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Sample records for affective priming tasks

  1. Affective Priming in a Lexical Decision Task: Is There an Effect of Words' Concreteness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferré, Pilar; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Affective priming occurs when responses to a target are facilitated when it is preceded by a prime congruent in valence. We conducted two experiments in order to test whether this is a genuine emotional effect or rather it can be accounted for by semantic relatedness between primes and targets. With this aim, semantic relatedness and emotional…

  2. The Affective Regulation of Cognitive Priming

    PubMed Central

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

    2008-01-01

    Semantic and affective priming are classic effects observed in cognitive and social psychology, respectively. We discovered that affect regulates such priming effects. In Experiment 1, positive and negative moods were induced prior to one of three priming tasks; evaluation, categorization, or lexical decision. As predicted, positive affect led to both affective priming (evaluation task) and semantic priming (category and lexical decision tasks). However, negative affect inhibited such effects. In Experiment 2, participants in their natural affective state completed the same priming tasks as in Experiment 1. As expected, affective priming (evaluation task) and category priming (categorization and lexical decision tasks) were observed in such resting affective states. Hence, we conclude that negative affect inhibits semantic and affective priming. These results support recent theoretical models, which suggest that positive affect promotes associations among strong and weak concepts, and that negative affect impairs such associations (Kuhl, 2000; Clore & Storbeck, 2006). PMID:18410195

  3. Priming affects poor sleepers but not normal sleepers on an insomnia ambiguity task.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jason; Gardani, Maria; Hogh, Henriette

    2010-03-01

    With increasing importance being placed on the role of cognitive biases as a maintaining factor in insomnia, the influence of order effects on interpretative responses should be examined and subsequently accounted for. The aim of the present study was to examine whether asking participants about their sleep experiences, prior to testing for a perceptual bias, affects responses on a sleep-related ambiguity task. One hundred and seventeen undergraduate students, blind to the aims of the experiment, were issued either the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes to Sleep scale (DBAS-10) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) before, or following, completion of an Insomnia Ambiguity Task (IAT). As expected, a multivariate analysis of variance showed that the order in which participants completed the task affected the responses on the IAT with those given the DBAS-10 and ISI first, showing greater insomnia-related interpretations than those given the IAT first. However, on closer examination, this effect was evident only for those who were defined as poor sleepers, and that normal sleepers were largely unaffected by the order in which the tests are given. The results are discussed in terms of design and management of sleep-related research protocols involving implicit cognitive tasks. PMID:19895424

  4. Changes in task-extrinsic context do not affect the persistence of long-term cumulative structural priming.

    PubMed

    Kutta, Timothy J; Kaschak, Michael P

    2012-11-01

    We present two experiments exploring the role of extrinsic memory factors (i.e., factors that are extrinsic to the primary task that is being performed) and intrinsic memory factors (i.e., factors that are intrinsic to the primary task being completed) in the persistence of cumulative structural priming effects. Participants completed a two-phase experiment, where the first phase established a bias toward producing either the double object or prepositional object construction, and the second phase assessed the effects of this bias. Extrinsic memory factors were manipulated by having participants complete the two phases of the study in the same or different locations (physical context change) or while watching the same or different videos (video context change). Participants completed the second phase of the study 10 min after the first phase of the study in Experiment 1, and after a delay of 1 week in Experiment 2. Results suggest that the observed structural priming effects were not affected by manipulations of extrinsic memory factors. These data suggest that explicit memory does not play a large role in the long-term persistence of cumulative structural priming effects. PMID:23103416

  5. Affective Priming with Auditory Speech Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degner, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In Experiment 2, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was…

  6. Affective Priming with Associatively Acquired Valence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguado, Luis; Pierna, Manuel; Saugar, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the effect of affectively congruent or incongruent primes on evaluation responses to positive or negative valenced targets (the "affective priming" effect). Experiment 1 replicated the basic affective priming effect with Spanish nouns: reaction time for evaluative responses (pleasant/unpleasant) were slower on…

  7. Task-Dependent Masked Priming Effects in Visual Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A method used widely to study the first 250 ms of visual word recognition is masked priming: These studies have yielded a rich set of data concerning the processes involved in recognizing letters and words. In these studies, there is an implicit assumption that the early processes in word recognition tapped by masked priming are automatic, and masked priming effects should therefore be invariant across tasks. Contrary to this assumption, masked priming effects are modulated by the task goal: For example, only word targets show priming in the lexical decision task, but both words and non-words do in the same-different task; semantic priming effects are generally weak in the lexical decision task but are robust in the semantic categorization task. We explain how such task dependence arises within the Bayesian Reader account of masked priming (Norris and Kinoshita, 2008), and how the task dissociations can be used to understand the early processes in lexical access. PMID:22675316

  8. Phasic affective modulation of semantic priming.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-03-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual facial primes (Experiment 3) in an (in)direct semantic priming paradigm, as well as brief facial feedback in a summative priming paradigm (Experiment 4), yielded increased priming effects under brief positive compared to negative affect. Furthermore, this modulation took place on the level of semantic spreading rather than on strategic mechanisms (Experiment 5). Alternative explanations such as distraction, motivation, arousal, and cognitive tuning could be ruled out. This phasic affective modulation constitutes a mechanism overlooked thus far that may contaminate priming effects in all priming paradigms that involve affective stimuli. Furthermore, this mechanism provides a novel explanation for the observation that priming effects are usually larger for positive than for negative stimuli. Finally, it has important implications for linguistic research, by suggesting that association norms may be biased for affective words. PMID:22732031

  9. Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

  10. Stronger suboptimal than optimal affective priming?

    PubMed

    Rotteveel, M; de Groot, P; Geutskens, A; Phaf, R H

    2001-12-01

    The finding of stronger affective priming in less conscious (suboptimal) conditions than in fully conscious (optimal) conditions (S. T. Murphy & R. B. Zajonc, 1993) is theoretically important because it contradicts notions that emotions are primarily reflected by conscious states. In 2 experiments, this pattern of results was obtained. Happy and angry faces were presented both optimally and suboptimally and were masked by unknown ideographs. In Experiment 1, instructions for the conscious and less conscious affective priming conditions were matched, and affective ratings of ideographs were determined. In Experiment 2, a more implicit affective measure (facial electromyography of musculus zygomaticus major and musculus corrugator supercilii) served as the dependent variable. Stronger suboptimal than optimal affective priming was found in both experiments. It is concluded that stronger suboptimal than optimal processing is characteristic for affective processing and that it can also be found when instructions are matched and when a more implicit measure is assessed. PMID:12901397

  11. Priming Effects for Affective vs. Neutral Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Wyatt, Gwinne; Frohlich, Jonathan; Vardy, Susan B.; Dimitri, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Affective and Neutral Tasks (faces with negative or neutral content, with different lighting and orientation) requiring reaction time judgments of poser identity were administered to 32 participants. Speed and accuracy were better for the Affective than Neutral Task, consistent with literature suggesting facilitation of performance by affective…

  12. Perceptual and Conceptual Priming of Cue Encoding in Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Darryl W.

    2016-01-01

    Transition effects in task-cuing experiments can be partitioned into task switching and cue repetition effects by using multiple cues per task. In the present study, the author shows that cue repetition effects can be partitioned into perceptual and conceptual priming effects. In 2 experiments, letters or numbers in their uppercase/lowercase or…

  13. The effects of the concreteness of differently valenced words on affective priming.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhao; Wang, Zhenhong

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to determine whether affective priming is influenced by the concreteness of emotional words. To address this question, we conducted three experiments using lexical decision-priming task. In Experiment 1, positive-abstract (PA) and positive-concrete (PC) words were used as primes to examine the effect of the concreteness of positive words on affective priming, and in Experiment 2, negative-abstract (NA) and negative-concrete (NC) words were used as primes to examine the effect of the concreteness of negative words on affective priming. Results showed that participants responded faster to affectively congruent-abstract trails than incongruent-abstract trails in PA prime conditions, but for PC or negative word (NC and NA) prime conditions, there were no differences between the response times of congruent trails and incongruent trails. To examine the reliability of the priming effects observed in Experiments 1 and 2, we set up a neutral condition as a baseline in Experiment 3, through which we confirmed the difference in the affective priming effect between positive and negative primes in a concrete-abstract dimension. PA words were found to have the tendency to possess more emotional load and facilitate affective association between the prime and the target. The study finding suggests that aside from arousal and valence, the concreteness of positive words also has an impact on affective priming effect. PMID:23684852

  14. Boundary conditions for the influence of unfamiliar non-target primes in unconscious evaluative priming: The moderating role of attentional task sets.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Markus; Sim, Eun-Jim; Wentura, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Evaluative priming by masked emotional stimuli that are not consciously perceived has been taken as evidence that affective stimulus evaluation can also occur unconsciously. However, as masked priming effects were small and frequently observed only for familiar primes that there also presented as visible targets in an evaluative decision task, priming was thought to reflect primarily response activation based on acquired S-R associations and not evaluative semantic stimulus analysis. The present study therefore assessed across three experiments boundary conditions for the emergence of masked evaluative priming effects with unfamiliar primes in an evaluative decision task and investigated the role of the frequency of target repetition on priming with pictorial and verbal stimuli. While familiar primes elicited robust priming effects in all conditions, priming effects by unfamiliar primes were reliably obtained for low repetition (pictures) or unrepeated targets (words), but not for targets repeated at a high frequency. This suggests that unfamiliar masked stimuli only elicit evaluative priming effects when the task set associated with the visible target involves evaluative semantic analysis and is not based on S-R triggered responding as for high repetition targets. The present results therefore converge with the growing body of evidence demonstrating attentional control influences on unconscious processing. PMID:25680827

  15. Directionality of affective priming: effects of trait anxiety and activation level.

    PubMed

    Maier, Markus A; Berner, Michael P; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    Among the most influential models of automatic affective processing is the spreading activation account (Fazio, Sanbonmatsu, Powell, & Kardes, 1986). However, investigations of this model by different research groups using the pronunciation task in an affective priming paradigm yielded contradictory results. Whereas one research group reported congruency effects, another obtained reversed priming effects (contrast effects), and still another found null effects. In Experiment 1, we were able to show an influence of trait anxiety on the direction of the affective priming effect. By using a multiple priming paradigm in Experiment 2, we were able to link the occurrence of reversed priming effects to increased levels of activation of affective representations. We propose that this relation might underlie the influence of trait anxiety on the direction of affective priming effects. Both experiments indicate that automatic evaluation in an affective network is substantially moderated by personality traits and activation level. PMID:12693196

  16. What's in a face? The role of skin tone, facial physiognomy, and color presentation mode of facial primes in affective priming effects.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Elena V; Strube, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Participants (N = 106) performed an affective priming task with facial primes that varied in their skin tone and facial physiognomy, and, which were presented either in color or in gray-scale. Participants' racial evaluations were more positive for Eurocentric than for Afrocentric physiognomy faces. Light skin tone faces were evaluated more positively than dark skin tone faces, but the magnitude of this effect depended on the mode of color presentation. The results suggest that in affective priming tasks, faces might not be processed holistically, and instead, visual features of facial priming stimuli independently affect implicit evaluations. PMID:22468422

  17. Pre-Task Syntactic Priming and Focused Task Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Jeremy S.

    2010-01-01

    Focused tasks engage learners in using language for communication and in addition have a specific predetermined linguistic focus in mind. The difficulty in designing focused tasks is that many meanings can be articulated using more than one language form, making it difficult to design tasks which induce learner use of a specific target form. This…

  18. Modeling Task Switching without Switching Tasks: A Short-Term Priming Account of Explicitly Cued Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Darryl W.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2005-01-01

    Switch costs in task switching are commonly attributed to an executive control process of task-set reconfiguration, particularly in studies involving the explicit task-cuing procedure. The authors propose an alternative account of explicitly cued performance that is based on 2 mechanisms: priming of cue encoding from residual activation of cues in…

  19. Relative contributions of task-relevant and task-irrelevant dimensions in priming of pop-out.

    PubMed

    Michal, Audrey L; Lleras, Alejandro; Beck, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    Intertrial effects such as priming of pop-out (PoP) often occur for task-irrelevant dimensions as well as task-relevant dimensions, though to a weaker extent. Here we test the hypothesis that increased priming for task-relevant dimensions is due to greater passive build-up of priming for the task-relevant dimension rather than to an active filtering of task-irrelevant dimensions; if this is the case, then we should observe a positive correlation between the magnitude of task-relevant and task-irrelevant priming. We tested this hypothesis using a pop-out search task in which the task-relevant dimension was orientation and the task-irrelevant dimension was color. We found a strong, positive association between task-relevant and task-irrelevant priming across a large group of participants (N = 100); additionally, we observed increased priming over consecutive repetitions for the task-relevant dimension, whereas task-irrelevant priming was constant across multiple repetitions. As further evidence against an active filtering account, task-irrelevant priming showed no systematic relationship with visual short-term memory capacity, which has been shown to correlate with filtering ability. Together, our results suggest that task-irrelevant dimensions are co-selected rather than filtered out during target search. Further, increased task-relevant priming may reflect an enhanced representation of the task-relevant dimension that is reinforced over consecutive repetitions. PMID:25311302

  20. Priming in word stem completion tasks: comparison with previous results in word fragment completion tasks

    PubMed Central

    Soler, María J.; Dasí, Carmen; Ruiz, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates priming in an implicit word stem completion (WSC) task by analyzing the effect of linguistic stimuli characteristics on said task. A total of 305 participants performed a WSC task in two phases (study and test). The test phase included 63 unique-solution stems and 63 multiple-solution stems. Analysis revealed that priming (mean = 0.22) was stronger in the case of multiple-solution stems, indicating that they were not a homogeneous group of stimuli. Thus, further analyses were performed only for the data of the unique-solution stems. Correlations between priming and familiarity, frequency of use, and baseline completion were significant. The less familiar words, which were less frequent, had higher priming values. At the same time, the stems with lower baseline completion generated more priming. A regression analysis showed that baseline completion was the only significant predictor of priming, suggesting that the previous processing of the stimuli had a greater impact on the stimuli with low baseline performance. At the same time, baseline completion showed significant positive correlations with familiarity and frequency of use, and a negative correlation with length. When baseline completion was the dependent variable in the regression analysis, the significant variables in the regression were familiarity and length. These results were compared with those obtained in a study using word fragment completion (WFC) by Soler et al. (2009), in which the same words and procedure were employed. Analysis showed that the variables that correlated with priming were the same as in the WSC task, and that completion baseline was the variable that showed the greatest predictive power of priming. This coincidence of results obtained with WFC and WSC tasks highlights the importance of controlling the characteristics of the stimuli used when exploring the nature of priming. PMID:26321987

  1. Affective priming as an indirect measure of food preferences acquired through odor conditioning.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Dirk; Baeyens, Frank; Lamote, Sabine; Spruyt, Adriaan; Eelen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating affective priming for originally neutral food stimuli that recently acquired their affective meaning through odor conditioning. In a first phase, pictures of different brands of yogurts (CSs) were contingently presented with a positive or negative odor (US). In a subsequent phase, the yogurt CSs were used as primes in an affective priming procedure. Rating data showed that the acquisition procedure resulted in a reliable evaluative learning effect. This could be corroborated by the results of the priming task. Participants responded faster to positive target words and made fewer errors when they were preceded by a CS that had been associated with a positive odor, as compared to a CS that was associated with a negative odor. A reversed pattern was present for negative targets. Based on these findings, it is suggested that affective priming might be used as a demand-free measure of evaluative learning. PMID:16076065

  2. Incidental Learning of S-R Contingencies in the Masked Prime Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlaghecken, Friederike; Blagrove, Elisabeth; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Subliminal motor priming effects in the masked prime paradigm can only be obtained when primes are part of the task set. In 2 experiments, the authors investigated whether the relevant task set feature needs to be explicitly instructed or could be extracted automatically in an incidental learning paradigm. Primes and targets were symmetrical…

  3. Across-Task Priming Revisited: Response and Task Conflicts Disentangled Using Ex-Gaussian Distribution Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moutsopoulou, Karolina; Waszak, Florian

    2012-01-01

    The differential effects of task and response conflict in priming paradigms where associations are strengthened between a stimulus, a task, and a response have been demonstrated in recent years with neuroimaging methods. However, such effects are not easily disentangled with only measurements of behavior, such as reaction times (RTs). Here, we…

  4. Recent Experience Affects the Strength of Structural Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Loney, Renrick A.; Borreggine, Kristin L.

    2006-01-01

    In two experiments, we explore how recent experience with particular syntactic constructions affects the strength of the structural priming observed for those constructions. The results suggest that (1) the strength of structural priming observed for double object and prepositional object constructions is affected by the relative frequency with…

  5. Effects of subliminal affective priming on helping behavior using the foot-in-the-door technique.

    PubMed

    Skandrani-Marzouki, Inès; Marzouki, Yousri; Joule, Robert-Vincent

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of subliminal affective priming on compliance using the foot-in-the-door (FITD) paradigm. Prior to the target request, participants were exposed to subliminal emotional expressions. FITD (presence vs. absence of initial request) was crossed with Priming (positive, negative, neutral, and absence of prime-blank screen) in a between-subjects design. 180 students volunteered as participants (M=22 years). 20 participants (10 females) were assigned to each of eight experimental conditions plus the control condition that neither involved the initial request nor the priming experiment. Participants were asked to judge whether target sentences were relevant or not for road safety instruction. In Experiment 1, emotional valence of prime stimuli affected both endorsement rate and time devoted to the target request but not participants' attitude. Affective priming effects did not interact significantly with the FITD effect. In experiment 2, in 180 more students, the attitude measure was replaced by an implicit recognition task. Results showed that regardless of priming condition, in the absence of FITD, participants recognized target sentences better than in the presence of FITD. Conversely, in the presence of the FITD, participants recognized more accurately previously seen sentences that were primed by positive emotions relative to other priming conditions. The latter result suggests that the presence of the FITD involves a significant amount of cognitive resources so that only stimuli emotionally relevant to the task's goal (i.e., positive) tend to be processed. Together, these results could explain how, contrary to helping behavior, compliant behavior that has no direct association with the prime stimuli was not easily influenced by the affective subliminal priming. PMID:23402037

  6. They know the words, but not the music: affective and semantic priming in individuals with psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Blair, K S; Richell, R A; Mitchell, D G V; Leonard, A; Morton, J; Blair, R J R

    2006-08-01

    Previous work has indicated dysfunctional affect-language interactions in individuals with psychopathy through use of the lexical decision task. However, it has been uncertain as to whether these deficits actually reflect impaired affect-language interactions or a more fundamental deficit in general semantic processing. In this study, we examined affective priming and semantic priming (dependent measures were reaction times and error rates) in individuals with psychopathy and comparison individuals, classified according to the psychopathy checklist revised (PCL-R) [Hare, R.D., 1991. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, Ont] Individuals with psychopathy showed significantly less affective priming relative to comparison individuals. In contrast, the two groups showed comparable levels of semantic priming. The results are discussed with reference to current models of psychopathy. PMID:16574302

  7. Affect is greater than, not equal to, condition: condition and person effects in affective priming paradigms.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Adam A; Larsen, Randy J; Elliot, Andrew J

    2013-08-01

    Affective primes may impact ensuing behavior through condition and person effects. However, previous research has not experimentally disentangled these two sources of influence in affective priming paradigms. In the current research, we simultaneously examine the influence of condition factors, in terms of prime valence, and person factors, in terms of affect reactivity and personality. In both studies, undergraduate participants (total N = 174) were primed with either positive or negative affective stimuli (words, Study 1; pictures, Study 2) prior to judging the likability of a neutral target (Arabic characters, Study 1; inkblots, Study 2). Although we did observe between-condition differences for positive and negative primes, person-level effects were more consistent predictors of target ratings. Affect reactivity (affect Time 2, controlling Time 1) to the primes predicted evaluative judgments, even in the absence of condition effects. In addition, the personality traits of Neuroticism (Study 1) and behavioral inhibition system sensitivity (Study 2) predicted evaluative judgments of neutral targets following negative affective primes. With effects for condition, affect reactivity, and personality, our results suggest that affective primes influence ensuing behaviors through both informational and affective means. Research using affective priming methodologies should take into account both condition and person-level effects. PMID:23253181

  8. Social Priming Improves Cognitive Control in Elderly Adults—Evidence from the Simon Task

    PubMed Central

    Aisenberg, Daniela; Cohen, Noga; Pick, Hadas; Tressman, Iris; Rappaport, Michal; Shenberg, Tal; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether social priming of cognitive states affects the inhibitory process in elderly adults, as aging is related to deficits in inhibitory control. Forty-eight elderly adults and 45 young adults were assigned to three groups and performed a cognitive control task (Simon task), which was followed by 3 different manipulations of social priming (i.e., thinking about an 82 year-old person): 1) negative—characterized by poor cognitive abilities, 2) neutral—characterized by acts irrelevant to cognitive abilities, and 3) positive—excellent cognitive abilities. After the manipulation, the Simon task was performed again. Results showed improvement in cognitive control effects in seniors after the positive manipulation, indicated by a significant decrease in the magnitude of the Simon and interference effects, but not after the neutral and negative manipulations. Furthermore, a healthy pattern of sequential effect (Gratton) that was absent before the manipulation in all 3 groups appeared after the positive manipulation. Namely, the Simon effect was only present after congruent but not after incongruent trials for the positive manipulation group. No influence of manipulations was found in young adults. These meaningful results were replicated in a second experiment and suggest a decrease in conflict interference resulting from positive cognitive state priming. Our study provides evidence that an implicit social concept of a positive cognitive condition in old age can affect the control process of the elderly and improve cognitive abilities. PMID:25635946

  9. Semantic and Phonological Task-Set Priming and Stimulus Processing Investigated Using Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, F.; Rippon, G.; Hillebrand, A.; Singh, K. D.; Swithenby, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study the neural substrates of semantic and phonological task priming and task performance were investigated using single word task-primes. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were analysed using Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry (SAM) to determine the spatiotemporal and spectral characteristics of cortical responses. Comparisons were made…

  10. Initial examination of priming tasks to decrease delay discounting.

    PubMed

    Sheffer, Christine E; Mackillop, James; Fernandez, Arislenia; Christensen, Darren; Bickel, Warren K; Johnson, Matthew W; Panissidi, Luana; Pittman, Jami; Franck, Christopher T; Williams, Jarrett; Mathew, Merlin

    2016-07-01

    Steep discounting of delayed rewards is linked with a variety of unhealthy behaviors that contribute to the major causes of preventable death and disease. Growing evidence suggests that decreases in delay discounting contribute to healthier preferences. This study sought to provide preliminary evidence for the viability of developing a brief priming task to reduce delay discounting in a large, diverse group of individuals. Participants (n=1,122) were randomized to one of three conditions: Future Focus (FF), Present Focus (PF), and Non-Temporal Focus (NTF) intended respectively to decrease, increase, or have no effect on delay discounting. Participants then completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire, a brief assessment of delay discounting rate. Participants randomized to FF exhibited significantly lower discounting rates than those randomized to PF or NTF conditions. Race, Hispanic background, social self-monitoring, education, and cigarette smoking also accounted for a significant amount of variance in the discounting model. These findings provide support for the development of a brief priming intervention that might be examined in clinical or public health contexts to decrease discounting and support healthy choices. PMID:27179761

  11. Emotional task management: neural correlates of switching between affective and non-affective task-sets

    PubMed Central

    Reeck, Crystal

    2015-01-01

    Although task-switching has been investigated extensively, its interaction with emotionally salient task content remains unclear. Prioritized processing of affective stimulus content may enhance accessibility of affective task-sets and generate increased interference when switching between affective and non-affective task-sets. Previous research has demonstrated that more dominant task-sets experience greater switch costs, as they necessitate active inhibition during performance of less entrenched tasks. Extending this logic to the affective domain, the present experiment examined (a) whether affective task-sets are more dominant than non-affective ones, and (b) what neural mechanisms regulate affective task-sets, so that weaker, non-affective task-sets can be executed. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants categorized face stimuli according to either their gender (non-affective task) or their emotional expression (affective task). Behavioral results were consistent with the affective task dominance hypothesis: participants were slower to switch to the affective task, and cross-task interference was strongest when participants tried to switch from the affective to the non-affective task. These behavioral costs of controlling the affective task-set were mirrored in the activation of a right-lateralized frontostriatal network previously implicated in task-set updating and response inhibition. Connectivity between amygdala and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was especially pronounced during cross-task interference from affective features. PMID:25552571

  12. The role of selective attention in perceptual and affective priming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Two kinds of perceptual priming (word identification and word fragment completion), as well as preference priming (that may rely on special affective mechanisms) were examined after participants either read or named the colors of words and nonwords at study. Participants named the colors of words more slowly than the colors of nonwords, indicating that lexical processing of the words occurred at study. Nonetheless, priming on all three tests was lower after color naming than after reading, despite evidence of lexical processing during color naming shown by slower responses to words than to nonwords. These results indicate that selective attention to (rather than the mere processing of) letter string identity at study is important for subsequent repetition priming.

  13. Inhibitory Control in Number-Conservation and Class-Inclusion Tasks: A Neo-Piagetian Inter-Task Priming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borst, Gregoire; Poirel, Nicolas; Pineau, Arlette; Cassotti, Mathieu; Houde, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether success in number-conservation and class-inclusion tasks relies on a general ability to inhibit misleading strategies. Two groups of 10-year-olds performed inter-task priming between computerized versions of class-inclusion and number-conservation tasks (Experiment 1). In one group, the class-inclusion task served as a…

  14. Effects of autonomous motivational priming on motivation and affective responses towards high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Brown, Denver M Y; Teseo, Amanda J; Bray, Steven R

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effect of autonomous motivational priming on motivation, attitudes and intentions towards high-intensity interval training (HIT). Participants (N = 42) performed a graded exercise test to determine their peak aerobic power (WPEAK). At a subsequent testing session, participants were randomised to complete either an autonomous or neutral motivational priming task followed by a 10 × 1 HIT exercise protocol, alternating 1-min bouts of hard (70% WPEAK) and light (12.5% WPEAK) exercises for 20 min. Participants primed with autonomous motivation reported greater enjoyment, P = .009, ηp(2) = .16, and perceived competence, P = .005, ηp(2) = .18, post-exercise compared to those in the neutral priming condition. Participants in the autonomous motivational priming condition also reported more positive attitudes, P = .014, ηp(2) = .14, towards HIT; however, there was no difference between the conditions for task motivation during HIT or intentions, P = .53, ηp(2) = .01, to engage in HIT. These findings highlight autonomous motivational priming as a method of enhancing affective and motivational experiences regarding HIT. PMID:26634389

  15. The effects of study-task relevance on perceptual repetition priming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbrook, Jon B.; Bost, Preston R.; Cave, Carolyn Backer

    2003-01-01

    Repetition priming is easily elicited in many traditional paradigms, and the possibility that perceptual priming may be other than an automatic consequence of perception has received little consideration. This issue is explored in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants named the target from a four-item category search study task more quickly than the nontarget study items at a later naming test. Experiment 2 extended this finding to conditions in which stimuli were individually presented at study. In three different study tasks, stimuli relevant to study-task completion elicited priming on a later test, but stimuli presented outside the context of a task did not. In both experiments, recognition was above chance for nonrelevant stimuli, suggesting that participants explicitly remembered stimuli that did not elicit priming. Results suggest that priming is sensitive to study-task demands and may reflect a more adaptive and flexible mechanism for modification of perceptual processing than previously appreciated.

  16. Identity Priming Consistently Affects Perceptual Fluency but Only Affects Metamemory When Primes Are Obvious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susser, Jonathan A.; Jin, Andy; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual fluency manipulations influence metamemory judgments, with more fluently perceived information judged as more memorable. However, it is not always clear whether this influence is driven by actual experienced processing fluency or by beliefs about memory. The current study used an identity-priming paradigm--in which words are preceded by…

  17. Using the speeded word fragment completion task to examine semantic priming.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Tom; De Deyne, Simon; Hutchison, Keith A; Storms, Gert

    2015-06-01

    The present research investigates semantic priming with an adapted version of the word fragment completion task. In this task, which we refer to as the speeded word fragment completion task, participants need to complete words such as lett_ce (lettuce), from which one letter was omitted, as quickly as possible. This paradigm has some interesting qualities in comparison with the traditionally used lexical decision task. That is, it requires no pseudowords, it is more engaging for participants, and most importantly, it allows for a more fine-grained investigation of semantic activation. In two studies, we found that words were completed faster when the preceding trial comprised a semantically related fragment such as tom_to (tomato) than when it comprised an unrelated fragment such as guit_r (guitar). A third experiment involved a lexical decision task, to compare both paradigms. The results showed that the magnitude of the priming effect was similar, but item-level priming effects were inconsistent over tasks. Crucially, the speeded word fragment completion task obtained strong priming effects for highly frequent, central words, such as work, money, and warm, whereas the lexical decision task did not. In a final experiment featuring only short, highly frequent words, the lexical decision task failed to find a priming effect, whereas the fragment completion task did obtain a robust effect. Taken together, these results suggest that the speeded word fragment completion task may prove a viable alternative for examining semantic priming. PMID:24942248

  18. Pro Free Will Priming Enhances “Risk-Taking” Behavior in the Iowa Gambling Task, but Not in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task: Two Independent Priming Studies

    PubMed Central

    Schrag, Yann; Tremea, Alessandro; Lagger, Cyril; Ohana, Noé; Mohr, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Studies indicated that people behave less responsibly after exposure to information containing deterministic statements as compared to free will statements or neutral statements. Thus, deterministic primes should lead to enhanced risk-taking behavior. We tested this prediction in two studies with healthy participants. In experiment 1, we tested 144 students (24 men) in the laboratory using the Iowa Gambling Task. In experiment 2, we tested 274 participants (104 men) online using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. In the Iowa Gambling Task, the free will priming condition resulted in more risky decisions than both the deterministic and neutral priming conditions. We observed no priming effects on risk-taking behavior in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. To explain these unpredicted findings, we consider the somatic marker hypothesis, a gain frequency approach as well as attention to gains and / or inattention to losses. In addition, we highlight the necessity to consider both pro free will and deterministic priming conditions in future studies. Importantly, our and previous results indicate that the effects of pro free will and deterministic priming do not oppose each other on a frequently assumed continuum. PMID:27018854

  19. Concreteness of positive word contributions to affective priming: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhao; Wang, Zhenhong

    2014-09-01

    Recent behavioral data suggest that the concreteness of positive words modulates subsequent cognitive processing; however, the underlying physiological processes of this influence are not well understood. To explore this process, positive-abstract words or positive-concrete words were used as primes when participants performed a lexical decision task during the measurement of event-related potentials (ERPs). The behavioral data revealed a significant affective priming effect (i.e., incongruent>congruent) only for abstract word pairs. The N400 amplitude was larger for affectively incongruent pairs compared to affectively congruent pairs, independent of the prime concreteness. The amplitude of the late positive component (LPC) was modulated by prime concreteness. The processing of positive-abstract targets was facilitated by previous exposure to a congruent prime, as reflected by the reduced LPC, which has been thought to reflect attentional and memory processes. However, no differences in the LPC amplitude were found between congruent and incongruent-concrete pairs. These findings suggest that the influence of the concreteness of positive words mainly occurs during the decision-making processing and memory-related stages. PMID:24937349

  20. Perception without awareness: further evidence from a Stroop priming task.

    PubMed

    Daza, M Teresa; Ortells, Juan J; Fox, Elaine

    2002-11-01

    In the present research, we examined the influence of prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) on Stroop-priming effects from masked words. Participants indicated the color of a central target, which was preceded by a 33-msec prime word followed either immediately or after a variable delay by a pattern mask. The prime word was incongruent or congruent with the target color on 75% and 25% of the trials, respectively. The words followed by an immediate mask produced reliable Stroop interference at SOAs of 300 and 400 msec but not at SOAs of 500 and 700 msec. The words followed by a delayed mask produced a reversed (i.e., facilitatory) Stroop effect, which reached significance at an SOA of 400 msec or longer, but never at the shorter 300-msec SOA. Such an differential time course of both types of Stroop priming effects provides further evidence for the existence of qualitative differences between conscious and nonconscious perceptual processes. PMID:12519028

  1. Socially triggered negative affect impairs performance in simple cognitive tasks.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Svenja; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of a social-evaluative context on simple cognitive tasks. While another person present in the room evaluated photographs of beautiful women or landscapes by beauty/attractiveness, female participants had to perform a combination of digit-categorization and spatial-compatibility task. There, before every trial, one of the women or landscape pictures was presented. Results showed selective performance impairments: the numerical distance effects increased on trials that followed women pictures but only, if another person concurrently evaluated these women pictures. In a second experiment, using the affective priming paradigm, the authors show that female pictures have a more negative connotation when they are concurrently evaluated by another person (social-evaluative context) than when they are not evaluated (neutral context). Together, these results suggest that the social-evaluative context triggers mild negative affective reactions to women pictures which then impair performance in an unrelated task. PMID:23423348

  2. Negative Priming Effect after Inhibition of Weight/Number Interference in a Piaget-Like Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirlin, Olivier; Houde, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Piagetian tasks have more to do with the child's ability to inhibit interference than they do with the ability to grasp their underlying logic. Here we used a chronometric paradigm with 11-year-olds, who succeed in Piaget's conservation-of-weight task, to test the role of cognitive inhibition in a priming version of this classical task. The…

  3. Reduction of interference effect by low spatial frequency information priming in an emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Beffara, Brice; Wicker, Bruno; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Ouellet, Marc; Bret, Amélie; Molina, Maria Jesus Funes; Mermillod, Martial

    2015-01-01

    The affective prediction hypothesis assumes that visual expectation allows fast and accurate processing of emotional stimuli. The prediction corresponds to what an object is likely to be. It therefore facilitates its identification by setting aside what the object is unlikely to be. It has then been suggested that prediction might be inevitably associated with the inhibition of irrelevant possibilities concerning the object to identify. Several studies highlighted that the facilitation of emotional perception depends on low spatial frequency (LSF) extraction. However, most of them used paradigms in which only the object to identify was present in the scene. As a consequence, there have yet been no studies investigating the efficiency of prediction in the visual perception of stimuli among irrelevant information. In this study, we designed a novel priming emotional Stroop task in which participants had to identify emotional facial expressions (EFEs) presented along with a congruent or incongruent word. To further investigate the role of early extraction of LSF information in top-down prediction during emotion recognition, the target EFE was primed with the same EFE filtered in LSF or high spatial frequency (HSF). Results reveal a reduction of the Stroop interference in the LSF compared to the HSF priming condition, which supports that visual expectation, depending on early LSF information extraction, facilitates the inhibition of irrelevant information during emotion recognition. PMID:26024463

  4. Effect of Syllable Congruency in Sixth Graders in the Lexical Decision Task with Masked Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetail, Fabienne; Mathey, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the syllable in visual recognition of French words in Grade 6. To do so, the syllabic congruency effect was examined in the lexical decision task combined with masked priming. Target words were preceded by pseudoword primes sharing the first letters that either corresponded to the syllable…

  5. Generation and Perceptual Implicit Memory: Different Generation Tasks Produce Different Effects on Perceptual Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Dew, Ilana T. Z.

    2009-01-01

    The generation manipulation has been critical in delineating differences between implicit and explicit memory. In contrast to past research, the present experiments indicate that generating from a rhyme cue produces as much perceptual priming as does reading. This is demonstrated for 3 visual priming tasks: perceptual identification, word-fragment…

  6. Attentional sensitization of unconscious cognition: task sets modulate subsequent masked semantic priming.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Markus; Martens, Ulla

    2010-08-01

    According to classical theories, automatic processes are autonomous and independent of higher level cognitive influence. In contrast, the authors propose that automatic processing depends on attentional sensitization of task-congruent processing pathways. In 3 experiments, the authors tested this hypothesis with a modified masked semantic priming paradigm during a lexical decision task by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs): Before masked prime presentation, participants attended an induction task either to semantic or perceptual stimulus features designed to activate a semantic or perceptual task set, respectively. Semantic priming effects on the N400 ERP component, an electrophysiological index of semantic processing, were obtained when a semantic task set was induced immediately before subliminal prime presentation, whereas a previously induced perceptual task set attenuated N400 priming. Across experiments, comparable results were obtained regardless of the difficulty level and the verbal or nonverbal nature of the induction tasks. In line with the proposed attentional sensitization model, unconscious semantic processing is enhanced by a semantic and attenuated by a perceptual task set. Hence, automatic processing of unconscious stimuli is susceptible to top-down control for optimizing goal-related information processing. PMID:20677895

  7. Emotion-Specific Priming: Congruence Effects on Affect and Recognition across Negative Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Christine H.; Shantz, Cynthia A.

    1995-01-01

    Demonstrated the emotion-specific priming effects of negatively valenced emotions (anger, sadness, and fear) in a divided attention task. Results indicated that a negative emotion displayed by a target that matched the emotion induced by a priming manipulation was significantly stronger than an incongruous priming manipulation and displayed…

  8. Effects of normal aging on event-related potentials and oscillatory brain activity during a haptic repetition priming task.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, Manuel; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2012-03-01

    This study reports neural repetition effects in young and older adults while performing a haptic repetition priming task consisting in the detection of the bilateral symmetry of familiar objects. To examine changes in event-related potentials (ERPs) and induced brain oscillations of object repetition priming with aging, we recorded EEGs of healthy groups of young (n=14; mean age=29.93 years) and older adults (n=15; mean age=66.4). Both groups exhibited similar behavioral haptic priming across repetitions, although young adults responded faster than the older group. Young and older adults showed ERP repetition enhancement at the 500-900 ms time window. In contrast, only the young participants showed ERP repetition suppression at the 1200-1500 ms segment. The results from the induced oscillations showed more positive amplitudes in young than in older adults at theta, alpha and beta frequencies (4-30 Hz). In addition, we found amplitude modulation related to stimulus repetition in the upper alpha and low beta sub-bands only in young adults (1250-1750 ms).The results suggest that although behavioral priming is spared with age, normal aging affects ERPs and oscillatory responses when performing an incidental priming symmetry detection task with haptically explored objects. PMID:22155374

  9. Negative Priming Effects in Children Engaged in Nonspatial Tasks: Evidence for Early Development of an Intact Inhibitory Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Verena E.; Neumann, Ewald

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments are reported that examined conceptual negative priming effects in children 5 to 12 years of age. Experiment 1 used a negative priming variant of a flanker task requiring the naming of a central color blob flanked by irrelevant distractors. Experiment 2 used a negative priming variant of the Stroop color-word task. Experiment 3…

  10. Priming deficiency in male subjects at risk for alcoholism: the N4 during a lexical decision task

    PubMed Central

    Roopesh, Bangalore N.; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Kamarajan, Chella; Chorlian, David B.; Stimus, Arthur; Bauer, Lance O.; Rohrbaugh, John; O'Connor, Sean J.; Kuperman, Samuel; Schuckit, Marc; Porjesz, Bernice

    2011-01-01

    Background While there is extensive literature on the relationship between the P3 component of event-related potentials (ERPs) and risk for alcoholism, there are few published studies regarding other potentially important ERP components. One important candidate is the N4(00) component in the context of semantic processing, as abnormalities in this component have been reported for adult alcoholics. Method A semantic priming task was administered to non-alcohol dependent male offspring (18 to 25 years) of alcoholic fathers [high risk (HR) n=23] and non-alcoholic fathers [low risk (LR) n=28], to study whether the two groups differ in terms of the N4 component. Subjects were presented with 150 words and 150 non-words. Among the words, 50 words (primed) were preceded by their antonyms (prime, n=50), whereas the remaining 50 words were unprimed. For the analysis, N4 amplitude and latency, as well as behavioral measures for the primed and unprimed words were considered. Results A significant interaction effect was observed between semantic condition and group, where HR subjects did not show N4 attenuation for primed stimuli. Conclusion The lack of N4 attenuation to primed stimuli and/or inability to differentiate between primed and unprimed stimuli, without latency and reaction time being affected, suggest deficits in semantic priming, especially in semantic expectancy and/or post-lexical semantic processing in HR male offspring. Further, it indicates that it might be an electrophysiological endophenotype that reflects genetic vulnerability to develop alcoholism. PMID:19764939

  11. The time course of semantic and associative priming effects is different in an attentional blink task.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Karen; Hunt, Hayley

    2013-08-01

    When two targets are presented using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) and the interval between the targets is 200-500 ms, report of the second target is impaired, a phenomena known as the attentional blink (AB). This study examined the time course of semantic-only and associate-semantic priming effects during an AB task. Three RSVP experiments were conducted using targets that shared either a semantic-only or an associative-semantic relationship. The results of the three experiments demonstrated semantic-only priming effects at the shortest stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Associative-semantic priming was evident at shorter and longer SOAs. This suggests that priming in an AB task is driven by conceptual overlap facilitating lexical access at short SOAs and with longer SOAs lexical access benefits from word associations links between targets. PMID:23589233

  12. Visual similarity in masking and priming: The critical role of task relevance

    PubMed Central

    Enns, James T.; Oriet, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive scientists use rapid image sequences to study both the emergence of conscious perception (visual masking) and the unconscious processes involved in response preparation (masked priming). The present study asked two questions: (1) Does image similarity influence masking and priming in the same way? (2) Are similarity effects in both tasks governed by the extent of feature overlap in the images or only by task-relevant features? Participants in Experiment 1 classified human faces using a single dimension even though the faces varied in three dimensions (emotion, race, sex). Abstract geometric shapes and colors were tested in the same way in Experiment 2. Results showed that similarity reduced the visibility of the target in the masking task and increased response speed in the priming task, pointing to a double-dissociation between the two tasks. Results also showed that only task-relevant (not objective) similarity influenced masking and priming, implying that both tasks are influenced from the beginning by intentions of the participant. These findings are interpreted within the framework of a reentrant theory of visual perception. They imply that intentions can influence object formation prior to the separation of vision for perception and vision for action. PMID:20517510

  13. The influence of dimensional overlap on location-related priming in the Simon task.

    PubMed

    Lehle, Carola; Stürmer, Birgit; Sommer, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Choice reaction times are shorter when stimulus and response locations are compatible than when they are incompatible as in the Simon effect. Recent studies revealed that Simon effects are strongly attenuated when there is temporal overlap with a different high-priority task, accompanied by a decrease of early location-related response priming as reflected in the lateralized readiness potential (LRP). The latter result was obtained in a study excluding overlap of stimulus location with any other dimension in the tasks. Independent evidence suggests that location-related priming might be present in conditions with dimensional overlap. Here we tested this prediction in a dual-task experiment supplemented with recording LRPs. The secondary task was either a standard Simon task where irrelevant stimulus location overlapped with dimensions of the primary task or a Stroop-like Simon task including additional overlap of irrelevant and relevant stimulus attributes. At high temporal overlap, there was no Simon effect nor was there stimulus-related response priming in either condition. Therefore stimulus-triggered response priming seems to be abolished in conditions of limited capacity even if the likelihood of an S-R compatibility effect is maximized. PMID:23581810

  14. Testing the attentional boundary conditions of subliminal semantic priming: the influence of semantic and phonological task sets

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sarah C.; Kiefer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies challenged the classical notion of automaticity and indicated that even unconscious automatic semantic processing is under attentional control to some extent. In line with our attentional sensitization model, these data suggest that a sensitization of semantic pathways by a semantic task set is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to occur while non-semantic task sets attenuate priming. In the present study, we tested whether masked semantic priming is also reduced by phonological task sets using the previously developed induction task paradigm. This would substantiate the notion that attention to semantics is necessary for eliciting unconscious semantic priming. Participants first performed semantic and phonological induction tasks that should either activate a semantic or a phonological task set. Subsequent to the induction task, a masked prime word, either associated or non-associated with the following lexical decision target word, was presented. Across two experiments, we varied the nature of the phonological induction task (word phonology vs. letter phonology) to assess whether the attentional focus on the entire word vs. single letters modulates subsequent masked semantic priming. In both experiments, subliminal semantic priming was only found subsequent to the semantic induction task, but was attenuated following either phonological induction task. These results indicate that attention to phonology attenuates subsequent semantic processing of unconsciously presented primes whether or not attention is directed to the entire word or to single letters. The present findings therefore substantiate earlier evidence that an attentional orientation toward semantics is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to be elicited. PMID:22952461

  15. Comparing the Neural Correlates of Conscious and Unconscious Conflict Control in a Masked Stroop Priming Task

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jun; Bailey, Kira; Xiang, Ling; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Qinglin

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have suggested that conflict control can occur in the absence of consciousness, the brain mechanisms underlying unconscious and conscious conflict control remain unclear. The current study used a rapid event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design to collect data from 24 participants while they performed a masked Stroop priming task under both conscious and unconscious conditions. The results revealed that the fronto-parietal conflict network, including medial frontal cortex (MFC), left and right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and posterior parietal cortex (PPC), was activated by both conscious and unconscious Stroop priming, even though in MFC and left DLPFC the activations elicited by unconscious Stroop priming were smaller than conscious Stroop priming. The findings provide evidence for the existence of quantitative differences between the neural substrates of conscious and unconscious conflict control. PMID:27378890

  16. Assessing the Effects of Momentary Priming on Memory Retention During an Interference Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    A memory aid, that used brief (33ms) presentations of previously learned information (target words), was assessed on its ability to reinforce memory for target words while the subject was performing an interference task. The interference task required subjects to learn new words and thus interfered with their memory of the target words. The brief presentation (momentary memory priming) was hypothesized to refresh the subjects memory of the target words. 143 subjects, in a within subject design, were given a 33ms presentation of the target memory words during the interference task in a treatment condition and a blank 33ms presentation in the control condition. The primary dependent measure, memory loss over the interference trial, was not significantly different between the two conditions. The memory prime did not appear to hinder the subjects performance on the interference task. This paper describes the experiment and the results along with suggestions for future research.

  17. Multiple Systems for Cognitive Control: Evidence from a Hybrid Prime-Simon Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlaghecken, Friederike; Refaat, Malik; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive control resolves conflicts between appropriate and inappropriate response tendencies. Is this achieved by a unitary all-purpose conflict control system, or do independent subsystems deal with different aspects of conflicting information? In a fully factorial hybrid prime-Simon task, participants responded to the identity of targets…

  18. Nonword Repetition Priming in Lexical Decision Reverses as a Function of Study Task and Speed Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeelenberg, Rene; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors argue that nonword repetition priming in lexical decision is the net result of 2 opposing processes. First, repeating nonwords in the lexical decision task results in the storage of a memory trace containing the interpretation that the letter string is a nonword; retrieval of this trace leads to an increase in performance for repeated…

  19. Subliminal affective priming in clinical depression and comorbid anxiety: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Dannlowski, Udo; Kersting, Anette; Lalee-Mentzel, Judith; Donges, Uta-Susan; Arolt, Volker; Suslow, Thomas

    2006-06-30

    In the present study, the sequential affective priming paradigm developed by Fazio et al. [Fazio, R.H., Sanbonmatsu, D.M., Powell, M.C., Kardes, F.R., 1986. On the automatic activation of attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50, 229-238.] was applied for the first time to investigate automatic cognitive bias in depressed patients. Unipolar depressed patients (n=22) were tested on admission and after about 7 weeks of inpatient psychotherapy. Half of the patients (n=11) were suffering from a comorbid anxiety disorder. Twenty-two healthy subjects served as controls. Affectively polarized prime words were presented subliminally followed by positive or negative target words, which had to be evaluated. Subjects' affective state was assessed by self-report measures. In the course of psychotherapy, patients recovered significantly. Study groups exhibited qualitatively different affective priming effects: In non-comorbid depressed patients, no affective priming was found. Instead, a highly significant main effect of prime valence emerged, indicating a Stroop-like interference of negative prime words at time 1. This negative bias was associated with depression level at time 1 and could not be found after recovery. Affective priming was observed in controls and comorbid patients, but in opposite directions. Direction and strength of affective priming was directly associated with anxiety level at both times. The affective priming paradigm provides evidence for differential group effects regarding unconscious emotional information processing. PMID:16725208

  20. Cognitive Manifestations of Drinking-Smoking Associations: Preliminary Findings with a Cross-Primed Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Jason A.; Drobes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite tremendous growth in research examining the role of cognitive bias in addictive behaviors, scant consideration has been paid to the close association between smoking and drinking behavior. This study sought to determine whether an association between smoking and drinking could be observed at an implicit level using a novel cognitive bias task, as well as characterize the relationship between performance on this task and clinically relevant variables (i.e., heaviness of use/dependence). Methods Individuals (N = 51) with a range of smoking and drinking patterns completed a modified Stroop task in which participants identified the color of drinking, smoking and neutral words that were each preceded by drinking, smoking or neutral picture primes. Participants also provided information regarding the heaviness of their smoking and drinking behavior and completed self-report measures of alcohol and nicotine dependence. Results Response times to smoking and drinking words were significantly slowed following the presentation of either smoking or drinking picture primes. This effect did not differ across subgroups. However, the strength of the coupling between smoking and drinking prime effects was greater among heavier drinkers, who also exhibited a concordant looser coupling of the effects of smoking and drinking primes on smoking words. Conclusions Associations between smoking and drinking can be observed at an implicit level and may be strongest for heavier drinkers. PMID:25561386

  1. Adult attachment orientation and automatic processing of emotional information on a semantic level: A masked affective priming study.

