a negative mood priming challenge on dysfunctional attitudes, explanatory style, and explanatory flexibility.

    PubMed

    Fresco, David M; Heimberg, Richard G; Abramowitz, Adrienne; Bertram, Tara L

    2006-06-01

    Ninety-seven undergraduates, 48 of whom had a history of self-reported major depression, completed measures of mood and cognitive style (e.g. explanatory style, explanatory flexibility, dysfunctional attitudes) prior to and directly after a negative mood priming challenge that consisted of listening to sad music and thinking about an upsetting past event. Eighteen of the previously depressed participants endorsed baseline levels of depression, explanatory style for negative events, and dysfunctional attitudes higher than levels reported by never depressed participants or euthymic participants with a history of depression. All three groups (never depressed participants, dysphoric participants with a history of depression, euthymic participants with a history of depression) demonstrated increases in dysphoria and dysfunctional attitudes in response to the negative mood priming challenge. Dysphoric participants with a history of depression, but not the other two groups, evidenced modest increases in explanatory style following the negative mood priming challenge. Finally, euthymic participants with a history of depression, but not the other two groups, evidenced drops in explanatory flexibility. Findings from the present study suggest that the cognitive theories of depression may benefit from examining both cognitive content and cognitive flexibility when assessing risk for depression.

  14. When canary primes yellow: effects of semantic memory on overt attention.

    PubMed

    Léger, Laure; Chauvet, Elodie

    2015-02-01

    This study explored how overt attention is influenced by the colour that is primed when a target word is read during a lexical visual search task. Prior studies have shown that attention can be influenced by conceptual or perceptual overlap between a target word and distractor pictures: attention is attracted to pictures that have the same form (rope--snake) or colour (green--frog) as the spoken target word or is drawn to an object from the same category as the spoken target word (trumpet--piano). The hypothesis for this study was that attention should be attracted to words displayed in the colour that is primed by reading a target word (for example, yellow for canary). An experiment was conducted in which participants' eye movements were recorded whilst they completed a lexical visual search task. The primary finding was that participants' eye movements were mainly directed towards words displayed in the colour primed by reading the target word, even though this colour was not relevant to completing the visual search task. This result is discussed in terms of top-down guidance of overt attention in visual search for words.

  15. An effective DNA priming-protein boosting approach for the cervical cancer vaccination.

    PubMed

    Kianmehr, Zahra; Ardestani, Susan K; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Farahmand, Behrokh; Abdoli, Asghar; Khatami, Maryam; Akbari, Khadijeh; Fotouhi, Fatemeh

    2015-03-01

    Considerable advances have been made in developing human papillomaviruses (HPV) prophylactic vaccines based on L1 virus-like particles (VLPs). However, there are limitations in the availability of these vaccines in developing countries, where most cases of cervical cancer occur. In the current study, the prime-boost immunization strategies were studied using a DNA vaccine carrying HPV-16 L1 gene (pcDNA/L1) and insect cell baculovirus-derived HPV-16 L1 VLP. The humoral immunity was evaluated by measuring the specific IgG levels, and the T-cell immune response was assessed by measuring different cytokines such as IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10. Results showed that although immunization with pcDNA/L1 alone could induce strong cellular immune responses, higher immunogenicity especially antibody response was achieved in pcDNA/L1 priming-VLP boosting regimen. Therefore, we suggest that prime-boost regimen can be considered as an efficient prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine.

  16. Interviewing to elicit information: Using priming to promote disclosure.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Evan; Hartwig, Maria; Brimbal, Laure

    2015-10-01

    Research on implicit cognition has found that activating mental concepts can lead people to behave in ways that are consistent with the primed concept. In a pilot study we tested the effects of priming attachment security on the accessibility of disclosure-related concepts. Subsequently, we tested whether activating disclosure concepts by priming attachment security would influence people's forthcomingness. Participants (N = 102) delivered a flash drive to a confederate who exposed them to details of a mock eco terrorism conspiracy, which they were subsequently interviewed about. Before being interviewed, half of the participants were primed; the other half were not. Results showed that primed participants disclosed significantly more information than those who were not primed. Our findings highlight the need for further research on basic nonconscious processes in investigative interviews, as such influences can affect the outcome of the interview. The operation of nonconscious influences in such contexts has implications for practitioners, who may be able to utilize priming to facilitate disclosure. PMID:26076119

  17. The Influence of Context on Residents' Evaluations: Effects of Priming on Clinical Judgment and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teunissen, P. W.; Stapel, D. A.; Scheele, F.; Scherpbier, A. J. J. A.; Boor, K.; van Diemen-Steenvoorde, J. A. A. M.; van der Vleuten, C. P. M.

    2009-01-01

    Different lines of research have suggested that context is important in acting and learning in the clinical workplace. It is not clear how contextual information influences residents' constructions of the situations in which they participate. The category accessibility paradigm from social psychology appears to offer an interesting perspective for…

  18. Priming effects and enzymatic activity in Israeli soils under treated wastewater and freshwater irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anissimova, Marina; Heinze, Stefanie; Chen, Yona; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Marschner, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation of soils with treated wastewater (TWW) directly influences microbial processes of soil. TWW contains easily decomposable organic material, which can stimulate the activity of soil microorganisms and, as a result, lead to the excessive consumption of soil organic carbon pool. We investigated the effects of irrigation with TWW relative to those of irrigation with freshwater (FW) on the microbial parameters in soils with low (7%) and medium (13%) clay content in a lysimeter experiment. The objectives of our study were to (i) determine the impact of water quality on soil respiration and enzymatic activity influenced by clay content and depth, and (ii) work out the changes in the turnover of soil organic matter (PE, priming effects). Samples were taken from three soil depths (0-10, 10-20, and 40-60 cm). Soil respiration and PE were determined in a 21-days incubation experiment after addition of uniformly 14C-labeled fructose. Activity of 10 extracellular enzymes (EEA, from C-, N-, P-, and S-cycle), phenol oxidase and peroxidase activity (PO+PE), and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) were assayed. Microbial Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) using four substrates, and microbial biomass were determined. The results showed that the clay content acted as the main determinative factor. In the soil with low clay content the water quality had a greater impact: the highest PE (56%) was observed in the upper layer (0-10cm) under FW irrigation; EEA of C-, P-, and S-cycles was significantly higher in the upper soil layer under TWW irrigation. Microbial biomass was higher in the soil under TWW irrigation and decreased with increasing of depth (50 μg/g soil in the upper layer, 15 μg/g soil in the lowest layer). This tendency was also observed for DHA. Contrary to the low clay content, in the soil with medium clay content both irrigation types caused the highest PE in the lowest layer (65% under FW irrigation, 48% under TWW irrigation); the higher substrate

  19. Modeling of decomposition activity and priming effect in soil using the versatile index of microbial physiological state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskiy, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    The implementation of microbial biomass in soil organic matter (SOM) models is still unresolved issue. The approaches using explicit description of microbial biomass (decomposer) interaction with SOM usually cannot be easily verified by means of experimental estimating of total microbial biomass dynamics. Standard experimental methods, such as fumigation extraction or direct microscopic count, does not represent microbial activity (Blagodatskaya and Kuzyakov, 2013), which is essential for the control of decomposition rate. More advanced approaches, explicitly simulating intracellular metabolic activity (Resat et al., 2012) and e.g. production and turnover of extracellular enzymes (Lawrence et al., 2009) are prohibitively complex for the field and larger scales, which are most often under demand for SOM modelling. One possible parsimonious solution is an application of index of microbial physiological state (r), which describes the adaptive variation of the cell composition and metabolic activity by one variable (Panikov, 1995). This variable (r) can reflect the microbial response to the availability of carbon and nitrogen and shift of microbial biomass between active and dormant state (Blagodatsky and Richter, 1998), but also can be used for the description of the effect of external factors, such as temperature and moisture, on microbial activity. This approach is extremely useful for the description of priming effect (Blagodatsky et al., 2010) and the influence of substrate availability and external factors on the size and dynamics of priming. Distinguishing of these two types of driving forces for priming is crucial for modelling of SOM dynamics and steady-state stocks of different SOM pools. I will present the analysis of model response on combination of limiting factors presented as functions controlling the change of microbial physiological state and size of priming effect. Alternatively, the direct effect of the same factors on decomposition rate and priming

  20. Unconscious Cognition Isn't that Smart: Modulation of Masked Repetition Priming Effect in the Word Naming Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Forster, Kenneth I.; Mozer, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    Masked repetition primes produce greater facilitation in naming in a block containing a high, rather than low proportion of repetition trials. [Bodner, G. E., & Masson, M. E. J. (2004). "Beyond binary judgments: Prime-validity modulates masked repetition priming in the naming task". "Memory & Cognition", 32, 1-11] suggested this phenomenon…

  1. Action Effects and Task Knowledge: The Influence of Anticipatory Priming on the Identification of Task-Related Stimuli in Experts

    PubMed Central

    Land, William M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which anticipation of an action’s perceptual effect primes identification of task-related stimuli. Specifically, skilled (n = 16) and novice (n = 24) tennis players performed a choice-reaction time (CRT) test in which they identified whether the presented stimulus was a picture of a baseball bat or tennis racket. Following their response, auditory feedback associated with either baseball or tennis was presented. The CRT test was performed in blocks in which participants predictably received the baseball sound or tennis sound irrespective of which stimulus picture was displayed. Results indicated that skilled tennis players responded quicker to tennis stimuli when the response was predictably followed by the tennis auditory effect compared to the baseball auditory effect. These findings imply that, within an individual’s area of expertise, domain-relevant knowledge is primed by anticipation of an action’s perceptual effect, thus allowing the cognitive system to more quickly identify environmental information. This finding provides a more complete picture of the influence that anticipation can have on the cognitive-motor system. No differences existed for novices. PMID:27272987

  2. Action Effects and Task Knowledge: The Influence of Anticipatory Priming on the Identification of Task-Related Stimuli in Experts.

    PubMed

    Land, William M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which anticipation of an action's perceptual effect primes identification of task-related stimuli. Specifically, skilled (n = 16) and novice (n = 24) tennis players performed a choice-reaction time (CRT) test in which they identified whether the presented stimulus was a picture of a baseball bat or tennis racket. Following their response, auditory feedback associated with either baseball or tennis was presented. The CRT test was performed in blocks in which participants predictably received the baseball sound or tennis sound irrespective of which stimulus picture was displayed. Results indicated that skilled tennis players responded quicker to tennis stimuli when the response was predictably followed by the tennis auditory effect compared to the baseball auditory effect. These findings imply that, within an individual's area of expertise, domain-relevant knowledge is primed by anticipation of an action's perceptual effect, thus allowing the cognitive system to more quickly identify environmental information. This finding provides a more complete picture of the influence that anticipation can have on the cognitive-motor system. No differences existed for novices.

  3. Action Effects and Task Knowledge: The Influence of Anticipatory Priming on the Identification of Task-Related Stimuli in Experts.

    PubMed

    Land, William M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which anticipation of an action's perceptual effect primes identification of task-related stimuli. Specifically, skilled (n = 16) and novice (n = 24) tennis players performed a choice-reaction time (CRT) test in which they identified whether the presented stimulus was a picture of a baseball bat or tennis racket. Following their response, auditory feedback associated with either baseball or tennis was presented. The CRT test was performed in blocks in which participants predictably received the baseball sound or tennis sound irrespective of which stimulus picture was displayed. Results indicated that skilled tennis players responded quicker to tennis stimuli when the response was predictably followed by the tennis auditory effect compared to the baseball auditory effect. These findings imply that, within an individual's area of expertise, domain-relevant knowledge is primed by anticipation of an action's perceptual effect, thus allowing the cognitive system to more quickly identify environmental information. This finding provides a more complete picture of the influence that anticipation can have on the cognitive-motor system. No differences existed for novices. PMID:27272987

  4. Seed priming with BABA (β-amino butyric acid): a cost-effective method of abiotic stress tolerance in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.

