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Sample records for affective priming paradigm

  1. Affect is greater than, not equal to, condition: condition and person effects in affective priming paradigms.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Adam A; Larsen, Randy J; Elliot, Andrew J

    2013-08-01

    Affective primes may impact ensuing behavior through condition and person effects. However, previous research has not experimentally disentangled these two sources of influence in affective priming paradigms. In the current research, we simultaneously examine the influence of condition factors, in terms of prime valence, and person factors, in terms of affect reactivity and personality. In both studies, undergraduate participants (total N = 174) were primed with either positive or negative affective stimuli (words, Study 1; pictures, Study 2) prior to judging the likability of a neutral target (Arabic characters, Study 1; inkblots, Study 2). Although we did observe between-condition differences for positive and negative primes, person-level effects were more consistent predictors of target ratings. Affect reactivity (affect Time 2, controlling Time 1) to the primes predicted evaluative judgments, even in the absence of condition effects. In addition, the personality traits of Neuroticism (Study 1) and behavioral inhibition system sensitivity (Study 2) predicted evaluative judgments of neutral targets following negative affective primes. With effects for condition, affect reactivity, and personality, our results suggest that affective primes influence ensuing behaviors through both informational and affective means. Research using affective priming methodologies should take into account both condition and person-level effects. PMID:23253181

  2. The Affective Regulation of Cognitive Priming

    PubMed Central

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

    2008-01-01

    Semantic and affective priming are classic effects observed in cognitive and social psychology, respectively. We discovered that affect regulates such priming effects. In Experiment 1, positive and negative moods were induced prior to one of three priming tasks; evaluation, categorization, or lexical decision. As predicted, positive affect led to both affective priming (evaluation task) and semantic priming (category and lexical decision tasks). However, negative affect inhibited such effects. In Experiment 2, participants in their natural affective state completed the same priming tasks as in Experiment 1. As expected, affective priming (evaluation task) and category priming (categorization and lexical decision tasks) were observed in such resting affective states. Hence, we conclude that negative affect inhibits semantic and affective priming. These results support recent theoretical models, which suggest that positive affect promotes associations among strong and weak concepts, and that negative affect impairs such associations (Kuhl, 2000; Clore & Storbeck, 2006). PMID:18410195

  3. Affective Priming with Associatively Acquired Valence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguado, Luis; Pierna, Manuel; Saugar, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the effect of affectively congruent or incongruent primes on evaluation responses to positive or negative valenced targets (the "affective priming" effect). Experiment 1 replicated the basic affective priming effect with Spanish nouns: reaction time for evaluative responses (pleasant/unpleasant) were slower on…

  4. Social Anxiety Modulates Subliminal Affective Priming

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Elizabeth S.; Pope, Stuart A. J.; Fennell, John G.; Mendl, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well established that there is anxiety-related variation between observers in the very earliest, pre-attentive stage of visual processing of images such as emotionally expressive faces, often leading to enhanced attention to threat in a variety of disorders and traits. Whether there is also variation in early-stage affective (i.e. valenced) responses resulting from such images, however, is not yet known. The present study used the subliminal affective priming paradigm to investigate whether people varying in trait social anxiety also differ in their affective responses to very briefly presented, emotionally expressive face images. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants (n = 67) completed a subliminal affective priming task, in which briefly presented and smiling, neutral and angry faces were shown for 10 ms durations (below objective and subjective thresholds for visual discrimination), and immediately followed by a randomly selected Chinese character mask (2000 ms). Ratings of participants' liking for each Chinese character indicated the degree of valenced affective response made to the unseen emotive images. Participants' ratings of their liking for the Chinese characters were significantly influenced by the type of face image preceding them, with smiling faces generating more positive ratings than neutral and angry ones (F(2,128) = 3.107, p<0.05). Self-reported social anxiety was positively correlated with ratings of smiling relative to neutral-face primed characters (Pearson's r = .323, p<0.01). Individual variation in self-reported mood awareness was not associated with ratings. Conclusions Trait social anxiety is associated with individual variation in affective responding, even in response to the earliest, pre-attentive stage of visual image processing. However, the fact that these priming effects are limited to smiling and not angry (i.e. threatening) images leads us to propose that the pre-attentive processes involved in

  5. Affective Priming with Auditory Speech Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degner, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In Experiment 2, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was…

  6. Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

  7. Identity Priming Consistently Affects Perceptual Fluency but Only Affects Metamemory When Primes Are Obvious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susser, Jonathan A.; Jin, Andy; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual fluency manipulations influence metamemory judgments, with more fluently perceived information judged as more memorable. However, it is not always clear whether this influence is driven by actual experienced processing fluency or by beliefs about memory. The current study used an identity-priming paradigm--in which words are preceded by…

  8. Subliminal affective priming in clinical depression and comorbid anxiety: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Dannlowski, Udo; Kersting, Anette; Lalee-Mentzel, Judith; Donges, Uta-Susan; Arolt, Volker; Suslow, Thomas

    2006-06-30

    In the present study, the sequential affective priming paradigm developed by Fazio et al. [Fazio, R.H., Sanbonmatsu, D.M., Powell, M.C., Kardes, F.R., 1986. On the automatic activation of attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50, 229-238.] was applied for the first time to investigate automatic cognitive bias in depressed patients. Unipolar depressed patients (n=22) were tested on admission and after about 7 weeks of inpatient psychotherapy. Half of the patients (n=11) were suffering from a comorbid anxiety disorder. Twenty-two healthy subjects served as controls. Affectively polarized prime words were presented subliminally followed by positive or negative target words, which had to be evaluated. Subjects' affective state was assessed by self-report measures. In the course of psychotherapy, patients recovered significantly. Study groups exhibited qualitatively different affective priming effects: In non-comorbid depressed patients, no affective priming was found. Instead, a highly significant main effect of prime valence emerged, indicating a Stroop-like interference of negative prime words at time 1. This negative bias was associated with depression level at time 1 and could not be found after recovery. Affective priming was observed in controls and comorbid patients, but in opposite directions. Direction and strength of affective priming was directly associated with anxiety level at both times. The affective priming paradigm provides evidence for differential group effects regarding unconscious emotional information processing. PMID:16725208

  9. The nature of affective priming in music and speech.

    PubMed

    Goerlich, Katharina Sophia; Witteman, Jurriaan; Schiller, Niels O; Van Heuven, Vincent J; Aleman, André; Martens, Sander

    2012-08-01

    The phenomenon of affective priming has caught scientific interest for over 30 years, yet the nature of the affective priming effect remains elusive. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of cross-modal affective priming and the influence of affective incongruence in music and speech on negativities in the N400 time-window. In Experiment 1, participants judged the valence of affective targets (affective categorization). We found that music and speech targets were evaluated faster when preceded by affectively congruent visual word primes, and vice versa. This affective priming effect was accompanied by a significantly larger N400-like effect following incongruent targets. In this experiment, both spreading of activation and response competition could underlie the affective priming effect. In Experiment 2, participants categorized the same affective targets based on nonaffective characteristics. However, as prime valence was irrelevant to the response dimension, affective priming effects could no longer be attributable to response competition. In Experiment 2, affective priming effects were observed neither at the behavioral nor electrophysiological level. The results of this study indicate that both affective music and speech prosody can prime the processing of visual words with emotional connotations, and vice versa. Affective incongruence seems to be associated with N400-like effects during evaluative categorization. The present data further suggest a role of response competition during the affective categorization of music, prosody, and words with emotional connotations.

  10. Affective priming using facial expressions modulates liking for abstract art.

    PubMed

    Flexas, Albert; Rosselló, Jaume; Christensen, Julia F; Nadal, Marcos; Olivera La Rosa, Antonio; Munar, Enric

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of affective priming on the appreciation of abstract artworks using an evaluative priming task. Facial primes (showing happiness, disgust or no emotion) were presented under brief (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony, SOA = 20 ms) and extended (SOA = 300 ms) conditions. Differences in aesthetic liking for abstract paintings depending on the emotion expressed in the preceding primes provided a measure of the priming effect. The results showed that, for the extended SOA, artworks were liked more when preceded by happiness primes and less when preceded by disgust primes. Facial expressions of happiness, though not of disgust, exerted similar effects in the brief SOA condition. Subjective measures and a forced-choice task revealed no evidence of prime awareness in the suboptimal condition. Our results are congruent with findings showing that the affective transfer elicited by priming biases evaluative judgments, extending previous research to the domain of aesthetic appreciation.

  11. Automaticity of Cognitive Control: Goal Priming in Response-Inhibition Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Logan, Gordon D.

    2009-01-01

    Response inhibition is a hallmark of cognitive control. An executive system inhibits responses by activating a stop goal when a stop signal is presented. The authors asked whether the stop goal could be primed by task-irrelevant information in stop-signal and go/no-go paradigms. In Experiment 1, the task-irrelevant primes "GO," ###, or "STOP" were…

  12. Perceptual effects of linguistic category priming: the Stapel and Semin (2007) paradigm revisited in twelve experiments.

    PubMed

    IJzerman, Hans; Regenberg, Nina F E; Saddlemyer, Justin; Koole, Sander L

    2015-05-01

    Linguistic category priming is a novel paradigm to examine automatic influences of language on cognition (Semin, 2008). An initial article reported that priming abstract linguistic categories (adjectives) led to more global perceptual processing, whereas priming concrete linguistic categories (verbs) led to more local perceptual processing (Stapel & Semin, 2007). However, this report was compromised by data fabrication by the first author, so that it remains unclear whether or not linguistic category priming influences perceptual processing. To fill this gap in the literature, the present article reports 12 studies among Dutch and US samples examining the perceptual effects of linguistic category priming. The results yielded no evidence of linguistic category priming effects. These findings are discussed in relation to other research showing cultural variations in linguistic category priming effects (IJzerman, Saddlemyer, & Koole, 2014). The authors conclude by highlighting the importance of conducting and publishing replication research for achieving scientific progress.

  13. The Amygdala Is Involved in Affective Priming Effect for Fearful Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, J.; Cao, Z.; Xu, X.; Chen, G.

    2012-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate whether the amygdala is involved in affective priming effect after stimuli are encoded unconsciously and consciously. During the encoding phase, each masked face (fearful or neutral) was presented to participants six times for 17 ms each, using a backward masking paradigm. During the retrieval phase,…

  14. Effects of subliminal affective priming on helping behavior using the foot-in-the-door technique.

    PubMed

    Skandrani-Marzouki, Inès; Marzouki, Yousri; Joule, Robert-Vincent

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of subliminal affective priming on compliance using the foot-in-the-door (FITD) paradigm. Prior to the target request, participants were exposed to subliminal emotional expressions. FITD (presence vs. absence of initial request) was crossed with Priming (positive, negative, neutral, and absence of prime-blank screen) in a between-subjects design. 180 students volunteered as participants (M=22 years). 20 participants (10 females) were assigned to each of eight experimental conditions plus the control condition that neither involved the initial request nor the priming experiment. Participants were asked to judge whether target sentences were relevant or not for road safety instruction. In Experiment 1, emotional valence of prime stimuli affected both endorsement rate and time devoted to the target request but not participants' attitude. Affective priming effects did not interact significantly with the FITD effect. In experiment 2, in 180 more students, the attitude measure was replaced by an implicit recognition task. Results showed that regardless of priming condition, in the absence of FITD, participants recognized target sentences better than in the presence of FITD. Conversely, in the presence of the FITD, participants recognized more accurately previously seen sentences that were primed by positive emotions relative to other priming conditions. The latter result suggests that the presence of the FITD involves a significant amount of cognitive resources so that only stimuli emotionally relevant to the task's goal (i.e., positive) tend to be processed. Together, these results could explain how, contrary to helping behavior, compliant behavior that has no direct association with the prime stimuli was not easily influenced by the affective subliminal priming. PMID:23402037

  15. Use of affective priming to measure the implicit self-reference effect.

    PubMed

    Blaszczak, Wojciech; Imbir, Kamil

    2012-08-01

    A modified suboptimal affective priming paradigm was used to provide an implicit measure of the self-reference effect (Implicit Self-Reference effect, ISR). Hexagrams described to participants as "symbols of different human characteristics" served as judgment target stimuli. Participants (14 women, 12 men; age range = 21 to 25 years) were asked to judge the extent to which the characteristic symbolized by each hexagram was self-relevant to them. Twelve photographs of faces displaying either a neutral expression, disgust, or joy were used as suboptimal primes for each presentation and exposed for 17 msec. Results indicated that participants judged hexagrams affectively primed with faces showing disgust as having significantly lower reference to the self than hexagrams primed with joyful faces. PMID:23045852

  16. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    PubMed

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms) and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women) participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states.

  17. Syllogistic Reasoning and Belief-Bias Inhibition in School Children: Evidence from a Negative Priming Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moutier, Sylvain; Plagne-Cayeux, Stephanie; Melot, Anne-Marie; Houde, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Research on deductive reasoning in adolescents and adults has shown that errors in deductive logic are not necessarily due to a lack of logical ability but can stem from an executive failure to inhibit biases. Few studies have examined this dissociation in children. Here, we used a negative priming paradigm with 64 children (8-10 years old) to…

  18. Selection and Inhibition in Infancy: Evidence from the Spatial Negative Priming Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amso, D.; Johnson, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    We used a spatial negative priming (SNP) paradigm to examine visual selective attention in infants and adults using eye movements as the motor selection measure. In SNP, when a previously ignored location becomes the target to be selected, responses to it are impaired, providing a measure of inhibitory selection. Each trial consisted of a prime…

  19. Phonological Effects in Handwriting Production : Evidence from the Implicit Priming Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afonso, Olivia; Alvarez, Carlos J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present article, we report 3 experiments using the odd-man-out variant of the implicit priming paradigm, aimed at determining the role played by phonological information during the handwriting process. Participants were asked to write a small set of words learned in response to prompts. Within each block, response words could share initial…

  20. Priming Effects for Affective vs. Neutral Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Wyatt, Gwinne; Frohlich, Jonathan; Vardy, Susan B.; Dimitri, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Affective and Neutral Tasks (faces with negative or neutral content, with different lighting and orientation) requiring reaction time judgments of poser identity were administered to 32 participants. Speed and accuracy were better for the Affective than Neutral Task, consistent with literature suggesting facilitation of performance by affective…

  1. The role of selective attention in perceptual and affective priming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Two kinds of perceptual priming (word identification and word fragment completion), as well as preference priming (that may rely on special affective mechanisms) were examined after participants either read or named the colors of words and nonwords at study. Participants named the colors of words more slowly than the colors of nonwords, indicating that lexical processing of the words occurred at study. Nonetheless, priming on all three tests was lower after color naming than after reading, despite evidence of lexical processing during color naming shown by slower responses to words than to nonwords. These results indicate that selective attention to (rather than the mere processing of) letter string identity at study is important for subsequent repetition priming.

  2. Affective priming effects of musical sounds on the processing of word meaning.

    PubMed

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Koelsch, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that music is capable of conveying semantically meaningful concepts. Several questions have subsequently arisen particularly with regard to the precise mechanisms underlying the communication of musical meaning as well as the role of specific musical features. The present article reports three studies investigating the role of affect expressed by various musical features in priming subsequent word processing at the semantic level. By means of an affective priming paradigm, it was shown that both musically trained and untrained participants evaluated emotional words congruous to the affect expressed by a preceding chord faster than words incongruous to the preceding chord. This behavioral effect was accompanied by an N400, an ERP typically linked with semantic processing, which was specifically modulated by the (mis)match between the prime and the target. This finding was shown for the musical parameter of consonance/dissonance (Experiment 1) and then extended to mode (major/minor) (Experiment 2) and timbre (Experiment 3). Seeing that the N400 is taken to reflect the processing of meaning, the present findings suggest that the emotional expression of single musical features is understood by listeners as such and is probably processed on a level akin to other affective communications (i.e., prosody or vocalizations) because it interferes with subsequent semantic processing. There were no group differences, suggesting that musical expertise does not have an influence on the processing of emotional expression in music and its semantic connotations.

  3. Priming semantic concepts affects the dynamics of aesthetic appreciation.

    PubMed

    Faerber, Stella J; Leder, Helmut; Gerger, Gernot; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2010-10-01

    Aesthetic appreciation (AA) plays an important role for purchase decisions, for the appreciation of art and even for the selection of potential mates. It is known that AA is highly reliable in single assessments, but over longer periods of time dynamic changes of AA may occur. We measured AA as a construct derived from the literature through attractiveness, arousal, interestingness, valence, boredom and innovativeness. By means of the semantic network theory we investigated how the priming of AA-relevant semantic concepts impacts the dynamics of AA of unfamiliar product designs (car interiors) that are known to be susceptible to triggering such effects. When participants were primed for innovativeness, strong dynamics were observed, especially when the priming involved additional AA-relevant dimensions. This underlines the relevance of priming of specific semantic networks not only for the cognitive processing of visual material in terms of selective perception or specific representation, but also for the affective-cognitive processing in terms of the dynamics of aesthetic processing.

  4. Phonological effects in handwriting production: evidence from the implicit priming paradigm.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Olivia; Álvarez, Carlos J

    2011-11-01

    In the present article, we report 3 experiments using the odd-man-out variant of the implicit priming paradigm, aimed at determining the role played by phonological information during the handwriting process. Participants were asked to write a small set of words learned in response to prompts. Within each block, response words could share initial segments (constant homogeneous) or not (heterogeneous). Also, 2 variable homogeneous blocks were created by including a response word that did not share orthographic onset with the other response (odd-man-out). This odd-man-out could be phonologically related to the targets or not. Experiment 1 showed a preparation effect in the constant homogeneous condition, which disappeared (spoil effect) in the variable condition not phonologically related. However, no spoil effect was found when the odd-man-out shared the phonological initial segment with the targets. In Experiment 2, we obtained a spoil effect in the variable phonologically related condition, but it was significantly smaller than in the variable not phonologically related condition. The effects observed in Experiment 2 vanished in Experiment 3 under articulatory suppression, suggesting that they originated at a sublexical level. These findings suggest that phonological sublexical information is used during handwriting and provide evidence that the implicit priming paradigm (and the odd-man-out version of this) is a suitable tool for handwriting production research.

  5. Affective Priming by Simple Geometric Shapes: Evidence from Event-related Brain Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that simple geometric shapes may convey emotional meaning using various experimental paradigms. However, whether affective meaning of simple geometric shapes can be automatically activated and influence the evaluations of subsequent stimulus is still unclear. Thus the present study employed an affective priming paradigm to investigate whether and how two geometric shapes (circle vs. downward triangle) impact on the affective processing of subsequently presented faces (Experiment 1) and words (Experiment 2). At behavioral level, no significant effect of affective congruency was found. However, ERP results in Experiment 1 and 2 showed a typical effect of affective congruency. The LPP elicited by affectively incongruent trials was larger compared to congruent trials. Our results provide support for the notion that downward triangle is perceived as negative and circle as positive and their emotional meaning can be activated automatically and then exert an influence on the electrophysiological processing of subsequent stimuli. The lack of significant congruent effect in behavioral measures and the inversed N400 congruent effect might reveal that the affective meaning of geometric shapes is weak because they are just abstract threatening cues rather than real threat. In addition, because no male participants are included in the present study, our findings are limited to females. PMID:27379001

  6. Investigating Ideomotor Cognition with Motorvisual Priming Paradigms: Key Findings, Methodological Challenges, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Thomaschke, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Ideomotor theory claims that perceptual representations of action-effects are functionally involved in the planning of actions. Strong evidence for this claim comes from a phenomenon called motorvisual priming. Motorvisual priming refers to the finding that action planning directly affects perception, and that the effects are selective for stimuli that share features with the planned action. Motorvisual priming studies have provided detailed insights into the processing of perceptual representations in action planning. One important finding is that such representations in action planning have a categorical format, whereas metric representations are not anticipated in planning. Further essential findings regard the processing mechanisms and the time course of ideomotor cognition. Perceptual representations of action-effects are first activated by action planning and then bound into a compound representation of the action plan. This compound representation is stabilized throughout the course of the action by the shielding of all involved representations from other cognitive processes. Despite a rapid growth in the number of motorvisual priming studies in the current literature, there are still many aspects of ideomotor cognition which have not yet been investigated. These aspects include the scope of ideomotor processing with regard to action types and stimulus types, as well as the exact nature of the binding and shielding mechanisms involved. PMID:23189067

  7. Contribution of the Priming Paradigm to the Understanding of the Conceptual Developmental Shift from 5 to 9 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perraudin, Sandrine; Mounoud, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    We conducted three experiments to study the role of instrumental (e.g. "knife-bread") and categorical (e.g. "cake-bread") relations in the development of conceptual organization with a priming paradigm, by varying the nature of the task (naming--Experiment 1--or categorical decision--Experiments 2 and 3). The participants were 5-, 7- and…

  8. Substituted-letter and transposed-letter effects in a masked priming paradigm with French developing readers and dyslexics.

    PubMed

    Lété, Bernard; Fayol, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to undertake a behavioral investigation of the development of automatic orthographic processing during reading acquisition in French. Following Castles and colleagues' 2007 study (Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 97, 165-182) and their lexical tuning hypothesis framework, substituted-letter and transposed-letter primes were used in a masked priming paradigm with third graders, fifth graders, adults, and phonological dyslexics matched on reading level with the third graders. No priming effect was found in third graders. In adults, only a transposed-letter priming effect was found; there was no substituted-letter priming effect. Finally, fifth graders and dyslexics showed both substituted-letter and transposed-letter priming effects. Priming effects between the two groups were of the same magnitude after response time (RT) z-score transformation. Taken together, our results show that the pattern of priming effects found by Castles and colleagues in English normal readers emerges later in French normal readers. In other words, language orthographies seem to constrain the tuning of the orthographic system, with an opaque orthography producing faster tuning of orthographic processing than more transparent orthographies because of the high level of reliance on phonological decoding while learning to read. PMID:23046691

  9. Affective Priming in a Lexical Decision Task: Is There an Effect of Words' Concreteness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferré, Pilar; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Affective priming occurs when responses to a target are facilitated when it is preceded by a prime congruent in valence. We conducted two experiments in order to test whether this is a genuine emotional effect or rather it can be accounted for by semantic relatedness between primes and targets. With this aim, semantic relatedness and emotional…

  10. LOD wars: The affected-sib-pair paradigm strikes back!

    SciTech Connect

    Farrall, M.

    1997-03-01

    In a recent letter, Greenberg et al. aired their concerns that the affected-sib-pair (ASP) approach was becoming excessively popular, owing to misconceptions and ignorance of the properties and limitations of both the ASP and the classic LOD-score approaches. As an enthusiast of using the ASP approach to map susceptibility genes for multifactorial traits, I would like to contribute a few comments and explanatory notes in defense of the ASP paradigm. 18 refs.

  11. Semantic priming is affected by real-time phonological competition: evidence for continuous cascading systems.

    PubMed

    Apfelbaum, Keith S; Blumstein, Sheila E; McMurray, Bob

    2011-02-01

    Lexical-semantic access is affected by the phonological structure of the lexicon. What is less clear is whether such effects are the result of continuous activation between lexical form and semantic processing or whether they arise from a more modular system in which the timing of accessing lexical form determines the timing of semantic activation. This study examined this issue using the visual world paradigm by investigating the time course of semantic priming as a function of the number of phonological competitors. Critical trials consisted of high or low density auditory targets (e.g., horse) and a visual display containing a target, a semantically related object (e.g., saddle), and two phonologically and semantically unrelated objects (e.g., chimney, bikini). Results showed greater magnitude of priming for semantically related objects of low than of high density words, and no differences for high and low density word targets in the time course of looks to the word semantically related to the target. This pattern of results is consistent with models of cascading activation, which predict that lexical activation has continuous effects on the level of semantic activation, with no delays in the onset of semantic activation for phonologically competing words. PMID:21327343

  12. Neural correlates of cross-modal affective priming by music in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lense, Miriam D; Gordon, Reyna L; Key, Alexandra P F; Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2014-04-01

    Emotional connection is the main reason people engage with music, and the emotional features of music can influence processing in other domains. Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder where musicality and sociability are prominent aspects of the phenotype. This study examined oscillatory brain activity during a musical affective priming paradigm. Participants with WS and age-matched typically developing controls heard brief emotional musical excerpts or emotionally neutral sounds and then reported the emotional valence (happy/sad) of subsequently presented faces. Participants with WS demonstrated greater evoked fronto-central alpha activity to the happy vs sad musical excerpts. The size of these alpha effects correlated with parent-reported emotional reactivity to music. Although participant groups did not differ in accuracy of identifying facial emotions, reaction time data revealed a music priming effect only in persons with WS, who responded faster when the face matched the emotional valence of the preceding musical excerpt vs when the valence differed. Matching emotional valence was also associated with greater evoked gamma activity thought to reflect cross-modal integration. This effect was not present in controls. The results suggest a specific connection between music and socioemotional processing and have implications for clinical and educational approaches for WS.

  13. Letter search does not affect semantic priming in a probe naming task.

    PubMed

    Küper, Kristina; Heil, Martin

    2008-11-01

    The normally robust semantic priming effect observed in lexical decision is usually reduced to the point of being absent, when a letter search has to be performed on the prime. It has been argued that semantic activation is thus not an automatic process but rather cognitively controlled and therefore adaptable to task demands. We examined the effects of letter search priming on pronunciation times and found a reliable semantic priming effect, following letter search that was not affected at all relative to a standard condition, where participants silently read the prime. Thus the nature of the prime task did not seem to affect the processing mode employed, semantic access occurred even though attention was focused on surface properties of the prime.

  14. Word Meaning Frequencies Affect Negative Compatibility Effects In Masked Priming

    PubMed Central

    Brocher, Andreas; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Negative compatibility effects (NCEs)—that is, slower responses to targets in related than unrelated prime-target pairs, have been observed in studies using stimulus-response (S-R) priming with stimuli like arrows and plus signs. Although there is no consensus on the underlying mechanism, explanations tend to locate NCEs within the motor-response system. A characteristic property of perceptuo-motor NCEs is a biphasic pattern of activation: A brief period in which very briefly presented (typically) masked primes facilitate processing of related targets is followed by a phase of target processing impairment. In this paper, we present data that suggest that NCEs are not restricted to S-R priming with low-level visual stimuli: The brief (50 ms), backward masked (250 ms) presentation of ambiguous words (bank) leads to slower responses than baseline to words related to the more frequent (rob) but not less frequent meaning (swim). Importantly, we found that slowed responses are preceded by a short phase of response facilitation, replicating the biphasic pattern reported for arrows and plus signs. The biphasic pattern of priming and the fact that the NCEs were found only for target words that are related to their prime word’s more frequent meaning has strong implications for any theory of NCEs that locate these effects exclusively within the motor-response system. PMID:27152129

  15. Affective priming as an indirect measure of food preferences acquired through odor conditioning.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Dirk; Baeyens, Frank; Lamote, Sabine; Spruyt, Adriaan; Eelen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating affective priming for originally neutral food stimuli that recently acquired their affective meaning through odor conditioning. In a first phase, pictures of different brands of yogurts (CSs) were contingently presented with a positive or negative odor (US). In a subsequent phase, the yogurt CSs were used as primes in an affective priming procedure. Rating data showed that the acquisition procedure resulted in a reliable evaluative learning effect. This could be corroborated by the results of the priming task. Participants responded faster to positive target words and made fewer errors when they were preceded by a CS that had been associated with a positive odor, as compared to a CS that was associated with a negative odor. A reversed pattern was present for negative targets. Based on these findings, it is suggested that affective priming might be used as a demand-free measure of evaluative learning.

  16. When Stroop helps Piaget: An inter-task positive priming paradigm in 9-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Linzarini, A; Houdé, O; Borst, G

    2015-11-01

    To determine whether inhibitory control is domain general or domain specific in school children, we asked 40 9-year-old children to perform an inter-task priming paradigm in which they responded to Stroop items on the primes and to Piaget number conservation items on the probes. The children were more efficient in the inhibition of a misleading "length-equals-number" heuristic in the number conservation task if they had successfully inhibited a previous prepotent reading response in the Stroop task. This study provides evidence that the inhibitory control ability of school children generalizes to distinct cognitive domains, that is, verbal for the Stroop task and logico-mathematical for Piaget's number conservation task. PMID:26086072

  17. When Stroop helps Piaget: An inter-task positive priming paradigm in 9-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Linzarini, A; Houdé, O; Borst, G

    2015-11-01

    To determine whether inhibitory control is domain general or domain specific in school children, we asked 40 9-year-old children to perform an inter-task priming paradigm in which they responded to Stroop items on the primes and to Piaget number conservation items on the probes. The children were more efficient in the inhibition of a misleading "length-equals-number" heuristic in the number conservation task if they had successfully inhibited a previous prepotent reading response in the Stroop task. This study provides evidence that the inhibitory control ability of school children generalizes to distinct cognitive domains, that is, verbal for the Stroop task and logico-mathematical for Piaget's number conservation task.

  18. Positive Affective Priming: A Behavioral Technique to Facilitate Therapeutic Engagement by Families, Caregivers, and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    Affective priming is a technique used in experimental psychology to investigate the organization of emotional schemata not fully available to conscious awareness. The presentation of stimuli (the prime) with strong positive emotional valence alters the accessibility of positive stimuli within the individual's emotionally encoded cognitive system.…

  19. They know the words, but not the music: affective and semantic priming in individuals with psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Blair, K S; Richell, R A; Mitchell, D G V; Leonard, A; Morton, J; Blair, R J R

    2006-08-01

    Previous work has indicated dysfunctional affect-language interactions in individuals with psychopathy through use of the lexical decision task. However, it has been uncertain as to whether these deficits actually reflect impaired affect-language interactions or a more fundamental deficit in general semantic processing. In this study, we examined affective priming and semantic priming (dependent measures were reaction times and error rates) in individuals with psychopathy and comparison individuals, classified according to the psychopathy checklist revised (PCL-R) [Hare, R.D., 1991. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, Ont] Individuals with psychopathy showed significantly less affective priming relative to comparison individuals. In contrast, the two groups showed comparable levels of semantic priming. The results are discussed with reference to current models of psychopathy.

  20. What's in a face? The role of skin tone, facial physiognomy, and color presentation mode of facial primes in affective priming effects.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Elena V; Strube, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Participants (N = 106) performed an affective priming task with facial primes that varied in their skin tone and facial physiognomy, and, which were presented either in color or in gray-scale. Participants' racial evaluations were more positive for Eurocentric than for Afrocentric physiognomy faces. Light skin tone faces were evaluated more positively than dark skin tone faces, but the magnitude of this effect depended on the mode of color presentation. The results suggest that in affective priming tasks, faces might not be processed holistically, and instead, visual features of facial priming stimuli independently affect implicit evaluations. PMID:22468422

  1. The control of visual attention and its influence on prioritized processing in a location negative priming paradigm.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Rico; Hagendorf, Herbert

    2006-07-01

    In a location-based negative priming paradigm, the possibility of a disengagement option of the underlying inhibitory mechanism was tested. Whereas in previous studies disengagement was observed when providing utility information about the probe trial structure, in the present study the allocation of visual attention to the stimuli was manipulated. In the first step an automatic deployment of visual attention was implemented by presenting all stimuli as abrupt onsets (Experiment 1), which demonstrated commonly observed negative priming effects. In further conditions of non-automatic allocation of visual attention in which target and distractor were presented as no-onset stimuli, negative priming effects were eliminated (Experiments 2 and 3). The preferred interpretation is that in conditions of automatic control of attention, target and distractor compete for control of action. A non-automatic control of visual attention, on the other hand, leads to a top-down modulated selection, which results in prioritized target encoding and a loss of distractor impact on the selection process. Alternative accounts and the role of no-onset distractor processing were investigated in Experiment 4.

  2. Finding the positive in all of the negative: Facilitation for color-related emotion words in a negative priming paradigm.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Tina M; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-10-01

    A study conducted by Sutton and Altarriba (2008) suggested that color-related emotion words (e.g., sad, envy) produce standard Stroop interference effects. Associations between emotion words and colors are culture specific, and may be the result of common phrases in a language (e.g., "feeling blue" in English), or a result of the manner in which color is used to signify information or meaning in a language (e.g., red often represents threat). In the present paper, the same stimuli were investigated in a negative priming paradigm in which participants were asked to name the ink color of a presented word. In this task, response times are typically slower in ignored repetition trials (i.e., the probe target is related to the prime distractor) than control trials. The results of Experiment 1 indicated that color words and color-related neutral words yielded negative priming; however, color-related emotion words yielded significant facilitation. In Experiment 2, the three word types were intermixed within the same block and the same results were obtained. The current study provides converging evidence that salient distractors cannot be ignored. PMID:27380622

  3. The Automatic Activation of Emotion and Emotion-Laden Words: Evidence from a Masked and Unmasked Priming Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kazanas, Stephanie A; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    A primed lexical decision task (LDT) was used to determine whether emotion (e.g., love, fear) and emotion-laden (e.g., puppy, hospital) word processing differs, both explicitly and implicitly. Previous experiments have investigated how emotion word processing differs from both abstract and concrete word processing (Altarriba & Bauer, 2004; Altarriba, Bauer, & Benvenuto, 1999). To assess for differences between emotion and emotion-laden word processing, 2 experiments were conducted, the first assessing explicit processing (using an unmasked LDT) and the second assessing automatic processing (using a masked LDT). The prediction that semantic priming would differ between emotion word pairs and emotion-laden word pairs was confirmed in both experiments, with shorter response times for emotion targets and greater priming effects for emotion word pairs than for emotion-laden word pairs. The role of valence is discussed, emphasizing the ways valence affects the speed with which these words are accessed and processed. PMID:26442339

  4. Extraversion and reward-related processing: probing incentive motivation in affective priming tasks.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael D; Moeller, Sara K; Ode, Scott

    2010-10-01

    Based on an incentive motivation theory of extraversion (Depue & Collins, 1999), it was hypothesized that extraverts (relative to introverts) would exhibit stronger positive priming effects in affective priming tasks, whether involving words or pictures. This hypothesis was systematically supported in four studies involving 229 undergraduates. In each of the four studies, and in a subsequent combined analysis, extraversion was positively predictive of positive affective priming effects, but was not predictive of negative affective priming effects. The results bridge an important gap in the literature between biological and trait models of incentive motivation and do so in a way that should be informative to subsequent efforts to understand the processing basis of extraversion as well as incentive motivation.

  5. The prime questions in authentic patient's consultations: a call for additional research on current and new paradigms.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hanh Thi

    2013-01-01

    Although the 3 prime questions ("What did your doctor tell you the medication is for?" "How did your doctor tell you to take the medication?," and "What did your doctor tell you to expect?") have been recommended as a way to implement an interactive approach to patient's counseling in pharmacy, research examining how these questions are actually used in practice is relatively sparse. Qualitative approaches might assist to inform pertinent questions that might challenge prevailing paradigms. This commentary calls for a close look at how novice pharmacists in training manage these questions in real-life patient's consultations. These examples are aimed to provide preliminary observations about (1) how the prime questions in their original and modified forms are treated by pharmacists in training and patients, and (2) the interactional functions that the prime questions and similar questions may serve. Preliminary observations based on a conversation analysis of these examples show that the open-ended nature of the original prime questions sometimes leads to interactional problems such as delays in patients' responses and pharmacists' revision of the questions. Modified question formats that involve the use of specific knowledge expected to be possessed by a pharmacist, such as declarative questions and Q-word questions with concrete information, may lead to smoother interaction. Finally, questions about the purpose of the therapy may also be used to create opportunities to express empathy toward the patient or to shift the zone of expertise to the doctor. These initial findings suggest a more context sensitive and adaptive approach to communication in pharmacy.

  6. Concreteness of positive word contributions to affective priming: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhao; Wang, Zhenhong

    2014-09-01

    Recent behavioral data suggest that the concreteness of positive words modulates subsequent cognitive processing; however, the underlying physiological processes of this influence are not well understood. To explore this process, positive-abstract words or positive-concrete words were used as primes when participants performed a lexical decision task during the measurement of event-related potentials (ERPs). The behavioral data revealed a significant affective priming effect (i.e., incongruent>congruent) only for abstract word pairs. The N400 amplitude was larger for affectively incongruent pairs compared to affectively congruent pairs, independent of the prime concreteness. The amplitude of the late positive component (LPC) was modulated by prime concreteness. The processing of positive-abstract targets was facilitated by previous exposure to a congruent prime, as reflected by the reduced LPC, which has been thought to reflect attentional and memory processes. However, no differences in the LPC amplitude were found between congruent and incongruent-concrete pairs. These findings suggest that the influence of the concreteness of positive words mainly occurs during the decision-making processing and memory-related stages. PMID:24937349

  7. Effects of autonomous motivational priming on motivation and affective responses towards high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Brown, Denver M Y; Teseo, Amanda J; Bray, Steven R

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effect of autonomous motivational priming on motivation, attitudes and intentions towards high-intensity interval training (HIT). Participants (N = 42) performed a graded exercise test to determine their peak aerobic power (WPEAK). At a subsequent testing session, participants were randomised to complete either an autonomous or neutral motivational priming task followed by a 10 × 1 HIT exercise protocol, alternating 1-min bouts of hard (70% WPEAK) and light (12.5% WPEAK) exercises for 20 min. Participants primed with autonomous motivation reported greater enjoyment, P = .009, ηp(2) = .16, and perceived competence, P = .005, ηp(2) = .18, post-exercise compared to those in the neutral priming condition. Participants in the autonomous motivational priming condition also reported more positive attitudes, P = .014, ηp(2) = .14, towards HIT; however, there was no difference between the conditions for task motivation during HIT or intentions, P = .53, ηp(2) = .01, to engage in HIT. These findings highlight autonomous motivational priming as a method of enhancing affective and motivational experiences regarding HIT.

  8. Is Long-Term Structural Priming Affected by Patterns of Experience with Individual Verbs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Borreggine, Kristin L.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported long-term structural priming effects in experiments where previous patterns of experience with the double object and prepositional object constructions are shown to affect later patterns of language production for those constructions. The experiments reported in this paper address the extent to which these…

  9. Activating Situation Schemas: The Effects of Multiple Thematic Roles on Related Verbs in a Continuous Priming Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlofsky, Stacey M.; Edmonds, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence has shown that presentation of a word (target) following a related word (prime) results in faster reaction times compared to unrelated words. Two primes preceding a target have been used to examine the effects of multiple influences on a target. Several studies have observed greater, or additive, priming effects of multiple…

  10. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  11. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  12. The role of terrestrially derived organic carbon in the coastal ocean: a changing paradigm and the priming effect.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Thomas S

    2011-12-01

    One of the major conundrums in oceanography for the past 20 y has been that, although the total flux of dissolved organic carbon (OC; DOC) discharged annually to the global ocean can account for the turnover time of all oceanic DOC (ca. 4,000-6,000 y), chemical biomarker and stable isotopic data indicate that there is very little terrestrially derived OC (TerrOC) in the global ocean. Similarly, it has been estimated that only 30% of the TerrOC buried in marine sediments is of terrestrial origin in muddy deltaic regions with high sedimentation rates. If vascular plant material--assumed to be highly resistant to decay--makes up much of the DOC and particulate OC of riverine OC (along with soil OC), why do we not see more TerrOC in coastal and oceanic waters and sediments? An explanation for this "missing" TerrOC in the ocean is critical in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Here, I consider the origin of vascular plants, the major component of TerrOC, and how their appearance affected the overall cycling of OC on land. I also examine the role vascular plant material plays in soil OC, inland aquatic ecosystems, and the ocean, and how our understanding of TerrOC and "priming" processes in these natural systems has gained considerable interests in the terrestrial literature, but has largely been ignored in the aquatic sciences. Finally, I close by postulating that priming is in fact an important process that needs to be incorporated into global carbon models in the context of climate change. PMID:22106254

  13. Neural correlates of valence generalization in an affective conditioning paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schick, Anita; Adam, Ruth; Vollmayr, Barbara; Kuehner, Christine; Kanske, Philipp; Wessa, Michèle

    2015-10-01

    In case of uncertainty, predictions that are based on prior, similar experiences guide our decision by processes of generalization. Over-generalization of negative information has been identified as an important feature of several psychopathologies, including anxiety disorders and depression, and might underlie biased interpretation of ambiguous information. Here, we investigated the neural correlates of valence generalization to ambiguous stimuli using a translational affective conditioning task during fMRI. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in a conditioning procedure with (1) an initial acquisition phase, where participants learned the positive and negative valence of two different tones (reference tones) through their responses and subsequent feedback and (2) a test phase, where participants were presented with the previously learned reference tones and three additional tones with intermediate frequency to the learned reference tones. By recording the responses to these intermediate stimuli we were able to assess the participantsí interpretation of ambiguous tones as either positive or negative. Behavioral results revealed a graded response pattern to the three intermediate tones, which was mirrored on the neural level. More specifically, parametric analyses OF BOLD responses to all five tones revealed a linear effect in bilateral anterior insula and SMA with lowest activation to the negative reference tone and highest activation to the positive negative tone. In addition, a cluster in the SMA showed a reverse-quadratic response, i.e., the strongest response for the most ambiguous tone. These findings suggest overlapping regions in the salience network that mediate valence generalization and decision-making under ambiguity, potentially underlying biased ambiguous cue interpretation. PMID:26057359

  14. The role of terrestrially derived organic carbon in the coastal ocean: A changing paradigm and the priming effect

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major conundrums in oceanography for the past 20 y has been that, although the total flux of dissolved organic carbon (OC; DOC) discharged annually to the global ocean can account for the turnover time of all oceanic DOC (ca. 4,000–6,000 y), chemical biomarker and stable isotopic data indicate that there is very little terrestrially derived OC (TerrOC) in the global ocean. Similarly, it has been estimated that only 30% of the TerrOC buried in marine sediments is of terrestrial origin in muddy deltaic regions with high sedimentation rates. If vascular plant material—assumed to be highly resistant to decay—makes up much of the DOC and particulate OC of riverine OC (along with soil OC), why do we not see more TerrOC in coastal and oceanic waters and sediments? An explanation for this “missing” TerrOC in the ocean is critical in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Here, I consider the origin of vascular plants, the major component of TerrOC, and how their appearance affected the overall cycling of OC on land. I also examine the role vascular plant material plays in soil OC, inland aquatic ecosystems, and the ocean, and how our understanding of TerrOC and “priming” processes in these natural systems has gained considerable interests in the terrestrial literature, but has largely been ignored in the aquatic sciences. Finally, I close by postulating that priming is in fact an important process that needs to be incorporated into global carbon models in the context of climate change. PMID:22106254

  15. "Fahrenheit 9-11," Need for Closure and the Priming of Affective Ambivalence: An Assessment of Intra-Affective Structures by Party Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbert, R. Lance; Hansen, Glenn J.

    2006-01-01

    This study extends priming research in political communication by focusing on an alternative political information source (i.e., Michael Moore's Fahrenheit 9-11), affect rather than cognitions, and the existence of intra-affective ambivalence. In addition, two moderator variables are analyzed: political party identification and need for closure.…

  16. Adult attachment orientation and automatic processing of emotional information on a semantic level: A masked affective priming study.

    PubMed

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Zeitschel, Frank; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-09-30

    Early adverse social experiences leading to attachment insecurity could cause heightened sensitivity to emotional information. Automatic processing of emotional stimuli conveys information about positive-negative differentiation and the so-called possessor vs. other-relevance of valence. The aim of the present study was to examine automatic processing of emotional and relevance type information on a semantic level as a function of adult attachment avoidance and anxiety. A masked affective priming task, varying valence and relevance of prime and target adjectives, was presented to a sample of 153 healthy adults. The Experiences in Close Relationships scale was administered to assess attachment orientation. Significant priming effects for valence and relevance were observed. Attachment avoidance, but not attachment anxiety, was significantly related to affective priming independently of trait anxiety and depression. Specifically, attachment avoidance was found to be related to affective priming effects based on other-relevant words. It can be concluded that automatic processing of emotional adjectives used to characterize safe or risky social environments is heightened in avoidant individuals. The avoidantly attached processing style has similarities with repressive coping, which is characterized by an enhanced early response to emotion stimuli followed by avoidant biases at a controlled processing level. PMID:26235477

  17. The Affective Meanings of Automatic Social Behaviors: Three Mechanisms that Explain Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Tobias; Thagard, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The priming of concepts has been shown to influence peoples' subsequent actions, often unconsciously. We propose 3 mechanisms (psychological, cultural, and biological) as a unified explanation of such effects. (a) Primed concepts influence holistic representations of situations by parallel constraint satisfaction. (b) The constraints among…

  18. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2014-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few are practical for the current clinical environment, and the optimal priming modalities for specific clinical presentations are not known. Accordingly, developing an understanding of the various types of motor priming paradigms and their underlying neural mechanisms is an important step for therapists in neurorehabilitation. Most importantly, an understanding of the methods and their underlying mechanisms is essential for optimizing rehabilitation outcomes. The future of neurorehabilitation is likely to include these priming methods, which are delivered prior to or in conjunction with primary neurorehabilitation therapies. In this Special Interest article we discuss those priming paradigms that are supported by the greatest amount of evidence including: (i) stimulation-based priming, (ii) motor imagery and action observation, (iii) sensory priming, (iv) movement-based priming, and (v) pharmacological priming. PMID:25415551

  19. Common and Segregated Neural Substrates for Automatic Conceptual and Affective Priming as Revealed by Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hongyan; Hu, Zhiguo; Peng, Danling; Yang, Yanhui; Li, Kuncheng

    2010-01-01

    The brain activity associated with automatic semantic priming has been extensively studied. Thus far there has been no prior study that directly contrasts the neural mechanisms of semantic and affective priming. The present study employed event-related fMRI to examine the common and distinct neural bases underlying conceptual and affective priming…

  20. Prime Knowledge about Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Several proofs demonstrating that there are infinitely many primes, different types of primes, tests of primality, pseudo primes, prime number generators and open questions about primes are discussed in Section 1. Some of these notions are elaborated upon in Section 2, with discussions of the Riemann zeta function and how algorithmic complexity…

  1. Immune Priming, Fat Reserves, Muscle Mass and Body Weight of the House Cricket is Affected by Diet Composition.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Nava-Sánchez, A; González-Tokman, D M; Munguía-Steyer, R; Gutiérrez-Cabrera, A E

    2016-08-01

    Some insect species are capable of producing an enhanced immune response after a first pathogenic encounter, a process called immune priming. However, whether and how such ability is driven by particular diet components (protein/carbohydrate) have not been explored. Such questions are sound given that, in general, immune response is dietary dependent. We have used adults of the house cricket Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) and exposed them to the bacteria Serratia marcescens. We first addressed whether survival rate after priming and nonpriming treatments is dietary dependent based on access/no access to proteins and carbohydrates. Second, we investigated how these dietary components affected fat reserves, muscle mass, and body weight, three key traits in insect fitness. Thus, we exposed adult house crickets to either a protein or a carbohydrate diet and measured the three traits. After being provided with protein, primed animals survived longer compared to the other diet treatments. Interestingly, this effect was also sex dependent with primed males having a higher survival than primed females when protein was supplemented. For the second experiment, protein-fed animals had more fat, muscle mass, and body weight than carbohydrate-fed animals. Although we are not aware of the immune component underlying immune priming, our results suggest that its energetic demand for its functioning and/or consequent survival requires a higher demand of protein with respect to carbohydrate. Thus, protein shortage can impair key survival-related traits related to immune and energetic condition. Further studies varying nutrient ratios should verify our results.

  2. Immune Priming, Fat Reserves, Muscle Mass and Body Weight of the House Cricket is Affected by Diet Composition.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Nava-Sánchez, A; González-Tokman, D M; Munguía-Steyer, R; Gutiérrez-Cabrera, A E

    2016-08-01

    Some insect species are capable of producing an enhanced immune response after a first pathogenic encounter, a process called immune priming. However, whether and how such ability is driven by particular diet components (protein/carbohydrate) have not been explored. Such questions are sound given that, in general, immune response is dietary dependent. We have used adults of the house cricket Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) and exposed them to the bacteria Serratia marcescens. We first addressed whether survival rate after priming and nonpriming treatments is dietary dependent based on access/no access to proteins and carbohydrates. Second, we investigated how these dietary components affected fat reserves, muscle mass, and body weight, three key traits in insect fitness. Thus, we exposed adult house crickets to either a protein or a carbohydrate diet and measured the three traits. After being provided with protein, primed animals survived longer compared to the other diet treatments. Interestingly, this effect was also sex dependent with primed males having a higher survival than primed females when protein was supplemented. For the second experiment, protein-fed animals had more fat, muscle mass, and body weight than carbohydrate-fed animals. Although we are not aware of the immune component underlying immune priming, our results suggest that its energetic demand for its functioning and/or consequent survival requires a higher demand of protein with respect to carbohydrate. Thus, protein shortage can impair key survival-related traits related to immune and energetic condition. Further studies varying nutrient ratios should verify our results. PMID:27037705

  3. Common and segregated neural substrates for automatic conceptual and affective priming as revealed by event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyan; Hu, Zhiguo; Peng, Danling; Yang, Yanhui; Li, Kuncheng

    2010-02-01

    The brain activity associated with automatic semantic priming has been extensively studied. Thus far there has been no prior study that directly contrasts the neural mechanisms of semantic and affective priming. The present study employed event-related fMRI to examine the common and distinct neural bases underlying conceptual and affective priming with a lexical decision task. A special type of emotional word, a dual-meaning word containing both conceptual meaning and affective meaning, was adopted as target. Short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) (50 ms) was used to emphasize automatic processing. Fifteen participants were scanned in the present study. We found that the left middle/superior temporal gyrus was the brain region involved in both automatic conceptual and affective priming effects, suggesting general lexical-semantic processing that share in the two types of priming. The left inferior frontal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus were found to be the conceptual-specific areas in automatic priming effect, consistent with the role of these areas in more extensive within-category semantic processes. The results also revealed that the left fusiform gyrus and left insula were the affective-specific regions in automatic priming effect, demonstrating the involvement of the left fusiform gyrus in automatic affective priming effect, and clarifying the role of the insula in emotional processing rather than conceptual processing. Despite comparable behavioral effects of automatic conceptual priming and affective priming, the present study revealed a neural dissociation of the two types of priming, as well as the shared neural bases. PMID:20018360

  4. Bridging music and speech rhythm: rhythmic priming and audio-motor training affect speech perception.

    PubMed

    Cason, Nia; Astésano, Corine; Schön, Daniele

    2015-02-01

    Following findings that musical rhythmic priming enhances subsequent speech perception, we investigated whether rhythmic priming for spoken sentences can enhance phonological processing - the building blocks of speech - and whether audio-motor training enhances this effect. Participants heard a metrical prime followed by a sentence (with a matching/mismatching prosodic structure), for which they performed a phoneme detection task. Behavioural (RT) data was collected from two groups: one who received audio-motor training, and one who did not. We hypothesised that 1) phonological processing would be enhanced in matching conditions, and 2) audio-motor training with the musical rhythms would enhance this effect. Indeed, providing a matching rhythmic prime context resulted in faster phoneme detection, thus revealing a cross-domain effect of musical rhythm on phonological processing. In addition, our results indicate that rhythmic audio-motor training enhances this priming effect. These results have important implications for rhythm-based speech therapies, and suggest that metrical rhythm in music and speech may rely on shared temporal processing brain resources. PMID:25553343

  5. Global familiarity of visual stimuli affects repetition-related neural plasticity but not repetition priming

    PubMed Central

    Soldan, Anja; Zarahn, Eric; Hilton, H. John; Stern, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    In this study we tested the prediction of the component process model of priming (Henson, 2003) that repetition priming of familiar and unfamiliar objects produces qualitatively different neural repetition effects. In an fMRI study, subjects viewed four repetitions of familiar objects and globally unfamiliar objects with familiar components. Reliable behavioral priming occurred for both item types across the four presentations and was of a similar magnitude for both stimulus types. The imaging data was analyzed using multivariate linear modeling, which permits explicit testing of the hypothesis that the repetition effects for familiar and unfamiliar objects are qualitatively different (i.e., non-scaled versions of one another). The results showed the presence of two qualitatively different latent spatial patterns of repetition effects from presenation one to presentation four for familiar and unfamilar objects, indicating that familiarity with an object’s global structural, semantic, or lexical features is an important factor in priming-related neural plasticity. The first latent spatial pattern strongly weighted regions with a similar repetition effect for both item types. The second pattern strongly weighted regions contributing a repetition suppression effect for the familiar objects and repetition enhancement for the unfamiliar objects, particularly the posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus, and cingulate cortex. This differential repetition effect might reflect the formation of novel memory representations for the unfamiliar items, which already exist for the familiar objects, consistent with the component-process model of priming. PMID:17913513

  6. Bridging music and speech rhythm: rhythmic priming and audio-motor training affect speech perception.

    PubMed

    Cason, Nia; Astésano, Corine; Schön, Daniele

    2015-02-01

    Following findings that musical rhythmic priming enhances subsequent speech perception, we investigated whether rhythmic priming for spoken sentences can enhance phonological processing - the building blocks of speech - and whether audio-motor training enhances this effect. Participants heard a metrical prime followed by a sentence (with a matching/mismatching prosodic structure), for which they performed a phoneme detection task. Behavioural (RT) data was collected from two groups: one who received audio-motor training, and one who did not. We hypothesised that 1) phonological processing would be enhanced in matching conditions, and 2) audio-motor training with the musical rhythms would enhance this effect. Indeed, providing a matching rhythmic prime context resulted in faster phoneme detection, thus revealing a cross-domain effect of musical rhythm on phonological processing. In addition, our results indicate that rhythmic audio-motor training enhances this priming effect. These results have important implications for rhythm-based speech therapies, and suggest that metrical rhythm in music and speech may rely on shared temporal processing brain resources.