    PubMed

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Zeitschel, Frank; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-09-30

    Early adverse social experiences leading to attachment insecurity could cause heightened sensitivity to emotional information. Automatic processing of emotional stimuli conveys information about positive-negative differentiation and the so-called possessor vs. other-relevance of valence. The aim of the present study was to examine automatic processing of emotional and relevance type information on a semantic level as a function of adult attachment avoidance and anxiety. A masked affective priming task, varying valence and relevance of prime and target adjectives, was presented to a sample of 153 healthy adults. The Experiences in Close Relationships scale was administered to assess attachment orientation. Significant priming effects for valence and relevance were observed. Attachment avoidance, but not attachment anxiety, was significantly related to affective priming independently of trait anxiety and depression. Specifically, attachment avoidance was found to be related to affective priming effects based on other-relevant words. It can be concluded that automatic processing of emotional adjectives used to characterize safe or risky social environments is heightened in avoidant individuals. The avoidantly attached processing style has similarities with repressive coping, which is characterized by an enhanced early response to emotion stimuli followed by avoidant biases at a controlled processing level. PMID:26235477

  2. Word Meaning Frequencies Affect Negative Compatibility Effects In Masked Priming.

    PubMed

    Brocher, Andreas; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Negative compatibility effects (NCEs)-that is, slower responses to targets in related than unrelated prime-target pairs, have been observed in studies using stimulus-response (S-R) priming with stimuli like arrows and plus signs. Although there is no consensus on the underlying mechanism, explanations tend to locate NCEs within the motor-response system. A characteristic property of perceptuo-motor NCEs is a biphasic pattern of activation: A brief period in which very briefly presented (typically) masked primes facilitate processing of related targets is followed by a phase of target processing impairment. In this paper, we present data that suggest that NCEs are not restricted to S-R priming with low-level visual stimuli: The brief (50 ms), backward masked (250 ms) presentation of ambiguous words (bank) leads to slower responses than baseline to words related to the more frequent (rob) but not less frequent meaning (swim). Importantly, we found that slowed responses are preceded by a short phase of response facilitation, replicating the biphasic pattern reported for arrows and plus signs. The biphasic pattern of priming and the fact that the NCEs were found only for target words that are related to their prime word's more frequent meaning has strong implications for any theory of NCEs that locate these effects exclusively within the motor-response system. PMID:27152129

  3. Word Meaning Frequencies Affect Negative Compatibility Effects In Masked Priming

    PubMed Central

    Brocher, Andreas; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Negative compatibility effects (NCEs)—that is, slower responses to targets in related than unrelated prime-target pairs, have been observed in studies using stimulus-response (S-R) priming with stimuli like arrows and plus signs. Although there is no consensus on the underlying mechanism, explanations tend to locate NCEs within the motor-response system. A characteristic property of perceptuo-motor NCEs is a biphasic pattern of activation: A brief period in which very briefly presented (typically) masked primes facilitate processing of related targets is followed by a phase of target processing impairment. In this paper, we present data that suggest that NCEs are not restricted to S-R priming with low-level visual stimuli: The brief (50 ms), backward masked (250 ms) presentation of ambiguous words (bank) leads to slower responses than baseline to words related to the more frequent (rob) but not less frequent meaning (swim). Importantly, we found that slowed responses are preceded by a short phase of response facilitation, replicating the biphasic pattern reported for arrows and plus signs. The biphasic pattern of priming and the fact that the NCEs were found only for target words that are related to their prime word’s more frequent meaning has strong implications for any theory of NCEs that locate these effects exclusively within the motor-response system. PMID:27152129

  4. Is there phonologically based priming in the same-different task? Evidence from Japanese-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Lupker, Stephen J; Nakayama, Mariko; Perea, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Norris and colleagues (Kinoshita & Norris, 2009; Norris & Kinoshita, 2008; Norris, Kinoshita, & van Casteren, 2010) have suggested that priming effects in the masked prime same-different task are based solely on prelexical orthographic codes. This suggestion was evaluated by examining phonological priming in that task using Japanese-English bilinguals. Targets and reference words were English words with the primes written in Katakana script, a syllabic script that is orthographically quite different from the Roman letter script used in writing English. Phonological priming was observed both when the primes were Japanese cognate translation equivalents of the English target/reference words (Experiment 1) and when the primes were phonologically similar Katakana nonwords (Experiment 2), with the former effects being substantially larger than the noncognate translation priming effects reported by Lupker, Perea, and Nakayama (2015). These results indicate that the same-different task is influenced by phonological information. One implication is that, due to the fact that phonology and orthography are inevitably confounded in Roman letter languages, previously reported priming effects in those languages may have been at least partly due to phonological, rather than orthographic, similarity. The potential extent of this problem, the nature of the matching process in the same-different task, and the implications for using this task as a means of investigating the orthographic code in reading are discussed. PMID:26076173

  5. Common and segregated neural substrates for automatic conceptual and affective priming as revealed by event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyan; Hu, Zhiguo; Peng, Danling; Yang, Yanhui; Li, Kuncheng

    2010-02-01

    The brain activity associated with automatic semantic priming has been extensively studied. Thus far there has been no prior study that directly contrasts the neural mechanisms of semantic and affective priming. The present study employed event-related fMRI to examine the common and distinct neural bases underlying conceptual and affective priming with a lexical decision task. A special type of emotional word, a dual-meaning word containing both conceptual meaning and affective meaning, was adopted as target. Short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) (50 ms) was used to emphasize automatic processing. Fifteen participants were scanned in the present study. We found that the left middle/superior temporal gyrus was the brain region involved in both automatic conceptual and affective priming effects, suggesting general lexical-semantic processing that share in the two types of priming. The left inferior frontal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus were found to be the conceptual-specific areas in automatic priming effect, consistent with the role of these areas in more extensive within-category semantic processes. The results also revealed that the left fusiform gyrus and left insula were the affective-specific regions in automatic priming effect, demonstrating the involvement of the left fusiform gyrus in automatic affective priming effect, and clarifying the role of the insula in emotional processing rather than conceptual processing. Despite comparable behavioral effects of automatic conceptual priming and affective priming, the present study revealed a neural dissociation of the two types of priming, as well as the shared neural bases. PMID:20018360

  6. Priming Ability-Relevant Social Categories Improves Intellectual Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Phoebe S.; Kennette, Lynne N.; Van Havermaet, Lisa R.; Frank, Nichole M.; McIntyre, Rusty B.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that priming affects behavioral tasks; fewer studies, however, have been conducted on how social category primes affect cognitive tasks. The present study aimed to examine the effects of social category primes on math performance and word recall. It was hypothesized that Asian prime words would improve math performance and word…

  7. Selective and Nonselective Transfer: Positive and Negative Priming in a Multiple-Task Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leboe, Jason P.; Whittlesea, Bruce W. A.; Milliken, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Processing of a probe stimulus can be affected either positively or negatively by presenting a related stimulus immediately before it. According to structural accounts, such effects occur because processing of the prime activates or inhibits the mental representation of the probe before it is presented. In contrast, transfer-appropriate processing…

  8. Positive Affective Priming: A Behavioral Technique to Facilitate Therapeutic Engagement by Families, Caregivers, and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    Affective priming is a technique used in experimental psychology to investigate the organization of emotional schemata not fully available to conscious awareness. The presentation of stimuli (the prime) with strong positive emotional valence alters the accessibility of positive stimuli within the individual's emotionally encoded cognitive system.…

  9. Self-Construal Priming Affects Speed of Retrieval from Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Justin A.; Sandry, Joshua; Rice, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of collective or individual self-construal priming on recall in a short-term memory (STM) task. We primed participants to either their individual or their collective self-construals or a neutral control condition. Participants then completed a STM retrieval task using either random or patterned digit strings. Findings revealed that priming an individual self-construal resulted in faster retrieval of information from STM for both stimulus types. These results indicate that individual self-accessibility improves retrieval speed of digits from STM, regardless of set configuration. More broadly, the present findings extend prior research by adding further evidence of the effects of self-construal priming on cognitive information processing. PMID:23209632

  10. Color-Function Categories that Prime Infants to Use Color Information in an Object Individuation Task

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Teresa; Woods, Rebecca; Chapa, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    There is evidence for developmental hierarchies in the type of information to which infants attend when reasoning about objects. Investigators have questioned the origin of these hierarchies and how infants come to identify new sources of information when reasoning about objects. The goal of the present experiments was to shed light on this debate by identifying conditions under which infants’ sensitivity to color information, which is slow to emerge, could be enhanced in an object individuation task. The outcome of Experiment 1 confirmed and extended previous reports that 9.5-month-olds can be primed, through exposure to events in which the color of an object predicts its function, to attend to color differences in a subsequent individuation task. The outcomes of Experiments 2 to 4 revealed age-related changes in the nature of the representations that support color priming. This is exemplified by three main findings. First, the representations that are formed during the color-function events are relatively specific. That is, infants are primed to use the color difference seen in the color-function events to individuate objects in the test events, but not other color differences. Second, 9.5-month-olds can be led to form more abstract event representations, and then generalize to other colors in the test events if they are shown multiple pairs of colors in the color-function events. Third, slightly younger 9-month-olds also can be led to form more inclusive categories with multiple color pairs, but only when they are allowed to directly compare the exemplars in each color pair during the present events. These results shed light on the development of categorization abilities, cognitive mechanisms that support color-function priming, and the kinds of experiences that can increase infants’ sensitivity to color information. PMID:18378222

  11. Are There Lower Repetition Priming Effects in Children with Developmental Dyslexia? Priming Effects in Spanish with the Masked Lexical Decision Task.

    PubMed

    Nievas-Cazorla, Francisco; Soriano-Ferrer, Manuel; Sánchez-López, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the reaction times and errors of Spanish children with developmental dyslexia to the reaction times and errors of readers without dyslexia on a masked lexical decision task with identity or repetition priming. A priming paradigm was used to study the role of the lexical deficit in dyslexic children, manipulating the frequency and length of the words, with a short Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA = 150 ms) and degraded stimuli. The sample consisted of 80 participants from 9 to 14 years old, divided equally into a group with a developmental dyslexia diagnosis and a control group without dyslexia. Results show that identity priming is higher in control children (133 ms) than in dyslexic children (55 ms). Thus, the "frequency" and "word length" variables are not the source or origin of this reduction in identity priming reaction times in children with developmental dyslexia compared to control children. PMID:27055077

  12. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    PubMed

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms) and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women) participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states. PMID:22844519

  13. Action Effects and Task Knowledge: The Influence of Anticipatory Priming on the Identification of Task-Related Stimuli in Experts

    PubMed Central

    Land, William M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which anticipation of an action’s perceptual effect primes identification of task-related stimuli. Specifically, skilled (n = 16) and novice (n = 24) tennis players performed a choice-reaction time (CRT) test in which they identified whether the presented stimulus was a picture of a baseball bat or tennis racket. Following their response, auditory feedback associated with either baseball or tennis was presented. The CRT test was performed in blocks in which participants predictably received the baseball sound or tennis sound irrespective of which stimulus picture was displayed. Results indicated that skilled tennis players responded quicker to tennis stimuli when the response was predictably followed by the tennis auditory effect compared to the baseball auditory effect. These findings imply that, within an individual’s area of expertise, domain-relevant knowledge is primed by anticipation of an action’s perceptual effect, thus allowing the cognitive system to more quickly identify environmental information. This finding provides a more complete picture of the influence that anticipation can have on the cognitive-motor system. No differences existed for novices. PMID:27272987

  14. Action Effects and Task Knowledge: The Influence of Anticipatory Priming on the Identification of Task-Related Stimuli in Experts.

    PubMed

    Land, William M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which anticipation of an action's perceptual effect primes identification of task-related stimuli. Specifically, skilled (n = 16) and novice (n = 24) tennis players performed a choice-reaction time (CRT) test in which they identified whether the presented stimulus was a picture of a baseball bat or tennis racket. Following their response, auditory feedback associated with either baseball or tennis was presented. The CRT test was performed in blocks in which participants predictably received the baseball sound or tennis sound irrespective of which stimulus picture was displayed. Results indicated that skilled tennis players responded quicker to tennis stimuli when the response was predictably followed by the tennis auditory effect compared to the baseball auditory effect. These findings imply that, within an individual's area of expertise, domain-relevant knowledge is primed by anticipation of an action's perceptual effect, thus allowing the cognitive system to more quickly identify environmental information. This finding provides a more complete picture of the influence that anticipation can have on the cognitive-motor system. No differences existed for novices. PMID:27272987

  15. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old-new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old-new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults. PMID:25628588

  16. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old–new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old–new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults. PMID:25628588

  17. Use of affective priming to measure the implicit self-reference effect.

    PubMed

    Blaszczak, Wojciech; Imbir, Kamil

    2012-08-01

    A modified suboptimal affective priming paradigm was used to provide an implicit measure of the self-reference effect (Implicit Self-Reference effect, ISR). Hexagrams described to participants as "symbols of different human characteristics" served as judgment target stimuli. Participants (14 women, 12 men; age range = 21 to 25 years) were asked to judge the extent to which the characteristic symbolized by each hexagram was self-relevant to them. Twelve photographs of faces displaying either a neutral expression, disgust, or joy were used as suboptimal primes for each presentation and exposed for 17 msec. Results indicated that participants judged hexagrams affectively primed with faces showing disgust as having significantly lower reference to the self than hexagrams primed with joyful faces. PMID:23045852

  18. Priming Picture Naming with a Semantic Task: An fMRI Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Shiree; McMahon, Katie; Nickels, Lyndsey; Angwin, Anthony; MacDonald, Anna; van Hees, Sophia; Johnson, Kori; Copland, David

    2012-01-01

    Prior semantic processing can enhance subsequent picture naming performance, yet the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this effect and its longevity are unknown. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined whether different neurological mechanisms underlie short-term (within minutes) and long-term (within days) facilitation effects from a semantic task in healthy older adults. Both short- and long-term facilitated items were named significantly faster than unfacilitated items, with short-term items significantly faster than long-term items. Region of interest results identified decreased activity for long-term facilitated items compared to unfacilitated and short-term facilitated items in the mid-portion of the middle temporal gyrus, indicating lexical-semantic priming. Additionally, in the whole brain results, increased activity for short-term facilitated items was identified in regions previously linked to episodic memory and object recognition, including the right lingual gyrus (extending to the precuneus region) and the left inferior occipital gyrus (extending to the left fusiform region). These findings suggest that distinct neurocognitive mechanisms underlie short- and long-term facilitation of picture naming by a semantic task, with long-term effects driven by lexical-semantic priming and short-term effects by episodic memory and visual object recognition mechanisms. PMID:22412928

  19. Magnitude of negative priming varies with conceptual task difficulty: attentional resources are involved in episodic retrieval processes.

    PubMed

    von Hecker, Ulrich; Conway, Michael

    2010-04-01

    In a variant of the negative priming (NP) procedure, the larger of two presented animals is to be named in each trial. Eight animals of different sizes are used, which allows a manipulation of conceptual task difficulty in terms of pair distance (difficult: one step, versus easy: three steps) on the series. Distances are varied for prime pairs and probe pairs orthogonally. NP effects were found for easy (wide) probe distances (Experiments 1 and 2) and, additionally, for easy (wide) prime distances (Experiment 2). This pattern is interpreted in terms of different theories of NP, which emphasize either forward-acting (prime to probe) or backward-acting (probe to prime) processes. The present results are most compatible with a backward-acting mechanism defined by the episodic retrieval perspective; they are less compatible with a forward-acting inhibition perspective. The results have implications for resource requirements of retrieval-based accounts of NP. PMID:19606402

  20. Positive Affect Increases Cognitive Control in the Antisaccade Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Imants, Puck; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2011-01-01

    To delineate the modulatory effects of induced positive affect on cognitive control, the current study investigated whether positive affect increases the ability to suppress a reflexive saccade in the antisaccade task. Results of the antisaccade task showed that participants made fewer erroneous prosaccades in the condition in which a positive…

  1. Accounting for sequential trial effects in the flanker task: conflict adaptation or associative priming?

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Stins, John F; Posthuma, Danielle; Polderman, Tinca J C; Boomsma, Dorret I; de Geus, Eco J

    2006-09-01

    The conflict-control loop theory proposes that the detection of conflict in information processing triggers an increase in cognitive control, resulting in improved performance on the subsequent trial. This theory seems consistent with the robust finding that conflict susceptibility is reduced following correct trials associated with high conflict: the conflict adaptation effect. However, despite providing favorable conditions for eliciting and detecting conflict-triggered performance adjustments, none of the five experiments reported here provide unequivocal evidence of such adjustments. Instead, the results corroborate and extend earlier findings by demonstrating that the conflict adaptation effect, at least in the flanker task, is only present for a specific subset of trial sequences that is characterized by a response repetition. This pattern of results provides strong evidence that the conflict adaptation effect reflects associative stimulus-response priming instead of conflict-driven adaptations in cognitive control. PMID:17225507

  2. When Stroop helps Piaget: An inter-task positive priming paradigm in 9-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Linzarini, A; Houdé, O; Borst, G

    2015-11-01

    To determine whether inhibitory control is domain general or domain specific in school children, we asked 40 9-year-old children to perform an inter-task priming paradigm in which they responded to Stroop items on the primes and to Piaget number conservation items on the probes. The children were more efficient in the inhibition of a misleading "length-equals-number" heuristic in the number conservation task if they had successfully inhibited a previous prepotent reading response in the Stroop task. This study provides evidence that the inhibitory control ability of school children generalizes to distinct cognitive domains, that is, verbal for the Stroop task and logico-mathematical for Piaget's number conservation task. PMID:26086072

  3. The affective meanings of automatic social behaviors: three mechanisms that explain priming.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Tobias; Thagard, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The priming of concepts has been shown to influence peoples' subsequent actions, often unconsciously. We propose 3 mechanisms (psychological, cultural, and biological) as a unified explanation of such effects. (a) Primed concepts influence holistic representations of situations by parallel constraint satisfaction. (b) The constraints among representations stem from culturally shared affective meanings of concepts acquired in socialization. (c) Patterns of activity in neural populations act as semantic pointers linking symbolic concepts to underlying emotional and sensorimotor representations and thereby causing action. We present 2 computational models of behavioral priming that implement the proposed mechanisms. One is a localist neural network that connects primes with behaviors through central nodes simulating affective meanings. In a series of simulations, where the input is based on empirical data, we show that this model can explain a wide variety of experimental findings related to automatic social behavior. The second, neurocomputational model simulates spiking patterns in populations of biologically realistic neurons. We use this model to demonstrate how the proposed mechanisms can be implemented in the brain. Finally, we discuss how our models integrate previous theoretical accounts of priming phenomena. We also examine the interactions of psychological, cultural, and biological mechanisms in the control of automatic social behavior. PMID:23230890

  4. Attention-shift vs. response-priming explanations for the spatial cueing effect in cross-modal tasks.

    PubMed

    Paavilainen, Petri; Illi, Janne; Moisseinen, Nella; Niinisalo, Maija; Ojala, Karita; Reinikainen, Johanna; Vainio, Lari

    2016-06-01

    The task-irrelevant spatial location of a cue stimulus affects the processing of a subsequent target. This "Posner effect" has been explained by an exogenous attention shift to the spatial location of the cue, improving perceptual processing of the target. We studied whether the left/right location of task-irrelevant and uninformative tones produces cueing effects on the processing of visual targets. Tones were presented randomly from left or right. In the first condition, the subsequent visual target, requiring response either with the left or right hand, was presented peripherally to left or right. In the second condition, the target was a centrally presented left/right-pointing arrow, indicating the response hand. In the third condition, the tone and the central arrow were presented simultaneously. Data were recorded on compatible (the tone location and the response hand were the same) and incompatible trials. Reaction times were longer on incompatible than on compatible trials. The results of the second and third conditions are difficult to explain with the attention-shift model emphasizing improved perceptual processing in the cued location, as the central target did not require any location-based processing. Consequently, as an alternative explanation they suggest response priming in the hand corresponding to the spatial location of the tone. Simultaneous lateralized readiness potential (LRP) recordings were consistent with the behavioral data, the tone cues eliciting on incompatible trials a fast preparation for the incorrect response and on compatible trials preparation for the correct response. PMID:26926651

  5. Is Long-Term Structural Priming Affected by Patterns of Experience with Individual Verbs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Borreggine, Kristin L.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported long-term structural priming effects in experiments where previous patterns of experience with the double object and prepositional object constructions are shown to affect later patterns of language production for those constructions. The experiments reported in this paper address the extent to which these…

  6. Automatic Processing of Emotional Faces in High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: An Affective Priming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamio, Yoko; Wolf, Julie; Fein, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This study examined automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (HFPDD) using an affective priming paradigm. Sixteen participants (HFPDD and matched controls) were presented with happy faces, fearful faces or objects in both subliminal and supraliminal exposure conditions, followed…

  7. The Amygdala Is Involved in Affective Priming Effect for Fearful Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, J.; Cao, Z.; Xu, X.; Chen, G.

    2012-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate whether the amygdala is involved in affective priming effect after stimuli are encoded unconsciously and consciously. During the encoding phase, each masked face (fearful or neutral) was presented to participants six times for 17 ms each, using a backward masking paradigm. During the retrieval phase,…

  8. Additive and Interactive Effects in Semantic Priming: Isolating Lexical and Decision Processes in the Lexical Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Tan, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study sheds light on the interplay between lexical and decision processes in the lexical decision task by exploring the effects of lexical decision difficulty on semantic priming effects. In 2 experiments, we increased lexical decision difficulty by either using transposed letter wordlike nonword distracters (e.g., JUGDE; Experiment 1)…

  9. The Role of Negative Priming in Preschoolers' Flexible Rule Use on the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ulrich; Dick, Anthony Steven; Gela, Katherine; Overton, Willis F.; Zelazo, Philip David

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments examined the development of negative priming (NP) in 3-5-year-old children using as a measure of children's executive function (EF) the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task. In the NP version of the DCCS, the values of the sorting dimension that is relevant during the preswitch phase are removed during the postswitch phase.…

  10. Avoiding the Potential Pitfalls of Using Negative Priming Tasks in Developmental Studies: Assessing Inhibitory Control in Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Verena E.; Neumann, Ewald

    2009-01-01

    Despite being ignored, visual distractors often produce traceable negative priming (NP) effects that can be used to investigate inhibitory processes. Robust NP effects are typically found with young adults, but not with children. Using 2 different NP tasks, the authors compared NP in 5 different age groups spanning 5 to 25 years of age. The 1st…

  11. Comparison versus Contrast: Task Specifics Affect Category Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankowski, Amber A.; Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    A large literature has documented that comparison and contrast lead to better performance in a variety of tasks. However, studies of comparison and contrast present contradictory conclusions as to when and how these processes benefit learners. Across four studies, we examined how the specifics of the comparison and contrast task affect performance…

  12. An investigation of the time course of category congruence and priming distance effects in number classification tasks.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jason R; Lupker, Stephen J

    2012-09-01

    The issue investigated in the present research is the nature of the information that is responsible for producing masked priming effects (e.g., semantic information or stimulus-response [S-R] associations) when responding to number stimuli. This issue was addressed by assessing both the magnitude of the category congruence (priming) effect and the nature of the priming distance effect across trials using single-digit primes and targets. Participants made either magnitude (i.e., whether the number presented was larger or smaller than 5) or identification (i.e., press the left button if the number was either a 1, 2, 3, or 4 or the right button if the number was either a 6, 7, 8, or 9) judgments. The results indicated that, regardless of task instruction, there was a clear priming distance effect and a significantly increasing category congruence effect. These results indicated that both semantic activation and S-R associations play important roles in producing masked priming effects. PMID:22774804

  13. Metaphor priming in sentence production: concrete pictures affect abstract language production.

    PubMed

    Sato, Manami; Schafer, Amy J; Bergen, Benjamin K

    2015-03-01

    People speak metaphorically about abstract concepts-for instance, a person can be "full of love" or "have a lot of love to give." Over the past decade, research has begun to focus on how metaphors are processed during language comprehension. Much of this work suggests that understanding a metaphorical expression involves activating brain and body systems involved in perception and motor control. However, no research to date has asked whether the same is true while speakers produce language. We address this gap using a sentence production task. Its results demonstrate that visually activating a concrete source domain can trigger the use of metaphorical language drawn from that same concrete domain, even in sentences that are thematically unrelated to the primes, a metaphorical priming effect. This effect suggests that conceptual metaphors play a part in language production. It also shows that activation in the perceptual system that is not part of an intended message can nevertheless influence sentence formulation. PMID:25443987

  14. Is long-term structural priming affected by patterns of experience with individual verbs?

    PubMed Central

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Borreggine, Kristin L.

    2015-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported long-term structural priming effects in experiments where previous patterns of experience with the double object and prepositional object constructions are shown to affect later patterns of language production for those constructions. The experiments reported in this paper address the extent to which these long-term priming effects are modulated by the participants’ patterns of experience with particular verbs within the double object and prepositional object constructions. The results of three experiments show that patterns of experience with particular verbs using the double object or prepositional object constructions do not have much effect on the shape of the longterm structural priming effects reported elsewhere in the literature. These findings lend support to the claim that structural priming is the result of adaptations to the language production system that occur on an abstract, structural level of representation that is separate from representations regarding the behavior of particular lexical items in particular constructions [e.g., Chang, F., Dell, G. S., & Bock, K. (2006). Becoming syntactic. Psychological Review, 113, 234–272]. 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PMID:26500391

  15. The Masked Semantic Priming Effect Is Task Dependent: Reconsidering the Automatic Spreading Activation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Semantic priming effects are popularly explained in terms of an automatic spreading activation process, according to which the activation of a node in a semantic network spreads automatically to interconnected nodes, preactivating a semantically related word. It is expected from this account that semantic priming effects should be routinely…

  16. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  17. Impacts of religious semantic priming on an intertemporal discounting task: Response time effects and neural correlates.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jonathan; Clark, Dustin; Tripodis, Yorghos; Halloran, Christopher S; Minsky, April; Wildman, Wesley J; Durso, Raymon; McNamara, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that religious primes would influence intertemporal discounting behaviors in neurotypical older adults, but not in participants with Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, we predicted that this priming effect would be related to functional connectivity within neural networks mediating religious cognition, decision-making, reward valuing, and prospection processes. Contrary to past research with young adults, we found a significant positive relationship between religiosity and discounting rates. Religious semantic primes did not reliably shift individual discounting rates. But religious controls did respond more quickly to intertemporal decisions under the religious priming condition than the neutral condition, compared to response time differences among the participants with PD. Differences in response time were significantly associated with functional connectivity between the nucleus accumbens and various regions, including the left anterior cingulate cortex and Brodmann areas 10 and 46 in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that religious primes influence discounting behavior via dopaminergic meso-limbic and right dorsolateral prefrontal supporting cognitive valuation and prospection processes. PMID:27450269

  18. Comment: Affect Control Theory and Cultural Priming: A Perspective from Cultural Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Chiao, Joan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Affect control theory posits that emotions are constructed by social and cultural forces. Rogers, Schröder, and von Scheve (2014) introduce affect control theory as a conceptual and methodological “hub,” linking theories from different disciplines across levels of analysis. To illustrate this further, we apply their framework to cultural priming, an experimental technique in cultural psychology and neuroscience for testing how exposure to cultural symbols (e.g., words and pictures) changes people’s behavior, cognition, and emotion. Our analysis supports the use of affect control theory in linking different levels of analysis while leaving some opening questions for improving such a framework in future research. PMID:25866559

  19. Is Perceptual Priming Affected by Culture? A Study With German Middle-Class and Cameroonian Nso Farmer Children.

    PubMed

    Vöhringer, Isabel Aline; Poloczek, Sonja; Graf, Frauke; Lamm, Bettina; Teiser, Johanna; Fassbender, Ina; Freitag, Claudia; Suhrke, Janina; Teubert, Manuel; Keller, Heidi; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Knopf, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The authors explored priming in children from different cultural environments with the aim to provide further evidence for the robustness of the priming effect. Perceptual priming was assessed by a picture fragment completion task in 3-year-old German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer children. As expected, 3-year-olds from both highly diverging cultural contexts under study showed a priming effect, and, moreover, the effect was of comparable size in both cultural contexts. Hence, the children profited similarly from priming, which was supported by the nonsignificant interaction between cultural background and identification performance as well as the analysis of absolute difference scores. However, a culture-specific difference regarding the level of picture identification was found in that German middle-class children identified target as well as control pictures with less perceptual information than children in the Nso sample. Explanations for the cross-cultural demonstration of the priming effect as well as for the culturally diverging levels on which priming occurs are discussed. PMID:26135059

  20. Affective Priming by Simple Geometric Shapes: Evidence from Event-related Brain Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that simple geometric shapes may convey emotional meaning using various experimental paradigms. However, whether affective meaning of simple geometric shapes can be automatically activated and influence the evaluations of subsequent stimulus is still unclear. Thus the present study employed an affective priming paradigm to investigate whether and how two geometric shapes (circle vs. downward triangle) impact on the affective processing of subsequently presented faces (Experiment 1) and words (Experiment 2). At behavioral level, no significant effect of affective congruency was found. However, ERP results in Experiment 1 and 2 showed a typical effect of affective congruency. The LPP elicited by affectively incongruent trials was larger compared to congruent trials. Our results provide support for the notion that downward triangle is perceived as negative and circle as positive and their emotional meaning can be activated automatically and then exert an influence on the electrophysiological processing of subsequent stimuli. The lack of significant congruent effect in behavioral measures and the inversed N400 congruent effect might reveal that the affective meaning of geometric shapes is weak because they are just abstract threatening cues rather than real threat. In addition, because no male participants are included in the present study, our findings are limited to females. PMID:27379001

  1. Priming Infants to Use Pattern Information in an Object Individuation Task: The Role of Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Teresa; Smith, Tracy; Woods, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that 4.5-month-olds do not always use surface pattern to individuate objects but that they can be primed to attend to pattern differences through select experiences. For example, if infants are first shown events in which the pattern of an object predicts its function (dotted containers pound and striped containers pour), they…

  2. Assessing Affect after Mathematical Problem Solving Tasks: Validating the Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…

  3. Neural correlates of cross-modal affective priming by music in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lense, Miriam D; Gordon, Reyna L; Key, Alexandra P F; Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2014-04-01

    Emotional connection is the main reason people engage with music, and the emotional features of music can influence processing in other domains. Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder where musicality and sociability are prominent aspects of the phenotype. This study examined oscillatory brain activity during a musical affective priming paradigm. Participants with WS and age-matched typically developing controls heard brief emotional musical excerpts or emotionally neutral sounds and then reported the emotional valence (happy/sad) of subsequently presented faces. Participants with WS demonstrated greater evoked fronto-central alpha activity to the happy vs sad musical excerpts. The size of these alpha effects correlated with parent-reported emotional reactivity to music. Although participant groups did not differ in accuracy of identifying facial emotions, reaction time data revealed a music priming effect only in persons with WS, who responded faster when the face matched the emotional valence of the preceding musical excerpt vs when the valence differed. Matching emotional valence was also associated with greater evoked gamma activity thought to reflect cross-modal integration. This effect was not present in controls. The results suggest a specific connection between music and socioemotional processing and have implications for clinical and educational approaches for WS. PMID:23386738

  4. Long-term repetition priming and semantic interference in a lexical-semantic matching task: tapping the links between object names and colors.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Jones, Toby J; Nakabayashi, Kazuyo

    2014-01-01

    Using a novel paradigm to engage the long-term mappings between object names and the prototypical colors for objects, we investigated the retrieval of object-color knowledge as indexed by long-term priming (the benefit in performance from a prior encounter with the same or a similar stimulus); a process about which little is known. We examined priming from object naming on a lexical-semantic matching task. In the matching task participants encountered a visually presented object name (Experiment 1) or object shape (Experiment 2) paired with either a color patch or color name. The pairings could either match whereby both were consistent with a familiar object (e.g., strawberry and red) or mismatch (strawberry and blue). We used the matching task to probe knowledge about familiar objects and their colors pre-activated during object naming. In particular, we examined whether the retrieval of object-color information was modality-specific and whether this influenced priming. Priming varied with the nature of the retrieval process: object-color priming arose for object names but not object shapes and beneficial effects of priming were observed for color patches whereas inhibitory priming arose with color names. These findings have implications for understanding how object knowledge is retrieved from memory and modified by learning. PMID:25009522

  5. Long-term repetition priming and semantic interference in a lexical-semantic matching task: tapping the links between object names and colors

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd-Jones, Toby J.; Nakabayashi, Kazuyo

    2014-01-01

    Using a novel paradigm to engage the long-term mappings between object names and the prototypical colors for objects, we investigated the retrieval of object-color knowledge as indexed by long-term priming (the benefit in performance from a prior encounter with the same or a similar stimulus); a process about which little is known. We examined priming from object naming on a lexical-semantic matching task. In the matching task participants encountered a visually presented object name (Experiment 1) or object shape (Experiment 2) paired with either a color patch or color name. The pairings could either match whereby both were consistent with a familiar object (e.g., strawberry and red) or mismatch (strawberry and blue). We used the matching task to probe knowledge about familiar objects and their colors pre-activated during object naming. In particular, we examined whether the retrieval of object-color information was modality-specific and whether this influenced priming. Priming varied with the nature of the retrieval process: object-color priming arose for object names but not object shapes and beneficial effects of priming were observed for color patches whereas inhibitory priming arose with color names. These findings have implications for understanding how object knowledge is retrieved from memory and modified by learning. PMID:25009522

  6. Negative Priming within a Stroop Task in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Their Siblings, and Independent Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Hanna; Oades, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Negative priming (NP) is the slowed response to a stimulus that was previously ignored. Response times in NP task conditions were compared with the interference provided by congruent/incongruent stimuli in a Stroop condition in the same task in children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), their unaffected…

  7. Task-Set Reconfiguration Suspends Perceptual Processing: Evidence from Semantic Priming during the Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, Francois; Tremblay, Sebastien; Jones, Dylan M.

    2007-01-01

    When two visual targets, Target 1 (T1) and Target 2 (T2), are presented among a rapid sequence of distractors, processing of T1 produces an attentional blink. Typically, processing of T2 is markedly impaired, except when T1 and T2 are adjacent (Lag 1 sparing). However, if a shift of task set--a change in task requirements from T1 to T2--occurs,…

  8. "Fahrenheit 9-11," Need for Closure and the Priming of Affective Ambivalence: An Assessment of Intra-Affective Structures by Party Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbert, R. Lance; Hansen, Glenn J.

    2006-01-01

    This study extends priming research in political communication by focusing on an alternative political information source (i.e., Michael Moore's Fahrenheit 9-11), affect rather than cognitions, and the existence of intra-affective ambivalence. In addition, two moderator variables are analyzed: political party identification and need for closure.…

  9. Unconscious Desire: The Affective and Motivational Aspects of Subliminal Sexual Priming.

    PubMed

    Gillath, Omri; Collins, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Sexual arousal is thought to be the result of the processing of sexual cues at two levels: conscious and unconscious. Whereas numerous studies have examined the affective and motivational responses to supraliminal (consciously processed) sexual cues, much less is known regarding the responses to subliminal (processed outside of one's awareness) sexual cues. Five studies examined responses to subliminal sexual cues. Studies 1–3 demonstrated increases in adults' positive affect following exposure to subliminal sexual cues compared to control cues. Study 4 demonstrated that the positive affect resulting from exposure to subliminal sexual cues increased motivation to further engage in a neutral task. Study 5 provided evidence suggesting that the affect and motivation found in Studies 1–4 were associated with motivation to engage in sex specifically, rather than a general approach motivation. The implications of these findings for the processing of subliminal sexual cues and for human sexuality are discussed. PMID:26494359

  10. Activation and measurement of threat associations in fear of spiders: an application of the Extrinsic Affective Simon Task.

    PubMed

    Ellwart, Thomas; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    2005-12-01

    The Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (DeHouwer, EAST; Experimental Psychol. 50 (2003) 77) was used to assess how different context conditions lead to differential activation of cognitive schemata in anxiety. Participants completed two identical EASTs, in which ambiguous target words (e.g., legs, net) were categorized together with pleasant words and unpleasant, fear-related words. Each EAST was preceded by the presentation of pictures, activating either a 'human' concept or a 'spider' concept. Results indicated that spider fearful participants showed threat associations towards the target words, but only when the spider concept was primed. Non-fearful participants did not show threat associations with either type of priming. We conclude that impact of threat associations depends on the activated context, and that the EAST is suitable for the assessment of fear associations and their current activation level. PMID:16153389

  11. Attentional Sensitization of Unconscious Cognition: Task Sets Modulate Subsequent Masked Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Markus; Martens, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    According to classical theories, automatic processes are autonomous and independent of higher level cognitive influence. In contrast, the authors propose that automatic processing depends on attentional sensitization of task-congruent processing pathways. In 3 experiments, the authors tested this hypothesis with a modified masked semantic priming…

  12. Dimension-Specific Intertrial Priming Effects Are Task-Specific: Evidence for Multiple Weighting Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangelov, Dragan; Muller, Hermann J.; Zehetleitner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Feature singleton search is faster when the target-defining dimension repeats across consecutive trials than when it changes (Found & Muller, 1996). However, this dimension repetition benefit (DRB) has also been demonstrated for the tasks with no search component (Mortier, Theeuwes, & Starreveld, 2005). If DRBs in the search and non-search tasks…

  13. The Affective Meanings of Automatic Social Behaviors: Three Mechanisms that Explain Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Tobias; Thagard, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The priming of concepts has been shown to influence peoples' subsequent actions, often unconsciously. We propose 3 mechanisms (psychological, cultural, and biological) as a unified explanation of such effects. (a) Primed concepts influence holistic representations of situations by parallel constraint satisfaction. (b) The constraints among…

  14. Common and Segregated Neural Substrates for Automatic Conceptual and Affective Priming as Revealed by Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hongyan; Hu, Zhiguo; Peng, Danling; Yang, Yanhui; Li, Kuncheng

    2010-01-01

    The brain activity associated with automatic semantic priming has been extensively studied. Thus far there has been no prior study that directly contrasts the neural mechanisms of semantic and affective priming. The present study employed event-related fMRI to examine the common and distinct neural bases underlying conceptual and affective priming…

  15. Response-related potentials during semantic priming: the effect of a speeded button response task on ERPs.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Marijn; Manyakov, Nikolay V; Storms, Gert; Fias, Wim; Wiersema, Jan R; Van Hulle, Marc M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of a button response task on the event-related potential (ERP) in a semantic priming experiment. Of particular interest is the N400 component. In many semantic priming studies, subjects are asked to respond to a stimulus as fast and accurately as possible by pressing a button. Response time (RT) is recorded in parallel with an electroencephalogram (EEG) for ERP analysis. In this case, the response occurs in the time window used for ERP analysis and response-related components may overlap with stimulus-locked ones such as the N400. This has led to a recommendation against such a design, although the issue has not been explored in depth. Since studies keep being published that disregard this issue, a more detailed examination of influence of response-related potentials on the ERP is needed. Two experiments were performed in which subjects pressed one of two buttons with their dominant hand in response to word-pairs with varying association strength (AS), indicating a personal judgement of association between the two words. In the first experiment, subjects were instructed to respond as fast and accurately as possible. In the second experiment, subjects delayed their button response to enforce a one second interval between the onset of the target word and the button response. Results show that in the first experiment a P3 component and motor-related potentials (MRPs) overlap with the N400 component, which can cause a misinterpretation of the latter. In order to study the N400 component, the button response should be delayed to avoid contamination of the ERP with response-related components. PMID:24516556

  16. Do priming effects in dialogue reflect partner- or task-based expectations?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Victor S; Kleinman, Daniel; Kraljic, Tanya; Siu, Yanny

    2012-04-01

    It is now well established that people in conversations repeat each other's words and structures. Does doing so reflect dialogue participants' expectations that their own choices of words or structures will be repeated back to them? In two experiments, subjects and confederates (purportedly) took turns describing pictures to each other. On critical trials, we measured response latencies to choose pictures when labels (e.g., stroller) or syntactic structures (a prepositional dative) that subjects had just produced were repeated back to them, versus when they heard reasonable alternatives (baby carriage or a double-object structure). Experiment 1 showed that repeated words and syntactic structures both elicit faster responses. Experiment 2 showed that the effect happens even when subjects hear descriptions from computers, instead of from their addressees, and that the repeated-word effect was not due to preferences for labels. These observations suggest that dialogue participants expect their own word and structure choices to be repeated back to them, and this is general to the task situation rather than specific to their communicative partners. PMID:22194272

  17. Immune Priming, Fat Reserves, Muscle Mass and Body Weight of the House Cricket is Affected by Diet Composition.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Nava-Sánchez, A; González-Tokman, D M; Munguía-Steyer, R; Gutiérrez-Cabrera, A E

    2016-08-01

    Some insect species are capable of producing an enhanced immune response after a first pathogenic encounter, a process called immune priming. However, whether and how such ability is driven by particular diet components (protein/carbohydrate) have not been explored. Such questions are sound given that, in general, immune response is dietary dependent. We have used adults of the house cricket Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) and exposed them to the bacteria Serratia marcescens. We first addressed whether survival rate after priming and nonpriming treatments is dietary dependent based on access/no access to proteins and carbohydrates. Second, we investigated how these dietary components affected fat reserves, muscle mass, and body weight, three key traits in insect fitness. Thus, we exposed adult house crickets to either a protein or a carbohydrate diet and measured the three traits. After being provided with protein, primed animals survived longer compared to the other diet treatments. Interestingly, this effect was also sex dependent with primed males having a higher survival than primed females when protein was supplemented. For the second experiment, protein-fed animals had more fat, muscle mass, and body weight than carbohydrate-fed animals. Although we are not aware of the immune component underlying immune priming, our results suggest that its energetic demand for its functioning and/or consequent survival requires a higher demand of protein with respect to carbohydrate. Thus, protein shortage can impair key survival-related traits related to immune and energetic condition. Further studies varying nutrient ratios should verify our results. PMID:27037705

  18. Prime Knowledge about Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Several proofs demonstrating that there are infinitely many primes, different types of primes, tests of primality, pseudo primes, prime number generators and open questions about primes are discussed in Section 1. Some of these notions are elaborated upon in Section 2, with discussions of the Riemann zeta function and how algorithmic complexity…

  19. The Processing of Visual and Phonological Configurations of Chinese One- and Two-Character Words in a Priming Task of Semantic Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bosen; Wang, Xiaoyun; Li, Degao

    2016-01-01

    To separate the contribution of phonological from that of visual-orthographic information in the recognition of a Chinese word that is composed of one or two Chinese characters, we conducted two experiments in a priming task of semantic categorization (PTSC), in which length (one- or two-character words), relation, prime (related or unrelated prime-target pairs), and SOA (47, 87, or 187 ms) were manipulated. The prime was similar to the target in meaning or in visual configuration in Experiment A and in meaning or in pronunciation in Experiment B. The results indicate that the two-character words were similar to the one-character words but were less demanding of cognitive resources than the one-character words in the processing of phonological, visual-orthographic, and semantic information. The phonological primes had a facilitating effect at the SOA of 47 ms but an inhibitory effect at the SOA of 187 ms on the participants' reaction times; the visual-orthographic primes only had an inhibitory influence on the participants' reaction times at the SOA of 187 ms. The visual configuration of a Chinese word of one or two Chinese characters has its own contribution in helping retrieve the word's meanings; similarly, the phonological configuration of a one- or two-character word plays its own role in triggering activations of the word's semantic representations. PMID:26779064

  20. Does a Speaking Task Affect Second Language Comprehensibility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Dustin; Trofimovich, Pavel; Isaacs, Talia; Saito, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated task effects on listener perception of second language (L2) comprehensibility (ease of understanding). Sixty university-level adult speakers of English from 4 first language (L1) backgrounds (Chinese, Romance, Hindi, Farsi), with 15 speakers per group, were recorded performing 2 tasks (IELTS long-turn speaking task…

  1. Event-related brain potentials during a semantic priming task in children with learning disabilities not otherwise specified.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Thalía; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Prieto-Corona, Belén; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Reynoso-Alcántara, Vicenta

    2014-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LDs) are the most common psychiatric disorders in children. LDs are classified either as "Specific" or "Learning Disorder Not Otherwise Specified". An important hypothesis suggests a failure in general domain process (i.e., attention) that explains global academic deficiencies. The aim of this study was to evaluate event-related potential (ERP) patterns of LD Not Otherwise Specified children with respect to a control group. Forty-one children (8-10.6 years old) participated and performed a semantic judgment priming task while ERPs were recorded. Twenty-one LD children had significantly lower scores in all academic skills (reading, writing and arithmetic) than twenty controls. Different ERP patterns were observed for each group. Control group showed smaller amplitudes of an anterior P200 for unrelated than related word pairs. This P200 effect was followed by a significant early N400a effect (greater amplitudes for unrelated than related word pairs; 350-550 ms) with a right topographical distribution. By contrast, LD Not Otherwise Specified group did not show a P200 effect or a significant N400a effect. This evidence suggests that LD Not Otherwise Specified children might be deficient in reading, writing and arithmetic domains because of their sluggish shifting of attention to process the incoming information. PMID:25144188

  2. Event-Related Brain Potentials during a Semantic Priming Task in Children with Learning Disabilities Not Otherwise Specified

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Thalía; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Prieto-Corona, Belén; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Reynoso-Alcántara, Vicenta

    2014-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LDs) are the most common psychiatric disorders in children. LDs are classified either as “Specific” or “Learning Disorder Not Otherwise Specified”. An important hypothesis suggests a failure in general domain process (i.e., attention) that explains global academic deficiencies. The aim of this study was to evaluate event-related potential (ERP) patterns of LD Not Otherwise Specified children with respect to a control group. Forty-one children (8−10.6 years old) participated and performed a semantic judgment priming task while ERPs were recorded. Twenty-one LD children had significantly lower scores in all academic skills (reading, writing and arithmetic) than twenty controls. Different ERP patterns were observed for each group. Control group showed smaller amplitudes of an anterior P200 for unrelated than related word pairs. This P200 effect was followed by a significant early N400a effect (greater amplitudes for unrelated than related word pairs; 350–550 ms) with a right topographical distribution. By contrast, LD Not Otherwise Specified group did not show a P200 effect or a significant N400a effect. This evidence suggests that LD Not Otherwise Specified children might be deficient in reading, writing and arithmetic domains because of their sluggish shifting of attention to process the incoming information. PMID:25144188

  3. Luminance controlled pupil size affects Landolt C task performance. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.M.; Fein, G.; Jewett, D.L.; Ashford, F.

    1993-02-01

    Subjects judged the orientation of a 2 min. gap Landolt C located at a distance of 2.4 m. The stimuli were presented in central vision on a CRT, at low to medium contrast. The effects of varying the spectrum and luminance of surround lighting were assessed on both pupil size (measured using infrared pupillometry during task performance) and task accuracy. The task display was protected from the surround lighting, so that its luminance and contrast could be varied independently of the changes in the surround lighting. Indirect surround illumination was provided by either two illuminants of very different scotopic spectral content but with the same photopic luminance (Experiments 1 and 3), or by using the same illuminant at two different luminance levels (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the effect of changing surround spectrum was compared to the effect of varying task background luminance between 12 cd/m{sup 2} and 73 cd/m{sup 2}. In all experiments, scotopically enhanced surround lighting produced pupil areas which were reduced by almost 50% in comparison with surround lighting with relatively less scotopic luminance. Concomitantly there was improvement in Landolt C task performance with the scotopically enhanced surround lighting at all contrast and luminance levels. In these experiments, smaller pupil sizes were associated with significantly better visual-task performance in spite of lower task retinal illuminance when compared to the condition with larger pupils. These results suggest that changes in surround spectrum can compensate for the effect on task performance of a reduction in task luminance and supports the hypothesis that lighting energy savings could accrue in the workplace by shifting lamp spectra to obtain greater scotopic efficacy.

  4. Luminance controlled pupil size affects Landolt C task performance

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.M. ); Fein, G. ); Jewett, D.L.; Ashford, F. )

    1993-02-01

    Subjects judged the orientation of a 2 min. gap Landolt C located at a distance of 2.4 m. The stimuli were presented in central vision on a CRT, at low to medium contrast. The effects of varying the spectrum and luminance of surround lighting were assessed on both pupil size (measured using infrared pupillometry during task performance) and task accuracy. The task display was protected from the surround lighting, so that its luminance and contrast could be varied independently of the changes in the surround lighting. Indirect surround illumination was provided by either two illuminants of very different scotopic spectral content but with the same photopic luminance (Experiments 1 and 3), or by using the same illuminant at two different luminance levels (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the effect of changing surround spectrum was compared to the effect of varying task background luminance between 12 cd/m[sup 2] and 73 cd/m[sup 2]. In all experiments, scotopically enhanced surround lighting produced pupil areas which were reduced by almost 50% in comparison with surround lighting with relatively less scotopic luminance. Concomitantly there was improvement in Landolt C task performance with the scotopically enhanced surround lighting at all contrast and luminance levels. In these experiments, smaller pupil sizes were associated with significantly better visual-task performance in spite of lower task retinal illuminance when compared to the condition with larger pupils. These results suggest that changes in surround spectrum can compensate for the effect on task performance of a reduction in task luminance and supports the hypothesis that lighting energy savings could accrue in the workplace by shifting lamp spectra to obtain greater scotopic efficacy.

  5. The Influence of Emotional Arousal on Affective Priming in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altarriba, Jeanette; Canary, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    The activation of arousal components for emotion-laden words in English (e.g. kiss, death) was examined in two groups of participants: English monolinguals and Spanish-English bilinguals. In Experiment 1, emotion-laden words were rated on valence and perceived arousal. These norms were used to construct prime-target word pairs that were used in…

  6. Early associations with food in anorexia nervosa patients and obese people assessed in the affective priming paradigm.

    PubMed

    Roefs, A; Stapert, D; Isabella, L A S; Wolters, G; Wojciechowski, F; Jansen, A

    2005-02-01

    Two experiments are reported that used the affective priming paradigm (Fazio, R. H., Sanbonmatsu, D. M., Powell, M. C., & Kardess, F. R. (1986). On the automatic activation of attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 229-238) to uncover associations with food at a relatively automatic level. Experiment 1 tested the hypothesis that anorexia nervosa (AN; n=22) patients would show less sensitivity to the palatability of foods than unrestrained lean controls (n=27). Results indeed suggested that AN patients did not display a liking of palatable foods over unpalatable foods, whereas unrestrained controls did. Experiment 2 tested the hypothesis that obese people (n=27) would show more sensitivity to the palatability of (high-fat) palatable foods than unrestrained lean controls (n=27) would. However, results suggested that the priming effect was based on health concerns, in that participants showed a preference for low-fat palatable foods over high-fat palatable foods. Average speed of responding and context are discussed as variables influencing the affective priming effect. Taken together, results suggest that food evaluations at a relatively automatic level are controlled by an interaction between participant characteristics, stimuli characteristics, and the specific context. PMID:15598602

  7. Prior task experience affects temporal prediction and estimation

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Simon; Grondin, Simon

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that prior experience with a task improves temporal prediction, even when the amount of prior experience with the task is often limited. The present study targeted the role of extensive training on temporal prediction. Expert and intermediate runners had to predict the time of a 5 km running competition. Furthermore, after the race’s completion, participants had to estimate their running time so that it could be compared with the predicted time. Results show that expert runners were more accurate than intermediate runners for both predicting and estimating their running time. Furthermore, only expert runners had an estimation that was more accurate than their initial prediction. The results confirm the role of prior task experience in both temporal prediction and estimation. PMID:26217261

  8. Bindings between Stimuli and Multiple Response Codes Dominate Long-Lag Repetition Priming in Speeded Classification Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Aidan J.; Henson, Richard N.

    2009-01-01

    Repetition priming is often thought to reflect the facilitation of 1 or more processes engaged during initial and subsequent presentations of a stimulus. Priming can also reflect the formation of direct, stimulus-response (S-R) bindings, retrieval of which bypasses many of the processes engaged during the initial presentation. Using long-lag…

  9. Cognitive Processes in Associative and Categorical Priming: A Diffusion Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Andreas; Rothermund, Klaus; Gast, Anne; Wentura, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive processes and mechanisms underlying different forms of priming were investigated using a diffusion model approach. In a series of 6 experiments, effects of prime-target associations and of a semantic and affective categorical match of prime and target were analyzed for different tasks. Significant associative and categorical priming…

  10. Automatic activation of adolescents' peer-relational schemas: evidence from priming with facial identity.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Peets, Kätlin; Salmivalli, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This study provides experimental evidence for automatic, relationship-specific social information processing in 13-year-old adolescents. Photographs of participants' liked, disliked, and unknown peers were used as primes in an affective priming task with happy and angry facial expression probes and in a hypothetical vignette task. For the affective priming, reaction times were faster for congruent than for incongruent prime-probe pairs when the prime visibility was high and the prime-probe stimulus onset asynchrony was long. In the vignette task, participants attributed more hostility toward the protagonist, experienced more anger, and were more likely to retaliate when the disliked peer served as a prime. It is concluded that peer-relational schemas and related affect are activated automatically upon perception of a peer. PMID:19037941

  11. Land use and nutrient inputs affect priming in Andosols of Mt. Kilimanjaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mganga, Kevin; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Organic C and nutrients additions in soil can accelerate mineralisation of soil organic matter i.e. priming effects. However, only very few studies have been conducted to investigate the priming effects phenomenon in tropical Andosols. Nutrients (N, P, N+P) and 14C labelled glucose were added to Andosols from six natural and intensively used ecosystems at Mt. Kilimanjaro i.e. (1) savannah, (2) maize fields, (3) lower montane forest, (4) coffee plantation, (5) grasslands and (6) Chagga homegardens. Carbon-dioxide emissions were monitored over a 60 days incubation period. Mineralisation of glucose to 14CO2 was highest in coffee plantation and lowest in Chagga homegarden soils. Maximal and minimal mineralisation rates immediately after glucose additions were observed in lower montane forest with N+P fertilisation (9.1% ± 0.83 d -1) and in savannah with N fertilisation (0.9% ± 0.17 d -1), respectively. Glucose and nutrient additions accelerated native soil organic matter mineralisation i.e. positive priming. Chagga homegarden soils had the lowest 14CO2 emissions and incorporated the highest percent of glucose into microbial biomass. 50-60% of the 14C input was retained in soil. We attribute this mainly to the high surface area of non-crystalline constituents i.e. allophanes, present in Andosols and having very high sorption capacity for organic C. The allophanic nature of Andosols of Mt. Kilimanjaro especially under traditional Chagga homegarden agroforestry system shows great potential for providing essential environmental services, notably C sequestration. Key words: Priming Effects, Andosols, Land Use Changes, Mt. Kilimanjaro, Allophanes, Tropical Agroforestry

  12. Viewer Perspective Affects Central Bottleneck Requirements in Spatial Translation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Elizabeth A.; Sebastian, Alexandra; Hust, Christina; Norris, Tom

    2008-01-01

    A psychological refractory period (PRP) approach and the locus of slack logic were applied to examine the novel question of whether spatial translation processes can begin before the central bottleneck when effector or noneffector stimuli are processed from an egocentric (viewer-centered) perspective. In single tasks, trials requiring spatial…

  13. Socially Important Faces Are Processed Preferentially to Other Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces in a Priming Task across a Range of Viewpoints

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Helen; Zalicks, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Using a priming paradigm, we investigate whether socially important faces are processed preferentially compared to other familiar and unfamiliar faces, and whether any such effects are affected by changes in viewpoint. Participants were primed with frontal images of personally familiar, famous or unfamiliar faces, and responded to target images of congruent or incongruent identity, presented in frontal, three quarter or profile views. We report that participants responded significantly faster to socially important faces (a friend’s face) compared to other highly familiar (famous) faces or unfamiliar faces. Crucially, responses to famous and unfamiliar faces did not differ. This suggests that, when presented in the context of a socially important stimulus, socially unimportant familiar faces (famous faces) are treated in a similar manner to unfamiliar faces. This effect was not tied to viewpoint, and priming did not affect socially important face processing differently to other faces. PMID:27219101

  14. It Matters How Much You Talk: On the Automaticity of Affective Connotations of First and Second Language Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degner, Juliane; Doycheva, Cveta; Wentura, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an affective priming study conducted with proficient sequential German and French bilinguals to assess automatic affective word processing in L1 and L2. Additionally, a semantic priming task was conducted in both languages. Whereas semantic priming effects occurred in L1 and L2, and significant affective priming effects…

  15. Alignment as a Consequence of Expectation Adaptation: Syntactic Priming Is Affected by the Prime's Prediction Error Given both Prior and Recent Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, T. Florian; Snider, Neal E.