    PubMed

    Jisha, K C; Puthur, Jos T

    2016-03-01

    The effects of β-amino butyric acid (BABA) on abiotic stress tolerance potential of three Vigna radiata varieties were studied. The reduction in the growth of seedlings subjected to NaCl/polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress is alleviated by BABA seed priming, which also enhanced photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic and mitochondrial activities, and also modified the chlorophyll a fluorescence-related parameters. Moreover, BABA seed priming reduced malondialdehyde content in the seedlings and enhanced the accumulation of proline, total protein, total carbohydrate, nitrate reductase activity, and activities of antioxidant enzymes like guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Most of these positive features of BABA priming were predominantly exhibited when the plants were encountered with stress (NaCl/PEG). The BABA content in the BABA-treated green gram seeds and seedlings was also detected and quantified with high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and it revealed that the priming effect of BABA initiated in seeds and further gets carried over to the seedlings. It was concluded that BABA seed priming improved the drought and salinity stress tolerance potential of all the three green gram varieties, and it was evident in the NaCl-tolerant variety Pusa Vishal as compared to Pusa Ratna (abiotic stress sensitive) and Pusa 9531(drought tolerant). Dual mode in cost effectiveness of BABA priming is evident from: (1) the positive features of priming are being exhibited more during the exposure of plants to stress, and (2) priming of seedlings can be carried out by BABA application to seeds at very low concentration and volume.

  5. Priming effect of platelet activating factor on leukotriene C4 from stimulated eosinophils of asthmatic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Shindo, K.; Koide, K.; Hirai, Y.; Sumitomo, M.; Fukumura, M.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eosinophils from asthmatic patients are known to release greater amounts of leukotrienes than normal eosinophils when stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187. The effect of platelet activating factor (PAF) in priming eosinophils was investigated. METHODS: Eosinophils were obtained from 18 asthmatic patients and 18 healthy donors. Cells separated by the Percoll gradients were incubated with PAF (C-18) for 30 minutes and then stimulated with the calcium ionophore A23187 (2.5 microM) for 15 minutes. The amount of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) in supernatants was measured using a combination of high pressure liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: The mean (SD) amount of LTC4 released by eosinophils from asthmatic patients upon stimulation with the calcium ionophore A23187 alone was 27.9 (9.9) ng/10(6) cells (n = 6). The amount of LTC4 released following stimulation with the calcium ionophore A23187 after pretreatment with PAF (1, 5, and 10 microM) was 57.2 (8.9), 75.1 (14.3), and 52.6 (10.7) ng/10(6) cells (n = 6), respectively. Trace amounts of LTC4 (0.9 (0.02) ng/10(6) cells, n = 6) were detected in the supernatant of the cells after stimulation by PAF alone (5 microM). The amount of LTC4 released upon stimulation by calcium ionophore A23187 alone in eosinophils from healthy donors was 10.3 (3.7) ng/10(6) cells (n = 4). The amounts of LTC4 released upon stimulation with calcium ionophore A23187 after pretreatment with PAF at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 microM were 11.9 (3.5), 17.8 (5.6), and 12.7 (5.1) ng/10(6) cells (n = 4), respectively. Trace amounts of LTC4 (0.6 (0.02) ng/10(6) cells, n = 4) were detected in the supernatant of the cells upon stimulation with PAF alone (5 microM). The amounts of LTC4 released upon stimulation with calcium ionophore A23187 after pretreatment with lyso-PAF at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 microM (n = 4 or 6) were 30.8 (5.2), 22.9 (5.1), and 27.3 (4.3) ng/10(6) cells (n = 6) from the eosinophils of asthmatic

  6. Costs and benefits of priming for defense in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    van Hulten, Marieke; Pelser, Maaike; van Loon, L C; Pieterse, Corné M J; Ton, Jurriaan

    2006-04-01

    Induced resistance protects plants against a wide spectrum of diseases; however, it can also entail costs due to the allocation of resources or toxicity of defensive products. The cellular defense responses involved in induced resistance are either activated directly or primed for augmented expression upon pathogen attack. Priming for defense may combine the advantages of enhanced disease protection and low costs. In this study, we have compared the costs and benefits of priming to those of induced direct defense in Arabidopsis. In the absence of pathogen infection, chemical priming by low doses of beta-aminobutyric acid caused minor reductions in relative growth rate and had no effect on seed production, whereas induction of direct defense by high doses of beta-aminobutyric acid or benzothiadiazole strongly affected both fitness parameters. These costs were defense-related, because the salicylic acid-insensitive defense mutant npr1-1 remained unaffected by these treatments. Furthermore, the constitutive priming mutant edr1-1 displayed only slightly lower levels of fitness than wild-type plants and performed considerably better than the constitutively activated defense mutant cpr1-1. Hence, priming involves less fitness costs than induced direct defense. Upon infection by Pseudomonas syringae or Hyaloperonospora parasitica, priming conferred levels of disease protection that almost equaled the protection in benzothiadiazole-treated wild-type plants and cpr1 plants. Under these conditions, primed plants displayed significantly higher levels of fitness than noninduced plants and plants expressing chemically or cpr1-induced direct defense. Collectively, our results indicate that the benefits of priming-mediated resistance outweigh the costs in environments in which disease occurs.

  7. Are You Insulting Me? Exposure to Alcohol Primes Increases Aggression Following Ambiguous Provocation

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, William C.; Vasquez, Eduardo A.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Grosvenor, Marianne; Truong, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Considerable research has shown that alcohol consumption can increase aggression and produce extremes in other social behaviors. Although most theories posit that such effects are caused by pharmacological impairment of cognitive processes, recent research indicates that exposure to alcohol-related constructs, in the absence of consumption, can produce similar effects. Here we tested the hypothesis that alcohol priming is most likely to affect aggression in the context of ambiguous provocation. Experiment 1 showed that exposure to alcohol primes increased aggressive retaliation but only when an initial provocation was ambiguous; unambiguous provocation elicited highly aggressive responses regardless of prime exposure. Experiment 2 showed that alcohol prime exposure effects are relatively short-lived and that perceptions of the provocateur's hostility mediated effects of prime exposure on aggression. These findings suggest modification and extension of existing models of alcohol-induced aggression. PMID:24854477

  8. Aging and IQ effects on associative recognition and priming in item recognition

    PubMed Central

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Two ways to examine memory for associative relationships between pairs of words were tested: an explicit method, associative recognition, and an implicit method, priming in item recognition. In an experiment with both kinds of tests, participants were asked to learn pairs of words. For the explicit test, participants were asked to decide whether two words of a test pair had been studied in the same or different pairs. For the implicit test, participants were asked to decide whether single words had or had not been among the studied pairs. Some test words were immediately preceded in the test list by the other word of the same pair and some by a word from a different pair. Diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978; Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008) analyses were carried out for both tasks for college-age participants, 60–74 year olds, and 75–90 year olds, and for higher- and lower-IQ participants, in order to compare the two measures of associative strength. Results showed parallel behavior of drift rates for associative recognition and priming across ages and across IQ, indicating that they are based, at least to some degree, on the same information in memory. PMID:24976676

  9. Three-source-partitioning of soil carbon pools and fluxes and priming effects induced by carbohydrates of different availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, E.; Khomyakov, N.; Myachina, O.; Blagodatsky, S.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is not uniform and includes: 1) fresh input of plant-derived organics, i.e. root exudates and rhizodeposits, 2) partially decomposed plant residues and 3) old humus material. The partitioning of these three carbon sources in soil C pools (microbial biomass and dissolved organic matter) and quantification of their contributions in soil CO2 ?uxes is a current challenge in soil science aiming to reveal the C pathways and drivers in terrestrial ecosystems. We applied uniformly labeled 14C-cellulose and 14C-glucose (as low and easily available substrates, respectively) in Ap of loamy Haplic Luvisol developed under C3 vegetation. Miscanthus x giganteus (Greef et Deu) - a perennial C4 plant - was grown for 12 years before the experiment with glucose/cellulose addition. Natural differences in the abundance of 13C between C4 and C3 plants were used to distinguish between old SOC (> 12 years) and recent Miscanthus-derived C (< 12 years). This enabled us to estimate mechanisms and sources of priming effects (PE) during decomposition of applied substrates with varying availability. The real and apparent priming effects were distinguished by partitioning of microbial C for substrate-C and SOM-derived C. Microbial specific growth rates and activity of hydrolytic enzymes were determined to reveal the mechanisms of real PEs. Both short-term apparent and long-term real PEs were induces by glucose, while the cellulose input caused only real PE. Remarkably, the shift to the domination of slow-growing microorganisms was observed during real PEs independently of substrate quality. This is the first direct confirmation of the hypothesized presumable contribution of K-strategists to real priming. 2.5-3 times increase in beta-glucosidase and phosphatase activity coupled with real PE in soil treated with glucose indicated that strong limitation and microbial starvation after glucose consumption caused the PE. Contrary to that the 75% increase in cellobiohydrolase

  10. Intentions Determine the Effect of Invisible Metacontrast-Masked Primes: Evidence for Top-Down Contingencies in a Peripheral Cuing Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansorge, Ulrich; Neumann, Odmar

    2005-01-01

    In 5 experiments, the authors tested whether the processing of nonconscious spatial stimulus information depends on a prior intention. This test was conducted with the metacontrast dissociation paradigm. Experiment 1 demonstrated that masked primes that could not be discriminated above chance level affected responses to the visible stimuli that…

  11. Discriminating between Z Prime -boson effects and effects of anomalous gauge couplings in the double production of W{sup {+-}} bosons at a linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Vasili V.; Pankov, A. A.

    2013-06-15

    The potential of the International Linear electron-positron Collider (ILC) for seeking, in the annihilation production of W{sup {+-}}-boson pairs, signals induced by new neutral gauge bosons predicted by models belonging to various classes and featuring an extended gauge sector is studied. Limits that will be obtained at ILC for the parameters and masses of Z Prime bosons are compared with present-day and future data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The possibility of discriminating between the effects of Z-Z Prime mixing and signals induced by anomalous gauge couplings (AGC) is demonstrated within theoretically motivated trilinear gauge models involving several free anomalous parameters. It is found that the sensitivity of ILC to the effects of Z-Z Prime mixing in the process e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} and its ability to discriminate between these two new-physics scenarios, Z Prime and AGC, become substantially higher upon employing polarized initial (e{sup +}e{sup -}) and final (W{sup {+-}}) states.

  12. Close relationships and the working self-concept: implicit and explicit effects of priming attachment on agency and communion.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Jennifer A; Lydon, John E

    2004-11-01

    Two studies investigated how contextually activating attachment relationships influences the working self-concept in terms of agency and communion. In Study 1, 245 participants were primed with a secure, avoidant, or anxious-ambivalent relationship and the implicit accessibility of agency and communion was assessed using word fragments. Activating a secure relationship increased the accessibility of communion, whereas activating an anxious-ambivalent relationship increased the accessibility of agency. In Study 2, 123 participants were primed with a secure, preoccupied, avoidant-dismissive, or avoidant-fearful relationship and explicit self-perceptions of agency and communion traits were assessed using the Extended Personality Attributes Questionnaire (EPAQ). Gender interacted with the attachment prime, such that men primed with a secure relationship reported higher communion than did men primed with an avoidant (dismissive or fearful) relationship, whereas women primed with an anxious (preoccupied or fearful) relationship reported higher agency than did women primed with a secure relationship.