  7. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old-new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old-new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults. PMID:25628588

  8. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old-new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old-new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults.

  9. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old–new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old–new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults. PMID:25628588

  10. The Impact of Affect on Out-Group Judgments Depends on Dominant Information-Processing Styles: Evidence From Incidental and Integral Affect Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Linda M; Lair, Elicia C; Rovenpor, Daniel R

    2016-04-01

    Two studies tested the affect-as-cognitive-feedback model, in which positive and negative affective states are not uniquely associated with particular processing styles, but rather serve as feedback about currently accessible processing styles. The studies extend existing work by investigating (a) both incidental and integral affect, (b) out-group judgments, and (c) downstream consequences. We manipulated processing styles and either incidental (Study 1) or integral (Study 2) affect and measured perceptions of out-group homogeneity. Positive (relative to negative) affect increased out-group homogeneity judgments when global processing was primed, but under local priming, the effect reversed (Studies 1 and 2). A similar interactive effect emerged on attributions, which had downstream consequences for behavioral intentions (Study 2). These results demonstrate that both incidental and integral affect do not directly produce specific processing styles, but rather influence thinking by providing feedback about currently accessible processing styles. PMID:26984013

  11. Priming interdependence affects processing of context information in causal inference--but not how you might think.

    PubMed

    Goedert, Kelly M; Grimm, Lisa R; Markman, Arthur B; Spellman, Barbara A

    2014-02-01

    Cultural mindset is related to performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. In particular, studies of both chronic and situationally-primed mindsets show that individuals with a relatively interdependent mindset (i.e., an emphasis on relationships and connections among individuals) are more sensitive to background contextual information than individuals with a more independent mindset. Two experiments tested whether priming cultural mindset would affect sensitivity to background causes in a contingency learning and causal inference task. Participants were primed (either independent or interdependent), and then saw complete contingency information on each of 12 trials for two cover stories in Experiment 1 (hiking causing skin rashes, severed brakes causing wrecked cars) and two additional cover stories in Experiment 2 (school deadlines causing stress, fertilizers causing plant growth). We expected that relative to independent-primed participants, those interdependent-primed would give more weight to the explicitly-presented data indicative of hidden alternative background causes, but they did not do so. In Experiment 1, interdependents gave less weight to the data indicative of hidden background causes for the car accident cover story and showed a decreased sensitivity to the contingencies for that story. In Experiment 2, interdependents placed less weight on the observable data for cover stories that supported more extra-experimental causes, while independents' sensitivity did not vary with these extra-experimental causes. Thus, interdependents were more sensitive to background causes not explicitly presented in the experiment, but this sensitivity hurt rather than improved their acquisition of the explicitly-presented contingency information. PMID:24374491

  12. Alignment as a consequence of expectation adaptation: syntactic priming is affected by the prime's prediction error given both prior and recent experience.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, T Florian; Snider, Neal E

    2013-04-01

    Speakers show a remarkable tendency to align their productions with their interlocutors'. Focusing on sentence production, we investigate the cognitive systems underlying such alignment (syntactic priming). Our guiding hypothesis is that syntactic priming is a consequence of a language processing system that is organized to achieve efficient communication in an ever-changing (subjectively non-stationary) environment. We build on recent work suggesting that comprehenders adapt to the statistics of the current environment. If such adaptation is rational or near-rational, the extent to which speakers adapt their expectations for a syntactic structure after processing a prime sentence should be sensitive to the prediction error experienced while processing the prime. This prediction is shared by certain error-based implicit learning accounts, but not by most other accounts of syntactic priming. In three studies, we test this prediction against data from conversational speech, speech during picture description, and written production during sentence completion. All three studies find stronger syntactic priming for primes associated with a larger prediction error (primes with higher syntactic surprisal). We find that the relevant prediction error is sensitive to both prior and recent experience within the experiment. Together with other findings, this supports accounts that attribute syntactic priming to expectation adaptation.

  13. Maternal touch and infant affect in the Still Face Paradigm: A cross-cultural examination.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jean R; Coulombe, Patrick; Moss, Natalia C; Rieger, Rebecca E; Aragón, Crystal; MacLean, Peggy C; Caprihan, Arvind; Phillips, John P; Handal, Alexis J

    2016-08-01

    Touch between mother and infant plays an important role in development starting from birth. Cross-cultural differences surrounding rearing practices have an influence on parent-infant interaction, including types of touch used and the development of emotional regulation. This study was designed to investigate maternal touch and infant emotional regulation in infant-mother dyads from Ecuador (n=25) and Hispanic dyads from the United States (US) (n=26). Mothers and their 4-month-old full-term infants participated in the Still Face Paradigm. Second-by-second coding of maternal touch and infant affect was completed. Overall the analyses showed that Ecuadorian mothers used more nurturing and accompaniment touch and less attention seeking touch than US Hispanic mothers during the pre-stressor (baseline) episode. Lagged multilevel models were used to investigate the effect of the different types of touch on infant emotional regulation in the groups for the episodes. The data suggest that playful touch had a significant increase in infant affect, whereas accompaniment and attention-seeking touch had a significant decrease in infant affect. Overall, this study provides support for the role of touch in mother-infant synchronicity in relation to infant's emotional regulation. Identifying touch that is more calming is important to foster emotional regulation in infancy, which can have important implications for development. PMID:27362780

  14. Metaphor priming in sentence production: concrete pictures affect abstract language production.

    PubMed

    Sato, Manami; Schafer, Amy J; Bergen, Benjamin K

    2015-03-01

    People speak metaphorically about abstract concepts-for instance, a person can be "full of love" or "have a lot of love to give." Over the past decade, research has begun to focus on how metaphors are processed during language comprehension. Much of this work suggests that understanding a metaphorical expression involves activating brain and body systems involved in perception and motor control. However, no research to date has asked whether the same is true while speakers produce language. We address this gap using a sentence production task. Its results demonstrate that visually activating a concrete source domain can trigger the use of metaphorical language drawn from that same concrete domain, even in sentences that are thematically unrelated to the primes, a metaphorical priming effect. This effect suggests that conceptual metaphors play a part in language production. It also shows that activation in the perceptual system that is not part of an intended message can nevertheless influence sentence formulation.

  15. Factors affecting taste scores of early season seedless table grape cv. Mystery and Prime.

    PubMed

    Sonego, Lilian; Lurie, Susan; Zuthi, Yohanan; Kaplonov, Tatiana; Ben-Arie, Ruth; Kosto, Itzhak

    2002-01-30

    Table grapes of cv. Mystery and Prime were harvested from 10 farms in two growing areas of Israel over two seasons. The grapes were separated on the basis of sucrose solutions from 12 to 18%; soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and pH were determined; and taste tests were conducted. SSC gave the best correlation with taste tests, and multiple regression of SSC, TA, and pH improved the correlation. There were both seasonal and regional differences in the measured maturity parameters. Lower TA and higher pH were found in grapes from the Jordan Valley. Volatiles were predominantly C(6) compounds hexanal and 2-hexanal, contributing a fresh aroma to the grapes. It is concluded that Mystery and Prime grapes have good organoleptic quality if harvested at SSC levels of >14%. PMID:11804527

  16. Alignment as a Consequence of Expectation Adaptation: Syntactic Priming Is Affected by the Prime's Prediction Error Given both Prior and Recent Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, T. Florian; Snider, Neal E.

    2013-01-01

    Speakers show a remarkable tendency to align their productions with their interlocutors'. Focusing on sentence production, we investigate the cognitive systems underlying such alignment (syntactic priming). Our guiding hypothesis is that syntactic priming is a consequence of a language processing system that is organized to achieve efficient…

  17. Land use and nutrient inputs affect priming in Andosols of Mt. Kilimanjaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mganga, Kevin; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Organic C and nutrients additions in soil can accelerate mineralisation of soil organic matter i.e. priming effects. However, only very few studies have been conducted to investigate the priming effects phenomenon in tropical Andosols. Nutrients (N, P, N+P) and 14C labelled glucose were added to Andosols from six natural and intensively used ecosystems at Mt. Kilimanjaro i.e. (1) savannah, (2) maize fields, (3) lower montane forest, (4) coffee plantation, (5) grasslands and (6) Chagga homegardens. Carbon-dioxide emissions were monitored over a 60 days incubation period. Mineralisation of glucose to 14CO2 was highest in coffee plantation and lowest in Chagga homegarden soils. Maximal and minimal mineralisation rates immediately after glucose additions were observed in lower montane forest with N+P fertilisation (9.1% ± 0.83 d -1) and in savannah with N fertilisation (0.9% ± 0.17 d -1), respectively. Glucose and nutrient additions accelerated native soil organic matter mineralisation i.e. positive priming. Chagga homegarden soils had the lowest 14CO2 emissions and incorporated the highest percent of glucose into microbial biomass. 50-60% of the 14C input was retained in soil. We attribute this mainly to the high surface area of non-crystalline constituents i.e. allophanes, present in Andosols and having very high sorption capacity for organic C. The allophanic nature of Andosols of Mt. Kilimanjaro especially under traditional Chagga homegarden agroforestry system shows great potential for providing essential environmental services, notably C sequestration. Key words: Priming Effects, Andosols, Land Use Changes, Mt. Kilimanjaro, Allophanes, Tropical Agroforestry

  18. The Influence of Context on Residents' Evaluations: Effects of Priming on Clinical Judgment and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teunissen, P. W.; Stapel, D. A.; Scheele, F.; Scherpbier, A. J. J. A.; Boor, K.; van Diemen-Steenvoorde, J. A. A. M.; van der Vleuten, C. P. M.

    2009-01-01

    Different lines of research have suggested that context is important in acting and learning in the clinical workplace. It is not clear how contextual information influences residents' constructions of the situations in which they participate. The category accessibility paradigm from social psychology appears to offer an interesting perspective for…

  19. Amount of Priming in the Difference of Mental Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanamori, Nobuhiro; Yagi, Akihiro

    2005-01-01

    We examined in detail effects of priming in 2 mental rotation strategies: spinning (rotating in a picture plane) and flipping (rotating in depth around a horizontal axis) by using a priming paradigm of Kanamori and Yagi (2002). The priming paradigm included prime and probe tasks within 1 trial. In the prime task, 16 participants were asked to…

  20. Differential priming effect for subliminal fear and disgust facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Young; Kang, Jee In; Lee, Eun; Namkoong, Kee; An, Suk Kyoon

    2011-02-01

    Compared to neutral or happy stimuli, subliminal fear stimuli are known to be well processed through the automatic pathway. We tried to examine whether fear stimuli could be processed more strongly than other negative emotional stimuli using a modified subliminal affective priming paradigm. Twenty-six healthy subjects participated in two separated sessions. Fear, disgust and neutral facial expressions were adopted as primes, and 50% happy facial stimuli were adopted as a target to let only stronger negative primes reveal a priming effect. Participants were asked to appraise the affect of target faces in the affect appraisal session and to appraise the genuineness of target faces in the genuineness appraisal session. The genuineness instruction was developed to help participants be sensitive to potential threats. In the affect appraisal, participants judged 50% happy target faces significantly more 'unpleasant' when they were primed by fear faces than primed by 50% happy control faces. In the genuineness appraisal, participants judged targets significantly more 'not genuine' when they were primed by fear and disgust faces than primed by controls. These findings suggest that there may be differential priming effects between subliminal fear and disgust expressions, which could be modulated by a sensitive context of potential threat.

  1. A hormone priming regimen and hibernation affect oviposition in the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas).

    PubMed

    Calatayud, N E; Langhorne, C J; Mullen, A C; Williams, C L; Smith, T; Bullock, L; Kouba, A J; Willard, S T

    2015-09-01

    Declines of the southern Rocky Mountain population of boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) have led to the establishment of a captive assurance population and reintroduction program, in an attempt to preserve and propagate this geographically isolated population. One of the unique adaptations of this species is its ability to survive in cold environments by undergoing long periods of hibernation. In captivity, hibernation can be avoided altogether, decreasing morbidity caused by compromised immune systems. However, it is not entirely clear how essential hibernation is to reproductive success. In this study, the effects of hibernation versus nonhibernation, and exogenous hormones on oviposition, were examined in boreal toad females in the absence of males. In the summers of 2011 and 2012, 20 females housed at Mississippi State University were treated with a double priming dose of hCG and various ovulatory doses of hCG and LH-releasing hormone analog but denied hibernation. Exogenous hormones, in the absence of hibernation, could not induce oviposition over two breeding seasons (2011-2012). In contrast, during the summer of 2012 and 2013, 17 of 22 females (77%) housed at the Native Aquatic Species Restoration Facility (Alamosa, CO, USA) oviposited after they were treated with two priming doses of hCG (3.7 IU/g each) and a single ovulation dose of hCG (13.5 IU/g) and LH-releasing hormone analog (0.4 μg/g) after hibernation. There was a significant difference in oviposition between females that were hibernated and received hormones (2012, P < 0.05 and 2013, P < 0.01) compared to hibernated control females. In 2013, 12 of 16 remaining Mississippi State University females from the same group used in 2011 and 2012 were hibernated for 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively and then treated with the same hormone regimen administered to females at the Native Aquatic Species Restoration Facility. Together, hibernation and hormone treatments significantly increased

  2. The negative priming effect in cognitive conflict processing.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fada; Shi, Liang; Lu, Qingyun; Wu, Xiaogang; Xue, Song; Li, Qiwei

    2016-08-15

    The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the specific physiological mechanisms underlying the negative nature of cognitive conflict and its influence on affective word evaluations. The present study used an affective priming paradigm where Stroop stimuli were presented for 200ms after which affective target words had to be evaluated as being positive or negative. Behavioral results showed that reaction times (RTs) were shorter for positive targets following congruent primes relative to incongruent primes, and for negative targets following incongruent primes relative to congruent primes. The ERP results showed that the N2 amplitude (200-300ms) for incongruent stimuli was significantly larger than for congruent stimuli in the Stroop task, which indicated a significant conflict effect. Moreover, the N400 amplitude (300-500ms) was smaller for negative words following incongruent primes relative to congruent primes, and for positive words following congruent primes relative to incongruent primes. The results demonstrated that cognitive conflict modulated both behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of subsequent emotional processing, consistent with its hypothesized registration as an aversive signal.

  3. The negative priming effect in cognitive conflict processing.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fada; Shi, Liang; Lu, Qingyun; Wu, Xiaogang; Xue, Song; Li, Qiwei

    2016-08-15

    The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the specific physiological mechanisms underlying the negative nature of cognitive conflict and its influence on affective word evaluations. The present study used an affective priming paradigm where Stroop stimuli were presented for 200ms after which affective target words had to be evaluated as being positive or negative. Behavioral results showed that reaction times (RTs) were shorter for positive targets following congruent primes relative to incongruent primes, and for negative targets following incongruent primes relative to congruent primes. The ERP results showed that the N2 amplitude (200-300ms) for incongruent stimuli was significantly larger than for congruent stimuli in the Stroop task, which indicated a significant conflict effect. Moreover, the N400 amplitude (300-500ms) was smaller for negative words following incongruent primes relative to congruent primes, and for positive words following congruent primes relative to incongruent primes. The results demonstrated that cognitive conflict modulated both behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of subsequent emotional processing, consistent with its hypothesized registration as an aversive signal. PMID:27268038

  4. “The Bitter Laughter”. When Parody Is a Moral and Affective Priming in Political Persuasion

    PubMed Central

    D’Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Research on socially aware systems requires fine-grained knowledge of the mechanisms of persuasion in order to promote civic knowledge and aware political participation. Within humor studies, political parody is generally considered a simple pleasant weapon for political evaluation, currently explained by referring to the so called “just a joke effect” (Nabi et al., 2007). Indeed the funny side of parody can induce positive emotions, but it also includes a discrediting act that sometimes produces a “bitter laughter.” The present study aims to understand the role played by negative and moral emotions aroused by parody. A parody is defined as a communicative behavior (a discourse, text, body movement, song) that imitates a communicative behavior or trait displayed by some Target by reproducing it in a distorted way, with the aim of making fun of the Target. Based on a socio-cognitive approach, a distinction is made between “surface” and “deep” parody (Poggi and D’Errico, 2013), with the former simply imitating behaviors actually displayed by the Target, and the latter implying a (humorous) re-categorization of the Target. The paper studies the effect of these two different types of parody on persuasion processes. Results show that the deep parody, as opposed to surface parody, triggers more negative emotions, and in particular indignation, that in turn lead to more negative evaluations of the Target. Moreover, the moral priming of parody is influenced by the Target politician’s gender. PMID:27555825

  5. "The Bitter Laughter". When Parody Is a Moral and Affective Priming in Political Persuasion.

    PubMed

    D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Research on socially aware systems requires fine-grained knowledge of the mechanisms of persuasion in order to promote civic knowledge and aware political participation. Within humor studies, political parody is generally considered a simple pleasant weapon for political evaluation, currently explained by referring to the so called "just a joke effect" (Nabi et al., 2007). Indeed the funny side of parody can induce positive emotions, but it also includes a discrediting act that sometimes produces a "bitter laughter." The present study aims to understand the role played by negative and moral emotions aroused by parody. A parody is defined as a communicative behavior (a discourse, text, body movement, song) that imitates a communicative behavior or trait displayed by some Target by reproducing it in a distorted way, with the aim of making fun of the Target. Based on a socio-cognitive approach, a distinction is made between "surface" and "deep" parody (Poggi and D'Errico, 2013), with the former simply imitating behaviors actually displayed by the Target, and the latter implying a (humorous) re-categorization of the Target. The paper studies the effect of these two different types of parody on persuasion processes. Results show that the deep parody, as opposed to surface parody, triggers more negative emotions, and in particular indignation, that in turn lead to more negative evaluations of the Target. Moreover, the moral priming of parody is influenced by the Target politician's gender.

  6. "The Bitter Laughter". When Parody Is a Moral and Affective Priming in Political Persuasion.

    PubMed

    D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Research on socially aware systems requires fine-grained knowledge of the mechanisms of persuasion in order to promote civic knowledge and aware political participation. Within humor studies, political parody is generally considered a simple pleasant weapon for political evaluation, currently explained by referring to the so called "just a joke effect" (Nabi et al., 2007). Indeed the funny side of parody can induce positive emotions, but it also includes a discrediting act that sometimes produces a "bitter laughter." The present study aims to understand the role played by negative and moral emotions aroused by parody. A parody is defined as a communicative behavior (a discourse, text, body movement, song) that imitates a communicative behavior or trait displayed by some Target by reproducing it in a distorted way, with the aim of making fun of the Target. Based on a socio-cognitive approach, a distinction is made between "surface" and "deep" parody (Poggi and D'Errico, 2013), with the former simply imitating behaviors actually displayed by the Target, and the latter implying a (humorous) re-categorization of the Target. The paper studies the effect of these two different types of parody on persuasion processes. Results show that the deep parody, as opposed to surface parody, triggers more negative emotions, and in particular indignation, that in turn lead to more negative evaluations of the Target. Moreover, the moral priming of parody is influenced by the Target politician's gender. PMID:27555825

  7. Cost of immune priming within generations: trade-off between infection and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Garduño, J; Rodríguez, M C; Rodríguez, M H; Alvarado-Delgado, A; Lanz-Mendoza, H

    2014-03-01

    Immune priming is a new paradigm in innate immunity. However, most studies have focused on the benefits of priming (enhanced survival and parasite clearance after a second challenge), while little attention has been paid to the costs. In this study, both factors were investigated in Anopheles albimanus primed against Plasmodium berghei. As previously observed in other invertebrates, compared to un-primed mosquitoes, those primed better controlled a challenge from the same parasite, and had a higher survival rate. Although there was no difference in the number of oviposited eggs between primed and control females, hatching rate was lower in primed than in control mosquitoes and it was more likely for control females to produce eggs than for primed females. Furthermore, a trade-off between parasite elimination and egg production was observed among primed mosquitoes, as primed females that successfully fought the infection were unable to produce eggs, but primed females that produced eggs were similarly infected as control un-primed ones. These results concord with recent mathematical models suggesting that reproduction affects immune priming outcomes, and may explain why in some species and under some conditions it seems that immune priming is not occurring.

  8. Cost of immune priming within generations: trade-off between infection and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Garduño, J; Rodríguez, M C; Rodríguez, M H; Alvarado-Delgado, A; Lanz-Mendoza, H

    2014-03-01

    Immune priming is a new paradigm in innate immunity. However, most studies have focused on the benefits of priming (enhanced survival and parasite clearance after a second challenge), while little attention has been paid to the costs. In this study, both factors were investigated in Anopheles albimanus primed against Plasmodium berghei. As previously observed in other invertebrates, compared to un-primed mosquitoes, those primed better controlled a challenge from the same parasite, and had a higher survival rate. Although there was no difference in the number of oviposited eggs between primed and control females, hatching rate was lower in primed than in control mosquitoes and it was more likely for control females to produce eggs than for primed females. Furthermore, a trade-off between parasite elimination and egg production was observed among primed mosquitoes, as primed females that successfully fought the infection were unable to produce eggs, but primed females that produced eggs were similarly infected as control un-primed ones. These results concord with recent mathematical models suggesting that reproduction affects immune priming outcomes, and may explain why in some species and under some conditions it seems that immune priming is not occurring. PMID:24291714

  9. Unconscious Desire: The Affective and Motivational Aspects of Subliminal Sexual Priming.

    PubMed

    Gillath, Omri; Collins, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Sexual arousal is thought to be the result of the processing of sexual cues at two levels: conscious and unconscious. Whereas numerous studies have examined the affective and motivational responses to supraliminal (consciously processed) sexual cues, much less is known regarding the responses to subliminal (processed outside of one's awareness) sexual cues. Five studies examined responses to subliminal sexual cues. Studies 1–3 demonstrated increases in adults' positive affect following exposure to subliminal sexual cues compared to control cues. Study 4 demonstrated that the positive affect resulting from exposure to subliminal sexual cues increased motivation to further engage in a neutral task. Study 5 provided evidence suggesting that the affect and motivation found in Studies 1–4 were associated with motivation to engage in sex specifically, rather than a general approach motivation. The implications of these findings for the processing of subliminal sexual cues and for human sexuality are discussed. PMID:26494359

  10. The influence of alcohol expectancy priming and mood manipulation on subsequent alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Stein, K D; Goldman, M S; Del Boca, F K

    2000-02-01

    Studies showing that verbal priming can implicitly affect alcohol consumption have been used to support cognitive models of expectancies. However, because expectancy words reflect affective states as well as drinking outcomes, mediation through an affective pathway remains theoretically plausible (i.e., such words inadvertently may affect mood, which in turn influences drinking). The primary pathway was identified (and expectancy theory was tested) by comparing memory priming (using alcohol expectancy or neutral words) with mood induction (using positive or neutral music); an unrelated experiment paradigm allowed the priming manipulation to implicitly affect drinking. Men in the alcohol priming group drank significantly more than men in each of the other conditions, and, consistent with theory, men with histories of heavier drinking drank the most when primed with alcohol expectancies, indicating that expectancies can function as automatic memory processes.

  11. Sandwich Priming: A Method for Overcoming the Limitations of Masked Priming by Reducing Lexical Competitor Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupker, Stephen J.; Davis, Colin J.

    2009-01-01

    An orthographically similar masked nonword prime facilitates responding in a lexical decision task (Forster & Davis, 1984). Recently, this masked priming paradigm has been used to evaluate models of orthographic coding--models that attempt to quantify prime-target similarity. One general finding is that priming effects often do not occur when…

  12. A Study of Relative-Position Priming with Superset Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Assche, Eva; Grainger, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Four lexical decision experiments are reported that use the masked priming paradigm to study the role of letter position information in orthographic processing. In Experiments 1 and 2, superset primes, formed by repetition of 1 or 2 letters of the target (e.g., jusstice-JUSTICE) or by insertion of 1 or 2 unrelated letters (e.g., juastice-JUSTICE),…

  13. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W.; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-05-01

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two 13C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change.

  14. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two (13)C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change. PMID:25960162

  15. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two (13)C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change.

  16. Is Perceptual Priming Affected by Culture? A Study With German Middle-Class and Cameroonian Nso Farmer Children.

    PubMed

    Vöhringer, Isabel Aline; Poloczek, Sonja; Graf, Frauke; Lamm, Bettina; Teiser, Johanna; Fassbender, Ina; Freitag, Claudia; Suhrke, Janina; Teubert, Manuel; Keller, Heidi; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Knopf, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The authors explored priming in children from different cultural environments with the aim to provide further evidence for the robustness of the priming effect. Perceptual priming was assessed by a picture fragment completion task in 3-year-old German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer children. As expected, 3-year-olds from both highly diverging cultural contexts under study showed a priming effect, and, moreover, the effect was of comparable size in both cultural contexts. Hence, the children profited similarly from priming, which was supported by the nonsignificant interaction between cultural background and identification performance as well as the analysis of absolute difference scores. However, a culture-specific difference regarding the level of picture identification was found in that German middle-class children identified target as well as control pictures with less perceptual information than children in the Nso sample. Explanations for the cross-cultural demonstration of the priming effect as well as for the culturally diverging levels on which priming occurs are discussed.

  17. A neutral face is not neutral even if you have not seen it: social anxiety disorder and affective priming with facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Lange, Wolf-Gero; Allart, Esther; Keijsers, Ger P J; Rinck, Mike; Becker, Eni S

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive theories suggest that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by biased processing of negative facial expressions. Recently, however, it has been proposed that the fear of positive evaluation may play an additional, important role. In order to investigate which specific expressions evoke biased processing, 15 patients diagnosed with SAD and 15 non-anxious controls (NACs) completed an affective priming procedure: they rated neutral symbols which were preceded by sub-optimally presented primes of angry, neutral, and smiling faces. Patients with SAD rated the symbols significantly more negatively than NACs when they were primed with a neutral face. In addition, SAD patients tended to rate all symbols significantly more negatively suggesting that all faces (negative, positive, and neutral) are threatening to SAD patients. PMID:22428556

  18. An accrual model for primed digit classification.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, E; Saal, A; Page, R

    2010-03-01

    This article describes a chronometric experiment of digit classification with masked primes. EEG experiments have shown that the subliminal prime activates the cortex prior to the target signal, thusly modifying the response: Congruent primes lead to faster correct answers, while incongruent primes result in slower response. It is noticed that incorrect answers show an inverted effect: A congruent prime inhibits incorrect answers, and the reverse for incongruent primes. Within the evidence accrual paradigm, it is suggested that the prime activity in the motor cortex effectively behaves as a shift in the decision threshold. This model assumption is consistent with our experimental findings. The correct and incorrect answers and the error percentage are discussed.

  19. Priming Lexical Stress in Reading Italian Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Job, Remo; Burani, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments using a lexical priming paradigm investigated how stress information is processed in reading Italian words. In both experiments, prime and target words either shared the stress pattern or they had different stress patterns. We expected that lexical activation of the prime would favour the assignment of congruent stress to the…

  20. How the interval between prime and boost injection affects the immune response in a computational model of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Castiglione, F; Mantile, F; De Berardinis, P; Prisco, A

    2012-01-01

    The immune system is able to respond more vigorously to the second contact with a given antigen than to the first contact. Vaccination protocols generally include at least two doses, in order to obtain high antibody titers. We want to analyze the relation between the time elapsed from the first dose (priming) and the second dose (boost) on the antibody titers. In this paper, we couple in vivo experiments with computer simulations to assess the effect of delaying the second injection. We observe that an interval of several weeks between the prime and the boost is necessary to obtain optimal antibody responses.

  1. ''Vulnerability'' in AIDS-Affected States: Rethinking Child Rights, Educational Institutions, and Development Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    The article interrogates current international development constructs of childhood, rights, vulnerability, and schooling in light of the daily experiences of two Malawian children affected by HIV/AIDS. It aims to better understand how development efforts targeted at these children function in practice, and suggests that current development…

  2. Test-retest reliability of N400 event-related brain potential measures in a word-pair semantic priming paradigm in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jenna E; Patriciu, Iulia; McKinnon, Margaret C; Kiang, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The N400 event-related brain potential (ERP), a negative voltage deflection occurring approximately 400ms after onset of any meaningful stimulus, is reduced in amplitude when the stimulus is preceded by related context. Previous work has found this N400 semantic priming effect to be decreased in schizophrenia, suggesting impairment in using meaningful context to activate related concepts in semantic memory. Thus, N400 amplitude may be a useful biomarker of abnormal semantic processing and its response to treatment in schizophrenia. To help assess the validity of N400 amplitude as a longitudinal measure in schizophrenia, we evaluated its test-retest reliability. ERPs were recorded in sixteen schizophrenia patients who viewed prime words, each followed at 300- or 750-ms stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) by a target that was either a related or unrelated word, or nonword. Participants' task was to indicate whether or not the target was a real word. They were retested on the same procedure one week later. Test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating Pearson's r and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) across timepoints for N400 amplitudes for related and unrelated targets, at each SOA. Consistent with previous results, there were no significant differences between patients' N400 amplitudes for related and unrelated targets, at any SOA/timepoint combination. Pearson's r and ICCs for N400 amplitudes at Fz across timepoints were significant for both target types at each SOA (ranges: r 0.52-0.64, ICC 0.52-0.63; all p<.04). The results suggest potential utility of N400 amplitude as a longitudinal neurophysiological biomarker of semantic processing abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  3. Seeing emotions in the eyes – inverse priming effects induced by eyes expressing mental states

    PubMed Central

    Wagenbreth, Caroline; Rieger, Julia; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Zaehle, Tino

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Automatic emotional processing of faces and facial expressions gain more and more of relevance in terms of social communication. Among a variety of different primes, targets and tasks, whole face images and facial expressions have been used to affectively prime emotional responses. This study investigates whether emotional information provided solely in eye regions that display mental states can also trigger affective priming. Methods: Sixteen subjects answered a lexical decision task (LDT) coupled with an affective priming paradigm. Emotion-associated eye regions were extracted from photographs of faces and acted as primes, whereas targets were either words or pseudo-words. Participants had to decide whether the targets were real German words or generated pseudo-words. Primes and targets belonged to the emotional categories “fear,” “disgust,” “happiness,” and “neutral.” Results: A general valence effect for positive words was observed: responses in the LDT were faster for target words of the emotional category happiness when compared to other categories. Importantly, pictures of emotional eye regions preceding the target words affected their subsequent classification. While we show a classical priming effect for neutral target words – with shorter RT for congruent compared to incongruent prime-target pairs- , we observed an inverse priming effect for fearful and happy target words – with shorter RT for incongruent compared to congruent prime-target pairs. These inverse priming effects were driven exclusively by specific prime-target pairs. Conclusion: Reduced facial emotional information is sufficient to induce automatic implicit emotional processing. The emotional-associated eye regions were processed with respect to their emotional valence and affected the performance on the LDT. PMID:25278925

  4. Reply to Farrall. LOD wars: The affected-sib-pair paradigm strikes back!

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, D.A.; Hodge, S.E.; Vieland, V.J.; Spence, M.A.

    1997-03-01

    Farrall, in his comments about our previous letter, eloquently points out some of the advantages of affected-sib-pair (ASP) analysis. It may surprise him to learn that we do not disagree with most of his comments, but we do feel that a few of them could be potentially misleading. Farrall says that {open_quotes}ASP tests are nonparametric{close_quote} in the limited sense that the investigator does not have to declare (or have prior knowledge of) an explicit set of genetic parameters before undertaking a meaningful analysis. He could have added that one does not have the option of changing genetic parameters. One does not have to declare genetic parameters, because the design of the test is such that certain assumptions are inherent in the method. These assumptions are not obvious - and even may not be known - in the nonparametric methods. However, they are still there. 4 refs.

  5. Domains of the cucumber mosaic virus 2b silencing suppressor protein affecting inhibition of salicylic acid-induced resistance and priming of salicylic acid accumulation during infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tao; Murphy, Alex M.; Lewsey, Mathew G.; Westwood, Jack H.; Zhang, Heng-Mu; González, Inmaculada; Canto, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b silencing suppressor protein allows the virus to overcome resistance to replication and local movement in inoculated leaves of plants treated with salicylic acid (SA), a resistance-inducing plant hormone. In Arabidopsis thaliana plants systemically infected with CMV, the 2b protein also primes the induction of SA biosynthesis during this compatible interaction. We found that CMV infection of susceptible tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) also induced SA accumulation. Utilization of mutant 2b proteins expressed during infection of tobacco showed that the N- and C-terminal domains, which had previously been implicated in regulation of symptom induction, were both required for subversion of SA-induced resistance, while all mutants tested except those affecting the putative phosphorylation domain had lost the ability to prime SA accumulation and expression of the SA-induced marker gene PR-1. PMID:24633701

  6. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizospher...

  7. Religion priming and an oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism interact to affect self-control in a social context.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Joni Y; Mojaverian, Taraneh; Kim, Heejung S

    2015-02-01

    Using a genetic moderation approach, this study examines how an experimental prime of religion impacts self-control in a social context, and whether this effect differs depending on the genotype of an oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism (rs53576). People with different genotypes of OXTR seem to have different genetic orientations toward sociality, which may have consequences for the way they respond to religious cues in the environment. In order to determine whether the influence of religion priming on self-control is socially motivated, we examine whether this effect is stronger for people who have OXTR genotypes that should be linked to greater rather than less social sensitivity (i.e., GG vs. AA/AG genotypes). The results showed that experimentally priming religion increased self-control behaviors for people with GG genotypes more so than people with AA/AG genotypes. Furthermore, this Gene × Religion interaction emerged in a social context, when people were interacting face to face with another person. This research integrates genetic moderation and social psychological approaches to address a novel question about religion's influence on self-control behavior, which has implications for coping with distress and psychopathology. These findings also highlight the importance of the social context for understanding genetic moderation of psychological effects.

  8. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  9. Subliminal repetition primes help detection of phonemes in a picture: Evidence for a phonological level of the priming effects.

    PubMed

    Manoiloff, Laura; Segui, Juan; Hallé, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we combine a cross-form word-picture visual masked priming procedure with an internal phoneme monitoring task to examine repetition priming effects. In this paradigm, participants have to respond to pictures whose names begin with a prespecified target phoneme. This task unambiguously requires retrieving the word-form of the target picture's name and implicitly orients participants' attention towards a phonological level of representation. The experiments were conducted within Spanish, whose highly transparent orthography presumably promotes fast and automatic phonological recoding of subliminal, masked visual word primes. Experiments 1 and 2 show that repetition primes speed up internal phoneme monitoring in the target, compared to primes beginning with a different phoneme from the target, or sharing only their first phoneme with the target. This suggests that repetition primes preactivate the phonological code of the entire target picture's name, hereby speeding up internal monitoring, which is necessarily based on such a code. To further qualify the nature of the phonological code underlying internal phoneme monitoring, a concurrent articulation task was used in Experiment 3. This task did not affect the repetition priming effect. We propose that internal phoneme monitoring is based on an abstract phonological code, prior to its translation into articulation.

  10. Subliminal repetition primes help detection of phonemes in a picture: Evidence for a phonological level of the priming effects.

    PubMed

    Manoiloff, Laura; Segui, Juan; Hallé, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we combine a cross-form word-picture visual masked priming procedure with an internal phoneme monitoring task to examine repetition priming effects. In this paradigm, participants have to respond to pictures whose names begin with a prespecified target phoneme. This task unambiguously requires retrieving the word-form of the target picture's name and implicitly orients participants' attention towards a phonological level of representation. The experiments were conducted within Spanish, whose highly transparent orthography presumably promotes fast and automatic phonological recoding of subliminal, masked visual word primes. Experiments 1 and 2 show that repetition primes speed up internal phoneme monitoring in the target, compared to primes beginning with a different phoneme from the target, or sharing only their first phoneme with the target. This suggests that repetition primes preactivate the phonological code of the entire target picture's name, hereby speeding up internal monitoring, which is necessarily based on such a code. To further qualify the nature of the phonological code underlying internal phoneme monitoring, a concurrent articulation task was used in Experiment 3. This task did not affect the repetition priming effect. We propose that internal phoneme monitoring is based on an abstract phonological code, prior to its translation into articulation. PMID:25679503

  11. SOA Does Not Reveal the Absolute Time Course of Cognitive Processing in Fast Priming Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzur, Boaz; Frost, Ram

    2007-01-01

    Applying Bloch's law to visual word recognition research, both exposure duration of the prime and its luminance determine the prime's overall energy, and consequently determine the size of the priming effect. Nevertheless, experimenters using fast-priming paradigms traditionally focus only on the SOA between prime and target to reflect the…

  12. Implicitly Priming the Social Brain: Failure to Find Neural Effects

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Katherine E.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2013-01-01

    Humans have a fundamental need for social relationships. Rejection from social groups is especially detrimental, rendering the ability to detect threats to social relationships and respond in adaptive ways critical. Indeed, previous research has shown that experiencing social rejection alters the processing of subsequent social cues in a variety of socially affiliative and avoidant ways. Because social perception and cognition occurs spontaneously and automatically, detecting threats to social relationships may occur without conscious awareness or control. Here, we investigated the automaticity of social threat detection by examining how implicit primes affect neural responses to social stimuli. However, despite using a well-established implicit priming paradigm and large sample size, we failed to find any evidence that implicit primes induced changes at the neural level. That implicit primes influence behavior has been demonstrated repeatedly and across a variety of domains, and our goal is not to question these effects. Rather, we offer the present study as cautionary evidence that such a paradigm may not be amenable to scanning in an fMRI environment. PMID:23437183

  13. No priming for global motion in crowding.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Andrea; Gall, Martin G; Manassi, Mauro; Greenlee, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    There is psychophysical evidence that low-level priming, e.g., from oriented gratings, as well as high-level semantic priming, survives crowding. We investigated priming for global translational motion in crowded and noncrowded conditions. The results indicated that reliable motion priming occurs in the noncrowded condition, but motion priming does not survive crowding. Crowding persisted despite variations in the direction of the flankers with respect to the prime's direction. Motion priming was still absent under crowding when 85% of the flankers moved in the same direction as the prime. Crowding also persisted despite variations in the speed of the flankers relative to the prime even when the flankers' speed was four times slower than the speed of the prime. However, a priming effect was evident when the prime's spatial location was precued and its distance to the flankers increased, suggesting a release from crowding. These results suggest that transient attention induced by precueing the spatial location of the prime may improve subjects' ability to discriminate its direction. Spatial cueing could act to decrease the integration field, thereby diminishing the influence of nearby distracters. In an additional experiment in which we used fewer flankers, we found a priming effect under conditions in which the interelement distance varied between flankers and prime. Overall, the results suggest that motion priming is strongly affected by crowding, but transient attention can partially retrieve such facilitation.

  14. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Feike A; Carrillo, Yolima; Pendall, Elise; Morgan, Jack A

    2013-01-01

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N) through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P) limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilization of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils. PMID:23908649

  15. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Feike A.; Carrillo, Yolima; Pendall, Elise; Morgan, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N) through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P) limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilization of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils. PMID:23908649

  16. The availability of attentional resources modulates the inhibitory strength related to weakly activated priming.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongchun; Wang, Yonghui; Liu, Peng; Dai, Dongyang; Di, Meilin; Chen, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    The current study investigated the role of attention in inhibitory processes (the inhibitory processes described in the current study refer only to those associated with masked or flanked priming) using a mixed paradigm involving the negative compatibility effect (NCE) and object-based attention. Accumulating evidence suggests that attention can be spread more easily within the same object, which increases the availability of attentional resources, than across different objects. Accordingly, we manipulated distractor location (with primes presented in the same object versus presented in different objects) together with prime/target compatibility (compatible versus incompatible) and prime-distractor stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA, 23 ms vs 70 ms). The aim was to investigate whether inhibitory processes related to weakly activated priming, which have been previously assumed to be automatic, depend on the availability of attentional resources. The results of Experiment 1 showed a significant NCE for the 70-ms SOA when the prime and distractor were presented in the same object (greater attentional resource availability); however, reversed NCEs were obtained for all other conditions. Experiment 2 was designed to disentangle whether the results of Experiment 1 were affected by the prime position, and the results indicated that the prime position did not modulate the NCE in Experiment 1. Together, these results are consistent with the claim that the availability of attentional resources modulates the inhibitory strength related to weakly activated priming. Specifically, if attentional resources are assigned to the distractor when it is presented in the same object as the prime, the strength of the inhibition elicited by the distractor may increase and reverse the activation elicited by the prime, which could lead to a significant NCE. PMID:27198916

  17. Immediate priming and cognitive aftereffects.

    PubMed

    Huber, David E

    2008-05-01

    Three forced-choice perceptual word identification experiments tested the claim that transitions from positive to negative priming as a function of increasing prime duration are due to cognitive aftereffects. These aftereffects are similar in nature to perceptual aftereffects that produce a negative image due to overexposure and habituation to a stimulus. Each experiment tested critical predictions that come from including habituation in a dynamic neural network with multiple levels of processing. The success of this account in explaining the dynamics of repetition priming, associative-semantic priming, and forward masking effects suggests that habituation is a useful mechanism for reducing source confusion between successively presented stimuli. Implications are considered for visible persistence, repetition blindness, attention-based negative priming, attentional blink, inhibition of return, the negative compatibility effect, affect priming, and flanker preview effects. PMID:18473662

  18. Intentions Determine the Effect of Invisible Metacontrast-Masked Primes: Evidence for Top-Down Contingencies in a Peripheral Cuing Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansorge, Ulrich; Neumann, Odmar

    2005-01-01

    In 5 experiments, the authors tested whether the processing of nonconscious spatial stimulus information depends on a prior intention. This test was conducted with the metacontrast dissociation paradigm. Experiment 1 demonstrated that masked primes that could not be discriminated above chance level affected responses to the visible stimuli that…

  19. Differential associations between infant affective and cortisol responses during the still face paradigm among infants born very low birth weight versus full-term.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Sarah J; Maclean, Peggy; Qualls, Clifford; Lowe, Jean R

    2013-06-01

    Psychological stress responses may have both emotional and cortisol reactivity correlates, but there are limited data addressing the association between generalized negative and positive emotional states and cortisol reactivity to a psychological stressor among infants born very low birth weight (VLBW; <1250 g) compared to infants born full-term. Examining this relationship between behavioral (affect) and physiological (cortisol) responses may provide insight into the nature of regulation difficulties identified in infants born VLBW. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between infant affective and cortisol responses to the Still Face paradigm (SF) in a cohort of six- to eight-month old infants born VLBW compared with infants born full-term (N=53 total; N=29 and N=24, respectively). Infant affect was coded in 1-s intervals while mother-infant dyads participated in the SF paradigm, and percent positive affect and percent negative affect were calculated separately for each SF episode. We had hypothesized that because infants born VLBW are at increased risk for dysregulation, they would show, compared to full-term controls, greater dysregulation in the form of less synchrony (i.e., less correlated affective and cortisol responses) across the two SF stressors (episodes 2 and 4). This hypothesis was largely supported: the associations between affective and cortisol responses were different for the two groups across the two stressors for percent positive affect (both stressor episodes 2 and 4) and percent negative affect (episode 4 only). For the full-term group, follow up correlations revealed significant negative associations between percent positive affective and cortisol responses for both stressors. Mothers' responsiveness did not explain the term group association differences between infant affective and cortisol responses across stressors. The (lack of) association of stress reactivity systems may index dysregulation or dysregulation correlates

  20. Priming Ability-Relevant Social Categories Improves Intellectual Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Phoebe S.; Kennette, Lynne N.; Van Havermaet, Lisa R.; Frank, Nichole M.; McIntyre, Rusty B.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that priming affects behavioral tasks; fewer studies, however, have been conducted on how social category primes affect cognitive tasks. The present study aimed to examine the effects of social category primes on math performance and word recall. It was hypothesized that Asian prime words would improve math performance and word…

  1. Letter Position Information and Printed Word Perception: The Relative-Position Priming Constraint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grainger, Jonathan; Granier, Jean-Pierre; Farioli, Fernand; Van Assche, Eva; van Heuven, Walter J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Six experiments apply the masked priming paradigm to investigate how letter position information is computed during printed word perception. Primes formed by a subset of the target's letters facilitated target recognition as long as the relative position of letters was respected across prime and target (e.g., "arict" vs. "acirt" as primes for the…

  2. Is Word-Order Similarity Necessary for Cross-Linguistic Structural Priming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Baoguo; Jia, Yuefang; Wang, Zhu; Dunlap, Susan; Shin, Jeong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    This article presents two experiments employing two structural priming paradigms that investigated whether cross-linguistic syntactic priming occurred in Chinese and English passive sentences that differ in word order (production-to-production priming in Experiment 1 and comprehension-to-production priming in Experiment 2). Results revealed that…

  3. Electrophysiology reveals semantic priming at a short SOA irrespective of depth of prime processing.

    PubMed

    Küper, Kristina; Heil, Martin

    2009-04-01

    The otherwise robust behavioral semantic priming effect is reduced to the point of being absent when a letter search has to be performed on the prime word. As a result the automaticity of semantic activation has been called into question. It is unclear, however, in how far automatic processes are even measurable in the letter search priming paradigm as the prime task necessitates a long prime-probe stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA). In a modified procedure, a short SOA can be realized by delaying the prime task response until after participants have made a lexical decision on the probe. While the absence of lexical decision priming has already been demonstrated in this design it seems premature to draw any definite conclusions from this purely behavioral result since event related potential (ERP) measures have been shown to be a more sensitive index of semantic activation. Using the modified paradigm we thus recorded ERP in addition to lexical decision times. Stimuli were presented at two different SOAs (240 ms vs. 840 ms) and participants performed either a grammatical discrimination (Experiment 1) or a letter search (Experiment 2) on the prime. Irrespective of prime task, the modulation of the N400, the ERP correlate of semantic activation, provided clear-cut evidence of semantic processing at the short SOA. Implications for theories of semantic activation as well as the constraints of the delayed prime task procedure are discussed.

  4. Semantic priming from crowded words.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Su-Ling; He, Sheng; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Vision in a cluttered scene is extremely inefficient. This damaging effect of clutter, known as crowding, affects many aspects of visual processing (e.g., reading speed). We examined observers' processing of crowded targets in a lexical decision task, using single-character Chinese words that are compact but carry semantic meaning. Despite being unrecognizable and indistinguishable from matched nonwords, crowded prime words still generated robust semantic-priming effects on lexical decisions for test words presented in isolation. Indeed, the semantic-priming effect of crowded primes was similar to that of uncrowded primes. These findings show that the meanings of words survive crowding even when the identities of the words do not, suggesting that crowding does not prevent semantic activation, a process that may have evolved in the context of a cluttered visual environment.

  5. How does a Collaborative Community Affect Diverse Students' Engagement with an Open Source Software Project: A Pedagogical Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Becka S.

    Open Source Software (OSS) communities are homogenous and their lack of diversity is of concern to many within this field. This problem is becoming more pronounced as it is the practice of many technology companies to use OSS participation as a factor in the hiring process, disadvantaging those who are not a part of this community. We should expect that any field would have a population that reflects the general population given no constraints. The constraints within OSS are documented as being a hostile environment for women and minorities to participate in. Additionally OSS communities rely predominately on volunteers to create and maintain source code, documentation, and user interface as well as the organizational structure of the project. The volunteer nature of OSS projects creates a need for an ongoing pool of participants. This research addresses the lack of diversity along with the continual need for new members by developing a pedagogical paradigm that uses a collaborative environment to promote participation in an OSS project by diverse students. This collaborative environment used a Communities of Practice (CoP) framework to design the course, the indicators of which were used to operationalize the collaboration. The outcomes of this course not only benefit the students by providing them with skills necessary to continue participation and experience for getting a job, but also provide a diverse pool of volunteers for the OSS community. This diverse pool shows promise of creating a more diverse culture within OSS. In the development of this pedagogical paradigm this research looked primarily at student's perception of the importance of their group members and mentors provided to guide their participation in and contribution to an OSS community. These elements were used to facilitate the formation of a CoP. Self-efficacy was also used as a measure; an increase in self-efficacy is associated with the successful formation of a CoP. Finally the intent to

  6. Na+/H+ exchanger 1 participates in tobacco disease defence against Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae by affecting vacuolar pH and priming the antioxidative system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xianyang; Bao, Hexigeduleng; Guo, Jie; Jia, Weitao; Tai, Fang; Nie, Lingling; Jiang, Ping; Feng, Juanjuan; Lv, Sulian; Li, Yinxin

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of NHX1 (Na+/H+ exchanger 1) in plant salt tolerance, little is known about its other functions. In this study, intriguingly, it was found that NHX1 participated in plant disease defence against Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae (Ppn) in Nicotiana benthamiana. NbNHX1 was originally isolated from N. benthamiana, and characterized. The subcellular localization of NbNHX1 with its C-terminus fused with green fluorescent protein indicated that NbNHX1 localized primarily to the tonoplast. Tobacco rattle virus-induced NbNHX1 silencing led to reduced H+ efflux from the vacuole to cytoplasts, and decreased Ppn resistance in N. benthamiana. After attack by Ppn, NbNHX1-silenced plants exhibited impaired ability to scavenge reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by the pathogen. Pea early browning virus-mediated ectopic expression of SeNHX1 (from Salicornia europaea) or AtNHX1 (from Arabidopsis thaliana) both conferred enhanced Ppn resistance to N. benthamiana, with a lower H2O2 concentration after Ppn inoculation. Further investigation of the role of NHX1 demonstrated that transient overexpression of NbNHX1 improved the vacuolar pH and cellular ROS level in N. benthamiana, which was coupled with an enlarged NAD(P) (H) pool and higher expression of ROS-responsive genes. In contrast, NbNHX1 silencing led to a lower pH in the vacuole and a lower cellular ROS level in N. benthamiana, which was coupled with a decreased NAD(P) (H) pool and decreased expression of ROS-responsive genes. These results suggest that NHX1 is involved in plant disease defence; and regulation of vacuolar pH by NHX1, affecting the cellular oxidation state, primes the antioxidative system which is associated with Ppn resistance in tobacco. PMID:25170102

  7. Evidence for distinct mechanisms underlying attentional priming and sensory memory for bistable perception.

    PubMed

    Brinkhuis, M A B; Kristjánsson, Á; Brascamp, J W

    2015-08-01

    Attentional selection in visual search paradigms and perceptual selection in bistable perception paradigms show functional similarities. For example, both are sensitive to trial history: They are biased toward previously selected targets or interpretations. We investigated whether priming by target selection in visual search and sensory memory for bistable perception are related. We did this by presenting two trial types to observers. We presented either ambiguous spheres that rotated over a central axis and could be perceived as rotating in one of two directions, or search displays in which the unambiguously rotating target and distractor spheres closely resembled the two possible interpretations of the ambiguous stimulus. We interleaved both trial types within experiments, to see whether priming by target selection during search trials would affect the perceptual outcome of bistable perception and, conversely, whether sensory memory during bistable perception would affect target selection times during search. Whereas we found intertrial repetition effects among consecutive search trials and among consecutive bistable trials, we did not find cross-paradigm effects. Thus, even though we could ascertain that our experiments robustly elicited processes of both search priming and sensory memory for bistable perception, these same experiments revealed no interaction between the two.