    2013-01-01

    Speakers show a remarkable tendency to align their productions with their interlocutors'. Focusing on sentence production, we investigate the cognitive systems underlying such alignment (syntactic priming). Our guiding hypothesis is that syntactic priming is a consequence of a language processing system that is organized to achieve efficient…

  16. Mechanisms of subliminal response priming

    PubMed Central

    Kiesel, Andrea; Kunde, Wilfried; Hoffmann, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Subliminal response priming has been considered to operate on several stages, e.g. perceptual, central or motor stages might be affected. While primes’ impact on target perception has been clearly demonstrated, semantic response priming recently has been thrown into doubt (e.g. Klinger, Burton, & Pitts, 2000). Finally, LRP studies have revealed that subliminal primes evoke motor processes. Yet, the premises for such prime-evoked motor activation are not settled. A transfer of priming to stimuli that have never been presented as targets appears particularly interesting because it suggests a level of processing that goes beyond a reactivation of previously acquired S-R links. Yet, such transfer has not always withstood empirical testing. To account for these contradictory results, we proposed a two-process model (Kunde, Kiesel, & Hoffmann, 2003): First, participants build up expectations regarding imperative stimuli for the required responses according to experience and/or instructions. Second, stimuli that match these “action triggers” directly activate the corresponding motor responses irrespective of their conscious identification. In line with these assumptions, recent studies revealed that non-target primes induce priming when they fit the current task intentions and when they are expected in the experimental setting. PMID:20517516

  17. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Modulates Semantic Negative Priming from Single Prime Words

    PubMed Central

    Ortells, Juan J.; Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Houghton, George

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether semantic negative priming from single prime words depends on the availability of cognitive control resources. Participants with high vs. low working memory capacity (as assessed by their performance in complex span and attentional control tasks) were instructed to either attend to or ignore a briefly presented single prime word that was followed by either a semantically related or unrelated target word on which participants made a lexical decision. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) mainly affected the processing of the ignored primes, but not the processing of the attended primes: While the latter produced reliable positive semantic priming for both high- and low-WMC participants, the former gave rise to reliable semantic negative priming only for high WMC participants, with low WMC participants showing the opposite positive priming effect. The present results extend previous findings in demonstrating that (a) single negative priming can reliably generalize to semantic associates of the prime words, and (b) a differential availability of cognitive control resources can reliably modulate the negative priming effect at a semantic level of representation. PMID:27621716

  18. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Modulates Semantic Negative Priming from Single Prime Words.

    PubMed

    Ortells, Juan J; Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Houghton, George

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether semantic negative priming from single prime words depends on the availability of cognitive control resources. Participants with high vs. low working memory capacity (as assessed by their performance in complex span and attentional control tasks) were instructed to either attend to or ignore a briefly presented single prime word that was followed by either a semantically related or unrelated target word on which participants made a lexical decision. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) mainly affected the processing of the ignored primes, but not the processing of the attended primes: While the latter produced reliable positive semantic priming for both high- and low-WMC participants, the former gave rise to reliable semantic negative priming only for high WMC participants, with low WMC participants showing the opposite positive priming effect. The present results extend previous findings in demonstrating that (a) single negative priming can reliably generalize to semantic associates of the prime words, and (b) a differential availability of cognitive control resources can reliably modulate the negative priming effect at a semantic level of representation. PMID:27621716

  19. Automatic Activation of Adolescents' Peer-Relational Schemas: Evidence from Priming with Facial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Peets, Katlin; Salmivalli, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This study provides experimental evidence for automatic, relationship-specific social information processing in 13-year-old adolescents. Photographs of participants' liked, disliked, and unknown peers were used as primes in an affective priming task with happy and angry facial expression probes and in a hypothetical vignette task. For the…

  20. Embodied Information in Cognitive Tasks: Haptic Weight Sensations Affect Task Performance and Processing Style

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Kai; Vennekötter, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Research in the field of embodied cognition showed that incidental weight sensations influence peoples’ judgments about a variety of issues and objects. Most studies found that heaviness compared to lightness increases the perception of importance, seriousness, and potency. In two experiments, we broadened this scope by investigating the impact of weight sensations on cognitive performance. In Experiment 1, we found that the performance in an anagram task was reduced when participants held a heavy versus a light clipboard in their hands. Reduced performance was accompanied by an increase in the perceived effort. In Experiment 2, a heavy clipboard elicited a specific response heuristic in a two-alternative forced-choice task. Participants showed a significant right side bias when holding a heavy clipboard in their hands. After the task, participants in the heavy clipboard condition reported to be more frustrated than participants in the light clipboard condition. In both experiments, we did not find evidence for mediated effects that had been proposed by previous literature. Overall, the results indicate that weight effects go beyond judgment formation and highlight new avenues for future research. PMID:26421084

  1. A hormone priming regimen and hibernation affect oviposition in the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas).

    PubMed

    Calatayud, N E; Langhorne, C J; Mullen, A C; Williams, C L; Smith, T; Bullock, L; Kouba, A J; Willard, S T

    2015-09-01

    Declines of the southern Rocky Mountain population of boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) have led to the establishment of a captive assurance population and reintroduction program, in an attempt to preserve and propagate this geographically isolated population. One of the unique adaptations of this species is its ability to survive in cold environments by undergoing long periods of hibernation. In captivity, hibernation can be avoided altogether, decreasing morbidity caused by compromised immune systems. However, it is not entirely clear how essential hibernation is to reproductive success. In this study, the effects of hibernation versus nonhibernation, and exogenous hormones on oviposition, were examined in boreal toad females in the absence of males. In the summers of 2011 and 2012, 20 females housed at Mississippi State University were treated with a double priming dose of hCG and various ovulatory doses of hCG and LH-releasing hormone analog but denied hibernation. Exogenous hormones, in the absence of hibernation, could not induce oviposition over two breeding seasons (2011-2012). In contrast, during the summer of 2012 and 2013, 17 of 22 females (77%) housed at the Native Aquatic Species Restoration Facility (Alamosa, CO, USA) oviposited after they were treated with two priming doses of hCG (3.7 IU/g each) and a single ovulation dose of hCG (13.5 IU/g) and LH-releasing hormone analog (0.4 μg/g) after hibernation. There was a significant difference in oviposition between females that were hibernated and received hormones (2012, P < 0.05 and 2013, P < 0.01) compared to hibernated control females. In 2013, 12 of 16 remaining Mississippi State University females from the same group used in 2011 and 2012 were hibernated for 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively and then treated with the same hormone regimen administered to females at the Native Aquatic Species Restoration Facility. Together, hibernation and hormone treatments significantly increased

  2. “The Bitter Laughter”. When Parody Is a Moral and Affective Priming in Political Persuasion

    PubMed Central

    D’Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Research on socially aware systems requires fine-grained knowledge of the mechanisms of persuasion in order to promote civic knowledge and aware political participation. Within humor studies, political parody is generally considered a simple pleasant weapon for political evaluation, currently explained by referring to the so called “just a joke effect” (Nabi et al., 2007). Indeed the funny side of parody can induce positive emotions, but it also includes a discrediting act that sometimes produces a “bitter laughter.” The present study aims to understand the role played by negative and moral emotions aroused by parody. A parody is defined as a communicative behavior (a discourse, text, body movement, song) that imitates a communicative behavior or trait displayed by some Target by reproducing it in a distorted way, with the aim of making fun of the Target. Based on a socio-cognitive approach, a distinction is made between “surface” and “deep” parody (Poggi and D’Errico, 2013), with the former simply imitating behaviors actually displayed by the Target, and the latter implying a (humorous) re-categorization of the Target. The paper studies the effect of these two different types of parody on persuasion processes. Results show that the deep parody, as opposed to surface parody, triggers more negative emotions, and in particular indignation, that in turn lead to more negative evaluations of the Target. Moreover, the moral priming of parody is influenced by the Target politician’s gender. PMID:27555825

  3. "The Bitter Laughter". When Parody Is a Moral and Affective Priming in Political Persuasion.

    PubMed

    D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Research on socially aware systems requires fine-grained knowledge of the mechanisms of persuasion in order to promote civic knowledge and aware political participation. Within humor studies, political parody is generally considered a simple pleasant weapon for political evaluation, currently explained by referring to the so called "just a joke effect" (Nabi et al., 2007). Indeed the funny side of parody can induce positive emotions, but it also includes a discrediting act that sometimes produces a "bitter laughter." The present study aims to understand the role played by negative and moral emotions aroused by parody. A parody is defined as a communicative behavior (a discourse, text, body movement, song) that imitates a communicative behavior or trait displayed by some Target by reproducing it in a distorted way, with the aim of making fun of the Target. Based on a socio-cognitive approach, a distinction is made between "surface" and "deep" parody (Poggi and D'Errico, 2013), with the former simply imitating behaviors actually displayed by the Target, and the latter implying a (humorous) re-categorization of the Target. The paper studies the effect of these two different types of parody on persuasion processes. Results show that the deep parody, as opposed to surface parody, triggers more negative emotions, and in particular indignation, that in turn lead to more negative evaluations of the Target. Moreover, the moral priming of parody is influenced by the Target politician's gender. PMID:27555825

  4. Interaction between Task Oriented and Affective Information Processing in Cognitive Robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

    There is an increasing interest in endowing robots with emotions. Robot control however is still often very task oriented. We present a cognitive architecture that allows the combination of and interaction between task representations and affective information processing. Our model is validated by comparing simulation results with empirical data from experimental psychology.

  5. Inhibitory control efficiency in a Piaget-like class-inclusion task in school-age children and adults: a developmental negative priming study.

    PubMed

    Borst, G; Poirel, N; Pineau, A; Cassotti, M; Houdé, O

    2013-07-01

    Most children under 7 years of age presented with 10 daisies and 2 roses fail to indicate that there are more flowers than daisies. Instead of the appropriate comparison of the relative numerosities of the superordinate class (flowers) to its subordinate class (daisies), they perform a direct perceptual comparison of the extensions of the 2 subordinate classes (daisies vs. roses). In our experiment, we investigated whether increasing efficiency in solving the Piagetian class-inclusion task is related to increasing efficiency in the ability to resist (inhibit) this direct comparison of the subordinate classes' extensions. Ten-year-old and young adult participants performed a computerized priming version of a Piaget-like class-inclusion task. The experimental design was such that the misleading perceptual strategy to inhibit on the prime (in which a superordinate class had to be compared with a subordinate class) became a congruent strategy to activate on the probe (in which the two subordinate classes' extensions were directly compared). We found a negative priming effect of 291 ms in children and 129 ms in adults. These results provide evidence for the first time (a) that adults still need to inhibit the comparison of the subordinate classes' extensions in class-inclusion tasks and (b) that the ability to inhibit this heuristic increases with age (resulting in a lower executive cost). Taken together, these findings provide additional support for the neo-Piagetian approach of cognitive development that suggests that the acquisition of increasingly complex knowledge is based on the ability to resist (inhibit) heuristics and previously acquired knowledge. PMID:22889392

  6. The influence of a working memory task on affective perception of facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S; Aupperle, Robin L

    2014-01-01

    In a dual-task paradigm, participants performed a spatial location working memory task and a forced two-choice perceptual decision task (neutral vs. fearful) with gradually morphed emotional faces (neutral ∼ fearful). Task-irrelevant word distractors (negative, neutral, and control) were experimentally manipulated during spatial working memory encoding. We hypothesized that, if affective perception is influenced by concurrent cognitive load using a working memory task, task-irrelevant emotional distractors would bias subsequent perceptual decision-making on ambiguous facial expression. We found that when either neutral or negative emotional words were presented as task-irrelevant working-memory distractors, participants more frequently reported fearful face perception - but only at the higher emotional intensity levels of morphed faces. Also, the affective perception bias due to negative emotional distractors correlated with a decrease in working memory performance. Taken together, our findings suggest that concurrent working memory load by task-irrelevant distractors has an impact on affective perception of facial expressions. PMID:25347772

  7. To branch out or stay focused? Affective shifts differentially predict organizational citizenship behavior and task performance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu-Qin; Simon, Lauren S; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaoming

    2016-06-01

    We draw from personality systems interaction (PSI) theory (Kuhl, 2000) and regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) to examine how dynamic positive and negative affective processes interact to predict both task and contextual performance. Using a twice-daily diary design over the course of a 3-week period, results from multilevel regression analysis revealed that distinct patterns of change in positive and negative affect optimally predicted contextual and task performance among a sample of 71 employees at a medium-sized technology company. Specifically, within persons, increases (upshifts) in positive affect over the course of a workday better predicted the subsequent day's organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) when such increases were coupled with decreases (downshifts) in negative affect. The optimal pattern of change in positive and negative affect differed, however, in predicting task performance. That is, upshifts in positive affect over the course of the workday better predicted the subsequent day's task performance when such upshifts were accompanied by upshifts in negative affect. The contribution of our findings to PSI theory and the broader affective and motivation regulation literatures, along with practical implications, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26882443

  8. Transposed-Letter Priming Effects with Masked Subset Primes: A Re-Examination of the "Relative Position Priming Constraint"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinchcombe, Eric J.; Lupker, Stephen J.; Davis, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments are reported investigating the role of letter order in orthographic subset priming (e.g., "grdn"-GARDEN) using both the conventional masked priming technique as well as the sandwich priming technique in a lexical decision task. In all three experiments, subset primes produced priming with the effect being considerably larger when…

  9. Bilingual Language Control and General Purpose Cognitive Control among Individuals with Bilingual Aphasia: Evidence Based on Negative Priming and Flanker Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Tanya; Kar, Bhoomika R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objectives. The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate systems and how factors related to bilingualism interact with control processes. Methods. Four individuals with bilingual aphasia performed a language background questionnaire, picture description task, and two experimental tasks (nonlinguistic negative priming task and linguistic and nonlinguistic versions of flanker task). Results. A descriptive approach was used to analyse the data using reaction time and accuracy measures. The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions. The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms. Conclusion. All participants showed predominant use of the reactive control mechanism to compensate for the limited resources system. Independent yet interactive systems for bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control were postulated based on the experimental data derived from individuals with bilingual aphasia. PMID:24982591

  10. Examining the association between rumination, negative affectivity, and negative affect induced by a paced auditory serial addition task.

    PubMed

    Feldner, Matthew T; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Zvolensky, Michael J; Lejuez, C W

    2006-09-01

    The present study examined the relations among a depressive ruminative response style, a general propensity to experience negative affectivity, and negative affect induced by a paced serial auditory addition task (PASAT). Ninety nonclinical individuals completed a computerized version of the PASAT, which elicits a generalized negative affect response [Lejuez, C. W., Kahler, C. W., & Brown, R. A. (2003). A modified computer version of the paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT) as a laboratory-based stressor: Implications for behavioral assessment. Behavior Therapist, 26, 290-292]. As hypothesized, there was a moderate correlation between depressive rumination and a propensity to experience negative affect, as indexed both by a significant association with a negative affect personality factor and the prediction of negative affect elicited during the provocation. Findings also suggested that dispositional negative affectivity moderated the effects of a depressive ruminative response style on the valence but not arousal dimensions of emotional responding to the challenge. These findings are discussed in terms of improving our understanding of rumination and its potential role in emotional vulnerability processes. PMID:16139240

  11. Priming and Habituation for Faces: Individual Differences and Inversion Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieth, Cory A.; Huber, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Immediate repetition priming for faces was examined across a range of prime durations in a threshold identification task. Similar to word repetition priming results, short duration face primes produced positive priming whereas long duration face primes eliminated or reversed this effect. A habituation model of such priming effects predicted that…

  12. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W.; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-05-01

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two 13C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change.

  13. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two (13)C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change. PMID:25960162

  14. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W.; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two 13C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change. PMID:25960162

  15. Goal Priming and the Emotional Experience of Students with and without Attention Problems: An Application of the Emotional Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Shiakalli, Maria; Georgiou, Maria; Irakleous, Ioanna; Tsigourla, Ioanna; Fragioudaki, Eirini

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study is to evaluate the emotional experience of students with (n = 52) and without attention problems (n = 272) during an achievement task. A secondary purpose of the present study is to compare students' emotional response to various stimuli, when motivated by various achievement goals. Participants were…

  16. Food-cue affected motor response inhibition and self-reported dieting success: a pictorial affective shifting task

    PubMed Central

    Meule, Adrian; Lutz, Annika P. C.; Krawietz, Vera; Stützer, Judith; Vögele, Claus; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition is one of the basic facets of executive functioning and is closely related to self-regulation. Impulsive reactions, that is, low inhibitory control, have been associated with higher body mass index (BMI), binge eating, and other problem behaviors (e.g., substance abuse, pathological gambling, etc.). Nevertheless, studies which investigated the direct influence of food-cues on behavioral inhibition have been fairly inconsistent. In the current studies, we investigated food-cue affected behavioral inhibition in young women. For this purpose, we used a go/no-go task with pictorial food and neutral stimuli in which stimulus-response mapping is reversed after every other block (affective shifting task). In study 1, hungry participants showed faster reaction times to and omitted fewer food than neutral targets. Low dieting success and higher BMI were associated with behavioral disinhibition in food relative to neutral blocks. In study 2, both hungry and satiated individuals were investigated. Satiation did not influence overall task performance, but modulated associations of task performance with dieting success and self-reported impulsivity. When satiated, increased food craving during the task was associated with low dieting success, possibly indicating a preload-disinhibition effect following food intake. Food-cues elicited automatic action and approach tendencies regardless of dieting success, self-reported impulsivity, or current hunger levels. Yet, associations between dieting success, impulsivity, and behavioral food-cue responses were modulated by hunger and satiation. Future research investigating clinical samples and including other salient non-food stimuli as control category is warranted. PMID:24659978

  17. A neutral face is not neutral even if you have not seen it: social anxiety disorder and affective priming with facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Lange, Wolf-Gero; Allart, Esther; Keijsers, Ger P J; Rinck, Mike; Becker, Eni S

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive theories suggest that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by biased processing of negative facial expressions. Recently, however, it has been proposed that the fear of positive evaluation may play an additional, important role. In order to investigate which specific expressions evoke biased processing, 15 patients diagnosed with SAD and 15 non-anxious controls (NACs) completed an affective priming procedure: they rated neutral symbols which were preceded by sub-optimally presented primes of angry, neutral, and smiling faces. Patients with SAD rated the symbols significantly more negatively than NACs when they were primed with a neutral face. In addition, SAD patients tended to rate all symbols significantly more negatively suggesting that all faces (negative, positive, and neutral) are threatening to SAD patients. PMID:22428556

  18. The negative priming effect in cognitive conflict processing.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fada; Shi, Liang; Lu, Qingyun; Wu, Xiaogang; Xue, Song; Li, Qiwei

    2016-08-15

    The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the specific physiological mechanisms underlying the negative nature of cognitive conflict and its influence on affective word evaluations. The present study used an affective priming paradigm where Stroop stimuli were presented for 200ms after which affective target words had to be evaluated as being positive or negative. Behavioral results showed that reaction times (RTs) were shorter for positive targets following congruent primes relative to incongruent primes, and for negative targets following incongruent primes relative to congruent primes. The ERP results showed that the N2 amplitude (200-300ms) for incongruent stimuli was significantly larger than for congruent stimuli in the Stroop task, which indicated a significant conflict effect. Moreover, the N400 amplitude (300-500ms) was smaller for negative words following incongruent primes relative to congruent primes, and for positive words following congruent primes relative to incongruent primes. The results demonstrated that cognitive conflict modulated both behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of subsequent emotional processing, consistent with its hypothesized registration as an aversive signal. PMID:27268038

  19. Distractions, distractions: does instant messaging affect college students' performance on a concurrent reading comprehension task?

    PubMed

    Fox, Annie Beth; Rosen, Jonathan; Crawford, Mary

    2009-02-01

    Instant messaging (IM) has become one of the most popular forms of computer-mediated communication (CMC) and is especially prevalent on college campuses. Previous research suggests that IM users often multitask while conversing online. To date, no one has yet examined the cognitive effect of concurrent IM use. Participants in the present study (N = 69) completed a reading comprehension task uninterrupted or while concurrently holding an IM conversation. Participants who IMed while performing the reading task took significantly longer to complete the task, indicating that concurrent IM use negatively affects efficiency. Concurrent IM use did not affect reading comprehension scores. Additional analyses revealed that the more time participants reported spending on IM, the lower their reading comprehension scores. Finally, we found that the more time participants reported spending on IM, the lower their self-reported GPA. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:19006461

  20. Effects of age and task difficulty on recognition of facial affect.

    PubMed

    Orgeta, Vasiliki

    2010-05-01

    Current evidence suggests that older adults are less accurate than young adults in their ability to identify facial expressions of emotion. In the present study, young and older adults' ability to correctly recognize facial affect representative of 6 different emotions (happiness, surprise, disgust, fear, anger, and sadness) was examined in 3 conditions varying in difficulty. Task difficulty was measured by varying the number of labels available in a forced choice recognition task to 2, 4, and 6. Results showed that age differences were present in the 2 more difficult conditions for fear and sadness. Older adults were impaired in recognizing facial expressions of surprise only in the 4-label condition. Current findings suggest that task difficulty moderates age differences in emotion labeling. The present study has contributed to previous research by illuminating the conditions under which age differences in the accuracy of labeling of facial affect are more likely to be observed. PMID:20176659

  1. How Cross-Language Similarity and Task Demands Affect Cognate Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Ton; Miwa, Koji; Brummelhuis, Bianca; Sappelli, Maya; Baayen, Harald

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how the cross-linguistic similarity of translation equivalents affects bilingual word recognition. Performing one of three tasks, Dutch-English bilinguals processed cognates with varying degrees of form overlap between their English and Dutch counterparts (e.g., "lamp-lamp" vs. "flood-vloed" vs. "song-lied"). In lexical…

  2. The Effect of School and Task Structure on Teacher Interaction, Classroom Organization and Student Affects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramowitz, Susan

    This research paper sought to determine whether smaller sized schools decrease student alienation and increase program diversity both within the school and compared to others. Hypotheses tested were: (1) participation in small work units positively affects teacher task interdependence resulting in greater teacher interaction; (2) teacher…

  3. Automatic perception and synaesthesia: evidence from colour and photism naming in a stroop-negative priming task.

    PubMed

    Lupiáñez, Juan; Callejas, Alicia

    2006-02-01

    It is widely assumed that synaesthetic perception is highly automatic, as shown by Stroop test. Furthermore, it has been shown that, although automatic, it can be suppressed leading to Negative Priming (NP). However, these assumptions have not been consistently investigated, as not many papers have measured Stroop in synaesthesia, and only one used a NP procedure. Two experiments were carried out in a female synaesthete (MA), and 13 control participants, in which numbers and letters were displayed in colours either congruent or incongruent with MA's photisms. In contrast to control participants, MA showed significant Stroop effect both when naming the colours and when naming the photisms (slower RT when naming a colour or photism that was incongruently coloured versus congruently coloured). For comparison, we also report a control experiment in which the first letters of colour names were displayed in either congruent (e.g., B in blue) or incongruent (e.g., B in red) colours. Significant Stroop and NP effects were found when a control group named the displayed colour of these letters. The synaesthesic Stroop effect shown by MA was greater than that observed in the Control Experiment when MA was to name the displayed colour, but smaller when she was to name the photism of the stimuli. Regarding NP, MA showed an effect similar to that observed in the Control Experiment, but only when she was to name the photisms of the stimuli. Altogether, these results show that synaesthetic perception is highly automatic and difficult to inhibit. PMID:16683494

  4. Retro-priming, priming, and double testing: psi and replication in a test–retest design

    PubMed Central

    Rabeyron, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Numerous experiments have been conducted in recent years on anomalous retroactive influences on cognition and affect (Bem, 2010), yet more data are needed to understand these processes precisely. For this purpose, we carried out an initial retro-priming study in which the response times of 162 participants were measured (Rabeyron and Watt, 2010). In the current paper, we present the results of a second study in which we selected those participants who demonstrated the strongest retro-priming effect during the first study, in order to see if we could replicate this effect and therefore select high scoring participants. An additional objective was to try to find correlations between psychological characteristics (anomalous experiences, mental health, mental boundaries, trauma, negative life events) and retro-priming results for the high scoring participants. The retro-priming effect was also compared with performance on a classical priming task. Twenty-eight participants returned to the laboratory for this new study. The results, for the whole group, on the retro-priming task, were negative and non-significant (es = −0.25, ns) and the results were significant on the priming task (es = 0.63, p < 0.1). We obtained overall negative effects on retro-priming results for all the sub-groups (students, male, female). Ten participants were found to have positive results on the two retro-priming studies, but no specific psychological variables were found for these participants compared to the others. Several hypotheses are considered in explaining these results, and the author provide some final thoughts concerning psi and replicability. PMID:24672466

  5. Affective ERP Processing in a Visual Oddball Task: Arousal, Valence, and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Rozenkrants, Bella; Polich, John

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess affective event-related brain potentials (ERPs) using visual pictures that were highly distinct on arousal level/valence category ratings and a response task. Methods Images from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS) were selected to obtain distinct affective arousal (low, high) and valence (negative, positive) rating levels. The pictures were used as target stimuli in an oddball paradigm, with a visual pattern as the standard stimulus. Participants were instructed to press a button whenever a picture occurred and to ignore the standard. Task performance and response time did not differ across conditions. Results High-arousal compared to low-arousal stimuli produced larger amplitudes for the N2, P3, early slow wave, and late slow wave components. Valence amplitude effects were weak overall and originated primarily from the later waveform components and interactions with electrode position. Gender differences were negligible. Conclusion The findings suggest that arousal level is the primary determinant of affective oddball processing, and valence minimally influences ERP amplitude. Significance Affective processing engages selective attentional mechanisms that are primarily sensitive to the arousal properties of emotional stimuli. The application and nature of task demands are important considerations for interpreting these effects. PMID:18783987

  6. Subliminal repetition primes help detection of phonemes in a picture: Evidence for a phonological level of the priming effects.

    PubMed

    Manoiloff, Laura; Segui, Juan; Hallé, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we combine a cross-form word-picture visual masked priming procedure with an internal phoneme monitoring task to examine repetition priming effects. In this paradigm, participants have to respond to pictures whose names begin with a prespecified target phoneme. This task unambiguously requires retrieving the word-form of the target picture's name and implicitly orients participants' attention towards a phonological level of representation. The experiments were conducted within Spanish, whose highly transparent orthography presumably promotes fast and automatic phonological recoding of subliminal, masked visual word primes. Experiments 1 and 2 show that repetition primes speed up internal phoneme monitoring in the target, compared to primes beginning with a different phoneme from the target, or sharing only their first phoneme with the target. This suggests that repetition primes preactivate the phonological code of the entire target picture's name, hereby speeding up internal monitoring, which is necessarily based on such a code. To further qualify the nature of the phonological code underlying internal phoneme monitoring, a concurrent articulation task was used in Experiment 3. This task did not affect the repetition priming effect. We propose that internal phoneme monitoring is based on an abstract phonological code, prior to its translation into articulation. PMID:25679503

  7. The Functional Effect of Teacher Positive and Neutral Affect on Task Performance of Students with Significant Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sungho; Singer, George H. S.; Gibson, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The study uses an alternating treatment design to evaluate the functional effect of teacher's affect on students' task performance. Tradition in special education holds that teachers should engage students using positive and enthusiastic affect for task presentations and praise. To test this assumption, we compared two affective conditions. Three…

  8. Changes in Interest and Affect during a Difficult Reading Task: Relationships with Perceived Difficulty and Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulmer, Sara M.; Tulis, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated changes in middle school students' interest and affect during a moderately difficult reading task. The aim was to explore how changes in interest (topic and situational) and affect were related to students' reading fluency throughout the task and perceived difficulty. Interest and affect were recorded at four time points:…

  9. The influence of temporal factors on automatic priming and conscious expectancy in a simple reaction time task.

    PubMed

    Destrebecqz, Arnaud; Perruchet, Pierre; Cleeremans, Axel; Laureys, Steven; Maquet, Pierre; Peigneux, Philippe

    2010-02-01

    In a previous study, we reported a dissociation between subjective expectancy and motor behaviour in a simple associative learning task (Perruchet, Cleeremans, & Destrebecqz, 2006). According to previous conditioning studies (Clark, Manns, & Squire, 2001), this dissociation is observed when the to-be-associated events coterminate and thus overlap in time (a training regimen called delay conditioning), but not when they are separated by a temporal delay (trace conditioning). In this latter situation indeed, there tends to be a direct relationship between subjective expectancy and behaviour. In this study, we further investigated this issue in a series of experiments where conscious and unconscious components of performance were pitted against each other. In Experiments 1-3, participants performed a simple reaction time task in which a preparatory signal (a tone) either overlapped with or terminated earlier than the imperative stimulus (a visual target presented in 50% of the trials). After each response, participants also had to state how much they expected the imperative stimulus to be displayed on the next trial. Results indicate that reaction times tend to decrease when the tone is consistently followed by the visual target across successive trials, whereas conscious expectancy for the target decreases at the same time. Importantly, we systematically found that the temporal relationship between the tone and the target failed to influence performance. In a fourth experiment, we examined whether these results extend to a two-choice reaction time task. To our surprise, we observed a direct relationship between subjective expectancies and reaction time in that situation. We nevertheless observed that the introduction of a delay between the tone and the target had, once again, no effect on performance. PMID:19526437

  10. How Mood and Task Complexity Affect Children's Recognition of Others’ Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Andrew J.; Rennels, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies examined how mood affects children's accuracy in matching emotional expressions and labels (label-based tasks). This study was the first to assess how induced mood (positive, neutral, or negative) influenced 5- to 8-year-olds’ accuracy and reaction time using both context-based tasks, which required inferring a character's emotion from a vignette, and label-based tasks. Both tasks required choosing one of four facial expressions to respond. Children responded more accurately to label-based questions relative to context-based questions at 5 to 7 years of age, but showed no differences at 8 years of age, and when the emotional expression being identified was happiness, sadness, or surprise, but not disgust. For the context-based questions, children were more accurate at inferring sad and disgusted emotions compared to happy and surprised emotions. Induced positive mood facilitated 5-year-olds’ processing (decreased reaction time) in both tasks compared to induced negative and neutral moods. Results demonstrate how task type and children's mood influence children's emotion processing at different ages. PMID:24489442

  11. Amount of Priming in the Difference of Mental Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanamori, Nobuhiro; Yagi, Akihiro

    2005-01-01

    We examined in detail effects of priming in 2 mental rotation strategies: spinning (rotating in a picture plane) and flipping (rotating in depth around a horizontal axis) by using a priming paradigm of Kanamori and Yagi (2002). The priming paradigm included prime and probe tasks within 1 trial. In the prime task, 16 participants were asked to…

  12. How important is a prime's gestalt for subliminal priming?

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, Piotr; Slósarek, Maciej

    2007-06-01

    Masked stimuli (primes) can affect the preparation of a motor response to subsequently presented target stimuli. Under some conditions, reactions to the main stimulus can be facilitated (straight priming) or inhibited (inverse priming) when preceded by a compatible prime (calling for the same response). In the majority of studies in which inverse priming was demonstrated arrows pointing left or right were used as prime and targets. There is, however, evidence that arrows are special overlearned stimuli which are processed in a favorable way. Here we report three experiments designated to test whether the "arrowness" of primes/targets is a sufficient condition for inverse priming. The results clearly show that although inverse priming appeared when non-arrow shapes were used, the magnitude of the priming effect was larger with arrows. The possible reasons for this effect are discussed. PMID:16919477

  13. Prime-Boost Strategies in Mucosal Immunization Affect Local IgA Production and the Type of Th Response

    PubMed Central

    Fiorino, Fabio; Pettini, Elena; Pozzi, Gianni; Medaglini, Donata; Ciabattini, Annalisa

    2013-01-01

    Combinations of different delivery routes for priming and boosting represent vaccination strategies that can modulate magnitude, quality, and localization of the immune response. A murine model was used to study T cell clonal expansion following intranasal (IN) or subcutaneous (SC) priming, and secondary immune responses after boosting by either homologous or heterologous routes. T cell primary activation was studied by using the adoptive transfer model of ovalbumin-specific transgenic CD4+ T cells. Both IN and SC immunization efficiently elicited, in the respective draining lymph nodes, primary clonal expansion of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells that disseminated toward distal lymph nodes (mesenteric and iliac) and the spleen. After boosting, a significant serum IgG response was induced in all groups independent of the combination of immunization routes used, while significant levels of local IgA were detected only in mice boosted by the IN route. Mucosal priming drove a stronger Th1 polarization than the systemic route, as shown by serum IgG subclass analysis. IFN-gamma production was observed in splenocytes of all groups, while prime-boost vaccine combinations that included the mucosal route, yielded higher levels of IL-17. Memory lymphocytes were identified in both spleen and draining lymph nodes in all immunized mice, with the highest number of IL-2 producing cells detected in mice primed and boosted by the nasal route. This work shows the critical role of immunization routes in modulating quality and localization of immune responses in prime-boost vaccine strategies. PMID:23755051

  14. Prime Diagnosticity in Short-Term Repetition Priming: Is Primed Evidence Discounted, Even when It Reliably Indicates the Correct Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidemann, Christoph T.; Huber, David E.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 repetition priming experiments that manipulated prime duration and prime diagnosticity in a visual forced-choice perceptual identification task. The strength and direction of prime diagnosticity produced marked effects on identification accuracy, but those effects were resistant to subsequent changes of diagnosticity.…

  15. Nicotine withdrawal modulates frontal brain function during an affective Stroop task

    PubMed Central

    Modlin, Leslie; Wang, Lihong; Kozink, Rachel V.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background Among nicotine-dependent smokers, smoking abstinence disrupts multiple cognitive and affective processes including conflict resolution and emotional information processing (EIP). However, the neurobiological basis of abstinence effects on resolving emotional interference on cognition remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate smoking abstinence effects on emotion–cognition interactions. Methods Smokers (n=17) underwent fMRI while performing an affective Stroop task (aST) over two sessions: once following 24-h abstinence and once following smoking as usual. The aST includes trials that serially present incongruent or congruent numerical grids bracketed by neutral or negative emotional distractors and view-only emotional image trials. Statistical analyses were conducted using a statistical threshold of p<0.05 cluster corrected. Results Smoking abstinence increased Stroop blood-oxygenation-level-dependent response in the right middle frontal and rostral anterior cingulate gyri. Moreover, withdrawal-induced negative affect was associated with less activation in frontoparietal regions during negative emotional information processing; whereas, during Stroop trials, negative affect predicted greater activation in frontal regions during negative, but not neutral emotional distractor trials. Conclusion Hyperactivation in the frontal executive control network during smoking abstinence may represent a need to recruit additional executive resources to meet task demands. Moreover, abstinence-induced negative affect may disrupt cognitive control neural circuitry during EIP and place additional demands on frontal executive neural resources during cognitive demands when presented with emotionally distracting stimuli. PMID:21989805

  16. Impaired production priming and intact identification priming in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, D A; Monti, L A; Dwornik, L M; Moro, T T; Bennett, D A; Gabrieli, J D

    2001-11-01

    This study examined the distinction between identification and production processes in repetition priming for 16 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 16 healthy old control participants (NC). Words were read in three study phases. In three test phases, participants (1) reread studied words, along with unstudied words, in a word-naming task (identification priming); (2) completed 3-letter stems of studied and unstudied words into words in a word-stem completion task (production priming); and (3) answered yes or no to having read studied and unstudied words in a recognition task (explicit memory). Explicit memory and word-stem completion priming were impaired in the AD group compared to the NC group. After correcting for baseline slowing, word-naming priming magnitude did not differ between the groups. The results suggest that the distinction between production and identification processes has promise for explaining the pattern of preservation and failure of repetition priming in AD. PMID:11771621

  17. Factors affecting numerical typing performance of young adults in a hear-and-type task.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Jhe; Wu, Changxu

    2011-12-01

    Numerical hear-and-type tasks, i.e. making immediate keypresses according to verbally presented numbers, possess both practical and theoretical importance but received relatively little attention. Effects of speech rates (500-ms vs. 1000-ms interval), urgency (urgent condition: performance-based monetary incentive plus time limit vs. non-urgent condition: flat-rate compensation) and finger strategies (single vs. multi-finger typing) on typing speed and accuracy were investigated. Fast speech rate and multi-finger typing produced more errors and slower typing speed. Urgency improved typing speed but decreased accuracy. Errors were almost doubled under urgent condition, while urgency effect on speed was similar to that of speech rate. Examination of error patterns did not fully support Salthouse's (1986) speculations about error-making mechanisms. The results implied that urgency could play a more important role in error-making than task demands. Numerical keyboard design and error detection could benefit from spatial incidence of errors found in this study. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study revealed that classic speculations about error-making mechanisms in alphabetical typing do not necessarily translate to numerical typing. Factors other than external task demands such as urgency can affect typing performance to a similar or greater extent. Investigations of intrinsic error-making factors in non-traditional typing tasks are encouraged. PMID:22103724

  18. Priming Gestures with Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Guillaume; Heller, Laurie M.; Navolio, Nicole; Zúñiga-Peñaranda, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We report a series of experiments about a little-studied type of compatibility effect between a stimulus and a response: the priming of manual gestures via sounds associated with these gestures. The goal was to investigate the plasticity of the gesture-sound associations mediating this type of priming. Five experiments used a primed choice-reaction task. Participants were cued by a stimulus to perform response gestures that produced response sounds; those sounds were also used as primes before the response cues. We compared arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds (key lifts and pure tones) created during the experiment (i.e. no pre-existing knowledge) with ecological associations corresponding to the structure of the world (tapping gestures and sounds, scraping gestures and sounds) learned through the entire life of the participant (thus existing prior to the experiment). Two results were found. First, the priming effect exists for ecological as well as arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds. Second, the priming effect is greatly reduced for ecologically existing associations and is eliminated for arbitrary associations when the response gesture stops producing the associated sounds. These results provide evidence that auditory-motor priming is mainly created by rapid learning of the association between sounds and the gestures that produce them. Auditory-motor priming is therefore mediated by short-term associations between gestures and sounds that can be readily reconfigured regardless of prior knowledge. PMID:26544884

  19. Amygdala responses to unpleasant pictures are influenced by task demands and positive affect trait

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Tiago A.; Mocaiber, Izabela; Erthal, Fatima S.; Joffily, Mateus; Volchan, Eliane; Pereira, Mirtes G.; de Araujo, Draulio B.; Oliveira, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    The role of attention in emotional processing is still the subject of debate. Recent studies have found that high positive affect in approach motivation narrows attention. Furthermore, the positive affect trait has been suggested as an important component for determining human variability in threat reactivity. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether different states of attention control would modulate amygdala responses to highly unpleasant pictures relative to neutral and whether this modulation would be influenced by the positive affect trait. Participants (n = 22, 12 male) were scanned while viewing neutral (people) or unpleasant pictures (mutilated bodies) flanked by two peripheral bars. They were instructed to (a) judge the picture content as unpleasant or neutral or (b) to judge the difference in orientation between the bars in an easy condition (0 or 90∘ orientation difference) or (c) in a hard condition (0 or 6∘ orientation difference). Whole brain analysis revealed a task main effect of brain areas related to the experimental manipulation of attentional control, including the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex. Region of interest analysis showed an inverse correlation (r = -0.51, p < 0.01) between left amygdala activation and positive affect level when participants viewed unpleasant stimuli and judged bar orientation in the easy condition. This result suggests that subjects with high positive affect exhibit lower amygdala reactivity to distracting unpleasant pictures. In conclusion, the current study suggests that positive affect modulates attention effect on unpleasant pictures, therefore attenuating emotional responses. PMID:25788883

  20. Religion priming and an oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism interact to affect self-control in a social context.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Joni Y; Mojaverian, Taraneh; Kim, Heejung S

    2015-02-01

    Using a genetic moderation approach, this study examines how an experimental prime of religion impacts self-control in a social context, and whether this effect differs depending on the genotype of an oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism (rs53576). People with different genotypes of OXTR seem to have different genetic orientations toward sociality, which may have consequences for the way they respond to religious cues in the environment. In order to determine whether the influence of religion priming on self-control is socially motivated, we examine whether this effect is stronger for people who have OXTR genotypes that should be linked to greater rather than less social sensitivity (i.e., GG vs. AA/AG genotypes). The results showed that experimentally priming religion increased self-control behaviors for people with GG genotypes more so than people with AA/AG genotypes. Furthermore, this Gene × Religion interaction emerged in a social context, when people were interacting face to face with another person. This research integrates genetic moderation and social psychological approaches to address a novel question about religion's influence on self-control behavior, which has implications for coping with distress and psychopathology. These findings also highlight the importance of the social context for understanding genetic moderation of psychological effects. PMID:25640833

  1. Differential Effects of Single-Dose Escitalopram on Cognitive and Affective Interference during Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Rahm, Christoffer; Liberg, Benny; Kristoffersen-Wiberg, Maria; Aspelin, Peter; Msghina, Mussie

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Our aim was to study the regulatory role of serotonin [(5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] on two key nodes in the cognitive control networks – the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We hypothesized that increasing the levels of 5-HT would preferentially modulate the activity in ACC during cognitive control during interference by negative affects compared to cognitive control during interference by a superimposed cognitive task. Methods: We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation on 11 healthy individuals, comparing the effects of the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor escitalopram on brain oxygenation level dependent signals in the ACC and the DLPFC using affective and cognitive counting Stroop paradigms (aStroop and cStroop). Results: Escitalopram significantly decreased the activity in rostral ACC during aStroop compared to cStroop (p < 0.05). In the absence of escitalopram, both aStroop and cStroop significantly activated ACC and DLPFC (Z ≥ 2.3, p < 0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that escitalopram in a region and task specific manner modified the cognitive control networks and preferentially decreased activity induced by affective interference in the ACC. PMID:24616708

  2. Seeing emotions in the eyes – inverse priming effects induced by eyes expressing mental states

    PubMed Central

    Wagenbreth, Caroline; Rieger, Julia; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Zaehle, Tino

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Automatic emotional processing of faces and facial expressions gain more and more of relevance in terms of social communication. Among a variety of different primes, targets and tasks, whole face images and facial expressions have been used to affectively prime emotional responses. This study investigates whether emotional information provided solely in eye regions that display mental states can also trigger affective priming. Methods: Sixteen subjects answered a lexical decision task (LDT) coupled with an affective priming paradigm. Emotion-associated eye regions were extracted from photographs of faces and acted as primes, whereas targets were either words or pseudo-words. Participants had to decide whether the targets were real German words or generated pseudo-words. Primes and targets belonged to the emotional categories “fear,” “disgust,” “happiness,” and “neutral.” Results: A general valence effect for positive words was observed: responses in the LDT were faster for target words of the emotional category happiness when compared to other categories. Importantly, pictures of emotional eye regions preceding the target words affected their subsequent classification. While we show a classical priming effect for neutral target words – with shorter RT for congruent compared to incongruent prime-target pairs- , we observed an inverse priming effect for fearful and happy target words – with shorter RT for incongruent compared to congruent prime-target pairs. These inverse priming effects were driven exclusively by specific prime-target pairs. Conclusion: Reduced facial emotional information is sufficient to induce automatic implicit emotional processing. The emotional-associated eye regions were processed with respect to their emotional valence and affected the performance on the LDT. PMID:25278925

  3. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizospher...

