Science.gov

Sample records for affective verbal learning

  1. Affective verbal learning in hostility: an increased primacy effect and bias for negative emotional material.

    PubMed

    Mollet, Gina A; Harrison, David W

    2007-01-01

    The current experiment examined the effects of hostility and a pain stressor on affective verbal learning. Participants were classified as high or low hostile and randomly assigned to a cold pressor or a non-cold pressor group. The subsequent effects on acquisition of the Auditory Affective Verbal Learning Test [AAVLT; Snyder, K. A., & Harrison, D. W. (1997). The Affective Verbal Learning Test. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 12(5), 477-482] were measured. As expected, high hostiles learned negative emotional words significantly better than they learned positive words. Additionally, high hostiles were impaired in their acquisition of verbal material relative to low hostile participants. A significant primacy effect for negative emotional words and an overall better recall of negative information was also found. These results support the idea that high hostiles differ from low hostiles in a number of modalities and demonstrate the persistence of negative emotional material. Future work should address the implications these results have on high hostiles in daily interactions.

  2. Interpretation of Facial Expressions of Affect in Children with Learning Disabilities with Verbal or Nonverbal Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrovsky, Lilly; Spector, Hedva; Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Vakil, Eli

    1998-01-01

    The ability to identify six facial expressions was studied in 48 nondisabled children and 76 children with learning disabilities (LD) ages 9 through 12. Overall, the nondisabled group had better interpretive ability. Among LD children, those with verbal deficits had better ability than either those with nonverbal deficits and or those with both…

  3. Learning Channels and Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Fan-Yu; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the basics of learning channels and how specification of stimuli can help enhance verbal behavior. This article will define learning channels and the role of the ability matrix in training verbal behavior.

  4. Simultaneous verbal and affective laterality effects.

    PubMed

    Bulman-Fleming, M B; Bryden, M P

    1994-07-01

    By analyzing the error scores of normal participants asked to identify a specific word spoken in a specific tone of voice (for example, the word "tower" spoken in a happy tone of voice), we have been able to demonstrate concurrent verbal and affective cerebral laterality effects in a dichotic listening task. The targets comprised the 16 possible combinations of four two-syllable words spoken in four different tones of voice. There were 128 participants equally divided between left- and right-handers, with equal numbers of each sex within each handedness group. Each participant responded to 144 trials on the dichotic task, and filled in the 32-item Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire. Analysis of false positive responses on the dichotic task (responding "yes" when only the verbal or only the affective component of the target was present, or when both components were present but were at opposite ears) indicated that significantly more errors were made when the verbal aspect of the target appeared at the right ear (left hemisphere) and the emotional aspect was at the left ear (right hemisphere) than when the reverse was the case. A single task has generated both effects, so that differences in participants' strategies or the way in which attention is biased cannot account for the results. While the majority of participants showed a right-ear advantage for verbal material and a left-ear advantage for nonverbal material, these two effects were not correlated, suggesting that independent mechanisms probably underly the establishment of verbal and affective processing. We found no significant sex or handedness effects, though left-handers were much more variable than were right-handers. There were no significant correlations between degree of handedness as measured on the handedness questionnaire and extent of lateralization of verbal or affective processing on the dichotic task. We believe that this general technique may be able to provide information as to the nature and

  5. Learning from Examples versus Verbal Directions in Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hee Seung; Fincham, Jon M.; Anderson, John R.

    2015-01-01

    This event-related fMRI study investigated the differences between learning from examples and learning from verbal directions in mathematical problem solving and how these instruction types affect the activity of relevant brain regions during instruction and solution periods within problem-solving trials. We identified distinct neural signatures…

  6. Different Verbal Learning Strategies in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Dermot M.; Limoges, Elyse; Mottron, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, which requires the free recall of the same list of 15 unrelated words over 5 trials, was administered to 21 high-functioning adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 21 matched typical individuals. The groups showed similar overall levels of free recall, rates of learning over trials and…

  7. Verbal Knowledge, Working Memory, and Processing Speed as Predictors of Verbal Learning in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rast, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at modeling individual differences in a verbal learning task by means of a latent structured growth curve approach based on an exponential function that yielded 3 parameters: initial recall, learning rate, and asymptotic performance. Three cognitive variables--speed of information processing, verbal knowledge, working…

  8. Verbal and novel multisensory associative learning in adults

    PubMed Central

    Crewther, Sheila G

    2013-01-01

    To date, few studies have focused on the behavioural differences between the learning of multisensory auditory-visual and intra-modal associations. More specifically, the relative benefits of novel auditory-visual and verbal-visual associations for learning have not been directly compared. In Experiment 1, 20 adult volunteers completed three paired associate learning tasks: non-verbal novel auditory-visual (novel-AV), verbal-visual (verbal-AV; using pseudowords), and visual-visual (shape-VV). Participants were directed to make a motor response to matching novel and arbitrarily related stimulus pairs. Feedback was provided to facilitate trial and error learning. The results of Signal Detection Theory analyses suggested a multisensory enhancement of learning, with significantly higher discriminability measures (d-prime) in both the novel-AV and verbal-AV tasks than the shape-VV task. Motor reaction times were also significantly faster during the verbal-AV task than during the non-verbal learning tasks.  Experiment 2 (n = 12) used a forced-choice discrimination paradigm to assess whether a difference in unisensory stimulus discriminability could account for the learning trends in Experiment 1. Participants were significantly slower at discriminating unisensory pseudowords than the novel sounds and visual shapes, which was notable given that these stimuli produced superior learning. Together the findings suggest that verbal information has an added enhancing effect on multisensory associative learning in adults PMID:24627770

  9. Verbal Learning and Memory Functions in Adolescents with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyler, James D.; Obrzut, John E.; Asbjornsen, Arve E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors of this current study compared the memory performance of adolescent students with specific reading disabilities (RD) with that of typical adolescent readers on a newly developed verbal learning test, the "Bergen-Tucson Verbal Learning Test" (BTVLT). This multiple trial test was designed to measure memory acquisition,…

  10. Within-Category Discontinuity Interacts with Verbal Rule Complexity in Perceptual Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, W. Todd; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Lauritzen, J. Scott

    2007-01-01

    A test of the predicted interaction between within-category discontinuity and verbal rule complexity on information-integration and rule-based category learning was conducted. Within-category discontinuity adversely affected information-integration category learning but not rule-based category learning. Model-based analyses suggested that some…

  11. Factors Affecting the Baseline and Post-Treatment Scores on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Japanese Version before and after Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Hirotake; Tanaka, Kensuke; Kanemoto, Ayae; Nakano, Toshimichi; Abe, Eisuke; Aoyama, Hidefumi