  8. An ERP investigation of masked cross-script translation priming.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Noriko; Midgley, Katherine J; Holcomb, Phillip J; Grainger, Jonathan

    2010-07-16

    The time course of cross-script translation priming and repetition priming was examined in two different scripts using a combination of the masked priming paradigm with the recording of event-related potentials (ERPs). Japanese-English bilinguals performed a semantic categorization task in their second language (L2) English and in their first language (L1) Japanese. Targets were preceded by a visually presented related (translation equivalent/repeated) or unrelated prime. The results showed that the amplitudes of the N250 and N400 ERP components were significantly modulated for L2-L2 repetition priming, L1-L2 translation priming, and L1-L1 repetition priming, but not for L2-L1 translation priming. There was also evidence for priming effects in an earlier 100-200 ms time window for L1-L1 repetition priming and L1-L2 translation priming. We argue that a change in script across primes and targets provides optimal conditions for prime word processing, hence generating very fast-acting translation priming effects when primes are in L1.

  9. A new paradigm in respiratory hygiene: modulating respiratory secretions to contain cough bioaerosol without affecting mucus clearance

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Gustavo; Valle, Juan C; Alonso, Mauricio; Alfaro, Henry; Vega, Daniel; Bonilla, Gloria; Reyes, Miguel; King, Malcolm

    2007-01-01

    Background Several strategies and devices have been designed to protect health care providers from acquiring transmissible respiratory diseases while providing care. In modulating the physical characteristics of the respiratory secretions to minimize the aerosolization that facilitates transmission of airborne diseases, a fundamental premise is that the prototype drugs have no adverse effect on the first line of respiratory defense, clearance of mucus by ciliary action. Methods To assess and demonstrate the primary mechanism of our mucomodulators (XLs), we have built our evidence moving from basic laboratory studies to an ex-vivo model and then to an in-vivo large animal model. We exposed anesthetized dogs without hypersecretion to different dose concentrations of aerosolized XL "B", XL "D" and XL "S". We assessed: cardio-respiratory pattern, tracheal mucus clearance, airway patency, and mucus viscoelastic changes. Results Exposure of frog palate mucus to XLs did not affect the clearance of mucus by ciliary action. Dogs maintained normal cardio-respiratory pattern with XL administration. Tracheal mucociliary clearance in anesthetized dogs indicated a sustained 40% mean increase. Tracheal mucus showed increased filance, and there was no mucus retention in the airways. Conclusion The ex-vivo frog palate and the in-vivo mammalian models used in this study, appear to be appropriate and complement each other to better assess the effects that our mucomodulators exert on the mucociliary clearance defence mechanism. The physiological function of the mucociliary apparatus was not negatively affected in any of the two epithelial models. Airway mucus crosslinked by mucomodulators is better cleared from an intact airway and normally functioning respiratory system, either due to enhanced interaction with cilia or airflow-dependent mechanisms. Data obtained in this study allow us to assure that we have complied with the fundamental requirement criteria established in the initial

  10. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  11. Conceptual versus Perceptual Priming in Incomplete Picture Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsukawa, Junko; Snodgrass, Joan Gay; Doniger, Glen M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined conceptual versus perceptual priming in identification of incomplete pictures by using a short-term priming paradigm, in which information that may be useful in identifying a fragmented target is presented just prior to the target's presentation. The target was a picture that slowly and continuously became complete and the…

  12. Response Priming Patterns Differ with Interstimulus Interval Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Kristie A.; Wiley, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Priming paradigms make it possible to study the nature of response preparation before the onset of movement. One way to examine this process is through manipulation of the interstimulus interval (ISI). The timing of the prime and target presentation has been shown to have distinct effects on reaction time patterns, in both healthy and…

  13. Single doses of piracetam affect 42-channel event-related potential microstate maps in a cognitive paradigm.

    PubMed

    Michel, C M; Lehmann, D

    1993-01-01

    We examined whether a single administration of piracetam produces dose-dependent effects on brain functions in healthy young men. In 6 subjects, 42-channel event-related EEG potential maps (ERP) were recorded during a task requiring subjects to watch single digits presented in a pseudorandom order on a screen and to press a button after all triplets of three consecutive odd or even digits. The ERP maps to the three digits of the correctly detected triplets were analyzed in terms of their mapped ERP field configuration (landscape). Different landscapes of the maps indicate different configuration of the activated neural population and therefore reflect different functional microstates of the brain. In order to identify these microstates, adaptive segmentation of the map series based on their landscapes was done. Nineteen time segments were found. These segments were tested for direct effects on brain function of three single doses of piracetam (2.9, 4.8 or 9.6 g) and a placebo given double-blind in balanced order. Piracetam mainly affected the map landscape of the time segments following the triplet's last digit. U-shaped dose-dependent effects were found; they were strongest after 4.8 g piracetam. Since these particular ERP segments are recognized to be strongly correlated to cognitive functions, the present findings suggest that single medium doses of piracetam selectively activate differently located or oriented neurons during cognitive steps of information processing.

  14. Reversed Priming Effects May Be Driven by Misperception Rather than Subliminal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A new paradigm for investigating whether a cognitive process is independent of perception was recently suggested. In the paradigm, primes are shown at an intermediate signal strength that leads to trial-to-trial and inter-individual variability in prime perception. Here, I used this paradigm and an objective measure of perception to assess the influence of prime identification responses on Stroop priming. I found that sensory states producing correct and incorrect prime identification responses were also associated with qualitatively different priming effects. Incorrect prime identification responses were associated with reversed priming effects but in contrast to previous studies, I interpret this to result from the (mis-)perception of primes rather than from a subliminal process. Furthermore, the intermediate signal strength also produced inter-individual variability in prime perception that strongly influenced priming effects: only participants who on average perceived the primes were Stroop primed. I discuss how this new paradigm, with a wide range of d′ values, is more appropriate when regression analysis on inter-individual identification performance is used to investigate perception-dependent processing. The results of this study, in line with previous results, suggest that drawing conclusions about subliminal processes based on data averaged over individuals may be unwarranted. PMID:26925016

  15. How and why affective and reactive virtual agents will bring new insights on social cognitive disorders in schizophrenia? An illustration with a virtual card game paradigm.

    PubMed

    Oker, Ali; Prigent, Elise; Courgeon, Matthieu; Eyharabide, Victoria; Urbach, Mathieu; Bazin, Nadine; Amorim, Michel-Ange; Passerieux, Christine; Martin, Jean-Claude; Brunet-Gouet, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, many studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with severe social cognitive impairments affecting key components, such as the recognition of emotions, theory of mind, attributional style, and metacognition. Most studies investigated each construct separately, precluding analysis of the interactive and immersive nature of real-life situation. Specialized batteries of tests are under investigation to assess social cognition, which is thought now as a link between neurocognitive disorders and impaired functioning. However, this link accounts for a limited part of the variance of real-life functioning. To fill this gap, advances in virtual reality and affective computing have made it possible to carry out experimental investigations of naturalistic social cognition, in controlled conditions, with good reproducibility. This approach is illustrated with the description of a new paradigm based on an original virtual card game in which subjects interpret emotional displays from a female virtual agent, and decipher her helping intentions. Independent variables concerning emotional expression in terms of valence and intensity were manipulated. We show how several useful dependant variables, ranging from classic experimental psychology data to metacognition or subjective experiences records, may be extracted from a single experiment. Methodological issues about the immersion into a simulated intersubjective situation are considered. The example of this new flexible experimental setting, with regards to the many constructs recognized in social neurosciences, constitutes a rationale for focusing on this potential intermediate link between standardized tests and real-life functioning, and also for using it as an innovative media for cognitive remediation.

  16. How and Why Affective and Reactive Virtual Agents Will Bring New Insights on Social Cognitive Disorders in Schizophrenia? An Illustration with a Virtual Card Game Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Oker, Ali; Prigent, Elise; Courgeon, Matthieu; Eyharabide, Victoria; Urbach, Mathieu; Bazin, Nadine; Amorim, Michel-Ange; Passerieux, Christine; Martin, Jean-Claude; Brunet-Gouet, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, many studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with severe social cognitive impairments affecting key components, such as the recognition of emotions, theory of mind, attributional style, and metacognition. Most studies investigated each construct separately, precluding analysis of the interactive and immersive nature of real-life situation. Specialized batteries of tests are under investigation to assess social cognition, which is thought now as a link between neurocognitive disorders and impaired functioning. However, this link accounts for a limited part of the variance of real-life functioning. To fill this gap, advances in virtual reality and affective computing have made it possible to carry out experimental investigations of naturalistic social cognition, in controlled conditions, with good reproducibility. This approach is illustrated with the description of a new paradigm based on an original virtual card game in which subjects interpret emotional displays from a female virtual agent, and decipher her helping intentions. Independent variables concerning emotional expression in terms of valence and intensity were manipulated. We show how several useful dependant variables, ranging from classic experimental psychology data to metacognition or subjective experiences records, may be extracted from a single experiment. Methodological issues about the immersion into a simulated intersubjective situation are considered. The example of this new flexible experimental setting, with regards to the many constructs recognized in social neurosciences, constitutes a rationale for focusing on this potential intermediate link between standardized tests and real-life functioning, and also for using it as an innovative media for cognitive remediation. PMID:25870549

  17. Mechanisms of Masked Priming: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Bussche, Eva; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Reynvoet, Bert

    2009-01-01

    The extent to which unconscious information can influence behavior has been a topic of considerable debate throughout the history of psychology. A frequently used method for studying subliminal processing is the masked priming paradigm. The authors focused on studies in which this paradigm was used. Their aim was twofold: first, to assess the…

  18. Problems with Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melrose, Tim; Scott, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses prime numbers, defined as integers greater than 1 that are divisible only by only themselves and the number 1. A positive integer greater than 1 that is not a prime is called composite. The number 1 itself is considered neither prime nor composite. As the name suggests, prime numbers are one of the most basic but important…

  19. Validity of Eye Movement Methods and Indices for Capturing Semantic (Associative) Priming Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odekar, Anshula; Hallowell, Brooke; Kruse, Hans; Moates, Danny; Lee, Chao-Yang

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the usefulness of eye movement methods and indices as a tool for studying priming effects by verifying whether eye movement indices capture semantic (associative) priming effects in a visual cross-format (written word to semantically related picture) priming paradigm. Method: In the…

  20. A Single-System Account of the Relationship between Priming, Recognition, and Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Christopher J.; Shanks, David R.; Henson, Richard N. A.

    2008-01-01

    A single-system computational model of priming and recognition was applied to studies that have looked at the relationship between priming, recognition, and fluency in continuous identification paradigms. The model was applied to 3 findings that have been interpreted as evidence for a multiple-systems account: (a) priming can occur for items not…

  1. It’s in your eyes—using gaze-contingent stimuli to create truly interactive paradigms for social cognitive and affective neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Wilms, Marcus; Pfeiffer, Ulrich; Bente, Gary; Fink, Gereon R.; Vogeley, Kai

    2010-01-01

    The field of social neuroscience has made remarkable progress in elucidating the neural mechanisms of social cognition. More recently, the need for new experimental approaches has been highlighted that allow studying social encounters in a truly interactive manner by establishing 'online’ reciprocity in social interaction. In this article, we present a newly developed adaptation of a method which uses eyetracking data obtained from participants in real time to control visual stimulation during functional magnetic resonance imaging, thus, providing an innovative tool to generate gaze-contingent stimuli in spite of the constraints of this experimental setting. We review results of two paradigms employing this technique and demonstrate how gaze data can be used to animate a virtual character whose behavior becomes 'responsive’ to being looked at allowing the participant to engage in 'online’ interaction with this virtual other in real-time. Possible applications of this setup are discussed highlighting the potential of this development as a new 'tool of the trade’ in social cognitive and affective neuroscience. PMID:20223797

  2. Characterization of Flavonoid 3[prime],5[prime]-Hydroxylase in Microsomal Membrane Fraction of Petunia hybrida Flowers.

    PubMed Central

    Menting, JGT.; Scopes, R. K.; Stevenson, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    We have detected a flavonoid 3[prime],5[prime]-hydroxylase (F3[prime],5[prime]H) in the microsomal fraction of Petunia hybrida flowers. Activity varied with the development of flowers, peaking immediately prior to and during anthesis, but was absent in mature flowers. F3[prime],5[prime]H activity in flower extracts from genetically defined floral color mutants correlated strictly with the genotypes Hf1 and Hf2. No activity was detected in flowers from mutants homozygous recessive for both alleles. F3[prime],5[prime]H activity was dependent on NADPH and molecular oxygen; there was only slight activity with NADH. The enzyme catalyzes the hydroxylation of 5,7,4[prime]-trihydroxyflavonone at the 3[prime] and 5[prime] positions, and of 5,7,3[prime],4[prime]-tetrahydroxyflavonone and dihydroquercetin at the 5[prime] position. Hydroxylase activity was inhibited by plant growth regulators (1-aminobenzotriazole and tetcyclacis) and by CO, N-ethylmaleimide, diethyldithiocarbamate, and cytochrome (Cyt) c. Activity was not affected by diethylpyrocarbonate or phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, but was enhanced by 2-mercaptoethanol. A polyclonal antibody that inhibits higher plant NADPH-Cyt P450 reductase inhibited the F3[prime],5[prime]H. The data are consistent with the suggestion that the P. hybrida F3[prime],5[prime]H is a monooxygenase consisting of a Cyt P450 and a NADPH-Cyt P-450 reductase. Cyts P450 were detected in microsomal membranes and in solubilized detergent extracts of these membranes. F3[prime],5[prime]H activity was sensitive to low concentrations of all detergents tested, and therefore solubilization of the active enzyme was not achieved. Reaction products other than flavanones were observed in F3[prime],5[prime]H assays and these may be formed by enzymic oxidation of flavanones. The possibility of a microsomal flavone synthase of a type that has not been described in P. hybrida is discussed. PMID:12232356

  3. Trying to Learn Lessons for Response to Extreme Events: Paradigm Shifts Affecting Civil Defense in the Trinational Region of Southwestern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, G. L. P.

    2015-12-01

    The last ten years have seen several extreme climate events in southwestern Amazonia with historic impacts. The City of Rio Branco, Capital of Acre, Brazil´s westernmost State, suffered its seventh consecutive annual flooding and its worst in March 2015. The city of Tarauacá, also in Acre, registered 12 flooding events between November 2014 and April 2015. The most recent flood of the trinational Acre River in 2015 set historic records for flood stage and number of displaced persons in Cobija, the Capital of Pando, Bolivia. From February to April 2014, floods of the Madeira River disrupted the one highway between Acre and southern Brazil. Puerto Maldonado, the capital in Madre de Dios Region of Peru had its worst flood in 50 years during 2014. In 2005 and 2010, prolonged droughts combined with ignition sources resulted in tens to hundreds of thousands of hectares of fire-damaged rainforests in the Madre de Dios, Acre and Pando (MAP) Region. The Civil Defenses in these three contiguous political units faced several abrupt paradigm shifts that affected their responses: 1) The drought of 2005 showed dramatically that regional rainforests do burn; 2) The recent flooding history, particularly in 2012 and 2015, demolished the cultural icon of a nine-year recurrence interval; 3) What happens outside your territory can be devastating. The Madeira River flood impeded an estimated 200 million dollars from circulating in Acre; 4) The past can be a terrible guide. For Cobija and Rio Branco, the 2015 flood was on the order of a meter higher than any other. Many home dwellers did not evacuate in time because they used past floods as a guide; 5) A collapse in communication - cell phones, land lines, and Internet - can get worse. In 2012, such a collapse occurred in two border towns for 5 days, yet in 2015 it lasted more than 11 days. Research is needed to address how institutions linked to Civil Defense can shift paradigms in time to be more effective.

  4. Understanding the role of the 'self' in the social priming of mimicry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2013-01-01

    People have a tendency to unconsciously mimic other's actions. This mimicry has been regarded as a prosocial response which increases social affiliation. Previous research on social priming of mimicry demonstrated an assimilative relationship between mimicry and prosociality of the primed construct: prosocial primes elicit stronger mimicry whereas antisocial primes decrease mimicry. The present research extends these findings by showing that assimilative and contrasting prime-to-behavior effect can both happen on mimicry. Specifically, experiment 1 showed a robust contrast priming effect where priming antisocial behaviors induces stronger mimicry than priming prosocial behaviors. In experiment 2, we manipulated the self-relatedness of the pro/antisocial primes and further revealed that prosocial primes increase mimicry only when the social primes are self-related whereas antisocial primes increase mimicry only when the social primes are self-unrelated. In experiment 3, we used a novel cartoon movie paradigm to prime pro/antisocial behaviors and manipulated the perspective-taking when participants were watching these movies. Again, we found that prosocial primes increase mimicry only when participants took a first-person point of view whereas antisocial primes increase mimicry only when participants took a third-person point of view, which replicated the findings in experiment 2. We suggest that these three studies can be best explained by the active-self theory, which claims that the direction of prime-to-behavior effects depends on how primes are processed in relation to the 'self'.

  5. Paradigms lost?

    PubMed

    Fleener, M Jayne; Merritt, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn (1957, 1962) explored the issues of paradigm shifts, scientific revolutions, and the relationship between them. Written before the techniques and practices of the complexity sciences were developed, Kuhn described what he termed the Copernican Revolution as the last scientific revolution signifying a paradigmatic shift in society. We will explore whether New Science approaches in nonlinear dynamics and complexity research signify postmodern science perspectives, and examine the role of New Science in what may be the on-going evolution of the next paradigm shift. PMID:17173727

  6. Auditory phonological priming in children and adults during word repetition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Miranda; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2001-05-01

    Short-term auditory phonological priming effects involve changes in the speed with which words are processed by a listener as a function of recent exposure to other similar-sounding words. Activation of phonological/lexical representations appears to persist beyond the immediate offset of a word, influencing subsequent processing. Priming effects are commonly cited as demonstrating concurrent activation of word/phonological candidates during word identification. Phonological priming is controversial, the direction of effects (facilitating versus slowing) varying with the prime-target relationship. In adults, it has repeatedly been demonstrated, however, that hearing a prime word that rhymes with the following target word (ISI=50 ms) decreases the time necessary to initiate repetition of the target, relative to when the prime and target have no phonemic overlap. Activation of phonological representations in children has not typically been studied using this paradigm, auditory-word + picture-naming tasks being used instead. The present study employed an auditory phonological priming paradigm being developed for use with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children. Initial results from normal-hearing adults replicate previous reports of faster naming times for targets following a rhyming prime word than for targets following a prime having no phonemes in common. Results from normal-hearing children will also be reported. [Work supported by NIH-NIDCD T32DC000039.

  7. Systematic screening for mutations in the 5{prime}-regulatory region of the human dopamine D{sub 1} receptor (DRD1) gene in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Cichon, S.; Noethen, M.M.; Stoeber, G.

    1996-07-26

    A possible dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. In the present study we systematically searched for the presence of mutations in the 5{prime}-flanking region of the dopamine D{sub 1} receptor (DRD1) gene. This region has previously been shown to contain a functional promoter. We investigated 119 unrelated individuals (including 36 schizophrenic patients, 38 bipolar affective patients, and 45 healthy controls) using single-strand conformation analysis (SSCA). Eleven overlapping PCR fragments covered 2,189 bp of DNA sequence. We identified six single base substitutions: -2218T/C, -2102C/A, -2030T/C, -1992G/A, -1251G/C, and -800T/C. None of the mutations was found to be located in regions which have important influence on the level of transcriptional activity. Allele frequencies were similar in patients and controls, indicating that genetic variation in the 5{prime}-regulatory region of the DRD1 gene is unlikely to play a frequent, major role in the genetic predisposition to either schizophrenia or bipolar affective disorder. 31 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Modulates Semantic Negative Priming from Single Prime Words

    PubMed Central

    Ortells, Juan J.; Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Houghton, George

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether semantic negative priming from single prime words depends on the availability of cognitive control resources. Participants with high vs. low working memory capacity (as assessed by their performance in complex span and attentional control tasks) were instructed to either attend to or ignore a briefly presented single prime word that was followed by either a semantically related or unrelated target word on which participants made a lexical decision. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) mainly affected the processing of the ignored primes, but not the processing of the attended primes: While the latter produced reliable positive semantic priming for both high- and low-WMC participants, the former gave rise to reliable semantic negative priming only for high WMC participants, with low WMC participants showing the opposite positive priming effect. The present results extend previous findings in demonstrating that (a) single negative priming can reliably generalize to semantic associates of the prime words, and (b) a differential availability of cognitive control resources can reliably modulate the negative priming effect at a semantic level of representation.

  9. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Modulates Semantic Negative Priming from Single Prime Words

    PubMed Central

    Ortells, Juan J.; Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Houghton, George

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether semantic negative priming from single prime words depends on the availability of cognitive control resources. Participants with high vs. low working memory capacity (as assessed by their performance in complex span and attentional control tasks) were instructed to either attend to or ignore a briefly presented single prime word that was followed by either a semantically related or unrelated target word on which participants made a lexical decision. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) mainly affected the processing of the ignored primes, but not the processing of the attended primes: While the latter produced reliable positive semantic priming for both high- and low-WMC participants, the former gave rise to reliable semantic negative priming only for high WMC participants, with low WMC participants showing the opposite positive priming effect. The present results extend previous findings in demonstrating that (a) single negative priming can reliably generalize to semantic associates of the prime words, and (b) a differential availability of cognitive control resources can reliably modulate the negative priming effect at a semantic level of representation. PMID:27621716

  10. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Modulates Semantic Negative Priming from Single Prime Words.

    PubMed

    Ortells, Juan J; Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Houghton, George

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether semantic negative priming from single prime words depends on the availability of cognitive control resources. Participants with high vs. low working memory capacity (as assessed by their performance in complex span and attentional control tasks) were instructed to either attend to or ignore a briefly presented single prime word that was followed by either a semantically related or unrelated target word on which participants made a lexical decision. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) mainly affected the processing of the ignored primes, but not the processing of the attended primes: While the latter produced reliable positive semantic priming for both high- and low-WMC participants, the former gave rise to reliable semantic negative priming only for high WMC participants, with low WMC participants showing the opposite positive priming effect. The present results extend previous findings in demonstrating that (a) single negative priming can reliably generalize to semantic associates of the prime words, and (b) a differential availability of cognitive control resources can reliably modulate the negative priming effect at a semantic level of representation. PMID:27621716

  11. Repetition Priming in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Sean; Palmer, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The authors explore priming effects of pitch repetition in music in 3 experiments. Musically untrained participants heard a short melody and sang the last pitch of the melody as quickly as possible. Each experiment manipulated (a) whether or not the tone to be sung (target) was heard earlier in the melody (primed) and (b) the prime-target distance…

  12. Socially Important Faces Are Processed Preferentially to Other Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces in a Priming Task across a Range of Viewpoints

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Helen; Zalicks, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Using a priming paradigm, we investigate whether socially important faces are processed preferentially compared to other familiar and unfamiliar faces, and whether any such effects are affected by changes in viewpoint. Participants were primed with frontal images of personally familiar, famous or unfamiliar faces, and responded to target images of congruent or incongruent identity, presented in frontal, three quarter or profile views. We report that participants responded significantly faster to socially important faces (a friend’s face) compared to other highly familiar (famous) faces or unfamiliar faces. Crucially, responses to famous and unfamiliar faces did not differ. This suggests that, when presented in the context of a socially important stimulus, socially unimportant familiar faces (famous faces) are treated in a similar manner to unfamiliar faces. This effect was not tied to viewpoint, and priming did not affect socially important face processing differently to other faces. PMID:27219101

  13. Exodus: Prime Mover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Nikkol; Conwell, Pete; Johnson, Matt; Shields, Wendy; Thornton, Tim; Tokarz, Rob; Mcmanus, Rich

    1992-01-01

    The Exodus Prime Mover is an overnight package delivery aircraft designed to serve the Northern Hemisphere of Aeroworld. The preliminary design goals originated from the desire to produce a large profit. The two main driving forces throughout the design process were first to reduce the construction man-hours by simplifying the aircraft design, thereby decreasing the total production cost of the aircraft. The second influential factor affecting the design was minimizing the fuel cost during cruise. The lowest fuel consumption occurs at a cruise velocity of 30 ft/s. Overall, it was necessary to balance the economic benefits with the performance characteristics in order to create a profitable product that meets all specified requirements and objectives.

  14. Repetition priming in music.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Sean; Palmer, Caroline

    2008-06-01

    The authors explore priming effects of pitch repetition in music in 3 experiments. Musically untrained participants heard a short melody and sang the last pitch of the melody as quickly as possible. Each experiment manipulated (a) whether or not the tone to be sung (target) was heard earlier in the melody (primed) and (b) the prime-target distance (measured in events). Experiment 1 used variable-length melodies, whereas Experiments 2 and 3 used fixed-length melodies. Experiment 3 changed the timbre of the target tone. In all experiments, fast-responding participants produced repeated tones faster than nonrepeated tones, and this repetition benefit decreased as prime-target distances increased. All participants produced expected tonic endings faster than less expected nontonic endings. Repetition and tonal priming effects are compared with harmonic priming effects in music and with repetition priming effects in language. PMID:18505332

  15. Repetition priming in music.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Sean; Palmer, Caroline

    2008-06-01

    The authors explore priming effects of pitch repetition in music in 3 experiments. Musically untrained participants heard a short melody and sang the last pitch of the melody as quickly as possible. Each experiment manipulated (a) whether or not the tone to be sung (target) was heard earlier in the melody (primed) and (b) the prime-target distance (measured in events). Experiment 1 used variable-length melodies, whereas Experiments 2 and 3 used fixed-length melodies. Experiment 3 changed the timbre of the target tone. In all experiments, fast-responding participants produced repeated tones faster than nonrepeated tones, and this repetition benefit decreased as prime-target distances increased. All participants produced expected tonic endings faster than less expected nontonic endings. Repetition and tonal priming effects are compared with harmonic priming effects in music and with repetition priming effects in language.

  16. The Afrocentric Paradigm: Contours and Definitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama

    2001-01-01

    Defines and describes Afrocentricity, suggesting that Afrocentricity within the academic context is best understood as a paradigm. Explains how Afrocentricity meets the definition of a paradigm, examining the affective, cognitive, and conative aspects of the Afrocentric paradigm (metaphysical and sociological) and looking at the structural and…

  17. Code-Switching Effects in Bilingual Word Recognition: A Masked Priming Study with Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauncey, Krysta; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments tested language switching effects with bilingual participants in a priming paradigm with masked primes (duration of 50ms in Experiment 1 and 100ms in Experiment 2). Participants had to monitor target words for animal names, and ERPs were recorded to critical (non-animal) words in L1 and L2 primed by unrelated words from the same or…

  18. Priming effects in a subtropical forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qianru; Sun, Yue; Xu, Xingliang

    2015-04-01

    Priming effects can accelerate decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) and thus have great potential to change SOC dynamics. Although temperature and addition of fresh substrates could affect the intensity and direction of priming, it remains unclear how their interactions affect priming. Therefore we conducted an incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil. We incubated the soil for 10 days at two temperatures: 15oC and 25oC, with four treatments: CK (only adding water), G (13C-glucose addition), NT (13C-glucose and nitrate additions) and AM (13C-glucose and ammonium additions). The results showed that glucose addition significantly accelerated the decomposition of SOC in both temperatures, indicates that positive priming occurs in this subtropical soil. While negative priming was observed in soils with simultaneous additions of glucose and nitrogen addition, especially at 25oC. The effect of temperature on PE was not significant. This indicates that mining of nitrogen is a major mechanism responsible for priming in this subtropical soil and there is no strong interaction between temperature and substrate additions to induce priming.

  19. Dissociating Local and Global Levels of Perceptuo-Motor Control in Masked Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlaghecken, Friederike; Bowman, Howard; Eimer, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Masked prime stimuli presented near the threshold of conscious awareness affect responses to subsequent targets. The direction of these priming effects depends on the interval between masked prime and target. With short intervals, benefits for compatible trials (primes and targets mapped to the same response) and costs for incompatible trials are…

  20. PRIME Lab Radiocarbon Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillegonds, D. J.; Mueller, K. A.; Ma, X.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1996-03-01

    The Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory (PRIME Lab) is one of three NSF national facilities for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), and is the only one capable of determining six cosmogenic radionuclides: 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, and 129I. This abstract describes the current status of the radiocarbon analysis program at PRIME Lab.

  1. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  2. Priming Gestures with Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Guillaume; Heller, Laurie M.; Navolio, Nicole; Zúñiga-Peñaranda, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We report a series of experiments about a little-studied type of compatibility effect between a stimulus and a response: the priming of manual gestures via sounds associated with these gestures. The goal was to investigate the plasticity of the gesture-sound associations mediating this type of priming. Five experiments used a primed choice-reaction task. Participants were cued by a stimulus to perform response gestures that produced response sounds; those sounds were also used as primes before the response cues. We compared arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds (key lifts and pure tones) created during the experiment (i.e. no pre-existing knowledge) with ecological associations corresponding to the structure of the world (tapping gestures and sounds, scraping gestures and sounds) learned through the entire life of the participant (thus existing prior to the experiment). Two results were found. First, the priming effect exists for ecological as well as arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds. Second, the priming effect is greatly reduced for ecologically existing associations and is eliminated for arbitrary associations when the response gesture stops producing the associated sounds. These results provide evidence that auditory-motor priming is mainly created by rapid learning of the association between sounds and the gestures that produce them. Auditory-motor priming is therefore mediated by short-term associations between gestures and sounds that can be readily reconfigured regardless of prior knowledge. PMID:26544884

  3. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  4. Building Numbers from Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  5. The semantic priming project.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Keith A; Balota, David A; Neely, James H; Cortese, Michael J; Cohen-Shikora, Emily R; Tse, Chi-Shing; Yap, Melvin J; Bengson, Jesse J; Niemeyer, Dale; Buchanan, Erin

    2013-12-01

    Speeded naming and lexical decision data for 1,661 target words following related and unrelated primes were collected from 768 subjects across four different universities. These behavioral measures have been integrated with demographic information for each subject and descriptive characteristics for every item. Subjects also completed portions of the Woodcock-Johnson reading battery, three attentional control tasks, and a circadian rhythm measure. These data are available at a user-friendly Internet-based repository ( http://spp.montana.edu ). This Web site includes a search engine designed to generate lists of prime-target pairs with specific characteristics (e.g., length, frequency, associative strength, latent semantic similarity, priming effect in standardized and raw reaction times). We illustrate the types of questions that can be addressed via the Semantic Priming Project. These data represent the largest behavioral database on semantic priming and are available to researchers to aid in selecting stimuli, testing theories, and reducing potential confounds in their studies.

  6. Inactivation of the ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase from Lactobacillus leichmannii by 2 prime -chloro-2 prime -deoxyuridine 5 prime -triphosphate: A 3 prime -2 prime hydrogen transfer during the formation of 3 prime -keto-2 prime -deoxyuridine 5 prime -triphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, G.W.; Harris, G.; Stubbe, J. )

    1988-10-04

    The ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase of Lactobacillus leichmannii converts the substrate analogue 2{prime}-chloro-2{prime}-deoxyuridine 5{prime}-triphosphate (C1UTP) into a mixture of 2{prime}-deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) and the unstable product 3{prime}-keto-2{prime}-deoxyuridine triphosphate (3{prime}-keto-dUTP). This ketone can be trapped by reduction with NaBH{sub 4}, producing a 4:1 mixture of xylo-dUTP and dUTP. When (3{prime}-{sup 3}H)C1UTP is treated with enzyme in the presence of NaBH{sub 4}, the isomeric deoxyuridines isolated after alkaline phosphatase treatment retained 15% of the {sup 3}H in C1UTP. Degradation of these isomeric nucleosides has established the location of the {sup 3}H in 3{prime}-keto-dUTP as predominantly 2{prime}(S). The xylo-dU had 98.6% of its label at the 2{prime}(S) position and 1.5% at 2{prime}(R). The isolated dU had 89.6% of its label at 2{prime}(S) and 1.4% at 2{prime}(R), with the remaining 9% label inferred to be at the 3{prime}-carbon, this resulting from the direct enzymic production of dUTP. These results are consistent with enzymic production of a 1:1,000 mixture of dUTP and 3{prime}-keto-dUTP, where the 3{prime}-hydrogen of C1UTP is retained at 3{prime} during production of dUTP and is transferred to 2{prime}(S) during production of 3{prime}-keto-dUTP. The implications of these results and the unique role of the cofactor adenosylcobalamin are discussed in terms of reductase being a model for the B{sub 12}-dependent rearrangement reactions.

  7. When Feelings Arise with Meanings: How Emotion and Meaning of a Native Language Affect Second Language Processing in Adult Learners.

    PubMed

    Sianipar, Agnes; Middelburg, Renée; Dijkstra, Ton

    2015-01-01

    To determine when and how L2 learners start to process L2 words affectively and semantically, we conducted a longitudinal study on their interaction in adult L2 learners. In four test sessions, spanning half a year of L2 learning, we monitored behavioral and ERP learning-related changes for one and the same set of words by means of a primed lexical-decision paradigm with L1 primes and L2 targets. Sensitivity rates, accuracy rates, RTs, and N400 amplitude to L2 words and pseudowords improved significantly across sessions. A semantic priming effect (e.g, prime "driver"facilitating response to target "street") was found in accuracy rates and RTs when collapsing Sessions 1 to 4, while this effect modulated ERP amplitudes within the first 300 ms of L2 target processing. An overall affective priming effect (e.g., "sweet" facilitating"taste") was also found in RTs and ERPs (posterior P1). Importantly, the ERPs showed an L2 valence effect across sessions (e.g., positive words were easier to process than neutral words), indicating that L2 learners were sensitive to L2 affective meaning. Semantic and affective priming interacted in the N400 time-window only in Session 4, implying that they affected meaning integration during L2 immersion together. The results suggest that L1 and L2 are initially processed semantically and affectively via relatively separate channels that are more and more linked contingent on L2 exposure. PMID:26656502

  8. When Feelings Arise with Meanings: How Emotion and Meaning of a Native Language Affect Second Language Processing in Adult Learners.

    PubMed

    Sianipar, Agnes; Middelburg, Renée; Dijkstra, Ton

    2015-01-01

    To determine when and how L2 learners start to process L2 words affectively and semantically, we conducted a longitudinal study on their interaction in adult L2 learners. In four test sessions, spanning half a year of L2 learning, we monitored behavioral and ERP learning-related changes for one and the same set of words by means of a primed lexical-decision paradigm with L1 primes and L2 targets. Sensitivity rates, accuracy rates, RTs, and N400 amplitude to L2 words and pseudowords improved significantly across sessions. A semantic priming effect (e.g, prime "driver"facilitating response to target "street") was found in accuracy rates and RTs when collapsing Sessions 1 to 4, while this effect modulated ERP amplitudes within the first 300 ms of L2 target processing. An overall affective priming effect (e.g., "sweet" facilitating"taste") was also found in RTs and ERPs (posterior P1). Importantly, the ERPs showed an L2 valence effect across sessions (e.g., positive words were easier to process than neutral words), indicating that L2 learners were sensitive to L2 affective meaning. Semantic and affective priming interacted in the N400 time-window only in Session 4, implying that they affected meaning integration during L2 immersion together. The results suggest that L1 and L2 are initially processed semantically and affectively via relatively separate channels that are more and more linked contingent on L2 exposure.

  9. Examining the Hemispheric Distribution of Semantic Information Using Lateralised Priming of Familiar Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vladeanu, Matei; Bourne, Victoria J.

    2009-01-01

    The way in which the semantic information associated with people is organised in the brain is still unclear. Most evidence suggests either bilateral or left hemisphere lateralisation. In this paper we use a lateralised semantic priming paradigm to further examine this neuropsychological organisation. A clear semantic priming effect was found with…

  10. Further Evidence of Gender Stereotype Priming in Language: Semantic Facilitation and Inhibition in Italian Role Nouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciari, Cristina; Padovani, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments tested the activation of gender stereotypes for Italian role nouns (e.g., "teacher"). The experimental paradigm was modeled on the one proposed by a study by Banaji and Hardin: participants were shown a prime word followed by a target pronoun ("he" or "she") on which they performed a gender decision task. The prime words were…

  11. Lexical and Sentential Priming in Competition: Implications for Two-Stage Theories of Lexical Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Arturo E.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Udell, Care; Bates, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Presents a new method that can compare lexical priming (word-word) and sentential priming (sentence-word) directly within a single paradigm. Shows that it can be used to address modular theories of word comprehension, which propose that the effects of sentence context occur after lexical access has taken place. (Author/VWL)

  12. Simulating Cross-Language Priming with a Dynamic Computational Model of the Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Li, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language priming is a widely used experimental paradigm in psycholinguistics to study how bilinguals' two languages are represented and organized. Researchers have observed a number of interesting patterns from the priming effects of both translation equivalents and semantically related word pairs across languages. In this study, we…

  13. Priming a Perspective in Spanish Monolingual Children: The Use of Syntactic Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamez, Perla B.; Shimpi, Priya M.; Waterfall, Heidi R.; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2009-01-01

    We used a syntactic priming paradigm to show priming effects for active and passive forms in monolingual Spanish-speaking four- and five-year-olds. In a baseline experiment, we examined children's use of the "fue"-passive form and found it was virtually non-existent in their speech, although they produced important elements of the form. Children…

  14. JNK pathway inhibition selectively primes pancreatic cancer stem cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis without affecting the physiology of normal tissue resident stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Rhea, P. Robyn; Kettlun, Claudia; Heinemann, Mitja L.; Ruetering, Jennifer; Vykoukal, Jody; Alt, Eckhard

    2016-01-01

    Objective Successful treatment of solid cancers mandates targeting cancer stem cells (CSC) without impact on the physiology of normal tissue resident stem cells. C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling has been shown to be of importance in cancer. We test whether JNK inhibition would sensitize pancreatic CSCs to induction of apoptosis via low-dose TNFα-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Design Effects of JNK inhibition (JNKi) were evaluated in vitro in functional assays, through mRNA and protein expression analysis, and in in vivo mouse studies. CSCs were enriched in anoikis-resistant spheroid culture and analyzed accordingly. Results We confirmed that the JNK pathway is an important regulatory pathway in pancreatic cancer stem cells and further found that JNK inhibition downregulates the decoy receptor DcR1 through IL-8 signaling while upregulating pro-apoptotic death receptors DR4/5, thereby sensitizing cells - even with acquired TRAIL-resistance - to apoptosis induction. Treatment of orthotopic pancreatic cancer xenografts with either gemcitabine, JNKi or TRAIL alone for 4 weeks showed only modest effects compared to control, while the combination of JNKi and TRAIL resulted in significantly lower tumor burden (69%; p < 0.04), reduced numbers of circulating tumor cells, and less distant metastatic events, without affecting the general health of the animals. Conclusions The combination of JNKi and TRAIL significantly impacts on CSCs, but leaves regular tissue-resident stem cells unaffected – even under hypoxic stress conditions. This concept of selective treatment of pancreatic CSCs warrants further evaluation. PMID:26840266

  15. Priming the Interpretation of Noun-Noun Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffray, Claudine N.; Pickering, Martin J.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2007-01-01

    Noun-noun combinations like "dog scarf" are common in everyday discourse but often have more than one interpretation. How do language users arrive at an interpretation of the relationship between the two nouns? This paper reports three expression-picture matching experiments that used a priming paradigm to investigate the influence of modifier and…

  16. Mental Layout Extrapolations Prime Spatial Processing of Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottesman, Carmela V.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether scene processing is facilitated by layout representation, including layout that was not perceived but could be predicted based on a previous partial view (boundary extension). In a priming paradigm (after Sanocki, 2003), participants judged objects' distances in photographs. In Experiment 1, full scenes (target),…

  17. Word frequency in fast priming: Evidence for immediate cognitive control of eye-movements during reading.

    PubMed

    Schad, Daniel J; Risse, Sarah; Slattery, Timothy; Rayner, Keith

    2014-03-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated effects of word frequency on eye movements during reading, but the precise timing of this influence has remained unclear. The fast priming paradigm (Sereno & Rayner, 1992) was previously used to study influences of related versus unrelated primes on the target word. Here, we used this procedure to investigate whether the frequency of the prime word has a direct influence on eye movements during reading when the prime-target relation is not manipulated. We found that with average prime intervals of 32 ms readers made longer single fixation durations on the target word in the low than in the high frequency prime condition. Distributional analyses demonstrated that the effect of prime frequency on single fixation durations occurred very early, supporting theories of immediate cognitive control of eye movements. Finding prime frequency effects only 207 ms after visibility of the prime and for prime durations of 32 ms yields new time constraints for cognitive processes controlling eye movements during reading. Our variant of the fast priming paradigm provides a new approach to test early influences of word processing on eye movement control during reading.

  18. Phaseguides: a paradigm shift in microfluidic priming and emptying.

    PubMed

    Vulto, Paul; Podszun, Susann; Meyer, Philipp; Hermann, Carsten; Manz, Andreas; Urban, Gerald A

    2011-05-01

    Phaseguide technology gives complete control over filling and emptying of any type of microfluidic structures, independent of the chamber and channel geometry. The technique is based on a step-wise advancement of the liquid-air interface using the meniscus pinning effect. In this paper, the main effects and parameters underlying the phaseguiding principle are discussed and a demonstration is given of its potential for dead angle filling, spatially controlled phaseguide overflow and sequential phaseguide overflow, all accumulating in a passive valving approach. Phaseguides represent a new direction in microfluidic design thinking that will prove a leap forward towards more simple, flexible and reliable microfluidic systems. PMID:21394334

  19. Smelly primes – when olfactory primes do or do not work

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, M. A. M.; Dijksterhuis, G. B.

    2014-01-01

    In applied olfactory cognition the effects that olfactory stimulation can have on (human) behavior are investigated. To enable an efficient application of olfactory stimuli a model of how they may lead to a change in behavior is proposed. To this end we use the concept of olfactory priming. Olfactory priming may prompt a special view on priming as the olfactory sense has some unique properties which make odors special types of primes. Examples of such properties are the ability of odors to influence our behavior outside of awareness, to lead to strong affective evaluations, to evoke specific memories, and to associate easily and quickly to other environmental stimuli. Opportunities and limitations for using odors as primes are related to these properties, and alternative explanations for reported findings are offered. Implications for olfactory semantic, construal, behavior and goal priming are given based on a brief overview of the priming literature from social psychology and from olfactory perception science. We end by formulating recommendations and ideas for a future research agenda and applications for olfactory priming. PMID:24575071

  20. Largest known twin primes and Sophie Germain primes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indlekofer, Karl-Heinz; Járai, Antal

    The numbers 242206083* 2^38880+-1 are twin primes. The number p=2375063906985* 2^19380-1 is a Sophie Germain prime, i.e. p and 2p+1 are both primes. For p=4610194180515* 2^ 5056-1, the numbers p, p+2 and 2p+1 are all primes.

  1. The more you ignore me the closer I get: An ERP study of evaluative priming.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Henning; Bachmann, Olga; Stahl, Jutta

    2014-12-01

    We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate the various mental processes contributing to evaluative priming-that is, more positive judgments for targets preceded by affectively positive, as opposed to negative, prime stimuli. To ensure ecological validity, we employed a priori meaningful landscape pictures as targets and emotional adjectives as visual primes and presented both primes and targets for relatively long durations (>1 s). Prime-related lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs) revealed response priming as one source of the significant evaluative priming effect. On the other hand, greater right-frontal positive slow wave in the ERP for pictures following negative, as compared with positive, primes indicated altered impression formation, thus supporting automatic spreading activation and/or affect misattribution accounts. Moreover, target LRPs suggested conscious counter-control to reduce the evaluative priming net effect. Finally, when comparing prime ERPs for two groups of participants showing strong versus weak evaluative priming, we found strong evidence for the role of depth of prime processing: In the weak-effect group, prime words evoked an increased visual P1/N1 complex, a larger posterior P2 component, and a greater left-parietal processing negativity presumably reflecting semantic processing. By contrast, a larger medial-frontal P2/N2 complex in the strong-effect group suggested top-down inhibition of the prime's emotional content. Thus, trying to ignore the primes can actually increase, rather than decrease, the evaluative priming effect.

  2. Effects of Material Emotional Valence on the Time Course of Massive Repetition Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Zhiguo; Liu, Hongyan; Zhang, John X.

    2010-01-01

    Learning through repetition is a fundamental form and also an effective method of language learning critical for achieving proficient and automatic language use. Massive repetition priming as a common research paradigm taps into the dynamic processes involved in repetition learning. Research with this paradigm has so far used only emotionally…

  3. The functions of nonsuicidal self-injury: support for cognitive-affective regulation and opponent processes from a novel psychophysiological paradigm.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Joseph C; Hessel, Elenda T; Aaron, Rachel V; Arthur, Michael S; Heilbron, Nicole; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2010-11-01

    Although research on the reasons for engaging in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has increased dramatically in the last few years, there are still many aspects of this pernicious behavior that are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to address these gaps in the literature, with a particular focus on investigating whether NSSI (a) regulates affective valence in addition to affective arousal and (b) serves a cognitive regulation function in addition to an affect regulation function. To elucidate these issues, the present study utilized a sample of 112 participants (33 controls, 39 no pain controls, 16 NSSI individuals, and 24 controls matching the affect dysregulation levels of the NSSI group), employed psychophysiological measures of affective valence (startle-alone reactivity) and quality of information processing (prepulse inhibition), and used experimental methods involving an NSSI-proxy to model the NSSI process. Results largely were consistent with predictions, supporting the hypotheses that NSSI serves to regulate cognitive processing and affective valence. On this latter point, however, the control groups also showed a decrease in negative affective valence after the NSSI-proxy. This unexpected finding is consistent with the hypothesis that opponent processes may contribute to the development of self-injurious behaviors (Joiner, 2005). Overall, the present study represents an important extension of previous laboratory NSSI studies and provides a fertile foundation for future studies aimed at understanding why people engage in NSSI. PMID:20939652

  4. Reduction of interference effect by low spatial frequency information priming in an emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Beffara, Brice; Wicker, Bruno; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Ouellet, Marc; Bret, Amélie; Molina, Maria Jesus Funes; Mermillod, Martial

    2015-01-01

    The affective prediction hypothesis assumes that visual expectation allows fast and accurate processing of emotional stimuli. The prediction corresponds to what an object is likely to be. It therefore facilitates its identification by setting aside what the object is unlikely to be. It has then been suggested that prediction might be inevitably associated with the inhibition of irrelevant possibilities concerning the object to identify. Several studies highlighted that the facilitation of emotional perception depends on low spatial frequency (LSF) extraction. However, most of them used paradigms in which only the object to identify was present in the scene. As a consequence, there have yet been no studies investigating the efficiency of prediction in the visual perception of stimuli among irrelevant information. In this study, we designed a novel priming emotional Stroop task in which participants had to identify emotional facial expressions (EFEs) presented along with a congruent or incongruent word. To further investigate the role of early extraction of LSF information in top-down prediction during emotion recognition, the target EFE was primed with the same EFE filtered in LSF or high spatial frequency (HSF). Results reveal a reduction of the Stroop interference in the LSF compared to the HSF priming condition, which supports that visual expectation, depending on early LSF information extraction, facilitates the inhibition of irrelevant information during emotion recognition. PMID:26024463

  5. Reduction of interference effect by low spatial frequency information priming in an emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Beffara, Brice; Wicker, Bruno; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Ouellet, Marc; Bret, Amélie; Molina, Maria Jesus Funes; Mermillod, Martial

    2015-01-01

    The affective prediction hypothesis assumes that visual expectation allows fast and accurate processing of emotional stimuli. The prediction corresponds to what an object is likely to be. It therefore facilitates its identification by setting aside what the object is unlikely to be. It has then been suggested that prediction might be inevitably associated with the inhibition of irrelevant possibilities concerning the object to identify. Several studies highlighted that the facilitation of emotional perception depends on low spatial frequency (LSF) extraction. However, most of them used paradigms in which only the object to identify was present in the scene. As a consequence, there have yet been no studies investigating the efficiency of prediction in the visual perception of stimuli among irrelevant information. In this study, we designed a novel priming emotional Stroop task in which participants had to identify emotional facial expressions (EFEs) presented along with a congruent or incongruent word. To further investigate the role of early extraction of LSF information in top-down prediction during emotion recognition, the target EFE was primed with the same EFE filtered in LSF or high spatial frequency (HSF). Results reveal a reduction of the Stroop interference in the LSF compared to the HSF priming condition, which supports that visual expectation, depending on early LSF information extraction, facilitates the inhibition of irrelevant information during emotion recognition.