  4. Affectively salient meaning in random noise: a task sensitive to psychosis liability.

    PubMed

    Galdos, Mariana; Simons, Claudia; Fernandez-Rivas, Aranzazu; Wichers, Marieke; Peralta, Concepción; Lataster, Tineke; Amer, Guillermo; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Allardyce, Judith; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel; van Os, Jim

    2011-11-01

    Stable differences in the tendency to attribute meaning and emotional value to experience may represent an indicator of liability to psychosis. A brief task was developed assessing variation in detecting affectively meaningful speech (speech illusion) in neutral random signals (white noise) and the degree to which this was associated with psychometric and familial vulnerability for psychosis. Thirty patients, 28 of their siblings, and 307 controls participated. The rate of speech illusion was compared between cases and controls. In controls, the association between speech illusion and interview-based positive schizotypy was assessed. The hypothesis of a dose-response increase in rate of speech illusion across increasing levels of familial vulnerability for psychosis (controls, siblings of patients, and patients) was examined. Patients were more likely to display speech illusions than controls (odds ratio [OR] = 4.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-11.7), also after controlling for neurocognitive variables (OR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.04-14.1). The case-control difference was more accentuated for speech illusion perceived as affectively salient (positively or negatively appraised) than for neutrally appraised speech illusions. Speech illusion in the controls was strongly associated with positive schizotypy but not with negative schizotypy. In addition, the rate of speech illusion increased with increasing level of familial risk for psychotic disorder. The data suggest that the white noise task may be sensitive to psychometric and familial vulnerability for psychosis associated with alterations in top-down processing and/or salience attribution. PMID:20360211

  5. Spatiotemporal object history affects the selection of task-relevant properties.

    PubMed

    Schreij, Daniel; Olivers, Christian N L

    2013-02-01

    For stable perception, we maintain mental representations of objects across space and time. What information is linked to such a representation? In this study, we extended our work showing that the spatiotemporal history of an object affects the way the object is attended the next time it is encountered. Observers conducted a visual search for a target among multiple distractors. Either the target location (Experiment 1) or the target feature (Experiment 2) could repeat from trial to trial. The entire visual search display was part of an object that could move in and out of view. Search was speeded when the target property repeated, but especially when the motion trajectory suggested that the same object had emerged. We show that this same-object benefit is tied to both the features and the spatial location of the target. It is most prominent for task-relevant features, but is weak to absent for task-irrelevant target features or for distractors carrying a salient feature. We conclude that attention uses an object-specific memory for relevant target information. Finally, we show that this object-specific memory is not affected by a change in the exterior appearance of the object, but depends on the spatiotemporal history (Experiment 3). PMID:22390295

  6. Competition Effects in Phonological Priming: The Role of Mismatch Position between Primes and Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufour, Sophie; Peereman, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    In three experiments, we examined lexical competition effects using the phonological priming paradigm in a shadowing task. Experiments 1A and 1B showed that an inhibitory priming effect occurred when the primes mismatched the targets on the last phoneme (/bagar/-/bagaj/). In contrast, a facilitatory priming effect was observed when the primes…

  7. Affective and Deliberative Processes in Risky Choice: Age Differences in Risk Taking in the Columbia Card Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figner, Bernd; Mackinlay, Rachael J.; Wilkening, Friedrich; Weber, Elke U.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated risk taking and underlying information use in 13- to 16- and 17- to 19-year-old adolescents and in adults in 4 experiments, using a novel dynamic risk-taking task, the Columbia Card Task (CCT). The authors investigated risk taking under differential involvement of affective versus deliberative processes with 2 versions of…

  8. Affective processing requires awareness.

    PubMed

    Lähteenmäki, Mikko; Hyönä, Jukka; Koivisto, Mika; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-04-01

    Studies using backward masked emotional stimuli suggest that affective processing may occur outside visual awareness and imply primacy of affective over semantic processing, yet these experiments have not strictly controlled for the participants' awareness of the stimuli. Here we directly compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization of biologically relevant stimuli in 5 experiments (n = 178) using explicit (semantic and affective discrimination; Experiments 1-3) and implicit (semantic and affective priming; Experiments 4-5) measures. The same stimuli were used in semantic and affective tasks. Visual awareness was manipulated by varying exposure duration of the masked stimuli, and subjective level of stimulus awareness was measured after each trial using a 4-point perceptual awareness scale. When participants reported no awareness of the stimuli, semantic and affective categorization were at chance level and priming scores did not differ from zero. When participants were even partially aware of the stimuli, (a) both semantic and affective categorization could be performed above chance level with equal accuracy, (b) semantic categorization was faster than affective categorization, and (c) both semantic and affective priming were observed. Affective categorization speed was linearly dependent on semantic categorization speed, suggesting dependence of affective processing on semantic recognition. Manipulations of affective and semantic categorization tasks revealed a hierarchy of categorization operations beginning with basic-level semantic categorization and ending with superordinate level affective categorization. We conclude that both implicit and explicit affective and semantic categorization is dependent on visual awareness, and that affective recognition follows semantic categorization. PMID:25559654

  9. How gender and task difficulty affect a sport-protective response in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Lipps, David B.; Eckner, James T.; Richardson, James K.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that gender and task difficulty affect the reaction, movement, and total response times associated with performing a head protective response. Twenty-four healthy young adults (13 females) performed a protective response of raising their hands from waist level to block a foam ball fired at their head from an air cannon. Participants initially stood 8.25 m away from the cannon (‘low difficulty’), and were moved successively closer in 60 cm increments until they failed to block at least 5 of 8 balls (‘high difficulty’). Limb motion was quantified using optoelectronic markers on the participants’ left wrist. Males had significantly faster total response times (p = 0.042), a trend towards faster movement times (p = 0.054), and faster peak wrist velocity (p < .001) and acceleration (p = 0.032) than females. Reaction time, movement time, and total response time were significantly faster under high difficulty conditions for both genders (p < .001). This study suggests that baseball and softball pitchers and fielders should have sufficient time to protect their head from a batted ball under optimal conditions if they are adequately prepared for the task. PMID:23234296

  10. How gender and task difficulty affect a sport-protective response in young adults.

    PubMed

    Lipps, David B; Eckner, James T; Richardson, James K; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that gender and task difficulty affect the reaction, movement, and total response times associated with performing a head protective response. Twenty-four healthy young adults (13 females) performed a protective response by raising their hands from waist level to block a foam ball fired at their head from an air cannon. Participants initially stood 8.25 m away from the cannon ('low difficulty'), and were moved successively closer in 60 cm increments until they failed to block at least five of eight balls ('high difficulty'). Limb motion was quantified using optoelectronic markers on the participants' left wrist. Males had significantly faster total response times (P = 0.042), a trend towards faster movement times (P = 0.054), and faster peak wrist velocity (P < 0.001) and acceleration (P = 0.032) than females. Reaction time, movement time, and total response time were significantly faster under high difficulty conditions for both genders (P < 0.001). This study suggests that baseball and softball pitchers and fielders should have sufficient time to protect their head from a batted ball under optimal conditions if they are adequately prepared for the task. PMID:23234296

  11. Hemodynamic and affective correlates assessed during performance on the Columbia card task (CCT).

    PubMed

    Holper, Lisa; Murphy, Ryan O

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to test the potential of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in combination with electrodermal activity (EDA) in a decision paradigm by means of the Columbia card task (CCT). The CCT is a dynamic decision task characterized by assessing subjects' risk-taking via eliciting voluntary stopping points in a series of incrementally increasingly risky choices. Using the combined fNIRS-EDA approach, we aim to examine the hemodynamic and affective correlates of both decision and outcome responses during performance on the CCT. Twenty healthy subjects completed the Cold and Hot CCT version while fNIRS over prefrontal cortex and EDA were recorded. Results showed that (1) in the decision phase fNIRS revealed larger total hemoglobin concentration changes [tHb] in the Cold as compared to the Hot CCT, whereas EDA revealed an opposite pattern with larger skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the Hot as compared to the Cold CCT. (2) No significant [tHb] signals or SCRs were found in the outcome phase. (3) Coherence calculations between fNIRS and EDA in the heart rate frequency showed a significant increase during the Hot as compared to the Cold CCT. Our findings designate fNIRS as suitable tool for monitoring decision-making processes. The combination of fNIRS and EDA demonstrates the potential of simultaneously assessing the interaction between hemodynamic and affective responses which can provide additional information concerning the relationship between these two physiological systems for various research areas. PMID:24242358

  12. Affectively Salient Meaning in Random Noise: A Task Sensitive to Psychosis Liability

    PubMed Central

    Galdos, Mariana; Simons, Claudia; Fernandez-Rivas, Aranzazu; Wichers, Marieke; Peralta, Concepción; Lataster, Tineke; Amer, Guillermo; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Allardyce, Judith; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel; van Os, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Stable differences in the tendency to attribute meaning and emotional value to experience may represent an indicator of liability to psychosis. A brief task was developed assessing variation in detecting affectively meaningful speech (speech illusion) in neutral random signals (white noise) and the degree to which this was associated with psychometric and familial vulnerability for psychosis. Thirty patients, 28 of their siblings, and 307 controls participated. The rate of speech illusion was compared between cases and controls. In controls, the association between speech illusion and interview-based positive schizotypy was assessed. The hypothesis of a dose-response increase in rate of speech illusion across increasing levels of familial vulnerability for psychosis (controls, siblings of patients, and patients) was examined. Patients were more likely to display speech illusions than controls (odds ratio [OR] = 4.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–11.7), also after controlling for neurocognitive variables (OR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.04–14.1). The case-control difference was more accentuated for speech illusion perceived as affectively salient (positively or negatively appraised) than for neutrally appraised speech illusions. Speech illusion in the controls was strongly associated with positive schizotypy but not with negative schizotypy. In addition, the rate of speech illusion increased with increasing level of familial risk for psychotic disorder. The data suggest that the white noise task may be sensitive to psychometric and familial vulnerability for psychosis associated with alterations in top-down processing and/or salience attribution. PMID:20360211

  13. Priming the activation of fear and disgust: evidence for semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Roland; Lozo, Ljubica

    2012-04-01

    Given that semantic processes mediate early processes in the elicitation of emotions, we expect that already activated emotion-specific information can influence the elicitation of an emotion. In Experiment 1, participants were exposed to masked International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures that elicited either disgust or fear. Following the presentation of the primes, other IAPS pictures were presented as targets that elicited either disgust or fear. The participants' task was to classify the target picture as either disgust or fear evoking. In Experiment 2, we substituted the IAPS primes with facial expressions of either disgust or fear. In Experiment 3, we substituted the IAPS primes with the words disgust or fear. In all three experiments, we found that prime-target combinations of the same emotion were responded to faster than prime-target combinations of different emotions. Our findings suggest that the influence of primes on the elicitation of emotion is mediated by activated schemata or appraisal processes. PMID:22251050

  14. Serotonin levels influence patterns of repetition priming.

    PubMed

    Burgund, E Darcy; Marsolek, Chad J; Luciana, Monica

    2003-01-01

    Repetition priming in a word-stem completion task was examined in a group of control subjects and in a group of experimental subjects under conditions of acute tryptophan depletion (T-) and tryptophan augmentation (T+). Experimental subjects ingested amino acid compounds that depleted or loaded the body with tryptophan, and word-stem completion priming performance was measured. Results indicate differential effects of T- and T+ manipulations on word-stem completion priming. In the control group, both specific-visual and amodal priming were observed. Conversely, in the T+ condition, specific-visual priming, but no amodal priming, was observed, whereas in the T- condition, amodal priming, but no specific-visual priming, was observed. The authors conclude that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) plays a critical role in repetition priming by helping to modulate which neural systems contribute to priming effects. PMID:12597085

  15. Attentional Control and the Relatedness Proportion Effect in Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2 experiments, participants completed both an attentional control battery (OSPAN, antisaccade, and Stroop tasks) and a modified semantic priming task. The priming task measured relatedness proportion (RP) effects within subjects, with the color of the prime indicating the probability that the to-be-named target would be related. In Experiment…

  16. A Model of Factors Affecting Independent Learners' Engagement with Feedback on Language Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Toro, María; Hurd, Stella

    2014-01-01

    In independent learning contexts, the effectiveness of the feedback dialogue between student and tutor or, in the absence of a tutor, the quality of the learning materials, is essential to successful learning. Using the voices of participants as the prime source of data through a combination of data-driven and concept-driven approaches, this…

  17. Timing Is Affected by Demands in Memory Search but Not by Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Claudette; Schweickert, Richard; Gaudreault, Remi; Viau-Quesnel, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that timing and tasks involving executive control processes might require the same attentional resources. This should lead to interference when timing and executive tasks are executed concurrently. This study examined the interference between timing and task switching, an executive function. In 4 experiments, memory search…

  18. Priming arithmetic facts in amnesic patients.

    PubMed

    Delazer, M; Ewen, P; Benke, T

    1997-05-01

    In this study, amnesic patients showed significant repetition priming effects in arithmetic fact retrieval tasks. The results indicate that repetition priming effects in arithmetic depend not on explicit recognition, but on the activation of specific long-term representations of arithmetic facts. Processing dissociations between easy and difficult items suggest that the priming effects results from the stage of fact retrieval and not from peripheral activation. This claim is also supported by encoding and naming tasks, which showed only slight priming effects as compared to the priming found in calculation tasks. Significant priming was found for identical (5 x 6 and 5 x 6) and complement problems (5 x 6 and 6 x 5), the latter showing a smaller magnitude of priming. PMID:9153025

  19. I Don't Know It but I Like You: The Influence of Nonconscious Affect on Person Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Jennifer L.

    1998-01-01

    Proposes a model of unconscious affect. Tests predictions about the influence of nonconscious affect on evaluations made of undergraduate student conversational interactants. Uses a subliminal priming task to induce a positive nonconscious affective response toward the target persons. Rates primed target as more likable and attractive yet not more…

  20. Testing the embodied account of object naming: a concurrent motor task affects naming artifacts and animals.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Heath E; White, Nicole; McMullen, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Embodied theories of object representation propose that the same neural networks are involved in encoding and retrieving object knowledge. In the present study, we investigated whether motor programs play a causal role in the retrieval of object names. Participants performed an object-naming task while squeezing a sponge with either their right or left hand. The objects were artifacts (e.g. hammer) or animals (e.g. giraffe) and were presented in an orientation that favored a grasp or not. We hypothesized that, if activation of motor programs is necessary to retrieve object knowledge, then concurrent motor activity would interfere with naming manipulable artifacts but not non-manipulable animals. In Experiment 1, we observed naming interference for all objects oriented towards the occupied hand. In Experiment 2, we presented the objects in more 'canonical orientations'. Participants named all objects more quickly when they were oriented towards the occupied hand. Together, these interference/facilitation effects suggest that concurrent motor activity affects naming for both categories. These results also suggest that picture-plane orientation interacts with an attentional bias that is elicited by the objects and their relationship to the occupied hand. These results may be more parsimoniously accounted for by a domain-general attentional effect, constraining the embodied theory of object representations. We suggest that researchers should scrutinize attentional accounts of other embodied cognitive effects. PMID:24291119

  1. Amphetamine affects the start of responding in the peak interval timing task.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kathleen M; Horvitz, Jon C; Balsam, Peter D

    2007-02-22

    In this paper we investigate how amphetamine affects performance in a PI task by comparing two analyses of responding during peak trials. After training on 24 s fixed interval (FI-24) with 96 s peak trials, rats were given amphetamine for 4 consecutive days at doses of .5 and 1.0 mg/kg. Responses during peak trials were fitted with a Gaussian distribution to estimate the expected time of reinforcement from the peak time. A single trials analysis was also performed to determine the start time and stop time of the transition into and out of a high rate of responding on each peak trial. Amphetamine significantly decreased peak times as measured with the Gaussian curve fitting. However, in the single trials analysis, animals initiated responding significantly earlier, but did not stop responding earlier. Thus, fitting a Gaussian to the average performance across trials sometimes provides a different characterization of the timing process than does analyzing the start and stop of responding on individual trials. In the current experiment, the latter approach provided a more precise characterization of the effects of amphetamine on response timing. PMID:17222991

  2. How task complexity and stimulus modality affect motor execution: target accuracy, response timing and hesitations.

    PubMed

    Parrington, Lucy; MacMahon, Clare; Ball, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Elite sports players are characterized by the ability to produce successful outcomes while attending to changing environmental conditions. Few studies have assessed whether the perceptual environment affects motor skill execution. To test the effect of changing task complexity and stimulus conditions, the authors examined response times and target accuracy of 12 elite Australian football players using a passing-based laboratory test. Data were assessed using mixed modeling and chi-square analyses. No differences were found in target accuracy for changes in complexity or stimulus condition. Decision, movement and total disposal time increased with complexity and decision hesitations were greater when distractions were present. Decision, movement and disposal time were faster for auditory in comparison to visual signals, and when free to choose, players passed more frequently to auditory rather than visual targets. These results provide perspective on how basic motor control processes such as reaction and response to stimuli are influenced in a complex motor skill. Findings suggest auditory stimuli should be included in decision-making studies and may be an important part of a decision-training environment. PMID:25584721

  3. The role of cue-response mapping in motorvisual impairment and facilitation: Evidence for different roles of action planning and action control in motorvisual dual-task priming

    PubMed Central

    Thomaschke, Roland; Hopkins, Brian; Christopher Miall, R.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that actions impair the visual perception of categorically action-consistent stimuli. On the other hand, actions can also facilitate the perception of spatially action-consistent stimuli. We suggest that motorvisual impairment is due to action planning processes, while motorvisual facilitation is due to action control mechanisms. This implies that because action planning is sensitive to modulations by cue-response mapping so should motorvisual impairment, while motorvisual facilitation should be insensitive to manipulations of cue-response mapping as is action control. We tested this prediction in three dual-task experiments. The impact of performing left and right key presses on the perception of unrelated, categorically or spatially consistent, stimuli was studied. As expected, we found motorvisual impairment for categorically consistent stimuli and motorvisual facilitation for spatially consistent stimuli. In all experiments, we compared congruent with incongruent cue-key mappings. Mapping manipulations affected motorvisual impairment, but not motorvisual facilitation. The results support our suggestion that motorvisual impairment is due to action planning, and motorvisual facilitation to action control. PMID:21806310

  4. Cognitive tasks during expectation affect the congruency ERP effects to facial expressions

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huiyan; Schulz, Claudia; Straube, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Expectancy congruency has been shown to modulate event-related potentials (ERPs) to emotional stimuli, such as facial expressions. However, it is unknown whether the congruency ERP effects to facial expressions can be modulated by cognitive manipulations during stimulus expectation. To this end, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded while participants viewed (neutral and fearful) facial expressions. Each trial started with a cue, predicting a facial expression, followed by an expectancy interval without any cues and subsequently the face. In half of the trials, participants had to solve a cognitive task in which different letters were presented for target letter detection during the expectancy interval. Furthermore, facial expressions were congruent with the cues in 75% of all trials. ERP results revealed that for fearful faces, the cognitive task during expectation altered the congruency effect in N170 amplitude; congruent compared to incongruent fearful faces evoked larger N170 in the non-task condition but the congruency effect was not evident in the task condition. Regardless of facial expression, the congruency effect was generally altered by the cognitive task during expectation in P3 amplitude; the amplitudes were larger for incongruent compared to congruent faces in the non-task condition but the congruency effect was not shown in the task condition. The findings indicate that cognitive tasks during expectation reduce the processing of expectation and subsequently, alter congruency ERP effects to facial expressions. PMID:26578938

  5. Erroneous Knowledge of Results Affects Decision and Memory Processes on Timing Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Lawrence J.; Fritz, Matthew S.

    2007-01-01

    On mental timing tasks, erroneous knowledge of results (KR) leads to incorrect performance accompanied by the subjective judgment of accurate performance. Using the start-stop technique (an analogue of the peak interval procedure) with both reproduction and production timing tasks, the authors analyze what processes erroneous KR alters. KR…

  6. Does Listening to Slow Tempo Classical Music During Independent Writing Affect Children's On-Task Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Rosemary

    This project explored the effects of slow tempo classical music on children's on-task performance during independent writing. The project sample consisted of 24 students from a first grade classroom in the New York City Public School System. The students' on-task behavior was observed with and without use of slow tempo classical music playing, and…

  7. Do Content, Format, and Level of Inquiry Affect Scores on Open-Ended Science Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stecher, Brian M.; Klein, Stephen P.; Solano-Flores, Guillermo; McCaffrey, Dan; Robyn, Abby; Shavelson, Richard J.; Haertel, Edward

    This study investigated three factors that may contribute to the large variation in student performance across open-ended measures. These factors are content domain, format (whether the task required only pencil and paper or involved a hands-on manipulation of equipment), and level of inquiry (whether the task guided the student toward the…

  8. Housing conditions affect rat responses to two types of ambiguity in a reward–reward discrimination cognitive bias task

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Richard M.A.; Paul, Elizabeth S.; Burman, Oliver H.P.; Browne, William J.; Mendl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making under ambiguity in cognitive bias tasks is a promising new indicator of affective valence in animals. Rat studies support the hypothesis that animals in a negative affective state evaluate ambiguous cues negatively. Prior automated operant go/go judgement bias tasks have involved training rats that an auditory cue of one frequency predicts a Reward and a cue of a different frequency predicts a Punisher (RP task), and then measuring whether ambiguous cues of intermediate frequency are judged as predicting reward (‘optimism’) or punishment (‘pessimism’). We investigated whether an automated Reward–Reward (RR) task yielded similar results to, and was faster to train than, RP tasks. We also introduced a new ambiguity test (simultaneous presentation of the two training cues) alongside the standard single ambiguous cue test. Half of the rats experienced an unpredictable housing treatment (UHT) designed to induce a negative state. Control rats were relatively ‘pessimistic’, whilst UHT rats were quicker, but no less accurate, in their responses in the RR test, and showed less anxiety-like behaviour in independent tests. A possible reason for these findings is that rats adapted to and were stimulated by UHT, whilst control rats in a predictable environment were more sensitive to novelty and change. Responses in the new ambiguity test correlated positively with those in single ambiguous cue tests, and may provide a measure of attention bias. The RR task was quicker to train than previous automated RP tasks. Together, they could be used to disentangle how reward and punishment processes underpin affect-induced cognitive biases. PMID:25106739

  9. Housing conditions affect rat responses to two types of ambiguity in a reward-reward discrimination cognitive bias task.

    PubMed

    Parker, Richard M A; Paul, Elizabeth S; Burman, Oliver H P; Browne, William J; Mendl, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Decision-making under ambiguity in cognitive bias tasks is a promising new indicator of affective valence in animals. Rat studies support the hypothesis that animals in a negative affective state evaluate ambiguous cues negatively. Prior automated operant go/go judgement bias tasks have involved training rats that an auditory cue of one frequency predicts a Reward and a cue of a different frequency predicts a Punisher (RP task), and then measuring whether ambiguous cues of intermediate frequency are judged as predicting reward ('optimism') or punishment ('pessimism'). We investigated whether an automated Reward-Reward (RR) task yielded similar results to, and was faster to train than, RP tasks. We also introduced a new ambiguity test (simultaneous presentation of the two training cues) alongside the standard single ambiguous cue test. Half of the rats experienced an unpredictable housing treatment (UHT) designed to induce a negative state. Control rats were relatively 'pessimistic', whilst UHT rats were quicker, but no less accurate, in their responses in the RR test, and showed less anxiety-like behaviour in independent tests. A possible reason for these findings is that rats adapted to and were stimulated by UHT, whilst control rats in a predictable environment were more sensitive to novelty and change. Responses in the new ambiguity test correlated positively with those in single ambiguous cue tests, and may provide a measure of attention bias. The RR task was quicker to train than previous automated RP tasks. Together, they could be used to disentangle how reward and punishment processes underpin affect-induced cognitive biases. PMID:25106739

  10. Young Children's Affective Decision-Making in a Gambling Task: Does Difficulty in Learning the Gain/Loss Schedule Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Shan; Wei, Yonggang; Bai, Junjie; Lin, Chongde; Li, Hong

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the development of affective decision-making (ADM) during early childhood, in particular role of difficulty in learning a gain/loss schedule. In Experiment 1, we administrated the Children's Gambling Task (CGT) to 60 Chinese children aged 3 and 4, replicating the results obtained by Kerr and Zelazo [Kerr, A., & Zelazo,…

  11. Factors affecting performance on a target monitoring task employing an automatic tracker.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Sharon M; Vimalachandran, Abhirami; Blackmore, Elizabeth

    2004-02-26

    The experiments in this paper examined the extent to which performance on a task employing an automatic tracker was similar to performance on tasks employing other types of automation that have been studied more extensively. Automated target tracking is being used in many sensor and navigation systems to improve performance and help the operator cope with increased data loads. With many automated systems these goals are not met. In particular, the operator often misses errors made by the automated system and may report no decrease in workload. Several hypotheses have been offered for the operator's failure to monitor an automated system adequately. These include lack of experience with the manual task, a vigilance decrement, complacency, and inappropriate level of automation. The relevance of each of these hypotheses to failure to monitor an automatic tracker adequately was examined. Performance and perceived workload on a target tracking task employing an automatic tracker, in which participants had to detect and then update the position of several targets (e.g. ships) at regular intervals, were measured as a function of number of targets, training with the manual task, experience, and time on task. The results suggested that failure to detect errors made by the automated system was due largely to the lack of visibility of the automation errors relative to other errors. However, complacency could not be ruled out entirely. Unlike some other tasks, the availability of a reliable automatic tracker did lead to a substantial reduction in perceived workload. PMID:14668161

  12. Alzheimer's disease, but not ageing or depression, affects dual-tasking.

    PubMed

    Kaschel, Reiner; Logie, Robert H; Kazén, Miguel; Della Sala, Sergio

    2009-11-01

    Two experiments are reported that assess dual task performance in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in chronic depression and in healthy old age. Results suggest that dual task impairments are present in AD but are not shown in depression. This is true even when episodic memory performance is equated between the groups. These results, together with those of previous studies, point to dual task performance as an aid to diagnosis of AD relative to depression. This is of particular relevance when episodic memory tests cannot distinguish between the two conditions. The dual task paradigm appears to have considerable promise in assisting the early detection of the specific cognitive deficits associated with AD, and in monitoring their progression, both in the laboratory setting and in everyday tasks. Results also are of theoretical interest in pointing to a specific dual task coordination function in the healthy human cognitive system that allows for the coordination of two tasks performed simultaneously and which is damaged in AD but not in depression. PMID:19543789

  13. Self-Reported Stickiness of Mind-Wandering Affects Task Performance.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, Marieke K; Broers, Nico

    2016-01-01

    When asked to perform a certain task, we typically spend a decent amount of time thinking thoughts unrelated to that task-a phenomenon referred to as "mind-wandering." It is thought that this mind-wandering is driven at least in part by our unfinished goals and concerns. Previous studies have shown that just after presenting a participant with their own concerns, their reports of task-unrelated thinking increased somewhat. However, effects of these concerns on task performance were somewhat inconsistent. In this study we take the opposite approach, and examine whether task performance depends on the self-reported thought content. Specifically, a particularly intriguing aspect of mind-wandering that has hitherto received little attention is the difficulty of disengaging from it, in other words, the "stickiness" of the thoughts. While presenting participants with their own concerns was not associated with clear effects on task performance, we showed that the reports of off-task thinking and variability of response times increased with the amount of self-reported stickiness of thoughts. This suggests that the stickiness of mind-wandering is a relevant variable, and participants are able to meaningfully report on it. PMID:27242636

  14. Transfer of processing in repetition priming: some inappropriate findings.

    PubMed

    Brown, A S; Neblett, D R; Jones, T C; Mitchell, D B

    1991-05-01

    Transfer effects in repetition priming were found with both picture and word naming, but varied with the type of prime list. Unmixed lists of word or picture primes produced equivalent intra-modal and cross-modal repetition priming in both picture-naming (Experiment 1) and word-naming (Experiment 5) tasks. However, mixing word and picture primes resulted in greater intra-modal than cross-modal priming for both picture-naming (Experiment 2) and word-naming (Experiment 6) tasks. This mixed-list difference between intra-modal and cross-modal priming was reduced by blocking prime types at input (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that differences in priming as a function of prime stimulus format should be cautiously interpreted when mixed prime lists are used. PMID:1829475

  15. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Feike A.; Carrillo, Yolima; Pendall, Elise; Morgan, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N) through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P) limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilization of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils. PMID:23908649

  16. Masked Inhibitory Priming in English: Evidence for Lexical Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Colin J.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Predictions derived from the interactive activation (IA) model were tested in 3 experiments using the masked priming technique in the lexical decision task. Experiment 1 showed a strong effect of prime lexicality: Classifications of target words were facilitated by orthographically related nonword primes (relative to unrelated nonword primes) but…

  17. The Effect of Prime Duration in Masked Orthographic Priming Depends on Neighborhood Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Christelle; Mathey, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    A lexical decision task was used with a masked priming procedure to investigate whether and to what extent neighborhood distribution influences the effect of prime duration in masked orthographic priming. French word targets had two higher frequency neighbors that were either distributed over two letter positions (e.g., "LOBE/robe-loge") or…

  18. Unconscious Congruency Priming from Unpracticed Words Is Modulated by Prime-Target Semantic Relatedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortells, Juan J.; Mari-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllon, Vanesa

    2013-01-01

    Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility…

  19. Evaluation of an operant successive negative contrast task as a method to study affective state in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Emma N; Marston, Hugh M; Nutt, David J; Robinson, Emma S J

    2012-10-01

    Successive negative contrast (SNC) describes a change in an animal's behaviour following a downshift in the quantitative or qualitative value of a reward. Previous studies suggest both consummatory and instrumental paradigms have the potential to provide an objective measure of affective state in rodents. We first investigated whether an SNC effect is observed in an operant task based on the 5 choice serial reaction time task. We then tested whether this SNC effect was sensitive to differences in affective state induced by manipulating the home cage environment. In animals trained to receive a four pellet food reward, reinforcer downshift to a single reward pellet induced a significant slowing of both correct response and collection latencies to levels below that of animals which had only ever received the lower value reward, indicating a SNC effect. Home cage environmental enrichment resulted in a paradoxical effect on responses in this SNC task where animals housed in a barren environment showed faster baseline response times and the SNC effect was significantly attenuated. These data suggest that the animals housed in the barren conditions were in a more positive affective and/or motivational state during testing than animals housed in enriched cages. Although opposite to the effects of housing conditions in a runway SNC task, these data could be explained by the enriching effects of daily training in an operant task. Rather than inducing a negative affective state in rats, the barren housing conditions resulted in a relatively more positive affective state in the chamber when compared to animals living in a highly enriched environment. PMID:22732261

  20. Examining an Affective Aggression Framework: Weapon and Temperature Effects on Aggressive Thoughts, Affect, and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A general framework for studying affective aggression, integrating many insights from previous models, is presented. New research examining effects of extreme temperature and photos of guns on arousal, cognition, and affect is presented. Hostile cognition was assessed using automatic priming tasks (i.e., Stroop interference). Hostile affect was…

  1. Typical and atypical antipsychotic medications differentially affect two nondeclarative memory tasks in schizophrenic patients: a double dissociation.

    PubMed

    Beninger, Richard J; Wasserman, James; Zanibbi, Katherine; Charbonneau, Danielle; Mangels, Jennifer; Beninger, Bruce V

    2003-06-01

    Nondeclarative memory (NDM) has subtypes associated with different brain regions; learning of a probabilistic classification task is impaired by striatal damage and learning of a gambling task is impaired by ventromedial prefrontocortical damage. Typical and atypical antipsychotic medications differentially affect immediate early gene expression in the striatum and frontal cortex in normal rats. This suggested the hypothesis that schizophrenic patients treated with typical antipsychotics will have impaired probabilistic classification learning (PCL) and that similar patients treated with atypical antipsychotics will have impaired learning of the gambling task. Groups of schizophrenia patients treated with typical or atypical antipsychotics did not differ from each other on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) or a number of indexes of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) but performed worse than normal controls on these instruments. In the first study, patients treated with typicals (n=20) but not atypicals (n=20) or normal controls (n=32) were impaired in probabilistic classification. In the second study, those treated with atypicals (n=18) but not typicals (n=18) or normal controls (n=18) were impaired in the gambling task. Results suggest that typical and atypical antipsychotics differentially affect nondeclarative memory mediated by different brain regions. PMID:12729880

  2. Self-Reported Stickiness of Mind-Wandering Affects Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    van Vugt, Marieke K.; Broers, Nico

    2016-01-01

    When asked to perform a certain task, we typically spend a decent amount of time thinking thoughts unrelated to that task–a phenomenon referred to as “mind-wandering.” It is thought that this mind-wandering is driven at least in part by our unfinished goals and concerns. Previous studies have shown that just after presenting a participant with their own concerns, their reports of task-unrelated thinking increased somewhat. However, effects of these concerns on task performance were somewhat inconsistent. In this study we take the opposite approach, and examine whether task performance depends on the self-reported thought content. Specifically, a particularly intriguing aspect of mind-wandering that has hitherto received little attention is the difficulty of disengaging from it, in other words, the “stickiness” of the thoughts. While presenting participants with their own concerns was not associated with clear effects on task performance, we showed that the reports of off-task thinking and variability of response times increased with the amount of self-reported stickiness of thoughts. This suggests that the stickiness of mind-wandering is a relevant variable, and participants are able to meaningfully report on it. PMID:27242636

  3. Identifiable Orthographically Similar Word Primes Interfere in Visual Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    University students participated in five experiments concerning the effects of unmasked, orthographically similar, primes on visual word recognition in the lexical decision task (LDT) and naming tasks. The modal prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 350 ms. When primes were words that were orthographic neighbors of the targets, and…

  4. Prime Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Donald T.

    1982-01-01

    The design of a computer program to efficiently generate prime numbers is discussed. Programs for many different brands of home computers are listed, with suggestions of ways the programs can be speeded up. It is noted everyone seems to have a favorite program, but that every program can be improved. (MP)

  5. ERP measures of math anxiety: how math anxiety affects working memory and mental calculation tasks?

    PubMed Central

    Klados, Manousos A.; Simos, Panagiotis; Micheloyannis, Sifis; Margulies, Daniel; Bamidis, Panagiotis D.

    2015-01-01

    There have been several attempts to account for the impact of Mathematical Anxiety (MA) on brain activity with variable results. The present study examines the effects of MA on ERP amplitude during performance of simple arithmetic calculations and working memory tasks. Data were obtained from 32 university students as they solved four types of arithmetic problems (one- and two-digit addition and multiplication) and a working memory task comprised of three levels of difficulty (1, 2, and 3-back task). Compared to the Low-MA group, High-MA individuals demonstrated reduced ERP amplitude at frontocentral (between 180–320 ms) and centroparietal locations (between 380–420 ms). These effects were independent of task difficulty/complexity, individual performance, and general state/trait anxiety levels. Results support the hypothesis that higher levels of self-reported MA are associated with lower cortical activation during the early stages of the processing of numeric stimuli in the context of cognitive tasks. PMID:26578912

  6. Task- and resting-state functional connectivity of brain regions related to affection and susceptible to concurrent cognitive demand

    PubMed Central

    Kellermann, Tanja S.; Caspers, Svenja; Fox, Peter T.; Zilles, Karl; Roski, Christian; Laird, Angela R.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    A recent fMRI-study revealed neural responses for affective processing of stimuli for which overt attention irrespective of stimulus valence was required in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and bilateral amygdala (AMY): activation decreased with increasing cognitive demand. To further characterize the network putatively related to this attenuation, we here characterized these regions with respect to their functional properties and connectivity patterns in task-dependent and task-independent states. All experiments of the BrainMap database activating the seed regions OFC and bilateral AMY were identified. Their functional characteristics were quantitatively inferred using the behavioral meta-data of the retrieved experiments. Task-dependent functional connectivity was characterized by meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) of significant co-activations with these seed regions. Task-independent resting-state functional connectivity analysis in a sample of 100 healthy subjects complemented these analyses. All three seed regions co-activated with subgenual cingulum (SGC), precuneus (PCu) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in the task-dependent MACM analysis. Task-independent resting-state connectivity revealed significant coupling of the seeds only with the SGC, but not the PCu and the NAcc. The former region (SGC) moreover was shown to feature significant resting-state connectivity with all other regions implicated in the network connected to regions where emotional processing may be modulated by a cognitive distractor. Based on its functional profile and connectivity pattern, we suggest that the SGC might serve as a key hub in the identified network, as such linking autobiographic information [PCu], reward [NAcc], (reinforce) values [OFC] and emotional significance [AMY]. Such a role, in turn, may allow the SGC to influence the OFC and AMY to modulate affective processing. PMID:23370055

  7. Manipulations of Start and Food Locations Affect Navigation on a Foraging Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gerard M.; Pirzada, Ashar; Bridger, Alexander; Tomlin, Julian; Thorpe, Christina M.; Skinner, Darlene M.

    2011-01-01

    Rats were able to search multiple food cups in a foraging task and successfully return to a fixed, but not a variable, start location. Reducing the number of food cups to be searched resulted in an improvement in performance in the variable start condition. Performance was better when only one or two food cups had to be visited but was still…

  8. Abacus Training Affects Math and Task Switching Abilities and Modulates Their Relationships in Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunjie; Geng, Fengji; Yao, Yuan; Weng, Jian; Hu, Yuzheng; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), a traditional Chinese calculation method, could help children improve their math abilities (e.g. basic arithmetical ability) and executive function (e.g. working memory). This study further examined the effects of long-term AMC training on math ability in visual-spatial domain and the task switching component of executive function. More importantly, this study investigated whether AMC training modulated the relationship between math abilities and task switching. The participants were seventy 7-year-old children who were randomly assigned into AMC and control groups at primary school entry. Children in AMC group received 2-hour AMC training every week since primary school entry. On the contrary, children in the control group had never received any AMC training. Math and task switching abilities were measured one year and three years respectively after AMC training began. The results showed that AMC children performed better than their peers on math abilities in arithmetical and visual-spatial domains. In addition, AMC group responded faster than control group in the switching task, while no group difference was found in switch cost. Most interestingly, group difference was present in the relationships between math abilities and switch cost. These results implied the effect of AMC training on math abilities as well as its relationship with executive function. PMID:26444689

  9. How Stimulus and Task Complexity Affect Monitoring in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koolen, Sophieke; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; Egger, Jos I. M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to update and monitor working memory representations of visual input, and whether performance is influenced by stimulus and task complexity. 15 high-functioning adults with ASD and 15 controls were asked to allocate either elements of abstract figures or…

  10. Abacus Training Affects Math and Task Switching Abilities and Modulates Their Relationships in Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuan; Weng, Jian; Hu, Yuzheng; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), a traditional Chinese calculation method, could help children improve their math abilities (e.g. basic arithmetical ability) and executive function (e.g. working memory). This study further examined the effects of long-term AMC training on math ability in visual-spatial domain and the task switching component of executive function. More importantly, this study investigated whether AMC training modulated the relationship between math abilities and task switching. The participants were seventy 7-year-old children who were randomly assigned into AMC and control groups at primary school entry. Children in AMC group received 2-hour AMC training every week since primary school entry. On the contrary, children in the control group had never received any AMC training. Math and task switching abilities were measured one year and three years respectively after AMC training began. The results showed that AMC children performed better than their peers on math abilities in arithmetical and visual-spatial domains. In addition, AMC group responded faster than control group in the switching task, while no group difference was found in switch cost. Most interestingly, group difference was present in the relationships between math abilities and switch cost. These results implied the effect of AMC training on math abilities as well as its relationship with executive function. PMID:26444689

  11. Gender and Prior Science Achievement Affect Categorization on a Procedural Learning Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Lu, Chow-Chin; Wang, Jen-Lian; Liao, Shin; Wu, Ming-Ray; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Lin, Pei-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Categorization is one of the main mental processes by which perception and conception develop. Nevertheless, categorization receives little attention with the development of critical thinking in Taiwan elementary schools. Thus, the present study investigates the effect that individual differences have on performing categorization tasks.…

  12. Associative priming in perceptual identification: effects of prime-processing requirements.

    PubMed

    Burt, J S; Walker, M B; Humphreys, M S; Tehan, G

    1993-01-01

    Three experiments assessed the effects of prime-processing instructions on associative priming in word identification and episodic memory for primes. In Experiment 1, groups instructed to read the prime silently or generate silently an associate of the prime showed a larger accuracy benefit for related over unrelated targets than did a group that decided whether an asterisk was to the right or left of the prime. The asterisk-search group showed a weaker repetition effect on a subsequent identification test of primes, indicating that the weaker priming in this group was a result of poorer perceptual processing. On a cued-recall test for primes, the generate group was superior to the other groups. In Experiment 2, we found that with weak prime-target associations, priming was comparable for read and generate groups and stronger than estimated for a guessing strategy, on the basis of single predictions made from each prime by an additional group. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that the read and generate instructions produced similar mispriming and inhibitory effects. The results suggest that the depths of prime-processing manipulations do not have parallel effects on priming and episodic memory, and that associative priming in word identification, as in other tasks, may involve an expectancy process. PMID:8433643

  13. Gamma-L-glutamyl-L-aspartate, interacting with NMDA receptors, affects appetitive visual discrimination tasks in mice.

    PubMed

    Melan, C; De Barry, J; Ungerer, A

    1991-05-01

    gamma-L-glutamyl-L-aspartate (gamma-LGLA), which interacts with NMDA receptors, has been shown to impair retention of an active avoidance task in mice. Here, we specified the behavioral effects of gamma-LGLA on acquisition and retention of appetitive nondelayed visual discrimination tasks. Three experiments were conducted: the peptide (0.25 and 2.5 microM/kg/25 ml. ip) was administered 3 min after each of the first six sessions of either original learning, reversal 1 or reversal 3. gamma-LGLA affected acquisition of the original task and of the first reversal, as revealed by an absence of improvement on initial sessions and an increased number of sessions to reach criterion fixed at 7 of 10 correct choices on three consecutive sessions. This deficit did not result from an action of the peptide on position habits (repetition of spatial choices) nor on motivational processes, suggesting a specific interference of gamma-LGLA with acquisition and memorization of the visual rule. In contrast, gamma-LGLA had no effect on acquisition of the third reversal, in which the positively reinforced visual stimulus was identical to that used on the first reversal. These results show that the behavioral deficits of gamma-LGLA, which had previously been demonstrated in an aversive task, can be generalized to appetitive tasks based on acquisition of a new rule. PMID:1829354

  14. Masked syllable priming effects in word and picture naming in Chinese.

    PubMed

    You, Wenping; Zhang, Qingfang; Verdonschot, Rinus G

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the role of the syllable in Chinese spoken word production. Chen, Chen and Ferrand (2003) reported a syllable priming effect when primes and targets shared the first syllable using a masked priming paradigm in Chinese. Our Experiment 1 was a direct replication of Chen et al.'s (2003) Experiment 3 employing CV (e.g., ,/ba2.ying2/, strike camp) and CVG (e.g., ,/bai2.shou3/, white haired) syllable types. Experiment 2 tested the syllable priming effect using different syllable types: e.g., CV (,/qi4.qiu2/, balloon) and CVN (,/qing1.ting2/, dragonfly). Experiment 3 investigated this issue further using line drawings of common objects as targets that were preceded either by a CV (e.g., ,/qi3/, attempt), or a CVN (e.g., ,/qing2/, affection) prime. Experiment 4 further examined the priming effect by a comparison between CV or CVN priming and an unrelated priming condition using CV-NX (e.g., ,/mi2.ni3/, mini) and CVN-CX (e.g., ,/min2.ju1/, dwellings) as target words. These four experiments consistently found that CV targets were named faster when preceded by CV primes than when they were preceded by CVG, CVN or unrelated primes, whereas CVG or CVN targets showed the reverse pattern. These results indicate that the priming effect critically depends on the match between the structure of the prime and that of the first syllable of the target. The effect obtained in this study was consistent across different stimuli and different tasks (word and picture naming), and provides more conclusive and consistent data regarding the role of the syllable in Chinese speech production. PMID:23056360

  15. The difficulty of the postural control task affects multi-muscle control during quiet standing.

    PubMed

    García-Massó, X; Pellicer-Chenoll, M; Gonzalez, L M; Toca-Herrera, J L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) coherence between the lower limb and the core muscles when carrying out two postural tasks at different difficulty levels. EMG was recorded in 20 healthy male subjects while performing two independent quiet standing tasks. The first one involved a bipedal stance with the eyes open, while the second consisted of a dominant unipedal stance also with the eyes open. The obtained EMG signals were analysed by computing estimations of EMG-EMG coherence between muscle pairs, both singly (single-pair estimations) and combined (pooled estimations). Pooled and single coherence of anterior, posterior, core, antagonist and mixed pairs of muscles were significant in the 0-5 Hz frequency band. The results indicate that core and antagonist muscle groups, such as the anterior and posterior muscles, share low-frequency neural inputs (0-5 Hz) which could be responsible of the M-modes assembly. The core muscles could therefore provide the necessary synergy to maintain spine stability during the balancing exercise. Finally, differences in EMG-EMG coherence suggest that the muscle synergies formed during unipedal stance tasks are different from those established during bipedal stance. PMID:26942928

  16. The Perceived Informational Value and Affective Consequences of Choice Behavior and Intermediate Difficulty Task Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Wulf-Uwe; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Four experiments are presented that examine the affective and the informational explanations of risk-preference behavior. Experiments I and II provide a phenomenological analysis of the affective and informational determinants of choice behavior while Experiments III and IV investigates at what level of difficulty individuals most desire…

  17. Categorization Method Affects the Typicality Effect: ERP Evidence from a Category-Inference Task

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Tao, Yun; Tempel, Tobias; Xu, Yuan; Li, Siqi; Tian, Yu; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The typicality effect during categorization describes a phenomenon whereby typical items are more easily judged as members of a category than atypical items. Prior studies of the typicality effect have often used an inclusion task, which asks participants to assess whether an item belongs to a category. However, the correct exclusion of non-members is also an important component of effective categorization, which has yet to be directly investigated. Thus, the present study investigated how categorization method (inclusion vs. exclusion) modulates the typicality effect via behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Thirty-two participants (16 in the inclusion and 16 in the exclusion group) were shown six consecutive words that all shared one feature. Then, a seventh word was presented. The inclusion group judged whether the seventh word also possessed the feature, whereas the exclusion group judged whether the word did not possess the feature. The seventh word could be typical, atypical, or a nonmember of the category. Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data were collected. Behavioral results showed that the two groups did not differ in accuracy. However, typical items elicited shorter response times than atypical items, and this effect was more pronounced in the inclusion than the exclusion group. With regard to ERPs, interactions between item type and group were shown for the P2, N2, and N400 periods. Within the inclusion group, a typicality effect (indicated by a main effect of item type) was present in the P2 and N400 time windows, while the exclusion group elicited a typicality effect only in the N2 time window. These results provide electrophysiological evidence that an inclusion judgment task is more sensitive to category typicality than is an exclusion task. PMID:26925011

  18. Does head-only exposure to GSM-900 electromagnetic fields affect the performance of rats in spatial learning tasks?

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, Diane; Jay, Thérèse; Edeline, Jean-Marc

    2002-02-01

    The rapid expansion of mobile communication has generated intense interest, but has also fuelled ongoing concerns. In both humans and animals, radiofrequency radiations are suspected to affect cognitive functions. More specifically, several studies performed in rodents have suggested that spatial learning can be impaired by electromagnetic field exposure. However, none of these previous studies have simulated the common conditions of GSM mobile phones use. This study is the first using a head-only exposure system emitting a 900-MHz GSM electromagnetic field (pulsed at 217 Hz). The two behavioural tasks that were evaluated here have been used previously to demonstrate performance deficits in spatial learning after electromagnetic field exposure: a classical radial maze elimination task and a spatial navigation task in an open-field arena (dry-land version of the Morris water maze). The performances of rats exposed for 45 min to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field (1 and 3.5 W/kg) were compared to those of sham-exposed and cage-control rats. There were no differences among exposed, sham, and cage-control rats in the two spatial learning tasks. The discussion focuses on the potential reasons that led previous studies to conclude that learning deficits do occur after electromagnetic field exposure. PMID:11809512

  19. Priming deficits in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type.

    PubMed

    Burke, J; Knight, R G; Partridge, F M

    1994-11-01

    In a study that replicated the procedures used by Salmon et al. (1988), the effect on stem completion performance of two different semantic orientation tasks has been assessed in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Previously reported findings of impairment in repetition priming in Alzheimer patients were confirmed. Performance was not affected by the nature of the orientation task. No significant correlations were found between explicit and implicit memory tests. The results are discussed in the context of a hypothesized parallel decline in explicit and implicit memory systems. PMID:7892366

  20. Effects of psychological priming, video, and music on anaerobic exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Loizou, G; Karageorghis, C I

    2015-12-01

    Peak performance videos accompanied by music can help athletes to optimize their pre-competition mindset and are often used. Priming techniques can be incorporated into such videos to influence athletes' motivational state. There has been limited empirical work investigating the combined effects of such stimuli on anaerobic performance. The present study examined the psychological and psychophysiological effects of video, music, and priming when used as a pre-performance intervention for an anaerobic endurance task. Psychological measures included the main axes of the circumplex model of affect and liking scores taken pre-task, and the Exercise-induced Feeling Inventory, which was administered post-task. Physiological measures comprised heart rate variability and heart rate recorded pre-task. Fifteen males (age = 26.3 ± 2.8 years) were exposed to four conditions prior to performing the Wingate Anaerobic Test: music-only, video and music, video with music and motivational primes, and a no-video/no-music control. Results indicate that the combined video, music, and primes condition was the most effective in terms of influencing participants' pre-task affect and subsequent anaerobic performance; this was followed by the music-only condition. The findings indicate the utility of such stimuli as a pre-performance technique to enhance athletes' or exercisers' psychological states. PMID:25556962

  1. Effects of Task-oriented Approach on Affected Arm Function in Children with Spastic Hemiplegia Due to Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chiang-Soon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of task-oriented approach on motor function of the affected arm in children with spastic hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy. [Subjects] Twelve children were recruited by convenience sampling from 2 local rehabilitation centers. The present study utilized a one-group pretest-posttest design. All of children received task-oriented training for 6 weeks (40 min/day, 5 days/week) and also underwent regular occupational therapy. Three clinical tests, Box and Block Test (BBT), Manual Ability Measure (MAM-16), and Wee Functional Independence Measure (WeeFIM) were performed 1 day before and after training to evaluate the effects of the training. [Results] Compared with the pretest scores, there was a significant increase in the BBT, MAM-16, and WeeFIM scores of the children after the 6-week practice period. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that a task-oriented approach to treatment of the affected arm improves functional activities, such as manual dexterity and fine motor performance, as well as basic daily activities of patients with spastic hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy. PMID:25013269

  2. Effects of Task-oriented Approach on Affected Arm Function in Children with Spastic Hemiplegia Due to Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Song, Chiang-Soon

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of task-oriented approach on motor function of the affected arm in children with spastic hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy. [Subjects] Twelve children were recruited by convenience sampling from 2 local rehabilitation centers. The present study utilized a one-group pretest-posttest design. All of children received task-oriented training for 6 weeks (40 min/day, 5 days/week) and also underwent regular occupational therapy. Three clinical tests, Box and Block Test (BBT), Manual Ability Measure (MAM-16), and Wee Functional Independence Measure (WeeFIM) were performed 1 day before and after training to evaluate the effects of the training. [Results] Compared with the pretest scores, there was a significant increase in the BBT, MAM-16, and WeeFIM scores of the children after the 6-week practice period. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that a task-oriented approach to treatment of the affected arm improves functional activities, such as manual dexterity and fine motor performance, as well as basic daily activities of patients with spastic hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy. PMID:25013269

  3. Phonological and Orthographic Overlap Effects in Fast and Masked Priming

    PubMed Central

    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50ms in the fast priming version, and 50ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap), and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065

  4. Phonological and orthographic overlap effects in fast and masked priming.

    PubMed

    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single-word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50 ms in the fast priming version and 50 ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap) and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065

  5. Task-specific kinetic finger tremor affects the performance of carrom players.

    PubMed

    Kahathuduwa, Chanaka N; Weerasinghe, Vajira S; Dassanayake, Tharaka L; Priyadarshana, Rajeewa; Dissanayake, Arunika L; Perera, Christine

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of task-specific kinetic finger tremor, as indexed by surface electromyography (EMG), on the accuracy of a carrom stroke. Surface EMG of extensor digitorum communis muscle of the playing arm was recorded during rest, isometric contraction and stroke execution in 17 male carrom players with clinically observed finger tremor and 18 skill- and age-matched controls. Log-transformed power spectral densities (LogPSDs) of surface EMG activity (signifying tremor severity) at a 1-s pre-execution period correlated with angular error of the stroke. LogPSDs in 4-10 Hz range were higher in players with tremor than controls during pre-execution (P < 0.001), but not during the resting state (P = 0.067). Pre-execution tremor amplitude correlated with angular deviation (r = 0.45, P = 0.007). For the first time, we document a task-specific kinetic finger tremor in carrom players. This finger tremor during the immediate pre-execution phase appears to be a significant determinant of stroke accuracy. PMID:26280452

  6. Inhibition of Return and Negative Priming by Persons with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dekirk, Mark; Merrill, Edward C.

    2006-01-01

    Persons with and without mental retardation who were matched on CA took part in three tasks: an inhibition of return task, a location negative-priming task, and an identity negative-priming task. Having participants perform all three tasks allowed us to correlate performance among the tasks and assess the various relationships among performance…

  7. Numeracy moderates the influence of task-irrelevant affect on probability weighting.

    PubMed

    Traczyk, Jakub; Fulawka, Kamil

    2016-06-01

    Statistical numeracy, defined as the ability to understand and process statistical and probability information, plays a significant role in superior decision making. However, recent research has demonstrated that statistical numeracy goes beyond simple comprehension of numbers and mathematical operations. On the contrary to previous studies that were focused on emotions integral to risky prospects, we hypothesized that highly numerate individuals would exhibit more linear probability weighting because they would be less biased by incidental and decision-irrelevant affect. Participants were instructed to make a series of insurance decisions preceded by negative (i.e., fear-inducing) or neutral stimuli. We found that incidental negative affect increased the curvature of the probability weighting function (PWF). Interestingly, this effect was significant only for less numerate individuals, while probability weighting in more numerate people was not altered by decision-irrelevant affect. We propose two candidate mechanisms for the observed effect. PMID:26968007

  8. Priming Addition Facts with Semantic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F.; Oskarsson, An T.

    2008-01-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations…

  9. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  10. Morphological Priming Effects on Children's Spelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Joao Manuel; Nunes, Terezinha

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that children in the early grades of primary school do not have much awareness of morphemes. In this study, a priming paradigm was used to try to detect early signs of morphological representation of stems through a spelling task presented to Portuguese children (N = 805; age range 6-9 years). Primes shared the stem…

  11. Priming states of mind can affect disclosure of threatening self-information: Effects of self-affirmation, mortality salience, and attachment orientations.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah; Soref, Assaf; Villalobos, J Guillermo; Mikulincer, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Interviewers often face respondents reluctant to disclose sensitive, embarrassing or potentially damaging information. We explored effects of priming 5 states of mind on willingness to disclose: including 2 expected to facilitate disclosure (self-affirmation, attachment security), and 3 expected to inhibit disclosure (self-disaffirmation, attachment insecurity, mortality salience). Israeli Jewish participants completed a survey including a manipulation of 1 of these states of mind, followed by questions concerning hostile thoughts and behaviors toward the Israeli Arab outgroup, past minor criminal behaviors, and socially undesirable traits and behaviors. Self-affirmation led to more disclosures of all undesirable behaviors than neutral priming, whereas self-disaffirmation led to less disclosures. Mortality salience led to fewer disclosures of socially undesirable and criminal behaviors compared to neutral priming, but more disclosures of hostile thoughts and behaviors toward Israeli Arabs. Security priming facilitated disclosure of hostile attitudes toward Israeli Arabs. However, neither security nor insecurity priming had any other significant effects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26914858

  12. Attention and Implicit Memory in the Category-Verification and Lexical Decision Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Prior research on implicit memory appeared to support 3 generalizations: Conceptual tests are affected by divided attention, perceptual tasks are affected by certain divided-attention manipulations, and all types of priming are affected by selective attention. These generalizations are challenged in experiments using the implicit tests of category…

  13. Human factors with nonhumans - Factors that affect computer-task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two general strategies that may be employed for 'doing human factors research with nonhuman animals'. First, one may use the methods of traditional human factors investigations to examine the nonhuman animal-to-machine interface. Alternatively, one might use performance by nonhuman animals as a surrogate for or model of performance by a human operator. Each of these approaches is illustrated with data in the present review. Chronic ambient noise was found to have a significant but inconsequential effect on computer-task performance by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Additional data supported the generality of findings such as these to humans, showing that rhesus monkeys are appropriate models of human psychomotor performance. It is argued that ultimately the interface between comparative psychology and technology will depend on the coordinated use of both strategies of investigation.

  14. Differences in cortical activity between methamphetamine-dependent and healthy individuals performing a facial affect matching task.