  13. Effective Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Targeting of Persistent HIV-1 during Antiretroviral Therapy Requires Priming of Naive CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kellie N.; Mailliard, Robbie B.; Piazza, Paolo A.; Fischer, Will; Korber, Bette T.; Fecek, Ronald J.; Ratner, Deena; Gupta, Phalguni; Mullins, James I.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Curing HIV-1 infection will require elimination of persistent cellular reservoirs that harbor latent virus in the face of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Proposed immunotherapeutic strategies to cure HIV-1 infection include enhancing lysis of these infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). A major challenge in this strategy is overcoming viral immune escape variants that have evaded host immune control. Here we report that naive CD8+ T cells from chronic HIV-1-infected participants on long-term cART can be primed by dendritic cells (DC). These DC must be mature, produce high levels of interleukin 12p70 (IL-12p70), be responsive to CD40 ligand (CD40L), and be loaded with inactivated, autologous HIV-1. These DC-primed CD8+ T cell responders produced high levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in response to a broad range of both conserved and variable regions of Gag and effectively killed CD4+ T cell targets that were either infected with the autologous latent reservoir-associated virus or loaded with autologous Gag peptides. In contrast, HIV-1-specific memory CD8+ T cells stimulated with autologous HIV-1-loaded DC produced IFN-γ in response to a narrow range of conserved and variable Gag peptides compared to the primed T cells and most notably, displayed significantly lower cytolytic function. Our findings highlight the need to selectively induce new HIV-1-specific CTL from naive precursors while avoiding activation of existing, dysfunctional memory T cells in potential curative immunotherapeutic strategies for HIV-1 infection. PMID:27247230

  14. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. PMID:26812088

  15. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed.

  16. What's the use of being happy? Mood states, useful objects, and repetition priming effects.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Mark C; Goetz, Paul W; Robinson, Michael D

    2007-08-01

    Two experiments involving 99 undergraduate participants sought to examine the influence of mood states on encoding speed within lexical decision and pronunciation tasks. Mood states were measured naturalistically in Experiment 1 and manipulated in Experiment 2. Stimuli consisted of nouns representing useful (e.g., food) and nonuseful (e.g., lint) objects. Mood states had no implications for initial encoding speed. However, when the same words were presented a 2nd time (i.e., repeated), happy individuals displayed a tendency to encode useful words faster than nonuseful ones. Thus, mood states influenced repetition priming on the basis of stimulus valence. The authors propose that happiness sensitizes individuals to useful or rewarding objects, which in turn creates a stronger memory trace for such stimuli in the future.

  17. [Effects of seed priming on physiology of seed germination and seeding growth of Marsdenia tenacissima under NaCl stress].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue-feng; Liu, Li; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Li, Chao; Wang, Ping-li; Yang, Sheng-chao; Hang, Yue-yu

    2015-01-01

    To offer the reference and method for salt damage in the cultivation of Marsdenia tenacissima, the seeds of M. tenacissima collected from Maguan city ( Yunnan province) were taken as the test materials to study the effects of different priming materials on improving germination and growth under high-level salt stress condition. Four different treatments, which were GA3, KNO3-KH2PO4, PEG-6000, NaCl, combined with ANOVA were applied to test the performance of germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, MDA, SOD, and CAT. The results showed that the seed germination was obviously inhibited under salt stress and the soaked seeds with different priming materials could alleviate the damage of salt stress. Under these treatments, the activities of SOD, CAT the content of soluble protein significantly increased. While the content of MDA significantly decreased. The maximum index was obtained when treated with 1.20% KNO3-KH2PO4, the germination percentage increased from 52.67% to 87.33% and the activity of SOD increased from 138.01 to 219.44 respectively. Comparing with the treatment of 1.20% KNO3-KH2PO4, the germination percentage of treating with 300 mg x L(-1) GA3 increased from 52.67% to 80.67%, while the activity of SOD increased from 138.01 to 444.61.

  18. Behavioral effects of social challenges and genomic mechanisms of social priming: What’s testosterone got to do with it?

    PubMed Central

    Rosvall, Kimberly A.; Peterson, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Social challenges from rival conspecifics are common in the lives of animals, and changes in an animal’s social environment can influence physiology and behavior in ways that appear to be adaptive in the face of continued social instability (i.e. social priming). Recently, it has become clear that testosterone, long thought to be the primary mediator of these effects, may not always change in response to social challenges, an observation that highlights gaps in our understanding of the proximate mechanisms by which animals respond to their social environment. Here, our goal is to address the degree to which testosterone mediates organismal responses to social cues. To this end, we review the behavioral and physiological consequences of social challenges, as well as their underlying hormonal and gene regulatory mechanisms. We also present a new case study from a wild songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), in which we find largely divergent genome-wide transcriptional changes induced by social challenges and testosterone, respectively, in muscle and liver tissue. Our review underscores the diversity of mechanisms that link the dynamic social environment with an organisms’ genomic, hormonal, and behavioral state. This diversity among species, and even among tissues within an organism, reveals new insights into the pattern and process by which evolution may alter proximate mechanisms of social priming. PMID:27721823

  19. Problems with Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melrose, Tim; Scott, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses prime numbers, defined as integers greater than 1 that are divisible only by only themselves and the number 1. A positive integer greater than 1 that is not a prime is called composite. The number 1 itself is considered neither prime nor composite. As the name suggests, prime numbers are one of the most basic but important…

  20. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  1. The role of terrestrially derived organic carbon in the coastal ocean: a changing paradigm and the priming effect.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Thomas S

    2011-12-01

    One of the major conundrums in oceanography for the past 20 y has been that, although the total flux of dissolved organic carbon (OC; DOC) discharged annually to the global ocean can account for the turnover time of all oceanic DOC (ca. 4,000-6,000 y), chemical biomarker and stable isotopic data indicate that there is very little terrestrially derived OC (TerrOC) in the global ocean. Similarly, it has been estimated that only 30% of the TerrOC buried in marine sediments is of terrestrial origin in muddy deltaic regions with high sedimentation rates. If vascular plant material--assumed to be highly resistant to decay--makes up much of the DOC and particulate OC of riverine OC (along with soil OC), why do we not see more TerrOC in coastal and oceanic waters and sediments? An explanation for this "missing" TerrOC in the ocean is critical in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Here, I consider the origin of vascular plants, the major component of TerrOC, and how their appearance affected the overall cycling of OC on land. I also examine the role vascular plant material plays in soil OC, inland aquatic ecosystems, and the ocean, and how our understanding of TerrOC and "priming" processes in these natural systems has gained considerable interests in the terrestrial literature, but has largely been ignored in the aquatic sciences. Finally, I close by postulating that priming is in fact an important process that needs to be incorporated into global carbon models in the context of climate change. PMID:22106254

  2. Priming the cow for mobilization in the periparturient period: effects of supplementing the dry cow with saturated fat or linseed.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J B; Ridder, C; Larsen, T

    2008-03-01

    High-producing dairy cows experience negative energy balance in early lactation. Dry-cow feeding management will affect the performance and metabolic status of dairy cows in the following early lactation. The present study evaluates dry-cow feeding strategies for priming lipid metabolism in the dairy cow to overcome the metabolic challenges in the following early lactation. Five weeks before expected calving, 27 cows were assigned to 1 of 3 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic dietary treatments: a low-fat control diet (dry-control); a high saturated fat diet (dry-HSF); and a high linseed diet (dry-HUF). The cows were fed the same TMR lactation diet after calving. The treatments were evaluated by performance and metabolic parameters in blood and liver. The cows fed dry-HSF and dry-HUF had significantly greater plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations compared with dry-control, and the dry-HUF cows had the greatest C18:3 concentrations in plasma in the prepartum period. Further, the cows fed dry-HSF and dry-HUF diets had a tendency for the greatest capacity for incomplete beta-oxidation of fatty acids in the liver in wk 3 prepartum. The plasma cholesterol concentration was greatest for cows fed dry-HSF in the prepartum period compared with those fed dry-control and dry-HUF. The cows fed dry-HSF had the lowest plasma nonesterified fatty acid and liver fat concentrations in early lactation compared with the cows fed dry-control and dry-HUF. Data in the literature and the present experiment indicate that supplementing dry cows with a saturated fatty acid source is a positive strategy for priming dairy cows for body fat mobilization in the following early lactation.

  3. Exploring perceptual processing of ASL and human actions: effects of inversion and repetition priming.

    PubMed

    Corina, David P; Grosvald, Michael

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we compare responses of deaf signers and hearing non-signers engaged in a categorization task of signs and non-linguistic human actions. We examine the time it takes to make such categorizations under conditions of 180° stimulus inversion and as a function of repetition priming, in an effort to understand whether the processing of sign language forms draws upon special processing mechanisms or makes use of mechanisms used in recognition of non-linguistic human actions. Our data show that deaf signers were much faster in the categorization of both linguistic and non-linguistic actions, and relative to hearing non-signers, show evidence that they were more sensitive to the configural properties of signs. Our study suggests that sign expertise may lead to modifications of a general-purpose human action recognition system rather than evoking a qualitatively different mode of processing, and supports the contention that signed languages make use of perceptual systems through which humans understand or parse human actions and gestures more generally. PMID:22153323

  4. A priming effect of gonadotrophin releasing hormone on luteinizing hormone secretion in the boar.

    PubMed Central

    Liptrap, R M; Doble, E

    1982-01-01

    The possibility that gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) can prime the anterior pituitary to a second dose of GnRH resulting in a greatly enhanced secretion of luteinizing hormone was examined in three adult boars. Four experiments were conducted: saline injection followed one hour later by a second saline injection (control); 1 microgram of synthetic GnRH injection followed one hour later by saline injection; saline injection followed one hour later by GnRH injection; GnRH injection followed one hour later by a second GnRH injection. Immunoassayable levels of plasma luteinizing hormone resulting from GnRH plus GnRH treatment were significantly greater than the sum obtained when values from GnRH plus saline and saline plus GnRH were added. Testosterone values in plasma reached maximal concentrations about 60 minutes after peak values of luteinizing hormone were achieved. The results suggest that the first dose of GnRH, in addition to stimulating release of luteinizing hormone can also sensitize the gonadotrophs to a second dose of GnRH causing a significantly greater release of luteinizing hormone. PMID:6751507

  5. Exploring perceptual processing of ASL and human actions: Effects of inversion and repetition priming

    PubMed Central

    Corina, David P.; Grosvald, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we compare responses of deaf signers and hearing non-signers engaged in a categorization task of signs and non-linguistic human actions. We examine the time it takes to make such categorizations under conditions of 180-degree stimulus inversion and as a function of repetition priming, in an effort to understand whether the processing of sign language forms draws upon special processing mechanisms or makes use of mechanisms used in recognition of non-linguistic human actions. Our data show that deaf signers were much faster in the categorization of both linguistic and non-linguistic actions, and relative to hearing non-signers, show evidence that they were more sensitive to the configural properties of signs. Our study suggests that sign expertise may lead to modifications of a general-purpose human action recognition system rather than evoking a qualitatively different mode of processing, and supports the contention that signed languages make use of perceptual systems through which humans understand or parse human actions and gestures more generally. PMID:22153323

  6. Characterization of Flavonoid 3[prime],5[prime]-Hydroxylase in Microsomal Membrane Fraction of Petunia hybrida Flowers.