    2016-01-01

    Our objectives were to (1) investigate the feasibility of the use of the Japanese version of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R); (2) identify the clinical factors influencing the HVLT-R scores of patients undergoing whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT); and (3) compare the neurocognitive function (NCF) after WBRT in different dose fractionation schedules. We administered the HVLT-R (Japanese version) before (baseline) and at four and eight months after WBRT in 45 patients who received either therapeutic (35Gy-in-14, n = 16; 30Gy-in-10, n = 18) or prophylactic (25Gy-in-10, n = 11) WBRT. Sixteen patients dropped out before the eight-month examination, due mostly to death from cancer. The Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) 80–100 group had significantly higher baseline total recall (TR) scores (p = 0.0053), delayed recall (DR) scores (p = 0.012), and delayed recognition (DRecog) scores (p = 0.0078). The patients aged ≤65 years also had significantly higher TR scores (p = 0.030) and DRecog scores (p = 0.031). The patients who underwent two examinations (worse-prognosis group) had significantly decreased DR scores four months after WBRT compared to the baseline (p = 0.0073), and they were significantly more likely to have declined individual TR scores (p = 0.0017) and DR scores (p = 0.035) at four months. The eight-month HVLT-R scores did not significantly decline regardless of the WBRT dose fractionation. The baseline NCF was determined by age and KPS, and the early decline in NCF is characteristic of the worse-prognosis group. PMID:27827891

  12. Recall is not necessary for verbal sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Kalm, Kristjan; Norris, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether overt recall of to-be-remembered material accelerates learning is important in a wide range of real-world learning settings. In the case of verbal sequence learning, previous research has proposed that recall either is necessary for verbal sequence learning (Cohen & Johansson Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 6, 139-143, 1967; Cunningham, Healy, & Williams Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 10, 575-597, 1984), or at least contributes significantly to it (Glass, Krejci, & Goldman Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 189-199, 1989; Oberauer & Meyer Memory, 17, 774-781, 2009). In contrast, here we show that the amount of previous spoken recall does not predict learning and is not necessary for it. We suggest that previous research may have underestimated participants' learning by using suboptimal performance measures, or by using manual or written recall. However, we show that the amount of spoken recall predicted how much interference from other to-be-remembered sequences would be observed. In fact, spoken recall mediated most of the error learning observed in the task. Our data support the view that the learning of overlapping auditory-verbal sequences is driven by learning the phonological representations and not the articulatory motor responses. However, spoken recall seems to reinforce already learned representations, whether they are correct or incorrect, thus contributing to a participant identifying a specific stimulus as either "learned" or "new" during the presentation phase.

  13. Teachers' Use of a Verbally Governed Algorithm and Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keohane, Dolleen-Day; Greer, R. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The effects of instructing teachers in the use of a verbally governed algorithm to solve students' learning problems were measured. The teachers were taught to analyze students' responses to instruction using a strategic protocol, which included a series of verbally governed questions. The study was designed to determine whether the instructional…

  14. The Effects of Concurrent Verbal and Visual Tasks on Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Sarah J.; Minda, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    Current theories of category learning posit separate verbal and nonverbal learning systems. Past research suggests that the verbal system relies on verbal working memory and executive functioning and learns rule-defined categories; the nonverbal system does not rely on verbal working memory and learns non-rule-defined categories (E. M. Waldron…

  15. Verbal Response to "The Electric Company": Qualities of Program Material and the Viewing Conditions Which Affect Verbalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Milton

    Since verbal responses are a salient and easily documented index of acquisition of learning skills, a project was undertaken in 1972 to collect and analyze the verbal response of viewers of "The Electric Company." A data collection instrument was designed to tally: (1) reading of print on a television screen; (2) spoken anticipation of…

  16. Two Distinct Origins of Long-Term Learning Effects in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Perez, Trecy Martinez; Oberauer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) is highly sensitive to learning effects: digit sequences or nonword sequences which have been rendered more familiar via repeated exposure are recalled more accurately. In this study we show that sublist-level, incidental learning of item co-occurrence regularities affects immediate serial recall of words and…

  17. Visual and Verbal Learning in a Genetic Metabolic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilkin, Amy M.; Ballantyne, Angela O.; Trauner, Doris A.

    2009-01-01

    Visual and verbal learning in a genetic metabolic disorder (cystinosis) were examined in the following three studies. The goal of Study I was to provide a normative database and establish the reliability and validity of a new test of visual learning and memory (Visual Learning and Memory Test; VLMT) that was modeled after a widely used test of…

  18. Learning style, judgements of learning, and learning of verbal and visual information.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Abby R; Otani, Hajime; Skeel, Reid L; Van Horn, K Roger

    2016-09-13

    The concept of learning style is immensely popular despite the lack of evidence showing that learning style influences performance. This study tested the hypothesis that the popularity of learning style is maintained because it is associated with subjective aspects of learning, such as judgements of learning (JOLs). Preference for verbal and visual information was assessed using the revised Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ). Then, participants studied a list of word pairs and a list of picture pairs, making JOLs (immediate, delayed, and global) while studying each list. Learning was tested by cued recall. The results showed that higher VVQ verbalizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for words, and higher VVQ visualizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for pictures. There was no association between VVQ scores and recall or JOL accuracy. As predicted, learning style was associated with subjective aspects of learning but not objective aspects of learning.

  19. Verbal learning in the context of background music: no influence of vocals and instrumentals on verbal learning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still a matter of dispute. In this study we investigated the influence of vocal and instrumental background music on verbal learning. Methods 226 subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups (one control group and 4 experimental groups). All participants were exposed to a verbal learning task. One group served as control group while the 4 further groups served as experimental groups. The control group learned without background music while the 4 experimental groups were exposed to vocal or instrumental musical pieces during learning with different subjective intensity and valence. Thus, we employed 4 music listening conditions (vocal music with high intensity: VOC_HIGH, vocal music with low intensity: VOC_LOW, instrumental music with high intensity: INST_HIGH, instrumental music with low intensity: INST_LOW) and one control condition (CONT) during which the subjects learned the word lists. Since it turned out that the high and low intensity groups did not differ in terms of the rated intensity during the main experiment these groups were lumped together. Thus, we worked with 3 groups: one control group and two groups, which were exposed to background music (vocal and instrumental) during verbal learning. As dependent variable, the number of learned words was used. Here we measured immediate recall during five learning sessions (recall 1 – recall 5) and delayed recall for 15 minutes (recall 6) and 14 days (recall 7) after the last learning session. Results Verbal learning improved during the first 5 recall sessions without any strong difference between the control and experimental groups. Also the delayed recalls were similar for the three groups. There was only a trend for attenuated verbal learning for the group passively listened to vocals. This learning attenuation diminished during the following learning sessions. Conclusions The exposure to vocal or

  20. Impaired Verbal Associative Learning after Resection of Left Perirhinal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintrob, David L.; Saling, Michael M.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Reutens, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Some patients considered for left temporal lobectomy for epilepsy present with normal verbal learning and no MRI evidence of hippocampal pathology. In order to preserve learning function, the surgical approach in these cases often aims at sparing the hippocampus. Parahippocampal structures, including the left perirhinal region, however, also…

  1. Verbal Memory and Semantic Organization of Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polychroni, Fotini; Economou, Alexandra; Printezi, Anna; Koutlidi, Ifigeneia

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the verbal learning performance and the semantic organization used by Greek reading-disabled readers as compared to a control group using a list-learning task. The sample consisted of 45 elementary school children with reading difficulties and 45 comparison children matched for age and gender. Tests of reading ability,…

  2. The Auditory Verbal Learning Test (Rey AVLT): An Arabic Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharoni, Varda; Natur, Nazeh

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to adapt the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) into Arabic, to compare recall functioning among age groups (6:0 to 17:11), and to compare gender differences on various memory dimensions (immediate and delayed recall, learning rate, recognition, proactive interferences, and retroactive interferences). This…

  3. Verbal learning and memory in agenesis of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Roger L.; Paul, Lynn K.; Brown, Warren S.