  6. Priming Implicit Prosody: Prosodic Boundaries and Individual Differences.

    PubMed

    Jun, Sun-Ah; Bishop, Jason

    2015-12-01

    Using the structural priming paradigm, the present study explores predictions made by the implicit prosody hypothesis (IPH) by testing whether an implicit prosodic boundary generated from a silently read sentence influences attachment preference for a novel, subsequently read sentence. Results indicate that such priming does occur, as evidenced by an effect on relative clause attachment. In particular, priming an implicit boundary directly before a relative clause--cued by commas in orthography--encouraged high attachment of that relative clause, although the size of the effect depended somewhat on individual differences in pragmatic/communication skills (as measured by the Autism Spectrum Quotient). Thus, in addition to supporting the basic claims of the IPH, the present study demonstrates the relevance of such individual differences to sentence processing, and that implicit prosodic structure, like syntactic structure, can be primed. PMID:27483740

  7. Influence of Temporal Expectations on Response Priming by Subliminal Faces

    PubMed Central

    Guex, Raphael; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Unconscious processes are often assumed immune from attention influence. Recent behavioral studies suggest however that the processing of subliminal information can be influenced by temporal attention. To examine the neural mechanisms underlying these effects, we used a stringent masking paradigm together with fMRI to investigate how temporal attention modulates the processing of unseen (masked) faces. Participants performed a gender decision task on a visible neutral target face, preceded by a masked prime face that could vary in gender (same or different than target) and emotion expression (neutral or fearful). We manipulated temporal attention by instructing participants to expect targets to appear either early or late during the stimulus sequence. Orienting temporal attention to subliminal primes influenced response priming by masked faces, even when gender was incongruent. In addition, gender-congruent primes facilitated responses regardless of attention while gender-incongruent primes reduced accuracy when attended. Emotion produced no differential effects. At the neural level, incongruent and temporally unexpected primes increased brain response in regions of the fronto-parietal attention network, reflecting greater recruitment of executive control and reorienting processes. Congruent and expected primes produced higher activations in fusiform cortex, presumably reflecting facilitation of perceptual processing. These results indicate that temporal attention can influence subliminal processing of face features, and thus facilitate information integration according to task-relevance regardless of conscious awareness. They also suggest that task-congruent information between prime and target may facilitate response priming even when temporal attention is not selectively oriented to the prime onset time. PMID:27764124

  8. Integrating the Regulation of Affect, Behavior, and Cognition into Self-Regulated Learning Paradigms among Secondary and Post-Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Eliyahu, Adar; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    An integrative framework for investigating self-regulated learning situated in students' favorite and least favorite courses was empirically tested in a sample of 178 high school and 280 college students. Building on cognitive, clinical, social, and educational conceptions of self-regulation, the current paper integrated affective (e.g.,…

  9. Does priming really put the gloss on performance?

    PubMed

    Winter, Stacy; Collins, Dave

    2013-06-01

    Priming has recently emerged in the literature as offering advantages in the preparation for skilled performance. Accordingly, the current study tested the efficacy of imagery against a priming paradigm as a means of enhancing motor performance: in essence, contrasting a preparation technique primarily under the conscious control of the performer to an unconscious technique promoting automaticity. The imagery intervention was guided by the PETTLEP model, while the priming intervention took the form of a scrambled sentence task. Eighteen skilled field-hockey players performed a dribbling task under imagery, priming, skill-focus, and control conditions. Results revealed a significant improvement in speed and technical accuracy for the imagery condition as opposed to the skill-focus, control, and priming conditions. In addition, there were no significant differences in performance times or technical accuracy between the priming and control conditions. The study provides further support for the efficacy of imagery to elicit enhanced motor skill performance but questions the emerging emphasis on priming as an effective tool in preparation for physical tasks. PMID:23798592

  10. Visual speech primes open-set recognition of spoken words

    PubMed Central

    Buchwald, Adam B.; Winters, Stephen J.; Pisoni, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Visual speech perception has become a topic of considerable interest to speech researchers. Previous research has demonstrated that perceivers neurally encode and use speech information from the visual modality, and this information has been found to facilitate spoken word recognition in tasks such as lexical decision (Kim, Davis, & Krins, 2004). In this paper, we used a cross-modality repetition priming paradigm with visual speech lexical primes and auditory lexical targets to explore the nature of this priming effect. First, we report that participants identified spoken words mixed with noise more accurately when the words were preceded by a visual speech prime of the same word compared with a control condition. Second, analyses of the responses indicated that both correct and incorrect responses were constrained by the visual speech information in the prime. These complementary results suggest that the visual speech primes have an effect on lexical access by increasing the likelihood that words with certain phonetic properties are selected. Third, we found that the cross-modality repetition priming effect was maintained even when visual and auditory signals came from different speakers, and thus different instances of the same lexical item. We discuss implications of these results for current theories of speech perception. PMID:21544260

  11. Children's Syntactic-Priming Magnitude: Lexical Factors and Participant Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Anouschka; Thiele, Kristina; Kahsnitz, Dunja; Stenneken, Prisca

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether lexical repetition, syntactic skills, and working memory (WM) affect children's syntactic-priming behavior, i.e. their tendency to adopt previously encountered syntactic structures. Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children were primed with prenominal (e.g. "the yellow…

  12. Functional Neuroimaging of Word Priming in Males with Chronic Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Han, S. Duke; Nestor, Paul G.; Hale-Spencer, Magdalena; Cohen, Adam; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; McCarley, Robert W.; Wible, Cynthia G.

    2007-01-01

    Word-priming studies have suggested that the associative disturbance of schizophrenia may reflect aberrant spread of activation through the lexicon of the brain. To explore this, we examined lexical activation using a semantic word-priming paradigm coupled with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We also wanted to determine whether brain activation to this paradigm correlated with relevant clinical symptom measures. In addition to completing clinical symptom measures, twelve chronic patients and twelve demographically-matched control subjects completed a lexical-decision semantic-priming paradigm developed as an event-related BOLD fMRI task. This paradigm consisted of words that differed in connectivity. Words with many connections between shared semantic associates are considered high in connectivity and produce the largest behavioral semantic priming effects in control subjects, while words with few connections between shared semantic associates are considered low in connectivity and produce a relatively smaller amount of semantic priming. In fMRI, a respective step-wise increase in activation from high connectivity to low connectivity to unrelated word pairs was expected for normal subjects. Controls showed the expected pattern of activation to word connectivity; however, patients showed a less robust pattern of activation to word connectivity. Furthermore, this aberrant response correlated with measures of Auditory Hallucinations, Distractive Speech, Illogicality, and Incoherence. The patients did not display left frontal and temporal activation as a function of the degree of word connectivity as seen in healthy controls. This may reflect a disease-related disturbance in functional connectivity of lexical activation, which in turn may be associated with clinical symptomatology. PMID:17215145

  13. Retro-priming, priming, and double testing: psi and replication in a test–retest design

    PubMed Central

    Rabeyron, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Numerous experiments have been conducted in recent years on anomalous retroactive influences on cognition and affect (Bem, 2010), yet more data are needed to understand these processes precisely. For this purpose, we carried out an initial retro-priming study in which the response times of 162 participants were measured (Rabeyron and Watt, 2010). In the current paper, we present the results of a second study in which we selected those participants who demonstrated the strongest retro-priming effect during the first study, in order to see if we could replicate this effect and therefore select high scoring participants. An additional objective was to try to find correlations between psychological characteristics (anomalous experiences, mental health, mental boundaries, trauma, negative life events) and retro-priming results for the high scoring participants. The retro-priming effect was also compared with performance on a classical priming task. Twenty-eight participants returned to the laboratory for this new study. The results, for the whole group, on the retro-priming task, were negative and non-significant (es = −0.25, ns) and the results were significant on the priming task (es = 0.63, p < 0.1). We obtained overall negative effects on retro-priming results for all the sub-groups (students, male, female). Ten participants were found to have positive results on the two retro-priming studies, but no specific psychological variables were found for these participants compared to the others. Several hypotheses are considered in explaining these results, and the author provide some final thoughts concerning psi and replicability. PMID:24672466

  14. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts—orthographically related, but which—in their commonly written form—share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  15. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts-orthographically related, but which-in their commonly written form-share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  16. "Fell" Primes "Fall", but Does "Bell" Prime "Ball"? Masked Priming with Irregularly-Inflected Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepaldi, Davide; Rastle, Kathleen; Coltheart, Max; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2010-01-01

    Recent masked priming experiments have brought to light a morphological level of analysis that is exclusively based on the orthographic appearance of words, so that it breaks down corner into corn- and -er, as well as dealer into deal- and -er (Rastle, Davis, & New, 2004). Being insensitive to semantic factors, this morpho-orthographic…

  17. The effects of interstimulus interval on sensory gating and on preattentive auditory memory in the oddball paradigm. Can magnitude of the sensory gating affect preattentive auditory comparison process?

    PubMed

    Ermutlu, M Numan; Demiralp, Tamer; Karamürsel, Sacit

    2007-01-22

    P50, and mismatch negativity (MMN) are components of event-related potentials (ERP) reflecting sensory gating and preattentive auditory memory, respectively. Interstimulus interval (ISI) is an important determinant of the amplitudes of these components and N1. In the present study the interrelation between stimulus gating and preattentive auditory sensory memory were investigated as a function of ISI in 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5s in 15 healthy volunteered participants. ISI factor affected the N1 peak amplitude significantly. MMN amplitude in 2.5s ISI was significantly smaller compared to 1.5 and 3.5s ISI. ISI X stimuli interaction on P50 amplitude was statistically significant. P50 amplitudes to deviant stimuli in 2.5s ISI were larger than the P50 amplitudes in other ISIs. P50 difference (P50d) waveform amplitude correlated significantly with MMN amplitude. The results suggest that: (i) auditory sensory gating could affect preattentive auditory sensory memory by supplying input to the comparator mechanism; (ii) 2.5s ISI is important in displaying the sensory gating and preattentive auditory sensory memory relation.

  18. Delayed extinction and stronger drug-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in rats prenatally exposed to morphine.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying-Ling; Chen, Shao-Tsu; Chan, Tzu-Yi; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Tao, Pao-Luh; Liao, Ruey-Ming; Chan, Ming-Huan; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2016-02-01

    Prenatal morphine (PM) affects the development of brain reward system and cognitive function. The present study aimed to determine whether PM exposure increases the vulnerability to MA addiction. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered saline or morphine during embryonic days 3-20. The acquisition, extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine (MA) conditioned place preference (CPP) and intravenous self-administration (SA) paradigms were assessed in the male adult offspring. There was no difference in the acquisition and expression of MA CPP between saline- and PM-exposed rats, whereas PM-exposed rats exhibited slower extinction and greater MA priming-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior than controls. Similarly, MA SA under progressive ratio and fixed ratio schedules was not affected by PM exposure, but PM-exposed rats required more extinction sessions to reach the extinction criteria and displayed more severe MA priming-, but not cue-induced, reinstatement. Such alterations in extinction and reinstatement were not present when PM-exposed rats were tested in an equivalent paradigm assessing operant responding for food pellets. Our results demonstrate that PM exposure did not affect the association memory formation during acquisition of MA CPP or SA, but impaired extinction learning and increased MA-primed reinstatement in both tasks. These findings suggest that the offspring of women using morphine or heroin during pregnancy might predict persistent MA seeking during extinction and enhanced propensity to MA relapse although they might not be more susceptible to the reinforcing effect of MA during initiation of drug use. PMID:26743042

  19. Delayed extinction and stronger drug-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in rats prenatally exposed to morphine.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying-Ling; Chen, Shao-Tsu; Chan, Tzu-Yi; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Tao, Pao-Luh; Liao, Ruey-Ming; Chan, Ming-Huan; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2016-02-01

    Prenatal morphine (PM) affects the development of brain reward system and cognitive function. The present study aimed to determine whether PM exposure increases the vulnerability to MA addiction. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered saline or morphine during embryonic days 3-20. The acquisition, extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine (MA) conditioned place preference (CPP) and intravenous self-administration (SA) paradigms were assessed in the male adult offspring. There was no difference in the acquisition and expression of MA CPP between saline- and PM-exposed rats, whereas PM-exposed rats exhibited slower extinction and greater MA priming-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior than controls. Similarly, MA SA under progressive ratio and fixed ratio schedules was not affected by PM exposure, but PM-exposed rats required more extinction sessions to reach the extinction criteria and displayed more severe MA priming-, but not cue-induced, reinstatement. Such alterations in extinction and reinstatement were not present when PM-exposed rats were tested in an equivalent paradigm assessing operant responding for food pellets. Our results demonstrate that PM exposure did not affect the association memory formation during acquisition of MA CPP or SA, but impaired extinction learning and increased MA-primed reinstatement in both tasks. These findings suggest that the offspring of women using morphine or heroin during pregnancy might predict persistent MA seeking during extinction and enhanced propensity to MA relapse although they might not be more susceptible to the reinforcing effect of MA during initiation of drug use.

  20. Paradigms for Abstracting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Maria; Galvez, Carmen

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of abstracting systems focuses on the paradigm concept and identifies and explains four paradigms: communicational, or information theory; physical, including information retrieval; cognitive, including information processing and artificial intelligence; and systemic, including quality management. Emphasizes multidimensionality and…

  1. Prime Retrieval of Motor Responses in Negative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Susanne; Buchner, Axel; Dentale, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Three auditory identification experiments were designed to specify the prime-response retrieval model of negative priming (S. Mayr & A. Buchner, 2006), which assumes that the prime response is retrieved in ignored repetition trials and interferes with probe responding. In Experiment 1, shortly before (in Experiment 1A) or after (in Experiment 1B)…

  2. Translation priming between the native language and a second language: new evidence from Dutch-French bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Duyck, Wouter; Warlop, Nele

    2009-01-01

    During the last two decades, bilingual research has adopted the masked translation priming paradigm as a tool to investigate the architecture of the bilingual language system. Although there is now a consensus about the existence of forward translation priming (from native language primes (L1) to second language (L2) translation equivalent targets), the backward translation priming effect (from L2 to L1) has only been reported in studies with bilinguals living in an L2 dominant environment. In a lexical decision experiment, we obtained significant translation priming in both directions, with unbalanced Dutch-French bilinguals living in an L1 dominant environment. Also, we demonstrated that these priming effects do not interact with a low-level visual prime feature such as font size. The obtained backward translation priming effect is consistent with the model of bilingual lexicosemantic organization of Duyck and Brysbaert (2004), which assumes strong mappings between L2 word forms and underlying semantic representations.

  3. Paradigms of polyamory.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, M

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY The paradigm theory of Thomas Kuhn is used as a framework to discuss alternative ways of intimacy. The author discusses the implications of structuring actual lesbian relationships by a paradigm of monogamy among Latin-American women. The author proposes that creating alternative paradigms of multiple relationships would be useful for many lesbians as models for alternative life patterns.

  4. Masked Repetition Priming Using Magnetoencephalography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Philip J.; Fiorentino, Robert; Poeppel, David

    2008-01-01

    Masked priming is used in psycholinguistic studies to assess questions about lexical access and representation. We present two masked priming experiments using MEG. If the MEG signal elicited by words reflects specific aspects of lexical retrieval, then one expects to identify specific neural correlates of retrieval that are sensitive to priming.…

  5. Masked form priming in writing words from pictures: evidence for direct retrieval of orthographic codes.

    PubMed

    Bonin, P; Fayol, M; Peereman, R

    1998-09-01

    Three experiments used the masked priming paradigm to investigate the role of orthographic and phonological information in written picture naming. In all the experiments, participants had to write the names of pictures as quickly as possible under three different priming conditions. Nonword primes could be: (1) phonologically and orthographically related to the picture name; (2) orthographically related as in (1) but phonologically related to a lesser degree than in (1); (3) orthographically and phonologically unrelated except for the first consonant (or consonant cluster). Orthographic priming effects were observed with a prime exposure duration of 34 ms (Experiments 1 and 2) and of 51 ms (Experiment 3). In none of the experiments, did homophony between primes and picture names yield an additional advantage. Taken together, these findings support the view of the direct retrieval of orthographic information through lexical access in written picture naming, and thus argue against the traditional view that the retrieval of orthographic codes of obligatorily mediated by phonology. PMID:9841471

  6. Effects of facial identity on age judgments: evidence from repetition priming.

    PubMed

    Dagovitch, Yuly; Ganel, Tzvi

    2010-01-01

    According to current face recognition models, facial identity is processed independently from other visually derived facial aspects, such as facial age. Here we used a repetition priming paradigm to investigate the relationship between the processing of facial identity and facial age. In Experiment 1, participants made speeded age classifications for primed and unprimed faces of famous celebrities. Performance was faster and more accurate for primed compared to unprimed faces, which indicates that the processing of facial age benefits from priming effects. In Experiment 2, priming was also found for preexperimentally unfamiliar faces which were familiarized during the experimental session. In Experiment 3, priming effects were found even when different photos of the same people were presented at study and at test. These results suggest that the processing of age is mediated by memory representations of facial identity. PMID:20178927

  7. The Causal Effect of Market Priming on Trust: An Experimental Investigation Using Randomized Control

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ubaydli, Omar; Houser, Daniel; Nye, John; Paganelli, Maria Pia; Pan, Xiaofei Sophia

    2013-01-01

    We report data from laboratory experiments where participants were primed using phrases related to markets and trade. Participants then participated in trust games with anonymous strangers. The decisions of primed participants are compared to those of a control group. We find evidence that priming for market participation affects positively the beliefs regarding the trustworthiness of anonymous strangers and increases trusting decisions. PMID:23472068

  8. Cognitive Processes in Associative and Categorical Priming: A Diffusion Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Andreas; Rothermund, Klaus; Gast, Anne; Wentura, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive processes and mechanisms underlying different forms of priming were investigated using a diffusion model approach. In a series of 6 experiments, effects of prime-target associations and of a semantic and affective categorical match of prime and target were analyzed for different tasks. Significant associative and categorical priming…

  9. What's in an object file? Evidence from priming studies.

    PubMed

    Gordon, R D; Irwin, D E

    1996-11-01

    Six experiments were conducted to investigate the nature of the contents of object files, temporary representations that store information about objects. Experiment 1 used a lexical priming paradigm with a lexical decision task, in which the prime and target could appear in either the same or different locations. The results indicated a greater priming effect when the prime and target appeared in the same location than when they appeared in different locations (object-or location-specific priming). Experiment 2 replicated these findings for objects that changed position during the display. Experiment 3 demonstrated that these findings reflected the inclusion of abstract identity information, rather than physical form, in object files. Three additional experiments tested for the presence of three types of semantic information (related concepts, semantic features, and category membership) in object files. No object-specific priming effects were found. Taken together, these experiments suggest that an object file includes identity information, but not semantic information. Implications of the results for object file theory are discussed.

  10. Priming sentence planning.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Agnieszka E; Meyer, Antje S

    2014-09-01

    Sentence production requires mapping preverbal messages onto linguistic structures. Because sentences are normally built incrementally, the information encoded in a sentence-initial increment is critical for explaining how the mapping process starts and for predicting its timecourse. Two experiments tested whether and when speakers prioritize encoding of different types of information at the outset of formulation by comparing production of descriptions of transitive events (e.g., A dog is chasing the mailman) that differed on two dimensions: the ease of naming individual characters and the ease of apprehending the event gist (i.e., encoding the relational structure of the event). To additionally manipulate ease of encoding, speakers described the target events after receiving lexical primes (facilitating naming; Experiment 1) or structural primes (facilitating generation of a linguistic structure; Experiment 2). Both properties of the pictured events and both types of primes influenced the form of target descriptions and the timecourse of formulation: character-specific variables increased the probability of speakers encoding one character with priority at the outset of formulation, while the ease of encoding event gist and of generating a syntactic structure increased the likelihood of early encoding of information about both characters. The results show that formulation is flexible and highlight some of the conditions under which speakers might employ different planning strategies.

  11. The kinds of information that support novel associative object priming and how these differ from those that support item priming.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Carlos Alexandre; Mayes, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how the information that supports novel associative and item object priming differs under identical study/test conditions. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants rated the meaningfulness of sentences linking two object pictures at study. At test, they performed either a size judgement or an associative recognition memory task on intact, recombined and novel picture (Experiment 1) or word (Experiment 2) associations. Associative priming was modulated by subjective meaningfulness of the encoded links, and depended on study/test perceptual overlap. In contrast, item priming was neither affected by the meaningfulness of the sentences nor by study/test changes in the stimulus presentation format. Associative priming and recognition were behaviourally dissociated, and associative recognition was probably too slow to have seriously contaminated associative priming. In Experiment 3, participants performed a perceptually oriented task during both experimental phases, and both associative and item priming were observed. These results suggest that associative priming depends on stored associative semantic and perceptual information when the test task requires flexible retrieval of associative information. Under the same conditions, item priming may only require activation of items' semantic properties. When both study and test tasks stress perceptual processing, retrieval of perceptual information is sufficient to support both kinds of priming.

  12. Semantic priming of familiar songs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah K; Halpern, Andrea R

    2012-05-01

    We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck the Hall") than following unrelated tunes ("God Bless America"). However, a category label (e.g., Christmas) did not prime tunes from within that category. Lyrics were primed by a related category label, but not by a related tune. These results support the conceptual organization of music in semantic memory, but with potentially weaker associations across modalities.

  13. Employee discipline: a changing paradigm.

    PubMed

    Raper, J L; Myaya, S N

    1993-12-01

    To increase the receptiveness of health care supervisors to a broader meaning of discipline and to simulate investigation of nontraditional methods of encouragement to employees who fail to meet minimum standards of conduct and thereby negatively affect the quality of patient care, a subjectively realistic view of the implications of the traditional punitive disciplinary paradigm is presented. Through the use of a case study, the authors present, explain, and apply the contemporary concept of discipline without punishment as first described by J. Huberman.

  14. Automatic activation of adolescents' peer-relational schemas: evidence from priming with facial identity.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Peets, Kätlin; Salmivalli, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This study provides experimental evidence for automatic, relationship-specific social information processing in 13-year-old adolescents. Photographs of participants' liked, disliked, and unknown peers were used as primes in an affective priming task with happy and angry facial expression probes and in a hypothetical vignette task. For the affective priming, reaction times were faster for congruent than for incongruent prime-probe pairs when the prime visibility was high and the prime-probe stimulus onset asynchrony was long. In the vignette task, participants attributed more hostility toward the protagonist, experienced more anger, and were more likely to retaliate when the disliked peer served as a prime. It is concluded that peer-relational schemas and related affect are activated automatically upon perception of a peer. PMID:19037941

  15. Modulating the masked congruence priming effect with the hands and the mouth.

    PubMed

    Finkbeiner, Matthew; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2008-08-01

    The authors report a series of experiments in which they use the masked congruence priming paradigm to investigate the processing of masked primes in the manual and verbal response modalities. In the manual response modality, they found that masked incongruent primes produced interference relative to both congruent and neutral primes. This finding, which replicates the standard finding in the masked congruence priming literature, is presumed to reflect the conflict that arises between two incompatible responses and, thus, to index the extent of processing of the masked prime. Somewhat surprisingly, when participants were asked to respond verbally in the same task, masked incongruent primes no longer produced interference, but masked congruent primes produced facilitation. These findings are surprising because they suggest that the processing of nonconsciously perceived primes extends to the response level in the manual, but not verbal, response modality. The authors propose that the modulation of the masked congruence priming effect by response modality is due to verbal, but not manual, responses being mediated by the lexical-phonological production system. PMID:18665734

  16. Boundary conditions for the influence of unfamiliar non-target primes in unconscious evaluative priming: The moderating role of attentional task sets.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Markus; Sim, Eun-Jim; Wentura, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Evaluative priming by masked emotional stimuli that are not consciously perceived has been taken as evidence that affective stimulus evaluation can also occur unconsciously. However, as masked priming effects were small and frequently observed only for familiar primes that there also presented as visible targets in an evaluative decision task, priming was thought to reflect primarily response activation based on acquired S-R associations and not evaluative semantic stimulus analysis. The present study therefore assessed across three experiments boundary conditions for the emergence of masked evaluative priming effects with unfamiliar primes in an evaluative decision task and investigated the role of the frequency of target repetition on priming with pictorial and verbal stimuli. While familiar primes elicited robust priming effects in all conditions, priming effects by unfamiliar primes were reliably obtained for low repetition (pictures) or unrepeated targets (words), but not for targets repeated at a high frequency. This suggests that unfamiliar masked stimuli only elicit evaluative priming effects when the task set associated with the visible target involves evaluative semantic analysis and is not based on S-R triggered responding as for high repetition targets. The present results therefore converge with the growing body of evidence demonstrating attentional control influences on unconscious processing. PMID:25680827

  17. Impairments in multisensory processing are not universal to the autism spectrum: no evidence for crossmodal priming deficits in Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    David, Nicole; R Schneider, Till; Vogeley, Kai; Engel, Andreas K

    2011-10-01

    Individuals suffering from autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show a tendency for detail- or feature-based perception (also referred to as "local processing bias") instead of more holistic stimulus processing typical for unaffected people. This local processing bias has been demonstrated for the visual and auditory domains and there is evidence that multisensory processing may also be affected in ASD. Most multisensory processing paradigms used social-communicative stimuli, such as human speech or faces, probing the processing of simultaneously occuring sensory signals. Multisensory processing, however, is not limited to simultaneous stimulation. In this study, we investigated whether multisensory processing deficits in ASD persist when semantically complex but nonsocial stimuli are presented in succession. Fifteen adult individuals with Asperger syndrome and 15 control persons participated in a visual-audio priming task, which required the classification of sounds that were either primed by semantically congruent or incongruent preceding pictures of objects. As expected, performance on congruent trials was faster and more accurate compared with incongruent trials (crossmodal priming effect). The Asperger group, however, did not differ significantly from the control group. Our results do not support a general multisensory processing deficit, which is universal to the entire autism spectrum.

  18. On the fractal distribution of primes and prime-indexed primes by the binary image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattani, Carlo; Ciancio, Armando

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the distribution of primes and prime-indexed primes (PIPs) is studied by mapping primes into a binary image which visualizes the distribution of primes. These images show that the distribution of primes (and PIPs) is similar to a Cantor dust, moreover the self-similarity with respect to the order of PIPs (already proven in Batchko (2014)) can be seen as an invariance of the binary images. The index of primes plays the same role of the scale for fractals, so that with respect to the index the distribution of prime-indexed primes is characterized by the self-similarity alike any other fractal. In particular, in order to single out the scale dependence, the PIPs fractal distribution will be evaluated by limiting to two parameters, fractal dimension (δ) and lacunarity (λ), that are usually used to measure the fractal nature. Because of the invariance of the corresponding binary plots, the fractal dimension and lacunarity of primes distribution are invariant with respect to the index of PIPs.

  19. Prime time sexual harrassment.

    PubMed

    Grauerholz, E; King, A

    1997-04-01

    This study explores the explicit and implicit messages of sexual harassment that viewers receive when viewing prime-time television in the US. A content analysis of 48 hours of prime-time television reveals that sexual harassment on television is both highly visible and invisible. Sexual harassment is rendered visible simply by its prominence in these programs. Incidents involving quid-pro-quo harassment and environmental harassment occur with regularity on television. Furthermore, about 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; yet these acts of sexual harassment remained largely invisible because none of the behaviors were labeled as sexual harassment. These incidents are presented in humorous ways, and victims are generally unharmed and very effective at ending the harassment. Although such programs may actually reflect the reality of many women's lives in terms of prevalence of sexual harassment, they perpetuate several myths about sexual harassment, such as that sexual harassment is not serious and that victims should be able to handle the situations themselves. PMID:12294811

  20. Past Tense Route Priming

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Shikora, Emily R.; Balota, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The present research examined whether lexical (whole word) or more rule-based (morphological constituent) processes can be locally biased by experimental list context in past tense verb inflection. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults completed a past tense inflection task in which list context was manipulated across blocks containing regular past tense verbs (e.g. REACH-REACHED) or irregular past tense verbs (TEACH-TAUGHT). Critical targets, consisting of half regular and half irregular verbs, were embedded within blocks and participants' inflection response latency and accuracy were assessed. The results yielded a cross-over interaction in response latencies. In the regular context there was a robust regularity effect: regular target verbs were conjugated faster than irregular target verbs. In contrast, in the irregular context, irregular target verbs were conjugated faster than regular target verbs. Experiment 2 used the same targets but in the context of either standard nonwords or nonwords ending in “-ED” to test the possibility of a phonological basis for the effect. The effect of context was eliminated. The results support the notion that distinct processes in past tense verb production can be locally biased by list context and, as shown in Experiment 2, this route priming effect was not due to phonological priming. PMID:23291293

  1. Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Devin; Fiacconi, Chris M.; Köhler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know (RK) paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift toward a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked. PMID:24795678

  2. The long and the short of priming in visual search.

    PubMed

    Kruijne, Wouter; Meeter, Martijn

    2015-07-01

    Memory affects visual search, as is particularly evident from findings that when target features are repeated from one trial to the next, selection is faster. Two views have emerged on the nature of the memory representations and mechanisms that cause these intertrial priming effects: independent feature weighting versus episodic retrieval of previous trials. Previous research has attempted to disentangle these views focusing on short term effects. Here, we illustrate that the episodic retrieval models make the unique prediction of long-term priming: biasing one target type will result in priming of this target type for a much longer time, well after the bias has disappeared. We demonstrate that such long-term priming is indeed found for the visual feature of color, but only in conjunction search and not in singleton search. Two follow-up experiments showed that it was the kind of search (conjunction versus singleton) and not the difficulty, that determined whether long-term priming occurred. Long term priming persisted unaltered for at least 200 trials, and could not be explained as the result of explicit strategy. We propose that episodic memory may affect search more consistently than previously thought, and that the mechanisms for intertrial priming may be qualitatively different for singleton and conjunction search. PMID:25832185

  3. An Integrative Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.

    2005-01-01

    Through the application of life course theory to the study of sexual orientation, this paper specifies a new paradigm for research on human sexual orientation that seeks to reconcile divisions among biological, social science, and humanistic paradigms. Recognizing the historical, social, and cultural relativity of human development, this paradigm…

  4. The Investment Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Mark C.

    2005-01-01

    Is marketing an expense or an investment? Most accountants will claim that marketing is an expense, and clearly that seems true when cutting the checks to fund these efforts. When it is done properly, marketing is the best investment. A key principle to Smart Marketing is the Investment Paradigm. The Investment Paradigm is understanding that every…

  5. Organizational Paradigm Shifts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    This collection of essays explores a new paradigm of higher education. The first essay, "Beyond Re-engineering: Changing the Organizational Paradigm" (L. Edwin Coate), suggests a model of quality process management and a structure for managing organizational change. "Thinking About Consortia" (Mary Jo Maydew) discusses cooperative effort and…

  6. 5[prime] to 3[prime] nucleic acid synthesis using 3[prime]-photoremovable protecting group

    DOEpatents

    Pirrung, M.C.; Shuey, S.W.; Bradley, J.C.

    1999-06-01

    The present invention relates, in general, to a method of synthesizing a nucleic acid, and, in particular, to a method of effecting 5[prime] to 3[prime] nucleic acid synthesis. The method can be used to prepare arrays of oligomers bound to a support via their 5[prime] end. The invention also relates to a method of effecting mutation analysis using such arrays. The invention further relates to compounds and compositions suitable for use in such methods.

  7. Conscious, but not unconscious, logo priming of brands and related words.

    PubMed

    Brintazzoli, Gigliola; Soetens, Eric; Deroost, Natacha; Van den Bussche, Eva

    2012-06-01

    This study assessed whether real-life stimulus material can elicit conscious and unconscious priming. A typical masked priming paradigm was used, with brand logo primes. We used a rigorous method to assess participants' awareness of the subliminal information. Our results show that shortly presented and masked brand logos (e.g., logo of McDonald's) have the power to prime their brand names (e.g., "McDonald's") and, remarkably, words associated to the brand (e.g., "hamburger"). However, this only occurred when the logos could be categorized clearly above the consciousness threshold. Once the primes were presented close to the consciousness threshold, no subliminal influences on behavior were observed. PMID:22503412

  8. Selective attention modulates visual and haptic repetition priming: effects in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Reales, José M; Mayas, Julia; Heller, Morton A

    2008-08-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of selective attention at encoding on repetition priming in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients for objects presented visually (experiment 1) or haptically (experiment 2). We used a repetition priming paradigm combined with a selective attention procedure at encoding. Reliable priming was found for both young adults and healthy older participants for visually presented pictures (experiment 1) as well as for haptically presented objects (experiment 2). However, this was only found for attended and not for unattended stimuli. The results suggest that independently of the perceptual modality, repetition priming requires attention at encoding and that perceptual facilitation is maintained in normal aging. However, AD patients did not show priming for attended stimuli, or for unattended visual or haptic objects. These findings suggest an early deficit of selective attention in AD. Results are discussed from a cognitive neuroscience approach.

  9. The effects of study-task relevance on perceptual repetition priming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbrook, Jon B.; Bost, Preston R.; Cave, Carolyn Backer

    2003-01-01

    Repetition priming is easily elicited in many traditional paradigms, and the possibility that perceptual priming may be other than an automatic consequence of perception has received little consideration. This issue is explored in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants named the target from a four-item category search study task more quickly than the nontarget study items at a later naming test. Experiment 2 extended this finding to conditions in which stimuli were individually presented at study. In three different study tasks, stimuli relevant to study-task completion elicited priming on a later test, but stimuli presented outside the context of a task did not. In both experiments, recognition was above chance for nonrelevant stimuli, suggesting that participants explicitly remembered stimuli that did not elicit priming. Results suggest that priming is sensitive to study-task demands and may reflect a more adaptive and flexible mechanism for modification of perceptual processing than previously appreciated.

  10. Rhizosphere priming effects in two contrasting soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Davidson; Kirk, Guy; Ritz, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Inputs of fresh plant-derived carbon may stimulate the turnover of existing soil organic matter by so-called priming effects. Priming may occur directly, as a result of nutrient 'mining' by existing microbial communities, or indirectly via population adjustments. However the mechanisms are poorly understood. We planted C4 Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) in pots with two contrasting C3 soils (clayey, fertile TB and sandy, acid SH), and followed the soil CO2 efflux and its δ13C. The extent of C deposition in the rhizosphere was altered by intermittently clipping the grass in half the pots; there were also unplanted controls. At intervals, pots were destructively sampled for root and shoot biomass. Total soil CO2 efflux was measured using a gas-tight PVC chamber fitted over bare soil, and connected to an infra-red gas analyser; the δ13C of efflux was measured in air sub-samples withdrawn by syringe. The extent of priming was inferred from the δ13C of efflux and the δ13C of the plant and soil end-members. In unclipped treatments, in both soils, increased total soil respiration and rhizosphere priming effects (RPE) were apparent compared to the unplanted controls. The TB soil had greater RPE overall. The total respiration in clipped TB soil was significantly greater than in the unplanted controls, but in the clipped SH soil it was not significantly different from the controls. Clipping affected plant C partitioning with greater allocation to shoot regrowth from about 4 weeks after planting. Total plant biomass decreased in the order TB unclipped > SH unclipped >TB clipped > SH clipped. The results are consistent with priming driven by microbial activation stimulated by rhizodeposits and by nitrogen demand from the growing plants under N limited conditions. Our data suggest that photosynthesis drives RPE and soil differences may alter the rate and intensity of RPE but not the direction.

  11. Attentional priming releases crowding.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsson, Arni; Heimisson, Pétur Rúnar; Róbertsson, Gunnar Freyr; Whitney, David

    2013-10-01

    Views of natural scenes unfold over time, and objects of interest that were present a moment ago tend to remain present. While visual crowding places a fundamental limit on object recognition in cluttered scenes, most studies of crowding have suffered from the limitation that they typically involved static scenes. The role of temporal continuity in crowding has therefore been unaddressed. We investigated intertrial effects upon crowding in visual scenes, showing that crowding is considerably diminished when objects remain constant on consecutive visual search trials. Repetition of both the target and distractors decreases the critical distance for crowding from flankers. More generally, our results show how object continuity through between-trial priming releases objects that would otherwise be unidentifiable due to crowding. Crowding, although it is a significant bottleneck on object recognition, can be mitigated by statistically likely temporal continuity of the objects. Crowding therefore depends not only on what is momentarily present, but also on what was previously attended.

  12. Face (and Nose) Priming for Book: The Malleability of Semantic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Coane, Jennifer H.; Balota, David A.

    2010-01-01

    There are two general classes of models of semantic structure that support semantic priming effects. Feature-overlap models of semantic priming assume that shared features between primes and targets are critical (e.g., cat-DOG). Associative accounts assume that contextual co-occurrence is critical and that the system is organized along associations independent of featural overlap (e.g., leash-DOG). If unrelated concepts can become related as a result of contextual co-occurrence, this would be more supportive of associative accounts and provide insight into the nature of the network underlying “semantic” priming effects. Naturally co-occurring recent associations (e.g., face-BOOK) were tested under conditions that minimize strategic influences (i.e., short stimulus onset asynchrony, low relatedness proportion) in a semantic priming paradigm. Priming for new associations did not differ from the priming found for pre-existing relations (e.g., library-BOOK). Mediated priming (e.g., nose-BOOK) was also found. These results suggest that contextual associations can result in the reorganization of the network that subserves “semantic” priming effects. PMID:20494866

  13. Investigating Home Primes and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Marlena; Schiffman, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The process of prime factor splicing to generate home primes raises opportunity for conjecture and exploration. The notion of "home primes" is relatively new in the chronicle of mathematics. Heleen (1996-97) first described a procedure called "prime factor splicing" (PFS). The exploration of home primes is interesting and…

  14. Priming Macho Attitudes and Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Erik D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated the effects of reading one of four priming stimuli stories (control, consenting sex, rape, or family) on males' evaluations of, and emotional reactions to, two videotaped date-rape scenarios. Results supported the concepts of a macho personality and revealed interactive effects for both the rape and family prime. (RJM)

  15. Two complementary paradigms for analysing population dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Charles J

    2002-01-01

    To understand why population growth rate is sometimes positive and sometimes negative, ecologists have adopted two main approaches. The most common approach is through the density paradigm by plotting population growth rate against population density. The second approach is through the mechanistic paradigm by plotting population growth rate against the relevant ecological processes affecting the population. The density paradigm is applied a posteriori, works sometimes but not always and is remarkably useless in solving management problems or in providing an understanding of why populations change in size. The mechanistic paradigm investigates the factors that supposedly drive density changes and is identical to Caughley's declining population paradigm of conservation biology. The assumption that we can uncover invariant relationships between population growth rate and some other variables is an article of faith. Numerous commercial fishery applications have failed to find the invariant relationships between stock and recruitment that are predicted by the density paradigm. Environmental variation is the rule, and non-equilibrial dynamics should force us to look for the mechanisms of population change. If multiple factors determine changes in population density, there can be no predictability in either of these paradigms and we will become environmental historians rather than scientists with useful generalizations for the population problems of this century. Defining our questions clearly and adopting an experimental approach with crisp alternative hypotheses and adequate controls will be essential to building useful generalizations for solving the practical problems of population management in fisheries, wildlife and conservation. PMID:12396513

  16. Paradigms for machine learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.; Langley, Pat

    1991-01-01

    Five paradigms are described for machine learning: connectionist (neural network) methods, genetic algorithms and classifier systems, empirical methods for inducing rules and decision trees, analytic learning methods, and case-based approaches. Some dimensions are considered along with these paradigms vary in their approach to learning, and the basic methods are reviewed that are used within each framework, together with open research issues. It is argued that the similarities among the paradigms are more important than their differences, and that future work should attempt to bridge the existing boundaries. Finally, some recent developments in the field of machine learning are discussed, and their impact on both research and applications is examined.

  17. When Feelings Arise with Meanings: How Emotion and Meaning of a Native Language Affect Second Language Processing in Adult Learners

    PubMed Central

    Sianipar, Agnes; Middelburg, Renée; Dijkstra, Ton

    2015-01-01

    To determine when and how L2 learners start to process L2 words affectively and semantically, we conducted a longitudinal study on their interaction in adult L2 learners. In four test sessions, spanning half a year of L2 learning, we monitored behavioral and ERP learning-related changes for one and the same set of words by means of a primed lexical-decision paradigm with L1 primes and L2 targets. Sensitivity rates, accuracy rates, RTs, and N400 amplitude to L2 words and pseudowords improved significantly across sessions. A semantic priming effect (e.g, prime “driver”facilitating response to target “street”) was found in accuracy rates and RTs when collapsing Sessions 1 to 4, while this effect modulated ERP amplitudes within the first 300 ms of L2 target processing. An overall affective priming effect (e.g., “sweet” facilitating”taste”) was also found in RTs and ERPs (posterior P1). Importantly, the ERPs showed an L2 valence effect across sessions (e.g., positive words were easier to process than neutral words), indicating that L2 learners were sensitive to L2 affective meaning. Semantic and affective priming interacted in the N400 time-window only in Session 4, implying that they affected meaning integration during L2 immersion together. The results suggest that L1 and L2 are initially processed semantically and affectively via relatively separate channels that are more and more linked contingent on L2 exposure. PMID:26656502

  18. Unconscious Affective Responses to Food

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Wataru; Sawada, Reiko; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi; Fushiki, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Affective or hedonic responses to food are crucial for humans, both advantageously (e.g., enhancing survival) and disadvantageously (e.g., promoting overeating and lifestyle-related disease). Although previous psychological studies have reported evidence of unconscious cognitive and behavioral processing related to food, it remains unknown whether affective reactions to food can be triggered unconsciously and its relationship with daily eating behaviors. We investigated these issues by using the subliminal affective priming paradigm. Photographs of food or corresponding mosaic images were presented in the peripheral visual field for 33 ms. Target photos of faces with emotionally neutral expressions were then presented, and participants rated their preferences for the faces. Eating behaviors were also assessed using questionnaires. The food images, relative to the mosaics, increased participants’ preference for subsequent target faces. Furthermore, the difference in the preference induced by food versus mosaic images was positively correlated with the tendency to engage in external eating. These results suggest that unconscious affective reactions are elicited by the sight of food and that these responses contribute to daily eating behaviors related to overeating. PMID:27501443

  19. Interviewing to elicit information: Using priming to promote disclosure.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Evan; Hartwig, Maria; Brimbal, Laure

    2015-10-01

    Research on implicit cognition has found that activating mental concepts can lead people to behave in ways that are consistent with the primed concept. In a pilot study we tested the effects of priming attachment security on the accessibility of disclosure-related concepts. Subsequently, we tested whether activating disclosure concepts by priming attachment security would influence people's forthcomingness. Participants (N = 102) delivered a flash drive to a confederate who exposed them to details of a mock eco terrorism conspiracy, which they were subsequently interviewed about. Before being interviewed, half of the participants were primed; the other half were not. Results showed that primed participants disclosed significantly more information than those who were not primed. Our findings highlight the need for further research on basic nonconscious processes in investigative interviews, as such influences can affect the outcome of the interview. The operation of nonconscious influences in such contexts has implications for practitioners, who may be able to utilize priming to facilitate disclosure. PMID:26076119

  20. Poverty eradication: a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Pethe, V P

    1998-08-01

    This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation.

  1. The fictionalist paradigm.

    PubMed

    Paley, John

    2011-01-01

    The fictionalist paradigm is introduced, and differentiated from other paradigms, using the Lincoln & Guba template. Following an initial overview, the axioms of fictionalism are delineated by reference to standard metaphysical categories: the nature of reality, the relationship between knower and known, the possibility of generalization, the possibility of causal linkages, and the role of values in inquiry. Although a paradigm's 'basic beliefs' are arbitrary and can be assumed for any reason, in this paper the fictionalist axioms are supported with philosophical considerations, and the key differences between fictionalism, positivism, and constructivism are briefly explained. Paradigm characteristics are then derived, focusing particularly on the methodological consequences. Towards the end of the paper, various objections and misunderstandings are discussed.

  2. Space Place Prime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Novati, Alexander; Fisher, Diane K.; Leon, Nancy J.; Netting, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Space Place Prime is public engagement and education software for use on iPad. It targets a multi-generational audience with news, images, videos, and educational articles from the Space Place Web site and other NASA sources. New content is downloaded daily (or whenever the user accesses the app) via the wireless connection. In addition to the Space Place Web site, several NASA RSS feeds are tapped to provide new content. Content is retained for the previous several days, or some number of editions of each feed. All content is controlled on the server side, so features about the latest news, or changes to any content, can be made without updating the app in the Apple Store. It gathers many popular NASA features into one app. The interface is a boundless, slidable- in-any-direction grid of images, unique for each feature, and iconized as image, video, or article. A tap opens the feature. An alternate list mode presents menus of images, videos, and articles separately. Favorites can be tagged for permanent archive. Face - book, Twitter, and e-mail connections make any feature shareable.

  3. Pain-related and negative semantic priming enhances perceived pain intensity

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Maria; Schroeter, Christoph; Puensch, Theresa; Straube, Thomas; Hecht, Holger; Ritter, Alexander; Miltner, Wolfgang HR; Weiss, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Negative affective and pain-related cues, such as pictures or words, have been shown to act as primes and enhance the perceived intensity of subsequent painful events. For pain-related semantic primes, it remains unclear whether this effect depends on negative valence itself or, specifically, on the pain-relatedness of the words. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of pain-related, negative affective (pain-unrelated) and neutral semantic primes on the perception of subsequent noxious target stimuli. METHODS: Pain ratings in response to noxious electrical stimulation of light and moderate intensity were examined in 39 healthy subjects after subjects were exposed to semantic primes of different meaning and valence (pain-related, negative, positive and neutral adjectives) presented with different interstimulus intervals (0 ms, 500 ms and 1500 ms). RESULTS: Increased pain ratings of noxious stimuli were observed following pain-related and negative compared with neutral primes. DISCUSSION: The results support the motivational priming theory for semantic stimuli, indicating that affectively negative semantic primes increase subjective pain intensity. However, a specific pain-related priming effect was not reliably demonstrated. Additionally, it is shown that experimental parameters (ie, stimulus intensity and interstimulus interval) modify the extent of negative and pain-related semantic priming. CONCLUSIONS: Verbal priming plays a role for the perception of noxious stimuli in a time-dependent manner. PMID:24716197

  4. Across-Task Priming Revisited: Response and Task Conflicts Disentangled Using Ex-Gaussian Distribution Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moutsopoulou, Karolina; Waszak, Florian

    2012-01-01

    The differential effects of task and response conflict in priming paradigms where associations are strengthened between a stimulus, a task, and a response have been demonstrated in recent years with neuroimaging methods. However, such effects are not easily disentangled with only measurements of behavior, such as reaction times (RTs). Here, we…

  5. Mapping Concepts to Syntax: Evidence from Structural Priming in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Zhenguang G.; Pickering, Martin J.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2012-01-01

    Theories of how people construct linguistic form during production are largely based on English and closely related languages. We report three experiments that used a structural priming paradigm to investigate grammatical encoding in Mandarin Chinese, in particular the way conceptual information is mapped onto grammatical structure. The results…

  6. The Development of Abstract Syntax: Evidence from Structural Priming and the Lexical Boost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Caroline F.; Chang, Franklin; Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M.; Lieven, Elena V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Structural priming paradigms have been influential in shaping theories of adult sentence processing and theories of syntactic development. However, until recently there have been few attempts to provide an integrated account that explains both adult and developmental data. The aim of the present paper was to begin the process of integration by…

  7. Deciding Where to Attend: Priming of Pop-Out Drives Target Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brascamp, Jan W.; Blake, Randolph; Kristjansson, Arni

    2011-01-01

    With attention and eye-movements humans orient to targets of interest. This orienting occurs faster when the same target repeats: priming of pop-out (PoP). While reaction times (RTs) can be important, PoP's real function could be to steer "where" to orient, a possibility underexposed in many current paradigms, as these predesignate a target to…

  8. The Sensory Nature of Episodic Memory: Sensory Priming Effects Due to Memory Trace Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunel, Lionel; Labeye, Elodie; Lesourd, Mathieu; Versace, Remy

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence that memory and perceptual processing are underpinned by the same mechanisms. Specifically, the authors conducted 3 experiments that emphasized the sensory aspect of memory traces. They examined their predictions with a short-term priming paradigm based on 2 distinct phases: a learning phase consisting…

  9. Sentence-Structure Priming in Young Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Julie D.; Conture, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an age-appropriate version of the sentence-structure priming paradigm (e.g., K. Bock, 1990; K. Bock, H. Loebell, & R. Morey, 1992) to assess experimentally the syntactic processing abilities of children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS). Participants were 16 CWS and 16 CWNS between the…

  10. Case Assignment in Typically Developing English-Speaking Children: A Paired Priming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisman Weil, Lisa Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized a paired priming paradigm to examine the influence of input features on case assignment in typically developing English-speaking children. The Input Ambiguity Hypothesis (Pelham, 2011) was experimentally tested to help explain why children produce subject pronoun case errors. Analyses of third singular "-s" marking on…

  11. Negative Priming Effect after Inhibition of Weight/Number Interference in a Piaget-Like Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirlin, Olivier; Houde, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Piagetian tasks have more to do with the child's ability to inhibit interference than they do with the ability to grasp their underlying logic. Here we used a chronometric paradigm with 11-year-olds, who succeed in Piaget's conservation-of-weight task, to test the role of cognitive inhibition in a priming version of this classical task. The…

  12. Priming in Melody Perception: Tracking Down the Strength of Cognitive Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmel, Frederic; Tillmann, Barbara; Delbe, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The musical priming paradigm has shown facilitated processing for tonally related over less-related targets. However, the congruence between tonal relatedness and the psychoacoustical properties of music challenges cognitive interpretations of the involved processes. Our goal was to show that cognitive expectations (based on listeners' tonal…

  13. Spreading Activation in an Attractor Network with Latching Dynamics: Automatic Semantic Priming Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Itamar; Bentin, Shlomo; Shriki, Oren

    2012-01-01

    Localist models of spreading activation (SA) and models assuming distributed representations offer very different takes on semantic priming, a widely investigated paradigm in word recognition and semantic memory research. In this study, we implemented SA in an attractor neural network model with distributed representations and created a unified…

  14. Costs and benefits of priming for defense in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    van Hulten, Marieke; Pelser, Maaike; van Loon, L C; Pieterse, Corné M J; Ton, Jurriaan

    2006-04-01

    Induced resistance protects plants against a wide spectrum of diseases; however, it can also entail costs due to the allocation of resources or toxicity of defensive products. The cellular defense responses involved in induced resistance are either activated directly or primed for augmented expression upon pathogen attack. Priming for defense may combine the advantages of enhanced disease protection and low costs. In this study, we have compared the costs and benefits of priming to those of induced direct defense in Arabidopsis. In the absence of pathogen infection, chemical priming by low doses of beta-aminobutyric acid caused minor reductions in relative growth rate and had no effect on seed production, whereas induction of direct defense by high doses of beta-aminobutyric acid or benzothiadiazole strongly affected both fitness parameters. These costs were defense-related, because the salicylic acid-insensitive defense mutant npr1-1 remained unaffected by these treatments. Furthermore, the constitutive priming mutant edr1-1 displayed only slightly lower levels of fitness than wild-type plants and performed considerably better than the constitutively activated defense mutant cpr1-1. Hence, priming involves less fitness costs than induced direct defense. Upon infection by Pseudomonas syringae or Hyaloperonospora parasitica, priming conferred levels of disease protection that almost equaled the protection in benzothiadiazole-treated wild-type plants and cpr1 plants. Under these conditions, primed plants displayed significantly higher levels of fitness than noninduced plants and plants expressing chemically or cpr1-induced direct defense. Collectively, our results indicate that the benefits of priming-mediated resistance outweigh the costs in environments in which disease occurs.

  15. Target categorization with primes that vary in both congruency and sense modality.

    PubMed

    Weatherford, Kathryn; Mills, Michael; Porter, Anne M; Goolkasian, Paula

    2015-01-01

    In two experiments we examined conceptual priming within and across sense modalities by varying the modality (picture and environmental sounds) and the category congruency of prime-target pairs. Both experiments used a repetition priming paradigm, but Experiment 1 studied priming effects with a task that required a superordinate categorization response (man-made or natural), while Experiment 2 used a lower level category response (musical instruments or animal): one that was more closely associated with the basic level of the semantic network. Results from Experiment 1 showed a strong effect of target modality and two distinct patterns of conceptual priming effects with picture and environmental sound targets. However, no priming advantage was found when congruent and incongruent primes were compared. Results from Experiment 2, found congruency effects that were specific to environmental sound targets when preceded by picture primes. The findings provide support for the intermodal event file and multisensory framework, and suggest that auditory and visual features about a single item in a conceptual category may be more tightly connected than two different items from the same category.