    PubMed Central

    Menting, JGT.; Scopes, R. K.; Stevenson, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    We have detected a flavonoid 3[prime],5[prime]-hydroxylase (F3[prime],5[prime]H) in the microsomal fraction of Petunia hybrida flowers. Activity varied with the development of flowers, peaking immediately prior to and during anthesis, but was absent in mature flowers. F3[prime],5[prime]H activity in flower extracts from genetically defined floral color mutants correlated strictly with the genotypes Hf1 and Hf2. No activity was detected in flowers from mutants homozygous recessive for both alleles. F3[prime],5[prime]H activity was dependent on NADPH and molecular oxygen; there was only slight activity with NADH. The enzyme catalyzes the hydroxylation of 5,7,4[prime]-trihydroxyflavonone at the 3[prime] and 5[prime] positions, and of 5,7,3[prime],4[prime]-tetrahydroxyflavonone and dihydroquercetin at the 5[prime] position. Hydroxylase activity was inhibited by plant growth regulators (1-aminobenzotriazole and tetcyclacis) and by CO, N-ethylmaleimide, diethyldithiocarbamate, and cytochrome (Cyt) c. Activity was not affected by diethylpyrocarbonate or phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, but was enhanced by 2-mercaptoethanol. A polyclonal antibody that inhibits higher plant NADPH-Cyt P450 reductase inhibited the F3[prime],5[prime]H. The data are consistent with the suggestion that the P. hybrida F3[prime],5[prime]H is a monooxygenase consisting of a Cyt P450 and a NADPH-Cyt P-450 reductase. Cyts P450 were detected in microsomal membranes and in solubilized detergent extracts of these membranes. F3[prime],5[prime]H activity was sensitive to low concentrations of all detergents tested, and therefore solubilization of the active enzyme was not achieved. Reaction products other than flavanones were observed in F3[prime],5[prime]H assays and these may be formed by enzymic oxidation of flavanones. The possibility of a microsomal flavone synthase of a type that has not been described in P. hybrida is discussed. PMID:12232356

  7. Augmentation of antimetastatic effect on Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) in C57BL/6 mice by priming with Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, T; Shimizu, Y; Yokokura, T

    1990-01-01

    The augmentation of the antimetastatic effect of heat-killed cells of Lactobacillus casei YIT9018 (LC9018) on Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) in C57BL/6 mice by presensitization (priming) with LC9018 was examined. Intralesional injection of LC9018 into 3LL-bearing mice inhibited both the growth of the primary tumors and the formation of lung metastases, and this effect was significantly augmented by subcutaneous injection of LC9018 before the tumor inoculation. In the LC9018-primed mice, intraperitoneal administration of LC9018 into syngeneic hosts after priming induced a high level of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the peritoneal cavity. At this time, T cells of the spleen cells from the LC9018-primed mice proliferated and produced IL-2 when co-cultured with LC9018 as antigen in vitro. Also, the phenotype of these T cells was found to be L3T4+ and Ly-2.2- T cells by analysis by flow cytometry. These results suggest that LC9018-reactive helper T (Th) cells were induced by the priming and subsequent challenge with LC9018, and that IL-2 or IFN-gamma, which was produced by the activated LC9018-reactive Th cells, augmented a host immune response resulting the antitumor activity.

  8. No effect of inversion on attentional and affective processing of facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Ottmar V; Price, Sarah M; Tellegen, Cassandra L

    2009-04-01

    The decrease in recognition performance after face inversion has been taken to suggest that faces are processed holistically. Three experiments, 1 with schematic and 2 with photographic faces, were conducted to assess whether face inversion also affected visual search for and implicit evaluation of facial expressions of emotion. The 3 visual search experiments yielded the same differences in detection speed between different facial expressions of emotion for upright and inverted faces. Threat superiority effects, faster detection of angry than of happy faces among neutral background faces, were evident in 2 experiments. Face inversion did not affect explicit or implicit evaluation of face stimuli as assessed with verbal ratings and affective priming. Happy faces were evaluated as more positive than angry, sad, or fearful/scheming ones regardless of orientation. Taken together these results seem to suggest that the processing of facial expressions of emotion is not impaired if holistic processing is disrupted.

  9. Short-Term Effects and Safety Analysis of Retrograde Autologous Blood Priming for Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Patients with Cardiac Valve Replacement Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming; Li, Jun-Quan; Wu, Tian-Chi; Tian, Wei-Chen

    2015-11-01

    This randomized, double-blind study evaluated the short-term effects and safety of perioperative retrograde autologous priming (RAP) for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in patients with cardiac replacement surgery to determine if this approach is a better substitute for crystal liquids priming in patients with valvular heart disease. We observed that RAP significantly decreased the actual priming volume, preserved the hematocrit and hemoglobin level during CPB to a certain degree, and decreased lactate accumulation in CPB period. Moreover, RAP lowered the volume of transfusion and dosage blood products. Thus, our results showed that RAP approach effectively improved tissue perfusion and lowered intraoperative Lac levels, by reducing the hemodilution, which safely and reliably improve the microcirculation perfusion. PMID:27352335

  10. Category-specific semantic deficits in Alzheimer's disease: a semantic priming study.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Mireia; Costa, Albert; Juncadella, Montserrat; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Reñé, Ramón

    2008-03-01

    Category-specific semantic deficits in individuals suffering brain damage after relatively focal lesions provide an important source of evidence about the organization of semantic knowledge. However, whether Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which the brain damage is more widespread, affects semantic categories to a different extent is still controversial. In the present study, we assess this issue by means of the semantic priming technique. AD patients with a mild impairment of their semantic knowledge showed comparable priming effects to that of controls for the categories of animals and artifacts. Interestingly, however, patients with a moderate impairment of their semantic knowledge showed a normal priming effect for animals but a very reduced priming effect (if any) for artifacts. These results reveal that AD may affect the semantic knowledge of different semantic categories to a different extent. The implications of this observation for current theoretical accounts of semantic representation in the brain are discussed.

  11. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  12. Masked Inhibitory Priming in English: Evidence for Lexical Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Colin J.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Predictions derived from the interactive activation (IA) model were tested in 3 experiments using the masked priming technique in the lexical decision task. Experiment 1 showed a strong effect of prime lexicality: Classifications of target words were facilitated by orthographically related nonword primes (relative to unrelated nonword primes) but…

  13. Ionochromic effects and structures of metalated poly(p-phenylenevinylene) polymers incorporating 2,2{prime}-bipyridines

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.X.; Jaeger, W.J.H.; Gosztola, D.J.; Niemczyk, M.P.; Wasielewski, M.R.

    2000-03-09

    The effects of metal ion chelation to the 2,2{prime}-bipyridine (bpy) groups on the photophysics and exciton dynamics of two conjugated polymers 1 and 2 in solution are investigated. The structures of polymers 1 and 2 have 2,2{prime}-bipyridyl-5-vinylene units that alternate with one and three 2,5-bis(n-cecyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene monomer units, respectively. The photophysics and exciton dynamics of metalated polymers 1 and 2 are compared to those of the metal-free polymers (Chen et al.J.Phys.Chem.A 1999, 103, 4341--4351). The origins of ionochromic effects due the metal ion chelation were studied using both steady-state and transient optical spectroscopy, and the results indicate that both conformational flattening and participation of {phi} electrons from the metal in the {phi}-conjugation of the polymer backbone play important roles in metal ion binding induced red shifts in absorption and photoluminescence spectra. The photoluminescence properties of the metalated polymers are determined by the metal ion electronic structures, where the closed shell Zn{sup 2+}-bound polymer 2 has an increased photoluminescence quantum yield and the corresponding open shell Ni{sup 2+}- or Fe{sup 3+}-bound polymers have quenched photoluminescence due to spin-orbit coupling. The dual character of metalated polymer 2 as a conjugated polymer and as a metal-bpy complex is discussed. In addition, the structures of metal ion binding sites are studied via X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and are related to the photophysical properties of the metalated polymers.

  14. Xyloside-primed Chondroitin Sulfate/Dermatan Sulfate from Breast Carcinoma Cells with a Defined Disaccharide Composition Has Cytotoxic Effects in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Persson, Andrea; Tykesson, Emil; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Malmström, Anders; Ellervik, Ulf; Mani, Katrin

    2016-07-01

    We previously reported that the xyloside 2-(6-hydroxynaphthyl) β-d-xylopyranoside (XylNapOH), in contrast to 2-naphthyl β-d-xylopyranoside (XylNap), specifically reduces tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo Although there are indications that this could be mediated by the xyloside-primed glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and that these differ in composition depending on xyloside and cell type, detailed knowledge regarding a structure-function relationship is lacking. In this study we isolated XylNapOH- and XylNap-primed GAGs from a breast carcinoma cell line, HCC70, and a breast fibroblast cell line, CCD-1095Sk, and demonstrated that both XylNapOH- and XylNap-primed chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate GAGs derived from HCC70 cells had a cytotoxic effect on HCC70 cells and CCD-1095Sk cells. The cytotoxic effect appeared to be mediated by induction of apoptosis and was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the XylNap-primed heparan sulfate GAGs. In contrast, neither the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate nor the heparan sulfate derived from CCD-1095Sk cells primed on XylNapOH or XylNap had any effect on the growth of HCC70 cells or CCD-105Sk cells. These observations were related to the disaccharide composition of the XylNapOH- and XylNap-primed GAGs, which differed between the two cell lines but was similar when the GAGs were derived from the same cell line. To our knowledge this is the first report on cytotoxic effects mediated by chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate.

  15. The Cumulative Effects of Indiana PRIME TIME: A State Sponsored Reduced Class Size Program, on Basic Skills Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Leanne; Gilman, David

    The purpose of this paper was to analyze the initial results of statewide implementation of the PRIME TIME program in Indiana. PRIME TIME is a state-wide program to reduce class size in the primary grades. Mean scores from 65,911 third graders who had completed the Indiana Competency Test in the spring of 1987 after completing 3 years of the…

  16. Visual Priming Enhances the Effects of Non-Spatial Cognitive Rehabilitation Training on Spatial Learning after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Clarice M.; Kumar, Krishma; Koesarie, Kathleen; Brough, Elizabeth; Ritter, Anne C.; Brayer, Samuel W.; Thiels, Edda; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Wagner, Amy K.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work demonstrates that spatial (explicit) and non-spatial (implicit) elements of place learning in the Morris water maze (MWM) task can be dissociated and examined in the context of experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Providing non-spatial cognitive training (CT) after injury can improve place learning compared to untrained controls. In the present study, we hypothesized that brief exposure to extra-maze cues, in conjunction with CT, may further improve MWM performance and extra-maze cue utilization compared to CT alone. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=66) received controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury or sham surgery. Beginning D8 post-surgery, CCI and Sham rats received 6 days to no training (NT) or cognitive training with/without brief, non-contextualized exposure to extra-maze cues (BE and CT, respectively). Acquisition (D14-D18), Visible Platform (VP; D19), Carryover (CO; D20-D26), and periodic probe trials were performed. Platform latencies, peripheral and target zone time allocation, and search strategies were assessed. CCI/BE rats had shorter acquisition trial latencies than CCI/NT (p<0.001) and tended to have shorter latencies than CCI/CT rats (p<0.10). Both BE and CT reduced peripheral zone swimming for CCI rats vs. CCI/NT. CCI/BE animals increased spatial swim strategies from D14 to D18 relative to CCI/CT and showed similar swim strategy selection to the Sham/NT group. These data suggest that visual priming improves initial place learning in the MWM. These results support the visual priming response as another clinically relevant experimental rehabilitation construct, to use when assessing injury and treatment effects of behavioral and pharmacological therapies on cognition after TBI. PMID:25665829

  17. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2014-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few are practical for the current clinical environment, and the optimal priming modalities for specific clinical presentations are not known. Accordingly, developing an understanding of the various types of motor priming paradigms and their underlying neural mechanisms is an important step for therapists in neurorehabilitation. Most importantly, an understanding of the methods and their underlying mechanisms is essential for optimizing rehabilitation outcomes. The future of neurorehabilitation is likely to include these priming methods, which are delivered prior to or in conjunction with primary neurorehabilitation therapies. In this Special Interest article we discuss those priming paradigms that are supported by the greatest amount of evidence including: (i) stimulation-based priming, (ii) motor imagery and action observation, (iii) sensory priming, (iv) movement-based priming, and (v) pharmacological priming. PMID:25415551

  18. Evidence of a strong coupling between root exudation, C and N availability, and stimulated SOM decomposition caused by rhizosphere priming effects.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, Per; Barker, Jason; Grayston, Sue J

    2012-08-01

    Increased temperatures and concomitant changes in vegetation patterns are expected to dramatically alter the functioning of northern ecosystems over the next few decades. Predicting the ecosystem response to such a shift in climate and vegetation is complicated by the lack of knowledge about the links between aboveground biota and belowground process rates. Current models suggest that increasing temperatures and rising concentrations of atmospheric CO(2) will be partly mitigated by elevated C sequestration in plant biomass and soil. However, empirical evidence does not always support this assumption, as elevated temperature and CO(2) concentrations also accelerate the belowground C flux, in many cases extending to increased decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and ultimately resulting in decreased soil C stocks. The mechanism behind the increase has remained largely unknown, but it has been suggested that priming might be the causative agent. Here, we provide quantitative evidence of a strong coupling between root exudation, SOM decomposition, and release of plant available N caused by rhizosphere priming effects. As plants tend to increase belowground C allocation with increased temperatures and CO(2) concentrations, priming effects need to be considered in our long-term analysis of soil C budgets in a changing environment. The extent of priming seems to be intimately linked to resource availability, as shifts in the stoichiometric nutrient demands of plants and microorganisms will lead to either cooperation (resulting in priming) or competition (no priming will occur). The findings lead us on the way to resolve the varying response of primary production, SOM decomposition, and release of plant available N to elevated temperatures, CO(2) concentrations, and N availability. PMID:22957187

  19. Systematic screening for mutations in the 5{prime}-regulatory region of the human dopamine D{sub 1} receptor (DRD1) gene in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Cichon, S.; Noethen, M.M.; Stoeber, G.