    2015-01-01

    The role of interhemispheric interactions in the encoding, retention, and retrieval of verbal memory can be clarified by assessing individuals with complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), but who have normal intelligence. This study assessed verbal learning and memory in AgCC using the California Verbal Learning Test—Second Edition (CVLT-II). Twenty-six individuals with AgCC were compared to 24 matched controls on CVLT-II measures, as well as Donders’ four CVLT-II factors (i.e., Attention Span, Learning Efficiency, Delayed Memory, and Inaccurate Memory). Individuals with AgCC performed significantly below healthy controls on the Delayed Memory factor, confirmed by significant deficits in short and long delayed free recall and cued recall. They also performed less well in original learning. Deficient performance by individuals with AgCC during learning trials, as well as deficits in all forms of delayed memory, suggest that the corpus callosum facilitates interhemispheric elaboration and encoding of verbal information. PMID:24933663

  4. Incidental Learning, Intelligence, and Verbal Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Necka, Edward; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The effects of incidental learning were assessed in 2 experiments involving 201 seventh graders in Poland through an experimental paradigm based on the levels of processing theory. Data suggest that an important aspect of intelligence is "opportunistic" learning (learning in advance). Intelligent people take cognitive advantage of…

  5. The Role of Elicited Verbal Imitation in Toddlers' Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Rosemary; Munro, Natalie; Baker, Elise; McGregor, Karla; Docking, Kimberley; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    This study is about the role of elicited verbal imitation in toddler word learning. Forty-eight toddlers were taught eight nonwords linked to referents. During training, they were asked to imitate the nonwords. Naming of the referents was tested at three intervals (one minute later [uncued], five minutes, and 1-7 days later [cued]) and recognition…

  6. Verbal Interaction and Learning in Peer-Directed Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Noreen M.

    1985-01-01

    This article describes: (1) the small group settings and peer group research; (2) verbal interaction and its benefits or detriments for learning; (3) students' cognitive abilities and demographic characteristics that predict their participation in small group interaction; (4) group composition and group interaction; and (5) the teacher's role in…

  7. Boosting Vocabulary Learning by Verbal Cueing During Sleep.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Thomas; Rasch, Björn

    2015-11-01

    Reactivating memories during sleep by re-exposure to associated memory cues (e.g., odors or sounds) improves memory consolidation. Here, we tested for the first time whether verbal cueing during sleep can improve vocabulary learning. We cued prior learned Dutch words either during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NonREM) or during active or passive waking. Re-exposure to Dutch words during sleep improved later memory for the German translation of the cued words when compared with uncued words. Recall of uncued words was similar to an additional group receiving no verbal cues during sleep. Furthermore, verbal cueing failed to improve memory during active and passive waking. High-density electroencephalographic recordings revealed that successful verbal cueing during NonREM sleep is associated with a pronounced frontal negativity in event-related potentials, a higher frequency of frontal slow waves as well as a cueing-related increase in right frontal and left parietal oscillatory theta power. Our results indicate that verbal cues presented during NonREM sleep reactivate associated memories, and facilitate later recall of foreign vocabulary without impairing ongoing consolidation processes. Likewise, our oscillatory analysis suggests that both sleep-specific slow waves as well as theta oscillations (typically associated with successful memory encoding during wakefulness) might be involved in strengthening memories by cueing during sleep.

  8. Verbal learning strategy following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Geary, Elizabeth K; Kraus, Marilyn F; Rubin, Leah H; Pliskin, Neil H; Little, Deborah M

    2011-07-01

    That learning and memory deficits persist many years following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is controversial due to inconsistent objective evidence supporting subjective complaints. Our prior work demonstrated significant reductions in performance on the initial trial of a verbal learning task and overall slower rate of learning in well-motivated mTBI participants relative to demographically matched controls. In our previous work, we speculated that differences in strategy use could explain the differences in rate of learning. The current study serves to test this hypothesis by examining strategy use on the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition. Our present findings support the primary hypothesis that mTBI participants under-utilize semantic clustering strategies during list-learning relative to control participants. Despite achieving comparable total learning scores, we posit that the persisting learning and memory difficulties reported by some mTBI patients may be related to reduced usage of efficient internally driven strategies that facilitate learning. Given that strategy training has demonstrated improvements in learning and memory in educational and occupational settings, we offer that these findings have translational value in offering an additional approach in remediation of learning and memory complaints reported by some following mTBI.

  9. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on hippocampal volume, verbal learning, and verbal and spatial recall in late childhood.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Karen A; Sheard, Erin D; Nash, Kelly; Rovet, Joanne

    2008-11-01

    Children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) show deficits in verbal learning and spatial memory, as well as abnormal hippocampal development. The relationship between their memory and neuroanatomic impairments, however, has not been directly explored. Given that the hippocampus is integral for the synthesis and retrieval of learned information and is particularly vulnerable to the teratogenic effects of alcohol, we assessed whether reduced learning and recall abilities in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are associated with abnormal hippocampal volumes. Nineteen children with FASDs and 18 typically developing controls aged 9 to 15 years were assessed for verbal learning and verbal and spatial recall and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Images were analyzed for total intracranial volume and for right and left hippocampal volumes. Results revealed smaller left hippocampi and poorer verbal learning and verbal and spatial recall performance in children with FASDs than controls, as well as positive correlations between selective memory indices and hippocampal volumes only in the FASD group. Additionally, hippocampal volumes increased significantly with age in controls only, suggesting that PAE may be associated with long-term abnormalities in hippocampal development that may contribute to impaired verbal learning and verbal and spatial recall.

  10. Contributions of Language and Memory Demands to Verbal Memory Performance in Language-Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaki, Emi; Spaulding, Tammie J.; Plante, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of adults with language-based learning disorders (L/LD) and normal language controls on verbal short-term and verbal working memory tasks. Eighteen adults with L/LD and 18 normal language controls were compared on verbal short-term memory and verbal working memory tasks under low,…

  11. Verbal and nonverbal communication of events in learning-disability subtypes.

    PubMed

    Loveland, K A; Fletcher, J M; Bailey, V

    1990-08-01

    This study compared a group of nondisabled children (ND) with groups of learning-disabled children who were primarily impaired in reading and arithmetic skills (Reading-Arithmetic Disabled; RAD) and arithmetic but not reading (Arithmetic Disabled; AD) on a set of tasks involving comprehension and production of verbally and nonverbally presented events. Children viewed videotaped scenarios presented in verbal (narrative) and nonverbal (puppet actors) formats and were asked to describe or enact with puppets the events depicted in the stories. Rourke (1978, 1982) has shown that RAD children have problems with verbal skills, whereas AD children have problems with nonverbal skills. Consequently, it was hypothesized that children's performance in comprehending and reproducing stories would be related to the type of learning disability. Results showed that RAD children made more errors than AD children with verbal presentations and describe-responses, whereas AD children made more errors than RAD children with nonverbal presentations and enact-responses. In addition, learning disabled children were more likely than controls to misinterpret affect and motivation depicted in the stories. These results show that learning disabled children have problems with social communication skills, but that the nature of these problems varies with the type of learning disability.