  16. Target categorization with primes that vary in both congruency and sense modality

    PubMed Central

    Weatherford, Kathryn; Mills, Michael; Porter, Anne M.; Goolkasian, Paula

    2015-01-01

    In two experiments we examined conceptual priming within and across sense modalities by varying the modality (picture and environmental sounds) and the category congruency of prime-target pairs. Both experiments used a repetition priming paradigm, but Experiment 1 studied priming effects with a task that required a superordinate categorization response (man-made or natural), while Experiment 2 used a lower level category response (musical instruments or animal): one that was more closely associated with the basic level of the semantic network. Results from Experiment 1 showed a strong effect of target modality and two distinct patterns of conceptual priming effects with picture and environmental sound targets. However, no priming advantage was found when congruent and incongruent primes were compared. Results from Experiment 2, found congruency effects that were specific to environmental sound targets when preceded by picture primes. The findings provide support for the intermodal event file and multisensory framework, and suggest that auditory and visual features about a single item in a conceptual category may be more tightly connected than two different items from the same category. PMID:25667578

  17. Paradigm Change in Political Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodman, John

    1980-01-01

    Traces the shift of paradigms in the political science profession from the 1960s to 1980, examines the classical paradigm, compares it with modern paradigms, and reviews contemporary efforts to articulate a new paradigm which takes the ecological crisis into account. (Author/DB)

  18. Can Intonational Phrase Structure be Primed (like Syntactic Structure)?

    PubMed Central

    Tooley, Kristen M.; Konopka, Agnieszka E.; Watson, Duane G.

    2013-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated whether intonational phrase structure can be primed. In all experiments, participants listened to sentences in which the presence and location of intonational phrase boundaries was manipulated such that the recording either included no intonational phrase boundaries, a boundary in a structurally dispreferred location, in a preferred location, or in both locations. In Experiment 1, participants repeated the sentences to test whether they would reproduce the prosodic structure they had just heard. Experiments 2 and 3 used a prime-target paradigm to evaluate whether the intonational phrase structure heard in the prime sentence might influence that of a novel target sentence. Experiment 1 showed that participants did repeat back sentences that they just heard with the original intonational phrase structure, yet Experiments 2 and 3 found that exposure to intonational phrase boundaries on prime trials did not influence how a novel target sentence was prosodically phrased. These results suggest that speakers may retain the intonational phrasing of a sentence, but this effect is not long-lived and does not generalize across unrelated sentences. Furthermore, these findings provide no evidence that intonational phrase structure is formulated during a planning stage that is separate from other sources of linguistic information. PMID:24188467

  19. Prime Diagnosticity in Short-Term Repetition Priming: Is Primed Evidence Discounted, Even when It Reliably Indicates the Correct Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidemann, Christoph T.; Huber, David E.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 repetition priming experiments that manipulated prime duration and prime diagnosticity in a visual forced-choice perceptual identification task. The strength and direction of prime diagnosticity produced marked effects on identification accuracy, but those effects were resistant to subsequent changes of diagnosticity.…

  20. Using the speeded word fragment completion task to examine semantic priming.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Tom; De Deyne, Simon; Hutchison, Keith A; Storms, Gert

    2015-06-01

    The present research investigates semantic priming with an adapted version of the word fragment completion task. In this task, which we refer to as the speeded word fragment completion task, participants need to complete words such as lett_ce (lettuce), from which one letter was omitted, as quickly as possible. This paradigm has some interesting qualities in comparison with the traditionally used lexical decision task. That is, it requires no pseudowords, it is more engaging for participants, and most importantly, it allows for a more fine-grained investigation of semantic activation. In two studies, we found that words were completed faster when the preceding trial comprised a semantically related fragment such as tom_to (tomato) than when it comprised an unrelated fragment such as guit_r (guitar). A third experiment involved a lexical decision task, to compare both paradigms. The results showed that the magnitude of the priming effect was similar, but item-level priming effects were inconsistent over tasks. Crucially, the speeded word fragment completion task obtained strong priming effects for highly frequent, central words, such as work, money, and warm, whereas the lexical decision task did not. In a final experiment featuring only short, highly frequent words, the lexical decision task failed to find a priming effect, whereas the fragment completion task did obtain a robust effect. Taken together, these results suggest that the speeded word fragment completion task may prove a viable alternative for examining semantic priming.

  1. Using the speeded word fragment completion task to examine semantic priming.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Tom; De Deyne, Simon; Hutchison, Keith A; Storms, Gert

    2015-06-01

    The present research investigates semantic priming with an adapted version of the word fragment completion task. In this task, which we refer to as the speeded word fragment completion task, participants need to complete words such as lett_ce (lettuce), from which one letter was omitted, as quickly as possible. This paradigm has some interesting qualities in comparison with the traditionally used lexical decision task. That is, it requires no pseudowords, it is more engaging for participants, and most importantly, it allows for a more fine-grained investigation of semantic activation. In two studies, we found that words were completed faster when the preceding trial comprised a semantically related fragment such as tom_to (tomato) than when it comprised an unrelated fragment such as guit_r (guitar). A third experiment involved a lexical decision task, to compare both paradigms. The results showed that the magnitude of the priming effect was similar, but item-level priming effects were inconsistent over tasks. Crucially, the speeded word fragment completion task obtained strong priming effects for highly frequent, central words, such as work, money, and warm, whereas the lexical decision task did not. In a final experiment featuring only short, highly frequent words, the lexical decision task failed to find a priming effect, whereas the fragment completion task did obtain a robust effect. Taken together, these results suggest that the speeded word fragment completion task may prove a viable alternative for examining semantic priming. PMID:24942248

  2. Do masked orthographic neighbor primes facilitate or inhibit the processing of Kanji compound words?

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Mariko; Sears, Christopher R; Hino, Yasushi; Lupker, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    In the masked priming paradigm, when a word target is primed by a higher frequency neighbor (e.g., blue-BLUR), lexical decision latencies are slower than when the same word is primed by an unrelated word of equivalent frequency (e.g., care-BLUR). This inhibitory neighbor priming effect (e.g., Davis & Lupker, 2006; Segui & Grainger, 1990) is taken as evidence for the lexical competition process that is an important component of localist activation-based models of visual word recognition (Davis, 2003; Grainger & Jacobs, 1996; McClelland & Rumelhart, 1981). The present research looked for evidence of an inhibitory neighbor priming effect using words written in Japanese Kanji, a logographic, nonalphabetic script. In 4 experiments (Experiments 1A, 1B, 3A, and 3B), inhibitory neighbor priming effects were observed for low-frequency targets primed by higher frequency Kanji word neighbors ([symbol in text]). In contrast, there was a significant facilitation effect when targets were primed by Kanji nonword neighbors ([symbols in text]; Experiments 2 and 3). Significant facilitation was also observed when targets were primed by single constituent Kanji characters ([symbols in text]; Experiment 4). Taken together, these results suggest that lexical competition plays a role in the recognition of Kanji words, just as it does for words in alphabetic languages. However, in Kanji, and likely in other logographic languages, the effect of lexical competition appears to be counteracted by facilitory morphological priming due to the repetition of a morphological unit in the prime and target (i.e., in Kanji, each character represents a morpheme). PMID:24364705

  3. The Effect Of Alcohol Priming On Neural Markers Of Alcohol Cue-Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Kelly E.; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Priming doses of alcohol are associated with increased desire to drink and disinhibitory effects on subsequent control over drinking. Despite the importance of alcohol priming in the cue-reactivity literature, the effects of priming on brain responses to alcohol cues remains unclear. Further, evidence suggests this relationship may be moderated by OPRM1 genotype. Methods Twenty individuals with alcohol dependence (6 females; 90% Caucasian; mean age=29.4) who were prospectively genotyped on the OPRM1 gene underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, before and after a priming dose of alcohol, each including a gustatory alcohol cue reactivity paradigm and self-reported craving measures. Results Self-reported alcohol craving generally increased and remained higher for alcohol versus water cue presentations across pre- and post-priming scans. Compared to alcohol cues delivered during the post-priming scan, alcohol cues delivered pre-priming were associated with greater activation in regions including the hippocampus, amygdala, inferior frontal gyrus, temporal cortex, and occipital cortex. Controlling for alcoholism severity increased statistical significance of activation in these regions. Follow-up analyses revealed a positive correlation between alcoholism severity and pre- versus post-priming alcohol cue-reactivity primarily in frontal regions. OPRM1 genotype was also found to moderate alcohol cue-reactivity across scans. Conclusion This study provides initial evidence of alcohol cue-elicited habituation in fronto-temporal regions, despite continued craving, following a priming dose of alcohol. Further, it provides preliminary evidence for moderating roles of alcoholism severity and OPRM1 genotype on priming-related changes in cue-reactivity, adding to our understanding of the function of alcohol priming in alcohol dependence. PMID:26125586

  4. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. PMID:26812088

  5. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed.

  6. Test Sequence Priming in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Elizabeth E.; Mewhort, D. J. K.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined priming within the test sequence in 3 recognition memory experiments. A probe primed its successor whenever both probes shared a feature with the same studied item ("interjacent priming"), indicating that the study item like the probe is central to the decision. Interjacent priming occurred even when the 2 probes did not…

  7. Priming mortality salience: supraliminal, subliminal and "double-death" priming techniques.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Melissa B; Saunders, Benjamin A; Cain, Nicole M

    2014-01-01

    The study examined whether successively presented subliminal and supraliminal morality salience primes ("double death" prime) would have a stronger influence on death thought accessibility than subliminal or supraliminal primes alone. A between-subjects 2 (subliminal prime/control) × 2 (supraliminal prime/control) design was used. The supraliminal prime prompted participants to answer questions about death. For the subliminal prime, the word death was presented outside of awareness. Both priming techniques differed significantly from a control in ability to elicit mortality salience. There was an interactive influence of both primes. Implications for unconscious neutral networks relating to death are discussed. PMID:24592974

  8. Priming mortality salience: supraliminal, subliminal and "double-death" priming techniques.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Melissa B; Saunders, Benjamin A; Cain, Nicole M

    2014-01-01

    The study examined whether successively presented subliminal and supraliminal morality salience primes ("double death" prime) would have a stronger influence on death thought accessibility than subliminal or supraliminal primes alone. A between-subjects 2 (subliminal prime/control) × 2 (supraliminal prime/control) design was used. The supraliminal prime prompted participants to answer questions about death. For the subliminal prime, the word death was presented outside of awareness. Both priming techniques differed significantly from a control in ability to elicit mortality salience. There was an interactive influence of both primes. Implications for unconscious neutral networks relating to death are discussed.

  9. Sounding Black or White: priming identity and biracial speech

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Sarah E.; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Gidney, Calvin L.; Maddox, Keith B.

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that priming one’s racial identity can alter a biracial individuals’ social behavior, but can such priming also influence their speech? Language is often used as a marker of one’s social group membership and studies have shown that social context can affect the style of language that a person chooses to use, but this work has yet to be extended to the biracial population. Audio clips were extracted from a previous study involving biracial Black/White participants who had either their Black or White racial identity primed. Condition-blind coders rated Black-primed biracial participants as sounding significantly more Black and White-primed biracial participants as sounding significantly more White, both when listening to whole (Study 1a) and thin-sliced (Study 1b) clips. Further linguistic analyses (Studies 2a–c) were inconclusive regarding the features that differed between the two groups. Future directions regarding the need to investigate the intersections between social identity priming and language behavior with a biracial lens are discussed. PMID:25941505

  10. Sounding Black or White: priming identity and biracial speech.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Sarah E; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M; Gidney, Calvin L; Maddox, Keith B; Gidney, Calvin L; Gidney, Calvin L

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that priming one's racial identity can alter a biracial individuals' social behavior, but can such priming also influence their speech? Language is often used as a marker of one's social group membership and studies have shown that social context can affect the style of language that a person chooses to use, but this work has yet to be extended to the biracial population. Audio clips were extracted from a previous study involving biracial Black/White participants who had either their Black or White racial identity primed. Condition-blind coders rated Black-primed biracial participants as sounding significantly more Black and White-primed biracial participants as sounding significantly more White, both when listening to whole (Study 1a) and thin-sliced (Study 1b) clips. Further linguistic analyses (Studies 2a-c) were inconclusive regarding the features that differed between the two groups. Future directions regarding the need to investigate the intersections between social identity priming and language behavior with a biracial lens are discussed.

  11. Sounding Black or White: priming identity and biracial speech.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Sarah E; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M; Gidney, Calvin L; Maddox, Keith B; Gidney, Calvin L; Gidney, Calvin L

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that priming one's racial identity can alter a biracial individuals' social behavior, but can such priming also influence their speech? Language is often used as a marker of one's social group membership and studies have shown that social context can affect the style of language that a person chooses to use, but this work has yet to be extended to the biracial population. Audio clips were extracted from a previous study involving biracial Black/White participants who had either their Black or White racial identity primed. Condition-blind coders rated Black-primed biracial participants as sounding significantly more Black and White-primed biracial participants as sounding significantly more White, both when listening to whole (Study 1a) and thin-sliced (Study 1b) clips. Further linguistic analyses (Studies 2a-c) were inconclusive regarding the features that differed between the two groups. Future directions regarding the need to investigate the intersections between social identity priming and language behavior with a biracial lens are discussed. PMID:25941505

  12. Exploring the boundary conditions of unconscious numerical priming effects with continuous flash suppression.

    PubMed

    Hesselmann, G; Darcy, N; Sterzer, P; Knops, A

    2015-01-01

    The scope and limits of unconscious processing are a controversial topic of research in experimental psychology. Particularly within the visual domain, a wide range of paradigms have been used to experimentally manipulate perceptual awareness. A recent study reported unconscious numerical processing during continuous flash suppression (CFS), which is a powerful variant of interocular suppression and disrupts the conscious perception of visual stimuli for up to seconds. Since this finding of a distance-dependent priming effect contradicts earlier results showing that interocular suppression abolishes semantic processing, we sought to investigate the boundary conditions of this effect in two experiments. Using statistical analyses and experimental designs that precluded an effect of target numerosity, we found evidence for identity priming, but no conclusive evidence for distance-dependent numerical priming under CFS. Our results suggest that previous conclusions on high-level numerical priming under interocular suppression may have been premature. PMID:25460241

  13. The priming effect of translation equivalents across languages for concrete and abstract words.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baoguo; Liang, Lijuan; Cui, Peng; Dunlap, Susan

    2014-11-01

    The present study used a masked priming paradigm and two language tasks (lexical decision, semantic categorical judgment) to investigate whether concrete and abstract words share the same degree of conceptual representation across languages for bilinguals. The results showed that the priming effect of translation equivalents did not differ for concrete and abstract words in the lexical decision task, in both prime-target directions (in Experiment 1). The same results were also found in the semantic categorical judgment task in either prime-target direction (in Experiment 2). Our results do not provide support for the representation difference hypothesis of concrete and abstract words of Distributed Representation Model (De Groot, 1992a, 1992b; Van Hell & De Groot, 1998), which assumes that concrete words share more semantic components in the conceptual representations across languages, compared with abstract words. Rather, our findings suggest that both concrete and abstract words have the same degree of overlap in conceptual representations across a bilingual's two languages.

  14. A Specific Primed Immune Response in Drosophila Is Dependent on Phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Linh N; Dionne, Marc S; Shirasu-Hiza, Mimi; Schneider, David S

    2007-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster, like other invertebrates, relies solely on its innate immune response to fight invading microbes; by definition, innate immunity lacks adaptive characteristics. However, we show here that priming Drosophila with a sublethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae protects against an otherwise-lethal second challenge of S. pneumoniae. This protective effect exhibits coarse specificity for S. pneumoniae and persists for the life of the fly. Although not all microbial challenges induced this specific primed response, we find that a similar specific protection can be elicited by Beauveria bassiana, a natural fly pathogen. To characterize this primed response, we focused on S. pneumoniae–induced protection. The mechanism underlying this protective effect requires phagocytes and the Toll pathway. However, activation of the Toll pathway is not sufficient for priming-induced protection. This work contradicts the paradigm that insect immune responses cannot adapt and will promote the search for similar responses overlooked in organisms with an adaptive immune response. PMID:17352533

  15. Repeated Masked Category Primes Interfere With Related Exemplars: New Evidence for Negative Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentura, Dirk; Frings, Christian

    2005-01-01

    In 4 experiments, the authors found evidence for negatively signed masked semantic priming effects (with category names as primes and exemplars as targets) using a new technique of presenting the masked primes. By rapidly interchanging prime and mask during the stimulus onset asynchrony, they increased the total prime exposure to a level…

  16. The Intervenor Effect in Masked Priming: How Does Masked Priming Survive across an Intervening Word?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Four masked priming experiments are reported investigating the effect of inserting an unrelated word between the masked prime and the target. When the intervening word is visible, identity priming is reduced to the level of one-letter-different form priming, but form priming is largely unaffected. However, when the intervening word is itself…

  17. Deconstructing Research: Paradigms Lost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades, proponents of naturalistic and/or critical modes of inquiry advocating the use of ethnographic techniques for the narrative-based study of phenomena within pedagogical contexts have challenged the central methodological paradigm of educational research: that is, the tendency among its practitioners to adhere to quantitative…

  18. Alternative Evaluation Research Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    This monograph is one of a continuing series initiated to provide materials for teachers, parents, school administrators, and governmental decision-makers that might encourage reexamination of a range of evaluation issues and perspectives about schools and schooling. This monograph is a description and analysis of two contrasting paradigms: one…

  19. Paradigms of School Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Terry

    2011-01-01

    This short paper points to some paradigm issues in the field of school development (leadership, effectiveness, improvement) and their relationship to social justice. It contextualises the dominant School Effectiveness and School Improvement models within neo-liberal marketisation, paying attention to their transformation through a "marriage of…

  20. It Matters How Much You Talk: On the Automaticity of Affective Connotations of First and Second Language Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degner, Juliane; Doycheva, Cveta; Wentura, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an affective priming study conducted with proficient sequential German and French bilinguals to assess automatic affective word processing in L1 and L2. Additionally, a semantic priming task was conducted in both languages. Whereas semantic priming effects occurred in L1 and L2, and significant affective priming effects…

  1. Developmental differences in masked form priming are not driven by vocabulary growth

    PubMed Central

    Bhide, Adeetee; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Barnes, Kelly Anne

    2014-01-01

    As children develop into skilled readers, they are able to more quickly and accurately distinguish between words with similar visual forms (i.e., they develop precise lexical representations). The masked form priming lexical decision task is used to test the precision of lexical representations. In this paradigm, a prime (which differs by one letter from the target) is briefly flashed before the target is presented. Participants make a lexical decision to the target. Primes can facilitate reaction time by partially activating the lexical entry for the target. If a prime is unable to facilitate reaction time, it is assumed that participants have a precise orthographic representation of the target and thus the prime is not a close enough match to activate its lexical entry. Previous developmental work has shown that children and adults' lexical decision times are facilitated by form primes preceding words from small neighborhoods (i.e., very few words can be formed by changing one letter in the original word; low N words), but only children are facilitated by form primes preceding words from large neighborhoods (high N words). It has been hypothesized that written vocabulary growth drives the increase in the precision of the orthographic representations; children may not know all of the neighbors of the high N words, making the words effectively low N for them. We tested this hypothesis by (1) equating the effective orthographic neighborhood size of the targets for children and adults and (2) testing whether age or vocabulary size was a better predictor of the extent of form priming. We found priming differences even when controlling for effective neighborhood size. Furthermore, age was a better predictor of form priming effects than was vocabulary size. Our findings provide no support for the hypothesis that growth in written vocabulary size gives rise to more precise lexical representations. We propose that the development of spelling ability may be a more

  2. Developmental differences in masked form priming are not driven by vocabulary growth.

    PubMed

    Bhide, Adeetee; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Barnes, Kelly Anne

    2014-01-01

    As children develop into skilled readers, they are able to more quickly and accurately distinguish between words with similar visual forms (i.e., they develop precise lexical representations). The masked form priming lexical decision task is used to test the precision of lexical representations. In this paradigm, a prime (which differs by one letter from the target) is briefly flashed before the target is presented. Participants make a lexical decision to the target. Primes can facilitate reaction time by partially activating the lexical entry for the target. If a prime is unable to facilitate reaction time, it is assumed that participants have a precise orthographic representation of the target and thus the prime is not a close enough match to activate its lexical entry. Previous developmental work has shown that children and adults' lexical decision times are facilitated by form primes preceding words from small neighborhoods (i.e., very few words can be formed by changing one letter in the original word; low N words), but only children are facilitated by form primes preceding words from large neighborhoods (high N words). It has been hypothesized that written vocabulary growth drives the increase in the precision of the orthographic representations; children may not know all of the neighbors of the high N words, making the words effectively low N for them. We tested this hypothesis by (1) equating the effective orthographic neighborhood size of the targets for children and adults and (2) testing whether age or vocabulary size was a better predictor of the extent of form priming. We found priming differences even when controlling for effective neighborhood size. Furthermore, age was a better predictor of form priming effects than was vocabulary size. Our findings provide no support for the hypothesis that growth in written vocabulary size gives rise to more precise lexical representations. We propose that the development of spelling ability may be a more

  3. Ab initio quantum mechanical study of the structures and energies for the pseudorotation of 5{prime}-dehydroxy analogues of 2{prime}-deoxyribose and ribose sugars

    SciTech Connect

    Brameld, K.A.; Goddard, W.A. III

    1999-02-10

    The authors have used ab initio quantum mechanical (QM) methods to determine the potential energy of pseudorotation for 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-2-(1-pyrollyl)tetrahydrofuran and 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-(1-pyrollyl)-tetrahydrofuran, close analogues of 2{prime}-deoxyribose and ribose sugars. The pyrrole is a substitute for the naturally occurring nucleic acid bases: adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. At the highest calculation level (LMP2/cc-pVTZ(-f)//HF/6-31G**) for 2{prime}-deoxyribose, they find the C2{prime}-endo conformation is the global minimum. The C3{prime}-endo conformation is a local minimum 0.6 kcal/mol higher in energy, and an eastern barrier of 1.6 kcal/mol separates the two minima. Pseudorotation energies of ribose are quite complex and are strongly affected by local orientations of the 2{prime} and 3{prime} hydroxyl groups. When the hydroxyl groups are allowed to assume any conformation, the global minimum remains the C2{prime}-endo conformation. The eastern barrier increases slightly to 1.8 kcal/mol, and the C3{prime}-endo local minimum lies 0.6 kcal/mol above the global minimum. Constraining the torsion angle of the C3{prime} hydroxyl group to {minus}146{degree}, as is found in RNA polymers, results in the C3{prime}-endo conformation becoming the only energy minimum with a C2{prime}-endo conformation 1.9 kcal/mol higher in energy. Bond angles within the pentofuranose ring are correlated to the pseudorotational phase, as is observed by X-ray crystallography and is predicted by pseudorotation theory. Finally, a force field for use in molecular mechanics and dynamics simulations is presented which reproduces the QM potential energies for the 2{prime}-deoxyribose and ribose sugars.

  4. Structural Priming: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Martin J.; Ferreira, Victor S.

    2009-01-01

    Repetition is a central phenomenon of behavior, and researchers make extensive use of it to illuminate psychological functioning. In the language sciences, a ubiquitous form of such repetition is structural priming, a tendency to repeat or better process a current sentence because of its structural similarity to a previously experienced (“prime”) sentence (Bock, 1986). The recent explosion of research in structural priming has made it the dominant means of investigating the processes involved in the production (and increasingly, comprehension) of complex expressions such as sentences. This review considers its implications for the representation of syntax and the mechanisms of production, comprehension, and their relationship. It then addresses the potential functions of structural priming, before turning to its implications for first language acquisition, bilingualism, and aphasia We close with theoretical and empirical recommendations for future investigations. PMID:18444704

  5. Priming in Systemic Plant Immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wang, Lin; Glazebrook, Jane; Greenberg, Jean T.

    2009-01-01

    Upon local infection, plants possess inducible systemic defense responses against their natural enemies. Bacterial infection results in the accumulation to high levels of the mobile metabolite C9-dicarboxylic acid azelaic acid in the vascular sap of Arabidopsis. Azelaic acid confers local and systemic resistance against Pseudomonas syringae. The compound primes plants to strongly accumulate salicylic acid (SA), a known defense signal, upon infection. Mutation of a gene induced by azelaic acid (AZI1) results in the specific loss in plants of systemic immunity triggered by pathogen or azelaic acid and of the priming of SA induction. AZI1, a predicted secreted protein, is also important for generating vascular sap that confers disease resistance. Thus, azelaic acid and AZI1 comprise novel components of plant systemic immunity involved in priming defenses.

  6. Thiamine primed defense provides reliable alternative to systemic fungicide carbendazim against sheath blight disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Bahuguna, Rajeev Nayan; Joshi, Rohit; Shukla, Alok; Pandey, Mayank; Kumar, J

    2012-08-01

    A novel pathogen defense strategy by thiamine priming was evaluated for its efficacy against sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani AG-1A, of rice and compared with that of systemic fungicide, carbendazim (BCM). Seeds of semidwarf, high yielding, basmati rice variety Vasumati were treated with thiamine (50 mM) and BCM (4 mM). The pot cultured plants were challenge inoculated with R. solani after 40 days of sowing and effect of thiamine and BCM on rice growth and yield traits was examined. Higher hydrogen peroxide content, total phenolics accumulation, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity under thiamine treatment displayed elevated level of systemic resistance, which was further augmented under challenging pathogen infection. High transcript level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) validated mode of thiamine primed defense. Though minimum disease severity was observed under BCM treatment, thiamine produced comparable results, with 18.12 per cent lower efficacy. Along with fortifying defense components and minor influence on photosynthetic pigments and nitrate reductase (NR) activity, thiamine treatment significantly reduced pathogen-induced loss in photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll fluorescence, NR activity and NR transcript level. Physiological traits affected under pathogen infection were found signatory for characterizing plant's response under disease and were detectable at early stage of infection. These findings provide a novel paradigm for developing alternative, environmentally safe strategies to control plant diseases.

  7. Are coffee and toffee served in a cup? Ortho-phonologically mediated associative priming.

    PubMed

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel; Perea, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    We report three masked associative priming experiments with the lexical decision task that explore whether the initial activation flow of a visually presented word activates the semantic representations of that word's orthographic/phonological neighbours. The predictions of cascades and serial/modular models of lexical processing differ widely in this respect. Using a masked priming paradigm (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA = 50 ms), words preceded by ortho-phonologically mediated associated "neighbours" (oveja-MIEL, the Spanish for sheep-HONEY; note that oveja is a phonological neighbour of abeja, the Spanish for bee) were recognized more rapidly than words preceded by an unrelated word prime (Experiments 1 and 3). Furthermore, the magnitude of the ortho-phonologically mediated priming effect (oveja-MIEL) was similar to the magnitude of the associative priming effect (abeja-MIEL). With visible primes and a 250-ms SOA, only the directly associated words showed a priming effect (Experiment 2). These findings pose some problems for a modular account and are more easily interpreted in terms of cascaded models.

  8. Stimulus-driven changes in the direction of neural priming during visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Pas, Maciej; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2016-01-15

    Visual object recognition is generally known to be facilitated when targets are preceded by the same or relevant stimuli. For written words, however, the beneficial effect of priming can be reversed when primes and targets share initial syllables (e.g., "boca" and "bono"). Using fMRI, the present study explored neuroanatomical correlates of this negative syllabic priming. In each trial, participants made semantic judgment about a centrally presented target, which was preceded by a masked prime flashed either to the left or right visual field. We observed that the inhibitory priming during reading was associated with a left-lateralized effect of repetition enhancement in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), rather than repetition suppression in the ventral visual region previously associated with facilitatory behavioral priming. We further performed a second fMRI experiment using a classical whole-word repetition priming paradigm with the same hemifield procedure and task instruction, and obtained well-known effects of repetition suppression in the left occipito-temporal cortex. These results therefore suggest that the left IFG constitutes a fast word processing system distinct from the posterior visual word-form system and that the directions of repetition effects can change with intrinsic properties of stimuli even when participants' cognitive and attentional states are kept constant. PMID:26514294

  9. Stimulus-driven changes in the direction of neural priming during visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Pas, Maciej; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2016-01-15

    Visual object recognition is generally known to be facilitated when targets are preceded by the same or relevant stimuli. For written words, however, the beneficial effect of priming can be reversed when primes and targets share initial syllables (e.g., "boca" and "bono"). Using fMRI, the present study explored neuroanatomical correlates of this negative syllabic priming. In each trial, participants made semantic judgment about a centrally presented target, which was preceded by a masked prime flashed either to the left or right visual field. We observed that the inhibitory priming during reading was associated with a left-lateralized effect of repetition enhancement in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), rather than repetition suppression in the ventral visual region previously associated with facilitatory behavioral priming. We further performed a second fMRI experiment using a classical whole-word repetition priming paradigm with the same hemifield procedure and task instruction, and obtained well-known effects of repetition suppression in the left occipito-temporal cortex. These results therefore suggest that the left IFG constitutes a fast word processing system distinct from the posterior visual word-form system and that the directions of repetition effects can change with intrinsic properties of stimuli even when participants' cognitive and attentional states are kept constant.

  10. Automatic Activation of Adolescents' Peer-Relational Schemas: Evidence from Priming with Facial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Peets, Katlin; Salmivalli, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This study provides experimental evidence for automatic, relationship-specific social information processing in 13-year-old adolescents. Photographs of participants' liked, disliked, and unknown peers were used as primes in an affective priming task with happy and angry facial expression probes and in a hypothetical vignette task. For the…

  11. Oligomerizations of deoxyadenosine bis-phosphates and of their 3-prime-5-prime, 3-prime-3-prime, and 5-prime-5-prime dimers - Effects of a pyrophosphate-linked, poly(T) analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visscher, J.; Bakker, C. G.; Schwartz, Alan W.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a 3-prime-5-prime pyrophosphate-linked oligomer of pTp on oligomerizations of pdAp and of its 3-prime-5-prime, 3-prime-3-prime, and 5-prime-5-prime dimers was investigated, using HPLC to separate the reaction mixtures; peak detection was by absorbance monitoring at 254 nm. It was expected that the dimers would form stable complexes with the template, with the degree of stability depending upon the internal linkage of each dimer. It was found that, although the isomers differ substantially in their oligomerization behavior in the absence of template, the analog-template catalyzes the oligomerization to about the same extent in all three cases.

  12. What does it take to implicitly prime low-frequency category exemplars?

    PubMed

    Hunt, R Reed; Lamb, Christopher A

    2006-03-01

    Prominent views of implicit priming agree that repetition of category exemplars should increase the probability of the exemplar coming to mind on a category production test. This prediction has been borne out in the data of numerous experiments that have used relatively high-frequency exemplars, but experiments that have used lower frequency exemplars have reported reduced or no priming on category production tests. Frameworks of memory disagree on why frequency would affect priming. The authors report 3 experiments, the first of which shows no priming of low-frequency exemplars under circumstances that yield priming of higher frequency instances. The second 2 experiments show that low-frequency instances can be primed, but the prior experience must bias the comprehension of the category label, not the exemplar. PMID:16569144

  13. The Roles of Spreading Activation and Retrieval Mode in Producing False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Michelle L.; Watson, Jason M.; Balota, David A.; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2007-01-01

    The nature of persisting spreading activation from list presentation in eliciting false recognition in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm was examined in two experiments. We compared the time course of semantic priming in the lexical decision task (LDT) and false alarms in speeded recognition under identical study and test conditions. The…

  14. Apollo 13 prime crew portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 13 prime crew portrait. From left to right are Astronauts James A. Lovell, Thomas K. Mattingly, and Fred W. Haise in their space suits. On the table in front of them are (l-r) a model of a sextant, the Apollo 13 insignia, and a model of an astrolabe. The sextant and astrolabe are two ancient forms of navigation.

  15. Prime Suspect, Second Row Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    His father had been hacked to death in his own bed with an ax the previous November. His mother was similarly brutalized and left for dead with her husband but survived. On the last Monday of that August, after several months and many investigative twists, turns, and fumbles, there sat the son--the prime suspect--in Ellen Laird's literature class,…

  16. The activation of semantic memory: effects of prime exposure, prime-target relationship, and task demands.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Steve; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2008-06-01

    Priming facilitation was examined under conditions of brief incremental prime exposures (28, 43, 71, and 199 msec) under masked conditions for two types of lexical relationships (associative-semantic pairs, such as "wolf-fox," and semantic-feature pairs, such as "whale-dolphin") and in two tasks (primed lexical decision and semantic categorization). The results of eight experiments revealed, first, that priming elicits faster response times for semantic-feature pairs. The associative-semantic pairs produced priming only at the longer prime exposures. Second, priming was observed earlier for semantic categorization than for the lexical decision task, in which priming was observed only at the longer stimulus onset asynchronies. Finally, our results allowed us to discredit the congruency hypothesis, according to which priming is due to a common categorical response for the prime and target words. The implications of these results for current theories of semantic priming are discussed.

  17. Syntactic priming in German-English bilinguals during sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kirsten; Indefrey, Peter

    2009-07-15

    A longstanding question in bilingualism is whether syntactic information is shared between the two language processing systems. We used an fMRI repetition suppression paradigm to investigate syntactic priming in reading comprehension in German-English late-acquisition bilinguals. In comparison to conventional subtraction analyses in bilingual experiments, repetition suppression has the advantage of being able to detect neuronal populations that are sensitive to properties that are shared by consecutive stimuli. In this study, we manipulated the syntactic structure between prime and target sentences. A sentence with a passive sentence structure in English was preceded either by a passive or by an active sentence in English or German. We looked for repetition suppression effects in left inferior frontal, left precentral and left middle temporal regions of interest. These regions were defined by a contrast of all non-target sentences in German and English versus the baseline of sentence-format consonant strings. We found decreases in activity (repetition suppression effects) in these regions of interest following the repetition of syntactic structure from the first to the second language and within the second language. Moreover, a separate behavioural experiment using a word-by-word reading paradigm similar to the fMRI experiment showed faster reading times for primed compared to unprimed English target sentences regardless of whether they were preceded by an English or a German sentence of the same structure. We conclude that there is interaction between the language processing systems and that at least some syntactic information is shared between a bilingual's languages with similar syntactic structures.

  18. A prime a day keeps calories away: The effects of supraliminal priming on food consumption and the moderating role of gender and eating restraint.

    PubMed

    Minas, Randall K; Poor, Morgan; Dennis, Alan R; Bartelt, Valerie L

    2016-10-01

    The link between intentions and action in weight control is weaker than previously thought, so recent research has called for further investigation of ways to improve weight control that bypass conscious intentions. Priming has been shown to have effects on individual behavior in a variety of contexts by influencing subconscious cognition. This paper investigates the effects of semantic priming using healthy body image, goal-oriented words on food consumption. The moderating role of both restrained eating and gender is investigated. 161 participants were involved in an experiment using a novel version of a scrambled sentence priming game. The outcome measure was the number of kilocalories consumed, examined using a between subjects ANCOVA with priming, gender, restrained eating index, self-reported BMI, and two interaction terms (primingxgender, and primingxrestrained eating index). There was no main effect of priming but there was an interaction of priming with gender. Females consumed significantly fewer kilocalories after being exposed to priming words related to a healthy body image (i.e. "slim", "fit,") compared to females receiving the neutral prime, with a medium effect size (d = 0.58). The body image prime did not significantly affect food intake for males, nor did it have a differential effect on restrained eaters. This study shows that priming can be an effective method for influencing females to reduce food intake, regardless of whether they are restrained or unrestrained eaters. Future studies could investigate whether different priming words related to a male's healthy body image goal (i.e. "buff," "muscles," etc.) would similarly reduce food intake for males. PMID:27235824

  19. Priming cases disturb visual search patterns in screening mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Sarah J.; Reed, Warren M.; Tan, Alvin N. K.; Brennan, Patrick C.; Lee, Warwick; Mello-Thoms, Claudia

    2015-03-01

    Rationale and Objectives: To investigate the effect of inserting obvious cancers into a screening set of mammograms on the visual search of radiologists. Previous research presents conflicting evidence as to the impact of priming in scenarios where prevalence is naturally low, such as in screening mammography. Materials and Methods: An observer performance and eye position analysis study was performed. Four expert breast radiologists were asked to interpret two sets of 40 screening mammograms. The Control Set contained 36 normal and 4 malignant cases (located at case # 9, 14, 25 and 37). The Primed Set contained the same 34 normal and 4 malignant cases (in the same location) plus 2 "primer" malignant cases replacing 2 normal cases (located at positions #20 and 34). Primer cases were defined as lower difficulty cases containing salient malignant features inserted before cases of greater difficulty. Results: Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test indicated no significant differences in sensitivity or specificity between the two sets (P > 0.05). The fixation count in the malignant cases (#25, 37) in the Primed Set after viewing the primer cases (#20, 34) decreased significantly (Z = -2.330, P = 0.020). False-Negatives errors were mostly due to sampling in the Primed Set (75%) in contrast to in the Control Set (25%). Conclusion: The overall performance of radiologists is not affected by the inclusion of obvious cancer cases. However, changes in visual search behavior, as measured by eye-position recording, suggests visual disturbance by the inclusion of priming cases in screening mammography.

  20. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Erin M; Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2014-04-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants' (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors.

  1. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kiviniemi, Marc T.

    2013-01-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants’ (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors. PMID:23299831

  2. Secure Base Priming Diminishes Conflict-Based Anger and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Tamara; Bartholomew, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the impact of a visual representation of a secure base (i.e. a secure base prime) on attenuating experimentally produced anger and anxiety. Specifically, we examined the assuaging of negative emotions through exposure to an image of a mother-infant embrace or a heterosexual couple embracing. Subjects seated at a computer terminal rated their affect (Pre Affect) using the Affect Adjective Checklist (AAC) then listened to two sets of intense two person conflicts. After the first conflict exposure they rated affect again (Post 1 AAC). Following the second exposure they saw a blank screen (control condition), pictures of everyday objects (distraction condition) or a photo of two people embracing (Secure Base Prime condition). They then reported emotions using the Post 2 AAC. Compared to either control or distraction subjects, Secure Base Prime (SBP) subjects reported significantly less anger and anxiety. These results were then replicated using an internet sample with control, SBP and two new controls: Smiling Man (to control for expression of positive affect) and Cold Mother (an unsmiling mother with infant). The SBP amelioration of anger and anxiety was replicated with the internet sample. No control groups produced this effect, which was generated only by a combination of positive affect in a physically embracing dyad. The results are discussed in terms of attachment theory and research on spreading activation. PMID:27606897

  3. Secure Base Priming Diminishes Conflict-Based Anger and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Donald G; Lane, René A; Koren, Tamara; Bartholomew, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the impact of a visual representation of a secure base (i.e. a secure base prime) on attenuating experimentally produced anger and anxiety. Specifically, we examined the assuaging of negative emotions through exposure to an image of a mother-infant embrace or a heterosexual couple embracing. Subjects seated at a computer terminal rated their affect (Pre Affect) using the Affect Adjective Checklist (AAC) then listened to two sets of intense two person conflicts. After the first conflict exposure they rated affect again (Post 1 AAC). Following the second exposure they saw a blank screen (control condition), pictures of everyday objects (distraction condition) or a photo of two people embracing (Secure Base Prime condition). They then reported emotions using the Post 2 AAC. Compared to either control or distraction subjects, Secure Base Prime (SBP) subjects reported significantly less anger and anxiety. These results were then replicated using an internet sample with control, SBP and two new controls: Smiling Man (to control for expression of positive affect) and Cold Mother (an unsmiling mother with infant). The SBP amelioration of anger and anxiety was replicated with the internet sample. No control groups produced this effect, which was generated only by a combination of positive affect in a physically embracing dyad. The results are discussed in terms of attachment theory and research on spreading activation. PMID:27606897

  4. No pain, no gain: the affective valence of congruency conditions changes following a successful response.

    PubMed

    Schouppe, Nathalie; Braem, Senne; De Houwer, Jan; Silvetti, Massimo; Verguts, Tom; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Notebaert, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The cognitive control theory of Botvinick, Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 356-366 (2007) integrates cognitive and affective control processes by emphasizing the aversive nature of cognitive conflict. Using an affective priming paradigm, we replicate earlier results showing that incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials, are indeed perceived as more aversive (Dreisbach & Fischer, Brain and Cognition, 78(2), 94-98 (2012)). Importantly, however, in two experiments we demonstrate that this effect is reversed following successful responses; correctly responding to incongruent trials engendered relatively more positive affect than correctly responding to congruent trials. The results are discussed in light of a recent computational model by Silvetti, Seurinck, and Verguts, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 5:75 (2011) where it is assumed that outcome expectancies are more negative for incongruent trials than congruent trials. Consequently, the intrinsic reward (prediction error) following successful completion is larger for incongruent than congruent trials. These findings divulge a novel perspective on 'cognitive' adaptations to conflict.

  5. The stroke rehabilitation paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian M; Pangilinan, Percival H; Rodriguez, Gianna M

    2007-11-01

    The matrix of stroke rehabilitation is evolving as we look outside the box of traditional therapy type, timing, and intensity of rehabilitation techniques. For inpatient wards, the goal of medical stability and prompt resolution of complications to maximize participation in therapy remains paramount. In the current medical model, we focus on teaching compensatory strategies and rarely on restorative approaches because of time and financial limitations. Researchers aim to identify new technologic and molecular approaches to improve functional outcomes and more accurately predict disability. This article examines different concepts surrounding the comprehensive rehabilitation paradigm of stroke survivors.

  6. Effects of Immediate and Cumulative Syntactic Experience in Language Impairment: Evidence from Priming of Subject Relatives in Children with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garraffa, Maria; Coco, Moreno I.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the production of subject relative clauses (SRc) in Italian pre-school children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and age-matched typically-developing children (TD) controls. In a structural priming paradigm, children described pictures after hearing the experimenter produce a bare noun or an SRc description, as part of a…

  7. There is a fire burning in my heart: the role of causal attribution in affect transfer.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Masanori; Aarts, Henk; Oikawa, Haruka

    2011-01-01

    The role of causal attribution in affect transfer of primes was addressed by examining the consequences of explicit evaluation of primes within the framework of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP; Payne, Cheng, Govorun, & Stewart, 2005). We reasoned that affect transfer occurs when primed affect remains diffuse and not bound to a specific object, hence capable of freely colouring subsequent evaluations of ambiguous objects. Accordingly, we propose that when people explicitly evaluate the prime, affect is clearly bound to the prime and becomes less capable of influencing subsequent judgements. Supporting this notion, affect transfer in the AMP was observed when participants ignored the primes, thereby keeping the primed affect relatively unbound. However, this effect disappeared when participants explicitly evaluated the primes before target stimuli were presented. Implications of these findings in determining how and when affect arising from one object carries over to another is discussed.

  8. The functional unit of Japanese word naming: evidence from masked priming.

    PubMed

    Verdonschot, Rinus G; Kiyama, Sachiko; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Heij, Wido La; Schiller, Niels O

    2011-11-01

    Theories of language production generally describe the segment as the basic unit in phonological encoding (e.g., Dell, 1988; Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer, 1999). However, there is also evidence that such a unit might be language specific. Chen, Chen, and Dell (2002), for instance, found no effect of single segments when using a preparation paradigm. To shed more light on the functional unit of phonological encoding in Japanese, a language often described as being mora based, we report the results of 4 experiments using word reading tasks and masked priming. Experiment 1 demonstrated using Japanese kana script that primes, which overlapped in the whole mora with target words, sped up word reading latencies but not when just the onset overlapped. Experiments 2 and 3 investigated a possible role of script by using combinations of romaji (Romanized Japanese) and hiragana; again, facilitation effects were found only when the whole mora and not the onset segment overlapped. Experiment 4 distinguished mora priming from syllable priming and revealed that the mora priming effects obtained in the first 3 experiments are also obtained when a mora is part of a syllable. Again, no priming effect was found for single segments. Our findings suggest that the mora and not the segment (phoneme) is the basic functional phonological unit in Japanese language production planning.

  9. Will Julia Roberts harm Nicole Kidman? Semantic priming effects during face naming.

    PubMed

    Vitkovitch, Melanie; Potton, Anita; Bakogianni, Christina; Kinch, Laura

    2006-06-01

    Three experiments are reported, which examine whether face naming is vulnerable to semantic competition in a similar way to object naming. Previous experiments with object naming have shown that a related prime picture presented 3 trials before a target picture results in an increase in error rate and naming latencies when compared to unrelated prime conditions. The experiments here use the same paradigm, with errors as the main dependent variable. In Experiment 1, the prime and target faces were from the same occupational category (e.g., politicians, actors), and in Experiment 2, the primes and target faces were also associated to each other. In Experiment 3, the prime was presented as a name to be read aloud. Unrelated filler stimuli intervened between prime and target. In all experiments, there was a reduction in target-naming errors in the related conditions, and in Experiment 3 this was shown to be largely a reduction in naming failures. The results suggest that related name representations for famous people are not activated in parallel and in competition, and that there is some evidence for a relatively long lasting facilitatory effect. These results require some modification to any serial account of face naming to differentiate it from the generally well-established serial account of object naming.

  10. Cross-language phonological activation: evidence from masked onset priming and ERPs.

    PubMed

    Jouravlev, Olessia; Lupker, Stephen J; Jared, Debra

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the present research was to provide direct evidence for the cross-language interaction of phonologies at the sub-lexical level by using the masked onset priming paradigm. More specifically, we investigated whether there is a cross-language masked onset priming effect (MOPE) with L2 (English) primes and L1 (Russian) targets and whether it is modulated by the orthographic similarity of primes and targets. Primes and targets had onsets that overlapped either only phonologically, only orthographically, both phonologically and orthographically, or did not have any overlap. Phonological overlap, but not orthographic overlap, between primes and targets led to faster naming latencies. In contrast, the ERP data provided evidence for effects of both phonological and orthographic overlap. Finally, the time-course of phonological and orthographic processing for our bilinguals mirrored the time-course previously reported for monolinguals in the ERP data. These results provide evidence for shared representations at the sub-lexical level for a bilingual's two languages.

  11. The role of subjective frequency in language switching: an ERP investigation using masked priming.

    PubMed

    Chauncey, Krysta; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J

    2011-02-01

    Two experiments examined the nature of language-switching effects in a priming paradigm with event-related brain potential (ERP) recordings. primes and targets were always unrelated words but could be either from the same or different languages (Experiment 1) or from the same or a different frequency range (Experiment 2). Effects of switching language across prime and target differed as a function of the direction of the switch and prime duration in Experiment 1. Effects tended to be stronger with 100-ms prime durations than with 50-ms durations, and the expected pattern of greater negativity in the switch condition appeared earlier when primes were in L1 and targets in L2 than vice versa. Experiment 2 examined whether these language-switching effects could be due to differences in the subjective frequency of words in a bilingual's two languages, by testing a frequency-switching manipulation within the L1. Effects of frequency switching were evident in the ERP waveforms, but the pattern did not resemble the language-switching effects, therefore suggesting that different mechanisms are at play.

  12. Maglev ready for prime time.

    SciTech Connect

    Rote, D. M.; Johnson, L. R.; Energy Systems

    2003-01-01

    Putting Maglev on Track' (Issues, Spring 1990) observed that growing airline traffic and associated delays were already significant and predicted that they would worsen. The article argued that a 300-mile-per-hour (mph) magnetic levitation (maglev) system integrated into airport and airline operations could be a part of the solution. Maglev was not ready for prime time in 1990, but it is now.

  13. KAPAO Prime: Design and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGonigle, Lorcan; Choi, P. I.; Severson, S. A.; Spjut, E.

    2013-01-01

    KAPAO (KAPAO A Pomona Adaptive Optics instrument) is a dual-band natural guide star adaptive optics system designed to measure and remove atmospheric aberration over UV-NIR wavelengths from Pomona College’s telescope atop Table Mountain. We present here, the final optical system, KAPAO Prime, designed in Zemax Optical Design Software that uses custom off-axis paraboloid mirrors (OAPs) to manipulate light appropriately for a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor, deformable mirror, and science cameras. KAPAO Prime is characterized by diffraction limited imaging over the full 81” field of view of our optical camera at f/33 as well as over the smaller field of view of our NIR camera at f/50. In Zemax, tolerances of 1% on OAP focal length and off-axis distance were shown to contribute an additional 4 nm of wavefront error (98% confidence) over the field of view of our optical camera; the contribution from surface irregularity was determined analytically to be 40nm for OAPs specified to λ/10 surface irregularity (632.8nm). Modeling of the temperature deformation of the breadboard in SolidWorks revealed 70 micron contractions along the edges of the board for a decrease of 75°F when applied to OAP positions such displacements from the optimal layout are predicted to contribute an additional 20 nanometers of wavefront error. Flexure modeling of the breadboard due to gravity is on-going. We hope to begin alignment and testing of KAPAO Prime in Q1 2013.

  14. KAPAO Prime: Design and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGonigle, Lorcan

    2012-11-01

    KAPAO (KAPAO A Pomona Adaptive Optics instrument) is a dual-band natural guide star adaptive optics system designed to measure and remove atmospheric aberration from Pomona College's telescope atop Table Mountain. We present here, the final optical system, referred to as Prime, designed in Zemax Optical Design Software. Prime is characterized by diffraction limited imaging over the full 73'' field of view of our Andor Camera at f/33 as well as for our NIR Xenics camera at f/50. In Zemax, tolerances of 1% on OAP focal length and off-axis distance were shown to contribute an additional 4 nm of wavefront error (98% confidence) over the field of view of the Andor camera; the contribution from surface irregularity was determined analytically to be 40nm for OAPs specified to l/10 surface irregularity. Modeling of the temperature deformation of the breadboard in SolidWorks revealed 70 micron contractions along the edges of the board for a decrease of 75 F; when applied to OAP positions such displacements from the optimal layout are predicted to contribute an additional 20 nanometers of wavefront error. Flexure modeling of the breadboard due to gravity is on-going. We hope to begin alignment and testing of ``Prime'' in Q1 2013.

  15. Code-switching effects in bilingual word recognition: a masked priming study with event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Chauncey, Krysta; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J

    2008-06-01

    Two experiments tested language switching effects with bilingual participants in a priming paradigm with masked primes (duration of 50ms in Experiment 1 and 100ms in Experiment 2). Participants had to monitor target words for animal names, and ERPs were recorded to critical (non-animal) words in L1 and L2 primed by unrelated words from the same or the other language. Both experiments revealed language priming (switching) effects that depended on target language. For target words in L1, most of the language switch effect appeared in the N400 ERP component, with L2 primes generating a more negative going wave than L1 primes. For L2 target words, on the other hand, the effects of a language switch appeared mainly in an earlier ERP component (N250) peaking at approximately 250ms post-target onset, and showing greater negativity following an L1 prime than an L2 prime. This is the first evidence for fast-acting language-switching effects occurring in the absence of overt task switching.

  16. fMRI paradigm designing and post-processing tools

    PubMed Central

    James, Jija S; Rajesh, PG; Chandran, Anuvitha VS; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we first review some aspects of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm designing for major cognitive functions by using stimulus delivery systems like Cogent, E-Prime, Presentation, etc., along with their technical aspects. We also review the stimulus presentation possibilities (block, event-related) for visual or auditory paradigms and their advantage in both clinical and research setting. The second part mainly focus on various fMRI data post-processing tools such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) and Brain Voyager, and discuss the particulars of various preprocessing steps involved (realignment, co-registration, normalization, smoothing) in these software and also the statistical analysis principles of General Linear Modeling for final interpretation of a functional activation result. PMID:24851001

  17. Repetition priming in selective attention: A TVA analysis.

    PubMed

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-09-01

    Current behavior is influenced by events in the recent past. In visual attention, this is expressed in many variations of priming effects. Here, we investigate color priming in a brief exposure digit-recognition task. Observers performed a masked odd-one-out singleton recognition task where the target-color either repeated or changed between subsequent trials. Performance was measured by recognition accuracy over exposure durations. The purpose of the study was to replicate earlier findings of perceptual priming in brief displays and to model those results based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990). We tested 4 different definitions of a generic TVA-model and assessed their explanatory power. Our hypothesis was that priming effects could be explained by selective mechanisms, and that target-color repetitions would only affect the selectivity parameter (α) of our models. Repeating target colors enhanced performance for all 12 observers. As predicted, this was only true under conditions that required selection of a target among distractors, but not when a target was presented alone. Model fits by TVA were obtained with a trial-by-trial maximum likelihood estimation procedure that estimated 4-15 free parameters, depending on the particular model. We draw two main conclusions. Color priming can be modeled simply as a change in selectivity between conditions of repetition or swap of target color. Depending on the desired resolution of analysis; priming can accurately be modeled by a simple four parameter model, where VSTM capacity and spatial biases of attention are ignored, or more fine-grained by a 10 parameter model that takes these aspects into account.