    1996-07-26

    A possible dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. In the present study we systematically searched for the presence of mutations in the 5{prime}-flanking region of the dopamine D{sub 1} receptor (DRD1) gene. This region has previously been shown to contain a functional promoter. We investigated 119 unrelated individuals (including 36 schizophrenic patients, 38 bipolar affective patients, and 45 healthy controls) using single-strand conformation analysis (SSCA). Eleven overlapping PCR fragments covered 2,189 bp of DNA sequence. We identified six single base substitutions: -2218T/C, -2102C/A, -2030T/C, -1992G/A, -1251G/C, and -800T/C. None of the mutations was found to be located in regions which have important influence on the level of transcriptional activity. Allele frequencies were similar in patients and controls, indicating that genetic variation in the 5{prime}-regulatory region of the DRD1 gene is unlikely to play a frequent, major role in the genetic predisposition to either schizophrenia or bipolar affective disorder. 31 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Analgesic effect of Facebook: Priming with online social networking may boost felt relatedness that buffers against physical pain.

    PubMed

    Ho, Liang-Chu; Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2016-10-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) are extremely popular for providing users with a convenient platform for acquiring social connections and thereby feeling relatedness. Plenty of literature has shown that mental representations of social support can reduce the perception of physical pain. The current study tested whether thinking about SNS would interfere with users' perceptions of experimentally induced pain. Ninety-six undergraduate Facebook users were recruited to participate in a priming-based experiment. They were randomly assigned to one of the three study conditions (SNS prime, neutral prime, or no prime) via rating the aesthetics of logos. The results showed that participants exposed to SNS primes reported less pain of immersion in hot water than did both control groups (neutral- and no-prime). Felt relatedness mediated the link between SNS primes and diminished pain perceptions. This research provides the first demonstration that thinking about SNS can lower experienced physical pain among Facebook users. Online social networking may serve as an analgesic buffer against pain experience than previously thought. The SNS-enabled analgesia has far reaching implications for pain relief applications and the enhancement of well-being in human-interaction techniques. PMID:27427437

  1. Analgesic effect of Facebook: Priming with online social networking may boost felt relatedness that buffers against physical pain.

    PubMed

    Ho, Liang-Chu; Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2016-10-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) are extremely popular for providing users with a convenient platform for acquiring social connections and thereby feeling relatedness. Plenty of literature has shown that mental representations of social support can reduce the perception of physical pain. The current study tested whether thinking about SNS would interfere with users' perceptions of experimentally induced pain. Ninety-six undergraduate Facebook users were recruited to participate in a priming-based experiment. They were randomly assigned to one of the three study conditions (SNS prime, neutral prime, or no prime) via rating the aesthetics of logos. The results showed that participants exposed to SNS primes reported less pain of immersion in hot water than did both control groups (neutral- and no-prime). Felt relatedness mediated the link between SNS primes and diminished pain perceptions. This research provides the first demonstration that thinking about SNS can lower experienced physical pain among Facebook users. Online social networking may serve as an analgesic buffer against pain experience than previously thought. The SNS-enabled analgesia has far reaching implications for pain relief applications and the enhancement of well-being in human-interaction techniques.

  2. Newborns' Memory Processes: A Study on the Effects of Retroactive Interference and Repetition Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turati, Chiara

    2008-01-01

    Newborns' memory abilities have been shown in a number of studies. Yet little is known about whether many of the factors that are known to affect encoding, storage, and retrieval in older children and adults are also integral to memory processes at birth. Here we tested for the presence at birth of the retroactive interference and repetition…

  3. Priming Processes in the Simon Task: More Evidence from the Lexical Decision Task for a Third Route in the Simon Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzker, Manja; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it was proposed that the Simon effect would result not only from two interfering processes, as classical dual-route models assume, but from three processes. It was argued that priming from the spatial code to the nonspatial code might facilitate the identification of the nonspatial stimulus feature in congruent Simon trials. In the…

  4. [Diagnostic significance of LH-RH two step test in women with normoestrogenic amenorrhea: analysis of the self-priming effect of the anterior pituitary glands].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Makino, T; Yokokura, T; Nakayama, A; Takahashi, S; Lin, B L; Suekane, H; Iizuka, R

    1984-05-01

    To investigate the self-priming effect of gonadotropin on the anterior pituitary glands, the response of serum gonadotropins to the "LH-RH two step test" (two step administration of 100 micrograms of synthetic LH-RH at a 60 minute interval) was studied in 20 women with normoestrogenic amenorrhea who were responsive to the progesterone test. The patients were divided into two groups according to the results of the clomiphene test. Blood samples were collected before LH-RH stimulation and 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 minutes after the first stimulation, respectively. The P1P2 ratio (2nd peak level/1st peak level) and delta 1 delta 2 ratio (delta 2/delta 1 = 2nd peak level-60 min. level/1st peak level-0 min. level) of LH and FSH in the clomiphene-positive group were significantly higher than those in the clomiphene-negative group. These ratios are regarded as the degree of the self-priming effect, and at least partially reflect the capacity for the synthesis of pituitary gonadotropins. The results demonstrate that the self-priming effect is more restored in the clomiphene-positive group than in the clomiphene-negative group, and the data also indicate that the analysis of the self-priming effect with the "LH-RH two step test" is useful in developing new diagnostic criteria on ovarian dysfunction.

  5. Positive mood + action = negative mood + inaction: effects of general action and inaction concepts on decisions and performance as a function of affect.

    PubMed

    Albarracin, Dolores; Hart, William

    2011-08-01

    General action and inaction concepts have been shown to produce broad, goal-mediated effects on cognitive and motor activity irrespective of the type of activity. The current research tested a model in which action and inaction goals interact with the valence of incidental moods to guide behavior. Over four experiments, participants' moods were manipulated to be positive (happy), neutral, or negative (angry or sad), and then general action, inaction, and neutral concepts were primed. In Experiment 1, action primes increased intellectual performance when participants experienced a positive (happy) or neutral mood, whereas inaction primes increased performance when participants experienced a negative (angry) mood. Including a control-prime condition, Experiments 2 and 3 replicated these results measuring the number of general interest articles participants were willing to read and participants' memory for pictures of celebrities. Experiment 4 replicated the results comparing happiness with sadness and suggested that the effect of the prime's adoption was automatic. Overall, the findings supported an interactive model by which action concepts and positive affect produce the same increases in active behavior as inaction concepts and negative affect.

  6. The availability of attentional resources modulates the inhibitory strength related to weakly activated priming.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongchun; Wang, Yonghui; Liu, Peng; Dai, Dongyang; Di, Meilin; Chen, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    The current study investigated the role of attention in inhibitory processes (the inhibitory processes described in the current study refer only to those associated with masked or flanked priming) using a mixed paradigm involving the negative compatibility effect (NCE) and object-based attention. Accumulating evidence suggests that attention can be spread more easily within the same object, which increases the availability of attentional resources, than across different objects. Accordingly, we manipulated distractor location (with primes presented in the same object versus presented in different objects) together with prime/target compatibility (compatible versus incompatible) and prime-distractor stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA, 23 ms vs 70 ms). The aim was to investigate whether inhibitory processes related to weakly activated priming, which have been previously assumed to be automatic, depend on the availability of attentional resources. The results of Experiment 1 showed a significant NCE for the 70-ms SOA when the prime and distractor were presented in the same object (greater attentional resource availability); however, reversed NCEs were obtained for all other conditions. Experiment 2 was designed to disentangle whether the results of Experiment 1 were affected by the prime position, and the results indicated that the prime position did not modulate the NCE in Experiment 1. Together, these results are consistent with the claim that the availability of attentional resources modulates the inhibitory strength related to weakly activated priming. Specifically, if attentional resources are assigned to the distractor when it is presented in the same object as the prime, the strength of the inhibition elicited by the distractor may increase and reverse the activation elicited by the prime, which could lead to a significant NCE. PMID:27198916

  7. Sex Pheromones of C. elegans Males Prime the Female Reproductive System and Ameliorate the Effects of Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Aprison, Erin Z; Ruvinsky, Ilya

    2015-12-01

    Pheromones are secreted molecules that mediate animal communications. These olfactory signals can have substantial effects on physiology and likely play important roles in organismal survival in natural habitats. Here we show that a blend of two ascaroside pheromones produced by C. elegans males primes the female reproductive system in part by improving sperm guidance toward oocytes. Worms have different physiological responses to different ratios of the same two molecules, revealing an efficient mechanism for increasing coding potential of a limited repertoire of molecular signals. The endogenous function of the male sex pheromones has an important side benefit. It substantially ameliorates the detrimental effects of prolonged heat stress on hermaphrodite reproduction because it increases the effectiveness with which surviving gametes are used following stress. Hermaphroditic species are expected to lose female-specific traits in the course of evolution. Our results suggest that some of these traits could have serendipitous utility due to their ability to counter the effects of stress. We propose that this is a general mechanism by which some mating-related functions could be retained in hermaphroditic species, despite their expected decay.

  8. Sex Pheromones of C. elegans Males Prime the Female Reproductive System and Ameliorate the Effects of Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Aprison, Erin Z.; Ruvinsky, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Pheromones are secreted molecules that mediate animal communications. These olfactory signals can have substantial effects on physiology and likely play important roles in organismal survival in natural habitats. Here we show that a blend of two ascaroside pheromones produced by C. elegans males primes the female reproductive system in part by improving sperm guidance toward oocytes. Worms have different physiological responses to different ratios of the same two molecules, revealing an efficient mechanism for increasing coding potential of a limited repertoire of molecular signals. The endogenous function of the male sex pheromones has an important side benefit. It substantially ameliorates the detrimental effects of prolonged heat stress on hermaphrodite reproduction because it increases the effectiveness with which surviving gametes are used following stress. Hermaphroditic species are expected to lose female-specific traits in the course of evolution. Our results suggest that some of these traits could have serendipitous utility due to their ability to counter the effects of stress. We propose that this is a general mechanism by which some mating-related functions could be retained in hermaphroditic species, despite their expected decay. PMID:26645097

  9. Analysis of Workflow and Time to Treatment and the Effects on Outcome in Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke: Results from the SWIFT PRIME Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Mayank; Jadhav, Ashutosh P; Bonafe, Alain; Diener, Hans; Mendes Pereira, Vitor; Levy, Elad; Baxter, Blaise; Jovin, Tudor; Jahan, Reza; Menon, Bijoy K; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To study the relationship between functional independence and time to reperfusion in the Solitaire with the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke (SWIFT PRIME) trial in patients with disabling acute ischemic stroke who underwent endovascular therapy plus intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration versus tPA administration alone and to investigate variables that affect time spent during discrete steps. Materials and Methods Data were analyzed from the SWIFT PRIME trial, a global, multicenter, prospective study in which outcomes were compared in patients treated with intravenous tPA alone or in combination with the Solitaire device (Covidien, Irvine, Calif). Between December 2012 and November 2014, 196 patients were enrolled. The relation between time from (a) symptom onset to reperfusion and (b) imaging to reperfusion and clinical outcome was analyzed, along with patient and health system characteristics that affect discrete steps in patient workflow. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess relationships between time and outcome; negative binomial regression was used to evaluate effects on workflow. The institutional review board at each site approved the trial. Patients provided written informed consent, or, at select sites, there was an exception from having to acquire explicit informed consent in emergency circumstances. Results In the stent retriever arm of the study, symptom onset to reperfusion time of 150 minutes led to 91% estimated probability of functional independence, which decreased by 10% over the next hour and by 20% with every subsequent hour of delay. Time from arrival at the emergency department to arterial access was 90 minutes (interquartile range, 69-120 minutes), and time to reperfusion was 129 minutes (interquartile range, 108-169 minutes). Patients who initially arrived at a referring facility had longer symptom onset to groin puncture times compared with

  10. Catalase is a key enzyme in seed recovery from ageing during priming.

    PubMed

    Kibinza, Serge; Bazin, Jérémie; Bailly, Christophe; Farrant, Jill M; Corbineau, Françoise; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat

    2011-09-01

    Ageing induces seed deterioration expressed as the loss of seed vigour and/or viability. Priming treatment, which consists in soaking of seeds in a solution of low water potential, has been shown to reinvigorate aged seeds. We investigate the importance of catalase in oxidation protection during accelerated ageing and repair during subsequent priming treatment of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds. Seeds equilibrated to 0.29g H2Og(-1) dry matter (DM) were aged at 35°C for different durations and then primed by incubation for 7 days at 15°C in a solution of polyethylene glycol 8000 at -2MPa. Accelerated ageing affected seed germination and priming treatment reversed partially the ageing effect. The inhibition of catalase by the addition of aminotriazol during priming treatment reduced seed repair indicating that catalase plays a key role in protection and repair systems during ageing. Ageing was associated with H2O2 accumulation as showed by biochemical quantification and CeCl3 staining. Catalase was reduced at the level of gene expression, protein content and affinity. Interestingly, priming induced catalase synthesis by activating expression and translation of the enzyme. Immunocytolocalization of catalase showed that the enzyme co-localized with H2O2 in the cytosol. These results clearly indicate that priming induce the synthesis of catalase which is involved in seed recovery during priming.