  12. Neural activation during successful and unsuccessful verbal learning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Sibylle; Sartory, Gudrun; Müller, Bernhard W; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Jüptner, Markus

    2006-04-01

    Successful and unsuccessful intention to learn words was assessed by means of event-related functional MRI. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy control participants were scanned while being given two word lists to read and another seven to learn with immediate recall. Neural activation patterns were segregated according to whether words were subsequently recalled or forgotten and these conditions were contrasted with each other and reading. Compared to controls, patients with schizophrenia showed deficits with regard to neural recruitment of right hippocampus and of cerebellar structures during successful verbal learning. Furthermore, a reversal of activated structures was evident in the two groups: Controls showed activation of right frontal and left middle temporal structures during the unsuccessful intention to learn. During successful learning, there was additional activation of right superior parietal lobule. In contrast, patients showed activation of right superior parietal lobule during unsuccessful and successful intention to learn. There were additional frontal and left middle temporal lobe activations during successful learning. We conclude that increased parietal activity may reflect a mechanism which compensates for the lack of hippocampal and cerebellar contributions to verbal learning in schizophrenia.

  13. Screening method for assessing verbal learning efficiency using the Cognistat.

    PubMed

    Fouty, H Edward; Smith, Cassandra R; Briceno, Karen Y; Brown, Katelyn D; Guzman, Daniel; Ailes, Erica L; DeVries, Christopher T; Diluccia, Christina M; McLarnan, Kristy M; Betancourt, Stephanie C; Catoe, Whitney L

    2017-04-07

    The Cognistat is a widely used neurobehavioral screening instrument that addresses functioning across multiple domains. Unlike many popular neuropsychological tests, the Cognistat does not currently assess learning efficiency for verbal material. The purpose of this study was to develop a screening method for assessing verbal learning efficiency with the Cognistat, investigate the effects of two demographic variables (age and gender) on performance, and to establish cutoff scores for impairment. Participants were 253 volunteers between the ages of 18 and 96 years. Participants were classified into two age groups: 18-64 years and 65 + years. The data revealed a significant age and gender performance difference. Implications for the present findings and for future research are presented.

  14. Adults with Asperger Syndrome with and without a Cognitive Profile Associated with "Non-Verbal Learning Disability." A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyden, Agneta; Niklasson, Lena; Stahlberg, Ola; Anckarsater, Henrik; Dahlgren-Sandberg, Annika; Wentz, Elisabet; Rastam, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) and non-verbal learning disability (NLD) are both characterized by impairments in motor coordination, visuo-perceptual abilities, pragmatics and comprehension of language and social understanding. NLD is also defined as a learning disorder affecting functions in the right cerebral hemisphere. The present study investigates…

  15. Assessing the Effects of Different Multimedia Materials on Emotions and Learning Performance for Visual and Verbal Style Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Sun, Ying-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Multimedia materials are now increasingly used in curricula. However, individual preferences for multimedia materials based on visual and verbal cognitive styles may affect learners' emotions and performance. Therefore, in-depth studies that investigate how different multimedia materials affect learning performance and the emotions of learners…

  16. Music listening while you learn: No influence of background music on verbal learning

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still disputed. In this study we investigated the influence of listening to background music on verbal learning performance and the associated brain activations. Methods Musical excerpts were composed for this study to ensure that they were unknown to the subjects and designed to vary in tempo (fast vs. slow) and consonance (in-tune vs. out-of-tune). Noise was used as control stimulus. 75 subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups and learned the presented verbal material (non-words with and without semantic connotation) with and without background music. Each group was exposed to one of five different background stimuli (in-tune fast, in-tune slow, out-of-tune fast, out-of-tune slow, and noise). As dependent variable, the number of learned words was used. In addition, event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) of the EEG alpha-band were calculated as a measure for cortical activation. Results We did not find any substantial and consistent influence of background music on verbal learning. There was neither an enhancement nor a decrease in verbal learning performance during the background stimulation conditions. We found however a stronger event-related desynchronization around 800 - 1200 ms after word presentation for the group exposed to in-tune fast music while they learned the verbal material. There was also a stronger event-related synchronization for the group exposed to out-of-tune fast music around 1600 - 2000 ms after word presentation. Conclusion Verbal learning during the exposure to different background music varying in tempo and consonance did not influence learning of verbal material. There was neither an enhancing nor a detrimental effect on verbal learning performance. The EEG data suggest that the different acoustic background conditions evoke different cortical activations. The reason for these different cortical

  17. Relationships Between Language Development and Verbal Associative Learning of Third and Fifth-Grade Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greathouse, Larry James

    A study of the extent to which relationships exist between pupils' verbal associative learning ability and seven indices of pupil ability to verbalize utilized 32 third-grade and 34 fifth-grade pupils randomly selected from six Las Cruces schools. Raw data were collected from transcribed language samples, the Verbal Paired-Associate Test, the…

  18. Notetaking, Verbal Aptitude, & Listening Span: Factors Involved in Learning from Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walbaum, Sharlene D.

    Three variables (verbal aptitude, listening ability, and notetaking) that may mediate how much college students learn from a lecture were studied. Verbal aptitude was operationalized as a Verbal Scholastic Aptitude Test (VSAT) score. Listening ability was measured as the score on an auditory short-term memory task, using the serial running memory…

  19. Does learning to read shape verbal working memory?

    PubMed

    Demoulin, Catherine; Kolinsky, Régine

    2016-06-01

    Many experimental studies have investigated the relationship between the acquisition of reading and working memory in a unidirectional way, attempting to determine to what extent individual differences in working memory can predict reading achievement. In contrast, very little attention has been dedicated to the converse possibility that learning to read shapes the development of verbal memory processes. In this paper, we present available evidence that advocates a more prominent role for reading acquisition on verbal working memory and then discuss the potential mechanisms of such literacy effects. First, the early decoding activities might bolster the development of subvocal rehearsal, which, in turn, would enhance serial order performance in immediate memory tasks. In addition, learning to read and write in an alphabetical system allows the emergence of phonemic awareness and finely tuned phonological representations, as well as of orthographic representations. This could improve the quality, strength, and precision of lexical representations, and hence offer better support for the temporary encoding of memory items and/or for their retrieval.

  20. Application of Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning to Curriculum, Teaching and Learning of Deaf Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biser, Eileen

    Implications of D. Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning and its derivative, the Advance Organizer Model of Teaching, for deaf students are examined. Ausubel believes that complex intellectual processes (thinking, language, problem-solving, concept formation) are the major aspects of learning, and that primary emphasis should be placed on…

  1. Czech version of Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test: normative data.

    PubMed

    Bezdicek, Ondrej; Stepankova, Hana; Moták, Ladislav; Axelrod, Bradley N; Woodard, John L; Preiss, Marek; Nikolai, Tomáš; Růžička, Evžen; Poreh, Amir

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides normative data stratified by age for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test Czech version (RAVLT) derived from a sample of 306 cognitively normal subjects (20-85 years). Participants met strict inclusion criteria (absence of any active or past neurological or psychiatric disorder) and performed within normal limits on other neuropsychological measures. Our analyses revealed significant relationships between most RAVLT indices and age and education. Normative data are provided not only for basic RAVLT scores, but for the first time also for a variety of derived (gained/lost access, primacy/recency effect) and error scores. The study confirmed a logarithmic character of the learning slope and is consistent with other studies. It enables the clinician to evaluate more precisely subject's RAVLT memory performance on a vast number of indices and can be viewed as a concrete example of Quantified Process Approach to neuropsychological assessment.