    PubMed

    Payer, Doris E; Lieberman, Matthew D; Monterosso, John R; Xu, Jiansong; Fong, Timothy W; London, Edythe D

    2008-01-11

    As individuals who abuse methamphetamine (MA) often exhibit socially maladaptive behaviors such as violence and aggression, it is possible that they respond abnormally to social cues. To investigate this issue, we exposed 12 MA-dependent participants (abstinent 5-16 days) and 12 healthy comparison participants to fearful and angry faces while they performed an affect matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Although the groups did not differ in task performance, the healthy participants showed more task-related activity than the MA-dependent participants in a set of cortical regions consisting of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), temporoparietal junction (TPJ), anterior and posterior temporal cortex, and fusiform gyrus in the right hemisphere, and the cuneus in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the MA-dependent participants showed more task-related activity than the healthy participants in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). As expected, the task elicited activation of the amygdala in both groups; however, contrary to expectation, we found no difference between groups in this activation. Dorsal ACC hyperactivity, along with high self-ratings of hostility and interpersonal sensitivity in the MA-dependent group, suggest a hyper-sensitivity to socially threatening cues in the MA-dependent participants, while lower VLPFC activation could point to a deficit in integrating socio-emotional information and/or regulating this limbic hyperactivity. Additional activation differences in neural circuitry related to social cognition (TPJ, anterior, and posterior temporal cortex) suggest further socio-emotional deficits. Together, the results point to cortical abnormalities that could underlie the socially inappropriate behaviors often shown by individuals who abuse MA. PMID:17964741

  15. In vivo measurements of limbic glutamate and GABA concentrations in epileptic patients during affective and cognitive tasks: A microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Robert J; Gjini, Klevest; Modur, Pradeep; Meier, Kevin T; Nadasdy, Zoltan; Robinson, Jennifer L

    2016-05-01

    Limbic system structures such as the amygdala (AMG) and the hippocampus (HIPP) are involved in affective and cognitive processing. However, because of the limitations in noninvasive technology, absolute concentrations of the neurotransmitters underlying limbic system engagement are not known. Here, we report changes in the concentrations of the neurotransmitters glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the HIPP and the AMG of patients with nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy undergoing surgery for intracranial subdural and depth electrode implantation. We utilized an in-vivo microdialysis technique while subjects were engaged in cognitive tasks with or without emotional content. The performance of an emotion learning task (EmoLearn) was associated with a significant increase in the concentration of glutamate in the HIPP when images with high valence content were processed, as compared to its concentration while processing images with low valence. In addition, significantly decreased levels of glutamate were found in the AMG when images with predominantly low valence content were processed, as compared to its concentration at baseline. The processing of face stimuli with anger/fear content (FaceMatch task) was accompanied with significantly decreased concentrations of GABA in the AMG and HIPP compared to its levels at the baseline. The processing of shapes on the other hand was accompanied with a significantly decreased concentration of the glutamate in the AMG as well as in the HIPP compared to the baseline. Finally, the performance of a nondeclarative memory task (weather prediction task-WPT) was associated with relatively large and opposite changes in the GABA levels compared to the baseline in the AMG (decrease) and the HIPP (increase). These data are relevant for showing an involvement of the amygdala and the hippocampus in emotional processing and provide additional neurochemical clues towards a more refined model of the functional circuitry of the

  16. Relationship between Defenses, Personality, and Affect during a Stress Task in Normal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Hans; Erickson, Sarah J.; MacLean, Peggy; Medic, Sanja; Plattner, Belinda; Koopman, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although there are extensive data on the relationship between personality and stress reactivity in adults, there is little comparable empirical research with adolescents. This study examines the simultaneous relationships between long term functioning (personality, defenses) and observed stress reactivity (affect) in adolescents.…

  17. Spatiotemporal Object History Affects the Selection of Task-Relevant Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreij, Daniel; Olivers, Christian N. L.

    2013-01-01

    For stable perception, we maintain mental representations of objects across space and time. What information is linked to such a representation? In this study, we extended our work showing that the spatiotemporal history of an object affects the way the object is attended the next time it is encountered. Observers conducted a visual search for a…

  18. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am), after 12 hours (7-9 pm) and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day). The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. Results: The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. Conclusion: The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in motor responses

  19. Repetition priming in selective attention: A TVA analysis.

    PubMed

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-09-01

    Current behavior is influenced by events in the recent past. In visual attention, this is expressed in many variations of priming effects. Here, we investigate color priming in a brief exposure digit-recognition task. Observers performed a masked odd-one-out singleton recognition task where the target-color either repeated or changed between subsequent trials. Performance was measured by recognition accuracy over exposure durations. The purpose of the study was to replicate earlier findings of perceptual priming in brief displays and to model those results based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990). We tested 4 different definitions of a generic TVA-model and assessed their explanatory power. Our hypothesis was that priming effects could be explained by selective mechanisms, and that target-color repetitions would only affect the selectivity parameter (α) of our models. Repeating target colors enhanced performance for all 12 observers. As predicted, this was only true under conditions that required selection of a target among distractors, but not when a target was presented alone. Model fits by TVA were obtained with a trial-by-trial maximum likelihood estimation procedure that estimated 4-15 free parameters, depending on the particular model. We draw two main conclusions. Color priming can be modeled simply as a change in selectivity between conditions of repetition or swap of target color. Depending on the desired resolution of analysis; priming can accurately be modeled by a simple four parameter model, where VSTM capacity and spatial biases of attention are ignored, or more fine-grained by a 10 parameter model that takes these aspects into account. PMID:26163225

  20. Hand proximity differentially affects visual working memory for color and orientation in a binding task.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Shane P; Brockmole, James R

    2014-01-01

    Observers determined whether two sequentially presented arrays of six lines were the same or different. Differences, when present, involved either a swap in the color of two lines or a swap in the orientation of two lines. Thus, accurate change detection required the binding of color and orientation information for each line within visual working memory. Holding viewing distance constant, the proximity of the arrays to the hands was manipulated. Placing the hands near the to-be-remembered array decreased participants' ability to remember color information, but increased their ability to remember orientation information. This pair of results indicates that hand proximity differentially affects the processing of various types of visual information, a conclusion broadly consistent with functional and anatomical differences in the magnocellular and parvocellular pathways. It further indicates that hand proximity affects the likelihood that various object features will be encoded into integrated object files. PMID:24795671

  1. Handle Shape Affects the Grip Force Distribution and the Muscle Loadings During Power Grip Tasks.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Jérémy; Goislard De Monsabert, Benjamin; Berton, Eric; Vigouroux, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of handle shape on the grip force distribution in the hand and on the muscle forces during maximal power grip tasks. Eleven subjects maximally grasped 3 handles with different external shapes (circular, elliptic, and double-frustum). A handle dynamometer, equipped with both a force sensor and a pressure map, was used to record the forces exerted at the hand/handle interface. The finger and wrist joint postures were also computed from synchronized kinematic measurement. These processed data were then used as input of a biomechanical hand model to estimate muscle forces. The results showed that handle shape influences the maximal grip force, the grip force distribution, and the finger joint postures. Particularly, we observed that the elliptical shape resulted in a 6.6% lower maximal grip force compared with the circular and double-frustum handle. Concomitantly, the estimated muscle forces also varied significantly according to the handle shape, with up to 48% differences for the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle for example. Interestingly, different muscle coordination strategies were observed depending on the handle shape, therefore suggesting a potential influence of these geometrical characteristics on pathological risks such as tendonitis. PMID:26214057

  2. Functional Correlates of childhood maltreatment and symptom severity during affective theory of mind tasks in chronic depression.

    PubMed

    Hentze, Charlotte; Walter, Henrik; Schramm, Elisabeth; Drost, Sarah; Schoepf, Dieter; Fangmeier, Thomas; Mattern, Margarete; Normann, Claus; Zobel, Ingo; Schnell, Knut

    2016-04-30

    Among multiple etiological factors of depressive disorders, childhood maltreatment (CM) gains increasing attention as it confers susceptibility for depression and predisposes to chronicity. CM assumedly inhibits social-cognitive development, entailing interactional problems as observed in chronic depression (CD), especially in affective theory of mind (ToM). However, the extent of CM among CD patients varies notably as does the severity of depressive symptoms. We tested whether the extent of CM or depressive symptoms correlates with affective ToM functions in CD patients. Regional brain activation measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging during an affective ToM task was tested for correlation with CM, assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and symptom severity, assessed by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), in 25 unmedicated CD patients (mean age 41.52, SD 11.13). Amygdala activation during affective ToM correlated positively with CTQ total scores, while (para)hippocampal response correlated negatively with MADRS scores. Our findings suggest that differential amygdala activation in affective ToM in CD is substantially modulated by previous CM and not by the pathophysiological equivalents of current depressive symptoms. This illustrates the amygdala's role in the mediation of CM effects. The negative correlation of differential (para)hippocampal activation and depressive symptom severity indicates reduced integration of interactional experiences during depressive states. PMID:27107154

  3. The temporal dynamics of visual object priming

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Philip C.; Duda, Bryant; Hussey, Erin P.; Mason, Emily J.; Ally, Brandon A.

    2014-01-01

    Priming reflects an important means of learning that is mediated by implicit memory. Importantly, priming occurs for previously viewed objects (item-specific priming) and their category relatives (category-wide priming). Two distinct neural mechanisms are known to mediate priming, including the sharpening of a neural object representation and the retrieval of stimulus-response mappings. Here, we investigated whether the relationship between these neural mechanisms could help explain why item-specific priming generates faster responses than category-wide priming. Participants studied pictures of everyday objects, and then performed a difficult picture identification task while we recorded event-related potentials (ERP). The identification task gradually revealed random line segments of previously viewed items (Studied), category exemplars of previously viewed items (Exemplar), and items that were not previously viewed (Unstudied). Studied items were identified sooner than Unstudied items, showing evidence of item-specific priming, and importantly Exemplar items were also identified sooner than Unstudied items, showing evidence of category-wide priming. Early activity showed sustained neural suppression of parietal activity for both types of priming. However, these neural suppression effects may have stemmed from distinct processes because while category-wide neural suppression was correlated with priming behavior, item-specific neural suppression was not. Late activity, examined with response-locked ERPs, showed additional processes related to item-specific priming including neural suppression in occipital areas and parietal activity that was correlated with behavior. Together, we conclude that item-specific and category-wide priming are mediated by separate, parallel neural mechanisms in the context of the current paradigm. Temporal differences in behavior are determined by the timecourses of these distinct processes. PMID:25164991

  4. Arm dominance affects feedforward strategy more than feedback sensitivity during a postural task.

    PubMed

    Walker, Elise H E; Perreault, Eric J

    2015-07-01

    Handedness is a feature of human motor control that is still not fully understood. Recent work has demonstrated that the dominant and nondominant arm each excel at different behaviors and has proposed that this behavioral asymmetry arises from lateralization in the cerebral cortex: the dominant side specializes in predictive trajectory control, while the nondominant side is specialized for impedance control. Long-latency stretch reflexes are an automatic mechanism for regulating posture and have been shown to contribute to limb impedance. To determine whether long-latency reflexes also contribute to asymmetric motor behavior in the upper limbs, we investigated the effect of arm dominance on stretch reflexes during a postural task that required varying degrees of impedance control. Our results demonstrated slightly but significantly larger reflex responses in the biarticular muscles of the nondominant arm, as would be consistent with increased impedance control. These differences were attributed solely to higher levels of voluntary background activity in the nondominant biarticular muscles, indicating that feedforward strategies for postural stability may differ between arms. Reflex sensitivity, which was defined as the magnitude of the reflex response for matched levels of background activity, was not significantly different between arms for a broad subject population ranging from 23 to 51 years of age. These results indicate that inter-arm differences in feedforward strategies are more influential during posture than differences in feedback sensitivity, in a broad subject population. Interestingly, restricting our analysis to subjects under 40 years of age revealed a small increase in long-latency reflex sensitivity in the nondominant arm relative to the dominant arm. Though our subject numbers were small for this secondary analysis, it suggests that further studies may be required to assess the influence of reflex lateralization throughout development. PMID

  5. Arm Dominance Affects Feedforward Strategy more than Feedback Sensitivity during a Postural Task

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Elise H. E.; Perreault, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Handedness is a feature of human motor control that is still not fully understood. Recent work has demonstrated that the dominant and nondominant arm each excel at different behaviors, and has proposed that this behavioral asymmetry arises from lateralization in the cerebral cortex: the dominant side specializes in predictive trajectory control, while the nondominant side is specialized for impedance control. Long-latency stretch reflexes are an automatic mechanism for regulating posture, and have been shown to contribute to limb impedance. To determine whether long-latency reflexes also contribute to asymmetric motor behavior in the upper limbs, we investigated the effect of arm dominance on stretch reflexes during a postural task that required varying degrees of impedance control. Our results demonstrated slightly but significantly larger reflex responses in the biarticular muscles of the nondominant arm, as would be consistent with increased impedance control. These differences were attributed solely to higher levels of voluntary background activity in the nondominant biarticular muscles, indicating that feedforward strategies for postural stability may differ between arms. Reflex sensitivity, which was defined as the magnitude of the reflex response for matched levels of background activity, was not significantly different between arms for a broad subject population ranging from 23–51 years of age. These results indicate that inter-arm differences in feedforward strategies are more influential during posture than differences in feedback sensitivity, in a broad subject population. Interestingly, restricting our analysis to subjects under 40 years of age revealed a small increase in long-latency reflex sensitivity in the nondominant arm relative to the dominant arm. Though our subject numbers were small for this secondary analysis, it suggests that further studies may be required to assess the influence of reflex lateralization throughout development. PMID

  6. Task-Oriented and Bottle Feeding Adversely Affect the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions Following Abnormal Newborn Screens

    PubMed Central

    Tluczek, Audrey; Clark, Roseanne; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Orland, Kate Murphy; Brown, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Examine effects of newborn screening (NBS) and neonatal diagnosis on the quality of mother-infant interactions in the context of feeding. Methods Study compared the quality of mother-infant feeding interactions among four groups of infants classified by severity of NBS and diagnostic results: cystic fibrosis (CF), congenital hypothyroidism, heterozygote CF carrier, and healthy with normal NBS. The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment and a task-oriented item measured the quality of feeding interactions for 130 dyads, infant ages 3–19 weeks (M=9.19, SD=3.28). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measured maternal depression and anxiety. Results Composite Indicator Structure Equation Modeling showed that infant diagnostic status and, to a lesser extent, maternal education predicted feeding method. Mothers of infants with CF were most likely to bottle feed, which was associated with more task-oriented maternal behavior than breastfeeding. Mothers with low task-oriented behavior showed more sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues, as well as less negative affect and behavior in their interactions with their infants than mothers with high task-oriented scores. Mothers of infants with CF were significantly more likely to have clinically significant anxiety and depression than the other groups. However, maternal psychological profile did not predict feeding method or interaction quality. Conclusions Mothers in the CF group were the least likely to breastfeed. Research is needed to explicate long-term effects of feeding methods on quality of mother-child relationship and ways to promote continued breastfeeding following a neonatal CF diagnosis. PMID:20495477

  7. The dual task-cost of standing balance affects quality of life in mildly disabled MS people.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Letizia; De Luca, Francesca; Marchetti, Maria Rita; Sellitto, Giovanni; Fanelli, Fulvia; Prosperini, Luca

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the correlations between the dual-task cost (DTC) of standing balance and quality of life (QoL) in mildly disabled patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this cross-sectional study, patients affected by MS with an expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score of 3.0 or less and without an overt balance impairment were tested by means of static posturography under eyes-opened (single-task condition) and while performing the Stroop word-color test (dual-task condition), to estimate the DTC of standing balance. The self-reported 54-item MS quality of life questionnaire (MSQoL-54) was also administered to obtain a MS-specific assessment of health-related QoL. Among the 120 screened patients, 75 (53 women, 22 men) were tested. Although there was no impact of the DTC of standing balance on the physical and mental composite scores of MSQoL-54, patients who had a greater DTC of standing balance scored worse on role limitations due to physical problems (p = 0.007) and social function (p < 0.001), irrespective of demographic and other clinical characteristics including walking performance and cognitive status. However, the EDSS step and fatigue also contributed to reduced scores in these two QoL domains (p-values < 0.01). In conclusion, the phenomenon of cognitive-motor interference, investigated as DTC of standing balance, may affect specific QoL domains even in mildly disabled patients with MS and in the absence of an overt balance dysfunction. PMID:26728268

  8. How Explicit and Implicit Test Instructions in an Implicit Learning Task Affect Performance

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Arnaud; Puspitawati, Ira; Vinter, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Typically developing children aged 5 to 8 years were exposed to artificial grammar learning. Following an implicit exposure phase, half of the participants received neutral instructions at test while the other half received instructions making a direct, explicit reference to the training phase. We first aimed to assess whether implicit learning operated in the two test conditions. We then evaluated the differential impact of age on learning performances as a function of test instructions. The results showed that performance did not vary as a function of age in the implicit instructions condition, while age effects emerged when explicit instructions were employed at test. However, performance was affected differently by age and the instructions given at test, depending on whether the implicit learning of short or long units was assessed. These results suggest that the claim that the implicit learning process is independent of age needs to be revised. PMID:23326409

  9. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems. PMID:25784574

  10. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  11. Masked Translation Priming with Semantic Categorization: Testing the Sense Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xin; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments are reported which were designed to test hypotheses concerning the asymmetry of masked translation priming. Experiment 1 confirmed the presence of L2-L1 priming with a semantic categorization task and demonstrated that this effect was restricted to exemplars. Experiment 2 showed that the translation priming effect was not due to…

  12. Repetition Priming and Repetition Suppression: A Case for Enhanced Efficiency Through Neural Synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Chow, Carson C.; Martin, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus repetition in identification tasks leads to improved behavioral performance ("repetition priming") but attenuated neural responses ("repetition suppression") throughout task-engaged cortical regions. While it's clear that this pervasive brain-behavior relationship reflects some form of improved processing efficiency, the exact form that it takes remains elusive. In this Discussion Paper, we review four different theoretical proposals that have the potential to link repetition suppression and priming, with a particular focus on a proposal that stimulus repetition affects improved efficiency through enhanced neural synchronization. We argue that despite exciting recent work on the role of neural synchronization in cognitive processes such as attention and perception, similar studies in the domain of learning and memory - and priming, in particular - have been lacking. We emphasize the need for new studies with adequate spatiotemporal resolution, formulate several novel predictions, and discuss our ongoing efforts to disentangle the current proposals. PMID:23144664

  13. Unconscious congruency priming from unpracticed words is modulated by prime-target semantic relatedness.

    PubMed

    Ortells, Juan J; Marí-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllón, Vanesa

    2013-03-01

    Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility were used in all experiments. On 80% of the trials the primes and targets belonged to different categories (incongruent trials), whereas in the remaining 20% (congruent trials) they could be either strong or weak semantically related category members. Positive congruency effects (reaction times faster on congruent than on incongruent trials) were consistently found, but only when the mask immediately followed the primes, and participants reported being unaware of the identity of the primes. Primes followed by a delayed mask (such that participants reported being aware of their identity) produced either nonreliable facilitation or reliable reversed priming (strategic), depending on whether the prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony was either short (200 ms; Experiments 1 and 4) or long (1,000 ms; Experiment 4). Facilitatory priming with immediate mask was found strong (a) even for participants who performed at chance in prime visibility tests; and (b) for high but not for weakly semantically related category coordinates, irrespective of category size (animals, body parts). These findings provide evidence that unconscious congruency priming by unpracticed words from large stimulus sets critically depends on associative strength and/or semantic similarity between category coexemplars. PMID:22686850

  14. Repetition priming of nonwords in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Light, L L; La Voie, D; Kennison, R

    1995-03-01

    In 3 experiments, a pronunciation task was used to examine repetition priming of novel nonwords in young and older adults. The contributions of item and associative priming to the total repetition priming effect were assessed. In Experiment 1, age consistency was found in both components of repetition priming after 9 repetitions of nonwords. Experiment 2 established that young and older adults were similar in item and associative priming after as few as 2 repetitions of nonwords. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that associative priming persists for at least 3 min and that it is dissociable from cued recall. The overall pattern of results strongly argues that elaborative processing is not necessary to obtain associative priming in indirect memory tasks and that young and older adults show similar magnitudes of associative priming. PMID:7738504

  15. Gait in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Is gait pattern differently affected in spinal and bulbar onset of the disease during dual task walking?

    PubMed

    Radovanović, Sasa; Milićev, Milena; Perić, Stojan; Basta, Ivana; Kostić, Vladimir; Stević, Zorica

    2014-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by weakness, fatigue, loss of balance and coordination. The purpose of the study was to examine gait in ALS patients. Gait was compared in ALS with spinal and bulbar onset, while performing dual mental and motor tasks. Dual-task walking was performed by 27 ALS patients, 13 with spinal- and 14 with bulbar-onset disease. Twenty-nine healthy subjects were used as a control group. The subjects performed a basic, simple walking task, dual-motor task, dual-mental task, and combined motor and mental tasks. Results showed that dual-task paradigm has an effect on gait in ALS patients. Gait was differently affected in spinal and bulbar onset of ALS by some of the given tasks. Mental tasks had a larger effect than motor tasks in all gait parameters. In conclusion, both ALS forms have impaired gait in dual tasks. Simple walk in patients with spinal onset shows higher variability of certain gait parameters compared to bulbar-onset patients and controls. Differences in gait could also indicate postural instability and possible falls in complex walking situations. PMID:24918304

  16. Evaluative priming reveals dissociable effects of cognitive versus physiological anxiety on action monitoring.

    PubMed

    De Saedeleer, Lien; Pourtois, Gilles

    2016-06-01

    Performance monitoring enables the rapid detection of mismatches between goals or intentions and actions, as well as subsequent behavioral adjustment by means of enhanced attention control. These processes are not encapsulated, but they are readily influenced by affective or motivational variables, including negative affect. Here we tested the prediction that worry, the cognitive component of anxiety, and arousal, its physiological counterpart, can each influence specific processes during performance monitoring. In 2 experiments, participants were asked to discriminate the valence of emotional words that were preceded by either correct (good) or incorrect (bad) actions, serving as primes in a standard evaluative priming procedure. In Experiment 1 (n = 36) we examined the influence of trait worry and arousal. Additionally, we included a face priming task to examine the specificity of this effect. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that increased worry, but not arousal, weakened the evaluative priming effect and therefore the rapid and automatic processing of actions as good or bad. By contrast, arousal, but not worry, increased posterror slowing. In Experiment 2 (n = 30) state worry was induced using an anagram task. Effects of worry on action monitoring were trait but not state dependent, and only evidenced when actions were directly used as primes. These results suggest a double dissociation between worry and arousal during performance monitoring. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26709858

  17. Schoolbook Texts: Behavioral Achievement Priming in Math and Language

    PubMed Central

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola; Baum, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Prior research found reliable and considerably strong effects of semantic achievement primes on subsequent performance. In order to simulate a more natural priming condition to better understand the practical relevance of semantic achievement priming effects, running texts of schoolbook excerpts with and without achievement primes were used as priming stimuli. Additionally, we manipulated the achievement context; some subjects received no feedback about their achievement and others received feedback according to a social or individual reference norm. As expected, we found a reliable (albeit small) positive behavioral priming effect of semantic achievement primes on achievement in math (Experiment 1) and language tasks (Experiment 2). Feedback moderated the behavioral priming effect less consistently than we expected. The implication that achievement primes in schoolbooks can foster performance is discussed along with general theoretical implications. PMID:26938446

  18. What determines the direction of subliminal priming

    PubMed Central

    Jaśkowski, Piotr; Verleger, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Masked stimuli (primes) can affect the preparation of a motor response to subsequently presented target stimuli. Reactions to the target can be facilitated (straight priming) or inhibited (inverse priming) when preceded by a compatible prime (calling for the same response) and also when preceded by an incompatible prime. Several hypotheses are currently under debate. These are the self-inhibition (SI) hypothesis, the object-updating (OU) hypothesis, and mask-triggered inhibition (MTI) hypothesis. All assume that the initial activation of the motor response is elicited by the prime according to its identity. This activation inevitably leads to straight priming in some cases and the mechanisms involved are undisputed. The hypotheses differ, however, as to why inverse priming occurs. The self-inhibition (SI) hypothesis assumes that the motor activation elicited by a prime is automatically followed by an inhibition phase, leading to inverse priming if three conditions are fulfilled: perceptual evidence for the prime has to be sufficiently strong, it has to be immediately removed by the mask, and the delay between the prime and target has to be long enough for inhibition to become effective. The object-updating (OU) hypothesis assumes that inverse priming is triggered by the mask, provided that it contains features calling for the alternative response (i.e. the one contrasting with the response induced by the prime). The MTI hypothesis assumes that the inhibitory phase is triggered by each successive stimulus which does not support the perceptual hypothesis provided by the prime. Based mostly on our own experiments, we argue that (1) attempts to manipulate the three factors required by the SI hypothesis imply changes of other variables and that (2) indeed, other variables seem to affect priming: prime-mask perceptual interaction and temporal position of the mask. These observations are in favor of the MTI hypothesis. A limiting factor for all three hypotheses is that

  19. What determines the direction of subliminal priming.

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, Piotr; Verleger, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Masked stimuli (primes) can affect the preparation of a motor response to subsequently presented target stimuli. Reactions to the target can be facilitated (straight priming) or inhibited (inverse priming) when preceded by a compatible prime (calling for the same response) and also when preceded by an incompatible prime. Several hypotheses are currently under debate. These are the self-inhibition (SI) hypothesis, the object-updating (OU) hypothesis, and mask-triggered inhibition (MTI) hypothesis. All assume that the initial activation of the motor response is elicited by the prime according to its identity. This activation inevitably leads to straight priming in some cases and the mechanisms involved are undisputed. The hypotheses differ, however, as to why inverse priming occurs. The self-inhibition (SI) hypothesis assumes that the motor activation elicited by a prime is automatically followed by an inhibition phase, leading to inverse priming if three conditions are fulfilled: perceptual evidence for the prime has to be sufficiently strong, it has to be immediately removed by the mask, and the delay between the prime and target has to be long enough for inhibition to become effective. The object-updating (OU) hypothesis assumes that inverse priming is triggered by the mask, provided that it contains features calling for the alternative response (i.e. the one contrasting with the response induced by the prime). The MTI hypothesis assumes that the inhibitory phase is triggered by each successive stimulus which does not support the perceptual hypothesis provided by the prime. Based mostly on our own experiments, we argue that (1) attempts to manipulate the three factors required by the SI hypothesis imply changes of other variables and that (2) indeed, other variables seem to affect priming: prime-mask perceptual interaction and temporal position of the mask. These observations are in favor of the MTI hypothesis. A limiting factor for all three hypotheses is that

  20. Perceptual learning can reverse subliminal priming effects.

    PubMed

    Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaśkowski, Piotr

    2007-05-01

    Masked primes presented prior to a target can result in inverse priming (i.e., benefits on trials in which the prime and the target are mapped onto opposite responses). In five experiments, time-of-task effects on subliminal priming of motor responses were investigated. First, we replicated Klapp and Hinkley's (2002) finding that the priming effect is initially straight (i.e., it benefits congruent trials, in which the prime and targets are mapped onto the same response) or absent, and only later reverses (i.e., faster responses in incongruent than in congruent trials). We show that the presentation of the mask plays a crucial role in this reversal and that the reversal occurs later if the mask pattern is very complex. We suggest that perceptual learning improves the recognition of task-relevant features. Once recognized, these features can trigger the preparation of the alternative response and/or inhibit the prime-activated response. These findings support an active role of the mask in priming. PMID:17727109

  1. Priming by the variability of visual information

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Elizabeth; de Gardelle, Vincent; Summerfield, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    According to recent theories, perception relies on summary representations that encode statistical information about the sensory environment. Here, we used perceptual priming to characterize the representations that mediate categorization of a complex visual array. Observers judged the average shape or color of a target visual array that was preceded by an irrelevant prime array. Manipulating the variability of task-relevant and task-irrelevant feature information in the prime and target orthogonally, we found that observers were faster to respond when the variability of feature information in the prime and target arrays matched. Critically, this effect occurred irrespective of whether the element-by-element features in the prime and target array overlapped or not, and was even present when prime and target features were drawn from opposing categories. This “priming by variance” phenomenon occurred with prime–target intervals as short as 100 ms. Further experiments showed that this effect did not depend on resource allocation, and occurred even when prime and target did not share the same spatial location. These results suggest that human observers adapt to the variability of visual information, and provide evidence for the existence of a low-level mechanism by which the range or dispersion of visual information is rapidly extracted. This information may in turn help to set the gain of neuronal processing during perceptual choice. PMID:24821803

  2. Problems with Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melrose, Tim; Scott, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses prime numbers, defined as integers greater than 1 that are divisible only by only themselves and the number 1. A positive integer greater than 1 that is not a prime is called composite. The number 1 itself is considered neither prime nor composite. As the name suggests, prime numbers are one of the most basic but important…

  3. Learning about Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachran, Alec

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author relates his unhappy experience in learning about prime numbers at secondary school. To introduce primes, a teacher first told students a definition of a prime number, then students were taught how to find prime numbers. Students defined and listed them and at some later point were tested on their memory of both the…

  4. Contrasting Effects of Phonological Priming in Aphasic Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilshire, Carolyn E.; Saffran, Eleanor M.

    2005-01-01

    Two fluent aphasics, IG and GL, performed a phonological priming task in which they repeated an auditory prime then named a target picture. The two patients both had selective deficits in word production: they were at or near ceiling on lexical comprehension tasks, but were significantly impaired in picture naming. IG's naming errors included both…

  5. Phonological and Semantic Priming in Children with Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Keenan, Janice M.

    2008-01-01

    Lexical priming was assessed in children with reading disability (RD) and in age-matched controls (M= 11.5 years), in visual and auditory lexical decision tasks. In the visual task, children with RD were found to have deficits in semantic (SHIP-BOAT), phonological/graphemic (GOAT-BOAT), and combined (FLOAT-BOAT) priming. The same pattern of…

  6. Cross-language positive priming disappears, negative priming does not: evidence for two sources of selective inhibition.

    PubMed

    Neumann, E; McCloskey, M S; Felio, A C

    1999-11-01

    The authors used a unilingual and bilingual primed lexical decision task to investigate priming effects produced by attended and ignored words. In the unilingual experiment, accelerated lexical decisions to probe target words resulted when the word matched the preceding target word, whereas slowed lexical decisions to probe target words resulted when the word matched the preceding ignored nontarget word. In the bilingual (English-Spanish) experiment, between-language, rather than within-language, priming manipulations were used. Although the ignored repetition negative priming effect replicated across languages, cross-language attended repetition positive priming did not. This dissociation of priming effects in the inter- versus intralanguage priming conditions contradicts episodic retrieval accounts of negative priming that deny the existence of selective inhibitory processes. On the other hand, these results support an extension of inhibition-based accounts of negative priming, because they indicate that inhibition can operate at two levels of abstraction--local word and global language--simultaneously. PMID:10586580

  7. Attentional Control and Asymmetric Associative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Keith A.; Heap, Shelly J.; Neely, James H.; Thomas, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Participants completed a battery of 3 attentional control (AC) tasks (OSPAN, antisaccade, and Stroop, as in Hutchison, 2007) and performed a lexical decision task with symmetrically associated (e.g., "sister-brother") and asymmetrically related primes and targets presented in both the forward (e.g., "atom-bomb") and backward…

  8. Past tense route priming.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Shikora, Emily R; Balota, David A

    2013-03-01

    The present research examined whether lexical (whole word) or more rule-based (morphological constituent) processes can be locally biased by experimental list context in past tense verb inflection. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults completed a past tense inflection task in which list context was manipulated across blocks containing regular past tense verbs (e.g. REACH-REACHED) or irregular past tense verbs (TEACH-TAUGHT). Critical targets, consisting of half regular and half irregular verbs, were embedded within blocks and participants' inflection response latency and accuracy were assessed. The results yielded a cross-over interaction in response latencies for both young and older adults. In the regular context there was a robust regularity effect: regular target verbs were conjugated faster than irregular target verbs. In contrast, in the irregular context, irregular target verbs were conjugated faster than regular target verbs. Experiment 2 used the same targets but in the context of either standard nonwords or nonwords ending in "-ED" to test the possibility of a phonological basis for the effect. The effect of context was eliminated. The results support the notion that distinct processes in past tense verb production can be locally biased by list context and, as shown in Experiment 2, this route priming effect was not due to phonological priming. PMID:23291293

  9. Young Children's Affective Responses to Acceptance and Rejection from Peers: A Computer-Based Task Sensitive to Variation in Temperamental Shyness and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Grace Z.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a novel task examining young children's affective responses to evaluative feedback--specifically, social acceptance and rejection--from peers. We aimed to determine (1) whether young children report their affective responses to hypothetical peer evaluation predictably and consistently, and (2) whether young children's responses…

  10. Priming motivation through unattended speech.

    PubMed

    Radel, Rémi; Sarrazin, Philippe; Jehu, Marie; Pelletier, Luc

    2013-12-01

    This study examines whether motivation can be primed through unattended speech. Study 1 used a dichotic-listening paradigm and repeated strength measures. In comparison to the baseline condition, in which the unattended channel was only composed by neutral words, the presence of words related to high (low) intensity of motivation led participants to exert more (less) strength when squeezing a hand dynamometer. In a second study, a barely audible conversation was played while participants' attention was mobilized on a demanding task. Participants who were exposed to a conversation depicting intrinsic motivation performed better and persevered longer in a subsequent word-fragment completion task than those exposed to the same conversation made unintelligible. These findings suggest that motivation can be primed without attention. PMID:23432056

  11. A Paradox of Syntactic Priming: Why Response Tendencies Show Priming for Passives, and Response Latencies Show Priming for Actives

    PubMed Central

    Segaert, Katrien; Menenti, Laura; Weber, Kirsten; Hagoort, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Speakers tend to repeat syntactic structures across sentences, a phenomenon called syntactic priming. Although it has been suggested that repeating syntactic structures should result in speeded responses, previous research has focused on effects in response tendencies. We investigated syntactic priming effects simultaneously in response tendencies and response latencies for active and passive transitive sentences in a picture description task. In Experiment 1, there were priming effects in response tendencies for passives and in response latencies for actives. However, when participants' pre-existing preference for actives was altered in Experiment 2, syntactic priming occurred for both actives and passives in response tendencies as well as in response latencies. This is the first investigation of the effects of structure frequency on both response tendencies and latencies in syntactic priming. We discuss the implications of these data for current theories of syntactic processing. PMID:22022352

  12. Characterization of Flavonoid 3[prime],5[prime]-Hydroxylase in Microsomal Membrane Fraction of Petunia hybrida Flowers.

    PubMed Central

    Menting, JGT.; Scopes, R. K.; Stevenson, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    We have detected a flavonoid 3[prime],5[prime]-hydroxylase (F3[prime],5[prime]H) in the microsomal fraction of Petunia hybrida flowers. Activity varied with the development of flowers, peaking immediately prior to and during anthesis, but was absent in mature flowers. F3[prime],5[prime]H activity in flower extracts from genetically defined floral color mutants correlated strictly with the genotypes Hf1 and Hf2. No activity was detected in flowers from mutants homozygous recessive for both alleles. F3[prime],5[prime]H activity was dependent on NADPH and molecular oxygen; there was only slight activity with NADH. The enzyme catalyzes the hydroxylation of 5,7,4[prime]-trihydroxyflavonone at the 3[prime] and 5[prime] positions, and of 5,7,3[prime],4[prime]-tetrahydroxyflavonone and dihydroquercetin at the 5[prime] position. Hydroxylase activity was inhibited by plant growth regulators (1-aminobenzotriazole and tetcyclacis) and by CO, N-ethylmaleimide, diethyldithiocarbamate, and cytochrome (Cyt) c. Activity was not affected by diethylpyrocarbonate or phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, but was enhanced by 2-mercaptoethanol. A polyclonal antibody that inhibits higher plant NADPH-Cyt P450 reductase inhibited the F3[prime],5[prime]H. The data are consistent with the suggestion that the P. hybrida F3[prime],5[prime]H is a monooxygenase consisting of a Cyt P450 and a NADPH-Cyt P-450 reductase. Cyts P450 were detected in microsomal membranes and in solubilized detergent extracts of these membranes. F3[prime],5[prime]H activity was sensitive to low concentrations of all detergents tested, and therefore solubilization of the active enzyme was not achieved. Reaction products other than flavanones were observed in F3[prime],5[prime]H assays and these may be formed by enzymic oxidation of flavanones. The possibility of a microsomal flavone synthase of a type that has not been described in P. hybrida is discussed. PMID:12232356

  13. Watch the target! Effects in the affective misattribution procedure become weaker (but not eliminated) when participants are motivated to provide accurate responses to the target

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Andreas B.; Deutsch, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Previous research showed that priming effects in the affective misattribution procedure (AMP) are unaffected by direct warnings to avoid an influence of the primes. The present research examined whether a priming influence is diminished by task procedures that encourage accurate judgments of the targets. Participants were motivated to categorize the affective meaning of nonsense targets accurately by being made to believe that a true word was presented in each trial and by providing feedback on (allegedly) incorrect responses. This condition produced robust priming effects. Priming was however reduced and less reliable relative to more typical AMP conditions in which participants guessed the meaning of openly presented nonsense targets. Affective judgments of nonsense targets were not affected by advance knowledge of the response mapping during the priming phase, which argues against a response-priming explanation of AMP effects. These findings show that affective primes influence evaluative judgments even in conditions in which the motivation to provide accurate responses is high and a priming of motor responses is not possible. Priming effects were however weaker with high accuracy motivation, suggesting that a focus on accurate judgments is an effective strategy to control for an unwanted priming influence in the AMP. PMID:26441807

  14. Watch the target! Effects in the affective misattribution procedure become weaker (but not eliminated) when participants are motivated to provide accurate responses to the target.

    PubMed

    Eder, Andreas B; Deutsch, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Previous research showed that priming effects in the affective misattribution procedure (AMP) are unaffected by direct warnings to avoid an influence of the primes. The present research examined whether a priming influence is diminished by task procedures that encourage accurate judgments of the targets. Participants were motivated to categorize the affective meaning of nonsense targets accurately by being made to believe that a true word was presented in each trial and by providing feedback on (allegedly) incorrect responses. This condition produced robust priming effects. Priming was however reduced and less reliable relative to more typical AMP conditions in which participants guessed the meaning of openly presented nonsense targets. Affective judgments of nonsense targets were not affected by advance knowledge of the response mapping during the priming phase, which argues against a response-priming explanation of AMP effects. These findings show that affective primes influence evaluative judgments even in conditions in which the motivation to provide accurate responses is high and a priming of motor responses is not possible. Priming effects were however weaker with high accuracy motivation, suggesting that a focus on accurate judgments is an effective strategy to control for an unwanted priming influence in the AMP. PMID:26441807

  15. One Night of Sleep Deprivation Affects Reaction Time, but Not Interference or Facilitation in a Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Sean W.; Silva, Edward J.; Chang, Anne-Marie; Ronda, Joseph M.; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2011-01-01

    The Stroop color-naming task is one of the most widely studied tasks involving the inhibition of a prepotent response, regarded as an executive function. Several studies have examined performance on versions of the Stroop task under conditions of acute sleep deprivation. Though these studies revealed effects on Stroop performance, the results…

  16. The Elusive Nature of Early Phonological Priming Effects: Are There Individual Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyk, Gregory G.; Pexman, Penny M.

    2004-01-01

    Lukatela and Turvey (2000) demonstrated a phonological priming effect in the lexical decision task (LDT) with a 14-ms prime and concluded that phonology plays a central role in word meaning activation. In contrast, several other researchers reported that phonological priming is significant only at much longer prime durations (e.g., Ferrand &…

  17. Is ''BLANK'' a Suitable Neutral Prime for Event-Related Potential Experiments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dien, Joseph; Franklin, Michael S.; May, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    We report an experiment that evaluates whether "BLANK" or an unrelated prime is a more suitable baseline for assessing priming for an ERP study. Sixteen subjects performed a lexical decision task with a 1 s prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony. Increased amplitude for the N400 was observed for targets in the unrelated prime condition whereas…

  18. Priming from Distractors in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Is Modulated by Image Properties and Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Irina M.; Benito, Claire T.; Dux, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated distractor processing in a dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task containing familiar objects, by measuring repetition priming from a priming distractor (PD) to Target 2 (T2). Priming from a visually identical PD was contrasted with priming from a PD in a different orientation from T2. We also tested the effect of…

  19. Retrieval of Incidental Stimulus-Response Associations as a Source of Negative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothermund, Klaus; Wentura, Dirk; De Houwer, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Priming effects of ignored distractor words were investigated in a task-switching situation that allowed an orthogonal variation of priming and response compatibility between prime and probe. Across 3 experiments, the authors obtained a disordinal interaction of priming and response relation. Responding was delayed in the ignored repetition…

  20. Systematic screening for mutations in the 5{prime}-regulatory region of the human dopamine D{sub 1} receptor (DRD1) gene in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Cichon, S.; Noethen, M.M.; Stoeber, G.

    1996-07-26

    A possible dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. In the present study we systematically searched for the presence of mutations in the 5{prime}-flanking region of the dopamine D{sub 1} receptor (DRD1) gene. This region has previously been shown to contain a functional promoter. We investigated 119 unrelated individuals (including 36 schizophrenic patients, 38 bipolar affective patients, and 45 healthy controls) using single-strand conformation analysis (SSCA). Eleven overlapping PCR fragments covered 2,189 bp of DNA sequence. We identified six single base substitutions: -2218T/C, -2102C/A, -2030T/C, -1992G/A, -1251G/C, and -800T/C. None of the mutations was found to be located in regions which have important influence on the level of transcriptional activity. Allele frequencies were similar in patients and controls, indicating that genetic variation in the 5{prime}-regulatory region of the DRD1 gene is unlikely to play a frequent, major role in the genetic predisposition to either schizophrenia or bipolar affective disorder. 31 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Evaluative Priming of Naming and Semantic Categorization Responses Revisited: A Mutual Facilitation Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Melanie; Wentura, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The evaluative priming effect (i.e., faster target responses following evaluatively congruent compared with evaluatively incongruent primes) in nonevaluative priming tasks (such as naming or semantic categorization tasks) is considered important for the question of how evaluative connotations are represented in memory. However, the empirical…

  2. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2014-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few are practical for the current clinical environment, and the optimal priming modalities for specific clinical presentations are not known. Accordingly, developing an understanding of the various types of motor priming paradigms and their underlying neural mechanisms is an important step for therapists in neurorehabilitation. Most importantly, an understanding of the methods and their underlying mechanisms is essential for optimizing rehabilitation outcomes. The future of neurorehabilitation is likely to include these priming methods, which are delivered prior to or in conjunction with primary neurorehabilitation therapies. In this Special Interest article we discuss those priming paradigms that are supported by the greatest amount of evidence including: (i) stimulation-based priming, (ii) motor imagery and action observation, (iii) sensory priming, (iv) movement-based priming, and (v) pharmacological priming. PMID:25415551

  3. The effect of nonmasking distractors on the priming of motor responses.

    PubMed

    Jaskowski, Piotr

    2007-04-01

    Masked stimuli (primes) can affect the preparation of a motor response to subsequently presented target. In numerous studies, it has been shown that the compatibility effect is biphasic as it develops over time: positive (benefits for compatible trials and costs for incompatible trials) for short prime-target temporal distances and negative (benefits for incompatible trials and costs for compatible trials) for long ones. What triggers the 2nd phase is the matter of the current debate. According to the self-inhibition hypothesis, the motor response elicited by a prime is automatically followed by an inhibition phase. The object-updating and mask-triggered inhibition hypotheses assume that this phase is triggered by the mask, provided that it contains features calling for the alternative response. In the present study, the author shows that the compatibility effect is modulated on the temporal position of a nonmasking distractor presented after the prime and before the target. With a distractor possessing task-relevant features, the compatibility effect was found to be negative for short prime- distractor intervals and for moderate prime-target intervals. The consequences of these results for the 3 hypotheses are discussed. PMID:17469979

  4. Repetition Priming in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Sean; Palmer, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The authors explore priming effects of pitch repetition in music in 3 experiments. Musically untrained participants heard a short melody and sang the last pitch of the melody as quickly as possible. Each experiment manipulated (a) whether or not the tone to be sung (target) was heard earlier in the melody (primed) and (b) the prime-target distance…

  5. Which Factors Affect Hand Selection in Children's Grasping in Hemispace? Combined Effects of Task Demand and Motor Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leconte, Pascale; Fagard, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-five right- and left-handed preschool and school children were tested on three reach-to-grasp tasks of different levels of complexity, performed in three space locations. Our goal was to evaluate how the effect of attentional information related to object location interacts with task complexity and degree of handedness on children's hand…

  6. The use of a displacement device negatively affects the performance of dogs (Canis familiaris) in visible object displacement tasks

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Corsin A.; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Visible and invisible displacement tasks have been used widely for comparative studies of animals’ understanding of object permanence, with evidence accumulating that some species can solve invisible displacement tasks and thus reach Piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. In contrast, dogs appear to rely on associative cues, such as the location of the displacement device, during invisible displacement tasks. It remains unclear, however, whether dogs, and other species that failed in invisible displacement tasks, do so due to their inability to form a mental representation of the target object, or simply due to the involvement of a more salient but potentially misleading associative cue, the displacement device. Here we show that the use of a displacement device impairs the performance of dogs also in visible displacement tasks: their search accuracy was significantly lower when a visible displacement was performed with a displacement device, and only two of initially 42 dogs passed the sham-baiting control conditions. The negative influence of the displacement device in visible displacement tasks may be explained by strong associative cues overriding explicit information about the target object’s location, reminiscent of an overshadowing effect, and/or object individuation errors as the target object is placed within the displacement device and moves along a spatiotemporally identical trajectory. Our data suggest that a comprehensive appraisal of a species’ performance in object permanence tasks should include visible displacement tasks with the same displacement device used in invisible displacements, which typically has not been done in the past. PMID:24611641

  7. The Personality Trait of Intolerance to Uncertainty Affects Behavior in a Novel Computer-Based Conditioned Place Preference Task.

    PubMed

    Radell, Milen L; Myers, Catherine E; Beck, Kevin D; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Allen, Michael Todd

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has found that personality factors that confer vulnerability to addiction can also affect learning and economic decision making. One personality trait which has been implicated in vulnerability to addiction is intolerance to uncertainty (IU), i.e., a preference for familiar over unknown (possibly better) options. In animals, the motivation to obtain drugs is often assessed through conditioned place preference (CPP), which compares preference for contexts where drug reward was previously received. It is an open question whether participants with high IU also show heightened preference for previously rewarded contexts. To address this question, we developed a novel computer-based CPP task for humans in which participants guide an avatar through a paradigm in which one room contains frequent reward (i.e., rich) and one contains less frequent reward (i.e., poor). Following exposure to both contexts, subjects are assessed for preference to enter the previously rich and previously poor room. Individuals with low IU showed little bias to enter the previously rich room first, and instead entered both rooms at about the same rate which may indicate a foraging behavior. By contrast, those with high IU showed a strong bias to enter the previously rich room first. This suggests an increased tendency to chase reward in the intolerant group, consistent with previously observed behavior in opioid-addicted individuals. Thus, the personality factor of high IU may produce a pre-existing cognitive bias that provides a mechanism to promote decision-making processes that increase vulnerability to addiction. PMID:27555829

  8. The Personality Trait of Intolerance to Uncertainty Affects Behavior in a Novel Computer-Based Conditioned Place Preference Task

    PubMed Central

    Radell, Milen L.; Myers, Catherine E.; Beck, Kevin D.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Allen, Michael Todd

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has found that personality factors that confer vulnerability to addiction can also affect learning and economic decision making. One personality trait which has been implicated in vulnerability to addiction is intolerance to uncertainty (IU), i.e., a preference for familiar over unknown (possibly better) options. In animals, the motivation to obtain drugs is often assessed through conditioned place preference (CPP), which compares preference for contexts where drug reward was previously received. It is an open question whether participants with high IU also show heightened preference for previously rewarded contexts. To address this question, we developed a novel computer-based CPP task for humans in which participants guide an avatar through a paradigm in which one room contains frequent reward (i.e., rich) and one contains less frequent reward (i.e., poor). Following exposure to both contexts, subjects are assessed for preference to enter the previously rich and previously poor room. Individuals with low IU showed little bias to enter the previously rich room first, and instead entered both rooms at about the same rate which may indicate a foraging behavior. By contrast, those with high IU showed a strong bias to enter the previously rich room first. This suggests an increased tendency to chase reward in the intolerant group, consistent with previously observed behavior in opioid-addicted individuals. Thus, the personality factor of high IU may produce a pre-existing cognitive bias that provides a mechanism to promote decision-making processes that increase vulnerability to addiction. PMID:27555829

  9. Exodus: Prime Mover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Nikkol; Conwell, Pete; Johnson, Matt; Shields, Wendy; Thornton, Tim; Tokarz, Rob; Mcmanus, Rich

    1992-01-01

    The Exodus Prime Mover is an overnight package delivery aircraft designed to serve the Northern Hemisphere of Aeroworld. The preliminary design goals originated from the desire to produce a large profit. The two main driving forces throughout the design process were first to reduce the construction man-hours by simplifying the aircraft design, thereby decreasing the total production cost of the aircraft. The second influential factor affecting the design was minimizing the fuel cost during cruise. The lowest fuel consumption occurs at a cruise velocity of 30 ft/s. Overall, it was necessary to balance the economic benefits with the performance characteristics in order to create a profitable product that meets all specified requirements and objectives.

  10. Inharmonic music elicits more negative affect and interferes more with a concurrent cognitive task than does harmonic music.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Tanor; Smilek, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated whether task-irrelevant inharmonic music produces greater interference with cognitive performance than task-irrelevant harmonic music. Participants completed either an auditory (Experiment 1) or a visual (Experiment 2) version of the cognitively demanding 2-back task in which they were required to categorize each digit in a sequence of digits as either being a target (a digit also presented two positions earlier in the sequence) or a distractor (all other items). They were concurrently exposed to either task-irrelevant harmonic music (judged to be consonant), task-irrelevant inharmonic music (judged to be dissonant), or no music at all as a distraction. The main finding across both experiments was that performance on the 2-back task was worse when participants were exposed to inharmonic music than when they were exposed to harmonic music. Interestingly, performance on the 2-back task was generally the same regardless of whether harmonic music or no music was played. We suggest that inharmonic, dissonant music interferes with cognitive performance by requiring greater cognitive processing than harmonic, consonant music, and speculate about why this might be. PMID:26715513

  11. The Persistence of Experience: Prior Attentional and Emotional State Affects Network Functioning in a Target Detection Task.

    PubMed

    Stern, Emily R; Muratore, Alexandra F; Taylor, Stephan F; Abelson, James L; Hof, Patrick R; Goodman, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    Efficient, adaptive behavior relies on the ability to flexibly move between internally focused (IF) and externally focused (EF) attentional states. Despite evidence that IF cognitive processes such as event imagination comprise a significant amount of awake cognition, the consequences of internal absorption on the subsequent recruitment of brain networks during EF tasks are unknown. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study employed a novel attentional state switching task. Subjects imagined positive and negative events (IF task) or performed a working memory task (EF task) before switching to a target detection (TD) task also requiring attention to external information, allowing for the investigation of neural functioning during external attention based on prior attentional state. There was a robust increase of activity in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions during TD when subjects were previously performing the EF compared with IF task, an effect that was most pronounced following negative IF. Additionally, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was less negatively coupled with ventromedial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices during TD following IF compared with EF. These findings reveal the striking consequences for brain activity following immersion in an IF attentional state, which have strong implications for psychiatric disorders characterized by excessive internal focus. PMID:24904075

  12. Repetition priming in music.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Sean; Palmer, Caroline

    2008-06-01

    The authors explore priming effects of pitch repetition in music in 3 experiments. Musically untrained participants heard a short melody and sang the last pitch of the melody as quickly as possible. Each experiment manipulated (a) whether or not the tone to be sung (target) was heard earlier in the melody (primed) and (b) the prime-target distance (measured in events). Experiment 1 used variable-length melodies, whereas Experiments 2 and 3 used fixed-length melodies. Experiment 3 changed the timbre of the target tone. In all experiments, fast-responding participants produced repeated tones faster than nonrepeated tones, and this repetition benefit decreased as prime-target distances increased. All participants produced expected tonic endings faster than less expected nontonic endings. Repetition and tonal priming effects are compared with harmonic priming effects in music and with repetition priming effects in language. PMID:18505332

  13. The Effects of Feature-Based Priming and Visual Working Memory on Oculomotor Capture.

    PubMed

    Silvis, Jeroen D; Belopolsky, Artem V; Murris, Jozua W I; Donk, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that objects held in working memory can influence rapid oculomotor selection. This has been taken as evidence that perceptual salience can be modified by active working memory representations. The goal of the present study was to examine whether these results could also be caused by feature-based priming. In two experiments, participants were asked to saccade to a target line segment of a certain orientation that was presented together with a to-be-ignored distractor. Both objects were given a task-irrelevant color that varied per trial. In a secondary task, a color had to be memorized, and that color could either match the color of the target, match the color of the distractor, or it did not match the color of any of the objects in the search task. The memory task was completed either after the search task (Experiment 1), or before it (Experiment 2). The results showed that in both experiments the memorized color biased oculomotor selection. Eye movements were more frequently drawn towards objects that matched the memorized color, irrespective of whether the memory task was completed after (Experiment 1) or before (Experiment 2) the search task. This bias was particularly prevalent in short-latency saccades. The results show that early oculomotor selection performance is not only affected by properties that are actively maintained in working memory but also by those previously memorized. Both working memory and feature priming can cause early biases in oculomotor selection. PMID:26566137

  14. Contingency learning is not affected by conflict experience: Evidence from a task conflict-free, item-specific Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Levin, Yulia; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    A contingency learning account of the item-specific proportion congruent effect has been described as an associative stimulus-response learning process that has nothing to do with controlling the Stroop conflict. As supportive evidence, contingency learning has been demonstrated with response conflict-free stimuli, such as neutral words. However, what gives rise to response conflict and to Stroop interference in general is task conflict. The present study investigated whether task conflict can constitute a trigger or, alternatively, a booster to the contingency learning process. This was done by employing a "task conflict-free" condition (i.e., geometric shapes) and comparing it with a "task conflict" condition (i.e., neutral words). The results showed a significant contingency learning effect in both conditions, refuting the possibility that contingency learning is triggered by the presence of a task conflict. Contingency learning was also not enhanced by the task conflict experience, indicating its complete insensitivity to Stroop conflict(s). Thus, the results showed no evidence that performance optimization as a result of contingency learning is greater under conflict, implying that contingency learning is not recruited to assist the control system to overcome conflict. PMID:26720099

  15. Do frailty and cognitive impairment affect dual-task cost during walking in the oldest old institutionalized patients?