  18. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  19. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  20. The Case of Watson vs. James: Effect-Priming Studies Do Not Support Ideomotor Theory

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Ralf F. A.; Hasselman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we show that response facilitation in choice reaction tasks achieved by priming the (previously perceived) effect is based on stimulus-response associations rather than on response-effect associations. The reduced key-press response time is not accounted for by earlier established couplings between the key-press movement and its subsequent effect, but instead results from couplings between this effect and the contingent key-release movement. This key-release movement is an intrinsic part of the entire performed response action in each trial of a reaction-time task, and always spontaneously follows the key-press movement. Eliminating the key-release movement from the task leads to the disappearance of the response facilitation, which raises the question whether response-effect associations actually play a role in studies that use the effect-priming paradigm. Together the three experiments presented in the paper cast serious doubts on the claim that action-effect couplings are acquired and utilized by the cognitive system in the service of action selection, and that the priming paradigm by itself can provide convincing evidence for this claim. As a corollary, we question whether the related two-step model for the ideomotor principle holds a satisfying explanation for how anticipation of future states guides action planning. The results presented here may have profound implications for priming studies in other disciplines of psychology as well. PMID:23349793

  1. Priming with threatening faces modulates the self-face advantage by enhancing the other-face processing rather than suppressing the self-face processing.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lili; Qi, Mingming; Li, Haijiang; Hitchman, Glenn; Yang, Juan; Liu, Yijun

    2015-05-22

    Social emotional information influences self-processing in everyday activities, but few researchers have investigated this process. The current ERP study adopted a prime paradigm to investigate how socially threatening faces impact on the self-face processing advantage. After being primed with emotional faces (happy, angry or neutral), participants judged whether the target face (self, friend, and stranger) was familiar or unfamiliar. Results showed an interaction effect between the prime face and the target face at posterior P3, suggesting that after priming with happy and neutral faces, self-faces elicited larger P3 amplitudes than friend-faces and stranger-faces; however, after priming with angry faces, the P3 amplitudes were not significantly different between self-face and friend-face. Moreover, the P3 amplitudes of self-faces did not differ between priming with angry and neutral faces; however, the P3 amplitude of both friend-faces and stranger-faces showed enhanced responses after priming with angry faces compared to priming with neutral faces. We suggest that the self-face processing advantage (self vs. friend) could be weakened by priming with threatening faces, through enhancement of the other-faces processing rather than suppression of self-faces processing in angry vs. neutral face prime. PMID:25765156

  2. Priming with threatening faces modulates the self-face advantage by enhancing the other-face processing rather than suppressing the self-face processing.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lili; Qi, Mingming; Li, Haijiang; Hitchman, Glenn; Yang, Juan; Liu, Yijun

    2015-05-22

    Social emotional information influences self-processing in everyday activities, but few researchers have investigated this process. The current ERP study adopted a prime paradigm to investigate how socially threatening faces impact on the self-face processing advantage. After being primed with emotional faces (happy, angry or neutral), participants judged whether the target face (self, friend, and stranger) was familiar or unfamiliar. Results showed an interaction effect between the prime face and the target face at posterior P3, suggesting that after priming with happy and neutral faces, self-faces elicited larger P3 amplitudes than friend-faces and stranger-faces; however, after priming with angry faces, the P3 amplitudes were not significantly different between self-face and friend-face. Moreover, the P3 amplitudes of self-faces did not differ between priming with angry and neutral faces; however, the P3 amplitude of both friend-faces and stranger-faces showed enhanced responses after priming with angry faces compared to priming with neutral faces. We suggest that the self-face processing advantage (self vs. friend) could be weakened by priming with threatening faces, through enhancement of the other-faces processing rather than suppression of self-faces processing in angry vs. neutral face prime.

  3. The effects of implicit and explicit security priming on creative problem solving.

    PubMed

    Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Rom, Eldad

    2011-04-01

    Attachment theory is a theory of affect regulation as it occurs in the context of close relationships. Early research focused on regulation of emotions through maintenance of proximity to supportive others (attachment figures) in times of need. Recently, emphasis has shifted to the regulation of emotion, and the benefits of such regulation for exploration and learning, via the activation of mental representations of attachment figures (security priming). We conducted two studies on the effects of implicit and explicit security priming on creative problem solving. In Study 1, implicit security priming (subliminal presentation of attachment figures' names) led to more creative problem solving (compared with control conditions) regardless of dispositional attachment anxiety and avoidance. In Study 2, the effects of explicit security priming (recalling experiences of being well cared for) were moderated by anxiety and avoidance. We discuss the link between attachment and exploration and the different effects of implicit and explicit security priming. PMID:21432691

  4. The effects of implicit and explicit security priming on creative problem solving.

    PubMed

    Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Rom, Eldad

    2011-04-01

    Attachment theory is a theory of affect regulation as it occurs in the context of close relationships. Early research focused on regulation of emotions through maintenance of proximity to supportive others (attachment figures) in times of need. Recently, emphasis has shifted to the regulation of emotion, and the benefits of such regulation for exploration and learning, via the activation of mental representations of attachment figures (security priming). We conducted two studies on the effects of implicit and explicit security priming on creative problem solving. In Study 1, implicit security priming (subliminal presentation of attachment figures' names) led to more creative problem solving (compared with control conditions) regardless of dispositional attachment anxiety and avoidance. In Study 2, the effects of explicit security priming (recalling experiences of being well cared for) were moderated by anxiety and avoidance. We discuss the link between attachment and exploration and the different effects of implicit and explicit security priming.

  5. Are You Insulting Me? Exposure to Alcohol Primes Increases Aggression Following Ambiguous Provocation

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, William C.; Vasquez, Eduardo A.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Grosvenor, Marianne; Truong, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Considerable research has shown that alcohol consumption can increase aggression and produce extremes in other social behaviors. Although most theories posit that such effects are caused by pharmacological impairment of cognitive processes, recent research indicates that exposure to alcohol-related constructs, in the absence of consumption, can produce similar effects. Here we tested the hypothesis that alcohol priming is most likely to affect aggression in the context of ambiguous provocation. Experiment 1 showed that exposure to alcohol primes increased aggressive retaliation but only when an initial provocation was ambiguous; unambiguous provocation elicited highly aggressive responses regardless of prime exposure. Experiment 2 showed that alcohol prime exposure effects are relatively short-lived and that perceptions of the provocateur's hostility mediated effects of prime exposure on aggression. These findings suggest modification and extension of existing models of alcohol-induced aggression. PMID:24854477

  6. Wrath of God: religious primes and punishment.

    PubMed

    McKay, Ryan; Efferson, Charles; Whitehouse, Harvey; Fehr, Ernst

    2011-06-22

    Recent evidence indicates that priming participants with religious concepts promotes prosocial sharing behaviour. In the present study, we investigated whether religious priming also promotes the costly punishment of unfair behaviour. A total of 304 participants played a punishment game. Before the punishment stage began, participants were subliminally primed with religion primes, secular punishment primes or control primes. We found that religious primes strongly increased the costly punishment of unfair behaviours for a subset of our participants--those who had previously donated to a religious organization. We discuss two proximate mechanisms potentially underpinning this effect. The first is a 'supernatural watcher' mechanism, whereby religious participants punish unfair behaviours when primed because they sense that not doing so will enrage or disappoint an observing supernatural agent. The second is a 'behavioural priming' mechanism, whereby religious primes activate cultural norms pertaining to fairness and its enforcement and occasion behaviour consistent with those norms. We conclude that our results are consistent with dual inheritance proposals about religion and cooperation, whereby religions harness the byproducts of genetically inherited cognitive mechanisms in ways that enhance the survival prospects of their adherents.

  7. A Paradigm of Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Harold R.; Peyton, R. Ben

    A paradigm is proposed that would permit curriculum developers and others to specifically plan for training in environmental action as an integral and substantial component in this field. The three-part paradigm identifies and defines specific categories of action. It then identifies and illustrates the levels at which these actions can be taken.…

  8. Catalase is a key enzyme in seed recovery from ageing during priming.

    PubMed

    Kibinza, Serge; Bazin, Jérémie; Bailly, Christophe; Farrant, Jill M; Corbineau, Françoise; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat

    2011-09-01

    Ageing induces seed deterioration expressed as the loss of seed vigour and/or viability. Priming treatment, which consists in soaking of seeds in a solution of low water potential, has been shown to reinvigorate aged seeds. We investigate the importance of catalase in oxidation protection during accelerated ageing and repair during subsequent priming treatment of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds. Seeds equilibrated to 0.29g H2Og(-1) dry matter (DM) were aged at 35°C for different durations and then primed by incubation for 7 days at 15°C in a solution of polyethylene glycol 8000 at -2MPa. Accelerated ageing affected seed germination and priming treatment reversed partially the ageing effect. The inhibition of catalase by the addition of aminotriazol during priming treatment reduced seed repair indicating that catalase plays a key role in protection and repair systems during ageing. Ageing was associated with H2O2 accumulation as showed by biochemical quantification and CeCl3 staining. Catalase was reduced at the level of gene expression, protein content and affinity. Interestingly, priming induced catalase synthesis by activating expression and translation of the enzyme. Immunocytolocalization of catalase showed that the enzyme co-localized with H2O2 in the cytosol. These results clearly indicate that priming induce the synthesis of catalase which is involved in seed recovery during priming.

  9. Priming of antiherbivore defensive responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinwon; Felton, Gary W

    2013-06-01

    Defense priming is defined as increased readiness of defense induction. A growing body of literature indicates that plants (or intact parts of a plant) are primed in anticipation of impending environmental stresses, both biotic and abiotic, and upon the following stimulus, induce defenses more quickly and strongly. For instance, some plants previously exposed to herbivore-inducible plant volatiles (HIPVs) from neighboring plants under herbivore attack show faster or stronger defense activation and enhanced insect resistance when challenged with secondary insect feeding. Research on priming of antiherbivore defense has been limited to the HIPV-mediated mechanism until recently, but significant advances were made in the past three years, including non-HIPV-mediated defense priming, epigenetic modifications as the molecular mechanism of priming, and others. It is timely to consider the advances in research on defense priming in the plant-insect interactions.

  10. REM, not incubation, improves creativity by priming associative networks

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Denise J.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.; Harrison, Elizabeth M.; Kanady, Jennifer C.; Mednick, Sara C.

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesized role of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is rich in dreams, in the formation of new associations, has remained anecdotal. We examined the role of REM on creative problem solving, with the Remote Associates Test (RAT). Using a nap paradigm, we manipulated various conditions of prior exposure to elements of a creative problem. Compared with quiet rest and non-REM sleep, REM enhanced the formation of associative networks and the integration of unassociated information. Furthermore, these REM sleep benefits were not the result of an improved memory for the primed items. This study shows that compared with quiet rest and non-REM sleep, REM enhances the integration of unassociated information for creative problem solving, a process, we hypothesize, that is facilitated by cholinergic and noradrenergic neuromodulation during REM sleep. PMID:19506253

  11. Can Faces Prime a Language?

    PubMed

    Woumans, Evy; Martin, Clara D; Vanden Bulcke, Charlotte; Van Assche, Eva; Costa, Albert; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-09-01

    Bilinguals have two languages that are activated in parallel. During speech production, one of these languages must be selected on the basis of some cue. The present study investigated whether the face of an interlocutor can serve as such a cue. Spanish-Catalan and Dutch-French bilinguals were first familiarized with certain faces, each of which was associated with only one language, during simulated Skype conversations. Afterward, these participants performed a language production task in which they generated words associated with the words produced by familiar and unfamiliar faces displayed on-screen. When responding to familiar faces, participants produced words faster if the faces were speaking the same language as in the previous Skype simulation than if the same faces were speaking a different language. Furthermore, this language priming effect disappeared when it became clear that the interlocutors were actually bilingual. These findings suggest that faces can prime a language, but their cuing effect disappears when it turns out that they are unreliable as language cues. PMID:26209531

  12. Degradation of 4,4{prime}-Dichlorobiphenyl, 3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime}-Tetrachlorobiphenyl, and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-Hexachlorobiphenyl by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, D.; Lamar, R.; Hickey, W.J.

    1995-11-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has demonstrated abilities to degrade many xenobiotic chemicals. In this study, the degradation of three model polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (4,4{prime}- dichlorobiphenyl [DCB], 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl) by P. chrysosporium in liquid culture was examined. After 28 days of incubation, {sup 14}C partitioning analysis indicated extensive degradation of DCB, including 11% mineralization. In contrast, there was negligible mineralization of the tetrachloro- or hexachlorobiphenyl and little evidence for any significant metabolism. With all of the model PCBs, a large fraction of the {sup 14}C was determined to be biomass bound. Results from a time course study done with 4,4{prime}-[{sup 14}C]DCB to examine {sup 14}C partitioning dynamics indicated that the biomass-bound {sup 14}C was likely attributable to nonspecific adsorption of the PCBs to the fungal hyphae. In a subsequent isotope trapping experiment, 4-chlorobenzoic acid and 4-chlorobenzyl alcohol were identified as metabolites produced from 4,4{prime}-[{sup 14}C]DCB. To the best of our knowledge, this the first report describing intermediates formed by P. chrysosporium during PCB degradation. Results from these experiments suggested similarities between P. chrysosporium and bacterial systems in terms of effects of congener chlorination degree and pattern on PCB metabolism and intermediates characteristic of the PCB degradation process. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Complex architecture of primes and natural numbers.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Serrano, M Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián

    2014-08-01

    Natural numbers can be divided in two nonoverlapping infinite sets, primes and composites, with composites factorizing into primes. Despite their apparent simplicity, the elucidation of the architecture of natural numbers with primes as building blocks remains elusive. Here, we propose a new approach to decoding the architecture of natural numbers based on complex networks and stochastic processes theory. We introduce a parameter-free non-Markovian dynamical model that naturally generates random primes and their relation with composite numbers with remarkable accuracy. Our model satisfies the prime number theorem as an emerging property and a refined version of Cramér's conjecture about the statistics of gaps between consecutive primes that seems closer to reality than the original Cramér's version. Regarding composites, the model helps us to derive the prime factors counting function, giving the probability of distinct prime factors for any integer. Probabilistic models like ours can help to get deeper insights about primes and the complex architecture of natural numbers.

  14. Shaping relations: Exploiting relational features for visuospatial priming.

    PubMed

    Livins, Katherine A; Doumas, Leonidas A A; Spivey, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Although relational reasoning has been described as a process at the heart of human cognition, the exact character of relational representations remains an open debate. Symbolic-connectionist models of relational cognition suggest that relations are structured representations, but that they are ultimately grounded in feature sets; thus, they predict that activating those features can affect the trajectory of the relational reasoning process. The present work points out that such models do not necessarily specify what those features are though, and endeavors to show that spatial information is likely a part of it. To this end, it presents 2 experiments that used visuospatial priming to affect the course of relational reasoning. The first is a relational category-learning experiment in which this type of priming was shown to affect which spatial relation was learned when multiple were possible. The second used crossmapping analogy problems, paired with this same type of priming, to show that visuospatial cues can make participants more likely to map analogs based on relational roles, even with short presentation times. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322829

  15. Effect of Subliminal Lexical Priming on the Subjective Perception of Images: A Machine Learning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Faisal; Wong, Kian Foong; Agrawal, Abhishek; Elgendi, Mohamed; Shukla, Rohit; Ang, Natania; Ching, April; Dauwels, Justin; Chan, Alice H. D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of subliminal priming in terms of the perception of images influenced by words with positive, negative, and neutral emotional content, through electroencephalograms (EEGs). Participants were instructed to rate how much they like the stimuli images, on a 7-point Likert scale, after being subliminally exposed to masked lexical prime words that exhibit positive, negative, and neutral connotations with respect to the images. Simultaneously, the EEGs were recorded. Statistical tests such as repeated measures ANOVAs and two-tailed paired-samples t-tests were performed to measure significant differences in the likability ratings among the three prime affect types; the results showed a strong shift in the likeness judgment for the images in the positively primed condition compared to the other two. The acquired EEGs were examined to assess the difference in brain activity associated with the three different conditions. The consistent results obtained confirmed the overall priming effect on participants’ explicit ratings. In addition, machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines (SVMs), and AdaBoost classifiers were applied to infer the prime affect type from the ERPs. The highest classification rates of 95.0% and 70.0% obtained respectively for average-trial binary classifier and average-trial multi-class further emphasize that the ERPs encode information about the different kinds of primes. PMID:26866807

  16. Effect of Subliminal Lexical Priming on the Subjective Perception of Images: A Machine Learning Approach.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dhanya Menoth; Kumar, Parmod; Mahmood, Faisal; Wong, Kian Foong; Agrawal, Abhishek; Elgendi, Mohamed; Shukla, Rohit; Ang, Natania; Ching, April; Dauwels, Justin; Chan, Alice H D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of subliminal priming in terms of the perception of images influenced by words with positive, negative, and neutral emotional content, through electroencephalograms (EEGs). Participants were instructed to rate how much they like the stimuli images, on a 7-point Likert scale, after being subliminally exposed to masked lexical prime words that exhibit positive, negative, and neutral connotations with respect to the images. Simultaneously, the EEGs were recorded. Statistical tests such as repeated measures ANOVAs and two-tailed paired-samples t-tests were performed to measure significant differences in the likability ratings among the three prime affect types; the results showed a strong shift in the likeness judgment for the images in the positively primed condition compared to the other two. The acquired EEGs were examined to assess the difference in brain activity associated with the three different conditions. The consistent results obtained confirmed the overall priming effect on participants' explicit ratings. In addition, machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines (SVMs), and AdaBoost classifiers were applied to infer the prime affect type from the ERPs. The highest classification rates of 95.0% and 70.0% obtained respectively for average-trial binary classifier and average-trial multi-class further emphasize that the ERPs encode information about the different kinds of primes. PMID:26866807

  17. Multiple priming of lexically ambiguous and unambiguous targets in the cerebral hemispheres: the coarse coding hypothesis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kandhadai, Padmapriya; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2009-01-01

    The coarse coding hypothesis (Jung-Beeman 2005) postulates that the cerebral hemispheres differ in their breadth of semantic activation, with the left hemisphere (LH) activating a narrow, focused semantic field and the right (RH) weakly activating a broader semantic field. In support of coarse coding, studies (e.g., Faust and Lavidor 2003) investigating priming for multiple senses of a lexically ambiguous word have reported a RH benefit. However, studies of mediated priming (Livesay and Burgess 2003; Richards and Chiarello 1995) have failed to find a RH advantage for processing distantly-linked, unambiguous words. To address this debate, the present study made use of a multiple priming paradigm (Balota and Paul, 1996) in which two primes either converged onto the single meaning of an unambiguous, lexically-associated target (LION-STRIPES-TIGER) or diverged onto different meanings of an ambiguous target (KIDNEY-PIANO-ORGAN). In two experiments, participants either made lexical decisions to targets (Experiment 1) or made a semantic relatedness judgment between primes and targets (Experiment 2). In both tasks, for both ambiguous and unambiguous triplets we found equivalent priming strengths and patterns across the two visual fields, counter to the predictions of the coarse coding hypothesis. Priming patterns further suggested that both hemispheres made use of lexical level representations in the lexical decision task and semantic representations in the semantic judgment task. PMID:17459344

  18. Attentional sensitization of unconscious cognition: task sets modulate subsequent masked semantic priming.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Markus; Martens, Ulla

    2010-08-01

    According to classical theories, automatic processes are autonomous and independent of higher level cognitive influence. In contrast, the authors propose that automatic processing depends on attentional sensitization of task-congruent processing pathways. In 3 experiments, the authors tested this hypothesis with a modified masked semantic priming paradigm during a lexical decision task by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs): Before masked prime presentation, participants attended an induction task either to semantic or perceptual stimulus features designed to activate a semantic or perceptual task set, respectively. Semantic priming effects on the N400 ERP component, an electrophysiological index of semantic processing, were obtained when a semantic task set was induced immediately before subliminal prime presentation, whereas a previously induced perceptual task set attenuated N400 priming. Across experiments, comparable results were obtained regardless of the difficulty level and the verbal or nonverbal nature of the induction tasks. In line with the proposed attentional sensitization model, unconscious semantic processing is enhanced by a semantic and attenuated by a perceptual task set. Hence, automatic processing of unconscious stimuli is susceptible to top-down control for optimizing goal-related information processing. PMID:20677895

  19. Feature activation during word recognition: action, visual, and associative-semantic priming effects

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kevin J. Y.; Dijkstra, Ton; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Embodied theories of language postulate that language meaning is stored in modality-specific brain areas generally involved in perception and action in the real world. However, the temporal dynamics of the interaction between modality-specific information and lexical-semantic processing remain unclear. We investigated the relative timing at which two types of modality-specific information (action-based and visual-form information) contribute to lexical-semantic comprehension. To this end, we applied a behavioral priming paradigm in which prime and target words were related with respect to (1) action features, (2) visual features, or (3) semantically associative information. Using a Go/No-Go lexical decision task, priming effects were measured across four different inter-stimulus intervals (ISI = 100, 250, 400, and 1000 ms) to determine the relative time course of the different features. Notably, action priming effects were found in ISIs of 100, 250, and 1000 ms whereas a visual priming effect was seen only in the ISI of 1000 ms. Importantly, our data suggest that features follow different time courses of activation during word recognition. In this regard, feature activation is dynamic, measurable in specific time windows but not in others. Thus the current study (1) demonstrates how multiple ISIs can be used within an experiment to help chart the time course of feature activation and (2) provides new evidence for embodied theories of language. PMID:26074836

  20. Category-specific semantic deficits in Alzheimer's disease: a semantic priming study.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Mireia; Costa, Albert; Juncadella, Montserrat; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Reñé, Ramón

    2008-03-01

    Category-specific semantic deficits in individuals suffering brain damage after relatively focal lesions provide an important source of evidence about the organization of semantic knowledge. However, whether Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which the brain damage is more widespread, affects semantic categories to a different extent is still controversial. In the present study, we assess this issue by means of the semantic priming technique. AD patients with a mild impairment of their semantic knowledge showed comparable priming effects to that of controls for the categories of animals and artifacts. Interestingly, however, patients with a moderate impairment of their semantic knowledge showed a normal priming effect for animals but a very reduced priming effect (if any) for artifacts. These results reveal that AD may affect the semantic knowledge of different semantic categories to a different extent. The implications of this observation for current theoretical accounts of semantic representation in the brain are discussed.

  1. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Primed and Non-primed Rice Seedlings under Submergence Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Saddam; Yin, Hanqi; Peng, Shaobing; Khan, Faheem A.; Khan, Fahad; Sameeullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Hafiz A.; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Submergence stress is a limiting factor for direct-seeded rice systems in rainfed lowlands and flood-prone areas of South and Southeast Asia. The present study demonstrated that submergence stress severely hampered the germination and seedling growth of rice, however, seed priming alleviated the detrimental effects of submergence stress. To elucidate the molecular basis of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance, transcriptome analyses were performed using 4-day-old primed (selenium-Se and salicylic acid-SA priming) and non-primed rice seedlings under submergence stress. Genomewide transcriptomic profiling identified 2371 and 2405 transcripts with Se- and SA-priming, respectively, that were differentially expressed in rice compared with non-priming treatment under submergence. Pathway and gene ontology term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in regulation of secondary metabolism, development, cell, transport, protein, and metal handling were over-represented after Se- or SA-priming. These coordinated factors might have enhanced the submergence tolerance and maintained the better germination and vigorous seedling growth of primed rice seedlings. It was also found that many genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes such as carbohydrate metabolism, cellular, and metabolic biosynthesis, nitrogen compound metabolic process, transcription, and response to oxidative stress were induced and overlapped in seed priming treatments, a finding which reveals the common mechanism of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance. Taken together, these results may provide new avenues for understanding and advancing priming-induced responses to submergence tolerance in crop plants. PMID:27516766

  2. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Primed and Non-primed Rice Seedlings under Submergence Stress.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saddam; Yin, Hanqi; Peng, Shaobing; Khan, Faheem A; Khan, Fahad; Sameeullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Hafiz A; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Submergence stress is a limiting factor for direct-seeded rice systems in rainfed lowlands and flood-prone areas of South and Southeast Asia. The present study demonstrated that submergence stress severely hampered the germination and seedling growth of rice, however, seed priming alleviated the detrimental effects of submergence stress. To elucidate the molecular basis of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance, transcriptome analyses were performed using 4-day-old primed (selenium-Se and salicylic acid-SA priming) and non-primed rice seedlings under submergence stress. Genomewide transcriptomic profiling identified 2371 and 2405 transcripts with Se- and SA-priming, respectively, that were differentially expressed in rice compared with non-priming treatment under submergence. Pathway and gene ontology term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in regulation of secondary metabolism, development, cell, transport, protein, and metal handling were over-represented after Se- or SA-priming. These coordinated factors might have enhanced the submergence tolerance and maintained the better germination and vigorous seedling growth of primed rice seedlings. It was also found that many genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes such as carbohydrate metabolism, cellular, and metabolic biosynthesis, nitrogen compound metabolic process, transcription, and response to oxidative stress were induced and overlapped in seed priming treatments, a finding which reveals the common mechanism of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance. Taken together, these results may provide new avenues for understanding and advancing priming-induced responses to submergence tolerance in crop plants.

  3. Unconscious Congruency Priming from Unpracticed Words Is Modulated by Prime-Target Semantic Relatedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortells, Juan J.; Mari-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllon, Vanesa

    2013-01-01

    Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility…

  4. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Primed and Non-primed Rice Seedlings under Submergence Stress.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saddam; Yin, Hanqi; Peng, Shaobing; Khan, Faheem A; Khan, Fahad; Sameeullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Hafiz A; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Submergence stress is a limiting factor for direct-seeded rice systems in rainfed lowlands and flood-prone areas of South and Southeast Asia. The present study demonstrated that submergence stress severely hampered the germination and seedling growth of rice, however, seed priming alleviated the detrimental effects of submergence stress. To elucidate the molecular basis of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance, transcriptome analyses were performed using 4-day-old primed (selenium-Se and salicylic acid-SA priming) and non-primed rice seedlings under submergence stress. Genomewide transcriptomic profiling identified 2371 and 2405 transcripts with Se- and SA-priming, respectively, that were differentially expressed in rice compared with non-priming treatment under submergence. Pathway and gene ontology term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in regulation of secondary metabolism, development, cell, transport, protein, and metal handling were over-represented after Se- or SA-priming. These coordinated factors might have enhanced the submergence tolerance and maintained the better germination and vigorous seedling growth of primed rice seedlings. It was also found that many genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes such as carbohydrate metabolism, cellular, and metabolic biosynthesis, nitrogen compound metabolic process, transcription, and response to oxidative stress were induced and overlapped in seed priming treatments, a finding which reveals the common mechanism of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance. Taken together, these results may provide new avenues for understanding and advancing priming-induced responses to submergence tolerance in crop plants. PMID:27516766

  5. The Effect of Prime Duration in Masked Orthographic Priming Depends on Neighborhood Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Christelle; Mathey, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    A lexical decision task was used with a masked priming procedure to investigate whether and to what extent neighborhood distribution influences the effect of prime duration in masked orthographic priming. French word targets had two higher frequency neighbors that were either distributed over two letter positions (e.g., "LOBE/robe-loge") or…

  6. Interdependence of priming performance and brain-damage.

    PubMed

    Markowitsch, H J; Härting, C

    1996-04-01

    Basically, two hospitalized patient groups were a variety of different learning situations which are subdividable into conventional and experimental tests and which covered so-called implicit and explicit memory tests. Furthermore, data from other cases were used for comparison and for support of the proposed hypotheses. The main sample consisted of 15 focal brain-damaged patients (group N) and 15 patients after surgical interventions outside the nervous system (group O). Aside from affective behavior and intelligence, memory tests were used. These included the WMS-r, picture and face recognition tests, the Tower of Hanoi, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), a Concept Comprehensive Test, and word and picture priming tests. A number of significant differences were obtained between the two age, sex, and education matched groups. Above all, intelligence and memory were reduced in parallel in the cortically damaged compared to the well-matched orthopedic group, while attention and concentration did not differ. Even performance in tests such as the Tower of Hanoi and the WCST differed, perhaps explainable by the proportion of frontal lobe damaged patients and the overall decrease in intelligence in group N. Verbal priming was found to a similar degree in both groups. On the other hand, priming of incomplete pictures was significantly poorer in group N than in group O; furthermore, results from MQ- and IQ-based group splitting (independent of their previous N or O affiliations) suggested a direct relation between mnemonic and other cognitive abilities and success in priming. As perceptual, but not verbal priming differed between groups, and explanation of group N results, based primarily on explicit memory processing, is unlikely. It is concluded that non-brain damaged patients in general are able to use a wider repertoire of information encoding strategies which at least in part is memory and intelligence correlated. PMID:8734566

  7. The Apollo 11 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of the prime crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. From left to right they are: Commander, Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot, Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. On July 20th 1969 at 4:18 PM, EDT the Lunar Module 'Eagle' landed in a region of the Moon called the Mare Tranquillitatis, also known as the Sea of Tranquillity. After securing his spacecraft, Armstrong radioed back to earth: 'Houston, Tranquility Base here, the Eagle has landed'. At 10:56 p.m. that same evening and witnessed by a worldwide television audience, Neil Armstrong stepped off the 'Eagle's landing pad onto the lunar surface and said: 'That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.' He became the first human to set foot upon the Moon.

  8. Pure Mediated Priming: A Retrospective Semantic Matching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lara L.

    2010-01-01

    Mediated priming refers to the activation of a target (e.g., "stripes") by a prime (e.g., "lion") that is related indirectly via a connecting mediator (e.g., tiger). In previous mediated priming studies (e.g., McNamara & Altarriba, 1988), the mediator was associatively related to the prime. In contrast, pure mediated priming (e.g., "spoon" [right…

  9. Does Verb Bias Modulate Syntactic Priming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernolet, Sarah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In a corpus analysis of spontaneous speech Jaeger and Snider (2007) found that the strength of structural priming is correlated with verb alternation bias. This finding is consistent with an implicit learning account of syntactic priming: because the implicit learning model implemented by Chang (2002), Chang, Dell, and Bock (2006), and Chang,…

  10. Phonological Priming in Children's Picture Naming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Patricia J.; MacWhinney, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined phonological priming in children and adults using a cross-modal picture-word interference task. Pictures of familiar objects were presented on a computer screen, while interfering words were presented over headphones. Results indicate that priming effects reach a peak during a time when articulatory information is being…

  11. 7 CFR 29.2290 - Premature primings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature primings. 29.2290 Section 29.2290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... 21) § 29.2290 Premature primings. Ground leaves harvested before reaching complete growth...

  12. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  13. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  14. Morphological Priming Survives a Language Switch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonschot, Rinus G.; Middelburg, Renee; Lensink, Saskia E.; Schiller, Niels O.

    2012-01-01

    In a long-lag morphological priming experiment, Dutch (L1)-English (L2) bilinguals were asked to name pictures and read aloud words. A design using non-switch blocks, consisting solely of Dutch stimuli, and switch-blocks, consisting of Dutch primes and targets with intervening English trials, was administered. Target picture naming was facilitated…

  15. Syntactic Priming in American Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew L.; Ferreira, Victor S.; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2015-01-01

    Psycholinguistic studies of sign language processing provide valuable opportunities to assess whether language phenomena, which are primarily studied in spoken language, are fundamentally shaped by peripheral biology. For example, we know that when given a choice between two syntactically permissible ways to express the same proposition, speakers tend to choose structures that were recently used, a phenomenon known as syntactic priming. Here, we report two experiments testing syntactic priming of a noun phrase construction in American Sign Language (ASL). Experiment 1 shows that second language (L2) signers with normal hearing exhibit syntactic priming in ASL and that priming is stronger when the head noun is repeated between prime and target (the lexical boost effect). Experiment 2 shows that syntactic priming is equally strong among deaf native L1 signers, deaf late L1 learners, and hearing L2 signers. Experiment 2 also tested for, but did not find evidence of, phonological or semantic boosts to syntactic priming in ASL. These results show that despite the profound differences between spoken and signed languages in terms of how they are produced and perceived, the psychological representation of sentence structure (as assessed by syntactic priming) operates similarly in sign and speech. PMID:25786230

  16. Priming Addition Facts with Semantic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F.; Oskarsson, An T.

    2008-01-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations…

  17. Visual Priming of Inverted and Rotated Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Barbara J.; McAuliffe, Sean P.; Coelho, Chase J.; Hummel, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Object images are identified more efficiently after prior exposure. Here, the authors investigated shape representations supporting object priming. The dependent measure in all experiments was the minimum exposure duration required to correctly identify an object image in a rapid serial visual presentation stream. Priming was defined as the change…

  18. The effect of stereotypical primes on the neural processing of racially ambiguous faces.

    PubMed

    Dickter, Cheryl L; Kittel, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that an early attentional component of the event-related potential (ERP), the P2, is sensitive to the distinction between the processing of racial outgroup and ingroup faces but may not be sensitive to the distinction between racially ambiguous and ingroup faces. Recent behavioral work, however, has suggested that contextual information may affect the processing of racially ambiguous faces. Thus, the first goal of this study was to examine whether the early neural processing of racially ambiguous faces would be affected by primed stereotypes. White college student participants (n = 29) completed a task in which they racially categorized monoracial Black and White faces and racially ambiguous Black-White morphs. These faces were preceded by positive and negative Black and White stereotypical primes. Results indicated that P2 amplitude to the racially ambiguous faces was moderated by the valence of the primes such that negative primes led to greater neural processing of the racially ambiguous faces than positive primes. Furthermore, the extent to which P2 amplitude was affected by prime valence was moderated by individual differences in preference for structure and categorical thinking, as well as comfort with ambiguity.

  19. Movement priming of EEG/MEG brain responses for action-words characterizes the link between language and action.

    PubMed

    Mollo, Giovanna; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Activation in sensorimotor areas of the brain following perception of linguistic stimuli referring to objects and actions has been interpreted as evidence for strong theories of embodied semantics. Although a large number of studies have demonstrated this "language-to-action" link, important questions about how activation in the sensorimotor system affects language performance ("action-to-language" link) are yet unanswered. As several authors have recently pointed out, the debate should move away from an "embodied or not" focus, and rather aim to characterize the functional contributions of sensorimotor systems to language processing in more detail. For this purpose, we here introduce a novel movement priming paradigm in combination with electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), which allows investigating effects of motor cortex pre-activation on the spatio-temporal dynamics of action-word evoked brain activation. Participants initiated experimental trials by either finger- or foot-movements before executing a two alternative forced choice task employing action-words. We found differential brain activation during the early stages of subsequent hand- and leg-related word processing, respectively, albeit in the absence of behavioral effects. Distributed source estimation based on combined EEG/MEG measurements revealed that congruency effects between effector type used for response initiation (hand or foot) and action-word category (hand- or foot-related) occurred not only in motor cortex, but also in a classical language comprehension area, posterior superior temporal cortex, already 150 msec after the visual presentation of the word stimulus. This suggests that pre-activation of hand- and leg-motor networks may differentially facilitate the ignition of semantic cell assemblies for hand- and leg-related words, respectively. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of movement priming in combination with neuroimaging to functionally characterize the link between

  20. Movement priming of EEG/MEG brain responses for action-words characterizes the link between language and action

    PubMed Central

    Mollo, Giovanna; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Activation in sensorimotor areas of the brain following perception of linguistic stimuli referring to objects and actions has been interpreted as evidence for strong theories of embodied semantics. Although a large number of studies have demonstrated this “language-to-action” link, important questions about how activation in the sensorimotor system affects language performance (“action-to-language” link) are yet unanswered. As several authors have recently pointed out, the debate should move away from an “embodied or not” focus, and rather aim to characterize the functional contributions of sensorimotor systems to language processing in more detail. For this purpose, we here introduce a novel movement priming paradigm in combination with electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), which allows investigating effects of motor cortex pre-activation on the spatio-temporal dynamics of action-word evoked brain activation. Participants initiated experimental trials by either finger- or foot-movements before executing a two alternative forced choice task employing action-words. We found differential brain activation during the early stages of subsequent hand- and leg-related word processing, respectively, albeit in the absence of behavioral effects. Distributed source estimation based on combined EEG/MEG measurements revealed that congruency effects between effector type used for response initiation (hand or foot) and action-word category (hand- or foot-related) occurred not only in motor cortex, but also in a classical language comprehension area, posterior superior temporal cortex, already 150 msec after the visual presentation of the word stimulus. This suggests that pre-activation of hand- and leg-motor networks may differentially facilitate the ignition of semantic cell assemblies for hand- and leg-related words, respectively. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of movement priming in combination with neuroimaging to functionally characterize the

  1. Priming intelligent behavior: an elusive phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Shanks, David R; Newell, Ben R; Lee, Eun Hee; Balakrishnan, Divya; Ekelund, Lisa; Cenac, Zarus; Kavvadia, Fragkiski; Moore, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Can behavior be unconsciously primed via the activation of attitudes, stereotypes, or other concepts? A number of studies have suggested that such priming effects can occur, and a prominent illustration is the claim that individuals' accuracy in answering general knowledge questions can be influenced by activating intelligence-related concepts such as professor or soccer hooligan. In 9 experiments with 475 participants we employed the procedures used in these studies, as well as a number of variants of those procedures, in an attempt to obtain this intelligence priming effect. None of the experiments obtained the effect, although financial incentives did boost performance. A Bayesian analysis reveals considerable evidential support for the null hypothesis. The results conform to the pattern typically obtained in word priming experiments in which priming is very narrow in its generalization and unconscious (subliminal) influences, if they occur at all, are extremely short-lived. We encourage others to explore the circumstances in which this phenomenon might be obtained.

  2. Masked priming by misspellings: Word frequency moderates the effects of SOA and prime-target similarity.

    PubMed

    Burt, Jennifer S

    2016-02-01

    University students made lexical decisions to eight- or nine-letter words preceded by masked primes that were the target, an unrelated word, or a typical misspelling of the target. At a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 47 ms, primes that were misspellings of the target produced a priming benefit for low-, medium-, and high-frequency words, even when the misspelled primes were changed to differ phonologically from their targets. At a longer SOA of 80 ms, misspelled primes facilitated lexical decisions only to medium- and low-frequency targets, and a phonological change attenuated the benefit for medium-frequency targets. The results indicate that orthographic similarity can be preserved over changes in letter position and word length, and that the priming effect of misspelled words at the shorter SOA is orthographically based. Orthographic-priming effects depend on the quality of the orthographic learning of the target word. PMID:26530310

  3. Temporal position priming: memory traces of recent experience bias the allocation of attention in time.

    PubMed

    Yashar, Amit; Lamy, Dominique

    2013-10-01

    Explicit expectations can guide attention toward the time at which an upcoming target is likely to appear. However, in real-life situations, explicit preknowledge of upcoming events' temporal occurrence is rarely provided. We investigated whether implicit memory traces can guide attention in time, as they guide attention to recently attended features and locations (priming of pop-out and priming of location; V. Maljkovic & K. Nakayama, 1994, Priming of pop-out: I. Role of features, Memory & Cognition, Vol. 22, pp. 657-672; V. Maljkovic & K. Nakayama, 1996, Priming of pop-out: II. The role of position, Perception & Psychophysics, Vol. 58, pp. 977-991). Using a rapid serial visual presentation task, we show a temporal position priming (TPP) effect by which search performance is speeded when the target temporal position within the visual stream happens to repeat on consecutive trials. We show that such repetition priming is one of the mechanisms that underlie the much-studied sequential effect of the foreperiod. We further demonstrate that the learned association that gives rise to TPP does not require the selection or execution of a motor response and that it affects perceptual stages of visual processing. The relations between these findings and existing accounts of the sequential effect as well as with other intertrial priming effects in visual search are discussed.

  4. Primed Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alter Healing and Improve Rat Medial Collateral Ligament Healing

    PubMed Central

    Saether, Erin E.; Chamberlain, Connie S.; Aktas, Erdem; Leiferman, Ellen M.; Brickson, Stacey L.; Vanderby, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Cell therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can improve tissue healing. It is possible, however, that priming MSCs prior to implantation can further enhance their therapeutic benefit. This study was then performed to test whether priming MSCs to be more anti-inflammatory would enhance healing in a rat ligament model, i.e. a medial collateral ligament (MCL). MSCs were primed for 48 hours using polyinosinic acid and polycytidylic acid (Poly (I:C)) at a concentration of 1µg/ml. Rat MCLs were surgically transected and administered 1×106 cells in a carrier solution at the time of injury. A series of healing metrics were analyzed at days 4 and 14 post-injury in the ligaments that received primed MSCs, unprimed MSCs, or no cells (controls). Applying primed MSCs beneficially altered healing by affecting endothelialization, type 2 macrophage presence, apoptosis, procollagen 1α, and IL-1Ra levels. When analyzing MSC localization, both primed and unprimed MSCs co-localized with endothelial cells and pericytes suggesting a supportive role in angiogenesis. Priming MSCs prior to implantation altered key ligament healing events, resulted in a more anti-inflammatory environment, and improved healing. PMID:26530282

  5. Priming and temperature limits for germination of dispersal units of Urochloa brizantha (Stapf) Webster cv. basilisk.

    PubMed

    Nakao, E A; Cardoso, V J M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of priming treatments on the upper and lower thermal limits for germination of Urochloa brizantha cv. basilisk, and testing the hypothesis that pré-imbibition affect thermal parameters of the germination. Pre-imbibed seeds both in distilled water (0 MPa) and PEG 6000 solution (-0.5 MPa) were put to germinate in different temperatures. It is suggested that U. brizantha seeds have low response to priming when they were placed to germinate in medium where water is not limiting. The response of U. brizantha seeds to priming is dependent on the temperature and water potential conditions at which the seeds are pre-imbibed, as well as on the germination temperature. The optimum temperature for germination of U. brizantha shift toward warmer temperatures in primed seeds. Priming effect was more pronounced at temperatures closer to the upper and lower limit for germination, but probably that response cannot be accounted for changes in the thermal time constant (θT(g)) and ceiling temperature (Tc(g)). Otherwise, a decrease in the base temperature (Tb) was observed in primed seeds, suggesting that the Tb distribution in U. brizantha seeds is influenced by priming.

  6. Children's Representation of Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Magnitude Examined with the Priming Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defever, Emmy; Sasanguie, Delphine; Gebuis, Titia; Reynvoet, Bert

    2011-01-01

    How people process and represent magnitude has often been studied using number comparison tasks. From the results of these tasks, a comparison distance effect (CDE) is generated, showing that it is easier to discriminate two numbers that are numerically further apart (e.g., 2 and 8) compared with numerically closer numbers (e.g., 6 and 8).…

  7. Suppression of Mirror Generalization for Reversible Letters: Evidence from Masked Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perea, Manuel; Moret-Tatay, Carmen; Panadero, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Readers of the Roman script must "unlearn" some forms of mirror generalization when processing printed stimuli (i.e., herb and herd are different words). Here we examine whether the suppression of mirror generalization is a process that affects all letters or whether it mostly affects reversible letters (i.e., b/d). Three masked priming lexical…

  8. Health Inequities: Evaluation of Two Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcroft, Rachelle

    2010-01-01

    Social work practice in health is shaped by underlying paradigms. To effectively target health inequities, practitioners need to consider appropriate paradigms. In this exploration of how six health paradigms shape theory and practice, the two health paradigms that most attended to health inequalities are social determinants of health and…

  9. Automatic Semantic Priming Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mathalon, Daniel H.; Roach, Brian J.; Ford, Judith M.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal activation of semantic networks characterizes schizophrenia and can be studied using the N400 event-related potential (ERP). N400 is elicited by words that are not primed by the preceding context and provides a direct measure of the neural mechanisms underlying semantic priming. Semantic priming refers to facilitated semantic processing gained through pre-exposure to semantic context, which can happen automatically if the interval between the prime and target is very short. We predicted that (1) schizophrenia patients have overly inclusive semantic networks, reflected in a less negative than expected N400 to relatively unprimed words, and (2) schizophrenia patients are deficient in their use of semantic context, responding to primed words as if they were unprimed, reflected in a more negative than expected N400 to primed words. N400s were acquired from patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia (n=26) and age-matched healthy comparison subjects (n=29) performing a picture-word verification (match vs. non-match) task. Word targets were presented 325ms after a picture prime, which either matched (CAMEL→”camel”), or did not match (In Category: CAMEL→”cow; Out Category: CAMEL→”candle”) the prime. N400 data suggest that both patients and controls are sensitive to the difference between primed and unprimed words, but patients are less sensitive than controls. Similarly, N400 data suggest that both groups were sensitive to the subtler difference between classes of unprimed words (In Category versus Out Category picture-word non-matches), but patients are less sensitive, especially those with prominent negative symptoms. PMID:19995582

  10. Cherry Pit Primes Brad Pitt

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Deborah M.; Locantore, Jill Kester; Austin, Ayda A.; Chae, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated why proper names are difficult to retrieve, especially for older adults. On intermixed trials, young and older adults produced a word for a definition or a proper name for a picture of a famous person. Prior production of a homophone (e.g., pit) as the response on a definition trial increased correct naming and reduced tip-of-the-tongue experiences for a proper name (e.g., Pitt) on a picture-naming trial. Among participants with no awareness of the homophone manipulation, older but not young adults showed these homophone priming effects. With a procedure that reduced awareness effects (Experiment 2), prior production of a homophone improved correct naming only for older adults, but speeded naming latency for both age groups. We suggest that representations of proper names are susceptible to weak connections that cause deficits in the transmission of excitation, impairing retrieval especially in older adults. We conclude that homophone production strengthens phonological connections, increasing the transmission of excitation. PMID:15016287

  11. Phonological and Orthographic Overlap Effects in Fast and Masked Priming

    PubMed Central

    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50ms in the fast priming version, and 50ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap), and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065

  12. Construction of monomers and chains assembled by 3d/4f metals and 4 Prime -(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2 Prime :6 Prime ,2 Double-Prime -terpyridine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Juan; Hu, Rui-Xiang; Zhang, Man-Bo

    2012-12-15

    A series of transition metal and lanthanide complexes of 4 Prime -(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2 Prime :6 Prime ,2 Double-Prime -terpyridine (HL, 1), namely [M(L){sub 2}]{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O (M=Ni, 2; Co, 3), [Zn(L){sub 2}]{sub n}{center_dot}0.5nH{sub 2}O (4) and [Ln(L){sub 3}]{sub n} (Ln=Nd, 5; Gd, 6; Er, 7) were hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Isomorphic compounds 2 and 3 are mononuclear molecules with two ligand chelating to the metal centers via tridentate terpyridyl, while compound 4 adopts 1D chain-like structure, in which five-coordinate zinc centers are surrounded by three ligands. Compounds 5-7 also display 1D chain-like structure, but the nine-coordinate lanthanide centers bonded by four ligands. Luminescent property indicates that compound 4 exhibits photoluminescence in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Six complexes of 4 Prime -(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2 Prime :6 Prime ,2 Double-Prime -terpyridine were synthesized via assembly with transition metal and lanthanide ions, respectively. Among them, [Ni(L){sub 2}]{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O and [Co(L){sub 2}]{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O are monomers, while [Zn(L){sub 2}]{sub n}{center_dot}0.5nH{sub 2}O and [Ln(L){sub 3}]{sub n} display chain-like structures. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compounds of 4 Prime -(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2 Prime :6 Prime ,2 Double-Prime -terpyridine were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer [Ni(L){sub 2}]{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O and [Co(L){sub 2}]{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O are monomers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer [Zn(L){sub 2}]{sub n}{center_dot}0.5nH{sub 2}O and [Ln(L){sub 3}]{sub n} display chain-like structures.

  13. The two paradigms of persistence.

    PubMed

    Pittenger, David J

    2002-08-01

    Persistence refers to the extent to which an individual pursues reinforcement that is no longer available. The most common generalization regarding persistence is the partial reinforcement extinction effect, which states that partial, rather than continuous, reinforcement creates the greatest level of persistence. Although the partial reinforcement effect is the most common effect in humans, exceptions exist, namely the generalized and the reversed partial reinforcement effect. Since the 1930s, psychologists have used 2 general paradigms for studying persistence in humans: the experimental paradigm and the cognitive/individual differences paradigm. For the experimental paradigm, the primary independent variable is the schedule of reinforcement used to establish the behavior prior to the removal of reinforcement. Explanations of persistence from the experimental perspective depend on associative principles derived from various theories of learning. By contrast, the cognitive/individual differences paradigm treats persistence as a function of trait variables, including locus of control and self-esteem, or general cognitive processes, such as cognitive dissonance or social cognition. In this article, the author reviews the status of the current literature on persistence and recommends directions for future research.

  14. Congruency effects in the letter search task: semantic activation in the absence of priming.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Keith A; Bosco, Frank A

    2007-04-01

    Semantic priming is typically eliminated when participants perform a letter search on the prime, suggesting that semantic activation is conditional upon one's attentional goals. However, in such studies, semantic activation (or the lack thereof) is not measured during the letter search task itself but, instead, is inferred on the basis of the responses given to a later target. In the present study, direct online evidence for semanticactivation was tested using words whose meaning should bias either a positive or a negative response (e.g.,present vs. absent). In Experiment 1, a semantic congruency effect was obtained, with faster responses when the word meaning matched the required response. Experiment 2 replicated the congruency effect while, simultaneously, showing the elimination of semantic priming. It is concluded that letter search does not affect the initiation of semantic activation. Possible accounts for the elimination of priming following letter search include activation-based suppression and transfer-inappropriate processing.

  15. Innate defensive behaviour and panic-like reactions evoked by rodents during aggressive encounters with Brazilian constrictor snakes in a complex labyrinth: behavioural validation of a new model to study affective and agonistic reactions in a prey versus predator paradigm.