  11. Past Tense Route Priming

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Shikora, Emily R.; Balota, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The present research examined whether lexical (whole word) or more rule-based (morphological constituent) processes can be locally biased by experimental list context in past tense verb inflection. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults completed a past tense inflection task in which list context was manipulated across blocks containing regular past tense verbs (e.g. REACH-REACHED) or irregular past tense verbs (TEACH-TAUGHT). Critical targets, consisting of half regular and half irregular verbs, were embedded within blocks and participants' inflection response latency and accuracy were assessed. The results yielded a cross-over interaction in response latencies. In the regular context there was a robust regularity effect: regular target verbs were conjugated faster than irregular target verbs. In contrast, in the irregular context, irregular target verbs were conjugated faster than regular target verbs. Experiment 2 used the same targets but in the context of either standard nonwords or nonwords ending in “-ED” to test the possibility of a phonological basis for the effect. The effect of context was eliminated. The results support the notion that distinct processes in past tense verb production can be locally biased by list context and, as shown in Experiment 2, this route priming effect was not due to phonological priming. PMID:23291293

  12. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Primed and Non-primed Rice Seedlings under Submergence Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Saddam; Yin, Hanqi; Peng, Shaobing; Khan, Faheem A.; Khan, Fahad; Sameeullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Hafiz A.; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Submergence stress is a limiting factor for direct-seeded rice systems in rainfed lowlands and flood-prone areas of South and Southeast Asia. The present study demonstrated that submergence stress severely hampered the germination and seedling growth of rice, however, seed priming alleviated the detrimental effects of submergence stress. To elucidate the molecular basis of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance, transcriptome analyses were performed using 4-day-old primed (selenium-Se and salicylic acid-SA priming) and non-primed rice seedlings under submergence stress. Genomewide transcriptomic profiling identified 2371 and 2405 transcripts with Se- and SA-priming, respectively, that were differentially expressed in rice compared with non-priming treatment under submergence. Pathway and gene ontology term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in regulation of secondary metabolism, development, cell, transport, protein, and metal handling were over-represented after Se- or SA-priming. These coordinated factors might have enhanced the submergence tolerance and maintained the better germination and vigorous seedling growth of primed rice seedlings. It was also found that many genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes such as carbohydrate metabolism, cellular, and metabolic biosynthesis, nitrogen compound metabolic process, transcription, and response to oxidative stress were induced and overlapped in seed priming treatments, a finding which reveals the common mechanism of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance. Taken together, these results may provide new avenues for understanding and advancing priming-induced responses to submergence tolerance in crop plants. PMID:27516766

  13. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Primed and Non-primed Rice Seedlings under Submergence Stress.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saddam; Yin, Hanqi; Peng, Shaobing; Khan, Faheem A; Khan, Fahad; Sameeullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Hafiz A; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Submergence stress is a limiting factor for direct-seeded rice systems in rainfed lowlands and flood-prone areas of South and Southeast Asia. The present study demonstrated that submergence stress severely hampered the germination and seedling growth of rice, however, seed priming alleviated the detrimental effects of submergence stress. To elucidate the molecular basis of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance, transcriptome analyses were performed using 4-day-old primed (selenium-Se and salicylic acid-SA priming) and non-primed rice seedlings under submergence stress. Genomewide transcriptomic profiling identified 2371 and 2405 transcripts with Se- and SA-priming, respectively, that were differentially expressed in rice compared with non-priming treatment under submergence. Pathway and gene ontology term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in regulation of secondary metabolism, development, cell, transport, protein, and metal handling were over-represented after Se- or SA-priming. These coordinated factors might have enhanced the submergence tolerance and maintained the better germination and vigorous seedling growth of primed rice seedlings. It was also found that many genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes such as carbohydrate metabolism, cellular, and metabolic biosynthesis, nitrogen compound metabolic process, transcription, and response to oxidative stress were induced and overlapped in seed priming treatments, a finding which reveals the common mechanism of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance. Taken together, these results may provide new avenues for understanding and advancing priming-induced responses to submergence tolerance in crop plants.

  14. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Primed and Non-primed Rice Seedlings under Submergence Stress.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saddam; Yin, Hanqi; Peng, Shaobing; Khan, Faheem A; Khan, Fahad; Sameeullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Hafiz A; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Submergence stress is a limiting factor for direct-seeded rice systems in rainfed lowlands and flood-prone areas of South and Southeast Asia. The present study demonstrated that submergence stress severely hampered the germination and seedling growth of rice, however, seed priming alleviated the detrimental effects of submergence stress. To elucidate the molecular basis of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance, transcriptome analyses were performed using 4-day-old primed (selenium-Se and salicylic acid-SA priming) and non-primed rice seedlings under submergence stress. Genomewide transcriptomic profiling identified 2371 and 2405 transcripts with Se- and SA-priming, respectively, that were differentially expressed in rice compared with non-priming treatment under submergence. Pathway and gene ontology term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in regulation of secondary metabolism, development, cell, transport, protein, and metal handling were over-represented after Se- or SA-priming. These coordinated factors might have enhanced the submergence tolerance and maintained the better germination and vigorous seedling growth of primed rice seedlings. It was also found that many genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes such as carbohydrate metabolism, cellular, and metabolic biosynthesis, nitrogen compound metabolic process, transcription, and response to oxidative stress were induced and overlapped in seed priming treatments, a finding which reveals the common mechanism of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance. Taken together, these results may provide new avenues for understanding and advancing priming-induced responses to submergence tolerance in crop plants. PMID:27516766

  15. Schoolbook Texts: Behavioral Achievement Priming in Math and Language

    PubMed Central

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola; Baum, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Prior research found reliable and considerably strong effects of semantic achievement primes on subsequent performance. In order to simulate a more natural priming condition to better understand the practical relevance of semantic achievement priming effects, running texts of schoolbook excerpts with and without achievement primes were used as priming stimuli. Additionally, we manipulated the achievement context; some subjects received no feedback about their achievement and others received feedback according to a social or individual reference norm. As expected, we found a reliable (albeit small) positive behavioral priming effect of semantic achievement primes on achievement in math (Experiment 1) and language tasks (Experiment 2). Feedback moderated the behavioral priming effect less consistently than we expected. The implication that achievement primes in schoolbooks can foster performance is discussed along with general theoretical implications. PMID:26938446

  16. Schoolbook Texts: Behavioral Achievement Priming in Math and Language.

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola; Baum, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Prior research found reliable and considerably strong effects of semantic achievement primes on subsequent performance. In order to simulate a more natural priming condition to better understand the practical relevance of semantic achievement priming effects, running texts of schoolbook excerpts with and without achievement primes were used as priming stimuli. Additionally, we manipulated the achievement context; some subjects received no feedback about their achievement and others received feedback according to a social or individual reference norm. As expected, we found a reliable (albeit small) positive behavioral priming effect of semantic achievement primes on achievement in math (Experiment 1) and language tasks (Experiment 2). Feedback moderated the behavioral priming effect less consistently than we expected. The implication that achievement primes in schoolbooks can foster performance is discussed along with general theoretical implications.

  17. Wrath of God: religious primes and punishment.

    PubMed

    McKay, Ryan; Efferson, Charles; Whitehouse, Harvey; Fehr, Ernst

    2011-06-22

    Recent evidence indicates that priming participants with religious concepts promotes prosocial sharing behaviour. In the present study, we investigated whether religious priming also promotes the costly punishment of unfair behaviour. A total of 304 participants played a punishment game. Before the punishment stage began, participants were subliminally primed with religion primes, secular punishment primes or control primes. We found that religious primes strongly increased the costly punishment of unfair behaviours for a subset of our participants--those who had previously donated to a religious organization. We discuss two proximate mechanisms potentially underpinning this effect. The first is a 'supernatural watcher' mechanism, whereby religious participants punish unfair behaviours when primed because they sense that not doing so will enrage or disappoint an observing supernatural agent. The second is a 'behavioural priming' mechanism, whereby religious primes activate cultural norms pertaining to fairness and its enforcement and occasion behaviour consistent with those norms. We conclude that our results are consistent with dual inheritance proposals about religion and cooperation, whereby religions harness the byproducts of genetically inherited cognitive mechanisms in ways that enhance the survival prospects of their adherents.

  18. Temporal position priming: memory traces of recent experience bias the allocation of attention in time.

    PubMed

    Yashar, Amit; Lamy, Dominique

    2013-10-01

    Explicit expectations can guide attention toward the time at which an upcoming target is likely to appear. However, in real-life situations, explicit preknowledge of upcoming events' temporal occurrence is rarely provided. We investigated whether implicit memory traces can guide attention in time, as they guide attention to recently attended features and locations (priming of pop-out and priming of location; V. Maljkovic & K. Nakayama, 1994, Priming of pop-out: I. Role of features, Memory & Cognition, Vol. 22, pp. 657-672; V. Maljkovic & K. Nakayama, 1996, Priming of pop-out: II. The role of position, Perception & Psychophysics, Vol. 58, pp. 977-991). Using a rapid serial visual presentation task, we show a temporal position priming (TPP) effect by which search performance is speeded when the target temporal position within the visual stream happens to repeat on consecutive trials. We show that such repetition priming is one of the mechanisms that underlie the much-studied sequential effect of the foreperiod. We further demonstrate that the learned association that gives rise to TPP does not require the selection or execution of a motor response and that it affects perceptual stages of visual processing. The relations between these findings and existing accounts of the sequential effect as well as with other intertrial priming effects in visual search are discussed.

  19. Exodus: Prime Mover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Nikkol; Conwell, Pete; Johnson, Matt; Shields, Wendy; Thornton, Tim; Tokarz, Rob; Mcmanus, Rich

    1992-01-01

    The Exodus Prime Mover is an overnight package delivery aircraft designed to serve the Northern Hemisphere of Aeroworld. The preliminary design goals originated from the desire to produce a large profit. The two main driving forces throughout the design process were first to reduce the construction man-hours by simplifying the aircraft design, thereby decreasing the total production cost of the aircraft. The second influential factor affecting the design was minimizing the fuel cost during cruise. The lowest fuel consumption occurs at a cruise velocity of 30 ft/s. Overall, it was necessary to balance the economic benefits with the performance characteristics in order to create a profitable product that meets all specified requirements and objectives.

  20. Effects of 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), or an extract derived from field-collected cormorant eggs injected into double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.C.; Aulerich, R.J.; Powell, J.F.; Restum, J.C.; Giesy, J.P.; Bursian, S.J.; Meadows, J.C.; Tillitt, D.E.; Stromborg, K.L.