  2. FORUM: Affective Learning. Reclaiming Affective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housley Gaffney, Amy L.; Dannels, Deanna P.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  3. Cognition and affective style: Individual differences in brain electrical activity during spatial and verbal tasks.

    PubMed

    Bell, Martha Ann; Fox, Nathan A

    2003-12-01

    Relations between brain electrical activity and performance on two cognitive tasks were examined in a normal population selected to be high on self-reported measures of Positive or Negative Affectivity. Twenty-five right-handed women, from an original pool of 308 college undergraduates, were the participants. EEG was recorded during baseline and during psychometrically matched spatial and verbal tasks. As predicted, participants who were high in Positive Affectivity performed equally well on the verbal and spatial tasks, while participants who were high in Negative Affectivity had spatial scores that were lower than their verbal scores. There were no group differences in baseline EEG. Both groups exhibited left central activation (i.e., alpha suppression) during the verbal and spatial tasks. When EEG data were analyzed separately for the group high in Positive Affectivity, there was evidence of parietal activation for the spatial task relative to the verbal task. The EEG data for the group high in Negative Affectivity had comparable EEG power values during verbal and spatial tasks at parietal scalp locations. These data suggest that, within a selected normal population, differences in affective style may interact with cognitive performance and with the brain electrical activity associated with that performance.

  4. Verbal Mediation for Perceptual Deficits in Learning Disabilities: A Review and Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Maurice; Rohr, Michael E.

    1980-01-01

    An intervening variable between perceptual deficits and academic learning--verbal mediation processes--is explored. Research reviewed, primarily that of A. Luria, leads to the conclusion that verbal mediational processes can compensate for perceptual learning process deficits. Relevant teaching applications are discussed. (Author)

  5. Comparative Effects of Seven Verbal-Visual Presentation Modes Upon Learning Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Josiah Johnson, IV

    A study was made of the comparative media effects upon teaching the component learning tasks of concept learning: classification, generalization, and application. The seven selected methods of presenting stimuli to the learners were: motion pictures with spoken verbal; motion pictures, silent; still pictures with spoken verbal; still pictures,…

  6. The Severe Nature of Verbal Learning Deficits in Preschool Down's Syndrome (Mongoloid) Children. Research Report No. 69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rynders, John E.; And Others

    Twenty 3-year-old, home reared, Down's Syndrome children and eight 3-year-old normal children were studied to examine the verbal learning characteristics of Down's Syndrome children in typical preschool learning tasks. Prior to the study, research on characteristics of verbal learning deficits in retarded individuals and on verbal skill training…

  7. Effects of classroom bilingualism on task-shifting, verbal memory, and word learning in children.

    PubMed

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

    2014-07-01

    We examined the effects of classroom bilingual experience in children on an array of cognitive skills. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared with children who spoke English as the native language and who had been exposed to Spanish in the context of dual-immersion schooling for an average of 2 years. The groups were compared on a measure of non-linguistic task-shifting; measures of verbal short-term and working memory; and measures of word learning. The two groups of children did not differ on measures of non-linguistic task-shifting and verbal short-term memory. However, the classroom-exposure bilingual group outperformed the monolingual group on the measure of verbal working memory and a measure of word learning. Together, these findings indicate that while exposure to a second language in a classroom setting may not be sufficient to engender changes in cognitive control, it can facilitate verbal memory and verbal learning.

  8. Introducing and Evaluating the Behavior of Non-Verbal Features in the Virtual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dharmawansa, Asanka D.; Fukumura, Yoshimi; Marasinghe, Ashu; Madhuwanthi, R. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to introduce the behavior of non-verbal features of e-Learners in the virtual learning environment to establish a fair representation of the real user by an avatar who represents the e-Learner in the virtual environment and to distinguish the deportment of the non-verbal features during the virtual learning…

  9. The Relation of Visual and Verbal Style of Television Presentation to Learning of Prosocial Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susman, Elizabeth J.

    The study assessed the effect of two stylistic features of a prosocial television program, visual focusing and verbal labeling, on learning and behavior. Forty male and 40 female preschool children viewed one of five versions of a children's quiz show. Camera zooms and verbal labels alone and in combination emphasized sharing in four prosocial…

  10. Social Skills and Peer Acceptance: Effects of a Social Learning Method for Training Verbal Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Gary W.

    The purpose of this study was to see if a social learning method for training verbal social skills might influence the social effectiveness of third grade children with low peer acceptance. Children were trained in three verbal skills: asking questions of peers; leading peers (e.g., offering useful suggestions or directions); and, offering…

  11. Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Verbal Conditioning of Affective Self-Disclosures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hekmat, Hamid

    1971-01-01

    Subjects were assigned to four experimental groups: neurotic extraverts, stable extraverts, neurotic introverts, stable introverts, and a control group. Results indicated that introversion, and not neuroticism, facilitated conditioning processes. Neuroticism, however, did not interact on the conditioning of affective self disclosures. Introverted…

  12. Dissociating Crossmodal and Verbal Demands in Paired Associate Learning (PAL): What Drives the PAL-Reading Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Robin A.; de Jong, Peter F.; van Bergen, Elsje; Nation, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) may tap a crossmodal associative learning mechanism that plays a distinct role in reading development. However, evidence from children with dyslexia indicates that deficits in visual-verbal PAL are strongly linked to the verbal demands of the task. The primary aim of this…

  13. Non-Verbal Communication and the Affective Domain. Teacher Corps Associates: Resources for CBTE, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligons, Claudette Merrell

    This training package in nonverbal communication and the affective domain rests on the rationale that nonverbal communication is a support system for the verbal message that we convey and that it can be divided into two channels--the vocal and the kinetic. The vocal channel consists of the pitch of the voice, and the kinetic consists of postures,…

  14. Affect, Verbal Content, and Psychophysiology in the Arguments of Couples with a Violent Husband.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Neil S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studied affect, psychophysiology, and verbal content of arguments in 60 couples with violent husband. Found that no wife behaviors successfully suppressed husband violence once it began; husband violence escalated in response to nonviolent and violent wife behaviors. Both battering husbands and their wives were angrier than their maritally…