    PubMed

    Guimarães-Costa, Raquel; Guimarães-Costa, Maria Beatriz; Pippa-Gadioli, Leonardo; Weltson, Alfredo; Ubiali, Walter Adriano; Paschoalin-Maurin, Tatiana; Felippotti, Tatiana Tocchini; Elias-Filho, Daoud Hibrahim; Laure, Carlos Júlio; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2007-09-15

    Defensive behaviour has been extensively studied, and non-invasive methodologies may be interesting approaches to analyzing the limbic system function as a whole. Using experimental models of animals in the state of anxiety has been fundamental in the search for new anxiolytic and antipanic compounds. The aim of this present work is to examine a new model for the study of affective behaviour, using a complex labyrinth consisting of an arena and galleries forming a maze. Furthermore, it aims to compare the defensive behaviour of Wistar rats, Mongolian gerbils and golden hamsters in a complex labyrinth, as well as the defensive behaviour of Meriones unguiculatus in aggressive encounters with either Epicrates cenchria assisi or Boa constrictor amarali in this same model. Among species presently studied, the Mongolian gerbils showed better performance in the exploration of both arena and galleries of the labyrinth, also demonstrating less latency in finding exits of the galleries. This increases the possibility of survival, as well as optimizes the events of encounter with the predator. The duration of alertness and freezing increased during confrontation with living Epicrates, as well as the duration of exploratory behaviour in the labyrinth. There was an increase in the number of freezing and alertness behaviours, as well as in duration of alertness during confrontations involving E.c. assisi, compared with behavioural reactions elicited by jirds in presence of B.c. amarali. Interestingly, the aggressive behaviour of Mongolian gerbils was more prominent against B.c. amarali compared with the other Boidae snake. E.c. assisi elicited more offensive attacks and exhibited a greater time period of body movement than B.c. amarali, which spent more time in the arena and in defensive immobility than the E.c. assisi. Considering that jirds evoked more fear-like reaction in contact with E.c. assisi, a fixed E.c. assisi kept in a hermetically closed acrylic box was used as

  16. Self-construal priming selectively modulates the scope of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuozhuo; Cheng, Menxue; Peng, Kaiping; Zhang, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Self-concept is one of the major factors to explain the cultural differences between East Asians and Westerners. In the field of visual attention, most studies have focused on the modulation of visual spatial-based attention, whereas possible influences of culture or self-concept on other types of visual attention remain largely unexplored. The present study investigated the possible modulation of visual feature-based attention by self-concept, using a within-group self-construal priming design. The experiment paradigm employed visual stimuli consisted of two intermixing random dot clouds presented in the focal visual field with red and green colors. After primed with an interdependent, independent, or neutral self-construal, the participants were instructed to attend to one of the focally presented dot cloud and respond to occasional luminance decrement events of the attended dot cloud. The detection of the focal events was found to be significantly faster when exogenously cued by a peripheral dot cloud of either the same or different colors as the attended focal dot cloud (congruent/incongruent), compared to the uncued condition. More importantly, the self-construal priming took effect only on the reaction time (RT) differences between the congruent and incongruent cued conditions: the participants responded much slower to incongruent cued events than congruent cued events under interdependent self-construal priming, while the RT difference was significantly smaller under independent self-construal priming. A closer look on the results suggests that the attention scope is selectively modulated by self-construal priming, and the modulation is mainly reflected by varying the degree of suppression on the processing of the incongruent contextual stimuli that do not share visual features with the focal object. Our findings provide new evidences that could possibly extend the current understanding on the cultural influence on visual attention.

  17. Mirror Symmetric Bimanual Movement Priming Can Increase Corticomotor Excitability and Enhance Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Byblow, Winston D.; Stinear, Cathy M.; Smith, Marie-Claire; Bjerre, Lotte; Flaskager, Brian K.; McCambridge, Alana B.

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive mirror symmetric bilateral upper limb may be a suitable priming technique for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke. Here we demonstrate neurophysiological and behavioural after-effects in healthy participants after priming with 20 minutes of repetitive active-passive bimanual wrist flexion and extension in a mirror symmetric pattern with respect to the body midline (MIR) compared to an control priming condition with alternating flexion-extension (ALT). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) indicated that corticomotor excitability (CME) of the passive hemisphere remained elevated compared to baseline for at least 30 minutes after MIR but not ALT, evidenced by an increase in the size of motor evoked potentials in ECR and FCR. Short and long-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI, LICI), short afferent inhibition (SAI) and interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) were also examined using pairs of stimuli. LICI differed between patterns, with less LICI after MIR compared with ALT, and an effect of pattern on IHI, with reduced IHI in passive FCR 15 minutes after MIR compared with ALT and baseline. There was no effect of pattern on SAI or FCR H-reflex. Similarly, SICI remained unchanged after 20 minutes of MIR. We then had participants complete a timed manual dexterity motor learning task with the passive hand during, immediately after, and 24 hours after MIR or control priming. The rate of task completion was faster with MIR priming compared to control conditions. Finally, ECR and FCR MEPs were examined within a pre-movement facilitation paradigm of wrist extension before and after MIR. ECR, but not FCR, MEPs were consistently facilitated before and after MIR, demonstrating no degradation of selective muscle activation. In summary, mirror symmetric active-passive bimanual movement increases CME and can enhance motor learning without degradation of muscle selectivity. These findings rationalise the use of mirror symmetric bimanual movement as a priming modality

  18. Negative visuospatial priming in isolation-reared rats: Evidence of resistance to the disruptive effects of amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Nurith; Powell, Susan; Weber, Martin; Swerdlow, Neal R; Young, Jared W

    2015-12-01

    Negative visuospatial priming (NP) represents a quantifiable measure of inhibitory information processing that is disrupted in several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. We developed a novel rodent NP task to investigate mechanisms underlying NP and its role in various disorders, and to test potential therapeutics. In the present studies, we further characterized this novel paradigm by investigating whether NP is disrupted in rats reared in isolation, a developmental manipulation that produces a range of abnormalities in behavior, neurochemistry, and brain structure that mirror aspects of schizophrenia pathology. We also further explored the role of monoaminergic signaling in NP and the effects of isolation rearing by challenging both socially reared and isolation-reared rats with D-amphetamine during the NP task. Although fewer isolation-reared animals learned the complex NP task, those that learned exhibited unaffected NP compared with socially reared rats. Consistent with previous reports, D-amphetamine impaired NP and increased motor impulsivity in socially reared rats. In contrast, D-amphetamine did not affect NP or motor impulsivity in isolation-reared rats. These data confirm a monoaminergic influence on NP behavior and indicate that rats reared in isolation have altered dopaminergic sensitivity. PMID:26220402

  19. Competitor rule priming: evidence for priming of task rules in task switching.

    PubMed

    Katzir, Maayan; Ori, Bnaya; Hsieh, Shulan; Meiran, Nachshon

    2015-05-01

    In task-switching experiments, participants switch between task rules, and each task rule describes how responses are mapped to stimulus information. Importantly, task rules do not pertain to any specific response but to all possible responses. This work examined the hypothesis that task rules, as wholes, rather than (just) specific responses are primed by their execution, such that, in the following trial, response conflicts are exacerbated when the competing responses are generated by these recently primed rules, and performance becomes relatively poor. This hypothesis was supported in two task-switching experiments and re-analyses of additional three published experiments, thus indicating Competitor Rule Priming. Importantly, the Competitor Rule-Priming effect was independent of response repetition vs. switch, suggesting that it reflects the priming of the entire task rule rather than the priming (or suppression) of specific responses. Moreover, this effect was obtained regardless of Backward Inhibition, suggesting these effects are unrelated.

  20. Conceptual priming with pictures and environmental sounds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongju; Porter, Anne Marie; Goolkasian, Paula

    2014-02-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to examine conceptual priming within and across modalities with pictures and environmental sounds. In Experiment 1, we developed a new multimodal stimulus set consisting of two picture and sound exemplars that represented 80 object items. In Experiments 2, we investigated whether categorization of the stimulus items would be facilitated by picture and environmental sound primes that were derived from different exemplars of the target items; and in Experiments 3 and 4, we tested the additional influence on priming when trials were consolidated within a target modality and the inter stimulus interval was lengthened. The results demonstrated that target categorization was facilitated by the advanced presentation of conceptually related exemplars, but there were differences in effectiveness when pictures and sounds appeared as primes.

  1. Russian Prime Minister Calls the Station Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin called the International Space Station from the Russian Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia, on Jan. 11, 2011. Putin also offered his condolences to ISS ...

  2. Preserved conceptual priming in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carla A R; Lloyd-Jones, Toby J

    2006-10-01

    We assessed Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy older adult control (HC) group performance on: (1) a conceptual priming task, in which participants had to make a semantic decision as to whether a degraded picture of an object encountered previously belonged to the category of living or non-living things; and (2) a recognition memory task. The AD group showed a dissociation between impaired performance on the recognition task and preserved priming for semantic decisions to degraded pictures. We argue that it is not whether priming is conceptual or perceptual that is important for the observation of priming in AD, rather it is the nature of the response that is required (c.f., Gabrieli et al., 1999). PMID:17172179

  3. Preserved verb generation priming in global amnesia.

    PubMed

    Seger, C A; Rabin, L A; Zarella, M; Gabrieli, J D

    1997-08-01

    In the verb generation task, participants are presented with nouns and generate for each one an appropriate verb. Raichle et al. (Cerebral Cortex, 1994, 4, 8-26) found that when participants generated verbs to repeated nouns, generation latencies were reduced and different patterns of brain activation were present. In order to examine whether verb generation priming is dependent or independent of declarative memory, verb generation priming was compared between 13 amnesic (seven with alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome, six with other etiologies) and 19 control participants (10 with a history of alcoholism). Both amnesic and control participants became faster across blocks on repeated nouns and slowed when novel nouns were introduced. Priming was verb specific for both groups: it was equivalent whether generated to a repeated or a novel noun. Verb generation priming, therefore, can occur independently of declarative memory.

  4. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    PubMed

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  5. OVATION Prime Model and "Aurorasaurus" Auroral Observations

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the auroral oval, as modeled using OVATION Prime (2013), along with citizen science reports collected by the Aurorasaurus project for the St. Patrick’s Day storm over March 17-19, ...

  6. NASA and OPTIMUS PRIME Team Up

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA and OPTIMUS PRIME have teamed up to educate! Kids everywhere created videos showing how NASA technology is truly more than meets the eye, and now you can vote on your favorite! Visit http://ip...

  7. The Synthesis Paradigm in Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Rice, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental genetics with model organisms and mathematically explicit genetic theory are generally considered to be the major paradigms by which progress in genetics is achieved. Here I argue that this view is incomplete and that pivotal advances in genetics—and other fields of biology—are also made by synthesizing disparate threads of extant information rather than generating new information from experiments or formal theory. Because of the explosive expansion of information in numerous “-omics” data banks, and the fragmentation of genetics into numerous subdisciplines, the importance of the synthesis paradigm will likely expand with time. PMID:24496401

  8. The synthesis paradigm in genetics.

    PubMed

    Rice, William R

    2014-02-01

    Experimental genetics with model organisms and mathematically explicit genetic theory are generally considered to be the major paradigms by which progress in genetics is achieved. Here I argue that this view is incomplete and that pivotal advances in genetics--and other fields of biology--are also made by synthesizing disparate threads of extant information rather than generating new information from experiments or formal theory. Because of the explosive expansion of information in numerous "-omics" data banks, and the fragmentation of genetics into numerous subdisciplines, the importance of the synthesis paradigm will likely expand with time.

  9. Spectroscopic and photophysical properties of complexes of 4{prime}-ferrocenyl-2,2{prime}:6{prime},2{double_prime}-terpyridine and related ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, K.; Morris, J.C.; Nile, T.A.; Walsh, J.L.; Thompson, D.W.; Petersen, J.D.; Schoonover, J.R.

    1999-05-17

    4{prime}-(Ferrocenyl)-2,2{prime}:6{prime}2{double_prime}-terpyridine (Fctpy) and 4{prime}-(4-pyridyl)-2,2{prime}:6{prime},2{double_prime}-terpyridine (pytpy) were prepared from the corresponding ferrocene- and pyridinecarboxaldehyle and 2-acetylpyridine using the Krohnke synthetic methodology. Metal complexes, [M(Fctpy){sub 2}](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} (M = Ru, Fe, Zn), [Ru(tpy)(Fctpy)](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} (tpy = 2,2{prime}:6{prime},6{double_prime}-terpyridine), and [Ru(pytpy){sub 2}](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} were prepared and characterized. Cyclic voltammetric analysis indicated Ru(III/II) and ferrocenium/ferrocene redox couples near expected potentials (Ru{sup III/II} {approximately}1.3 V and ferrocenium/ferrocene {approximately}0.6 V vs Ag/AgCl). In addition to dominant {pi}{sub tpy} {r_arrow} {pi}{sub tpy}{sup *} UV absorptions near 240 and 280 nm and d{sub {pi}}{sup Ru} {r_arrow} {pi}{sub tpy}{sup *} MLCT absorptions around 480 nm, the complexes [Ru(Fctpy){sub 2}](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} and [Ru(tpy)(Fctpy)](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} exhibit an unusual absorption band around 530 nm. Resonance Raman measurements indicate that this band is due to a {sup 1}[(d({pi}){sub Fc}){sup 6}] {r_arrow} {sup 1}[(d({pi}){sub Fc}){sup 5}({pi}{sup *}{sub tpy}{sup Ru}){sup 1}] transition. For [Ru(Fctpy){sub 2}](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} and [Ru(tpy)(Fctpy)](PF{sub 6}){sub 2}, excited-state emission and lifetime measurements indicated an upper-limit emission quantum yield of 0.003 and an upper-limit emission lifetime of 0.025 {micro}s. The influence of the ferrocenyl site on excited-state decay is discussed, and an excited-state energy level diagram is proposed.

  10. Priming in melody perception: tracking down the strength of cognitive expectations.

    PubMed

    Marmel, Frédéric; Tillmann, Barbara; Delbé, Charles

    2010-08-01

    The musical priming paradigm has shown facilitated processing for tonally related over less-related targets. However, the congruence between tonal relatedness and the psychoacoustical properties of music challenges cognitive interpretations of the involved processes. Our goal was to show that cognitive expectations (based on listeners' tonal knowledge) elicit tonal priming in melodies independently of sensory components (e.g., spectral overlap). A first priming experiment minimized sensory components by manipulating tonal relatedness with a single note change in the melodies. Processing was facilitated for related over less-related target tones, but an auditory short-term memory model succeeded in simulating this effect, thus suggesting a sensory-based explanation. When the same melodies were played with pure tones (instead of piano tones), the sensory model failed to differentiate between related and less-related targets, while listeners' data continued to show a tonal relatedness effect (Experiment 2). The tonal priming effect observed here thus provides strong evidence for the influence of listeners' tonal knowledge on music processing. The overall findings point out the need for controlled musical material (and notably beyond tone repetition) to study cognitive components in music perception. PMID:20695715

  11. Subjectivism: A Learning Paradigm for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony

    This paper describes subjectivism, a new learning paradigm that incorporates successful pedagogic practices from the past into an affect-structured constructivism. Its two goals are student empowerment and subject enculturation. Student empowerment is achieved by designing learning for success so students can take credit for and feel confidence…

  12. Academic Performance, School Desertion and Emotional Paradigm in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Emma Rosa Cruz; Barrientos, Laura Gática; Castro, Patricia Eugenia García; García, Jesús Hernández

    2010-01-01

    The present work aims to describe academic performance, school desertion and the emotional paradigm of the university students of the accounting school of the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (FCPBUAP). We have found that low academic performance is related to students' economic deficiency, which affects their concentration on their…

  13. Word repetition priming induced oscillations in auditory cortex: a magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Tavabi, Kambiz; Embick, David; Roberts, Timothy P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography was used in a passive repetition priming paradigm. Words in two frequency bins (high/low) were presented to subjects auditorily. Subjects’ brain responses to these stimuli were analyzed using synthetic aperture magnetometry. The main finding is that single word repetition of low frequency word pairs significantly attenuated the post-second word event related desynchronization in the theta-alpha (5–15Hz) bands, 200–600ms post second word stimulus onset. Peak significance between repeated high and low frequency words was evident at ~365–465ms post target onset. This finding has implications for (i) the role of theta-alpha ERD in lexical representation and access; (ii) the study of repetition suppression in the spectral-temporal domain; and (iii) the connection of neuronal repetition suppression with behavioral effects of repetition priming. PMID:21968323

  14. Priming addition facts with semantic relations.

    PubMed

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F; Oskarsson, An T

    2008-03-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations between the priming words were either aligned or misaligned with the structure of addition (M. Bassok, V. M. Chase, & S. A. Martin, 1998). Obligatory activation of addition facts occurred when the digits were primed by categorically related words (tulips-daisies), which are aligned with addition, but did not occur when the digits were primed by unrelated words (hens-radios, Experiment 1) or by functionally related words (records-songs, Experiment 2), which are misaligned with addition. These findings lend support to the viability of automatic analogical priming (B. A. Spellman, K. J. Holyoak, & R. G. Morrison, 2001) and highlight the relevance of arithmetic applications to theoretical accounts of mental arithmetic. PMID:18315410

  15. An ERP Investigation of Orthographic Priming with Relative-Position and Absolute-Position Primes

    PubMed Central

    Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study used event-related potentials to examine the time-course of relative-position and absolute-position orthographic priming. Relative-position priming was examined using primes formed by a concatenated subset of the target word’s letters (e.g., cllet/COLLECT vs. dlema/COLLECT), and absolute-position priming was investigated using hyphenated versions of these primes (c-lle-t/COLLECT vs. d-lem-a/COLLECT). Both manipulations modulated the ERP waveform starting at around 100 ms post-target onset and extending into the N400 component. The first clear manifestation of priming was found in the N250 component, where hyphenated primes were found to have an earlier, more robust and more widely distributed effect than the concatenated primes. On the other hand, both prime types had similar effects on N400 amplitude. These results provide important information about the time-course of activation of location-specific and location-invariant (word-centered) orthographic representations during visual word recognition. PMID:19285966

  16. Relational integrativity of prime-target pairs moderates congruity effects in evaluative priming.

    PubMed

    Ihmels, Max; Freytag, Peter; Fiedler, Klaus; Alexopoulos, Theodore

    2016-05-01

    In evaluative priming, positive or negative primes facilitate reactions to targets that share the same valence. While this effect is commonly explained as reflecting invariant structures in semantic long-term memory or in the sensorimotor system, the present research highlights the role of integrativity in evaluative priming. Integrativity refers to the ease of integrating two concepts into a new meaningful compound representation. In extended material tests using paired comparisons from two pools of positive and negative words, we show that evaluative congruity is highly correlated with integrativity. Therefore, in most priming studies, congruity and integrativity are strongly confounded. When both aspects are disentangled by manipulating congruity and integrativity orthogonally, three priming experiments show that evaluative-priming effects were confined to integrative prime-target pairs. No facilitation of prime-congruent targets was obtained for non-integrative stimuli. These findings are discussed from a broader perspective on priming conceived as flexible, context-dependent, and serving a generative adaptation function. PMID:26689705

  17. "Best Practices" in Teaching and Learning: Challenging Current Paradigms and Redefining Their Role in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Carolin Rekar

    2005-01-01

    With pervasive and persistent changes affecting education, educators are called to challenge current paradigms about best practices in instructional design and delivery and redefine how they are integrated into the curriculum. The purpose of this article is to introduce a model designed to support the new paradigm for best practices in education.…

  18. Paradigms of Justice and Love.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Patick H.

    This paper examines the philosophy behind the Pulse Program of Boston College and its attempt at integrating theory and practice and transforming student's paradigms of justice and love. The basic idea of the program, begun in the fall of 1969, is that students receive academic credit for participation in off-campus field projects which have a…

  19. Paradigms, Exemplars and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Hal A.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers' social-cultural organization influences the scope, quality, quantity, coherence, dissemination, utilization and impact of research-based, theoretically sound knowledge. Five concepts--paradigm, exemplar, segment, network and gatekeeper--are salient to research on researchers' organization. Autobiographical reflections signal these…

  20. [The female paradigm in psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    Rohde-Dachser, C

    1990-01-01

    According to the author, the necessary change to a new psychoanalytic paradigm of femininity can only take place if the patriarchal discourse of psychoanalytic metatheory is systematically deconstructed. Only then can a reconstruction of this discourse occur with a view toward the emancipation of both genders. PMID:2406796

  1. Alternative Paradigms of Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeichner, Kenneth M.

    1983-01-01

    Four paradigms have dominated the debate on teacher education in recent years: (1) the "behavioristic" orientation; (2) the "personalistic" mode; (3) the "traditional-craft" approach; and (4) the "inquiry" orientation. A heuristic device for organizing discussion about desirable teacher education practices is presented, which permits consideration…

  2. Staff Development: A Gestalt Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Michael H.

    Hagerstown Junior College, Maryland, has had a staff development program for the past five years. The major components have been evaluated, revised, and integrated into a gestalt paradigm--a total institutional thrust designed to insure that the goals of the college meet the challenges presented by the service area. Each component exists to foster…

  3. THE RETURN OF THE PARADIGM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BREND, RUTH M.

    TWO SIGNIFICANT ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE LEARNING, THE VERTICAL ORGANIZATION OF THE PARADIGM AND THE STUDENT'S ANALYTICAL ABILITY, HAVE BEEN OVERLOOKED IN FAVOR OF DEVELOPING CONVERSATIONAL SKILLS BY A HORIZONTAL APPROACH IN WHICH, FOR EXAMPLE, THE MATERIAL PRESENTS THE ACCUSATIVE CASE ONE DAY AND THE FIRST PERSON PRESENT OF ALL VERBS ON ANOTHER.…

  4. An Electrophysiological Investigation of Early Effects of Masked Morphological Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Joanna; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment examined event-related responses to targets preceded by semantically transparent morphologically related primes (e.g., farmer-farm), semantically opaque primes with an apparent morphological relation (corner-corn), and orthographically, but not morphologically, related primes (scandal-scan) using the masked priming technique…

  5. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  6. Decomposition of Repetition Priming Components in Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Wendy S.; Corral, Nuvia I.; Jones, Mary L.; Saenz, Silvia P.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive mechanisms underlying repetition priming in picture naming were decomposed in several experiments. Sets of encoding manipulations meant to selectively prime or reduce priming in object identification or word production components of picture naming were combined factorially to dissociate processes underlying priming in picture naming.…

  7. Masked Inhibitory Priming in English: Evidence for Lexical Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Colin J.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Predictions derived from the interactive activation (IA) model were tested in 3 experiments using the masked priming technique in the lexical decision task. Experiment 1 showed a strong effect of prime lexicality: Classifications of target words were facilitated by orthographically related nonword primes (relative to unrelated nonword primes) but…

  8. The priming effect of military service on creativity performance.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Fa-Chung; Tu, Priscilla L P

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the service priming effect on creativity performance. In three experiments, the service priming was manipulated in three ways (Army priming, Air Force priming, and a Neutral condition). Participants' performances on the Chinese Remote Associates Test (CRAT), insight problems, and critical thinking problems were accordingly measured in each experiment. Results showed that the Air Force priming improved creativity and the Army priming enhanced critical thinking. The results suggest that the constructions and processes of these two manipulations are different. In addition, results also suggested that the branch of military service moderates the relationship between the service priming and the performance of creativity. PMID:24897904

  9. The architecture of intuition: Fluency and affect determine intuitive judgments of semantic and visual coherence and judgments of grammaticality in artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2009-02-01

    People can intuitively detect whether a word triad has a common remote associate (coherent) or does not have one (incoherent) before and independently of actually retrieving the common associate. The authors argue that semantic coherence increases the processing fluency for coherent triads and that this increased fluency triggers a brief and subtle positive affect, which is the experiential basis of these intuitions. In a series of 11 experiments with 3 different fluency manipulations (figure-ground contrast, repeated exposure, and subliminal visual priming) and 3 different affect inductions (short-timed facial feedback, subliminal facial priming, and affect-laden word triads), high fluency and positive affect independently and additively increased the probability that triads would be judged as coherent, irrespective of actual coherence. The authors could equalize and even reverse coherence judgments (i.e., incoherent triads were judged to be coherent more frequently than were coherent triads). When explicitly instructed, participants were unable to correct their judgments for the influence of affect, although they were aware of the manipulation. The impact of fluency and affect was also generalized to intuitions of visual coherence and intuitions of grammaticality in an artificial grammar learning paradigm. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19203169

  10. The architecture of intuition: Fluency and affect determine intuitive judgments of semantic and visual coherence and judgments of grammaticality in artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2009-02-01

    People can intuitively detect whether a word triad has a common remote associate (coherent) or does not have one (incoherent) before and independently of actually retrieving the common associate. The authors argue that semantic coherence increases the processing fluency for coherent triads and that this increased fluency triggers a brief and subtle positive affect, which is the experiential basis of these intuitions. In a series of 11 experiments with 3 different fluency manipulations (figure-ground contrast, repeated exposure, and subliminal visual priming) and 3 different affect inductions (short-timed facial feedback, subliminal facial priming, and affect-laden word triads), high fluency and positive affect independently and additively increased the probability that triads would be judged as coherent, irrespective of actual coherence. The authors could equalize and even reverse coherence judgments (i.e., incoherent triads were judged to be coherent more frequently than were coherent triads). When explicitly instructed, participants were unable to correct their judgments for the influence of affect, although they were aware of the manipulation. The impact of fluency and affect was also generalized to intuitions of visual coherence and intuitions of grammaticality in an artificial grammar learning paradigm. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Modulation of 2{prime}-5{prime} oligoadenylate synthetase by environmental stress in the marine sponge Geodia cydonium

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, H.C.; Wiens, M.; Mueller, W.E.G.; Kuusksalu, A.; Kelve, M.

    1997-07-01

    Recently the authors established the presence of relatively high amounts of 2{prime}-5{prime} oligoadenylates (2{prime}-5{prime} A) and 2{prime}-5{prime} oligoadenylate synthetase (2{prime}-5{prime} A synthetase) in the marine sponge Geodia cydonium. Here they determined by applying radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatographical methods that the concentration of 2{prime}-5{prime} A synthetase change following exposure of G. cydonium tissue to environmental stress. The 2{prime}-5{prime} A content and the activity of 2{prime}-5{prime} A synthetase, present in crude sponge extract, increase by up to three-fold after treating sponge cubes for 2 h with natural stressors including heat shock (26 C), cold shock (6 C), pH shock (pH 6), and hypertonic shock and subsequent incubation for 18 h under ambient conditions (16 C). No response was observed after exposure of sponges to an alkaline (pH 10) or hypotonic environment. Similar changes have been found for the expression of heat shock protein HSP70 in G. cydonium. These results show that 2{prime}-5{prime} A in sponges may be useful as a novel biomarker for environmental monitoring.

  12. Subliminal presentation of emotionally negative vs positive primes increases the perceived beauty of target stimuli.

    PubMed

    Era, Vanessa; Candidi, Matteo; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-11-01

    Emotions have a profound influence on aesthetic experiences. Studies using affective priming procedures demonstrate, for example, that inducing a conscious negative emotional state biases the perception of abstract stimuli towards the sublime (Eskine et al. Emotion 12:1071-1074, 2012. doi: 10.1037/a0027200). Moreover, subliminal happy facial expressions have a positive impact on the aesthetic evaluation of abstract art (Flexas et al. PLoS ONE 8:e80154, 2013). Little is known about how emotion influences aesthetic perception of non-abstract, representational stimuli, especially those that are particularly relevant for social behaviour, like human bodies. Here, we explore whether the subliminal presentation of emotionally charged visual primes modulates the explicit subjective aesthetic judgment of body images. Using a forward/backward masking procedure, we presented subliminally positive and negative, arousal-matched, emotional or neutral primes and measured their effect on the explicit evaluation of perceived beauty (high vs low) and emotion (positive vs negative) evoked by abstract and body images. We found that negative primes increased subjective aesthetic evaluations of target bodies or abstract images in comparison with positive primes. No influence of primes on the emotional dimension of the targets was found, thus ruling out an unspecific arousal effect and strengthening the link between emotional valence and aesthetic appreciation. More specifically, that subliminal negative primes increase beauty ratings compared to subliminal positive primes indicates a clear link between negative emotions and positive aesthetic evaluations and vice versa, suggesting a possible link between negative emotion and the experience of sublime in art. The study expands previous research by showing the effect of subliminal negative emotions on the subjective aesthetic evaluation not only of abstract but also of body images. PMID:26238406

  13. Subliminal presentation of emotionally negative vs positive primes increases the perceived beauty of target stimuli.

    PubMed

    Era, Vanessa; Candidi, Matteo; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-11-01

    Emotions have a profound influence on aesthetic experiences. Studies using affective priming procedures demonstrate, for example, that inducing a conscious negative emotional state biases the perception of abstract stimuli towards the sublime (Eskine et al. Emotion 12:1071-1074, 2012. doi: 10.1037/a0027200). Moreover, subliminal happy facial expressions have a positive impact on the aesthetic evaluation of abstract art (Flexas et al. PLoS ONE 8:e80154, 2013). Little is known about how emotion influences aesthetic perception of non-abstract, representational stimuli, especially those that are particularly relevant for social behaviour, like human bodies. Here, we explore whether the subliminal presentation of emotionally charged visual primes modulates the explicit subjective aesthetic judgment of body images. Using a forward/backward masking procedure, we presented subliminally positive and negative, arousal-matched, emotional or neutral primes and measured their effect on the explicit evaluation of perceived beauty (high vs low) and emotion (positive vs negative) evoked by abstract and body images. We found that negative primes increased subjective aesthetic evaluations of target bodies or abstract images in comparison with positive primes. No influence of primes on the emotional dimension of the targets was found, thus ruling out an unspecific arousal effect and strengthening the link between emotional valence and aesthetic appreciation. More specifically, that subliminal negative primes increase beauty ratings compared to subliminal positive primes indicates a clear link between negative emotions and positive aesthetic evaluations and vice versa, suggesting a possible link between negative emotion and the experience of sublime in art. The study expands previous research by showing the effect of subliminal negative emotions on the subjective aesthetic evaluation not only of abstract but also of body images.

  14. Selenium (Se) seed priming induced growth and biochemical changes in wheat under water deficit conditions.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Fahim; Ashraf, M Yasin; Ahmad, Rashid; Waraich, Ejaz Ahmad

    2013-02-01

    Insufficient stand establishment at early growth stages in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) due to drought stress is a major problem that limits overall efficiency and yield of crop. Priming of seed is an effective method for raising seed performance and improving tolerance of crops to abiotic stresses especially drought. The seeds of two local wheat cultivars (Kohistan-97 and Pasban-90) were soaked in distilled water or sodium selenate solutions of 25, 50, 75, and 100 μM for 1/2 or 1 h at 25 °C and later re-dried to their original moisture levels before sowing. One-hour priming significantly increased root length stress tolerance index, dry matter stress tolerance index, and total biomass of seedlings; however, no significant effect of changing duration of Se seed priming was observed on plant height stress tolerance index and shoot/root ratio. Among cultivars, Kohistan-97 was found to be more responsive to Se seed treatment as 1 h priming at 100 μM significantly increased its total biomass by 43 % as compared to control treatment. Although biomass of seedlings was not affected with Se seed priming under normal conditions, but it increased significantly with increase in rates of Se under drought stress conditions. One-hour priming at 75 μM increased the total sugar content and total free amino acids in both wheat cultivars. A more significant decrease in soluble proteins of seedlings was observed by 1 h priming than 1/2 h priming under drought stress conditions.

  15. Priming tool actions: Are real objects more effective primes than pictures?

    PubMed

    Squires, Scott D; Macdonald, Scott N; Culham, Jody C; Snow, Jacqueline C

    2016-04-01

    Humans are faster to grasp an object such as a tool if they have previewed the same object beforehand. This priming effect is strongest when actors gesture the use of the tool rather than simply move it, possibly because the previewed tool activates action-specific routines in dorsal-stream motor networks. Here, we examined whether real tools, which observers could physically act upon, serve as more potent primes than two-dimensional images of tools, which do not afford physical action. Participants were presented with a prime stimulus that could be either a real tool or a visually matched photograph of a tool. After a brief delay, participants interacted with a real tool target, either by 'grasping to move,' or 'grasping to use' it. The identities of the prime and target tools were either the same (congruent trials; e.g., spatula-spatula) or different (incongruent trials; e.g., whisk-spatula). As expected, participants were faster to initiate grasps during trials when they had to move the tool rather than gesture its use. Priming effects were observed for grasp-to-use, but not grasp-to-move, responses. Surprisingly, however, both pictures of tools and real tools primed action responses equally. Our results indicate that tool priming effects are driven by pictorial cues and their implied actions, even in the absence of volumetric cues that reflect the tangibility and affordances of the prime.

  16. Prime and prejudice: co-occurrence in the culture as a source of automatic stereotype priming.

    PubMed

    Verhaeghen, Paul; Aikman, Shelley N; Van Gulick, Ana E

    2011-09-01

    It has been argued that stereotype priming (response times are faster for stereotypical word pairs, such as black-poor, than for non-stereotypical word pairs, such as black-balmy) is partially a function of biases in the belief system inherent in the culture. In three priming experiments, we provide direct evidence for this position, showing that stereotype priming effects associated with race, gender, and age can be very well explained through objectively measured associative co-occurrence of prime and target in the culture: (a) once objective associative strength between word pairs is taken into account, stereotype priming effects disappear; (b) the relationship between response time and associative strength is identical for social primes and non-social primes. The correlation between associative-value-controlled stereotype priming and self-report measures of racism, sexism, and ageism is near zero. The racist/sexist/ageist in all of us appears to be (at least partially) a reflection of the surrounding culture.

  17. Early Morphological Decomposition of Suffixed Words: Masked Priming Evidence with Transposed-Letter Nonword Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel; Coltheart, Max; Castles, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have previously reported that the recognition of a stem target (e.g., "teach") is facilitated by the prior masked presentation of a prime consisting of a derived form of it (e.g., "teacher"). We conducted two lexical decision experiments to investigate masked morphological priming in Spanish. Experiment 1 showed…

  18. Convergent paradigms for visual neuroscience and dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Manning, Mark L; Manning, Rana L

    2009-01-01

    Although dissociative identity disorder, a condition in which multiple individuals appear to inhabit a single body, is a recognized psychiatric disorder, patients may yet encounter health professionals who declare that they simply "do not believe in multiple personalities." This article explores the proposal that resistance to the disorder represents a failure to apply an appropriate paradigm from which the disorder should be interpreted. Trauma and sociocognitive explanations of dissociative identity disorder are contrasted. The trauma hypothesis is further differentiated into paradigms in which trauma affects a defense mechanism, and one in which trauma serves to inhibit the normal integration sequence of parallel processes of the self in childhood. This latter paradigm is shown to be broadly consistent with current models of cortical processing in another system, the cortical visual system.

  19. Commentary: is the paradigm for humiliation sufficiently complex?

    PubMed

    Altshul, Victor A

    2010-01-01

    The authors Torres and Bergner present a simple, elegant paradigm for understanding the phenomenon of humiliation. They suggest it may have universal applicability and may be of heuristic value for clinicians and policy-makers involved in forensic and social arenas. They offer case examples to illustrate its utility. It is open to question, however, whether the paradigm is sufficiently complex to encompass all the variables in actual situations. In real life, the evolution of humiliation is a highly complicated, often messy process that takes place over time and often results in intense feelings of humiliation in more than one person, often affecting several persons. The authors' examples are reexamined from alternate assumptions about what may have happened in each case. An additional case example illustrates a high degree of interpersonal complexity, suggesting that actual situations may be too unwieldy to allow for simple analysis by the paradigm. PMID:20542940

  20. Improved tolerance to post-anthesis drought stress by pre-drought priming at vegetative stages in drought-tolerant and -sensitive wheat cultivars.

    PubMed

    Abid, Muhammad; Tian, Zhongwei; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Liu, Yang; Cui, Yakun; Zahoor, Rizwan; Jiang, Dong; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-09-01

    Wheat crop endures a considerable penalty of yield reduction to escape the drought events during post-anthesis period. Drought priming under a pre-drought stress can enhance the crop potential to tolerate the subsequent drought stress by triggering a faster and stronger defense mechanism. Towards these understandings, a set of controlled moderate drought stress at 55-60% field capacity (FC) was developed to prime the plants of two wheat cultivars namely Luhan-7 (drought tolerant) and Yangmai-16 (drought sensitive) during tillering (Feekes 2 stage) and jointing (Feekes 6 stage), respectively. The comparative response of primed and non-primed plants, cultivars and priming stages was evaluated by applying a subsequent severe drought stress at 7 days after anthesis. The results showed that primed plants of both cultivars showed higher potential to tolerate the post-anthesis drought stress through improved leaf water potential, more chlorophyll, and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase contents, enhanced photosynthesis, better photoprotection and efficient enzymatic antioxidant system leading to less yield reductions. The primed plants of Luhan-7 showed higher capability to adapt the drought stress events than Yangmai-16. The positive effects of drought priming to sustain higher grain yield were pronounced in plants primed at tillering than those primed at jointing. In consequence, upregulated functioning of photosynthetic apparatus and efficient enzymatic antioxidant activities in primed plants indicated their superior potential to alleviate a subsequently occurring drought stress, which contributed to lower yield reductions than non-primed plants. However, genotypic and priming stages differences in response to drought stress also contributed to affect the capability of primed plants to tolerate the post-anthesis drought stress conditions in wheat. PMID:27179928

  1. Priming thoughts about extravagance: implications for consumer decisions about luxury products.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongwon; Kim, Kyeongheui; Kwak, Junsik; Wyer, Robert S

    2014-03-01

    If a semantic concept is accessible in memory, it can direct attention to the attributes of a target that exemplify this concept. When these attributes have both affective and utilitarian implications that are evaluatively opposite, the relative impact of these different implications depends on an individual's ability and motivation to expend the cognitive effort required to evaluate them. These assumptions were confirmed in six experiments on the impact of priming the concept of extravagance on attention to a product's luxury-related features and consequent reactions to it. Priming this concept decreased the choice of a luxury product if participants were both motivated and able to construe the utilitarian implications of the product's extravagance-related features. When participants were either distracted from deliberating on their choices or were asked to recommend a product to others, however, priming extravagance led them to base their judgments on the affective reactions that the features spontaneously elicited and consequently increased their choice of the product.

  2. Systematic effects of the quenched approximation on the strong penguin contribution to epsilon-prime / epsilon

    SciTech Connect

    Aubin, C.; Christ, N.H.; Dawson, C.; Laiho, J.W.; Noaki, J.; Li, S.; Soni, A.; /Brookhaven

    2006-03-01

    We discuss the implementation and properties of the quenched approximation in the calculation of the left-right, strong penguin contributions (i.e. Q{sub 6}) to {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}. The coefficient of the new chiral logarithm, discovered by Golterman and Pallante, which appears at leading order in quenched chiral perturbation theory is evaluated using both the method proposed by those authors and by an improved approach which is free of power divergent corrections. The result implies a large quenching artifact in the contribution of Q{sub 6} to {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}. This failure of the quenched approximation affects only the strong penguin operators and so does not affect the Q8 contribution to {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon} nor ReA{sub 0}, ReAP{sub 2} and thus, the {Delta}I = 1/2 rule at tree level in chiral perturbation theory.

  3. Prime time advertisements: repetition priming from faces seen on subject recruitment posters.

    PubMed

    Bruce, V; Carson, D; Burton, A M; Kelly, S

    1998-05-01

    Repetition priming is defined as a gain in item recognition after previous exposure. Repetition priming of face recognition has been shown to last for several months, despite contamination by everyday exposure to both experimental and control faces in the interval. Here we show that gains in face recognition in the laboratory are found from faces initially seen in a rather different context--on subject recruitment posters, even when the advertisements make no specific mention of experiments involving face recognition. The priming was greatest when identical pictures were shown in the posters and in the test phase, although different views of faces did give significant priming in one study. Follow-up studies revealed poor explicit memory for the faces shown on the posters. The results of these experiments are used to develop a model in which repetition priming reflects the process of updating representations of familiar faces. PMID:9610121

  4. Effects of Paradigm and Inter-Stimulus Interval on Age Differences in Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Rabbits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.; Seta, Susan E.; Roker, LaToya A.; Lehr, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine parameters affecting age differences in eyeblink classical conditioning in a large sample of young and middle-aged rabbits. A total of 122 rabbits of mean ages of 4 or 26 mo were tested at inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 600 or 750 msec in the delay or trace paradigms. Paradigm affected both age groups…

  5. A computational approach to negative priming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrobsdorff, H.; Ihrke, M.; Kabisch, B.; Behrendt, J.; Hasselhorn, M.; Herrmann, J. Michael

    2007-09-01

    Priming is characterized by a sensitivity of reaction times to the sequence of stimuli in psychophysical experiments. The reduction of the reaction time observed in positive priming is well-known and experimentally understood (Scarborough et al., J. Exp. Psycholol: Hum. Percept. Perform., 3, pp. 1-17, 1977). Negative priming—the opposite effect—is experimentally less tangible (Fox, Psychonom. Bull. Rev., 2, pp. 145-173, 1995). The dependence on subtle parameter changes (such as response-stimulus interval) usually varies. The sensitivity of the negative priming effect bears great potential for applications in research in fields such as memory, selective attention, and ageing effects. We develop and analyse a computational realization, CISAM, of a recent psychological model for action decision making, the ISAM (Kabisch, PhD thesis, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat, 2003), which is sensitive to priming conditions. With the dynamical systems approach of the CISAM, we show that a single adaptive threshold mechanism is sufficient to explain both positive and negative priming effects. This is achieved by comparing results obtained by the computational modelling with experimental data from our laboratory. The implementation provides a rich base from which testable predictions can be derived, e.g. with respect to hitherto untested stimulus combinations (e.g. single-object trials).

  6. Avoid self-priming centrifugal pump

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    The self-priming horizontal centrifugal pump becomes known to its operator either as a good pump or a bad pump. The latter is usually replaced by another type of pump, even though a properly specified self-priming centrifugal pump might have been a good choice. Use of the guidelines described in this article are intended to help in the purchase and installation of a good pump. Self-priming centrifugal pumps are used for removing liquids from below grade sumps or pits that may also contain solids, fibers and/or muck. Alternate pumps for this service include submersible pumps, vertical turbine pumps and positive displacement pumps. These alternate pumps do not pass solid particles as large as self-priming pumps do without damage. Positive displacement pumps are not normally cost-effective when pumping liquid at rates in excess of 500 gallons per minute in low-head applications. Vertical and submersible pumps must be removed when cleaning of the pump is required. Self-priming pumps are easily cleaned by opening the access plates without moving the pump; and they cost less than the other types.

  7. Priming Intelligent Behavior: An Elusive Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, David R.; Newell, Ben R.; Lee, Eun Hee; Balakrishnan, Divya; Ekelund, Lisa; Cenac, Zarus; Kavvadia, Fragkiski; Moore, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Can behavior be unconsciously primed via the activation of attitudes, stereotypes, or other concepts? A number of studies have suggested that such priming effects can occur, and a prominent illustration is the claim that individuals' accuracy in answering general knowledge questions can be influenced by activating intelligence-related concepts such as professor or soccer hooligan. In 9 experiments with 475 participants we employed the procedures used in these studies, as well as a number of variants of those procedures, in an attempt to obtain this intelligence priming effect. None of the experiments obtained the effect, although financial incentives did boost performance. A Bayesian analysis reveals considerable evidential support for the null hypothesis. The results conform to the pattern typically obtained in word priming experiments in which priming is very narrow in its generalization and unconscious (subliminal) influences, if they occur at all, are extremely short-lived. We encourage others to explore the circumstances in which this phenomenon might be obtained. PMID:23637732

  8. Priming for novel object associations: Neural differences from object item priming and equivalent forms of recognition.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Carlos Alexandre; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Mayes, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The neural substrates of associative and item priming and recognition were investigated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study over two separate sessions. In the priming session, participants decided which object of a pair was bigger during both study and test phases. In the recognition session, participants saw different object pairs and performed the same size-judgement task followed by an associative recognition memory task. Associative priming was accompanied by reduced activity in the right middle occipital gyrus as well as in bilateral hippocampus. Object item priming was accompanied by reduced activity in extensive priming-related areas in the bilateral occipitotemporofrontal cortex, as well as in the perirhinal cortex, but not in the hippocampus. Associative recognition was characterized by activity increases in regions linked to recollection, such as the hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, anterior medial frontal gyrus and posterior parahippocampal cortex. Item object priming and recognition recruited broadly overlapping regions (e.g., bilateral middle occipital and prefrontal cortices, left fusiform gyrus), even though the BOLD response was in opposite directions. These regions along with the precuneus, where both item priming and recognition were accompanied by activation, have been found to respond to object familiarity. The minimal structural overlap between object associative priming and recollection-based associative recognition suggests that they depend on largely different stimulus-related information and that the different directions of the effects indicate distinct retrieval mechanisms. In contrast, item priming and familiarity-based recognition seemed mainly based on common memory information, although the extent of common processing between priming and familiarity remains unclear. Further implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26418396

  9. The role of literal meaning in figurative language comprehension: evidence from masked priming ERP

    PubMed Central

    Weiland, Hanna; Bambini, Valentina; Schumacher, Petra B.

    2014-01-01

    The role of literal meaning during the construction of meaning that goes beyond pure literal composition was investigated by combining cross-modal masked priming and ERPs. This experimental design was chosen to compare two conflicting theoretical positions on this topic. The indirect access account claims that literal aspects are processed first, and additional meaning components are computed only if no satisfactory interpretation is reached. In contrast, the direct access approach argues that figurative aspects can be accessed immediately. We presented metaphors (These lawyers are hyenas, Experiment 1a and 1b) and producer-for-product metonymies (The boy read Böll, Experiment 2a and 2b) with and without a prime word that was semantically relevant to the literal meaning of the target word (furry and talented, respectively). In the presentation without priming, metaphors revealed a biphasic N400-Late Positivity pattern, while metonymies showed an N400 only. We interpret the findings within a two-phase language architecture where contextual expectations guide initial access (N400) and precede pragmatic adjustment resulting in reconceptualization (Late Positivity). With masked priming, the N400-difference was reduced for metaphors and vanished for metonymies. This speaks against the direct access view that predicts a facilitating effect for the literal condition only and hence would predict the N400-difference to increase. The results are more consistent with indirect access accounts that argue for facilitation effects for both conditions and consequently for consistent or even smaller N400-amplitude differences. This combined masked priming ERP paradigm therefore yields new insights into the role of literal meaning in the online composition of figurative language. PMID:25136309

  10. The role of literal meaning in figurative language comprehension: evidence from masked priming ERP.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Hanna; Bambini, Valentina; Schumacher, Petra B

    2014-01-01

    The role of literal meaning during the construction of meaning that goes beyond pure literal composition was investigated by combining cross-modal masked priming and ERPs. This experimental design was chosen to compare two conflicting theoretical positions on this topic. The indirect access account claims that literal aspects are processed first, and additional meaning components are computed only if no satisfactory interpretation is reached. In contrast, the direct access approach argues that figurative aspects can be accessed immediately. We presented metaphors (These lawyers are hyenas, Experiment 1a and 1b) and producer-for-product metonymies (The boy read Böll, Experiment 2a and 2b) with and without a prime word that was semantically relevant to the literal meaning of the target word (furry and talented, respectively). In the presentation without priming, metaphors revealed a biphasic N400-Late Positivity pattern, while metonymies showed an N400 only. We interpret the findings within a two-phase language architecture where contextual expectations guide initial access (N400) and precede pragmatic adjustment resulting in reconceptualization (Late Positivity). With masked priming, the N400-difference was reduced for metaphors and vanished for metonymies. This speaks against the direct access view that predicts a facilitating effect for the literal condition only and hence would predict the N400-difference to increase. The results are more consistent with indirect access accounts that argue for facilitation effects for both conditions and consequently for consistent or even smaller N400-amplitude differences. This combined masked priming ERP paradigm therefore yields new insights into the role of literal meaning in the online composition of figurative language. PMID:25136309

  11. Determining an Effective Interactive Multimedia Arabic Language Courseware for Malaysian Primary School Children: An Alternative Paradigm for Learning in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faryadi, Qais; Bakar, Zainab Abu; Maidinsah, Hamidah

    2007-01-01

    The prime purpose of this experimental research was to determine whether learning Arabic as a foreign language can be effectively enhanced through traditional methodology. As such, this research carefully investigated and critically analyzed the effectiveness of the traditional paradigm in teaching Arabic as a foreign language to 3rd grade primary…

  12. A Proposal for a New Communication Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Peter C.

    This paper discusses the inadequacies of existing communication paradigms and proposes a new paradigm which integrates general semantics and general system theory in an application to communication theory. The paper includes an historical overview of traditional communication models as well as a discussion of the implications of the paradigm for…

  13. The Learner-Centered Paradigm of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sunnie Lee; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    2008-01-01

    This article, the third in a series of four installments, begins by discussing the need for paradigm change in education and for a critical systems approach to paradigm change, and examines current progress toward paradigm change. Then it explores what a learner-centered, Information-Age educational system should be like, including the APA…

  14. Amphetamine primes motivation to gamble and gambling-related semantic networks in problem gamblers.

    PubMed

    Zack, Martin; Poulos, Constantine X

    2004-01-01

    Previous research suggests that gambling can induce effects that closely resemble a psychostimulant drug effect. Modest doses of addictive drugs can prime motivation for drugs with similar properties. Together, these findings imply that a dose of a psychostimulant drug could prime motivation to gamble in problem gamblers. This study assessed priming effects of oral D-amphetamine (AMPH) (30 mg) in a within-subject, counter-balanced, placebo-controlled design in problem gamblers (n=10), comorbid gamblerdrinkers (n=6), problem drinkers (n=8), and healthy controls (n=12). Modified visual analog scales assessed addictive motivation and subjective effects. A modified rapid reading task assessed pharmacological activation of words from motivationally relevant and irrelevant semantic domains (Gambling, Alcohol, Positive Affect, Negative Affect, Neutral). AMPH increased self-reported motivation for gambling in problem gamblers. Severity of problem gambling predicted positive subjective effects of AMPH and motivation to gamble under the drug. There was little evidence that AMPH directly primed motivation for alcohol in problem drinkers. On the reading task, AMPH produced undifferentiated improvement in reading speed to all word classes in Nongamblers. By contrast, in the two problem gambler groups, AMPH improved reading speed to Gambling words while profoundly slowing reading speed to motivationally irrelevant Neutral words. The latter finding was interpreted as directly congruent with models, which contend that priming of addictive motivation involves a linked suppression of motivationally irrelevant stimuli. This study provides experimental evidence that psychostimulant-like neurochemical activation is an important component of gambling addiction.

  15. Semantic and subword priming during binocular suppression.

    PubMed

    Costello, Patricia; Jiang, Yi; Baartman, Brandon; McGlennen, Kristine; He, Sheng

    2009-06-01

    In general, stimuli that are familiar and recognizable have an advantage of predominance during binocular rivalry. Recent research has demonstrated that familiar and recognizable stimuli such as upright faces and words in a native language could break interocular suppression faster than their matched controls. In this study, a visible word prime was presented binocularly then replaced by a high-contrast dynamic noise pattern presented to one eye and either a semantically related or unrelated word was introduced to the other eye. We measured how long it took for target words to break from suppression. To investigate word-parts priming, a second experiment also included word pairs that had overlapping subword fragments. Results from both experiments consistently show that semantically related words and words that shared subword fragments were faster to gain dominance compared to unrelated words, suggesting that words, even when interocularly suppressed and invisible, can benefit from semantic and subword priming.