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo L; Casas-Herrero, Alvaro; Zambom-Ferraresi, Fabricio; Martínez-Ramírez, Alicia; Millor, Nora; Gómez, Marisol; Moneo, Ana B Bays; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate dual-task costs in several elderly populations, including robust oldest old, frail oldest old with MCI, frail oldest old without MCI, and frail elderly with dementia. Sixty-four elderly men and women categorized into frail without MCI (age 93.4 ± 3.2 years, n = 20), frail with MCI (age 92.4 ± 4.2 years, n = 13), robust (age 88.2 ± 4.1 years, n = 10), and patients with dementia (age 88.1 ± 5.1 years, n = 21). Five-meter gait ability and timed-up-and-go (TUG) tests with single and dual-task performance were assessed in the groups. Dual-task cost in both 5-m habitual gait velocity test and TUG test was calculated by the time differences between single and dual-task performance. The robust group exhibited better 5-m gait and TUG test performances in the single and dual-task conditions compared with the other three groups (P < 0.001), and the frail and frail + MCI groups exhibited better performances than the dementia group (P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed between the frail and frail + MCI groups. However, all groups exhibited lower gait velocities in the verbal and arithmetic task conditions, but the dual-task cost of the groups were similar. Robust individuals exhibited superior single and dual-task walking performances than the other three groups, and the frail and frail + MCI individuals exhibited performances that were superior to those of the patients with dementia. However, the dual-task costs, i.e., the changes in gait performance when elderly participants switch from a single to a dual task, were similar among all four of the investigated groups. Therefore, these results demonstrated that the magnitude of the impairment in gait pattern is independent of frailty and cognitive impairment status. PMID:26667940

  16. Negative priming in free recall reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C Philip; Jones, Dylan M

    2016-05-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and retrieval of task-relevant information. In 6 experiments, we tested the inhibitory account of the effect of negative priming in free recall against alternative accounts. We found that ignoring auditory distracters is neither sufficient nor necessary to produce the effect of negative priming in free recall. Instead, the effect is more readily accounted for by a buildup of proactive interference occurring whenever 2 successively presented lists of words are drawn from the same semantic category. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595066

  17. Cannabis use, schizotypy, and negative priming.

    PubMed

    Albertella, Lucy; Le Pelley, Mike E; Copeland, Jan

    2015-08-30

    The present study examined the effects of frequency of cannabis use, schizotypy, and age on cognitive control, as measured using a location-based negative priming task in a sample of 124 Australians aged 15-24 who had ever used cannabis. This study found that the schizotypy dimension of Impulsive Nonconformity had a significant effect on negative priming such that participants with higher scores on this dimension showed reduced negative priming. Also, higher levels of psychological distress were associated with greater negative priming. Finally, there was a significant age by cannabis use interaction indicating that younger, frequent users of cannabis may be more susceptible to its effects on cognitive control and perhaps at greater risk of developing a disorder on the psychosis dimension. PMID:26154815

  18. Priming for novel object associations: Neural differences from object item priming and equivalent forms of recognition.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Carlos Alexandre; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Mayes, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The neural substrates of associative and item priming and recognition were investigated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study over two separate sessions. In the priming session, participants decided which object of a pair was bigger during both study and test phases. In the recognition session, participants saw different object pairs and performed the same size-judgement task followed by an associative recognition memory task. Associative priming was accompanied by reduced activity in the right middle occipital gyrus as well as in bilateral hippocampus. Object item priming was accompanied by reduced activity in extensive priming-related areas in the bilateral occipitotemporofrontal cortex, as well as in the perirhinal cortex, but not in the hippocampus. Associative recognition was characterized by activity increases in regions linked to recollection, such as the hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, anterior medial frontal gyrus and posterior parahippocampal cortex. Item object priming and recognition recruited broadly overlapping regions (e.g., bilateral middle occipital and prefrontal cortices, left fusiform gyrus), even though the BOLD response was in opposite directions. These regions along with the precuneus, where both item priming and recognition were accompanied by activation, have been found to respond to object familiarity. The minimal structural overlap between object associative priming and recollection-based associative recognition suggests that they depend on largely different stimulus-related information and that the different directions of the effects indicate distinct retrieval mechanisms. In contrast, item priming and familiarity-based recognition seemed mainly based on common memory information, although the extent of common processing between priming and familiarity remains unclear. Further implications of these findings are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26418396

  19. Implicit phonological priming during visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Lisa B.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E.; Rojas, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    Phonology is a lower-level structural aspect of language involving the sounds of a language and their organization in that language. Numerous behavioral studies utilizing priming, which refers to an increased sensitivity to a stimulus following prior experience with that or a related stimulus, have provided evidence for the role of phonology in visual word recognition. However, most language studies utilizing priming in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have focused on lexical-semantic aspects of language processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the automatic, implicit stages of phonological processing. While undergoing fMRI, eighteen individuals performed a lexical decision task (LDT) on prime-target pairs including word-word homophone and pseudoword-word pseudohomophone pairs with a prime presentation below perceptual threshold. Whole-brain analyses revealed several cortical regions exhibiting hemodynamic response suppression due to phonological priming including bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG), middle temporal gyri (MTG), and angular gyri (AG) with additional region of interest (ROI) analyses revealing response suppression in left lateralized supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Homophone and pseudohomophone priming also resulted in different patterns of hemodynamic responses relative to one another. These results suggest that phonological processing plays a key role in visual word recognition. Furthermore, enhanced hemodynamic responses for unrelated stimuli relative to primed stimuli were observed in midline cortical regions corresponding to the default-mode network (DMN) suggesting that DMN activity can be modulated by task requirements within the context of an implicit task. PMID:21159322

  20. Reading Spoken Words: Orthographic Effects in Auditory Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chereau, Celine; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Dumay, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments examined the involvement of orthography in spoken word processing using a task--unimodal auditory priming with offset overlap--taken to reflect activation of prelexical representations. Two types of prime-target relationship were compared; both involved phonological overlap, but only one had a strong orthographic overlap (e.g.,…

  1. Priming effects in a subtropical forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qianru; Sun, Yue; Xu, Xingliang

    2015-04-01

    Priming effects can accelerate decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) and thus have great potential to change SOC dynamics. Although temperature and addition of fresh substrates could affect the intensity and direction of priming, it remains unclear how their interactions affect priming. Therefore we conducted an incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil. We incubated the soil for 10 days at two temperatures: 15oC and 25oC, with four treatments: CK (only adding water), G (13C-glucose addition), NT (13C-glucose and nitrate additions) and AM (13C-glucose and ammonium additions). The results showed that glucose addition significantly accelerated the decomposition of SOC in both temperatures, indicates that positive priming occurs in this subtropical soil. While negative priming was observed in soils with simultaneous additions of glucose and nitrogen addition, especially at 25oC. The effect of temperature on PE was not significant. This indicates that mining of nitrogen is a major mechanism responsible for priming in this subtropical soil and there is no strong interaction between temperature and substrate additions to induce priming.

  2. Th1/Th2 cell dichotomy in acquired immunity to Bordetella pertussis: variables in the in vivo priming and in vitro cytokine detection techniques affect the classification of T-cell subsets as Th1, Th2 or Th0.

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, A; Mahon, B P; Watkins, J; Redhead, K; Mills, K H

    1996-01-01

    In studies of the mechanism of immunity to Bordetella pertussis in a murine respiratory infection model, we have previously demonstrated that natural infection of immunization with a whole cell vaccine induces a potent protective immune response, which is mediated by T-helper type-1 (Th1) cells. In contrast an acellular vaccine generates Th2 cells and is associated with delayed bacterial clearance following respiratory challenge. In the present study we have investigated the apparent Th1/Th2 cell dichotomy in acquired immunity and have examined the factors that affect their induction or detection. The cytokine profiles of B. pertussis-specific T cells in immune animals were determined using antigen-stimulated ex vivo spleen cells or CD4+ T-cell lines and clones established in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2) or IL-4. Antigen-specific T cells derived from mice immunized with the acellular vaccine were almost exclusively of the Th2 cell type. In contrast, T-cell lines and clones established following respiratory infection or immunization with the whole cell vaccine were predominantly of the Th1 type. However, a proportion of T cells from convalescent mice, especially when cultured in the presence of IL-4, secreted IL-4 and IL-5 with or without detectable IL-2 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), suggesting that Th0 or Th2 cells were also primed during natural infection in vivo. Furthermore, when mice were assessed 6 months after infection, spleen cells produced significant levels of IL-4 and IL-5, which were not evident at 6 weeks. The route of immunization and the genetic background of the mice were also found to influence the preferential priming of Th1 cells, and this was directly related to the level of protection against respiratory or intracerebral (i.c.) challenge. Our findings underline the critical role of CD4+ Th1 cells in immunity to B. pertussis, but also demonstrate that a number of factors in the in vivo priming and in vitro restimulation can skew the

  3. How Does Processing Affect Storage in Working Memory Tasks? Evidence for Both Domain-General and Domain-Specific Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrold, Christopher; Tam, Helen; Baddeley, Alan D.; Harvey, Caroline E.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies that examine whether the forgetting caused by the processing demands of working memory tasks is domain-general or domain-specific are presented. In each, separate groups of adult participants were asked to carry out either verbal or nonverbal operations on exactly the same processing materials while maintaining verbal storage items.…

  4. Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS) on Left Cerebellar Hemisphere Affects Mental Rotation Tasks during Music Listening

    PubMed Central

    Picazio, Silvia; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Koch, Giacomo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests an association between spatial and music domains. A cerebellar role in music-related information processing as well as in spatial-temporal tasks has been documented. Here, we investigated the cerebellar role in the association between spatial and musical domains, by testing performances in embodied (EMR) or abstract (AMR) mental rotation tasks of subjects listening Mozart Sonata K.448, which is reported to improve spatial-temporal reasoning, in the presence or in the absence of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) of the left cerebellar hemisphere. In the absence of cerebellar cTBS, music listening did not influence either MR task, thus not revealing a “Mozart Effect”. Cerebellar cTBS applied before musical listening made subjects faster (P = 0.005) and less accurate (P = 0.005) in performing the EMR but not the AMR task. Thus, cerebellar inhibition by TBS unmasked the effect of musical listening on motor imagery. These data support a coupling between music listening and sensory-motor integration in cerebellar networks for embodied representations. PMID:23724071

  5. An ERP investigation of orthographic priming with superset primes.

    PubMed

    Ktori, Maria; Midgley, Katherine; Holcomb, Phillip J; Grainger, Jonathan

    2015-01-12

    Prime stimuli formed by inserting unrelated letters in a given target word (called "superset" primes) provide a means to modify the relative positions of the letters shared by prime and target. Here we examined the time-course of superset priming effects in an ERP study using the sandwich-priming paradigm. We compared the effects of superset primes formed by the insertion of unrelated letters (e.g., maurkdet-MARKET), or by the insertion of hyphens (e.g., ma-rk-et-MARKET), with identity priming (e.g., market-MARKET), all measured relative to unrelated control primes. Behavioral data revealed significantly greater priming in the hyphen-insert condition compared with the letter-insert condition. In the ERP signal, letter-insert priming emerged later than hyphen-insert priming and produced a reversed priming effect in the N400 time-window compared with the more typical N400 priming effects seen for both hyphen-insert priming and identity priming. The different pattern of priming effects seen for letter-insert primes and hyphen-insert primes suggests that compared with identity priming, letter superset priming reflects the joint influence of: (1) a disruption in letter position information, and (2) an inhibitory influence of mismatching letters. PMID:25451126

  6. Learning task affects ERP-correlates of the own-race bias, but not recognition memory performance.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Johanna; Wiese, Holger; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2010-06-01

    People are generally better in recognizing faces from their own ethnic group as opposed to faces from another ethnic group, a finding which has been interpreted in the context of two opposing theories. Whereas perceptual expertise theories stress the role of long-term experience with one's own ethnic group, race feature theories assume that the processing of an other-race-defining feature triggers inferior coding and recognition of faces. The present study tested these hypotheses by manipulating the learning task in a recognition memory test. At learning, one group of participants categorized faces according to ethnicity, whereas another group rated facial attractiveness. Subsequent recognition tests indicated clear and similar own-race biases for both groups. However, ERPs from learning and test phases demonstrated an influence of learning task on neurophysiological processing of own- and other-race faces. While both groups exhibited larger N170 responses to Asian as compared to Caucasian faces, task-dependent differences were seen in a subsequent P2 ERP component. Whereas the P2 was more pronounced for Caucasian faces in the categorization group, this difference was absent in the attractiveness rating group. The learning task thus influences early face encoding. Moreover, comparison with recent research suggests that this attractiveness rating task influences the processes reflected in the P2 in a similar manner as perceptual expertise for other-race faces does. By contrast, the behavioural own-race bias suggests that long-term expertise is required to increase other-race face recognition and hence attenuate the own-race bias. PMID:20362599

  7. Effects of lexical status and morphological complexity in masked priming: An ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Joanna; Porter, James H.; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Two masked priming experiments examined behavioural and event-related potential responses to simplex target words (e.g., flex) preceded by briefly presented, masked, derived word primes (flexible-flex), complex nonword primes formed by an illegal combination of the target word and a real suffix (flexify-flex), and simplex nonword primes formed by adding a nonsuffix word ending to the target (flexint-flex). Subjects performed a lexical decision task. Behavioural results showed that all prime types significantly facilitated target recognition. Priming effects were reflected in the electrophysiological data by reduced N250 and N400 amplitudes, and these priming effects were statistically equivalent for the three types of prime. The strong priming effects found with simplex primes in the present study, compared with prior research, are thought to be due to the combination of targets always being completely embedded in prime stimuli plus the reduced lexical inhibition that arises with nonword primes. In line with prior behavioural research, however, there was evidence for differential priming effects as a function of prime type in the N400 ERP component in Experiment 2, with greater priming effects for derived and pseudocomplex primes relative to simplex primes at lateral posterior electrode sites. PMID:24771954

  8. Dissociating Local and Global Levels of Perceptuo-Motor Control in Masked Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlaghecken, Friederike; Bowman, Howard; Eimer, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Masked prime stimuli presented near the threshold of conscious awareness affect responses to subsequent targets. The direction of these priming effects depends on the interval between masked prime and target. With short intervals, benefits for compatible trials (primes and targets mapped to the same response) and costs for incompatible trials are…

  9. Neural mechanisms of repetition priming of familiar and globally unfamiliar visual objects.

    PubMed

    Soldan, Anja; Habeck, Christian; Gazes, Yunglin; Stern, Yaakov

    2010-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that repetition priming of visual objects is typically accompanied by a reduction in activity for repeated compared to new stimuli (repetition suppression). However, the spatial distribution and direction (suppression vs. enhancement) of neural repetition effects can depend on the pre-experimental familiarity of stimuli. The first goal of this study was to further probe the link between repetition priming and repetition suppression/enhancement for visual objects and how this link is affected by stimulus familiarity. A second goal was to examine whether priming of familiar and unfamiliar objects following a single stimulus repetition is supported by the same processes as priming following multiple repetitions within the same task. In this endeavor, we examined both between and within-subject correlations between priming and fMRI repetition effects for familiar and globally unfamiliar visual objects during the first and third repetitions of the stimuli. We included reaction time of individual trials as a linear regressor to identify brain regions whose repetition effects varied with response facilitation on a trial-by-trial basis. The results showed that repetition suppression in bilateral fusiform gyrus, was selectively correlated with priming of familiar objects that had been repeated once, likely reflecting facilitated perceptual processing or the sharpening of perceptual representations. Priming during the third repetition was correlated with repetition suppression in prefrontal and parietal areas for both familiar and unfamiliar stimuli, possibly reflecting a shift from top-down controlled to more automatic processing that occurs for both item types. PMID:20450898

  10. Dos and don’ts in response priming research

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Filipp; Haberkamp, Anke; Schmidt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Response priming is a well-understood but sparsely employed paradigm in cognitive science. The method is powerful and well-suited for exploring early visuomotor processing in a wide range of tasks and research fields. Moreover, response priming can be dissociated from visual awareness, possibly because it is based on the first sweep of feedforward processing of primes and targets. This makes it a theoretically interesting device for separating conscious and unconscious vision. We discuss the major opportunities of the paradigm and give specific recommendations (e.g., tracing the time-course of priming in parametric experiments). Also, we point out typical confounds, design flaws, and data processing artifacts. PMID:22253674

  11. Can stereotype threat affect motor performance in the absence of explicit monitoring processes? Evidence using a strength task.

    PubMed

    Chalabaev, Aïna; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Radel, Rémi; Coombes, Stephen A; Easthope, Christopher; Clément-Guillotin, Corentin

    2013-04-01

    Previous evidence shows that stereotype threat impairs complex motor skills through increased conscious monitoring of task performance. Given that one-step motor skills may not be susceptible to these processes, we examined whether performance on a simple strength task may be reduced under stereotype threat. Forty females and males performed maximum voluntary contractions under stereotypical or nullified-stereotype conditions. Results showed that the velocity of force production within the first milliseconds of the contraction decreased in females when the negative stereotype was induced, whereas maximal force did not change. In males, the stereotype induction only increased maximal force. These findings suggest that stereotype threat may impair motor skills in the absence of explicit monitoring processes, by influencing the planning stage of force production. PMID:23535978

  12. PRIME Lab Radiocarbon Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillegonds, D. J.; Mueller, K. A.; Ma, X.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1996-03-01

    The Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory (PRIME Lab) is one of three NSF national facilities for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), and is the only one capable of determining six cosmogenic radionuclides: 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, and 129I. This abstract describes the current status of the radiocarbon analysis program at PRIME Lab.

  13. Building Numbers from Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  14. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  15. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  16. Repetition priming and face processing: priming occurs within the system that responds to the identity of a face.

    PubMed

    Ellis, A W; Young, A W; Flude, B M

    1990-08-01

    A familiar stimulus that has recently been recognized will be recognized a second time more quickly and more accurately than if it had not been primed by the earlier encounter. This is the phenomenon of "repetition priming". Four experiments on repetition priming of face recognition suggest that repetition priming is a consequence of changes within the system that responds to the familiarity of a stimulus. In Experiment 1, classifying familiar faces by occupation facilitated subsequent responses to the same faces in a familiarity decision task (Is this face familiar or unfamiliar?) but not in an expression decision task (Is this face smiling or unsmiling?) or a sex decision task (Is this face male or female?). In Experiment 2, familiar faces showed repetition priming in a familiarity decision task, regardless of whether a familiarity judgment or an expression judgment had been required when the faces were first encountered. Expression decisions to familiar faces again failed to show repetition priming. In Experiment 3, familiar faces showed repetition priming in a familiarity decision task, regardless of whether a familiarity judgment or a sex judgment had been asked for when the faces were first encountered. Sex decisions to familiar faces again failed to show repetition priming. In Experiment 4, familiarity decisions continued to show repetition priming when a brief presentation time with encouragement to respond while the face was displayed reduced response latencies to speeds comparable to those for sex and expression judgments in Experiments 1 to 3. The results are problematic for theories that propose that repetition priming is mediated by episodic records of previous acts of stimulus encoding. PMID:2236632

  17. Priming addition facts with semantic relations.

    PubMed

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F; Oskarsson, An T

    2008-03-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations between the priming words were either aligned or misaligned with the structure of addition (M. Bassok, V. M. Chase, & S. A. Martin, 1998). Obligatory activation of addition facts occurred when the digits were primed by categorically related words (tulips-daisies), which are aligned with addition, but did not occur when the digits were primed by unrelated words (hens-radios, Experiment 1) or by functionally related words (records-songs, Experiment 2), which are misaligned with addition. These findings lend support to the viability of automatic analogical priming (B. A. Spellman, K. J. Holyoak, & R. G. Morrison, 2001) and highlight the relevance of arithmetic applications to theoretical accounts of mental arithmetic. PMID:18315410

  18. JNK pathway inhibition selectively primes pancreatic cancer stem cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis without affecting the physiology of normal tissue resident stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Rhea, P. Robyn; Kettlun, Claudia; Heinemann, Mitja L.; Ruetering, Jennifer; Vykoukal, Jody; Alt, Eckhard

    2016-01-01

    Objective Successful treatment of solid cancers mandates targeting cancer stem cells (CSC) without impact on the physiology of normal tissue resident stem cells. C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling has been shown to be of importance in cancer. We test whether JNK inhibition would sensitize pancreatic CSCs to induction of apoptosis via low-dose TNFα-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Design Effects of JNK inhibition (JNKi) were evaluated in vitro in functional assays, through mRNA and protein expression analysis, and in in vivo mouse studies. CSCs were enriched in anoikis-resistant spheroid culture and analyzed accordingly. Results We confirmed that the JNK pathway is an important regulatory pathway in pancreatic cancer stem cells and further found that JNK inhibition downregulates the decoy receptor DcR1 through IL-8 signaling while upregulating pro-apoptotic death receptors DR4/5, thereby sensitizing cells - even with acquired TRAIL-resistance - to apoptosis induction. Treatment of orthotopic pancreatic cancer xenografts with either gemcitabine, JNKi or TRAIL alone for 4 weeks showed only modest effects compared to control, while the combination of JNKi and TRAIL resulted in significantly lower tumor burden (69%; p < 0.04), reduced numbers of circulating tumor cells, and less distant metastatic events, without affecting the general health of the animals. Conclusions The combination of JNKi and TRAIL significantly impacts on CSCs, but leaves regular tissue-resident stem cells unaffected – even under hypoxic stress conditions. This concept of selective treatment of pancreatic CSCs warrants further evaluation. PMID:26840266

  19. Decomposition into Multiple Morphemes during Lexical Access: A Masked Priming Study of Russian Nouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanina, Nina; Dukova-Zheleva, Galina; Geber, Dana; Kharlamov, Viktor; Tonciulescu, Keren

    2008-01-01

    The study reports the results of a masked priming experiment with morphologically complex Russian nouns. Participants performed a lexical decision task to a visual target that differed from its prime in one consonant. Three conditions were included: (1) "transparent," in which the prime was morphologically related to the target and contained the…

  20. Effects of Contextual Similarity and Target-Repetition Proportion on Negative Priming in RT Distributional Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Hutchison, Keith A.; Li, Yongna

    2011-01-01

    Participants' reaction time (RT) data in a prime-probe flanker task (e.g., ABA-CAC) were analyzed in terms of the characteristics of RT distribution to examine possible mechanisms that produce negative priming. When the prime and probe were presented in the same context and the proportion of repetition-target trials (TRP) was 0.33, negative…

  1. Masked Priming Is Abstract in the Left and Right Visual Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Turner, Emma L.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments assessed masked priming for words presented to the left and right visual fields in a lexical decision task. In both Experiments, the same magnitude and pattern of priming was obtained for visually similar ("kiss"-"KISS") and dissimilar ("read"-"READ") prime-target pairs. These findings provide no support for the hypothesis that…

  2. Amygdala priming results in conditioned place avoidance.

    PubMed

    Thielen, Shelley K; Shekhar, Anantha

    2002-03-01

    Priming involves daily stimulation of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) for 5 days using a dose of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline methiodide (BMI), that is subthreshold to generate anxiogenic-like responses. The coordinated physiological and behavioral response of the primed rat is similar to the symptoms of human panic disorder and has been used as a model to study panic attacks. If the priming procedure is indeed similar to human panic disorder, then the context in which priming occurs should become associated with aversive conditioning and avoidance as seen in secondary agoraphobia following panic attacks in humans. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to further characterize the behavioral response of priming using the conditioned place avoidance (CPA) task that utilizes distinct tactile cues of a grid floor (Grid+) or hole floor (Grid-). Male Wistar rats (275-300 g) were implanted bilaterally with guide cannulae positioned 1 mm above the BLA. Grid+ animals were placed in the conditioning chamber containing grid floors immediately after a 6-pmol (in 250 nl) BMI injection into the BLA and on hole floors following a sham (250 nl vehicle) injection. Grid animals were placed in the chamber containing hole floors after the BMI injection and on grid floors following the sham injection. Animals were placed in the chamber for 20 min following each injection and injections were separated by 4 h. After 5 days of this treatment, the animals were primed. Two days later, during avoidance testing, each animal was placed in the chamber containing both floors for 30 min. Priming with daily 6-pmol BMI injections into the BLA results in CPA or an aversion to the floor paired with the BMI injection. These results suggest that priming may result in phobic-like responses, similar to the avoidance behavior exhibited by panic disorder patients. PMID:11830174

  3. Young Children’s Affective Responses to Acceptance and Rejection From Peers: A Computer-based Task Sensitive to Variation in Temperamental Shyness and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, Grace Z.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a novel task examining young children’s affective responses to evaluative feedback—specifically, social acceptance and rejection—from peers. We aimed to determine (1) whether young children report their affective responses to hypothetical peer evaluation predictably and consistently, and (2) whether young children’s responses to peer evaluation vary as a function of temperamental shyness and gender. Four- to seven-year-old children (N = 48) sorted pictures of unknown, similar-aged children into those with whom they wished or did not wish to play. Computerized peer evaluation later noted whether the pictured children were interested in a future playdate with participants. Participants then rated their affective responses to each acceptance or rejection event. Children were happy when accepted by children with whom they wanted to play, and disappointed when these children rejected them. Highly shy boys showed a wider range of responses to acceptance and rejection based on initial social interest, and may be particularly sensitive to both positive and negative evaluation. Overall, the playdate task captures individual differences in affective responses to evaluative peer feedback and is potentially amenable to future applications in research with young children, including pairings with psychophysiological measures. PMID:23997429

  4. Iconic gestures prime words: comparison of priming effects when gestures are presented alone and when they are accompanying speech

    PubMed Central

    So, Wing-Chee; Yi-Feng, Alvan Low; Yap, De-Fu; Kheng, Eugene; Yap, Ju-Min Melvin

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that iconic gestures presented in an isolated manner prime visually presented semantically related words. Since gestures and speech are almost always produced together, this study examined whether iconic gestures accompanying speech would prime words and compared the priming effect of iconic gestures with speech to that of iconic gestures presented alone. Adult participants (N = 180) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions in a lexical decision task: Gestures-Only (the primes were iconic gestures presented alone); Speech-Only (the primes were auditory tokens conveying the same meaning as the iconic gestures); Gestures-Accompanying-Speech (the primes were the simultaneous coupling of iconic gestures and their corresponding auditory tokens). Our findings revealed significant priming effects in all three conditions. However, the priming effect in the Gestures-Accompanying-Speech condition was comparable to that in the Speech-Only condition and was significantly weaker than that in the Gestures-Only condition, suggesting that the facilitatory effect of iconic gestures accompanying speech may be constrained by the level of language processing required in the lexical decision task where linguistic processing of words forms is more dominant than semantic processing. Hence, the priming effect afforded by the co-speech iconic gestures was weakened. PMID:24155738

  5. The Automatic Activation of Emotion and Emotion-Laden Words: Evidence from a Masked and Unmasked Priming Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kazanas, Stephanie A; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    A primed lexical decision task (LDT) was used to determine whether emotion (e.g., love, fear) and emotion-laden (e.g., puppy, hospital) word processing differs, both explicitly and implicitly. Previous experiments have investigated how emotion word processing differs from both abstract and concrete word processing (Altarriba & Bauer, 2004; Altarriba, Bauer, & Benvenuto, 1999). To assess for differences between emotion and emotion-laden word processing, 2 experiments were conducted, the first assessing explicit processing (using an unmasked LDT) and the second assessing automatic processing (using a masked LDT). The prediction that semantic priming would differ between emotion word pairs and emotion-laden word pairs was confirmed in both experiments, with shorter response times for emotion targets and greater priming effects for emotion word pairs than for emotion-laden word pairs. The role of valence is discussed, emphasizing the ways valence affects the speed with which these words are accessed and processed. PMID:26442339

  6. Smelly primes – when olfactory primes do or do not work

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, M. A. M.; Dijksterhuis, G. B.

    2014-01-01

    In applied olfactory cognition the effects that olfactory stimulation can have on (human) behavior are investigated. To enable an efficient application of olfactory stimuli a model of how they may lead to a change in behavior is proposed. To this end we use the concept of olfactory priming. Olfactory priming may prompt a special view on priming as the olfactory sense has some unique properties which make odors special types of primes. Examples of such properties are the ability of odors to influence our behavior outside of awareness, to lead to strong affective evaluations, to evoke specific memories, and to associate easily and quickly to other environmental stimuli. Opportunities and limitations for using odors as primes are related to these properties, and alternative explanations for reported findings are offered. Implications for olfactory semantic, construal, behavior and goal priming are given based on a brief overview of the priming literature from social psychology and from olfactory perception science. We end by formulating recommendations and ideas for a future research agenda and applications for olfactory priming. PMID:24575071

  7. How does processing affect storage in working memory tasks? Evidence for both domain-general and domain-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Jarrold, Christopher; Tam, Helen; Baddeley, Alan D; Harvey, Caroline E

    2011-05-01

    Two studies that examine whether the forgetting caused by the processing demands of working memory tasks is domain-general or domain-specific are presented. In each, separate groups of adult participants were asked to carry out either verbal or nonverbal operations on exactly the same processing materials while maintaining verbal storage items. The imposition of verbal processing tended to produce greater forgetting even though verbal processing operations took no longer to complete than did nonverbal processing operations. However, nonverbal processing did cause forgetting relative to baseline control conditions, and evidence from the timing of individuals' processing responses suggests that individuals in both processing groups slowed their responses in order to "refresh" the memoranda. Taken together the data suggest that processing has a domain-general effect on working memory performance by impeding refreshment of memoranda but can also cause effects that appear domain-specific and that result from either blocking of rehearsal or interference. PMID:21319919

  8. Testing the connection of the mirror system and speech: how articulation affects imitation in a simple response task.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Simone; Brass, Marcel

    2008-04-01

    There seems to be a close connection between speech and action, which we experience almost daily when we try to support our verbal expressions with gestures. Recently, the assumption that the language system and the action system are intimately linked has received support from brain imaging research showing that imitation and language production involve the same cortical structure, namely Broca's area. However, if the assumption of a functional interdependency holds true, one would predict that language production and imitation should interact on the behavioural level. We have tested this assumption in a series of experiments in which we investigated the influence of an articulation task on imitation. Here we show that articulation has a specific influence on the imitation of finger movements when compared to a non-imitative stimulus-response (S-R) association. These findings provide strong experimental support for the assumption that language production and imitation share common functional mechanisms. PMID:18289617

  9. Do task-irrelevant direction-associated motion verbs affect action planning? Evidence from a Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; Lachmair, Martin; de la Vega, Irmgard; De Filippis, Monica; Kaup, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    Does simply seeing a word such as rise activate upward responses? The present study is concerned with bottom-up activation of motion-related experiential traces. Verbs referring to an upward or downward motion (e.g., rise/fall) were presented in one of four colors. Participants had to perform an upward or downward hand movement (experiments 1 and 2a/2b) or a stationary up or down located keypress response (experiment 3) according to font color. In all experiments, responding was faster if the word's immanent motion direction matched the response (e.g., upward/up response in case of rise); however, this effect was strongest in the experiments requiring an actual upward or downward response movement (experiments 1 and 2a/2b). These findings suggest bottom-up activation of motion-related experiential traces, even if the task does not demand lexical access or focusing on a word's meaning. PMID:22427242

  10. Tablet Keyboard Configuration Affects Performance, Discomfort and Task Difficulty for Thumb Typing in a Two-Handed Grip.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Matthieu B; Catalano, Paul J; Jindrich, Devin L; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2013-01-01

    When holding a tablet computer with two hands, the touch keyboard configuration imposes postural constraints on the user because of the need to simultaneously hold the device and type with the thumbs. Designers have provided users with several possible keyboard configurations (device orientation, keyboard layout and location). However, potential differences in performance, usability and postures among these configurations have not been explored. We hypothesize that (1) the narrower standard keyboard layout in the portrait orientation leads to lower self-reported discomfort and less reach than the landscape orientation; (2) a split keyboard layout results in better overall outcomes compared to the standard layout; and (3) the conventional bottom keyboard location leads to the best outcomes overall compared to other locations. A repeated measures laboratory experiment of 12 tablet owners measured typing speed, discomfort, task difficulty, and thumb/wrist joint postures using an active marker system during typing tasks for different combinations of device orientation (portrait and landscape), keyboard layout (standard and split), and keyboard location (bottom, middle, top). The narrower standard keyboard with the device in the portrait orientation was associated with less discomfort (least squares mean (and S.E.) 2.9±0.6) than the landscape orientation (4.5±0.7). Additionally, the split keyboard decreased the amount of reaching required by the thumb in the landscape orientation as defined by a reduced range of motion and less MCP extension, which may have led to reduced discomfort (2.7±0.6) compared to the standard layout (4.5±0.7). However, typing speed was greater for the standard layout (127±5 char./min.) compared to the split layout (113±4 char./min.) regardless of device orientation and keyboard location. Usage guidelines and designers can incorporate these findings to optimize keyboard design parameters and form factors that promote user performance and

  11. Tablet Keyboard Configuration Affects Performance, Discomfort and Task Difficulty for Thumb Typing in a Two-Handed Grip

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, Matthieu B.; Catalano, Paul J.; Jindrich, Devin L.; Dennerlein, Jack T.

    2013-01-01

    When holding a tablet computer with two hands, the touch keyboard configuration imposes postural constraints on the user because of the need to simultaneously hold the device and type with the thumbs. Designers have provided users with several possible keyboard configurations (device orientation, keyboard layout and location). However, potential differences in performance, usability and postures among these configurations have not been explored. We hypothesize that (1) the narrower standard keyboard layout in the portrait orientation leads to lower self-reported discomfort and less reach than the landscape orientation; (2) a split keyboard layout results in better overall outcomes compared to the standard layout; and (3) the conventional bottom keyboard location leads to the best outcomes overall compared to other locations. A repeated measures laboratory experiment of 12 tablet owners measured typing speed, discomfort, task difficulty, and thumb/wrist joint postures using an active marker system during typing tasks for different combinations of device orientation (portrait and landscape), keyboard layout (standard and split), and keyboard location (bottom, middle, top). The narrower standard keyboard with the device in the portrait orientation was associated with less discomfort (least squares mean (and S.E.) 2.9±0.6) than the landscape orientation (4.5±0.7). Additionally, the split keyboard decreased the amount of reaching required by the thumb in the landscape orientation as defined by a reduced range of motion and less MCP extension, which may have led to reduced discomfort (2.7±0.6) compared to the standard layout (4.5±0.7). However, typing speed was greater for the standard layout (127±5 char./min.) compared to the split layout (113±4 char./min.) regardless of device orientation and keyboard location. Usage guidelines and designers can incorporate these findings to optimize keyboard design parameters and form factors that promote user performance and

  12. Conscious contributions to subliminal priming.

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, Piotr

    2008-03-01

    Choice reaction times to visual stimuli (targets) may be influenced by preceding subliminal stimuli (primes). Some authors reported a straight priming effect i.e., responses were faster when primes and targets called for the same response than when they called for different responses. Others found the reversed pattern of results. Eimer and Schlaghecken [Eimer, M. & Schlaghecken, F. (2002). Links between conscious awareness and response inhibition: evidence from masked priming. Psychonomic Bulletin &Review, 9, 514-520.] showed recently that straight priming occurs whenever a prime is not efficiently masked thereby the information provided by the prime is accessible for consciousness. In the present study, a hypothesis is tested that straight priming is due to mediation of consciousness. To test this hypothesis, prime validity was manipulated. We showed that even when no mask was used so that participants could fully and consciously perceive the prime and participants were informed that primes were mostly invalid, for the short prime-target ISI interval (100 ms) straight priming occurred. The priming was inverse when the ISI was 800 ms. This indicates that participants were able to use the information provided by the prime to prepare the response opposite to that cued by the prime but only if the time between the prime and the target was long enough. PMID:17126565

  13. Largest known twin primes and Sophie Germain primes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indlekofer, Karl-Heinz; Járai, Antal

    The numbers 242206083* 2^38880+-1 are twin primes. The number p=2375063906985* 2^19380-1 is a Sophie Germain prime, i.e. p and 2p+1 are both primes. For p=4610194180515* 2^ 5056-1, the numbers p, p+2 and 2p+1 are all primes.

  14. Take a stand on your decisions, or take a sit: posture does not affect risk preferences in an economic task

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    Physiological and emotional states can affect our decision-making processes, even when these states are seemingly insignificant to the decision at hand. We examined whether posture and postural threat affect decisions in a non-related economic domain. Healthy young adults made a series of choices between economic lotteries in various conditions, including changes in body posture (sitting vs. standing) and changes in elevation (ground level vs. atop a 0.8-meter-high platform). We compared three metrics between conditions to assess changes in risk-sensitivity: frequency of risky choices, and parameter fits of both utility and probability weighting parameters using cumulative prospect theory. We also measured skin conductance level to evaluate physiological response to the postural threat. Our results demonstrate that body posture does not significantly affect decision making. Secondly, despite increased skin conductance level, economic risk-sensitivity was unaffected by increased threat. Our findings indicate that economic choices are fairly robust to the physiological and emotional changes that result from posture or postural threat. PMID:25083345

  15. Response Activation in Overlapping Tasks and the Response-Selection Bottleneck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Torsten; Fischer, Rico; Stelzel, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of response activation on dual-task performance by presenting a subliminal prime before the stimulus in Task 2 (S2) of a psychological refractory period (PRP) task. Congruence between prime and S2 modulated the reaction times in Task 2 at short stimulus onset asynchrony despite a PRP effect. This Task 2…

  16. Ageing affects event-related potentials and brain oscillations: a behavioral and electrophysiological study using a haptic recognition memory task.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, Manuel; Reales, José M; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2011-12-01

    In this electrophysiological study, we investigated the effects of ageing on recognition memory for three-dimensional (3D) familiar objects presented to touch in a continuous paradigm. To examine changes in event-related potentials (ERPs) and brain oscillations, we recorded the EEGs of healthy groups of young (n=14; mean age=32.3 years) and older adults (n=14; mean age=65.1). Both age groups exhibited similar accuracy and exploration times when making old-new judgments. Young and older participants showed a marginally significant ERP old/new effect widely distributed over the scalp between 550-750 ms. In addition, the elders showed lower amplitude than younger participants within 1200-1500 ms. There were age-related differences in brain oscillations as measured by event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP). Older adults showed greater alpha and beta power reductions than young participants, suggesting the recruitment of additional neural resources. In contrast, the two age groups showed a reliable old/new effect in the theta band that temporarily overlapped the ERP old/new effect. The present results suggest that despite similar behavioral performance, the young and older adults recruited different neural resources to perform a haptic recognition task. PMID:22027172

  17. Target enhancement and distractor inhibition affect transitory surround suppression in dual tasks using multiple rapid serial visual presentation streams.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Greenwood, Pamela; Fu, Shimin

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the interaction between temporal and spatial dimensions on selective attention using dual tasks in the multiple rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. A phenomenon that the surround suppression in space changes over time (termed transitory surround suppression, TSS, in the present study) has been observed, suggesting the existence of this time-space interaction. However, it is still unclear whether target enhancement or distractor inhibition modulates TSS. Four behavioural experiments were conducted to investigate the mechanism of TSS by manipulating the temporal lag and spatial distance factors between two targets embedded in six RSVP streams. The TSS effect was replicated in a study that eliminated confounds of perceptual effects and attentional switch (Experiment 1). However, the TSS disappeared when two targets shared the same colour in a between-subjects design (Experiment 2a) and a within-subject design (Experiment 2b), suggesting the impact of target enhancement on TSS. Moreover, the TSS was larger for within-category than for between-category distractors (Experiment 3), indicating the impact of distractor inhibition on TSS. These two influences on TSS under different processing demands of target and distractor processing were further confirmed in a skeletal design (Experiment 4). Overall, combinative effects of target enhancement and distractor suppression contribute to the mechanisms of time-space interaction in selective attention during visual search. PMID:26447933

  18. Side effects of fast-acting dynamic range compression that affect intelligibility in a competing speech task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Michael A.; Moore, Brian C. J.

    2004-10-01

    Using a cochlear implant simulator, Stone and Moore [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 1023-1034 (2003)] reported that wideband fast-acting compression led to poorer intelligibility than slow-acting compression in a competing speech task. Compression speed was varied by using different pairs of attack and release times. In the first experiment reported here, it is shown that attack times less than about 2 ms in a wideband compressor are deleterious to intelligibility. In experiment 2, fast wideband compression was applied to the target and background either before or after mixing. The former reduced the modulation depth of each signal but maintained the independence between the two signals, while the latter introduced ``comodulation.'' Using simulations with 6 and 11 channels, intelligibility was higher when compression was applied before mixing. In experiment 3, wideband compression was compared with multichannel compression; the latter led to reduced comodulation effects. For 6 channels, the position of the compressor, either wideband or within each channel, had no effect on intelligibility. For 11 channels, channel compression severely degraded intelligibility compared to wideband compression, presumably because of the greater reduction of across-channel contrasts. Overall, caution appears necessary in the use of fast-acting compression in cochlear implants, so as to preserve intelligibility. .

  19. Microcomputer-Assisted Discoveries: Primes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimberling, Clark

    1983-01-01

    Four computer programs (Applesoft Basic) on prime numbers are described, including programs for factoring a positive integer as a product of primes, listing all divisors of a given A, and for exploring primes representable as prescribed sums/differences involving squares, cubes, Fibonnaci numbers, or other primes. Program listings are included.…

  20. The Effect of Feedback Schedule Manipulation on Speech Priming Patterns and Reaction Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocomb, Dana; Spencer, Kristie A.

    2009-01-01

    Speech priming tasks are frequently used to delineate stages in the speech process such as lexical retrieval and motor programming. These tasks, often measured in reaction time (RT), require fast and accurate responses, reflecting maximized participant performance, to result in robust priming effects. Encouraging speed and accuracy in responding…

  1. Automaticity of Cognitive Control: Goal Priming in Response-Inhibition Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Logan, Gordon D.

    2009-01-01

    Response inhibition is a hallmark of cognitive control. An executive system inhibits responses by activating a stop goal when a stop signal is presented. The authors asked whether the stop goal could be primed by task-irrelevant information in stop-signal and go/no-go paradigms. In Experiment 1, the task-irrelevant primes "GO," ###, or "STOP" were…

  2. Can Faces Prime a Language?

    PubMed

    Woumans, Evy; Martin, Clara D; Vanden Bulcke, Charlotte; Van Assche, Eva; Costa, Albert; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-09-01

    Bilinguals have two languages that are activated in parallel. During speech production, one of these languages must be selected on the basis of some cue. The present study investigated whether the face of an interlocutor can serve as such a cue. Spanish-Catalan and Dutch-French bilinguals were first familiarized with certain faces, each of which was associated with only one language, during simulated Skype conversations. Afterward, these participants performed a language production task in which they generated words associated with the words produced by familiar and unfamiliar faces displayed on-screen. When responding to familiar faces, participants produced words faster if the faces were speaking the same language as in the previous Skype simulation than if the same faces were speaking a different language. Furthermore, this language priming effect disappeared when it became clear that the interlocutors were actually bilingual. These findings suggest that faces can prime a language, but their cuing effect disappears when it turns out that they are unreliable as language cues. PMID:26209531

  3. NF-kappaB activity affects learning in aversive tasks: possible actions via modulation of the stress axis.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Michael L; Brachman, Rebecca A; Listwak, Samuel J; Herkenham, Miles

    2010-08-01

    The role of altered activity of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in specific aspects of motivated behavior and learning and memory was examined in mice lacking the p50 subunit of the NF-kappaB/rel transcription factor family. Nfkb1-deficient mice are unable to produce p50 and show specific susceptibilities to infections and inflammatory challenges, but the behavioral phenotype of such mice has been largely unexamined, owing in large part to the lack of understanding of the role of NF-kappaB in nervous system function. Here we show that Nfkb1 (p50) knockout mice more rapidly learned to find the hidden platform in the Morris water maze than did wildtype mice. The rise in plasma corticosterone levels after the maze test was greater in p50 knockout than in wildtype mice. In the less stressful Barnes maze, which tests similar kinds of spatial learning, the p50 knockout mice performed similarly to control mice. Adrenalectomy with corticosterone replacement eliminated the differences between p50 knockout and wildtype mice in the water maze. Knockout mice showed increased levels of basal anxiety in the open-field and light/dark box tests, suggesting that their enhanced escape latency in the water maze was due to activation of the stress (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis leading to elevated corticosterone production by strongly but not mildly anxiogenic stimuli. The results suggest that, as in the immune system, p50 in the nervous system normally serves to dampen NF-kappaB-mediated intracellular activities, which are manifested physiologically through elevated stress responses to aversive stimuli and behaviorally in the facilitated escape performance in learning tasks. PMID:20399847

  4. Perceptual representations in false recognition and priming of pictures.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2008-12-01

    Using a new procedure, we investigate whether imagination can induce false memory by creating a perceptual representation. Participants studied pictures and words with and without an imagery task and at test performed both a direct recognition test and an indirect perceptual identification test on pictorial stimuli. Corrected false recognition rates were 7% for pictures studied in word form (Experiment 1), 26% for pictures imagined once (Experiment 2), and 48% for pictures imagined multiple times (Experiment 3), although on the indirect test, no priming was found for these items. Furthermore, a perceptual/conceptual imagery manipulation did not affect the tendency to claim that imagined items had been studied as pictures (Experiment 4). These results suggest that the false memories reported on direct tests are not driven by perceptual representations. PMID:19015501

  5. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C; O'Daly, Owen G

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a "need" state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide some

  6. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C.; O'Daly, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a “need” state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide

  7. On the effect of subliminal priming on subjective perception of images: a machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Parmod; Mahmood, Faisal; Mohan, Dhanya Menoth; Wong, Ken; Agrawal, Abhishek; Elgendi, Mohamed; Shukla, Rohit; Dauwels, Justin; Chan, Alice H D

    2014-01-01

    The research presented in this article investigates the influence of subliminal prime words on peoples' judgment about images, through electroencephalograms (EEGs). In this cross domain priming paradigm, the participants are asked to rate how much they like the stimulus images, on a 7-point Likert scale, after being subliminally exposed to masked lexical prime words, with EEG recorded simultaneously. Statistical analysis tools are used to analyze the effect of priming on behavior, and machine learning techniques to infer the primes from EEGs. The experiment reveals strong effects of subliminal priming on the participants' explicit rating of images. The subjective judgment affected by the priming makes visible change in event-related potentials (ERPs); results show larger ERP amplitude for the negative primes compared with positive and neutral primes. In addition, Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifiers are proposed to infer the prime types from the average ERPs, which yields a classification rate of 70%. PMID:25571224

  8. The effect of facial blood flow on ratings of blushing and negative affect during an embarrassing task: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Peter D; Lazaroo, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Expecting to blush is a common source of social anxiety, and is associated with heightened perceptions of blushing and embarrassment. To assess whether sensory cues associated with heightened facial blood flow are an additional source of anxiety, the vasodilator niacin (100mg) or placebo was administered double-blind to 33 participants, and facial blood flow was investigated when they sang a children's song. Vasodilatation during singing was greater in the niacin than placebo condition, and niacin-evoked flushing and increases in pulse rate were greater in participants with high than low fear of negative evaluation. Nevertheless, ratings of embarrassment, anxiety, blushing and facial heat were similar in both drug conditions. This dissociation implies that cognitive appraisals or negative affect overrode more subtle physiological cues of blushing during embarrassment. Clarifying how judgments about blushing are made could be crucial for correcting faulty assumptions about blushing in people who are frightened of this response. PMID:22257642

  9. Healthy co-twins of patients with affective disorders show reduced risk-related activation of the insula during a monetary gambling task

    PubMed Central

    Macoveanu, Julian; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders are at increased risk for affective disorders and express discrete structural and functional abnormalities in the brain reward system. However, value-based decision making is not well understood in these at-risk individuals. Methods We investigated healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorders (high-risk and low-risk groups, respectively) using functional MRI during a gambling task. We assessed group differences in activity related to gambling risk over the entire brain. Results We included 30 monozygotic and 37 dizygotic twins in our analysis. Neural activity in the anterior insula and ventral striatum increased linearly with the amount of gambling risk in the entire cohort. Individual neuroticism scores were positively correlated with the neural response in the ventral striatum to increasing gambling risk and negatively correlated with individual risk-taking behaviour. Compared with low-risk twins, the high-risk twins showed a bilateral reduction of risk-related activity in the middle insula extending into the temporal cortex with increasing gambling risk. Post hoc analyses revealed that this effect was strongest in dizygotic twins. Limitations The relatively old average age of the mono- and dizygotic twin cohort (49.2 yr) may indicate an increased resilience to affective disorders. The size of the monozygotic high-risk group was relatively small (n = 13). Conclusion The reduced processing of risk magnitude in the middle insula may indicate a deficient integration of exteroceptive information related to risk-related cues with interoceptive states in individuals at familial risk for affective disorders. Impaired risk processing might contribute to increased vulnerability to affective disorders. PMID:26395812

  10. Children's Syntactic-Priming Magnitude: Lexical Factors and Participant Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Anouschka; Thiele, Kristina; Kahsnitz, Dunja; Stenneken, Prisca

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether lexical repetition, syntactic skills, and working memory (WM) affect children's syntactic-priming behavior, i.e. their tendency to adopt previously encountered syntactic structures. Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children were primed with prenominal (e.g. "the yellow…

  11. An electrophysiological investigation of early effects of masked morphological priming

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Joanna; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment examined event-related responses to targets preceded by semantically transparent morphologically related primes (e.g., farmer-farm), semantically opaque primes with an apparent morphological relation (cornercorn), and orthographically, but not morphologically, related primes (scandalscan) using the masked priming technique combined with a semantic categorisation task. In order to provide information about possible early effects of morphology we focused our analysis on the N250 ERP component. Priming effects for transparent and opaque items patterned together in the early phase of the N250 (200-250 ms), whereas the transparent and orthographic items patterned together in the latter phase of this component (250-300 ms). These results provide further evidence in support of the rapid extraction of morphemes from morphologically complex stimuli independently of the semantic relatedness of the whole and its parts. PMID:19779574

  12. Manipulation of familiarity reveals a necessary lexical component of the word-stem completion priming effect.

    PubMed

    Postle, B R; Corkin, S

    1999-01-01

    These experiments were motivated by the idea that many types of nondeclarative memory are by-products arising from the plasticity that is inherent in much of the nervous system. We hypothesized that two types of repetition priming, word-stem completion (WSC) priming and perceptual identification (PI) priming, rely on different mechanisms because the WSC task and the PI task engage different cognitive and brain processes. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating word familiarity. The results, impaired WSC priming but intact PI priming with unfamiliar words, indicate that WSC priming relies primarily on a modification mechanism, whereas PI priming relies primarily on an acquisition mechanism. Our conclusions are consistent with component processes theories of nondeclarative memory. PMID:10087852

  13. Impulsivity, inhibition and negative priming in ecstasy users.

    PubMed

    Dafters, Richard I

    2006-08-01

    A modified Stroop color-word interference paradigm was used to investigate the effects of recreational ecstasy (MDMA) use on central executive inhibitory processes. Ecstasy users who also used cannabis were compared with non-users matched for cannabis consumption and with non-drug users on a Stroop task in which standard color-word interference trials were interspersed with trials in which the target color was the same as the distractor word on the immediately preceding trial. Ecstasy's effects on standard inhibition (conscious suppression of a prepotent response pattern--responsible for Stroop interference) could thus be contrasted with its effect on the short-term, unconscious, inhibitory process responsible for suppression of the preceding distractor word (negative priming). Neither drug group differed from the non-drug users in level of Stroop interference but ecstasy users showed reduced negative priming compared to the cannabis users and non-drug users. The loss of inhibition in the ecstasy users was not related to impulsivity assessed by two standard scales since these were similar in both drug-user groups and raised relative to the non-drug users. It is argued that previous failures to demonstrate loss of inhibition could be partly due to the fact that standard executive function tests, such as the Stroop, are unable to differentiate between sub-types of inhibition, only some of which may be affected by ecstasy use. PMID:16242244

  14. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts—orthographically related, but which—in their commonly written form—share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  15. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts-orthographically related, but which-in their commonly written form-share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  16. Mechanical objects and the engineering learner: An experimental study of how the presence of objects affects students' performance on engineering related tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairaktarova, Diana N.