    1997-07-01

    Double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs were injected with either 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), or an extract derived from field-collected double-crested cormorant eggs. These compounds were injected into the yolks of cormorant eggs from an isolated colony on Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Canada. Upon hatching, chicks were necropsied. The brain, bursa, heart, liver, and spleen were removed and weighed. An approximate median lethal dose (LD50) of 158 {micro}g/kg egg was determined for PCB 126, which is 69 times greater than the LD50 determined for the chicken (Gallus domesticus) in a previous study. A significantly greater mortality occurred at the highest dose of TCDD when compared to the vehicle control. However, the mortality data did not provide sufficient information for the determination of an LD50. The cormorant egg extract did not adversely affect hatchability. No significant increases were observed in the incidence of developmental abnormalities, including pronounced edema, in any of the treatment groups, nor were there any relevant effects on body and organ weights. Based on the results from this study, the cormorant appears to be considerably less sensitive to polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons than the chicken, which has been the typical species used for egg injection studies.

  1. An ERP investigation of masked cross-script translation priming.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Noriko; Midgley, Katherine J; Holcomb, Phillip J; Grainger, Jonathan

    2010-07-16

    The time course of cross-script translation priming and repetition priming was examined in two different scripts using a combination of the masked priming paradigm with the recording of event-related potentials (ERPs). Japanese-English bilinguals performed a semantic categorization task in their second language (L2) English and in their first language (L1) Japanese. Targets were preceded by a visually presented related (translation equivalent/repeated) or unrelated prime. The results showed that the amplitudes of the N250 and N400 ERP components were significantly modulated for L2-L2 repetition priming, L1-L2 translation priming, and L1-L1 repetition priming, but not for L2-L1 translation priming. There was also evidence for priming effects in an earlier 100-200 ms time window for L1-L1 repetition priming and L1-L2 translation priming. We argue that a change in script across primes and targets provides optimal conditions for prime word processing, hence generating very fast-acting translation priming effects when primes are in L1.

  2. Fear of Negative Evaluation Moderates the Effect of Subliminal Fear Priming on Rejection of Unfair Offers in the Ultimatum Game

    PubMed Central

    Takagishi, Haruto; Fujii, Takayuki; Nishina, Kuniyuki; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the tendency to fear negative evaluation moderates the effect of fear emotion on the rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG). A photograph of a fearful face or landscape was displayed subliminally (i.e., for 10 ms) before the proposer’s offer in the UG was presented to participants. We used the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNES) to measure participants’ anxiety regarding negative evaluations from others. Results showed a significant interaction between FNES and condition (fearful face vs. landscape) in relation to the rejection of an unfair offer. Furthermore, the mean rejection rate of an unfair offer was significantly higher in the fearful face condition relative to that in the landscape condition among participants whose FNES scores were higher than the median; however, this difference was not observed in participants whose FNES scores were lower than the median. These results suggest that fear of negative evaluation moderates the effect of subliminal fear priming on the rejection of unfair offers in the UG, and that negative emotion induced by unconscious stimuli enhances rejection of these unfair offers. PMID:27549022

  3. Fear of Negative Evaluation Moderates the Effect of Subliminal Fear Priming on Rejection of Unfair Offers in the Ultimatum Game.

    PubMed

    Takagishi, Haruto; Fujii, Takayuki; Nishina, Kuniyuki; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the tendency to fear negative evaluation moderates the effect of fear emotion on the rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG). A photograph of a fearful face or landscape was displayed subliminally (i.e., for 10 ms) before the proposer's offer in the UG was presented to participants. We used the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNES) to measure participants' anxiety regarding negative evaluations from others. Results showed a significant interaction between FNES and condition (fearful face vs. landscape) in relation to the rejection of an unfair offer. Furthermore, the mean rejection rate of an unfair offer was significantly higher in the fearful face condition relative to that in the landscape condition among participants whose FNES scores were higher than the median; however, this difference was not observed in participants whose FNES scores were lower than the median. These results suggest that fear of negative evaluation moderates the effect of subliminal fear priming on the rejection of unfair offers in the UG, and that negative emotion induced by unconscious stimuli enhances rejection of these unfair offers. PMID:27549022

  4. Priming cases disturb visual search patterns in screening mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Sarah J.; Reed, Warren M.; Tan, Alvin N. K.; Brennan, Patrick C.; Lee, Warwick; Mello-Thoms, Claudia

    2015-03-01

    Rationale and Objectives: To investigate the effect of inserting obvious cancers into a screening set of mammograms on the visual search of radiologists. Previous research presents conflicting evidence as to the impact of priming in scenarios where prevalence is naturally low, such as in screening mammography. Materials and Methods: An observer performance and eye position analysis study was performed. Four expert breast radiologists were asked to interpret two sets of 40 screening mammograms. The Control Set contained 36 normal and 4 malignant cases (located at case # 9, 14, 25 and 37). The Primed Set contained the same 34 normal and 4 malignant cases (in the same location) plus 2 "primer" malignant cases replacing 2 normal cases (located at positions #20 and 34). Primer cases were defined as lower difficulty cases containing salient malignant features inserted before cases of greater difficulty. Results: Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test indicated no significant differences in sensitivity or specificity between the two sets (P > 0.05). The fixation count in the malignant cases (#25, 37) in the Primed Set after viewing the primer cases (#20, 34) decreased significantly (Z = -2.330, P = 0.020). False-Negatives errors were mostly due to sampling in the Primed Set (75%) in contrast to in the Control Set (25%). Conclusion: The overall performance of radiologists is not affected by the inclusion of obvious cancer cases. However, changes in visual search behavior, as measured by eye-position recording, suggests visual disturbance by the inclusion of priming cases in screening mammography.

  5. JNK pathway inhibition selectively primes pancreatic cancer stem cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis without affecting the physiology of normal tissue resident stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Rhea, P. Robyn; Kettlun, Claudia; Heinemann, Mitja L.; Ruetering, Jennifer; Vykoukal, Jody; Alt, Eckhard

    2016-01-01

    Objective Successful treatment of solid cancers mandates targeting cancer stem cells (CSC) without impact on the physiology of normal tissue resident stem cells. C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling has been shown to be of importance in cancer. We test whether JNK inhibition would sensitize pancreatic CSCs to induction of apoptosis via low-dose TNFα-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Design Effects of JNK inhibition (JNKi) were evaluated in vitro in functional assays, through mRNA and protein expression analysis, and in in vivo mouse studies. CSCs were enriched in anoikis-resistant spheroid culture and analyzed accordingly. Results We confirmed that the JNK pathway is an important regulatory pathway in pancreatic cancer stem cells and further found that JNK inhibition downregulates the decoy receptor DcR1 through IL-8 signaling while upregulating pro-apoptotic death receptors DR4/5, thereby sensitizing cells - even with acquired TRAIL-resistance - to apoptosis induction. Treatment of orthotopic pancreatic cancer xenografts with either gemcitabine, JNKi or TRAIL alone for 4 weeks showed only modest effects compared to control, while the combination of JNKi and TRAIL resulted in significantly lower tumor burden (69%; p < 0.04), reduced numbers of circulating tumor cells, and less distant metastatic events, without affecting the general health of the animals. Conclusions The combination of JNKi and TRAIL significantly impacts on CSCs, but leaves regular tissue-resident stem cells unaffected – even under hypoxic stress conditions. This concept of selective treatment of pancreatic CSCs warrants further evaluation. PMID:26840266

  6. Effects of Priming Unconditioned Stimulus Representation in Short-Term Memory on Pavlovian Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, William Scott

    1976-01-01

    The research reported here was directed at evaluating whether or not the effectiveness of a Pavlovian unconditioned stimulus (US) in promoting associative learning is reduced if the US is shortly preceded by another occurrence of the same US. (Author)

  7. Think the Thought, Walk the Walk--Social Priming Reduces the Stroop Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Liat; Aisenberg, Daniela; Henik, Avishai

    2011-01-01

    In the Stroop task, participants name the color of the ink that a color word is written in and ignore the meaning of the word. Naming the color of an incongruent color word (e.g., RED printed in blue) is slower than naming the color of a congruent color word (e.g., RED printed in red). This robust effect is known as the Stroop effect and it…

  8. The effects of progesterone priming on reproductive performance of GnRH-PGF2alpha-treated anestrous goats.

    PubMed

    Husein, Mustafa Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M; Haddad, Serhan G

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of a 5-day progesterone priming prior to a GnRH-PGF2alpha treatment on reproductive performance of anestrous goats. Thirty-six Mountain Black goats were randomly assigned in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement and were administered intravaginally on day -12, either with 300 mg progesterone inserts (CGPE and CGP) or with 0 mg progesterone (GPE and GP) for 5 days. On day -6, the goats were injected with 100 microg GnRH, followed 6 days later by 15 mg PGF2alpha (day 0), the time at which the goats in the CGPE and GPE groups were administered 300 IU eCG injections and those in CGP and GP groups were administered the control solution. The goats were exposed to four fertile bucks at 0 h and were checked for breeding marks at 6-h intervals for 72 h. Blood samples were collected from all goats for progesterone analysis. Progesterone concentrations increased only in CGPE and CGP during the period of device insertion but remained low in GPE and GP groups (P < 0.001). Progesterone levels at the time of GnRH injection on day -6 were basal (0.2 +/- 0.04 ng.mL-1) among the groups and began to increase starting on day -2. Day 0 progesterone concentrations differed (P < 0.05) among groups and were significantly influenced by CIDR-G (P < 0.001). A similar proportion of goats expressed estrus and intervals to detected estrus were shorter (P < 0.05) in the CGPE and GPE groups than in GP with no difference between the CGPE, CGP and GPE or between CGP and GP groups. The number of goats ovulating based upon elevated progesterone levels on day 0 was significantly greater (P = 0.002) in CGPE (9/9) and CGP (9/9) than GPE (6/9) and GP (5/9) groups and was significantly influenced by CIDR-G (P = 0.03). All pregnant goats had elevated progesterone concentration on day 0 and none of the goats with basal progesterone levels became pregnant. Pregnancy and kidding rates, twinning percentage and the number of kids born per goat exposed were

  9. The effects of progesterone priming on reproductive performance of GnRH-PGF2alpha-treated anestrous goats.

    PubMed

    Husein, Mustafa Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M; Haddad, Serhan G

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of a 5-day progesterone priming prior to a GnRH-PGF2alpha treatment on reproductive performance of anestrous goats. Thirty-six Mountain Black goats were randomly assigned in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement and were administered intravaginally on day -12, either with 300 mg progesterone inserts (CGPE and CGP) or with 0 mg progesterone (GPE and GP) for 5 days. On day -6, the goats were injected with 100 microg GnRH, followed 6 days later by 15 mg PGF2alpha (day 0), the time at which the goats in the CGPE and GPE groups were administered 300 IU eCG injections and those in CGP and GP groups were administered the control solution. The goats were exposed to four fertile bucks at 0 h and were checked for breeding marks at 6-h intervals for 72 h. Blood samples were collected from all goats for progesterone analysis. Progesterone concentrations increased only in CGPE and CGP during the period of device insertion but remained low in GPE and GP groups (P < 0.001). Progesterone levels at the time of GnRH injection on day -6 were basal (0.2 +/- 0.04 ng.mL-1) among the groups and began to increase starting on day -2. Day 0 progesterone concentrations differed (P < 0.05) among groups and were significantly influenced by CIDR-G (P < 0.001). A similar proportion of goats expressed estrus and intervals to detected estrus were shorter (P < 0.05) in the CGPE and GPE groups than in GP with no difference between the CGPE, CGP and GPE or between CGP and GP groups. The number of goats ovulating based upon elevated progesterone levels on day 0 was significantly greater (P = 0.002) in CGPE (9/9) and CGP (9/9) than GPE (6/9) and GP (5/9) groups and was significantly influenced by CIDR-G (P = 0.03). All pregnant goats had elevated progesterone concentration on day 0 and none of the goats with basal progesterone levels became pregnant. Pregnancy and kidding rates, twinning percentage and the number of kids born per goat exposed were