  15. Impaired Verbal Learning Is Associated with Larger Caudate Volumes in Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Juuhl-Langseth, Monica; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Holmén, Aina; Thormodsen, Rune; Groote, Inge R.; Rimol, Lars M.; Emblem, Kyrre E.; Agartz, Ingrid; Rund, Bjørn R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Both brain structural abnormalities and neurocognitive impairments are core features of schizophrenia. We have previously reported enlargements in subcortical brain structure volumes and impairment of neurocognitive functioning as measured by the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB) in early onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOS). To our knowledge, no previous study has investigated whether neurocognitive performance and volumetric abnormalities in subcortical brain structures are related in EOS. Methods Twenty-four patients with EOS and 33 healthy controls (HC) were included in the study. Relationships between the caudate nucleus, the lateral and fourth ventricles volumes and neurocognitive performance were investigated with multivariate linear regression analyses. Intracranial volume, age, antipsychotic medication and IQ were included as independent predictor-variables. Results The caudate volume was negatively correlated with verbal learning performance uniquely in the EOS group (r=-.454, p=.034). There were comparable positive correlations between the lateral ventricular volume and the processing speed, attention and reasoning and problem solving domains for both the EOS patients and the healthy controls. Antipsychotic medication was related to ventricular enlargements, but did not affect the brain structure-function relationship. Conclusion Enlargement of the caudate volume was related to poorer verbal learning performance in patients with EOS. Despite a 32% enlargement of the lateral ventricles in the EOS group, associations to processing speed, attention and reasoning and problem solving were similar for both the EOS and the HC groups. PMID:26230626

  16. Exploring Antecedents of Performance Differences on Visual and Verbal Test Items: Learning Styles versus Aptitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Donald R.; Hartley, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Many educators and researchers have suggested that some students learn more effectively with visual stimuli (e.g., pictures, graphs), whereas others learn more effectively with verbal information (e.g., text) (Felder & Brent, 2005). In two studies, the present research seeks to improve popular self-reported (indirect) learning style measures…

  17. Improved verbal learning in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia when using semantic cues.

    PubMed

    Milano, Nicholas J; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2015-01-01

    The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-S) is characterized by impairments in confrontation naming and single word comprehension. Although episodic memory may be relatively spared, there can be impairment in verbal learning tasks. We report a patient with PPA-S and impaired verbal learning who was tested to learn if when provided with semantic categories, her learning would improve. A 70-year-old right-handed woman with a 2-year history of progressive difficulties with word finding, naming, and memory was tested for language and memory deficits using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R). She was then retested with the HVLT-R after being provided with the three semantic categories to which these words belonged. Confrontation naming was impaired on the Boston Naming Test. Sentence repetition was normal. Comprehension testing with word picture matching and sentence comprehension was normal. On a test of semantic associations, Pyramids and Palm Trees, she was impaired. She was also impaired on tests of verbal learning (HVLT-R) (total: 13) but not recall. When a different version of the HVLT-R was given with the semantic categories of the words given beforehand, her scores improved (total: 26). This patient with PPA-S had an impairment of verbal learning, but not delayed recall. When given a semantic category cue beforehand, her verbal learning performance improved. This observation suggests that this patient did not spontaneously use semantic encoding. Using a semantic cueing strategy may help other patients with PPA-S improve their capacity for verbal learning.

  18. Computerized cognitive remediation improves verbal learning and processing speed in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sartory, Gudrun; Zorn, Cornelia; Groetzinger, Gerd; Windgassen, Klaus

    2005-06-15

    Computerized cognitive remediation has resulted in improved executive function in schizophrenia, whereas results with regard to verbal memory were inconsistent. In the present study, 42 inpatients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to a computerized cognitive remediation group or to a treatment-as-usual (TAU) control group. The remediation group received 15 sessions of computerized cognitive training (Cogpack) over a 3-week period. Neurocognitive functions were assessed at the beginning and end of this period. Compared to the control condition, remediation training resulted in improvements in verbal learning, processing speed and executive function (verbal fluency). The results indicate that cognitive remediation may lead to improvements beyond those of executive function.

  19. Verbal working memory and planning: learning to compare movement durations of objects.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Fumiko

    2010-12-01

    Relations between duration judgments and verbal or visual working memory, between duration judgments and effect of learning to plan the processing of information about such judgments were investigated. A computer monitor was used to present images of two cars traveling in the same direction for various durations and distances. Participants (N=30) were asked to identify the car that had traveled for the longer duration. Then, participants learned how to solve Piagetian tasks logically. After the learning, they tried to solve the duration judgments task again. Finally, their verbal and visual working memory capacities were assessed. Results indicated the following: (a) numbers of correct answers on the Piagetian tasks were correlated with verbal and visual working memory capacity; (b) the correlations did not significantly decrease after the participants learned how to solve the Piagetian tasks.

  20. A Test of Two Explanations of the Role of Verbal Pretraining on Subsequent Discrimination Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smothergill, D. W.; Cook, Harold

    The author initially cites the associationistic position of Spiker and the perceptual learning position of E. Gibson and concludes that the existing data does not clearly support either hypothesis. He describes a new approach designed to test these explanations of the role of verbal pretraining on subsequent discrimination learning. It consists of…

  1. Learning to Verbally & Visually Communicate the Automotive Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide, one of 15 volumes written for field test use with educationally disadvantaged industrial education students needing additional instruction in the basic skill areas, deals with helping students develop basic verbal and visual communication skills while studying auto repair. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are…

  2. Investigating Verbal and Visual Auditory Learning After Conformal Radiation Therapy for Childhood Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Di Pinto, Marcos; Conklin, Heather M.; Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether children with localized ependymoma experience a decline in verbal or visual-auditory learning after conformal radiation therapy (CRT). The secondary objective was to investigate the impact of age and select clinical factors on learning before and after treatment. Methods and Materials: Learning in a sample of 71 patients with localized ependymoma was assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-C) and the Visual-Auditory Learning Test (VAL). Learning measures were administered before CRT, at 6 months, and then yearly for a total of 5 years. Results: There was no significant decline on measures of verbal or visual-auditory learning after CRT; however, younger age, more surgeries, and cerebrospinal fluid shunting did predict lower scores at baseline. There were significant longitudinal effects (improved learning scores after treatment) among older children on the CVLT-C and children that did not receive pre-CRT chemotherapy on the VAL. Conclusion: There was no evidence of global decline in learning after CRT in children with localized ependymoma. Several important implications from the findings include the following: (1) identification of and differentiation among variables with transient vs. long-term effects on learning, (2) demonstration that children treated with chemotherapy before CRT had greater risk of adverse visual-auditory learning performance, and (3) establishment of baseline and serial assessment as critical in ascertaining necessary sensitivity and specificity for the detection of modest effects.

  3. Declarative verbal memory impairments in middle-aged women who are caregivers of offspring with autism spectrum disorders: The role of negative affect and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, A; González-Bono, E; Salvador, A; Moya-Albiol, L

    2016-01-01

    Caring for offspring diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is used in research as a model of chronic stress. This chronic stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory. Moreover, such cognitive decline may be mediated by testosterone (T) levels and negative affect, understood as depressive mood together with high anxiety and anger. This study aimed to compare declarative memory function in middle-aged women who were caregivers for individuals with ASD (n = 24; mean age = 45) and female controls (n = 22; mean age = 45), using a standardised memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). It also sought to examine the role of care recipient characteristics, negative mood and T levels in memory impairments. ASD caregivers were highly sensitive to proactive interference and verbal forgetting. In addition, they had higher negative affect and T levels, both of which have been associated with poorer verbal memory performance. Moreover, the number of years of caregiving affected memory performance and negative affect, especially, in terms of anger feelings. On the other hand, T levels in caregivers had a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance; that is, increases in T were associated with improvements in verbal memory performance up to a certain point, but subsequently, memory performance decreased with increasing T. Chronic stress may produce disturbances in mood and hormonal levels, which in turn might increase the likelihood of developing declarative memory impairments although caregivers do not show a generalised decline in memory. These findings should be taken into account for understanding the impact of cognitive impairments on the ability to provide optimal caregiving.