    People display varying levels of interaction with the mechanical objects in their environment; engineers in particular as makers and users of these objects display a higher level of interaction with them. Investigating the educational potential of mechanical objects in stimulating and supporting learning in engineering is warranted by the fact that practicing engineers work with mechanical objects as they design, test and improve devices. It is possible that mechanical objects can facilitate learning by providing opportunities to authenticate the teaching and learning experience. More importantly, mechanical objects can serve as an instrument in transferring the knowledge of abstract concepts to practical applications. What remains unclear is how individual differences in interests and aptitudes are related to these interactions in engineering students. This study investigated how individual differences related to thing orientation and mechanical aptitude affect interaction with mechanical objects in engineering education instruction. The study introduces a task designed to replicate a real-world engineering application and uses this task to examine the effect of these aptitudes, interests, and direct manipulation of mechanical objects on performance.

  17. Oral intake of γ-aminobutyric acid affects mood and activities of central nervous system during stressed condition induced by mental tasks.

    PubMed

    Yoto, A; Murao, S; Motoki, M; Yokoyama, Y; Horie, N; Takeshima, K; Masuda, K; Kim, M; Yokogoshi, H

    2012-09-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a kind of amino acid contained in green tea leaves and other foods. Several reports have shown that GABA might affect brain protein synthesis, improve many brain functions such as memory and study capability, lower the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats, and may also have a relaxation effect in humans. However, the evidence for its mood-improving function is still not sufficient. In this study, we investigated how the oral intake of GABA influences human adults psychologically and physiologically under a condition of mental stress. Sixty-three adults (28 males, 35 females) participated in a randomized, single blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-designed study over two experiment days. Capsules containing 100 mg of GABA or dextrin as a placebo were used as test samples. The results showed that EEG activities including alpha band and beta band brain waves decreased depending on the mental stress task loads, and the condition of 30 min after GABA intake diminished this decrease compared with the placebo condition. That is to say, GABA might have alleviated the stress induced by the mental tasks. This effect also corresponded with the results of the POMS scores. PMID:22203366

  18. Synthesis, structure, and reactivity of 1,2-(1{prime},1{prime},2{prime},2{prime}-tetramethyldisilane-1{prime},2{prime})carborane

    SciTech Connect

    Rege, F.M. de; Kassebaum, J.D.; Scott, B.L.; Abney, K.D.; Balaich, G.J.

    1999-02-08

    The novel strained compound 1,2-(1{prime},1{prime},2{prime},2{prime}-tetramethyldisilane-1{prime},2{prime})carborane (1) was synthesized by the reaction of 1,2-dilithiocarborane and dichlorotetramethyldisilane. Compound 1 was characterized by solution methods and its structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In contrast to its organic analogue o-(disilanyl)-phenylene, the reaction of 1 with ethanol leads to cleavage of a Si-C bond rather than a Si-Si bond. Similarly to other cyclic disilanes, exposure of a solution of 1 to oxygen leads to the insertion of an oxygen atom into the Si-Si bond. The structure of the oxygen inserted product was also determined by X-ray crystallography. The general chemistry and attempts at polymerizing 1 are briefly discussed.

  19. Some "Prime" Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen I.

    Topics that deal with prime numbers are presented with the intent of allowing the student to re-create the excitement of the original investigation. Suitable for advanced high school students as an introduction to number theory at the college level or as a text for courses in teacher education, the book covers the following topics: (1) the number…

  20. "Fell" Primes "Fall", but Does "Bell" Prime "Ball"? Masked Priming with Irregularly-Inflected Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepaldi, Davide; Rastle, Kathleen; Coltheart, Max; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2010-01-01

    Recent masked priming experiments have brought to light a morphological level of analysis that is exclusively based on the orthographic appearance of words, so that it breaks down corner into corn- and -er, as well as dealer into deal- and -er (Rastle, Davis, & New, 2004). Being insensitive to semantic factors, this morpho-orthographic…

  1. Prime Retrieval of Motor Responses in Negative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Susanne; Buchner, Axel; Dentale, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Three auditory identification experiments were designed to specify the prime-response retrieval model of negative priming (S. Mayr & A. Buchner, 2006), which assumes that the prime response is retrieved in ignored repetition trials and interferes with probe responding. In Experiment 1, shortly before (in Experiment 1A) or after (in Experiment 1B)…

  2. Effects of priming goal pursuit on implicit sequence learning

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Katherine R.; Lee, Joanna M.; Howard, James H.; Howard, Darlene V.

    2016-01-01

    Implicit learning, the type of learning that occurs without intent to learn or awareness of what has been learned, has been thought to be insensitive to the effects of priming, but recent studies suggest this is not the case. One study found that learning in the Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task was improved by nonconscious goal pursuit, primed via a word search task (Eitam et al., 2008). In two studies, we used the goal priming word search task from Eitam et al., but with a different version of the SRT, the Alternating Serial Reaction Time task (ASRT). Unlike the SRT, which often results in explicit knowledge and assesses sequence learning at one point in time, the ASRT has been shown to be implicit through sensitive measures of judgment, and it enables sequence learning to be measured continuously. In both studies, we found that implicit learning was superior in the groups that were primed for goal achievement compared to control groups, but the effect was transient. We discuss possible reasons for the observed time course of the positive effects of goal priming, as well as some future areas of investigation to better understand the mechanisms that underlie this effect, which could lead to methods to prolong the positive effects. PMID:25084974

  3. Priming Ditransitive Structures in Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Manabu; van Gompel, Roger P. G.; Scheepers, Cristoph

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown evidence for syntactic priming during language production (e.g., Bock, 1986). It is often assumed that comprehension and production share similar mechanisms and that priming also occurs during comprehension (e.g., Pickering & Garrod, 2004). Research investigating priming during comprehension (e.g., Branigan et al., 2005 and…

  4. Masked Repetition Priming Using Magnetoencephalography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Philip J.; Fiorentino, Robert; Poeppel, David

    2008-01-01

    Masked priming is used in psycholinguistic studies to assess questions about lexical access and representation. We present two masked priming experiments using MEG. If the MEG signal elicited by words reflects specific aspects of lexical retrieval, then one expects to identify specific neural correlates of retrieval that are sensitive to priming.…

  5. The Causal Effect of Market Priming on Trust: An Experimental Investigation Using Randomized Control

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ubaydli, Omar; Houser, Daniel; Nye, John; Paganelli, Maria Pia; Pan, Xiaofei Sophia

    2013-01-01

    We report data from laboratory experiments where participants were primed using phrases related to markets and trade. Participants then participated in trust games with anonymous strangers. The decisions of primed participants are compared to those of a control group. We find evidence that priming for market participation affects positively the beliefs regarding the trustworthiness of anonymous strangers and increases trusting decisions. PMID:23472068

  6. Identity Negative Priming: A Phenomenon of Perception, Recognition or Selection?

    PubMed Central

    Schrobsdorff, Hecke; Ihrke, Matthias; Behrendt, Jörg; Herrmann, J. Michael; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The present study addresses the problem whether negative priming (NP) is due to information processing in perception, recognition or selection. We argue that most NP studies confound priming and perceptual similarity of prime-probe episodes and implement a color-switch paradigm in order to resolve the issue. In a series of three identity negative priming experiments with verbal naming response, we determined when NP and positive priming (PP) occur during a trial. The first experiment assessed the impact of target color on priming effects. It consisted of two blocks, each with a different fixed target color. With respect to target color no differential priming effects were found. In Experiment 2 the target color was indicated by a cue for each trial. Here we resolved the confounding of perceptual similarity and priming condition. In trials with coinciding colors for prime and probe, we found priming effects similar to Experiment 1. However, trials with a target color switch showed such effects only in trials with role-reversal (distractor-to-target or target-to-distractor), whereas the positive priming (PP) effect in the target-repetition trials disappeared. Finally, Experiment 3 split trial processing into two phases by presenting the trial-wise color cue only after the stimulus objects had been recognized. We found recognition in every priming condition to be faster than in control trials. We were hence led to the conclusion that PP is strongly affected by perception, in contrast to NP which emerges during selection, i.e., the two effects cannot be explained by a single mechanism. PMID:22427915

  7. Prime time news: the influence of primed positive and negative emotion on susceptibility to false memories.

    PubMed

    Porter, Stephen; ten Brinke, Leanne; Riley, Sean N; Baker, Alysha

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relation between emotion and susceptibility to misinformation using a novel paradigm, the ambiguous stimuli affective priming (ASAP) paradigm. Participants (N = 88) viewed ambiguous neutral images primed either at encoding or retrieval to be interpreted as either highly positive or negative (or neutral/not primed). After viewing the images, they either were asked misleading or non-leading questions. Following a delay, memory accuracy for the original images was assessed. Results indicated that any emotional priming at encoding led to a higher susceptibility to misinformation relative to priming at recall. In particular, inducing a negative interpretation of the image at encoding led to an increased susceptibility of false memories for major misinformation (an entire object not actually present in the scene). In contrast, this pattern was reversed when priming was used at recall; a negative reinterpretation of the image decreased memory distortion relative to unprimed images. These findings suggest that, with precise experimental control, the experience of emotion at event encoding, in particular, is implicated in false memory susceptibility. PMID:24552271

  8. Generation of large prime numbers from a sequence of previous prime numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samir, Brahim Belhaouari; Rezk, Youssef A. Y.

    2012-09-01

    A prime number is co-prime with all the primes as well. This paper utilizes this fact by generating larger prime numbers based on a set of smaller prime numbers. The prime numbers are ordered and each two consecutive primes are coupled to generate their co-prime number formula extending this process larger prime sequence is established. Will the process help us produce larger prime numbers faster and more efficiently? This paper investigates the described process.

  9. Heterologous prime-boost vaccination.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shan

    2009-06-01

    An effective vaccine usually requires more than one time immunization in the form of prime-boost. Traditionally the same vaccines are given multiple times as homologous boosts. New findings suggested that prime-boost can be done with different types of vaccines containing the same antigens. In many cases such heterologous prime-boost can be more immunogenic than homologous prime-boost. Heterologous prime-boost represents a new way of immunization and will stimulate better understanding on the immunological basis of vaccines. PMID:19500964

  10. Repetition priming results in sensitivity attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Allenmark, Fredrik; Hsu, Yi-Fang; Roussel, Cedric; Waszak, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Repetition priming refers to the change in the ability to perform a task on a stimulus as a consequence of a former encounter with that very same item. Usually, repetition results in faster and more accurate performance. In the present study, we used a contrast discrimination protocol to assess perceptual sensitivity and response bias of Gabor gratings that are either repeated (same orientation) or alternated (different orientation). We observed that contrast discrimination performance is worse, not better, for repeated than for alternated stimuli. In a second experiment, we varied the probability of stimulus repetition, thus testing whether the repetition effect is due to bottom-up or top-down factors. We found that it is top-down expectation that determines the effect. We discuss the implication of these findings for repetition priming and related phenomena as sensory attenuation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:25819554

  11. Cost of immune priming within generations: trade-off between infection and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Garduño, J; Rodríguez, M C; Rodríguez, M H; Alvarado-Delgado, A; Lanz-Mendoza, H

    2014-03-01

    Immune priming is a new paradigm in innate immunity. However, most studies have focused on the benefits of priming (enhanced survival and parasite clearance after a second challenge), while little attention has been paid to the costs. In this study, both factors were investigated in Anopheles albimanus primed against Plasmodium berghei. As previously observed in other invertebrates, compared to un-primed mosquitoes, those primed better controlled a challenge from the same parasite, and had a higher survival rate. Although there was no difference in the number of oviposited eggs between primed and control females, hatching rate was lower in primed than in control mosquitoes and it was more likely for control females to produce eggs than for primed females. Furthermore, a trade-off between parasite elimination and egg production was observed among primed mosquitoes, as primed females that successfully fought the infection were unable to produce eggs, but primed females that produced eggs were similarly infected as control un-primed ones. These results concord with recent mathematical models suggesting that reproduction affects immune priming outcomes, and may explain why in some species and under some conditions it seems that immune priming is not occurring. PMID:24291714

  12. Centre-surround inhibition is a general aspect of famous-person recognition: evidence from negative semantic priming from clearly visible primes.

    PubMed

    Stone, Anna

    2012-05-01

    A centre-surround attentional mechanism was proposed by Carr and Dagenbach (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 16: 341-350, 1990) to account for their observations of negative semantic priming from hard-to-perceive primes. Their mechanism cannot account for the observation of negative semantic priming when primes are clearly visible. Three experiments (Ns = 30, 46, and 30) used a familiarity decision with names of famous people, preceded by a prime name with the same occupation as the target or with a different occupation. Negative semantic priming was observed at a 150- or 200-ms SOA, with positive priming at shorter (50-ms) and longer (1,000-ms) SOAs. In Experiment 3, we verified that the primes were easily recognisable in the priming task at an SOA that yielded negative semantic priming, which cannot be predicted by the original centre-surround mechanism. A modified version is proposed that explains transiently negative semantic priming by proposing that centre-surround inhibition is a normal, automatically invoked aspect of the semantic processing of visually presented famous names. PMID:22203608

  13. Self-regulation of priming effects on behavior.

    PubMed

    Gollwitzer, Peter M; Sheeran, Paschal; Trötschel, Roman; Webb, Thomas L

    2011-07-01

    In three experiments, we tested whether people can protect their ongoing goal pursuits from antagonistic priming effects by using if-then plans (i.e., implementation intentions). In Experiment 1, concept priming did not influence lexical decision time for a critical stimulus when participants had formed if-then plans to make fast responses to that stimulus. In Experiment 2, participants who were primed with a prosocial goal allowed a confederate who asked for help to interrupt their work on a focal task for a longer time if they had merely formed goal intentions to perform well than if they had also formed implementation intentions for concentrating on the task. In Experiment 3, priming the goal of being fast increased driving speed and errors for participants who had formed mere goal intentions to drive only as fast as safety allowed or who had formed no goal intentions, whereas the driving of participants who had formed such goal intentions as well as implementation intentions showed no such priming effects. Our findings indicate that implementation intentions are an effective self-regulatory tool for shielding actions from disruptive concept- or goal-priming effects. PMID:21652777

  14. Task Importance Affects Event-based Prospective Memory Performance in Adults with HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders and HIV-infected Young Adults with Problematic Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Steven Paul; Doyle, Katie L.; Morgan, Erin E.; Naar-King, Sylvie; Outlaw, Angulique Y.; Nichols, Sharon L.; Loft, Shayne

    2014-01-01

    Objective Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of task importance on event-based prospective memory (PM) in separate samples of adults with HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) and HIV-infected young adults with Substance Use Disorders (SUD). Method All participants completed three conditions of an ongoing lexical decision task: 1) without PM task requirements; 2) with PM task requirements that emphasized the importance of the ongoing task; and 3) with PM task requirements that emphasized the importance of the PM task. Results In both experiments, all HIV+ groups showed the expected increase in response costs to the ongoing task when the PM task’s importance was emphasized. In Experiment 1, individuals with HAND showed significantly lower PM accuracy as compared to HIV+ subjects without HAND when the importance of the ongoing task was emphasized, but improved significantly and no longer differed from HIV+ subjects without HAND when the PM task was emphasized. A similar pattern of findings emerged in Experiment 2, whereby HIV+ young adults with SUD (especially cannabis) showed significant improvements in PM accuracy when the PM task was emphasized. Conclusions Findings suggest that both HAND and SUD may increase the amount of cognitive attentional resources that need to be allocated to support PM performance in persons living with HIV infection. PMID:24834469

  15. Conceptual priming for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words.

    PubMed

    Frey, Aline; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Besson, Mireille

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted using both behavioral and Event-Related brain Potentials methods to examine conceptual priming effects for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words. Prime and target sounds were presented in four stimulus combinations: Sound-Sound, Word-Sound, Sound-Word and Word-Word. Within each combination, targets were conceptually related to the prime, unrelated or ambiguous. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge whether the primes and targets fit together (explicit task) and in Experiment 2 they had to decide whether the target was typical or ambiguous (implicit task). In both experiments and in the four stimulus combinations, reaction times and/or error rates were longer/higher and the N400 component was larger to ambiguous targets than to conceptually related targets, thereby pointing to a common conceptual system for processing auditory scenes and linguistic stimuli in both explicit and implicit tasks. However, fine-grained analyses also revealed some differences between experiments and conditions in scalp topography and duration of the priming effects possibly reflecting differences in the integration of perceptual and cognitive attributes of linguistic and nonlinguistic sounds. These results have clear implications for the building-up of virtual environments that need to convey meaning without words. PMID:24378910

  16. A Brighter Side to Memory Illusions: False Memories Prime Children's and Adults' Insight-Based Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Charlesworth, Monica; Knott, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Can false memories have a positive consequence on human cognition? In two experiments, we investigated whether false memories could prime insight problem-solving tasks. Children and adults were asked to solve compound remote associate task (CRAT) problems, half of which had been primed by the presentation of Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists…

  17. Task Switching in a Hierarchical Task Structure: Evidence for the Fragility of the Task Repetition Benefit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms.…

  18. Visual speech primes open-set recognition of spoken words

    PubMed Central

    Buchwald, Adam B.; Winters, Stephen J.; Pisoni, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Visual speech perception has become a topic of considerable interest to speech researchers. Previous research has demonstrated that perceivers neurally encode and use speech information from the visual modality, and this information has been found to facilitate spoken word recognition in tasks such as lexical decision (Kim, Davis, & Krins, 2004). In this paper, we used a cross-modality repetition priming paradigm with visual speech lexical primes and auditory lexical targets to explore the nature of this priming effect. First, we report that participants identified spoken words mixed with noise more accurately when the words were preceded by a visual speech prime of the same word compared with a control condition. Second, analyses of the responses indicated that both correct and incorrect responses were constrained by the visual speech information in the prime. These complementary results suggest that the visual speech primes have an effect on lexical access by increasing the likelihood that words with certain phonetic properties are selected. Third, we found that the cross-modality repetition priming effect was maintained even when visual and auditory signals came from different speakers, and thus different instances of the same lexical item. We discuss implications of these results for current theories of speech perception. PMID:21544260

  19. The time course of social-emotional processing in early childhood: ERP responses to facial affect and personal familiarity in a Go-Nogo task.

    PubMed

    Todd, Rebecca M; Lewis, Marc D; Meusel, Liesel-Ann; Zelazo, Philip David

    2008-01-31

    To date, little is known about the neural underpinnings of social-emotional processes in young children. The present study investigated the time course of children's ERP responses to facial expression and personal familiarity, and the effect of these variables on ERP measures of effortful attention in a Go-Nogo task. Dense-array EEG was collected from 48 4-6-year-old children who were presented with pictures of their mothers' and strangers' happy and angry faces. ERPs were scored following face presentation and following a subsequent cue signaling a Go or Nogo response. Responses to face presentation showed early perceptual components that were larger following strangers' faces, suggesting facilitated rapid processing of personally important faces. A mid-latency frontocentral negativity was greatest following angry mothers' faces, indicating increased attentional monitoring and/or recognition memory evoked by an angry parent. Finally a right-lateralized late positive component was largest following angry faces, suggesting extended processing of negatively valenced social stimuli in general. Following the Go-Nogo response cue, a right-lateralized mid-latency negativity thought to measure effortful attention was larger in Nogo than Go trials, and following angry than happy faces, possibly reflecting increased effortful control required in those conditions. The present study suggests that overlapping but differentiated networks for both rapid and elaborative processing of important socio-affective information are established by 4-6 years. Moreover, the extended spatial and temporal distribution of components suggests a pattern of response to social stimuli in which more rapid processes may index personal familiarity, whereas temporally extended processes are sensitive to affective valence on both familiar and unfamiliar faces. PMID:18061633

  20. Effects of aging on priming and skill learning.

    PubMed

    Hashtroudi, S; Chrosniak, L D; Schwartz, B L

    1991-12-01

    This study examined the effects of aging on 2 kinds of implicit memory; repetition priming and skill learning. In Experiment 1, older adults showed less improvement in the skill of reading inverted words than did young adults, but priming performance did not differ for the 2 age groups. Similarly, in Experiment 2, in a partial-word identification task, skill learning was observed only for young adults, whereas there was no age difference in priming. Experiments 1a and 2a, however, showed that when older adults were presented with more perceptual information than were young adults, the age deficit in skill learning was eliminated. These results indicate that skill learning is impaired under data-limited conditions, whereas priming is unaffected under these conditions. It is proposed that the age deficit in skill learning is related to a deficit in perceptual organization and reorganization. PMID:1777149

  1. Priming effects under correct change detection and change blindness.

    PubMed

    Caudek, Corrado; Domini, Fulvio

    2013-03-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the priming effects induced by an image change on a successive animate/inanimate decision task. We studied both perceptual (Experiments 1 and 2) and conceptual (Experiment 3) priming effects, under correct change detection and change blindness (CB). Under correct change detection, we found larger positive priming effects on congruent trials for probes representing animate entities than for probes representing artifactual objects. Under CB, we found performance impairment relative to a "no-change" baseline condition. This inhibition effect induced by CB was modulated by the semantic congruency between the changed item and the probe in the case of probe images, but not for probe words. We discuss our results in the context of the literature on the negative priming effect. PMID:22964454

  2. Transposed-letter priming effects in reading aloud words and nonwords.

    PubMed

    Mousikou, Petroula; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Wu, Simon; Norris, Dennis

    2015-10-01

    A masked nonword prime generated by transposing adjacent inner letters in a word (e.g., jugde) facilitates the recognition of the target word (JUDGE) more than a prime in which the relevant letters are replaced by different letters (e.g., junpe). This transposed-letter (TL) priming effect has been widely interpreted as evidence that the coding of letter position is flexible, rather than precise. Although the TL priming effect has been extensively investigated in the domain of visual word recognition using the lexical decision task, very few studies have investigated this empirical phenomenon in reading aloud. In the present study, we investigated TL priming effects in reading aloud words and nonwords and found that these effects are of equal magnitude for the two types of items. We take this result as support for the view that the TL priming effect arises from noisy perception of letter order within the prime prior to the mapping of orthography to phonology. PMID:25665798

  3. Subliminal semantic priming in near absence of attention: A cursor motion study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kunchen; Yamauchi, Takashi

    2015-12-15

    The role of attention in subliminal semantic priming remains controversial: some researchers argue that attention is necessary for subliminal semantic priming, while others suggest that subliminal semantic processing is free from the influence of attention. The present study employs a cursor motion method to measure priming and evaluate the influence of attention. Specifically, by employing a semantic priming task developed by Naccache, Blandin, and Dehaene (2002), we investigate the extent to which top-down attention influences semantic priming. Results indicate that, consistent with the Naccache et al. (2002) results, attention facilitates priming. However, inconsistent with their theory, significant priming is still observed even in near absence of attention. We suggest that top-down attention helps but is not necessary for subliminal semantic processing. PMID:26547054

  4. How do video-based demonstration assessment tasks affect problem-solving process, test anxiety, chemistry anxiety and achievement in general chemistry students?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Rosalind Stephanie

    2001-12-01

    Because paper-and-pencil testing provides limited knowledge about what students know about chemical phenomena, we have developed video-based demonstrations to broaden measurement of student learning. For example, students might be shown a video demonstrating equilibrium shifts. Two methods for viewing equilibrium shifts are changing the concentration of the reactants and changing the temperature of the system. The students are required to combine the data collected from the video and their knowledge of chemistry to determine which way the equilibrium shifts. Video-based demonstrations are important techniques for measuring student learning because they require students to apply conceptual knowledge learned in class to a specific chemical problem. This study explores how video-based demonstration assessment tasks affect problem-solving processes, test anxiety, chemistry anxiety and achievement in general chemistry students. Several instruments were used to determine students' knowledge about chemistry, students' test and chemistry anxiety before and after treatment. Think-aloud interviews were conducted to determine students' problem-solving processes after treatment. The treatment group was compared to a control group and a group watching video demonstrations. After treatment students' anxiety increased and achievement decreased. There were also no significant differences found in students' problem-solving processes following treatment. These negative findings may be attributed to several factors that will be explored in this study.

  5. The effect of word imagery on priming effect under a preconscious condition: An fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Choi, Jeewook; Yoo, Jae Hyun; Kim, Minjung; Lee, Seungbok; Kim, Ji-Woong; Jeong, Bumseok

    2014-01-01

    Semantic priming is affected by the degree of association and how readily a word is imagined. In the association effect, activity in the perisylvian structures including the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, the left middle temporal gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus was correlated. However, little is known about the brain regions related to the effect of imagery word under the preconscious condition. Forty word pairs for high (HA)-, low (LA)-, and nonassociation (NA), nonword (NW) conditions were presented. Each 40 association word pairs (HA and LA) included 20 high (HI) and 20 low (LI) imagery prime stimuli, using a visually presented lexical decision task. A trial consisted of 30 ms prime, 30 ms mask, 500 ms probe, and 2–8 s stimulus onset asynchrony. Brain activation was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging during word discrimination. Behavioral data indicated that the shortest response time (RT) was given for HA words, followed by LA and NA, and NW showed the longest RT (P < 0.01). RT was faster in HI than LI within HA, but not LA conditions (P < 0.01). Functional neuroimaging showed that differential brain regions for high imagery (HI) and low imagery (LI) words within low prime-target word association were observed in the left precuneus, left posterior cingulate gyrus, and right cuneal cortex. The present findings demonstrate that the effect of the degree of imagery on semantic priming occurs during the early stage of language processing, indicating an “automatic imagery priming effect.” Our paradigm may be useful to explore semantic deficit related to imagery in various psychiatric disorders. PMID:24692197

  6. Targeting novel chemical and constitutive primed metabolites against Plectosphaerella cucumerina.

    PubMed

    Gamir, Jordi; Pastor, Victoria; Kaever, Alexander; Cerezo, Miguel; Flors, Victor

    2014-04-01

    Priming is a physiological state for protection of plants against a broad range of pathogens, and is achieved through stimulation of the plant immune system. Various stimuli, such as beneficial microbes and chemical induction, activate defense priming. In the present study, we demonstrate that impairment of the high-affinity nitrate transporter 2.1 (encoded by NRT2.1) enables Arabidopsis to respond more quickly and strongly to Plectosphaerella cucumerina attack, leading to enhanced resistance. The Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lin1 (affected in NRT2.1) is a priming mutant that displays constitutive resistance to this necrotroph, with no associated developmental or growth costs. Chemically induced priming by β-aminobutyric acid treatment, the constitutive priming mutant ocp3 and the constitutive priming present in the lin1 mutant result in a common metabolic profile within the same plant-pathogen interactions. The defense priming significantly affects sugar metabolism, cell-wall remodeling and shikimic acid derivatives levels, and results in specific changes in the amino acid profile and three specific branches of Trp metabolism, particularly accumulation of indole acetic acid, indole-3-carboxaldehyde and camalexin, but not the indolic glucosinolates. Metabolomic analysis facilitated identification of three metabolites in the priming fingerprint: galacturonic acid, indole-3-carboxylic acid and hypoxanthine. Treatment of plants with the latter two metabolites by soil drenching induced resistance against P. cucumerina, demonstrating that these compounds are key components of defense priming against this necrotrophic fungus. Here we demonstrate that indole-3-carboxylic acid induces resistance by promoting papillae deposition and H2 O2 production, and that this is independent of PR1, VSP2 and PDF1.2 priming. PMID:24506441

  7. Priming healthy eating. You can't prime all the people all of the time☆

    PubMed Central

    Forwood, Suzanna E.; Ahern, Amy L.; Hollands, Gareth J.; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the context of a food purchasing environment filled with advertising and promotions, and an increased desire from policy makers to guide individuals toward choosing healthier foods, this study tests whether priming methods that use healthy food adverts to increase preference for healthier food generalize to a representative population. MethodsIn two studies (Study 1 n = 143; Study 2 n = 764), participants were randomly allocated to a prime condition, where they viewed fruit and vegetable advertisements, or a control condition, with no advertisements. A subsequent forced choice task assessed preference between fruits and other sweet snacks. Additional measures included current hunger and thirst, dietary restraint, age, gender, education and self-reported weight and height. ResultsIn Study 1, hunger reduced preferences for fruits (OR (95% CI) = 0.38 (0.26–0.56), p < 0.0001), an effect countered by the prime (OR (95% CI) = 2.29 (1.33–3.96), p = 0.003). In Study 2, the effect of the prime did not generalize to a representative population. More educated participants, as used in Study 1, chose more fruit when hungry and primed (OR (95% CI) = 1.42 (1.13–1.79), p = 0.003), while less educated participants' fruit choice was unaffected by hunger or the prime. ConclusionThis study provides preliminary evidence that the effects of adverts on healthy eating choices depend on key individual traits (education level) and states (hunger), do not generalize to a broader population and have the potential to increase health inequalities arising from food choice. PMID:25636234

  8. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  9. Further Evidence of Gender Stereotype Priming in Language: Semantic Facilitation and Inhibition in Italian Role Nouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciari, Cristina; Padovani, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments tested the activation of gender stereotypes for Italian role nouns (e.g., "teacher"). The experimental paradigm was modeled on the one proposed by a study by Banaji and Hardin: participants were shown a prime word followed by a target pronoun ("he" or "she") on which they performed a gender decision task. The prime words were…

  10. Masked Translation Priming: Varying Language Experience and Word Type with Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Chris; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Garcia-Albea, Jose E.; Guasch, Marc; Molero, Margarita; Ferre, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Spanish-English bilingual lexical organization was investigated using masked cognate and non-cognate priming with the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, three groups of bilinguals (Spanish dominant, English dominant and Balanced) and a single group of beginning bilinguals (Spanish) were tested with Spanish and English targets primed by…

  11. Not All Skilled Readers Have Cracked the Code: Individual Differences in Masked Form Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Sally; Lo, Steson

    2012-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether individual differences in written language proficiency among university students predict the early stages of lexical retrieval tapped by the masked form priming lexical decision task. To separate the contributions of sublexical facilitation and lexical competition to masked form priming, the effects of prime…

  12. Prime time sexual harrassment.

    PubMed

    Grauerholz, E; King, A

    1997-04-01

    This study explores the explicit and implicit messages of sexual harassment that viewers receive when viewing prime-time television in the US. A content analysis of 48 hours of prime-time television reveals that sexual harassment on television is both highly visible and invisible. Sexual harassment is rendered visible simply by its prominence in these programs. Incidents involving quid-pro-quo harassment and environmental harassment occur with regularity on television. Furthermore, about 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; yet these acts of sexual harassment remained largely invisible because none of the behaviors were labeled as sexual harassment. These incidents are presented in humorous ways, and victims are generally unharmed and very effective at ending the harassment. Although such programs may actually reflect the reality of many women's lives in terms of prevalence of sexual harassment, they perpetuate several myths about sexual harassment, such as that sexual harassment is not serious and that victims should be able to handle the situations themselves. PMID:12294811

  13. Persistent Structural Priming and Frequency Effects during Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Martin J.; McLean, Janet F.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2013-01-01

    We report 2 experiments using a sentence--picture matching task concerned with the interpretation of prepositional phrases that were ambiguous between high and low attachment (Branigan, Pickering, & McLean, 2005). After reading a prime sentence with a particular interpretation, participants tended to interpret an ambiguous prepositional phrase…

  14. Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Devin; Fiacconi, Chris M.; Köhler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know (RK) paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift toward a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked. PMID:24795678

  15. Sensorimotor supremacy: Investigating conscious and unconscious vision by masked priming

    PubMed Central

    Ansorge, Ulrich; Neumann, Odmar; Becker, Stefanie I.; Kälberer, Holger; Cruse, Holk

    2008-01-01

    According to the sensorimotor supremacy hypothesis, conscious perception draws on motor action. In the present report, we will sketch two lines of potential development in the field of masking research based on the sensorimotor supremacy hypothesis. In the first part of the report, evidence is reviewed that masked, invisible stimuli can affect motor responses, attention shifts, and semantic processes. After the review of the corresponding evidence – so-called masked priming effects – an approach based on the sensorimotor supremacy hypothesis is detailed as to how the question of a unitary mechanism of unconscious vision can be pursued by masked priming studies. In the second part of the report, different models and theories of backward masking and masked priming are reviewed. Types of models based on the sensorimotor hypothesis are discussed that can take into account ways in which sensorimotor processes (reflected in masked priming effects) can affect conscious vision under backward masking conditions. PMID:20517513

  16. A Study of Relative-Position Priming with Superset Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Assche, Eva; Grainger, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Four lexical decision experiments are reported that use the masked priming paradigm to study the role of letter position information in orthographic processing. In Experiments 1 and 2, superset primes, formed by repetition of 1 or 2 letters of the target (e.g., jusstice-JUSTICE) or by insertion of 1 or 2 unrelated letters (e.g., juastice-JUSTICE),…

  17. 5[prime] to 3[prime] nucleic acid synthesis using 3[prime]-photoremovable protecting group

    DOEpatents

    Pirrung, M.C.; Shuey, S.W.; Bradley, J.C.

    1999-06-01

    The present invention relates, in general, to a method of synthesizing a nucleic acid, and, in particular, to a method of effecting 5[prime] to 3[prime] nucleic acid synthesis. The method can be used to prepare arrays of oligomers bound to a support via their 5[prime] end. The invention also relates to a method of effecting mutation analysis using such arrays. The invention further relates to compounds and compositions suitable for use in such methods.

  18. Rhizosphere priming effects in two contrasting soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Davidson; Kirk, Guy; Ritz, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Inputs of fresh plant-derived carbon may stimulate the turnover of existing soil organic matter by so-called priming effects. Priming may occur directly, as a result of nutrient 'mining' by existing microbial communities, or indirectly via population adjustments. However the mechanisms are poorly understood. We planted C4 Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) in pots with two contrasting C3 soils (clayey, fertile TB and sandy, acid SH), and followed the soil CO2 efflux and its δ13C. The extent of C deposition in the rhizosphere was altered by intermittently clipping the grass in half the pots; there were also unplanted controls. At intervals, pots were destructively sampled for root and shoot biomass. Total soil CO2 efflux was measured using a gas-tight PVC chamber fitted over bare soil, and connected to an infra-red gas analyser; the δ13C of efflux was measured in air sub-samples withdrawn by syringe. The extent of priming was inferred from the δ13C of efflux and the δ13C of the plant and soil end-members. In unclipped treatments, in both soils, increased total soil respiration and rhizosphere priming effects (RPE) were apparent compared to the unplanted controls. The TB soil had greater RPE overall. The total respiration in clipped TB soil was significantly greater than in the unplanted controls, but in the clipped SH soil it was not significantly different from the controls. Clipping affected plant C partitioning with greater allocation to shoot regrowth from about 4 weeks after planting. Total plant biomass decreased in the order TB unclipped > SH unclipped >TB clipped > SH clipped. The results are consistent with priming driven by microbial activation stimulated by rhizodeposits and by nitrogen demand from the growing plants under N limited conditions. Our data suggest that photosynthesis drives RPE and soil differences may alter the rate and intensity of RPE but not the direction.

  19. Investigating Home Primes and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Marlena; Schiffman, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The process of prime factor splicing to generate home primes raises opportunity for conjecture and exploration. The notion of "home primes" is relatively new in the chronicle of mathematics. Heleen (1996-97) first described a procedure called "prime factor splicing" (PFS). The exploration of home primes is interesting and…

  20. Processing of Phonemic Consonant Length: Semantic and Fragment Priming Evidence from Bengali.

    PubMed

    Kotzor, Sandra; Wetterlin, Allison; Roberts, Adam C; Lahiri, Aditi

    2016-03-01

    Six cross-modal lexical decision tasks with priming probed listeners' processing of the geminate-singleton contrast in Bengali, where duration alone leads to phonemic contrast ([pata] 'leaf' vs. [pat:a] 'whereabouts'), in order to investigate the phonological representation of consonantal duration in the lexicon. Four form-priming experiments (auditory fragment primes and visual targets) were designed to investigate listeners' sensitivity to segments of conflicting duration. Each prime derived from a real word ([k(h)[symbol: see text]m]/[g(h)en:]) was matched with a mispronunciation of the opposite duration (*[k(h)[symbol: see text]m:]/*[g(h)en]) and both were used to prime the full words [k(h)[symbol: see text]ma] ('forgiveness') and [g(h)en:a] ('disgust') respectively. Although all fragments led to priming, the results showed an asymmetric pattern. The fragments of words with singletons mispronounced as geminates led to equal priming, while those with geminates mispronounced as singletons showed a difference. The priming effect of the real-word geminate fragment was significantly greater than that of its corresponding nonword singleton fragment. In two subsequent semantic priming tasks with full-word primes a stronger asymmetry was found: nonword geminates (*[k(h)[symbol: see text]m:a]) primed semantically related words ([marjona] 'forgiveness') but singleton nonword primes (*[ghena]) did not show priming. This overall asymmetry in the tolerance of geminate nonwords in place of singleton words is attributed to a representational mismatch and points towards a moraic representation of duration. While geminates require a mora which cannot be derived from singleton input, the additional information in geminate nonwords does not create a similar mismatch. PMID:27089807

  1. Two failures to replicate high-performance-goal priming effects.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christine R; Coburn, Noriko; Rohrer, Doug; Pashler, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Bargh et al. (2001) reported two experiments in which people were exposed to words related to achievement (e.g., strive, attain) or to neutral words, and then performed a demanding cognitive task. Performance on the task was enhanced after exposure to the achievement related words. Bargh and colleagues concluded that better performance was due to the achievement words having activated a "high-performance goal". Because the paper has been cited well over 1100 times, an attempt to replicate its findings would seem warranted. Two direct replication attempts were performed. Results from the first experiment (n = 98) found no effect of priming, and the means were in the opposite direction from those reported by Bargh and colleagues. The second experiment followed up on the observation by Bargh et al. (2001) that high-performance-goal priming was enhanced by a 5-minute delay between priming and test. Adding such a delay, we still found no evidence for high-performance-goal priming (n = 66). These failures to replicate, along with other recent results, suggest that the literature on goal priming requires some skeptical scrutiny. PMID:23977304

  2. Priming Macho Attitudes and Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Erik D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated the effects of reading one of four priming stimuli stories (control, consenting sex, rape, or family) on males' evaluations of, and emotional reactions to, two videotaped date-rape scenarios. Results supported the concepts of a macho personality and revealed interactive effects for both the rape and family prime. (RJM)

  3. Immediate Priming and Cognitive Aftereffects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Three forced-choice perceptual word identification experiments tested the claim that transitions from positive to negative priming as a function of increasing prime duration are due to cognitive aftereffects. These aftereffects are similar in nature to perceptual aftereffects that produce a negative image due to overexposure and habituation to a…

  4. Representing Numbers: Prime and Irrational

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina

    2005-01-01

    This article draws an analogy between prime and irrational numbers with respect to how these numbers are defined and how they are perceived by learners. Excerpts are presented from two research studies: a study on understanding prime numbers by pre-service elementary school teachers and a study on understanding irrational numbers by pre-service…

  5. Can short-term oral fine motor training affect precision of task performance and induce cortical plasticity of the jaw muscles?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Kumar, Abhishek; Kothari, Mohit; Luo, Xiaoping; Trulsson, Mats; Svensson, Krister G; Svensson, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The aim was to test the hypothesis that short-term oral sensorimotor training of the jaw muscles would increase the precision of task performance and induce neuroplastic changes in the corticomotor pathways, related to the masseter muscle. Fifteen healthy volunteers performed six series with ten trials of an oral sensorimotor task. The task was to manipulate and position a spherical chocolate candy in between the anterior teeth and split it into two equal halves. The precision of the task performance was evaluated by comparing the ratio between the two split halves. A series of "hold-and-split" tasks was also performed before and after the training. The hold force and split force along with the electromyographic (EMG) activity of jaw muscles were recorded. Motor-evoked potentials and cortical motor maps of the right masseter muscle were evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation. There was a significant effect of series on the precision of the task performance during the short-term oral sensorimotor training (P < 0.002). The hold force during the "hold-and-split" task was significantly lower after training than before the short-term training (P = 0.011). However, there was no change in the split force and the EMG activity of the jaw muscles before and after the training. Further, there was a significant increase in the amplitude of the motor-evoked potentials (P < 0.016) and in the motor cortex map areas (P = 0.033), after the short-term oral sensorimotor training. Therefore, short-term oral sensorimotor task training increased the precision of task performance and induced signs of neuroplastic changes in the corticomotor pathways, related to the masseter muscle. PMID:26914481

  6. "Letting Go" (Implicitly): Priming Mindfulness Mitigates the Effects of a Moderate Social Stressor.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Catherine M; Almgren-Doré, Isabelle; Dandeneau, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    This experimental study investigated whether implicitly priming mindfulness would facilitate psychological and cortisol recovery after undergoing a standardized psychological stressor. After completing baseline measures of well-being, all participants (N = 91) completed a public speaking stress task, were implicitly primed with "mindfulness" or "neutral" concepts using a scrambled sentence task, and finally, reported their situational well-being and provided cortisol samples. Simple moderation regression analyses revealed that the implicit mindfulness condition had significant beneficial effects for participants with low trait mindfulness. These participants reported higher situational self-esteem as well as less negative affect, perceived stress, and self-reported physiological arousal than their counterparts in the control condition. Cortisol analyses revealed that participants in the implicit mindfulness condition, regardless of level of trait mindfulness, showed a greater decline in cortisol during the early recovery stage compared to those in the control condition. Overall, results suggest that implicitly activating mindfulness can mitigate the psychological and physiological effects of a social stressor. PMID:27378973

  7. “Letting Go” (Implicitly): Priming Mindfulness Mitigates the Effects of a Moderate Social Stressor

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Catherine M.; Almgren-Doré, Isabelle; Dandeneau, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    This experimental study investigated whether implicitly priming mindfulness would facilitate psychological and cortisol recovery after undergoing a standardized psychological stressor. After completing baseline measures of well-being, all participants (N = 91) completed a public speaking stress task, were implicitly primed with “mindfulness” or “neutral” concepts using a scrambled sentence task, and finally, reported their situational well-being and provided cortisol samples. Simple moderation regression analyses revealed that the implicit mindfulness condition had significant beneficial effects for participants with low trait mindfulness. These participants reported higher situational self-esteem as well as less negative affect, perceived stress, and self-reported physiological arousal than their counterparts in the control condition. Cortisol analyses revealed that participants in the implicit mindfulness condition, regardless of level of trait mindfulness, showed a greater decline in cortisol during the early recovery stage compared to those in the control condition. Overall, results suggest that implicitly activating mindfulness can mitigate the psychological and physiological effects of a social stressor. PMID:27378973

  8. Chaotic Nonlinear Prime Number Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Luis A.

    2011-06-01

    Dynamical systems in nature, such as heartbeat patterns, DNA sequence pattern, prime number distribution, etc., exhibit nonlinear (chaotic) space-time fluctuations and exact quantification of the fluctuation pattern for predictability purposes has not yet been achieved [1]. In this paper a chaotic-nonlinear prime number function P(s) is developed, from which prime numbers are generated and decoded while composite numbers are encoded over time following the Euler product methodology, which works on sequences progressively culled from multiples of the preceding primes. By relating this P(s) to a virtually closed 2D number line manifold, it is possible to represent the evolving in time of nonlinear (chaotic) systems to a final value where the system becomes stable, becomes linear. This nonlinear prime number function is proposed as a chaotic model system able to describe chaotic systems.

  9. Sequential congruency effects: disentangling priming and conflict adaptation.

    PubMed

    Puccioni, Olga; Vallesi, Antonino

    2012-09-01

    Responding to the color of a word is slower and less accurate if the word refers to a different color (incongruent condition) than if it refers to the same color (congruent condition). This phenomenon, known as the Stroop effect, is modulated by sequential effects: it is bigger when the current trial is preceded by a congruent condition than by an incongruent one in the previous trial. Whether this phenomenon is due to priming mechanisms or to cognitive control is still debated. To disentangle the contribution of priming with respect to conflict adaptation mechanisms in determining sequential effects, two experiments were designed here with a four-alternative forced choice (4-AFC) Stroop task: in the first one only trials with complete alternations of features were used, while in the second experiment all possible types of repetitions were presented. Both response times (RTs) and errors were evaluated. Conflict adaptation effects on RTs were limited to congruent trials and were exclusively due to priming: they disappeared in the priming-free experiment and, in the second experiment, they occurred in sequences with feature repetitions but not in complete alternation sequences. Error results, instead, support the presence of conflict adaptation effects in incongruent trials. In priming-free sequences (experiment 1 and complete alternation sequences of experiment 2) with incongruent previous trials there was no error Stroop effect, while this effect was significant with congruent previous trials. These results indicate that cognitive control may modulate performance above and beyond priming effects. PMID:21735040

  10. Past Tense Route Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Shikora, Emily R.; Balota, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The present research examined whether lexical (whole word) or more rule-based (morphological constituent) processes can be locally biased by experimental list context in past tense verb inflection. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults completed a past tense inflection task in which list context was manipulated across blocks containing regular…

  11. Suggestion-Induced Modulation of Semantic Priming during Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Martin; Kiefer, Markus; Bongartz, Walter; Grön, Georg; Hoenig, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a primed visual lexical decision task, we investigated the neural and functional mechanisms underlying modulations of semantic word processing through hypnotic suggestions aimed at altering lexical processing of primes. The priming task was to discriminate between target words and pseudowords presented 200 ms after the prime word which was semantically related or unrelated to the target. In a counterbalanced study design, each participant performed the task once at normal wakefulness and once after the administration of hypnotic suggestions to perceive the prime as a meaningless symbol of a foreign language. Neural correlates of priming were defined as significantly lower activations upon semantically related compared to unrelated trials. We found significant suggestive treatment-induced reductions in neural priming, albeit irrespective of the degree of suggestibility. Neural priming was attenuated upon suggestive treatment compared with normal wakefulness in brain regions supporting automatic (fusiform gyrus) and controlled semantic processing (superior and middle temporal gyri, pre- and postcentral gyri, and supplementary motor area). Hence, suggestions reduced semantic word processing by conjointly dampening both automatic and strategic semantic processes. PMID:25923740

  12. Exploring interactions between semantic and syntactic processes: The role of animacy in syntactic priming.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Marina; Gámez, Perla B

    2015-10-01

    The current study addressed the relation between syntactic and semantic processes during language production in 5- and 6-year-old children. A priming paradigm was used to examine children's production of passives in describing transitive scenes (target pictures) following exposure to the experimenter's sentences (primes). The key question was whether the tendency to repeat the syntactic form of the prime was affected by the animacy features in the prime and the target picture. In Experiment 1, children heard either passive or active primes with varied animacy configurations (e.g., animate patient/inanimate agent vs. inanimate patient/animate agent). The animacy features of the prime matched those of the target. Similar to prior studies, results showed a greater use of passives following passive, as opposed to active, primes. Critically, the difference between the two priming conditions varied as a function of animacy; it was larger when the prime and the target included an animate patient/inanimate agent than with the reversed animacy. In Experiment 2, the animacy configuration of the prime either matched or did not match that of the target. Results showed a greater likelihood of producing a passive when the target picture contained an animate patient versus an inanimate patient, and this effect was stronger when the prime had the same animacy features. The findings indicating that syntactic priming is moderated by animacy are discussed in the broader context of understanding the role of semantics in guiding the choice of syntactic structure. PMID:26024980

  13. Interviewing to elicit information: Using priming to promote disclosure.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Evan; Hartwig, Maria; Brimbal, Laure

    2015-10-01

    Research on implicit cognition has found that activating mental concepts can lead people to behave in ways that are consistent with the primed concept. In a pilot study we tested the effects of priming attachment security on the accessibility of disclosure-related concepts. Subsequently, we tested whether activating disclosure concepts by priming attachment security would influence people's forthcomingness. Participants (N = 102) delivered a flash drive to a confederate who exposed them to details of a mock eco terrorism conspiracy, which they were subsequently interviewed about. Before being interviewed, half of the participants were primed; the other half were not. Results showed that primed participants disclosed significantly more information than those who were not primed. Our findings highlight the need for further research on basic nonconscious processes in investigative interviews, as such influences can affect the outcome of the interview. The operation of nonconscious influences in such contexts has implications for practitioners, who may be able to utilize priming to facilitate disclosure. PMID:26076119

  14. Musical priming by the right hemisphere post-callosotomy.

    PubMed

    Tramo, M J; Bharucha, J J

    1991-01-01

    The hemispheric representation of auditory functions mediating the perception of harmony in music was investigated in two split-brain patients using a musical chord priming task. Previous experiments in normal subjects had demonstrated that the harmonic context established by a prime chord influences the accuracy of target chord intonation judgements. Only the right hemisphere of each callosotomy patient manifested the normal interaction between harmonic relatedness and intonation. The results raise the possibility that associative auditory functions which generate expectancies for harmonic progression in music are lateralized within the right hemisphere. PMID:1857503

  15. Pain-related and negative semantic priming enhances perceived pain intensity

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Maria; Schroeter, Christoph; Puensch, Theresa; Straube, Thomas; Hecht, Holger; Ritter, Alexander; Miltner, Wolfgang HR; Weiss, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Negative affective and pain-related cues, such as pictures or words, have been shown to act as primes and enhance the perceived intensity of subsequent painful events. For pain-related semantic primes, it remains unclear whether this effect depends on negative valence itself or, specifically, on the pain-relatedness of the words. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of pain-related, negative affective (pain-unrelated) and neutral semantic primes on the perception of subsequent noxious target stimuli. METHODS: Pain ratings in response to noxious electrical stimulation of light and moderate intensity were examined in 39 healthy subjects after subjects were exposed to semantic primes of different meaning and valence (pain-related, negative, positive and neutral adjectives) presented with different interstimulus intervals (0 ms, 500 ms and 1500 ms). RESULTS: Increased pain ratings of noxious stimuli were observed following pain-related and negative compared with neutral primes. DISCUSSION: The results support the motivational priming theory for semantic stimuli, indicating that affectively negative semantic primes increase subjective pain intensity. However, a specific pain-related priming effect was not reliably demonstrated. Additionally, it is shown that experimental parameters (ie, stimulus intensity and interstimulus interval) modify the extent of negative and pain-related semantic priming. CONCLUSIONS: Verbal priming plays a role for the perception of noxious stimuli in a time-dependent manner. PMID:24716197

  16. Subchronic toxicity of 2,2{prime},3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lecavalier, P.; Chu, I.; Feeley, M.