  10. Secure Base Priming Diminishes Conflict-Based Anger and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Tamara; Bartholomew, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the impact of a visual representation of a secure base (i.e. a secure base prime) on attenuating experimentally produced anger and anxiety. Specifically, we examined the assuaging of negative emotions through exposure to an image of a mother-infant embrace or a heterosexual couple embracing. Subjects seated at a computer terminal rated their affect (Pre Affect) using the Affect Adjective Checklist (AAC) then listened to two sets of intense two person conflicts. After the first conflict exposure they rated affect again (Post 1 AAC). Following the second exposure they saw a blank screen (control condition), pictures of everyday objects (distraction condition) or a photo of two people embracing (Secure Base Prime condition). They then reported emotions using the Post 2 AAC. Compared to either control or distraction subjects, Secure Base Prime (SBP) subjects reported significantly less anger and anxiety. These results were then replicated using an internet sample with control, SBP and two new controls: Smiling Man (to control for expression of positive affect) and Cold Mother (an unsmiling mother with infant). The SBP amelioration of anger and anxiety was replicated with the internet sample. No control groups produced this effect, which was generated only by a combination of positive affect in a physically embracing dyad. The results are discussed in terms of attachment theory and research on spreading activation. PMID:27606897

  11. Secure Base Priming Diminishes Conflict-Based Anger and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Donald G; Lane, René A; Koren, Tamara; Bartholomew, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the impact of a visual representation of a secure base (i.e. a secure base prime) on attenuating experimentally produced anger and anxiety. Specifically, we examined the assuaging of negative emotions through exposure to an image of a mother-infant embrace or a heterosexual couple embracing. Subjects seated at a computer terminal rated their affect (Pre Affect) using the Affect Adjective Checklist (AAC) then listened to two sets of intense two person conflicts. After the first conflict exposure they rated affect again (Post 1 AAC). Following the second exposure they saw a blank screen (control condition), pictures of everyday objects (distraction condition) or a photo of two people embracing (Secure Base Prime condition). They then reported emotions using the Post 2 AAC. Compared to either control or distraction subjects, Secure Base Prime (SBP) subjects reported significantly less anger and anxiety. These results were then replicated using an internet sample with control, SBP and two new controls: Smiling Man (to control for expression of positive affect) and Cold Mother (an unsmiling mother with infant). The SBP amelioration of anger and anxiety was replicated with the internet sample. No control groups produced this effect, which was generated only by a combination of positive affect in a physically embracing dyad. The results are discussed in terms of attachment theory and research on spreading activation. PMID:27606897

  12. Biochar mineralization and priming effect on SOM decomposition. Results from a field trial in a short rotation coppice in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Maurizio; Alberti, Giorgio; Panzacchi, Pietro; Delle Vedove, Gemini; Miglietta, Franco; Tonon, Giustino

    2016-04-01

    Biochar application to soil has been proposed as a promising strategy for carbon (C) sequestration and climate change mitigation, helping at the same time to maintain soil fertility. However, most of the knowledge on biochar stability is based on short-term lab incubation experiments, as field studies are scarce. Therefore, little is known about the interactions between biochar and roots and the related effects on biochar stability in field conditions. The present study aimed to assess the stability of biochar, its effect on original soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition, and the effect of plant roots on biochar stability in field conditions in Northern Italy, for a three-year monitoring period within the EuroChar project. The experiment was conducted in a poplar short rotation coppice (SRC). Biochar produced from maize (δ13C = -13.8‰) silage pellets in a gasification plant was applied in a poplar short rotation coppice (SRC) plantation in Northern Italy. Root exclusion subplots were established using the trenching method to measure heterotrophic respiration. Total (Rtot) and heterotrophic (Rh) respiration were measured every 2 hours in control and biochar-treated soil, with a closed dynamic soil respiration system. δ13C of the soil-emited CO2 was periodically measured using the Keeling plot method. The percentage of biochar-derived soil respiration (fB), was calculated using an isotopic mass balance. Results showed that fB varied between 7% and 37% according to the sampling date, and was generally higher in the presence of roots than in trenched plots where the root growth was excluded. Without roots, only the 14% of the carbon originally added with biochar was decomposed. In the presence of roots, this percentage increased to 21%, suggesting a positive priming effect of roots on biochar decomposition. On the other hand, biochar decreased the decomposition of original SOM by about 17%, suggesting a protective effect of biochar on SOM.

  13. The role of terrestrially derived organic carbon in the coastal ocean: A changing paradigm and the priming effect

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major conundrums in oceanography for the past 20 y has been that, although the total flux of dissolved organic carbon (OC; DOC) discharged annually to the global ocean can account for the turnover time of all oceanic DOC (ca. 4,000–6,000 y), chemical biomarker and stable isotopic data indicate that there is very little terrestrially derived OC (TerrOC) in the global ocean. Similarly, it has been estimated that only 30% of the TerrOC buried in marine sediments is of terrestrial origin in muddy deltaic regions with high sedimentation rates. If vascular plant material—assumed to be highly resistant to decay—makes up much of the DOC and particulate OC of riverine OC (along with soil OC), why do we not see more TerrOC in coastal and oceanic waters and sediments? An explanation for this “missing” TerrOC in the ocean is critical in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Here, I consider the origin of vascular plants, the major component of TerrOC, and how their appearance affected the overall cycling of OC on land. I also examine the role vascular plant material plays in soil OC, inland aquatic ecosystems, and the ocean, and how our understanding of TerrOC and “priming” processes in these natural systems has gained considerable interests in the terrestrial literature, but has largely been ignored in the aquatic sciences. Finally, I close by postulating that priming is in fact an important process that needs to be incorporated into global carbon models in the context of climate change. PMID:22106254

  14. Priming effect and microbial diversity in ecosystem functioning and response to global change: a modeling approach using the SYMPHONY model.

    PubMed

    Perveen, Nazia; Barot, Sébastien; Alvarez, Gaël; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphael; Rapaport, Alain; Herfurth, Damien; Louault, Frédérique; Fontaine, Sébastien

    2014-04-01

    Integration of the priming effect (PE) in ecosystem models is crucial to better predict the consequences of global change on ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics and its feedbacks on climate. Over the last decade, many attempts have been made to model PE in soil. However, PE has not yet been incorporated into any ecosystem models. Here, we build plant/soil models to explore how PE and microbial diversity influence soil/plant interactions and ecosystem C and nitrogen (N) dynamics in response to global change (elevated CO2 and atmospheric N depositions). Our results show that plant persistence, soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation, and low N leaching in undisturbed ecosystems relies on a fine adjustment of microbial N mineralization to plant N uptake. This adjustment can be modeled in the SYMPHONY model by considering the destruction of SOM through PE, and the interactions between two microbial functional groups: SOM decomposers and SOM builders. After estimation of parameters, SYMPHONY provided realistic predictions on forage production, soil C storage and N leaching for a permanent grassland. Consistent with recent observations, SYMPHONY predicted a CO2 -induced modification of soil microbial communities leading to an intensification of SOM mineralization and a decrease in the soil C stock. SYMPHONY also indicated that atmospheric N deposition may promote SOM accumulation via changes in the structure and metabolic activities of microbial communities. Collectively, these results suggest that the PE and functional role of microbial diversity may be incorporated in ecosystem models with a few additional parameters, improving accuracy of predictions.

  15. Priming effect and microbial diversity in ecosystem functioning and response to global change: a modeling approach using the SYMPHONY model.

    PubMed

    Perveen, Nazia; Barot, Sébastien; Alvarez, Gaël; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphael; Rapaport, Alain; Herfurth, Damien; Louault, Frédérique; Fontaine, Sébastien

    2014-04-01

    Integration of the priming effect (PE) in ecosystem models is crucial to better predict the consequences of global change on ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics and its feedbacks on climate. Over the last decade, many attempts have been made to model PE in soil. However, PE has not yet been incorporated into any ecosystem models. Here, we build plant/soil models to explore how PE and microbial diversity influence soil/plant interactions and ecosystem C and nitrogen (N) dynamics in response to global change (elevated CO2 and atmospheric N depositions). Our results show that plant persistence, soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation, and low N leaching in undisturbed ecosystems relies on a fine adjustment of microbial N mineralization to plant N uptake. This adjustment can be modeled in the SYMPHONY model by considering the destruction of SOM through PE, and the interactions between two microbial functional groups: SOM decomposers and SOM builders. After estimation of parameters, SYMPHONY provided realistic predictions on forage production, soil C storage and N leaching for a permanent grassland. Consistent with recent observations, SYMPHONY predicted a CO2 -induced modification of soil microbial communities leading to an intensification of SOM mineralization and a decrease in the soil C stock. SYMPHONY also indicated that atmospheric N deposition may promote SOM accumulation via changes in the structure and metabolic activities of microbial communities. Collectively, these results suggest that the PE and functional role of microbial diversity may be incorporated in ecosystem models with a few additional parameters, improving accuracy of predictions. PMID:24339186

  16. The role of short-term memory in semantic priming.

    PubMed

    Beer, A L; Diehl, V A

    2001-07-01

    Two theories of priming were compared: spreading activation theories, in particular ACT, and compound-cue theories. Whereas ACT assumes that priming is a result of diffusing activation in long-term memory, compound-cue models suggest that priming results from a formation process of prime and target in short-term memory. Thirty-eight participants took part in a study that combined a digit span task with a double lexical decision task consisting of a prime and a target item. Digit span length (low, medium, and high) and prime type (related or unrelated word or nonword) were both within-subject variables. As expected, results showed significant priming effects. In favor of ACT, no interaction between digit span length and prime type was found. Additionally, a nonword inhibition effect (unrelated versus nonword prime) was found, which was predicted by compound-cue theories. This finding is discussed in terms of the process interference and response competition hypotheses.

  17. Effective affective user interface design in games.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Daniel; Wiles, Janet

    It is proposed that games, which are designed to generate positive affect, are most successful when they facilitate flow (Csikszentmihalyi 1992). Flow is a state of concentration, deep enjoyment, and total absorption in an activity. The study of games, and a resulting understanding of flow in games can inform the design of non-leisure software for positive affect. The paper considers the ways in which computer games contravene Nielsen's guidelines for heuristic evaluation (Nielsen and Molich 1990) and how these contraventions impact on flow. The paper also explores the implications for research that stem from the differences between games played on a personal computer and games played on a dedicated console. This research takes important initial steps towards defining how flow in computer games can inform affective design.

  18. Evaluating Models of Object-Decision Priming: Evidence from Event-Related Potential Repetition Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soldan, Anja; Mangels, Jennifer A.; Cooper, Lynn A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to differentiate between structural description and bias accounts of performance in the possible/impossible object-decision test. Two event-related potential (ERP) studies examined how the visual system processes structurally possible and impossible objects. Specifically, the authors investigated the effects of object…

  19. Effects of Phonological Feedback on the Selection of Syntax: Evidence from Between-Language Syntactic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernolet, Sarah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Research on word production in bilinguals has often shown an advantage for cognate words. According to some accounts, this cognate effect is caused by feedback from a level that represents information about phonemes (or graphemes) to a level concerned with the word. In order to investigate whether phonological feedback influences the selection of…

  20. Prime time sexual harrassment.

    PubMed

    Grauerholz, E; King, A

    1997-04-01

    This study explores the explicit and implicit messages of sexual harassment that viewers receive when viewing prime-time television in the US. A content analysis of 48 hours of prime-time television reveals that sexual harassment on television is both highly visible and invisible. Sexual harassment is rendered visible simply by its prominence in these programs. Incidents involving quid-pro-quo harassment and environmental harassment occur with regularity on television. Furthermore, about 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; yet these acts of sexual harassment remained largely invisible because none of the behaviors were labeled as sexual harassment. These incidents are presented in humorous ways, and victims are generally unharmed and very effective at ending the harassment. Although such programs may actually reflect the reality of many women's lives in terms of prevalence of sexual harassment, they perpetuate several myths about sexual harassment, such as that sexual harassment is not serious and that victims should be able to handle the situations themselves. PMID:12294811