  16. Long-term repetition priming and semantic interference in a lexical-semantic matching task: tapping the links between object names and colors.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Jones, Toby J; Nakabayashi, Kazuyo

    2014-01-01

    Using a novel paradigm to engage the long-term mappings between object names and the prototypical colors for objects, we investigated the retrieval of object-color knowledge as indexed by long-term priming (the benefit in performance from a prior encounter with the same or a similar stimulus); a process about which little is known. We examined priming from object naming on a lexical-semantic matching task. In the matching task participants encountered a visually presented object name (Experiment 1) or object shape (Experiment 2) paired with either a color patch or color name. The pairings could either match whereby both were consistent with a familiar object (e.g., strawberry and red) or mismatch (strawberry and blue). We used the matching task to probe knowledge about familiar objects and their colors pre-activated during object naming. In particular, we examined whether the retrieval of object-color information was modality-specific and whether this influenced priming. Priming varied with the nature of the retrieval process: object-color priming arose for object names but not object shapes and beneficial effects of priming were observed for color patches whereas inhibitory priming arose with color names. These findings have implications for understanding how object knowledge is retrieved from memory and modified by learning. PMID:25009522

  17. Cultural shaping of neural responses: Feedback-related potentials vary with self-construal and face priming.

    PubMed

    Hitokoto, Hidefumi; Glazer, James; Kitayama, Shinobu

    2016-01-01

    Previous work shows that when an image of a face is presented immediately prior to each trial of a speeded cognitive task (face-priming), the error-related negativity (ERN) is upregulated for Asians, but it is downregulated for Caucasians. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that images of "generalized other" vary cross-culturally such that they evoke anxiety for Asians, whereas they serve as safety cues for Caucasians. Here, we tested whether the cross-cultural variation in the face-priming effect would be observed in a gambling paradigm. Caucasian Americans, Asian Americans, and Asian sojourners were exposed to a brief flash of a schematic face during a gamble. For Asian Americans, face-priming resulted in significant increases of both negative-going deflection of ERP upon negative feedback (feedback-related negativity [FRN]) and positive-going deflection of ERP upon positive feedback (feedback-related positivity [FRP]). For Caucasian Americans, face-priming showed a significant reversal, decreasing both FRN and FRP. The cultural difference in the face-priming effect in FRN and FRP was partially mediated by interdependent self-construal. Curiously, Asian sojourners showed a pattern similar to the one for Caucasian Americans. Our findings suggest that culture shapes neural pathways in both systematic and highly dynamic fashion. PMID:26681617

  18. Prime factorization using magnonic holographic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khivintsev, Yuri; Ranjbar, Mojtaba; Gutierrez, David; Chiang, Howard; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Filimonov, Yuri; Khitun, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Determining the prime factors of a given number N is a problem that requires super-polynomial time for conventional digital computers. A polynomial-time algorithm was invented by Shor for quantum computers. In this paper, we present experimental data that demonstrate prime factorization using spin-wave interference but without quantum entanglement. Prime factorization includes three major steps. First, a general-type computer calculates the sequence of numbers mkmod(N), where N is the number to be factorized, m is a randomly chosen positive integer, and k = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6…. Next, the period of the calculated sequence r is determined by exploiting spin-wave interference. Finally, the general-type computer determines the primes based on the obtained r. The experiment for period finding was conducted on a six-terminal Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 device. We chose number 15 for testing and determined its primes using a sequence of measurements. The obtained experimental data for a micrometer-sized prototype aimed to demonstrate the benefits of using spin-wave devices to solve complex computational problems. Scalability is one of the major strengths inherent in this type of wave-based device, which may provide a route to nanometer-sized logic circuits. We discuss the physical and technological limitations of this approach, which define the maximum size of N and the computational speed. Although this classical approach cannot compete with the quantum algorithm in terms of efficiency, magnonic holographic devices can potentially be used as complementary logic units aimed at speeding up prime factorization for classical computers.

  19. The role of short-term memory in semantic priming.

    PubMed

    Beer, A L; Diehl, V A

    2001-07-01

    Two theories of priming were compared: spreading activation theories, in particular ACT, and compound-cue theories. Whereas ACT assumes that priming is a result of diffusing activation in long-term memory, compound-cue models suggest that priming results from a formation process of prime and target in short-term memory. Thirty-eight participants took part in a study that combined a digit span task with a double lexical decision task consisting of a prime and a target item. Digit span length (low, medium, and high) and prime type (related or unrelated word or nonword) were both within-subject variables. As expected, results showed significant priming effects. In favor of ACT, no interaction between digit span length and prime type was found. Additionally, a nonword inhibition effect (unrelated versus nonword prime) was found, which was predicted by compound-cue theories. This finding is discussed in terms of the process interference and response competition hypotheses.

  20. Schoolbook Texts: Behavioral Achievement Priming in Math and Language

    PubMed Central

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola; Baum, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Prior research found reliable and considerably strong effects of semantic achievement primes on subsequent performance. In order to simulate a more natural priming condition to better understand the practical relevance of semantic achievement priming effects, running texts of schoolbook excerpts with and without achievement primes were used as priming stimuli. Additionally, we manipulated the achievement context; some subjects received no feedback about their achievement and others received feedback according to a social or individual reference norm. As expected, we found a reliable (albeit small) positive behavioral priming effect of semantic achievement primes on achievement in math (Experiment 1) and language tasks (Experiment 2). Feedback moderated the behavioral priming effect less consistently than we expected. The implication that achievement primes in schoolbooks can foster performance is discussed along with general theoretical implications. PMID:26938446

  1. Schoolbook Texts: Behavioral Achievement Priming in Math and Language.

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola; Baum, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Prior research found reliable and considerably strong effects of semantic achievement primes on subsequent performance. In order to simulate a more natural priming condition to better understand the practical relevance of semantic achievement priming effects, running texts of schoolbook excerpts with and without achievement primes were used as priming stimuli. Additionally, we manipulated the achievement context; some subjects received no feedback about their achievement and others received feedback according to a social or individual reference norm. As expected, we found a reliable (albeit small) positive behavioral priming effect of semantic achievement primes on achievement in math (Experiment 1) and language tasks (Experiment 2). Feedback moderated the behavioral priming effect less consistently than we expected. The implication that achievement primes in schoolbooks can foster performance is discussed along with general theoretical implications.

  2. Influence of prime lexicality, frequency, and pronounceability on the masked onset priming effect.

    PubMed

    Dimitropoulou, Maria; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel

    2010-09-01

    The present study investigates the origins of the masked onset priming effect (MOPE). There are two alternative interpretations that account for most of the evidence reported on the MOPE, so far. The speech planning account (SP) identifies the locus of the MOPE in the preparation of the speech response. In contrast, the dual-route theory proposes that the effect arises as a result of the processing of the prime by the nonlexical route. In a series of masked onset priming word naming experiments we test the validity of these accounts by manipulating the primes' frequency, their lexical status, and pronounceability. We found consistent MOPEs of similar magnitude with high- and low-frequency prime words as well as with pronounceable nonwords. Contrarily, when primes consisted of unpronounceable consonantal strings the effect disappeared, suggesting that pronounceability of the prime is a prerequisite for the emergence of the MOPE. These results are in accordance with the predictions of the SP account. The pattern of effects obtained in the present study further defines the origins of the MOPE. PMID:20221948

  3. Time Course of Free-Choice Priming Effects Explained by a Simple Accumulator Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattler, Uwe; Palmer, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Unconscious visual stimuli can be processed by human observers and modulate their behavior. This has been shown for masked prime stimuli that influence motor responses to subsequent target stimuli. Beyond this, masked stimuli can also affect participants' behavior when they are free to choose one of two response alternatives. This finding…

  4. About hypotheses and paradigms: exploring the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kaellis, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Hypotheses generally conform to paradigms which, over time, change, usually tardily, after they have become increasingly difficult to sustain under the impact of non-conforming evidence and alternative hypotheses, but more important, when they no longer are comfortably ensconced in the surrounding social-economic-political-cultural milieu. It is asserted that this milieu is the most important factor in shaping scientific theorizing. Some examples are cited: the rejection of the evidence that the world orbits around the sun (suspected by Pythagoras) in favor of centuries-long firm adherence to the Ptolemaic geocentric system; the early acceptance of Natural Selection in spite of its tautological essence and only conjectural supporting evidence, because it justified contemporaneous social-political ideologies as typified by, e.g., Spencer and Malthus. Economic, social, and cultural factors are cited as providing the ground, i.e., ideational substrate, for what is cited as the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm (DCP), that has increasingly dominated physics, biology, and medicine for over a century and which invokes small, discrete packets of energy/matter (quanta, genes, microorganisms, aberrant cells) functioning within an environment of statistical, not determined, causality. There is speculation on a possible paradigmatic shift from the DCP, which has fostered the proliferation, parallel with ("splitting") taxonomy, of alleged individual disease entities, their diagnoses, and, when available, their specific remedies, something particularly prominent in, e.g., psychiatry's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, a codified compendium of alleged mental and behavioral disorders, but evident in any textbook of diagnosis and treatment of physical ailments. This presumed paradigm shift may be reflected in Western medicine, presently increasingly empirical and atomized, towards a growing acceptance of a more generalized, subject-oriented, approach to health and disease, a non

  5. About hypotheses and paradigms: exploring the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kaellis, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Hypotheses generally conform to paradigms which, over time, change, usually tardily, after they have become increasingly difficult to sustain under the impact of non-conforming evidence and alternative hypotheses, but more important, when they no longer are comfortably ensconced in the surrounding social-economic-political-cultural milieu. It is asserted that this milieu is the most important factor in shaping scientific theorizing. Some examples are cited: the rejection of the evidence that the world orbits around the sun (suspected by Pythagoras) in favor of centuries-long firm adherence to the Ptolemaic geocentric system; the early acceptance of Natural Selection in spite of its tautological essence and only conjectural supporting evidence, because it justified contemporaneous social-political ideologies as typified by, e.g., Spencer and Malthus. Economic, social, and cultural factors are cited as providing the ground, i.e., ideational substrate, for what is cited as the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm (DCP), that has increasingly dominated physics, biology, and medicine for over a century and which invokes small, discrete packets of energy/matter (quanta, genes, microorganisms, aberrant cells) functioning within an environment of statistical, not determined, causality. There is speculation on a possible paradigmatic shift from the DCP, which has fostered the proliferation, parallel with ("splitting") taxonomy, of alleged individual disease entities, their diagnoses, and, when available, their specific remedies, something particularly prominent in, e.g., psychiatry's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, a codified compendium of alleged mental and behavioral disorders, but evident in any textbook of diagnosis and treatment of physical ailments. This presumed paradigm shift may be reflected in Western medicine, presently increasingly empirical and atomized, towards a growing acceptance of a more generalized, subject-oriented, approach to health and disease, a non

  6. A clinical laboratory paradigm for evaluating medication effects on alcohol consumption: naltrexone and nalmefene.

    PubMed

    Drobes, David J; Anton, Raymond F; Thomas, Suzanne E; Voronin, Konstantin

    2003-04-01

    Opiate antagonist medications have been shown to improve alcoholism treatment, but few human laboratory-based studies investigating mechanisms for these effects have been conducted on alcohol dependent persons. The present study was designed to determine the impact of two opiate antagonists on alcohol consumption among nontreatment-seeking alcoholics (n=125) and social drinkers (n=90). Participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo, naltrexone (titrated to 50 mg/day), or nalmefene (titrated to 40 mg/day) for 8 days with an alcohol laboratory session on the final day. Alcohol consumption was monitored in the natural environment during the first 5 medication days, and during a choice consumption paradigm following a standard 'priming' alcohol dose in a bar-laboratory setting. Social drinkers consumed less alcohol than alcoholics during the prelab medication period and the laboratory choice consumption paradigm, and they attained lower blood alcohol levels than alcoholics following the priming drink. Both opiate antagonist medications equally reduced drinking amounts and frequency among alcoholics but not social drinkers, relative to placebo, during natural environment and bar-lab alcohol consumption evaluations. Greater medication side effects, mostly mild in nature, were observed in participants taking nalmefene. These findings demonstrate that both naltrexone and nalmefene can lead to reductions in alcohol consumption among alcoholics who are not attempting to reduce drinking. Similar laboratory paradigms may offer substantial advantages for observing these effects during evaluation of other medications as well.

  7. Factors Determining Semantic Facilitation and Interference in the Cyclic Naming Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete, Eduardo; Del Prato, Paul; Mahon, Bradford Z.

    2012-01-01

    The cyclic naming paradigm, in which participants are slower to name pictures blocked by semantic category than pictures in an unrelated context, offers a window into the dynamics of the mapping between lexical concepts and words. Here we provide evidence for the view that incremental adjustments to the connection weights from semantics to lexical items provides an elegant explanation of a range of observations within the cyclic naming paradigm. Our principal experimental manipulation is to vary the within-category semantic distance among items that must be named together in a block. In the first set of experiments we find that naming latencies are, if anything, faster for within-category semantically close blocks compared to within-category semantically far blocks, for the first presentation of items. This effect can be explained by the fact that there will be more spreading activation, and thus greater priming at the lexical level, for within-category semantically close blocks than within-category semantically far blocks. We test this explanation by inserting intervening filler items (geometric shapes), and show as predicted, that while intervening unrelated trials abolish short-lived semantic priming effects, the long-lag interference effect that is characteristic of this paradigm is unaffected. These data place new constraints on explanations of the cyclic naming effect, and related phenomena, within a model of language production. PMID:22363309

  8. Reinstatement of Morphine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference in Mice by Priming Injections

    PubMed Central

    Do Couto, B. Ribeiro; Aguilar, M. A.; Manzanedo, C.; Rodríguez-Arias, M.; Miñarro, J.

    2003-01-01

    To construct a model of relapse of drug abuse in mice, the induction, we evaluated the extinction and reinstatement of morphine-induced place preference. In Experiment 1, we examined the effects of morphine (0, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Mice showed CPP with 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg. In Experiment 2, we evaluated the effects of two different extinction procedures. After conditioning with 40 mg/kg of morphine, the mice underwent daily extinction sessions of 60 or 15 min of duration. CPP was extinguished after seven and nine sessions, respectively. In Experiment 3, we tested the reinstating effects of several priming doses of morphine. Mice were conditioned with 40 mg/kg of morphine and underwent the daily 15 min extinction sessions until CPP was no longer evident. Then, the effects of morphine (0, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg, i.p.) were evaluated. CPP was reinstated by doses from 5 mg/kg upward. The results show that morphine priming injections are effective in reactivating opiateseeking behavior in mice, and thus, the CPP paradigm might be useful to investigate the mechanisms underlying relapse of drug abuse. PMID:15152982

  9. Enhancement and suppression in a lexical interference fMRI-paradigm.

    PubMed

    Abel, Stefanie; Dressel, Katharina; Weiller, Cornelius; Huber, Walter

    2012-03-01

    Previous picture-word interference (PWI) fMRI-paradigms revealed ambiguous mechanisms underlying facilitation and inhibition in healthy subjects. Lexical distractors revealed increased (enhancement) or decreased (suppression) activation in language and monitoring/control areas. Performing a secondary examination and data analysis, we aimed to illuminate the relation between behavioral and neural interference effects comparing target-related distractors (REL) with unrelated distractors (UNREL). We hypothesized that interference involves both (A) suppression due to priming and (B) enhancement due to simultaneous distractor and target processing. Comparisons to UNREL should remain distractor unspecific even at a low threshold. (C) Distractor types with common characteristics should reveal overlapping brain areas. In a 3T MRI scanner, participants were asked to name pictures while auditory words were presented (stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] = -200 msec). Associatively and phonologically related distractors speeded responses (facilitation), while categorically related distractors slowed them down (inhibition) compared to UNREL. As a result, (A) reduced brain activations indeed resembled previously reported patterns of neural priming. Each target-related distractor yielded suppressions at least in areas associated with vision and conflict/competition monitoring (anterior cingulate cortex [ACC]), revealing least priming for inhibitors. (B) Enhancements concerned language-related but distractor-unspecific regions. (C) Some wider brain regions were commonly suppressed for combinations of distractor types. Overlapping areas associated with conceptual priming were found for facilitatory distractors (inferior frontal gyri), and areas related to phonetic/articulatory processing (precentral gyri and left parietal operculum/insula) for distractors sharing feature overlap. Each distractor with semantic relatedness revealed nonoverlapping suppressions in lexical

  10. Consonance in Network Prime-Time Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhard, Michael E.

    Television research suggests that three major television networks are following a policy of standardization and that a high degree of consonance in prime-time network programing results from constraints within the networks' organizational, economic, and ideological frameworks. A study further explored these results by examining a list of all…

  11. Bidirectional Priming Processes in the Simon Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzker, Manja; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2009-01-01

    The Simon effect is mostly explained in terms of dual-route models, which imply unidirectional activation processes from stimulus features to response features. However, there is also evidence that these preactivated response features themselves prime corresponding stimulus features. From this perspective, the Simon effect should only occur…

  12. Thematic Mathematics: The Combinatorics of Prime Factorizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we use a particular example to illustrate a thematic approach to the teaching and learning of mathematics. Our theme, suitable for undergraduates and able sixth-form students, is the enumeration of mathematical objects associated with the prime factorizations of integers. It is shown in detail how this gives rise to some beautiful…

  13. Attentional Control and Asymmetric Associative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Keith A.; Heap, Shelly J.; Neely, James H.; Thomas, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Participants completed a battery of 3 attentional control (AC) tasks (OSPAN, antisaccade, and Stroop, as in Hutchison, 2007) and performed a lexical decision task with symmetrically associated (e.g., "sister-brother") and asymmetrically related primes and targets presented in both the forward (e.g., "atom-bomb") and backward…

  14. Method for priming and DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Mugasimangalam, R.C.; Ulanovsky, L.E.

    1997-12-01

    A method is presented for improving the priming specificity of an oligonucleotide primer that is non-unique in a nucleic acid template which includes selecting a continuous stretch of several nucleotides in the template DNA where one of the four bases does not occur in the stretch. This also includes bringing the template DNA in contract with a non-unique primer partially or fully complimentary to the sequence immediately upstream of the selected sequence stretch. This results in polymerase-mediated differential extension of the primer in the presence of a subset of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates that does not contain the base complementary to the base absent in the selected sequence stretch. These reactions occur at a temperature sufficiently low for allowing the extension of the non-unique primer. The method causes polymerase-mediated extension reactions in the presence of all four natural deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates or modifications. At this high temperature discrimination occurs against priming sites of the non-unique primer where the differential extension has not made the primer sufficiently stable to prime. However, the primer extended at the selected stretch is sufficiently stable to prime.

  15. Values in Prime Time Alcoholic Beverage Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Charles F.

    Content analysis was used to study the values evident in televised beer and wine commercials. Seventy-seven prime time commercials, 7.6% of a week's total, were analyzed along value dimensions adapted from Gallup's measure of popular social values. The intensity of each value was coded on a five-point scale. None of the commercials in the beer and…

  16. Colorimetry and prime colours--a theorem.

    PubMed

    Hornaes, Hans Petter; Wold, Jan Henrik; Farup, Ivar

    2005-08-01

    Human colour vision is the result of a complex process involving topics ranging from physics of light to perception. Whereas the diversity of light entering the eye in principle span an infinite-dimensional vector space in terms of the spectral power distributions, the space of human colour perceptions is three dimensional. One important consequence of this is that a variety of colours can be visually matched by a mixture of only three adequately chosen reference lights. It has been observed that there exists one particular set of monochromatic reference lights that, according to a certain definition, is optimal for producing colour matches. These reference lights are commonly denoted prime colours. In the present paper, we intend to rigorously show that the existence of prime colours is not particular to the human visual system as sometimes stated, but rather an algebraic consequence of the manner in which a kind of colorimetric functions called colour-matching functions are defined and transformed. The solution is based on maximisation of a determinant determining the gamut size of the colour space spanned by the prime colours. Cramer's rule for solving a set of linear equations is an essential part of the proof. By means of examples, it is shown that mathematically the optimal set of reference lights is not unique in general, and that the existence of a maximum determinant is not a necessary condition for the existence of prime colours.

  17. Self-priming dielectric elastomer generator design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas; O'Brien, Benjamin; Calius, Emilio; Anderson, Iain

    2012-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEG) are variable capacitor power generators that are a highly promising technology for harvesting energy from environmental sources because they have the ability to work over a wide frequency range without sacrificing their high energy density or efficiency. DEG can also take on a wide range of configurations, so they are customizable to the energy source. A typical generation cycle requires electrical charge to be supplied and removed from the DEG at appropriate times as it is mechanically deformed. The manner in which the DEG charge state is controlled greatly influences energy production. The recently developed self-priming circuit can provide this functionality without any active electronics, but it is not configurable to match the generator and its energy source. In this paper a highly configurable self-priming circuit is introduced and an analysis of the self-priming DEG cycle is performed to obtain design rules to optimize the rate at which it can boost its operating voltage. In a case study we compare the performance of an initial prototype selfpriming circuit with one that has been intentionally optimized. The optimized generator voltage climbed from 30 V up to 1500 V in 27 cycles, whereas the same generator required 37 cycles when the suboptimal self-priming circuit was used.

  18. Predicting the Unbeaten Path through Syntactic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Manabu; Nakamura, Chie; Mazuka, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    A number of previous studies showed that comprehenders make use of lexically based constraints such as subcategorization frequency in processing structurally ambiguous sentences. One piece of such evidence is lexically specific syntactic priming in comprehension; following the costly processing of a temporarily ambiguous sentence, comprehenders…

  19. POST Quantum Cryptography from Mutant Prime Knots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuoli, Annalisa; Palumbo, Giandomenico

    By resorting to basic features of topological knot theory we propose a (classical) cryptographic protocol based on the `difficulty' of decomposing complex knots generated as connected sums of prime knots and their mutants. The scheme combines an asymmetric public key protocol with symmetric private ones and is intrinsecally secure against quantum eavesdropper attacks.

  20. Maple Explorations, Perfect Numbers, and Mersenne Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghusayni, B.

    2005-01-01

    Some examples from different areas of mathematics are explored to give a working knowledge of the computer algebra system Maple. Perfect numbers and Mersenne primes, which have fascinated people for a very long time and continue to do so, are studied using Maple and some questions are posed that still await answers.

  1. Temporal, but not spatial, context modulates a masked prime's effect on temporal order judgment, but not on response latency.

    PubMed

    Steglich, C; Neumann, O

    2000-01-01

    Three experiments investigated a dissociation originally described by Neumann, Esselmann, and Klotz. Stimuli were geometric shapes, preceded by similar shapes that were masked by metacontrast. Each experiment consisted of three parts. In the reaction time (RT) part, participants saw an array of geometric shapes, one of which was marked by bars, and had to respond to the marked shape's position by pressing an appropriate button. A prime (a similar, but smaller stimulus) preceded either the marked or an unmarked stimulus. In the temporal order judgment (TOJ) part, the task was to judge the temporal order of the marked and the unmarked stimulus. In the detection part, detectability of the prime was tested. Although its detectability was zero or close to zero, the prime affected both RT and the apparent onset as measured by TOJ. The effect on RT was significantly larger than the effect on TOJ (Exp. 1). Increasing the spatial context (number of non-target stimuli in the display) did not affect this pattern (Exp. 2). By contrast, reducing the temporal context (range of stimulus onset asynchronies) abolished the prime's effect in the TOJ task, although the prime affected RT under identical conditions. It is concluded that partially different mechanisms mediate the prime's effect in the two tasks and that the effect of stimulus context on TOJ found in the Neumann et al. study was due to temporal, not spatial context.

  2. Unintended Embodiment of Concepts into Percepts: Sensory Activation Boosts Attention for Same-Modality Concepts in the Attentional Blink Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Nicolas; Mermillod, Martial; Godefroid, Jimmy; Corneille, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    This study shows that sensory priming facilitates reports of same-modality concepts in an attentional blink paradigm. Participants had to detect and report two target words (T1 and T2) presented for 53 ms each among a series of nonwords distractors at a frequency of up to 19 items per second. SOA between target words was set to 53 ms or 213 ms,…

  3. Priming effects on the perceived grouping of ambiguous dot patterns.

    PubMed

    Kurylo, Daniel D; Bukhari, Farhan

    2015-09-01

    For ambiguous stimuli, complex dynamics guide processes of perceptual grouping. Previous studies have suggested two opposing effects on grouping that are produced by the preliminary stimulus state: one that enhances grouping towards the existing structure, and another that opposes this structure. To examine effects of the preliminary state on grouping directly, measurements were made of perceived grouping of dot patterns that followed a visual prime. Three stimuli were presented in sequence: prime, target, and mask. Targets were composed of an evenly spaced dot grid in which grouping was established by similarity in luminance. Subjects indicated the dominant perceived grouping. The prime either corresponded to or opposed the prevailing organization of the target. Contrary to the hypothesis, solid-line primes biased grouping away from the structure of the prime, even when the prevailing organization of dot patterns strongly favored the primes' structure. This effect occurred, although to a lesser extent, when primes did not occupy the same location of targets, but were presented in a marginal area surrounding the grid. Priming effects did not occur for primes constructed of dot patterns. Effects found here may be attributed to a forward masking effect by primes, which more effectively disrupts grouping of patterns matched to the prime. Effects may also be attributed to a type of pattern contrast, in which a grouped pattern dissimilar to primes gains salience. For the pattern contrast model, the partial activation of multiple grouped configurations is compared to the pattern of the solid-line primes. PMID:25281427

  4. Priming effects on the perceived grouping of ambiguous dot patterns.

    PubMed

    Kurylo, Daniel D; Bukhari, Farhan

    2015-09-01

    For ambiguous stimuli, complex dynamics guide processes of perceptual grouping. Previous studies have suggested two opposing effects on grouping that are produced by the preliminary stimulus state: one that enhances grouping towards the existing structure, and another that opposes this structure. To examine effects of the preliminary state on grouping directly, measurements were made of perceived grouping of dot patterns that followed a visual prime. Three stimuli were presented in sequence: prime, target, and mask. Targets were composed of an evenly spaced dot grid in which grouping was established by similarity in luminance. Subjects indicated the dominant perceived grouping. The prime either corresponded to or opposed the prevailing organization of the target. Contrary to the hypothesis, solid-line primes biased grouping away from the structure of the prime, even when the prevailing organization of dot patterns strongly favored the primes' structure. This effect occurred, although to a lesser extent, when primes did not occupy the same location of targets, but were presented in a marginal area surrounding the grid. Priming effects did not occur for primes constructed of dot patterns. Effects found here may be attributed to a forward masking effect by primes, which more effectively disrupts grouping of patterns matched to the prime. Effects may also be attributed to a type of pattern contrast, in which a grouped pattern dissimilar to primes gains salience. For the pattern contrast model, the partial activation of multiple grouped configurations is compared to the pattern of the solid-line primes.

  5. The effect of retinal illuminance on visual motion priming.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Tatsuto; Tuladhar, Anup; Yoshimoto, Sanae

    2011-05-25

    The perceived direction of a directionally ambiguous stimulus is influenced by the moving direction of a preceding priming stimulus. Previous studies have shown that a brief priming stimulus induces positive motion priming, in which a subsequent directionally ambiguous stimulus is perceived to move in the same direction as the primer, while a longer priming stimulus induces negative priming, in which the following ambiguous stimulus is perceived to move in the opposite direction of the primer. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism of motion priming by examining how retinal illuminance and velocity of the primer influences the perception of priming. Subjects judged the perceived direction of 180-deg phase-shifted (thus directionally ambiguous) sine-wave gratings displayed immediately after the offset of a primer stimulus. We found that perception of motion priming was greatly modulated by the retinal illuminance and velocity of the primer. Under low retinal illuminance, positive priming nearly disappeared even when the effective luminance contrast was equated between different conditions. Positive priming was prominent when the velocity of the primer was low, while only negative priming was observed when the velocity was high. These results suggest that the positive motion priming is induced by a higher-order mechanism that tracks prominent features of the visual stimulus, while a directionally selective motion mechanism induces negative motion priming.

  6. Neural mechanisms of repetition priming of familiar and globally unfamiliar visual objects

    PubMed Central

    Soldan, Anja; Habeck, Christian; Gazes, Yunglin; Stern, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that repetition priming of visual objects is typically accompanied by a reduction in activity for repeated compared to new stimuli (repetition suppression). However, the spatial distribution and direction (suppression vs. enhancement) of neural repetition effects can depend on the pre-experimental familiarity of stimuli. The first goal of this study was to further probe the link between repetition priming and repetition suppression/enhancement for visual objects and how this link is affected by stimulus familiarity. A second goal was to examine whether priming of familiar and unfamiliar objects following a single stimulus repetition is supported by the same processes as priming following multiple repetitions within the same task. In this endeavor, we examined both between and within subjects correlations between priming and fMRI repetition effects for familiar and globally unfamiliar visual objects during the first and third repetition of the stimuli. We included reaction time of individual trials as a linear regressor to identify brain regions whose repetition effects varied with response facilitation on a trial-by-trial basis. The results showed that repetition suppression in bilateral fusiform gyrus, was selectively correlated with priming of familiar objects that had been repeated once, likely reflecting facilitated perceptual processing or the sharpening of perceptual representations. Priming during the third repetition was correlated with repetition suppression in prefrontal and parietal areas for both familiar and unfamiliar stimuli, possibly reflecting a shift from top-down controlled to more automatic processing that occurs for both item types. PMID:20450898

  7. Influences of unconscious priming on voluntary actions: Role of the rostral cingulate zone.

    PubMed

    Teuchies, Martyn; Demanet, Jelle; Sidarus, Nura; Haggard, Patrick; Stevens, Michaël A; Brass, Marcel

    2016-07-15

    The ability to make voluntary, free choices is fundamental to what it means to be human. A key brain region that is involved in free choices is the rostral cingulate zone (RCZ), which is part of the medial frontal cortex. Previous research has shown that activity in this brain region can be modulated by bottom-up information while making free choices. The current study extends those findings, and shows, for the first time, that activation in the RCZ can also be modulated by subliminal information. We used a subliminal response priming paradigm to bias free and cued choices. We observed more activation in the RCZ when participants made a choice that went against the prime's suggestion, compared to when they chose according to the prime. This shows that the RCZ plays an important role in overcoming externally-triggered conflict between different response options, even when the stimuli triggering this conflict are not consciously perceived. Our results suggest that an important mechanism of endogenous action in the RCZ may therefore involve exerting an internally-generated action choice against conflicting influences, such as external sensory evidence. We further found that subliminal information also modulated activity in the anterior insula and the supramarginal gyrus.

  8. Reduced Task-related Suppression during Semantic Repetition Priming in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Bumseok; Kubicki, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have reported the reduced suppression of brain activity within the default network in schizophrenia. The relationship, however, between task-specific activation and default network suppression, as well as impact of this relationship on brain function is still not clear, and has not been studied in schizophrenia so far. We used previously published data showing relationship between semantic encoding and white matter integrity in schizophrenia (Jeong et al., 2009), and reanalyzed the data using independent component analysis (ICA). Ten healthy control subjects and ten chronic schizophrenics underwent an fMRI scan during which they performed Levels of Processing paradigm. The semantic processing related independent components were compared between two groups using tensor ICA. An independent component of semantic repetition priming showed a significant difference between two groups. The component consisted of both less activated and less suppressed regions within the schizophrenics’ brain. The less activated regions included the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the supramarginal gyri. The less suppressed regions included the medial frontal gyrus, the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus and right cerebellum. Our results suggest two components of semantic repetition priming deficit in schizophrenia. One related to weaker suppression of default network, mainly precuneus and medial frontal gyrus, the other related to weaker activation of regions directly involved in semantic repetition priming. PMID:20083395

  9. Could masked conceptual primes increase recollection? The subtleties of measuring recollection and familiarity in recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    We begin with a theoretical overview of the concepts of recollection and familiarity, focusing, in the spirit of this special issue, on the important contributions made by Andrew Mayes. In particular, we discuss the issue of when the generation of semantically-related information in response to a retrieval cue might be experienced as recollection rather than familiarity. We then report a series of experiments in which two different types of masked prime, presented immediately prior to the test cue in a recognition memory paradigm, produced opposite effects on Remember vs. Know judgments. More specifically, primes that were conceptually related to the test item increased the incidence of Remember judgments, though only when intermixed with repetition primes (which increased the incidence of Know judgments instead, as in prior studies). One possible explanation—that the fluency of retrieval of item–context associations can be experienced as recollection, even when the source of that fluency is unknown—is counter to conventional views of recollection and familiarity, though it was anticipated by Andrew in his writings nearly two decades ago. PMID:22898644

  10. Priming effects on cooperative behavior in social dilemmas: considering the prime and the person.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Mike; Sheldon, Kennon M

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. We test whether people with a relatively more intrinsic vs. extrinsic value orientation (RIEVO) are particularly likely to enact cooperative behavior in resource dilemmas when they are primed with relatedness goals. In Study 1, high RIEVO participants primed with relatedness exhibited more restrained fishing behavior in a resource dilemma than their unprimed counterparts or participants low in RIEVO. Study 2 replicated this effect and further showed that the prime must signal the possibility of satisfying a valued goal (relatedness satisfaction) in order to elicit the value-consistent behavior. We discuss these results in the context of recent process models of goal priming, and also discuss how these findings contribute to our understanding of cooperative behavior and the predictive power of value constructs more broadly.

  11. Repetition Priming and Repetition Suppression: A Case for Enhanced Efficiency Through Neural Synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Chow, Carson C.; Martin, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus repetition in identification tasks leads to improved behavioral performance ("repetition priming") but attenuated neural responses ("repetition suppression") throughout task-engaged cortical regions. While it's clear that this pervasive brain-behavior relationship reflects some form of improved processing efficiency, the exact form that it takes remains elusive. In this Discussion Paper, we review four different theoretical proposals that have the potential to link repetition suppression and priming, with a particular focus on a proposal that stimulus repetition affects improved efficiency through enhanced neural synchronization. We argue that despite exciting recent work on the role of neural synchronization in cognitive processes such as attention and perception, similar studies in the domain of learning and memory - and priming, in particular - have been lacking. We emphasize the need for new studies with adequate spatiotemporal resolution, formulate several novel predictions, and discuss our ongoing efforts to disentangle the current proposals. PMID:23144664

  12. Comparison of Albumin, Hydroxyethyl Starch and Ringer Lactate Solution as Priming Fluid for Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Paediatric Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Mrugesh; Solanki, Atul; Pandya, Himani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In paediatric cardiac surgery, there is still not any information with regard to the best choice of priming fluids for Cardiopulmonary Bypass (CPB). Albumin, Hydroxyethyl Starch (HES) & ringer lactate are equally used, but each has its advantages & disadvantages. Albumin & HES had better fluid balance which affect outcome in paediatric cardiac surgery significantly. Aim To compare priming solution containing albumin, hydroxyethyl starch and ringer lactate during elective open-heart surgery in paediatrics aged up to 3 years. Materials and Methods All patients were managed by standardized institution protocol and were randomly distributed into three groups based on the priming solution which is used in the CPB Circuit and having 35 patients in each group. Group A: Receive albumin 10 ml/kg in priming solution, Group B: Receive Hydroxyethyl starch (HES130/0.4) 6% 20ml/kg in priming solution, Group C: Receive ringer lactate priming solution. Primary outcome variable included perioperative haemoglobin, total protein, colloid osmotic pressure, platelets, fluid balance, urine output, post-operative blood loss, blood products usage, renal & liver function, extubation time, ICU stay & outcome. Results Patients receiving albumin had higher perioperative platelet count, total protein level & colloid osmotic pressure, lesser post-operative blood loss & blood products requirement. Patients receiving HES had lower level of platelets postoperatively than ringer lactate group but not associated with increase blood loss. HES did not affect renal function & haemostasis in this dose. Patients receiving ringer lactate had positive fluid balance intraoperatively. All three groups have similar effect on renal & liver function, urine output, time to extubation, ICU stay & outcome. Conclusion We conclude that albumin is expensive but better prime as maintain haemostasis, colloid oncotic pressure & reduced blood product requirement. HES will not hamper haemostasis & renal

  13. Impact of being primed with social deception upon observer responses to others' pain.

    PubMed

    De Ruddere, Lies; Goubert, Liesbet; Vervoort, Tine; Kappesser, Judith; Crombez, Geert

    2013-02-01

    This study examined whether priming with social deception affects responses (pain estimates, self-reported sympathy, inclination to help) towards others' pain. We further explored whether the priming effect is mediated by the valence of the patients (positive/negative), as indicated by the participants. First, participants (N=55) took part in an 'independent' delayed memory study in which they read either a neutral text about the use of the health care system (neutral condition) or a text about its misuse (social deception condition). Second, participants watched videos of pain patients performing pain-inducing activities. Participants rated the patients' pain, the sympathy felt for the patients, and the inclination to help the patients. Third, the participants re-estimated patients' pain when patients' self-report of pain was provided. Fourth, pictures of the patients were shown and participants indicated the valence of the patients (positive/negative). Results revealed no direct effect of priming with social deception. However, priming with social deception was related to less positive rating of the valence of the patients, that were related to lower ratings on pain and sympathy, and to larger discrepancies between the ratings of the patients and the observers. The results indicate that observers attribute less pain, feel less sympathy, and take patients' self-reported pain intensity less into account when the patients are evaluated less positively, which is likely to occur when a cognitive scheme of social deception is primed.

  14. The effect of priming materialism on women's responses to thin-ideal media.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga

    2012-12-01

    Consumer culture is characterized by two prominent ideals: the 'body perfect' and the material 'good life'. Although the impact of these ideals has been investigated in separate research literatures, no previous research has examined whether materialism is linked to women's responses to thin-ideal media. Data from several studies confirm that the internalization of materialistic and body-ideal values is positively linked in women. After developing a prime for materialism (N = 50), we present an experimental examination (N = 155) of the effects of priming materialism on women's responses to thin-ideal media, using multiple outcome measures of state body dissatisfaction. Priming materialism affects women's body dissatisfaction after exposure to thin media models, but differently depending on the dimension of body image measured. The two main novel findings are that (1) priming materialism heightens the centrality of appearance to women's self-concept and (2) priming materialism influences the activation of body-related self-discrepancies (BRSDs), particularly for highly materialistic women. Exposure to materialistic media has a clear influence on women's body image, with trait materialism a further vulnerability factor for negative exposure effects in response to idealized, thin media models.

  15. The effect of priming materialism on women's responses to thin-ideal media.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga

    2012-12-01

    Consumer culture is characterized by two prominent ideals: the 'body perfect' and the material 'good life'. Although the impact of these ideals has been investigated in separate research literatures, no previous research has examined whether materialism is linked to women's responses to thin-ideal media. Data from several studies confirm that the internalization of materialistic and body-ideal values is positively linked in women. After developing a prime for materialism (N = 50), we present an experimental examination (N = 155) of the effects of priming materialism on women's responses to thin-ideal media, using multiple outcome measures of state body dissatisfaction. Priming materialism affects women's body dissatisfaction after exposure to thin media models, but differently depending on the dimension of body image measured. The two main novel findings are that (1) priming materialism heightens the centrality of appearance to women's self-concept and (2) priming materialism influences the activation of body-related self-discrepancies (BRSDs), particularly for highly materialistic women. Exposure to materialistic media has a clear influence on women's body image, with trait materialism a further vulnerability factor for negative exposure effects in response to idealized, thin media models. PMID:21466563

  16. Secretory and cytosolic phospholipases A2 are activated during TNF priming of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Seeds, M C; Jones, D F; Chilton, F H; Bass, D A

    1998-01-23

    Cytokines alter neutrophil (PMN) function during inflammation, and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) in vitro primes PMN such that receptor-mediated stimulation causes markedly enhanced release of arachidonic acid. We hypothesized that two Ca(2+)-dependent PLA2's in PMN might be activated during priming of the cell, thus affecting arachidonate release. A low molecular weight, secretory PLA2 was identified by enzymatic activity in the cell free supernates of primed or stimulated PMN, and in PMN disrupted by nitrogen cavitation. The enzymatic activity was calcium-dependent, acid stable, destroyed by dithiothreitol, and blocked by anti-sPLA2 antibodies. TNF caused secretion of sPLA2 and also caused an increase in cell-associated sPLA2 enzymatic activity. Activation and release were maximal with fMLP stimulation of TNF-primed PMN. Neutrophils also contained a cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) characterized by enzymatic activity which was calcium dependent, enhanced by dithiothreitol, and blocked by anti-cPLA2 antibody. TNF caused a doubling of cPLA2 enzymatic activity which was associated with phosphorylation of the enzyme as judged by a migration shift on Western blots. Thus, TNF priming of human PMN caused marked increase in fMLP stimulated AA release in parallel to enhanced activity of two different PLA2's.

  17. Proteome of monocyte priming by lipopolysaccharide, including changes in interleukin-1beta and leukocyte elastase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Pabst, Michael J; Pabst, Karen M; Handsman, David B; Beranova-Giorgianni, Sarka; Giorgianni, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Background Monocytes can be primed in vitro by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for release of cytokines, for enhanced killing of cancer cells, and for enhanced release of microbicidal oxygen radicals like superoxide and peroxide. We investigated the proteins involved in regulating priming, using 2D gel proteomics. Results Monocytes from 4 normal donors were cultured for 16 h in chemically defined medium in Teflon bags ± LPS and ± 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride (AEBSF), a serine protease inhibitor. LPS-primed monocytes released inflammatory cytokines, and produced increased amounts of superoxide. AEBSF blocked priming for enhanced superoxide, but did not affect cytokine release, showing that AEBSF was not toxic. After staining large-format 2D gels with Sypro ruby, we compared the monocyte proteome under the four conditions for each donor. We found 30 protein spots that differed significantly in response to LPS or AEBSF, and these proteins were identified by ion trap mass spectrometry. Conclusion We identified 19 separate proteins that changed in response to LPS or AEBSF, including ATP synthase, coagulation factor XIII, ferritin, coronin, HN ribonuclear proteins, integrin alpha IIb, pyruvate kinase, ras suppressor protein, superoxide dismutase, transketolase, tropomyosin, vimentin, and others. Interestingly, in response to LPS, precursor proteins for interleukin-1β appeared; and in response to AEBSF, there was an increase in elastase inhibitor. The increase in elastase inhibitor provides support for our hypothesis that priming requires an endogenous serine protease. PMID:18492268

  18. Portrait of Gemini 11 prime and backup crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Portrait of Gemini 11 prime and backup crews. Seated are the Gemini 11 prime crewmembers (l.-r.) Astronauts Richard F. Gordon Jr., prime crew pilot, and Charles Conrad Jr., prime crew command pilot. Standing are (l.-r.) Astronauts William A. Anders, backup crew pilot, and Neil Armstrong, backup crew command pilot. They are in their space suits next to a mock-up of the Gemini spacecraft.

  19. Mycorrhiza-induced resistance and priming of plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sabine C; Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Lopez-Raez, Juan A; Pozo, Maria J

    2012-06-01

    Symbioses between plants and beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known to promote plant growth and help plants to cope with biotic and abiotic stresses. Profound physiological changes take place in the host plant upon root colonization by AMF affecting the interactions with a wide range of organisms below- and above-ground. Protective effects of the symbiosis against pathogens, pests, and parasitic plants have been described for many plant species, including agriculturally important crop varieties. Besides mechanisms such as improved plant nutrition and competition, experimental evidence supports a major role of plant defenses in the observed protection. During mycorrhiza establishment, modulation of plant defense responses occurs thus achieving a functional symbiosis. As a consequence of this modulation, a mild, but effective activation of the plant immune responses seems to occur, not only locally but also systemically. This activation leads to a primed state of the plant that allows a more efficient activation of defense mechanisms in response to attack by potential enemies. Here, we give an overview of the impact on interactions between mycorrhizal plants and pathogens, herbivores, and parasitic plants, and we summarize the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. We focus on the priming of jasmonate-regulated plant defense mechanisms that play a central role in the induction of resistance by arbuscular mycorrhizas.

  20. Priming Effects of Self-Reported Drinking and Religiosity

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Foster, Dawn W.

    2013-01-01

    Research has revealed negative associations between religiosity and alcohol consumption. Given these associations, the aim of the current research was to evaluate whether the order of assessing each construct might affect subsequent reports of the other. The present research provided an experimental evaluation of response biases of self-reported religiosity and alcohol consumption based on order of assessment. Participants (N = 301 undergraduate students) completed an online survey. Based on random assignment, religiosity was assessed either before or after questions regarding recent alcohol consumption. Social desirability bias was also measured. Results revealed a priming effect such that participants who answered questions about their religiosity prior to their alcohol consumption reported fewer drinks on their peak drinking occasions, drinking less on typical occasions, and drinking less frequently, even when controlling for social desirability and for the significant negative associations between their own religiosity and drinking. In contrast, assessment order was not significantly associated with religiosity. Results indicate priming religion results in reporting lower, but potentially more accurate, levels of health risk behaviors and that these effects are not simply the result of socially desirable responding. Results are interpreted utilizing several social–cognitive theories and suggest that retrospective self-reports of drinking may be more malleable than self-descriptions of religiosity. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23528191

  1. The Masked Onset Priming Effect in Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Niels O.

    2008-01-01

    Reading aloud is faster when targets (e.g., "PAIR") are preceded by visually masked primes sharing just the onset (e.g., "pole") compared to all different primes (e.g., "take"). This effect is known as the "masked onset priming effect" (MOPE). One crucial feature of this effect is its presumed non-lexical basis. This aspect of the MOPE is tested…

  2. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  3. Structural Priming and Frequency Effects Interact in Chinese Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hang; Dong, Yanping; Boland, Julie E; Yuan, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in several European languages has shown that the language processing system is sensitive to both structural frequency and structural priming effects. However, it is currently not clear whether these two types of effects interact during online sentence comprehension, especially for languages that do not have morphological markings. To explore this issue, the present study investigated the possible interplay between structural priming and frequency effects for sentences containing the Chinese ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 in a self-paced reading experiment. The sentences were disambiguated to either the more frequent/preferred NP structure or the less frequent VP structure. Each target sentence was preceded by a prime sentence of three possible types: NP primes, VP primes, and neutral primes. When the ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 was disambiguated to the dispreferred VP structure, participants experienced more processing difficulty following an NP prime relative to following a VP prime or a neutral baseline. When the ambiguity was resolved to the preferred NP structure, prime type had no effect. These results suggest that structural priming in comprehension is modulated by the baseline frequency of alternative structures, with the less frequent structure being more subject to structural priming effects. These results are discussed in the context of the error-based, implicit learning account of structural priming. PMID:26869954

  4. The Role of Polysemy in Masked Semantic and Translation Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkbeiner, Matthew; Forster, Kenneth; Nicol, Janet; Nakamura, Kumiko

    2004-01-01

    A well-known asymmetry exists in the bilingual masked priming literature in which lexical decision is used: namely, masked primes in the dominant language (L1) facilitate decision times on targets in the less dominant language (L2), but not vice versa. In semantic categorization, on the other hand, priming is symmetrical. In Experiments 1-3 we…

  5. Australia's First Prime Ministerial Library: Past and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman-Brown, Lesley; Henderson, Kandy-Jane; Wallace, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    In creating Australia's first prime ministerial library, a new cultural institution was developed which blends professional practice from the fields of librarianship, education, archives, journalism and museums. The John Curtin Prime Ministerial Library honours the contribution of wartime prime minister John Curtin, works towards the advancement…

  6. Persistent Structural Priming from Language Comprehension to Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Kathryn; Dell, Gary S.; Chang, Franklin; Onishi, Kristine H.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the relationship between syntactic processes in language comprehension and language production, we compared structural persistence from sentence primes that speakers heard to persistence from primes that speakers produced. [Bock, J. K., & Griffin, Z. M. (2000). The persistence of structural priming: transient activation or implicit…

  7. Novel Word Lexicalization and the Prime Lexicality Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in…

  8. Prospective and Retrospective Processing in Associative Mediated Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lara L.

    2012-01-01

    Mediated priming refers to the faster word recognition of a target (e.g., milk) following presentation of a prime (e.g., pasture) that is related indirectly via a connecting "mediator" (e.g., cow). Association strength may be an important factor in whether mediated priming occurs prospectively (with target activation prior to its presentation) or…

  9. Integrative Priming Occurs Rapidly and Uncontrollably during Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Zachary; Jones, Lara L.

    2009-01-01

    Lexical priming, whereby a prime word facilitates recognition of a related target word (e.g., "nurse" [right arrrow] "doctor"), is typically attributed to association strength, semantic similarity, or compound familiarity. Here, the authors demonstrate a novel type of lexical priming that occurs among unassociated, dissimilar, and unfamiliar…

  10. Attentional Control and the Relatedness Proportion Effect in Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2 experiments, participants completed both an attentional control battery (OSPAN, antisaccade, and Stroop tasks) and a modified semantic priming task. The priming task measured relatedness proportion (RP) effects within subjects, with the color of the prime indicating the probability that the to-be-named target would be related. In Experiment…

  11. A Statistical Argument for the Weak Twin Primes Conjecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckman, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    Certain definitions introduce appropriate concepts, among which are the definitions of the counting functions of the primes and twin primes, along with definitions of the correlation coefficient in a bivariate sample space. It is argued conjecturally that the characteristic functions of the prime "p" and of the quantity "p"+2 are highly…

  12. Give and Take: Syntactic Priming during Spoken Language Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Snedeker, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    Syntactic priming during language production is pervasive and well-studied. Hearing, reading, speaking or writing a sentence with a given structure increases the probability of subsequently producing the same structure, regardless of whether the prime and target share lexical content. In contrast, syntactic priming during comprehension has proven…

  13. Does "Darkness" Lead to "Happiness"? Masked Suffix Priming Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Perea, Manuel; Carreiras, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Masked affix priming effects have usually been obtained for words sharing the initial affix (e.g., "reaction"-"REFORM"). However, prior evidence on masked suffix priming effects (e.g., "baker"-"WALKER") is inconclusive. In the present series of masked priming lexical decision experiments, a target word was briefly preceded by a morphologically or…

  14. Structural Priming and Frequency Effects Interact in Chinese Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hang; Dong, Yanping; Boland, Julie E.; Yuan, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in several European languages has shown that the language processing system is sensitive to both structural frequency and structural priming effects. However, it is currently not clear whether these two types of effects interact during online sentence comprehension, especially for languages that do not have morphological markings. To explore this issue, the present study investigated the possible interplay between structural priming and frequency effects for sentences containing the Chinese ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 in a self-paced reading experiment. The sentences were disambiguated to either the more frequent/preferred NP structure or the less frequent VP structure. Each target sentence was preceded by a prime sentence of three possible types: NP primes, VP primes, and neutral primes. When the ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 was disambiguated to the dispreferred VP structure, participants experienced more processing difficulty following an NP prime relative to following a VP prime or a neutral baseline. When the ambiguity was resolved to the preferred NP structure, prime type had no effect. These results suggest that structural priming in comprehension is modulated by the baseline frequency of alternative structures, with the less frequent structure being more subject to structural priming effects. These results are discussed in the context of the error-based, implicit learning account of structural priming. PMID:26869954

  15. Gemini 8 prime and backup crews during press conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Gemini 8 prime and backup crews during press conference. Left to right are Astronauts David R. Scott, prime crew pilot; Neil A. Armstrong, prime crew command pilot; Charles Conrad Jr., backup crew command pilot; and Richard F. Gordon Jr., backup crew pilot.

  16. Identifiable Orthographically Similar Word Primes Interfere in Visual Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    University students participated in five experiments concerning the effects of unmasked, orthographically similar, primes on visual word recognition in the lexical decision task (LDT) and naming tasks. The modal prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 350 ms. When primes were words that were orthographic neighbors of the targets, and…

  17. 7 CFR 29.1166 - Primings (P Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Grades, Grade Names, Minimum Specifications, and Tolerances P2L—Fine Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 25 percent, of which not over 10 percent may be waste. P3L—Good Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 40 percent, of which not over 20 percent may be waste. P4L—Fair Quality Lemon Primings...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1166 - Primings (P Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Grades, Grade Names, Minimum Specifications, and Tolerances P2L—Fine Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 25 percent, of which not over 10 percent may be waste. P3L—Good Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 40 percent, of which not over 20 percent may be waste. P4L—Fair Quality Lemon Primings...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1166 - Primings (P Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Grades, Grade Names, Minimum Specifications, and Tolerances P2L—Fine Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 25 percent, of which not over 10 percent may be waste. P3L—Good Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 40 percent, of which not over 20 percent may be waste. P4L—Fair Quality Lemon Primings...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1166 - Primings (P Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Grades, Grade Names, Minimum Specifications, and Tolerances P2L—Fine Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 25 percent, of which not over 10 percent may be waste. P3L—Good Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 40 percent, of which not over 20 percent may be waste. P4L—Fair Quality Lemon Primings...