    1997-06-27

    The subchronic toxicity of 2,2{prime},3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 128) was investigated in rats following dietary exposure at 0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, or 50 ppm for 13 wk. The growth rate was not affected by treatment and no apparent clinical signs of toxicity were observed. There was a significant increase in liver weight in the 50 ppm females. The liver ethoxy-resorufin deethylase (EROD) activity was increased by five- and fourfold in the highest dose males and females, respectively, while aminopyrine demethylase (ADPM) activity was significantly increased only in the highest dose females. Liver vitamin A was significantly reduced in the highest dose females. No other biochemical or hematological effects were observed. Treatment-related histopathological changes were seen in the thyroid and liver, and to a lesser extent in the bone marrow and thymus. Residue data showed a dose-dependent accumulation of PCB 128 in the following tissues: fat, liver, kidney, brain, spleen, and serum, with the highest concentration being found in fat followed by liver and kidney. Based on these data, the no-observable-adverse-effect level of PCB 128 was judged to be 0.5 ppm in diet or 42 {mu}g/kg body weight. 29 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  17. Space Place Prime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Novati, Alexander; Fisher, Diane K.; Leon, Nancy J.; Netting, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Space Place Prime is public engagement and education software for use on iPad. It targets a multi-generational audience with news, images, videos, and educational articles from the Space Place Web site and other NASA sources. New content is downloaded daily (or whenever the user accesses the app) via the wireless connection. In addition to the Space Place Web site, several NASA RSS feeds are tapped to provide new content. Content is retained for the previous several days, or some number of editions of each feed. All content is controlled on the server side, so features about the latest news, or changes to any content, can be made without updating the app in the Apple Store. It gathers many popular NASA features into one app. The interface is a boundless, slidable- in-any-direction grid of images, unique for each feature, and iconized as image, video, or article. A tap opens the feature. An alternate list mode presents menus of images, videos, and articles separately. Favorites can be tagged for permanent archive. Face - book, Twitter, and e-mail connections make any feature shareable.

  18. Prime focus instrument of prime focus spectrograph for Subaru telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Braun, David F.; Schwochert, Mark A.; Huang, Pin-Jie; Kimura, Masahiko; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Reiley, Daniel J.; Mao, Peter; Fisher, Charles D.; Tamura, Naoyuki; Chang, Yin-Chang; Hu, Yen-Sang; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Wen, Chih-Yi; Chou, Richard C.-Y.; Takato, Naruhisa; Sugai, Hajime; Ohyama, Youichi; Karoji, Hiroshi; Shimono, Atsushi; Ueda, Akitoshi

    2014-07-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a new optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph design for the prime focus of the 8.2m Subaru telescope. PFS will cover 1.3 degree diameter field with 2394 fibers to complement the imaging capability of Hyper SuprimeCam (HSC). The prime focus unit of PFS called Prime Focus Instrument (PFI) provides the interface with the top structure of Subaru telescope and also accommodates the optical bench in which Cobra fiber positioners are located. In addition, the acquisition and guiding (AG) cameras, the optical fiber positioner system, the cable wrapper, the fiducial fibers, illuminator, and viewer, the field element, and the telemetry system are located inside the PFI. The mechanical structure of the PFI was designed with special care such that its deflections sufficiently match those of the HSC's Wide Field Corrector (WFC) so the fibers will stay on targets over the course of the observations within the required accuracy.

  19. Mask- and distractor-triggered inhibitory processes in the priming of motor responses: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, Piotr; Białuńska, Anita; Tomanek, Monika; Verleger, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Masked stimuli presented near the threshold of conscious awareness may act as primes, affecting responses to subsequent targets. With arrows as primes and targets, the prime-mask-target sequence has been shown to evoke triphasic lateralized readiness potentials (LRP) with two phases of imbalance between hemispheres preceding the target-related contralateral preponderance of negativity: first a negative, then a positive preponderance contralateral to prime direction. The present article provides evidence that the second wave is related to mask presentation and reflects inhibitory processing independent of reductions in prime visibility, even being evoked by nonmasking distractors that leave the prime fully accessible for consciousness. Of all hypotheses put forward to account for inverse effects in masked priming, this finding is most compatible with the mask-triggered inhibition hypothesis suggested by P. Jaśkowski (2007). PMID:17887961

  20. Using Collaborative Tasks to Elicit Auditory and Structural Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofimovich, Pavel; McDonough, Kim; Neumann, Heike

    2013-01-01

    Interaction between second language (L2) learners in which the primary goal is the communication of meaning rather than the manipulation of language forms is widely regarded as beneficial for L2 learning from a variety of theoretical and pedagogical perspectives. Besides learning opportunities created through interactional feedback, modified…

  1. Priming Prepositional-Phrase Attachment During Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branigan, Holly P.; Pickering, Martin J.; McLean, Janet F.

    2005-01-01

    Strong evidence suggests that prior syntactic context affects language production (e.g., J. K. Bock, 1986). The authors report 4 experiments that used an expression-picture matching task to investigate whether it also affects ambiguity resolution in comprehension. All experiments examined the interpretation of prepositional phrases that were…

  2. Uncovering underlying processes of semantic priming by correlating item-level effects.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Tom; Hutchison, Keith A; Storms, Gert

    2016-04-01

    The current study examines the underlying processes of semantic priming using the largest priming database available (i.e., Semantic Priming Project, Hutchison et al. Behavior Research Methods, 45(4), 1099-1114, 2013). Specifically, it compares priming effects in two tasks: lexical decision and pronunciation. Task similarities were assessed at two different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) (i.e., 200 and 1,200 ms) and for both primary and other associates. To evaluate how consistent priming is across these two tasks, item-level priming effects obtained in each task were correlated for each condition separately. The results revealed significant correlations at the short SOA for both primary and other associates. The correlations at the long SOA were significantly smaller and only reached significance when z-transformed response times were used. Furthermore, this pattern remained essentially the same when only asymmetric forward associates (e.g., panda-bear) were considered, suggesting that the cross-task stability at the short SOA was not merely caused by retrospective processes such as semantic matching. Instead, these findings provide evidence for a rapidly operating, item-based, relational characteristic such as spreading activation. PMID:26335412

  3. Attentional load attenuates synaesthetic priming effects in grapheme-colour synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Mattingley, Jason B; Payne, Jonathan M; Rich, Anina N

    2006-02-01

    One of the hallmarks of grapheme-colour synaesthesia is that colours induced by letters, digits and words tend to interfere with the identification of coloured targets when the two colours are different, i.e., when they are incongruent. In a previous investigation (Mattingley et al., 2001) we found that this synaesthetic congruency effect occurs when an achromatic-letter prime precedes a coloured target, but that the effect disappears when the letter is pattern masked to prevent conscious recognition of its identity. Here we investigated whether selective attention modulates the synaesthetic congruency effect in a letter-priming task. Fourteen grapheme-colour synaesthetes and 14 matched, non-synaesthetic controls participated. The amount of selective attention available to process the letter-prime was limited by having participants perform a secondary visual task that involved discriminating pairs of gaps in adjacent limbs of a diamond surrounding the prime. In separate blocks of trials the attentional load of the secondary task was systematically varied to yield 'low load' and 'high load' conditions. We found a significant congruency effect for synaesthetes, but not for controls, when they performed a secondary attention-demanding task during presentation of the letter prime. Crucially, however, the magnitude of this priming was significantly reduced under conditions of high-load relative to low-load, indicating that attention plays an important role in modulating synaesthesia. Our findings help to explain the observation that synaesthetic colour experiences are often weak or absent during attention-demanding tasks. PMID:16683495

  4. Age-related priming effects in social judgments.

    PubMed

    Hess, T M; McGee, K A; Woodburn, S M; Bolstad, C A

    1998-03-01

    Two experiments investigated adult age differences in the impact of previously activated (and thus easily accessible) trait-related information on judgments about people. The authors hypothesized that age-related declines in the efficiency of controlled processing mechanisms during adulthood would be associated with increased susceptibility to judgment biases associated with such information. In each study, different-aged adults made impression judgments about a target, and assimilation of these judgments to trait constructs activated in a previous, unrelated task were examined. Consistent with the authors' hypotheses, older adults were likely to form impressions that were biased toward the primed trait constructs. In contrast, younger adults exhibited greater awareness of the primed information and were more likely to correct for its perceived influence, especially when distinctive contextual cues regarding the source of the primes were available. PMID:9533195

  5. An ERP indicator of processing relevant gestalts in masked priming.

    PubMed

    Verleger, Rolf; Görgen, Stefani; Jaśkowski, Piotr

    2005-11-01

    Briefly presented arrows, made indistinguishable by masks that contain arrows, inversely prime responses to following visible arrows. This inverse effect might reflect general regularities of masked priming or be either due to the task-relevant elements of the mask or to special features of arrows. Here we report a slow negative EEG potential recorded from the scalp above the visual cortex, which is evoked by masks that contain arrows. Even being evoked when arrows masks were presented in isolation, this "Nd-mask" appeared to be an obligatory response. Yet Nd-mask was enhanced when primes and targets were arrows and was reduced in the other cases, and even reversed its polarity with appropriate control stimuli. These findings provide support both for the special status of arrows and for the notion of mask relevance. Nd-mask might be one instance of negative EEG potentials evoked by stimuli with familiar gestalts. PMID:16364063

  6. Multisensory integration in complete unawareness: evidence from audiovisual congruency priming.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Nathan; Mudrik, Liad; Schwartz, Naama; Koch, Christof

    2014-11-01

    Multisensory integration is thought to require conscious perception. Although previous studies have shown that an invisible stimulus could be integrated with an audible one, none have demonstrated integration of two subliminal stimuli of different modalities. Here, pairs of identical or different audiovisual target letters (the sound /b/ with the written letter "b" or "m," respectively) were preceded by pairs of masked identical or different audiovisual prime digits (the sound /6/ with the written digit "6" or "8," respectively). In three experiments, awareness of the audiovisual digit primes was manipulated, such that participants were either unaware of the visual digit, the auditory digit, or both. Priming of the semantic relations between the auditory and visual digits was found in all experiments. Moreover, a further experiment showed that unconscious multisensory integration was not obtained when participants did not undergo prior conscious training of the task. This suggests that following conscious learning, unconscious processing suffices for multisensory integration. PMID:25269620

  7. Eye movements reveal fast, voice-specific priming.

    PubMed

    Papesh, Megan H; Goldinger, Stephen D; Hout, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    In spoken word perception, voice specificity effects are well-documented: When people hear repeated words in some task, performance is generally better when repeated items are presented in their originally heard voices, relative to changed voices. A key theoretical question about voice specificity effects concerns their time-course: Some studies suggest that episodic traces exert their influence late in lexical processing (the time-course hypothesis; McLennan & Luce, 2005), whereas others suggest that episodic traces influence immediate, online processing. We report 2 eye-tracking studies investigating the time-course of voice-specific priming within and across cognitive tasks. In Experiment 1, participants performed modified lexical decision or semantic classification to words spoken by 4 speakers. The tasks required participants to click a red "x" or a blue "+" located randomly within separate visual half-fields, necessitating trial-by-trial visual search with consistent half-field response mapping. After a break, participants completed a second block with new and repeated items, half spoken in changed voices. Voice effects were robust very early, appearing in saccade initiation times. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern while changing tasks across blocks, ruling out a response priming account. In the General Discussion, we address the time-course hypothesis, focusing on the challenge it presents for empirical disconfirmation, and highlighting the broad importance of indexical effects, beyond studies of priming. PMID:26726911

  8. Eye Movements Reveal Fast, Voice-Specific Priming

    PubMed Central

    Papesh, Megan H.; Goldinger, Stephen D.; Hout, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    In spoken word perception, voice specificity effects are well-documented: When people hear repeated words in some task, performance is generally better when repeated items are presented in their originally heard voices, relative to changed voices. A key theoretical question about voice specificity effects concerns their time-course: Some studies suggest that episodic traces exert their influence late in lexical processing (the time-course hypothesis; McLennan & Luce, 2005), whereas others suggest that episodic traces influence immediate, online processing. We report two eye-tracking studies investigating the time-course of voice-specific priming within and across cognitive tasks. In Experiment 1, participants performed modified lexical decision or semantic classification to words spoken by four speakers. The tasks required participants to click a red “×” or a blue “+” located randomly within separate visual half-fields, necessitating trial-by-trial visual search with consistent half-field response mapping. After a break, participants completed a second block with new and repeated items, half spoken in changed voices. Voice effects were robust very early, appearing in saccade initiation times. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern while changing tasks across blocks, ruling out a response priming account. In the General Discussion, we address the time-course hypothesis, focusing on the challenge it presents for empirical disconfirmation, and highlighting the broad importance of indexical effects, beyond studies of priming. PMID:26726911

  9. Modelling the Factors that Affect Individuals' Utilisation of Online Learning Systems: An Empirical Study Combining the Task Technology Fit Model with the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Tai-Kuei; Yu, Tai-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Understanding learners' behaviour, perceptions and influence in terms of learner performance is crucial to predict the use of electronic learning systems. By integrating the task-technology fit (TTF) model and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this paper investigates the online learning utilisation of Taiwanese students. This paper provides a…

  10. The Differential Involvement of the Prelimbic and Infralimbic Cortices in Response Conflict Affects Behavioral Flexibility in Rats Trained in a New Automated Strategy-Switching Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oualian, Catherine; Gisquet-Verrier, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    To assess the role of the prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) cortices in mediating strategy switching, rats were trained in a new automated task in a Y-maze allowing a careful analysis of rats' behavior. In this situation, rats can only use two egocentric (Right, Left) and two visual (Light, Dark) strategies. In the first experiment, rats with…

  11. The Ability of High School Chemistry Students to Solve Computational Problems Requiring Proportional Reasoning as Affected by Item In-Task Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Timothy H.; Voss, Burton

    This research study was conducted to investigate the interactions of specific student aptitudes with their ability to solve chemistry problems of varying structure and information. Fourteen classroom quizzes were validated and a number of in-task variables were identified for analysis. These variables included: the nature of information given…

  12. Deep Thinking Increases Task-Set Shielding and Reduces Shifting Flexibility in Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Rico; Hommel, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Performing two tasks concurrently is difficult, which has been taken to imply the existence of a structural processing bottleneck. Here we sought to assess whether and to what degree one's multitasking abilities depend on the cognitive-control style one engages in. Participants were primed with creativity tasks that either called for divergent…

  13. ERP correlates of priming in language and stimulus equivalence: evidence of similar N400 effects in absence of semantic content.

    PubMed

    Tabullo, Angel; Yorio, Alberto; Zanutto, Silvano; Wainselboim, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    Semantic priming has been widely observed at both behavioral and electrophysiological levels as reductions in response times and N400 magnitudes respectively. However, the possibility that stimulus relations derived from associative learning elicit N400 priming effects comparable to those found in language has not been properly addressed yet. Equivalence relations emerge after establishing a set of arbitrary and intra-experimentally defined relations through associative learning, thus allowing the study of derived stimulus relations in the absence of semantic content. The present study aimed to compare ERP correlates of priming in semantically related words and pseudowords related through equivalence. We found similar behavioral and N400 effects when comparing unrelated vs related prime-target pairs in language and stimulus equivalence tasks, suggesting that priming engages at least partially overlapping neural mechanisms in both contexts. In addition, we found a posteriorly distributed late positivity in the semantic priming task only, which may be reflecting language-specific processing. PMID:25795314

  14. The Pharmacology of Nociceptor Priming

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Nociceptors and neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) that receive nociceptive input show remarkable plasticity in response to injury. This plasticity is thought to underlie the development of chronic pain states. Hence, further understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving and maintaining this plasticity has the potential to lead to novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of chronic pain states. An important concept in pain plasticity is the presence and persistence of “hyperalgesic priming.” This priming arises from an initial injury and results in a remarkable susceptibility to normally subthreshold noxious inputs causing a prolonged pain state in primed animals. Here we describe our current understanding of how this priming is manifested through changes in signaling in the primary nociceptor as well as through memory like alterations at CNS synapses. Moreover, we discuss how commonly utilized analgesics, such as opioids, enhance priming therefore potentially contributing to the development of persistent pain states. Finally we highlight where these priming models draw parallels to common human chronic pain conditions. Collectively, these advances in our understanding of pain plasticity reveal a variety of targets for therapeutic intervention with the potential to reverse rather than palliate chronic pain states. PMID:25846612

  15. Response Priming with More or Less Biological Movements as Primes.

    PubMed

    Eckert, David; Bermeitinger, Christina

    2016-07-01

    Response priming in general is a suitable tool in cognitive psychology to investigate motor preactivations. Typically, compatibility effects reflect faster reactions in cases in which prime and target suggest the same response (i.e., compatible trials) compared with cases in which prime and target suggest opposite responses (i.e., incompatible trials). With moving dots that were horizontally aligned, Bermeitinger (2013) found a stable pattern of results: with short SOAs, faster responses in compatible trials were found; with longer SOAs up to 250 ms, faster responses in incompatible trials were found. It is unclear whether these results are specific to the special motion used therein or whether it generalizes to other motions. We therefore used other motions realized by arrangements of dots. In four experiments, we tested point-light displays (biological coherent walkers vs. less biological scrambled/split displays) as primes. In two experiments, eye gaze motions realized by moving dots representing irises and pupils (i.e., biological) versus the same motion either without surrounding face information or integrated in an abstract line drawing (i.e., less biological) were used. We found overall large positive compatibility effects with biological motion primes and also positive-but smaller-compatibility effects with less biological motion primes. Most important, also with very long SOAs (up to 1320 ms), we did not find evidence for negative compatibility effects. Thus, the pattern of positive-followed-by-negative-compatibility effects found in Bermeitinger (2013) seems to be specific to the materials used therein, whereas response priming in general seems an applicable tool to study motion perception. PMID:27150613

  16. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. PMID:26812088

  17. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kiviniemi, Marc T.

    2013-01-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants’ (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors. PMID:23299831

  18. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Erin M; Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2014-04-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants' (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors. PMID:23299831

  19. Masked translation priming asymmetry in Chinese-English bilinguals: making sense of the Sense Model.

    PubMed

    Xia, Violet; Andrews, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Masked translation priming asymmetry is the robust finding that priming from a bilingual's first language (L1) to their second language (L2) is stronger than priming from L2 to L1. This asymmetry has been claimed to be task dependent. The Sense Model proposed by Finkbeiner, Forster, Nicol, and Nakamura (2004) claims that the asymmetry is reduced in semantic categorization relative to lexical decision due to a category filtering mechanism that limits the features considered in categorization decisions to dominant, category-relevant features. This paper reports two pairs of semantic categorization and lexical decision tasks designed to test the Sense Model's predictions. The experiments replicated the finding of Finkbeiner et al. that L2-L1 priming is somewhat stronger in semantic categorization than lexical decision, selectively for exemplars of the category. However, the direct comparison of L2-L1 and L1-L2 translation priming across tasks failed to confirm the Sense Model's central prediction that translation priming asymmetry is significantly reduced in semantic categorization. The data therefore fail to support the category filtering account of translation priming asymmetry. Rather, they suggest that pre-activation of conceptual features of the target category provides feedback to lexical forms that compensates for the weak connections between the lexical and conceptual representations of L2 words. PMID:25014131

  20. Test Sequence Priming in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Elizabeth E.; Mewhort, D. J. K.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined priming within the test sequence in 3 recognition memory experiments. A probe primed its successor whenever both probes shared a feature with the same studied item ("interjacent priming"), indicating that the study item like the probe is central to the decision. Interjacent priming occurred even when the 2 probes did not…

  1. Development of Lexical-Semantic Language System: N400 Priming Effect for Spoken Words in 18- and 24-Month Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rama, Pia; Sirri, Louah; Serres, Josette

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether developing language system, as measured by a priming task for spoken words, is organized by semantic categories. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a priming task for spoken words in 18- and 24-month-old monolingual French learning children. Spoken word pairs were either semantically related…

  2. Does semantic redundancy gain result from multiple semantic priming?

    PubMed

    Schröter, Hannes; Bratzke, Daniel; Fiedler, Anja; Birngruber, Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Fiedler, Schröter, and Ulrich (2013) reported faster responses to a single written word when the semantic content of this word (e.g., "elephant") matched both targets (e.g., "animal", "gray") as compared to a single target (e.g., "animal", "brown"). This semantic redundancy gain was explained by statistical facilitation due to a race of independent memory retrieval processes. The present experiment addresses one alternative explanation, namely that semantic redundancy gain results from multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. In different blocks of trials, participants performed a redundant-targets task and a lexical decision task. The targets of the redundant-targets task served as primes in the lexical decision task. Replicating the findings of Fiedler et al., a semantic redundancy gain was observed in the redundant-targets task. Crucially, however, there was no evidence of a multiple semantic priming effect in the lexical decision task. This result suggests that semantic redundancy gain cannot be explained by multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. PMID:26342771

  3. The effects of alcohol expectancy priming on group bonding.

    PubMed

    Moltisanti, Allison J; Below, Maureen C; Brandon, Karen O; Goldman, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    According to alcohol expectancy theory, drinking-related information is stored in memory and, when cue activated, influences alcohol-related behavior. Priming of alcohol cues and expectancies has been shown to elicit both drinking and nonconsumptive behavior associated with alcohol consumption, such as willingness to meet with a stranger and aggression. These social influence effects have been shown to be moderated by individual differences in alcohol expectancies. In the present study, we tested whether an alcohol prime would facilitate social group bonding even in the absence of consumption, and whether such group bonding would be moderated by individually held social expectancies. One hundred twenty undergraduates (75% female) completed an alcohol expectancy measure prior to participation. Participants were primed with either alcohol or neutral beverage words and completed a collaborative group activity followed by questionnaires measuring perceived group cohesion. Several interactions were found between condition and expectancy reflecting that those in the alcohol prime condition with higher social alcohol expectancies reported greater cohesion on task-related, but not emotion-related, group measures. These findings underscore the complexity of the impact of expectancy and social behavior on drinking: the priming of alcohol expectancies may activate aspects of pro-social behavior, which may influence drinking, which in turn may feedback to positively reinforce social expectancies. PMID:24128149

  4. Manipulation of D2 receptors with quinpirole and sulpiride affects locomotor activity before spatial behavior of rats in an active place avoidance task.

    PubMed

    Stuchlik, Ales; Rehakova, Lenka; Rambousek, Lukas; Svoboda, Jan; Vales, Karel

    2007-06-01

    Dopamine-mediated neurotransmission is widely studied with respect to motivation, motor activity and cognitive processes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of D2 receptors in the behavior of rats in the active allothetic place avoidance (AAPA) task. D2 receptor agonist quinpirole and antagonist sulpiride were administered intraperitoneally 20min prior to behavioral testing. Administration of quinpirole led to dose-dependent increase of locomotion; the spatial efficiency was spared across the dose range studied (0.05-1.0mg/kg). In contrast, sulpiride decreased locomotor activity at a dose not influencing spatial efficiency (60mg/kg); the highest dose of sulpiride (100mg/kg) caused a deficit in both locomotor and spatial behaviors. The results suggest a relatively lesser importance of D2 receptors for spatial efficiency in the AAPA task, with a predominant influence of D2 receptor ligands on motor activity. PMID:17360063

  5. Priming unconscious racial stereotypes about adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sandra; Lowery, Brian S

    2004-10-01

    Two studies examined unconscious racial stereotypes of decision makers in the juvenile justice system. Police officers (Experiment 1) and juvenile probation officers (Experiment 2) were subliminally exposed to words related to the category Black or to words neutral with respect to race. In a presumably unrelated task, officers read 2 vignettes about a hypothetical adolescent who allegedly committed either a property crime (shoplifting from a convenience store) or an interpersonal crime (assaulting a peer). The race of the offender was left unstated and the scenarios were ambiguous about the causes of the crime. Respondents rated the hypothetical offender on a number of traits (e.g., hostility and immaturity) and made judgments about culpability, expected recidivism, and deserved punishment. They also completed a self-report measure of conscious attitudes about race. As hypothesized, officers in the racial prime condition reported more negative trait ratings, greater culpability, and expected recidivism, and they endorsed harsher punishment than did officers in the neutral condition. The effects of the racial primes were not moderated by consciously held attitudes about African Americans. The implications of the findings for racial disparity in the juvenile justice system and for changing unconscious stereotypes were discussed. PMID:15638206

  6. Sounding Black or White: priming identity and biracial speech

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Sarah E.; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Gidney, Calvin L.; Maddox, Keith B.; Gidney, Calvin L.; Gidney, Calvin L.

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that priming one’s racial identity can alter a biracial individuals’ social behavior, but can such priming also influence their speech? Language is often used as a marker of one’s social group membership and studies have shown that social context can affect the style of language that a person chooses to use, but this work has yet to be extended to the biracial population. Audio clips were extracted from a previous study involving biracial Black/White participants who had either their Black or White racial identity primed. Condition-blind coders rated Black-primed biracial participants as sounding significantly more Black and White-primed biracial participants as sounding significantly more White, both when listening to whole (Study 1a) and thin-sliced (Study 1b) clips. Further linguistic analyses (Studies 2a–c) were inconclusive regarding the features that differed between the two groups. Future directions regarding the need to investigate the intersections between social identity priming and language behavior with a biracial lens are discussed. PMID:25941505

  7. Priming mortality salience: supraliminal, subliminal and "double-death" priming techniques.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Melissa B; Saunders, Benjamin A; Cain, Nicole M

    2014-01-01

    The study examined whether successively presented subliminal and supraliminal morality salience primes ("double death" prime) would have a stronger influence on death thought accessibility than subliminal or supraliminal primes alone. A between-subjects 2 (subliminal prime/control) × 2 (supraliminal prime/control) design was used. The supraliminal prime prompted participants to answer questions about death. For the subliminal prime, the word death was presented outside of awareness. Both priming techniques differed significantly from a control in ability to elicit mortality salience. There was an interactive influence of both primes. Implications for unconscious neutral networks relating to death are discussed. PMID:24592974

  8. Does language dominance affect cognitive performance in bilinguals? Lifespan evidence from preschoolers through older adults on card sorting, Simon, and metalinguistic tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gathercole, Virginia C. Mueller; Thomas, Enlli M.; Kennedy, Ivan; Prys, Cynog; Young, Nia; Viñas Guasch, Nestor; Roberts, Emily J.; Hughes, Emma K.; Jones, Leah

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which a bilingual advantage can be observed for three tasks in an established population of fully fluent bilinguals from childhood through adulthood. Welsh-English simultaneous and early sequential bilinguals, as well as English monolinguals, aged 3 years through older adults, were tested on three sets of cognitive and executive function tasks. Bilinguals were Welsh-dominant, balanced, or English-dominant, with only Welsh, Welsh and English, or only English at home. Card sorting, Simon, and a metalinguistic judgment task (650, 557, and 354 participants, respectively) reveal little support for a bilingual advantage, either in relation to control or globally. Primarily there is no difference in performance across groups, but there is occasionally better performance by monolinguals or persons dominant in the language being tested, and in one case-in one condition and in one age group-lower performance by the monolinguals. The lack of evidence for a bilingual advantage in these simultaneous and early sequential bilinguals suggests the need for much closer scrutiny of what type of bilingual might demonstrate the reported effects, under what conditions, and why. PMID:24550853

  9. Does language dominance affect cognitive performance in bilinguals? Lifespan evidence from preschoolers through older adults on card sorting, Simon, and metalinguistic tasks.

    PubMed

    Gathercole, Virginia C Mueller; Thomas, Enlli M; Kennedy, Ivan; Prys, Cynog; Young, Nia; Viñas Guasch, Nestor; Roberts, Emily J; Hughes, Emma K; Jones, Leah

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which a bilingual advantage can be observed for three tasks in an established population of fully fluent bilinguals from childhood through adulthood. Welsh-English simultaneous and early sequential bilinguals, as well as English monolinguals, aged 3 years through older adults, were tested on three sets of cognitive and executive function tasks. Bilinguals were Welsh-dominant, balanced, or English-dominant, with only Welsh, Welsh and English, or only English at home. Card sorting, Simon, and a metalinguistic judgment task (650, 557, and 354 participants, respectively) reveal little support for a bilingual advantage, either in relation to control or globally. Primarily there is no difference in performance across groups, but there is occasionally better performance by monolinguals or persons dominant in the language being tested, and in one case-in one condition and in one age group-lower performance by the monolinguals. The lack of evidence for a bilingual advantage in these simultaneous and early sequential bilinguals suggests the need for much closer scrutiny of what type of bilingual might demonstrate the reported effects, under what conditions, and why. PMID:24550853

  10. Skill learning and repetition priming in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Grober, E; Ausubel, R; Sliwinski, M; Gordon, B

    1992-10-01

    While perceptual-motor learning occurs normally in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, their ability to acquire the skill of reading transformed text has not been well delineated. AD patients and matched controls were timed as they read two blocks of words presented in mirror image. Control subjects displayed both skill learning and repetition priming, whereas AD patients displayed only repetition priming. Skill learning in AD patients was associated with their ability to complete verbal analogies. They displayed the expected impairment in recognition for the words from the mirror reading task. The failure of AD patients to acquire the mirror reading skill can be understood through a task analysis and may reflect an underlying deficit in abstract reasoning that precludes the development of appropriate pattern analyzing strategies needed to transform rotated text. PMID:1436432

  11. Picture priming in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Reales, José M; Mayas, Julia

    2007-05-01

    The present study investigated age invariance for naming pictures and whether implicit memory is spared in Alzheimer's disease (AD). During the study phase, young adults, AD patients, and older controls were shown outlines of familiar pictures. After a distracter task, implicit memory was assessed incidentally. The results showed similar visual priming for the three groups, although young adults responded faster than the two older groups. Moreover, the number of errors was smaller for studied than for non-studied pictures. This pattern of results was repeated across the three groups, although AD patients produced more errors than young adults and older controls, and there were no differences between these latter groups. These results confirmed previous visual and haptic findings showing unimpaired perceptual priming in normal aging and AD patients when implicit memory is assessed using identification tasks. These results are interpreted from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. PMID:17425893

  12. Enhanced semantic priming in synesthetes independent of sensory binding.

    PubMed

    Goodhew, Stephanie C; Freire, Melissa R; Edwards, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Synesthesia is the phenomenon in which individuals experience unusual involuntary cross-modal pairings. The evidence to date suggests that synesthetes have access to advantageous item-specific memory cues linked to their synesthetic experience, but whether this emphasis on item-specific memory cues comes at the expense of semantic-level processing has not been unambiguously demonstrated. Here we found that synesthetes produce substantially greater semantic priming magnitudes, unrelated to their specific synesthetic experience. This effect, however, was moderated by whether the synesthetes were projectors (their synesthetic experience occurs in their representation of external space), or associators (their synesthetic experience occurs in their 'mind's eye'). That is, the greater a synesthetes's tendency to project their experience, the weaker their semantic priming when the task did not require them to semantically categorize the stimuli, whereas this trade-off was absent when the task did have that requirement. PMID:25796044

  13. Negative Priming Under Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kin Fai Ellick

    2012-01-01

    Negative priming (NP) was examined under a new paradigm wherein a target and distractors were temporally separated using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). The results from the two experiments revealed that (a) NP was robust under RSVP, such that the responses to a target were slower when the target served as a distractor in a previous trial than when it did not; (b) NP was found regardless of whether the distractors appeared before or after the targets; and (c) NP was stronger when the distractor was more distinctive. These findings are generally similar to those on NP in the spatial search task. The implications for the processes causing NP under RSVP are discussed in the current paper. PMID:22629351

  14. The Intervenor Effect in Masked Priming: How Does Masked Priming Survive across an Intervening Word?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Four masked priming experiments are reported investigating the effect of inserting an unrelated word between the masked prime and the target. When the intervening word is visible, identity priming is reduced to the level of one-letter-different form priming, but form priming is largely unaffected. However, when the intervening word is itself…

  15. On the Control of Single-Prime Negative Priming: The Effects of Practice and Time Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Hsuan-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Single-prime negative priming refers to the phenomenon wherein repetition of a prime as the probe target results in delayed response. Sometimes this effect has been found to be contingent on participants' unawareness of the primes, and sometimes it has not. Further, sometimes this effect has been found to be eliminated when the prime could predict…

  16. Repeated Masked Category Primes Interfere With Related Exemplars: New Evidence for Negative Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentura, Dirk; Frings, Christian

    2005-01-01

    In 4 experiments, the authors found evidence for negatively signed masked semantic priming effects (with category names as primes and exemplars as targets) using a new technique of presenting the masked primes. By rapidly interchanging prime and mask during the stimulus onset asynchrony, they increased the total prime exposure to a level…

  17. Early dynamics of the semantic priming shift

    PubMed Central

    Lavigne, Frédéric; Chanquoy, Lucile; Dumercy, Laurent; Vitu, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Semantic processing of sequences of words requires the cognitive system to keep several word meanings simultaneously activated in working memory with limited capacity. The real- time updating of the sequence of word meanings relies on dynamic changes in the associates to the words that are activated. Protocols involving two sequential primes report a semantic priming shift from larger priming of associates to the first prime to larger priming of associates to the second prime, in a range of long SOAs (stimulus-onset asynchronies) between the second prime and the target. However, the possibility for an early semantic priming shift is still to be tested, and its dynamics as a function of association strength remain unknown. Three multiple priming experiments are proposed that cross-manipulate association strength between each of two successive primes and a target, for different values of short SOAs and prime durations. Results show an early priming shift ranging from priming of associates to the first prime only to priming of strong associates to the first prime and all of the associates to the second prime. We investigated the neural basis of the early priming shift by using a network model of spike frequency adaptive cortical neurons (e.g., Deco & Rolls, 2005), able to code different association strengths between the primes and the target. The cortical network model provides a description of the early dynamics of the priming shift in terms of pro-active and retro-active interferences within populations of excitatory neurons regulated by fast and unselective inhibitory feedback. PMID:23717346

  18. Is Morphological Priming Stronger for Transparent than Opaque Words? It Depends on Individual Differences in Spelling and Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Sally; Lo, Steson

    2013-01-01

    This experiment used the masked priming lexical decision task to address previous contradictory evidence about the relative strength of priming for (i) transparent pairs (e.g., "worker" "WORK") which are morphologically and semantically related; (ii) opaque pairs (e.g., "corner" "CORN") which appear to be morphological relatives but are not…

  19. Conceptual Organization at 6 and 8 Years of Age: Evidence from the Semantic Priming of Object Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi; McGregor, Karla K.; Graham, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine children's knowledge of semantic relations. Method: In Experiment 1, the 6-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and adults participated in an object decision task. Participants in the primed group made object decisions in response to primes that were related taxonomically, thematically, or perceptually to the…

  20. Signal detection on the battlefield: priming self-protection vs. revenge-mindedness differentially modulates the detection of enemies and allies.

    PubMed

    Becker, D Vaughn; Mortensen, Chad R; Ackerman, Joshua M; Shapiro, Jenessa R; Anderson, Uriah S; Sasaki, Takao; Maner, Jon K; Neuberg, Steven L; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2011-01-01

    Detecting signs that someone is a member of a hostile outgroup can depend on very subtle cues. How do ecology-relevant motivational states affect such detections? This research investigated the detection of briefly-presented enemy (versus friend) insignias after participants were primed to be self-protective or revenge-minded. Despite being told to ignore the objectively nondiagnostic cues of ethnicity (Arab vs. Western/European), gender, and facial expressions of the targets, both priming manipulations enhanced biases to see Arab males as enemies. They also reduced the ability to detect ingroup enemies, even when these faces displayed angry expressions. These motivations had very different effects on accuracy, however, with self-protection enhancing overall accuracy and revenge-mindedness reducing it. These methods demonstrate the importance of considering how signal detection tasks that occur in motivationally-charged environments depart from results obtained in conventionally motivationally-inert laboratory settings. PMID:21912651

  1. Predicting the unbeaten path through syntactic priming.

    PubMed

    Arai, Manabu; Nakamura, Chie; Mazuka, Reiko

    2015-03-01

    A number of previous studies showed that comprehenders make use of lexically based constraints such as subcategorization frequency in processing structurally ambiguous sentences. One piece of such evidence is lexically specific syntactic priming in comprehension; following the costly processing of a temporarily ambiguous sentence, comprehenders experience less processing difficulty with the same structure with the same verb in subsequent processing. In previous studies using a reading paradigm, however, the effect was observed at or following disambiguating information and it is not known whether a priming effect affects only the process of resolving structural ambiguity following disambiguating input or it also affects the process before ambiguity is resolved. Using a visual world paradigm, the current study addressed this issue with Japanese relative clause sentences. Our results demonstrated that after experiencing the relative clause structure, comprehenders were more likely to predict the usually dispreferred structure immediately upon hearing the same verb. No compatible effect, in contrast, was observed on hearing a different verb. Our results are consistent with the constraint-based lexicalist view, which assumes the parallel activation of possible structural analyses at the verb. Our study demonstrated that an experience of a dispreferred structure activates the structural information in a lexically specific manner, leading comprehenders to predict another instance of the same structure on encountering the same verb. PMID:25528094

  2. Nanoplasmonics of prime number arrays.

    PubMed

    Forestiere, Carlo; Walsh, Gary F; Miano, Giovanni; Dal Negro, Luca

    2009-12-21

    In this paper, we investigate the plasmonic near-field localization and the far-field scattering properties of non-periodic arrays of Ag nanoparticles generated by prime number sequences in two spatial dimensions. In particular, we demonstrate that the engineering of plasmonic arrays with large spectral flatness and particle density is necessary to achieve a high density of electromagnetic hot spots over a broader frequency range and a larger area compared to strongly coupled periodic and quasi-periodic structures. Finally, we study the far-field scattering properties of prime number arrays illuminated by plane waves and we discuss their angular scattering properties. The study of prime number arrays of metal nanoparticles provides a novel strategy to achieve broadband enhancement and localization of plasmonic fields for the engineering of nanoscale nano-antenna arrays and active plasmonic structures. PMID:20052140

  3. Priming in Systemic Plant Immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wang, Lin; Glazebrook, Jane; Greenberg, Jean T.

    2009-01-01

    Upon local infection, plants possess inducible systemic defense responses against their natural enemies. Bacterial infection results in the accumulation to high levels of the mobile metabolite C9-dicarboxylic acid azelaic acid in the vascular sap of Arabidopsis. Azelaic acid confers local and systemic resistance against Pseudomonas syringae. The compound primes plants to strongly accumulate salicylic acid (SA), a known defense signal, upon infection. Mutation of a gene induced by azelaic acid (AZI1) results in the specific loss in plants of systemic immunity triggered by pathogen or azelaic acid and of the priming of SA induction. AZI1, a predicted secreted protein, is also important for generating vascular sap that confers disease resistance. Thus, azelaic acid and AZI1 comprise novel components of plant systemic immunity involved in priming defenses.

  4. Structural Priming: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Martin J.; Ferreira, Victor S.

    2009-01-01

    Repetition is a central phenomenon of behavior, and researchers make extensive use of it to illuminate psychological functioning. In the language sciences, a ubiquitous form of such repetition is structural priming, a tendency to repeat or better process a current sentence because of its structural similarity to a previously experienced (“prime”) sentence (Bock, 1986). The recent explosion of research in structural priming has made it the dominant means of investigating the processes involved in the production (and increasingly, comprehension) of complex expressions such as sentences. This review considers its implications for the representation of syntax and the mechanisms of production, comprehension, and their relationship. It then addresses the potential functions of structural priming, before turning to its implications for first language acquisition, bilingualism, and aphasia We close with theoretical and empirical recommendations for future investigations. PMID:18444704

  5. To Err Is Human; To Structurally Prime from Errors Is Also Human

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevc, L. Robert; Ferreira, Victor S.

    2013-01-01

    Natural language contains disfluencies and errors. Do listeners simply discard information that was clearly produced in error, or can erroneous material persist to affect subsequent processing? Two experiments explored this question using a structural priming paradigm. Speakers described dative-eliciting pictures after hearing prime sentences that…

  6. The Effect of Nonmasking Distractors on the Priming of Motor Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaskowski, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    Masked stimuli (primes) can affect the preparation of a motor response to subsequently presented target. In numerous studies, it has been shown that the compatibility effect is biphasic as it develops over time: positive (benefits for compatible trials and costs for incompatible trials) for short prime-target temporal distances and negative…

  7. Long-term priming of visual search prevails against the passage of time and counteracting instructions.

    PubMed

    Kruijne, Wouter; Meeter, Martijn

    2016-08-01

    Studies on intertrial priming have shown that in visual search experiments, the preceding trial automatically affects search performance: facilitating it when the target features repeat and giving rise to switch costs when they change-so-called (short-term) intertrial priming. These effects also occur at longer time scales: When 1 of 2 possible target colors is more frequent during an experiment block, this results in a prolonged and persistent facilitation for the color that was biased, long after the frequency bias is gone-so-called long-term priming. In this study, we explore the robustness of such long-term priming. In Experiment 1, participants were fully informed of the bias and instructed to prioritize the other unbiased color. Despite these instructions, long-term priming of the biased color persisted in this block, suggesting that guidance by long-term priming is an implicit effect. In Experiment 2, long-term priming was built up in 1 experimental session and was then assessed in a second session a week later. Long-term priming persisted across this week, emphasizing that long-term priming is truly a phenomenon of long-term memory. The results support the view that priming results from the automatic and implicit retrieval of memory traces of past trials. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26866654

  8. The impact of dissociation on perceptual priming and intrusions after listening to auditory narratives.

    PubMed

    Dorahy, Martin J; Peck, Rowan K; Huntjens, Rafaele J C

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the causal role of dissociation in intrusive memory development and possible underlying aberrant memory processes (e.g., increased perceptual priming). Using an audio-only adaption of the trauma film paradigm, we divided 60 participants into 3 conditions and presented them with different visual tasks-mirror staring, dot staring, or neutral images. The former 2 conditions were hypothesized to induce dissociation. Postaudio, a number of factors were assessed, including state dissociation, perceptual priming and conceptual priming, as well as intrusions over 3 days. Participants in the dissociation conditions displayed an increase in perceptual priming compared to those in the control condition and reported more distressing intrusions. No differences were found in conceptual priming and the overall number of intrusions between conditions. Findings contribute to the growing knowledge on the impact of dissociation and cognitive processing in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder intrusions. PMID:26727461

  9. Either or neither, but not both: locating the effects of masked primes

    PubMed Central

    Schlaghecken, Friederike; Klapp, Stuart T.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    Execution of a response that has been primed by a backward-masked stimulus is inhibited (negative compatibility effect; NCE). Three experiments investigated the locus of this inhibition. Masked primes (left- or right-pointing arrows) were followed either by an arrow or a circle target. Arrow targets always required a left- or right-hand response, but the experiments differed in the response required to circles: press neither, either or both response keys (i.e. nogo, free choice and bimanual, respectively). Arrow targets showed the usual NCEs. Circle targets showed NCEs in the form of a response bias away from the primed response in the nogo and free-choice tasks; primes and targets differed on these trials, ruling out a perceptual explanation of the NCE. The bimanual task showed no such bias, suggesting that the NCE is located at a level of abstract response codes rather than specific muscle commands. PMID:18945665

  10. Antecedent Priming at Trace Positions in Children's Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leah; Marinis, Theodore; Felser, Claudia; Clahsen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines whether children reactivate a moved constituent at its gap position and how children's more limited working memory span affects the way they process filler-gap dependencies. 46 5-7 year-old children and 54 adult controls participated in a cross-modal picture priming experiment and underwent a standardized working memory…

  11. Oligomerizations of deoxyadenosine bis-phosphates and of their 3-prime-5-prime, 3-prime-3-prime, and 5-prime-5-prime dimers - Effects of a pyrophosphate-linked, poly(T) analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visscher, J.; Bakker, C. G.; Schwartz, Alan W.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a 3-prime-5-prime pyrophosphate-linked oligomer of pTp on oligomerizations of pdAp and of its 3-prime-5-prime, 3-prime-3-prime, and 5-prime-5-prime dimers was investigated, using HPLC to separate the reaction mixtures; peak detection was by absorbance monitoring at 254 nm. It was expected that the dimers would form stable complexes with the template, with the degree of stability depending upon the internal linkage of each dimer. It was found that, although the isomers differ substantially in their oligomerization behavior in the absence of template, the analog-template catalyzes the oligomerization to about the same extent in all three cases.

  12. Searching for control: priming randomness increases the evaluation of ritual efficacy.

    PubMed

    Legare, Cristine H; Souza, André L

    2014-01-01

    Reestablishing feelings of control after experiencing uncertainty has long been considered a fundamental motive for human behavior. We propose that rituals (i.e., socially stipulated, causally opaque practices) provide a means for coping with the aversive feelings associated with randomness due to the perception of a connection between ritual action and a desired outcome. Two experiments were conducted (one in Brazil [n = 40] and another in the United States [n = 94]) to evaluate how the perceived efficacy of rituals is affected by feelings of randomness. In a between-subjects design, the Scramble Sentence Task was used as a priming procedure in three conditions (i.e., randomness, negativity, and neutral) and participants were then asked to rate the efficacy of rituals used for problem-solving purposes. The results demonstrate that priming randomness increased participants' perception of ritual efficacy relative to negativity and neutral conditions. Implications for increasing our understanding of the relationship between perceived control and ritualistic behavior are discussed. PMID:23941272

  13. I Like the Sound of Your Voice: Affective Learning about Vocal Signals.

    PubMed

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Owren, Michael J

    2010-05-01

    This paper provides the first demonstration that the content of what a talker says is sufficient to imbue the acoustics of his voice with affective meaning. In two studies, participants listened to male talkers utter positive, negative, or neutral words. Next, participants completed a sequential evaluative priming task where a neutral word spoken by one of the same talkers was presented before each target word to be evaluated. We predicted, and found, that voices served as evaluative primes that influenced the speed with which participants evaluated the target words. These two experiments demonstrate that the human voice can take on affective meaning merely based on the positive or negative value of the words uttered by that voice. Implications for affective processing, the pragmatics of communication, and person-perception are discussed. PMID:20495619

  14. Long-term repetition priming of briefly identified objects.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Andreas T; Masson, Michael E J; Cohen, Anna-Lisa; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2009-03-01

    The authors provide evidence that long-term memory encoding can occur for briefly viewed objects in a rapid serial visual presentation list, contrary to claims that the brief presentation and quick succession of objects prevent encoding by disrupting a memory consolidation process that requires hundreds of milliseconds of uninterrupted processing. Subjects performed a search task in which each item was presented for only 75 ms. Nontargets from the search task generated priming on 2 subsequent indirect memory tests: a search task and a task requiring identification of visually masked objects. Additional experiments revealed that information encoded into memory for these nontargets included perceptual and conceptual components, and that these results were not due to subjects maintaining items in working memory during list presentation. These results are consistent with recent neurophysiological evidence showing that stimulus processing can occur at later stages in the cognitive system even when a subsequent new stimulus is presented that initiates processing at earlier stages. PMID:19271861

  15. Sources of priming in text rereading: intact implicit memory for new associations in older adults and in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Monti, L A; Gabrieli, J D; Wilson, R S; Beckett, L A; Grinnell, E; Lange, K L; Reminger, S L

    1997-09-01

    The contributions of text meaning, new between-word associations, and single-word repetition to priming in text rereading in younger and older adults, and in patients with Alzheimer's disease. (AD), were assessed in Experiment 1. Explicit recognition memory for text was also assessed. Equivalent single-word and between-word priming was observed for all groups, even though patients with AD showed impaired explicit memory for individual words in the text. The contribution of generalized reading task skill to priming in meaningless text rereading in younger adults was assessed in Experiment 2. Generalized reading task skill was also found to contribute to priming. These results reveal 3 mechanisms of priming: new between-word associations for meaningful and meaningless text, individual word repetition for meaningless text, and general task or skill factors for meaningless text. All priming mechanisms appear to be intact in older adults and in patients with AD. PMID:9308100

  16. Task switching in a hierarchical task structure: evidence for the fragility of the task repetition benefit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms. In Experiments 2-5, adjacent task elements were grouped temporally and/or spatially (forming an ensemble) to create a hierarchical task organization. Results indicate that the effect of switching at the ensemble level dominated the effect of switching at the element level. Experiments 6 and 7, using an ensemble of 3 task elements, revealed that the element-level switch cost was virtually absent between ensembles but was large within an ensemble. The authors conclude that the element-level task repetition benefit is fragile and can be eliminated in a hierarchical task organization.

  17. Priming by NUMB3R5 Does Not Involve Top-Down Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Lagoutaris, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Using the same-different task, Perea, Dunabeitia, Pollatsek, and Carreiras (2009) showed that digits resembling letters ("leet digits"; e.g., 1 = "I", 4 = "A") primed pseudoword strings (e.g., "V35Z3D-VESZED"), but letters resembling digits ("leet letters") did not prime digit strings (e.g., "9ES7E2-935732"), and suggested that this is due to…

  18. Semantic gradients in picture-word interference tasks: is the size of interference effects affected by the degree of semantic overlap?

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, James; Damian, Markus F.

    2014-01-01

    We report two experiments attempting to identify the role of semantic relatedness in picture-word interference studies. Previously published data sets have rendered results which directly contradict each other, with one study suggesting that the stronger the relation between picture and distractor, the more semantic interference is obtained, and another study suggesting the opposite pattern. We replicated the two key experiments with only minor procedural modifications, and found semantic interference effects in both. Critically, these were largely independent of the strength of semantic overlap. Additionally, we attempted to predict individual interference effects per target picture, via various measures of semantic overlap, which also failed to account for the effects. From our results it appears that semantic interference effects in picture-word tasks are similarly present for weakly and strongly overlapping combinations. Implications are discussed in the light of the recent debate on the role of competition in lexical selection. PMID:25161636

  19. High versus low fat/sugar food affects the behavioral, but not the cortisol response of marmoset monkeys in a conditioned-place-preference task.

    PubMed

    Duarte, R B M; Patrono, E; Borges, A C; Tomaz, C; Ventura, R; Gasbarri, A; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Barros, M

    2015-02-01

    The effect of a high (chocolate) versus low fat/sugar (chow) food on a conditioned-place-preference (CPP) task was evaluated in marmoset monkeys. Anxiety-related behaviors and cortisol levels before and after the CPP task were also measured. Subjects were habituated to a two-compartment CPP box and then, on alternate days, had access to only one compartment during daily 15-min conditionings, for a total of 14 trials. Marmosets were provisioned with chocolate chips in the CC-paired compartment on odd-numbered trials and standard chow in the CW-paired compartment on even-numbered trials. They were then tested for preferring the CC-paired context after a 24-h interval. During the conditioning, a significantly greater amount (in kcal/trial) of chocolate was consumed than chow, yet the foraging pattern of both food types was similar. On the test trial, the time spent in the CC-paired context increased significantly compared to pre-CPP levels, yet this response was not readily predicted by baseline behavioral or cortisol levels. Also, the chocolate CPP response was positively correlated with foraging time, rather than the amount of calories consumed. The sudden absence of the food increased exploration, while the chocolate CPP effect was associated with vigilance - both anxiety-related behaviors in marmosets. This behavioral profile occurred regardless of any concomitant change or correlation with cortisol. Therefore, the high fat/sugar food was more prone to be overly consumed by the marmosets, to induce a CPP response and to lead to anxiety-related behavior in its absence. PMID:25447426

  20. Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect

    PubMed Central

    Dekerle, Marie; Boulenger, Véronique; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 1–4 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC) voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target) or Semantically Inconsistent (SI) voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target). In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring. PMID:25400572