  4. Measuring Team Learning Behaviours through Observing Verbal Team Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Elisabeth; Boon, Anne; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore, as an answer to the observed lack of knowledge about actual team learning behaviours, the characteristics of the actual observed basic team learning behaviours and facilitating team learning behaviours more in-depth of three project teams. Over time, team learning in an organisational context has been…

  5. Effects of Classroom Bilingualism on Task Shifting, Verbal Memory, and Word Learning in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of classroom bilingual experience in children on an array of cognitive skills. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared with children who spoke English as the native language and who had been exposed to Spanish in the context of dual-immersion schooling for an average of two years. The groups were compared on a measure of non-linguistic task-shifting; measures of verbal short-term and working memory; and measures of word-learning. The two groups of children did not differ on measures of non-linguistic task-shifting and verbal short-term memory. However, the classroom-exposure bilingual group outperformed the monolingual group on the measure of verbal working memory and a measure of word-learning. Together, these findings indicate that while exposure to a second language in a classroom setting may not be sufficient to engender changes in cognitive control, it can facilitate verbal memory and verbal learning. PMID:24576079

  6. Verbal behavior.

    PubMed

    Michael, J

    1984-11-01

    THE RECENT HISTORY AND CURRENT STATUS OF THE AREA OF VERBAL BEHAVIOR ARE CONSIDERED IN TERMS OF THREE MAJOR THEMATIC LINES: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  7. Your Verbal Zone: An Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning Program in Support of Turkish Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esit, Omer

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) program on Turkish learners' vocabulary learning. Within the scope of this research, an ICALL application with a morphological analyser (Your Verbal Zone, YVZ) was developed and used in an English language preparatory class to measure its…

  8. Individual Differences in Dynamic Measures of Verbal Learning Abilities in Young Twin Pairs and Their Older Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Soelen, Inge L. C.; van den Berg, Stephanie M.; Dekker, Peter H.; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Peper, Jiska S.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    We explored the genetic background of individual differences in dynamic measures of verbal learning ability in children, using a Dutch version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Nine-year-old twin pairs (N = 112 pairs) were recruited from the Netherlands Twin Register. When possible, an older sibling between 10 and 14 years old…

  9. Verbal Learning Processes in Patients with Glioma of the Left and Right Temporal Lobes

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Kyle R.; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Ziu, Mateo; Wefel, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research supports the utility of process variables in understanding mechanisms underlying memory impairments. The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) was administered to 84 patients with left (LTL, n = 58) or right temporal lobe glioma (RTL, n = 26) prior to surgical resection. Primary HVLT-R measures of learning and memory and numerous learning process indices were computed. Both groups exhibited frequent memory impairment (>30%), with greater severity in the LTL group. Patients with LTL glioma also exhibited lower semantic clustering scores than RTL patients, which were highly associated with Total Recall (ρ = 0.83) and Delayed Recall (ρ = 0.68). Learning slope and a novel measure of learning efficiency were also significantly associated with primary memory measures, though scores were similar across the LTL and RTL groups. While lesions to either temporal lobe impact verbal memory, semantic encoding appears to depend upon the integrity of LTL structures in particular. PMID:26537777

  10. Memory for verbal and nonverbal stimuli in learning disability subgroups: analysis by selective reminding.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, J M

    1985-10-01

    Memory for verbal and nonverbal stimuli was evaluated using selective reminding procedures in normal achieving children and four groups of disabled learners: (1) reading-spelling disabled (R-S); (2) reading-spelling-arithmetic disabled (R-S-A); (3) spelling-arithmetic disabled (S-A); and (4) arithmetic disabled (A). Each child received two analogous free-list memory tasks, one for verbal material (animal names) and the other for nonverbal material (random dot patterns). These tasks were administered using selective reminding procedures that permit separation of storage and retrieval aspects of memory by reminding children only of those words not recalled on previous trials. Results revealed that relative to controls, the A and S-A children had significantly lower storage and retrieval scores on the nonverbal task, but did not differ on the verbal task; the R-S children differed only on retrieval scores from the verbal task; and the R-S-A children on retrieval scores on the verbal task and storage and retrieval scores on the nonverbal task. Thus, results indicate that the memory performance of disabled learners varies according to (1) the type of learning problem (arithmetic vs reading), (2) the nature of the stimuli (verbal vs nonverbal), and (3) the aspect of memory being assessed (storage vs retrieval). This study provides external validation for the classification of disabled learners according to patterns of academic achievement, demonstrating a useful procedure for dealing with the intrasubject variability characteristic of disabled learners.

  11. Reducing Verbal Redundancy in Multimedia Learning: An Undesired Desirable Difficulty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Carole L.; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon; Bjork, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on the redundancy principle in multimedia learning has shown that although exact correspondence between on-screen text and narration generally impairs learning, brief labels within an animation can improve learning. To clarify and extend the theoretical and practical implications of these results, the authors of the present…

  12. California Verbal Learning Test Indicators of Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction: Sensitivity and Specificity in Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Kelly L.; Greve, Kevin W.; Bianchini, Kevin J.; Brennan, Adrianne

    2006-01-01

    The present study used well-defined traumatic brain injury (TBI) and mixed neurological (other than TBI) and psychiatric samples to examine the specificity and sensitivity to Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction (MND) of four individual California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) variables and eight composite CVLT malingering indicators. Participants…

  13. Extraversion, neuroticism and verbal reasoning ability as determinants of paired associates learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsopp, J. F.; Eysenck, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    Predictions based on theories of verbal learning proposed by Spence and Eysenck were compared by using a noncompetitive list of paired-associates formed from seven synonym pairs, and a competitive list formed by pairing each of the seven S words with a R word with which it was not synonymous. (Editor)

  14. Age Differences in Recall and Information Processing in Verbal and Spatial Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungas, Dan; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three age groups of 24 people each completed verbal word list tasks and spatial learning tasks 5 times each. Significant age differences were found for total recall and type of task. Younger subjects showed increased levels of clustering--organizing information according to semantic or spatial clusters. Age was not related to temporal order of…

  15. Test performance and classification statistics for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test in selected clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Dawson, Kyra A; Duff, Kevin; Patton, Doyle; Scott, James G; Adams, Russell L

    2006-10-01

    The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [RAVLT; Rey, A. (1941). L'examen psychologique dans les cas d'encéphalopathie traumatique. Archives de Psychologie, 28, 21] is a commonly used neuropsychological measure that assesses verbal learning and memory. Normative data have been compiled [Schmidt, M. (1996). Rey Auditory and Verbal Learning Test: A handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services]. When assessing an individual suspected of neurological dysfunction, useful comparisons include the extent that the patient deviates from healthy peers and also how closely the subject's performance matches those with known brain injury. This study provides the means and S.D.'s of 392 individuals with documented neurological dysfunction [closed head TBI (n=68), neoplasms (n=57), stroke (n=47), Dementia of the Alzheimer's type (n=158), and presurgical epilepsy left seizure focus (n=28), presurgical epilepsy right seizure focus (n=34)] and 122 patients with no known neurological dysfunction and psychiatric complaints. Patients were stratified into three age groups, 16-35, 36-59, and 60-88. Data were provided for trials I-V, List B, immediate recall, 30-min delayed recall, and recognition. Classification characteristics of the RAVLT using [Schmidt, M. (1996). Rey Auditory and Verbal Learning Test: A handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services] meta-norms found the RAVLT to best distinguish patients suspected of Alzheimer's disease from the psychiatric comparison group.

  16. Reliability and validity of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) -II - Japanese version.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Toyomaki, Atsuhito; Kawano, Naoko; Tomoko, Kitajima; Kusumi, Ichiro; Ozaki, Norio; Iwata, Nakao; Nakagome, Kazuyuki

    2017-03-20

    In line with the recent initiative to establish a standard measure of cognitive decline in bipolar disorder(1,2)) , the present study tested the criterion-related validity and test-retest reliability of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-II(3)()) Japanese version.(4)).

  17. The Effects of Visual-Verbal Redundancy and Recaps on Television News Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Jinok; Davie, William

    A study examined the effects of visual-verbal redundancy and recaps on learning from television news. Two factors were used: redundancy between the visual and audio channels, and the presence or absence of a recap. Manipulation of these factors created four conditions: (1) redundant pictures and words plus recap, (2) redundant pictures and words…

  18. Asperger syndrome: how does it relate to non-verbal learning disability?

    PubMed

    Ryburn, B; Anderson, V; Wales, R

    2009-03-01

    The syndrome of non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD) is associated with prominent non-verbal deficits such as reduced perceptual and spatial abilities, against a background of relatively intact verbal abilities. Asperger syndrome is one of the several developmental disorders for which Byron Rourke has claimed that almost all the signs and symptoms of NLD are present. This study investigated the claim utilizing a battery of neuropsychological tests that were found to be sensitive to NLD in the original learning disordered populations used to describe the syndrome. Children aged between 8 and 14 were recruited to form two groups: (1) children with Asperger syndrome (N=14) and (2) normal healthy schoolchildren (N=20). By contrast to the main principle outlined in the NLD model, children with Asperger syndrome did not display a relative difficulty with spatial- or problem-solving tasks; indeed, they displayed significantly higher performance on some non-verbal tasks in comparison with verbal tasks. It was only in relation to their high levels of psychosocial and interpersonal difficulties, which are also predicted on the basis of their psychiatric diagnosis, that the children with Asperger syndrome were clearly consistent with the NLD model in this study. These results raise questions about the relevance of the syndrome of NLD for children with Asperger syndrome.

  19. Music mnemonics aid Verbal Memory and Induce Learning - Related Brain Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H; Peterson, David A; McIntosh, Gerald C; Hoemberg, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music-assisted learning. Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in alpha and beta frequency bands in 54 patients with MS. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either hearing a spoken or a musical (sung) presentation of Rey's auditory verbal learning test. We defined the "learning-related synchronization" (LRS) as the percent change in EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent word encoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and the spoken conditions in low alpha and upper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better word order memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. The evidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization in prefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicit in musical stimuli enhances "deep encoding" during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neural dynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS.

  20. Effect of Musical Experience on Verbal Memory in Williams Syndrome: Evidence from a Novel Word Learning Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Marilee A.; Jungers, Melissa K.; Steele, Anita L.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by an increased affinity for music, deficits in verbal memory, and atypical brain development. Music has been shown to improve verbal memory in typical individuals as well as those with learning difficulties, but no studies have examined this relationship in WS. The aim…

  1. VERBAL LEARNING AMONG CHILDREN WITH REDUCED HEARING ACUITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GAETH, JOHN H.; AND OTHERS

    COMBINED VISUAL-AUDITORY METHODS FOR TEACHING WERE TESTED, USING AURALLY HANDICAPPED AND NORMAL CHILDREN AS SUBJECTS, TO DEVELOP COMPARATIVE STATISTICS OF LEARNING ABILITY AND AUDITORY TRAINING BENEFITS OVER CONVENTIONAL UNISENSORY TEACHING TECHNIQUES. THE STUDY SAMPLE CONSISTED OF 2,500 CHILDREN. IN THE EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE, THE CHILDREN WERE…

  2. Verbal Learning and Memory in Older Adults with Minor and Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Zillmer, Eric A.; Barakat, Lamia P.; Kumar, Anand; Gur, Ruben C.; McAndrew, Lisa M.; Bilker, Warren B.; Elderkin-Thompson, Virginia; Moberg, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Late-life minor depression (miD) is a prevalent but poorly understood illness. Verbal learning and memory profiles have commonly been used to characterize neuropsychiatric disorders. This study compared the performance of 27 older adults with miD on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) with 26 age-matched individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 36 non-depressed controls. Results revealed that the miD group performed comparably with controls and significantly better than the MDD group on several CVLT indices. Moreover, cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups, consistent with theoretical representations of “normal,” “subcortical,” and “cortical” verbal learning and memory profiles. The majority of the miD group showed “normal” profiles (74%), whereas most individuals with MDD displayed “subcortical” profiles (54%). The findings suggest that depression in the elderly is a heterogeneous entity and that the CVLT may be a useful tool for characterizing learning and memory in late-onset depressive disorders. PMID:22189596

  3. Normative data and discriminant validity of Rey's Verbal Learning Test for the Greek adult population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Tsakona, Ioanna; Malefaki, Sonia; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2007-08-01

    The present study sought to establish normative and discriminant validity data for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test [Rey, A. (1964). L 'examen clinique en psychologie [Clinical tests in psychology]. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France; Schmidt, M. (1996). Rey auditory verbal learning test: A handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services] using newly adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. Applying the procedure suggested by Geffen et al. [Geffen, G., Moar, K. J., O'Hanlon, A. P., Clark, C. R., & Geffen, L. N. (1990). Performance measures of 16-86-year-old males and females on the auditory verbal learning test. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 4, 45-63] we administered the test to 205 healthy participants, aged 18-78 years and two adult patient groups (long-term cannabis users and HIV symptomatic patients). Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that the variables age, education and gender contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT. Performance decreased in an age-dependent manner from young adulthood. Women, young adults and higher educated participants outperformed men, older adults and less educated individuals. The test appears to discriminate adequately between the performance of long-term heavy cannabis users and HIV seropositive symptomatic patients and matched healthy controls, as both patient groups performed more poorly than their respective control group. Normative data stratified by age, gender and education for the Greek adult population is presented for use in research and clinical settings.

  4. Affect, verbal content, and psychophysiology in the arguments of couples with a violent husband.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, N S; Gottman, J M; Waltz, J; Rushe, R; Babcock, J; Holtzworth-Munroe, A

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the affect, psychophysiology, and violent content of arguments in couples with a violent husband. On the basis of self-reports of violent arguments, there were no wife behaviors that successfully suppressed husband violence once it began; moreover, husband violence escalated in response to nonviolent as well as violent wife behaviors, whereas wife violence escalated only in reaction to husband violence or emotional abuse. Only wives were fearful during violent and nonviolent arguments. The observational coding of nonviolent arguments in the laboratory revealed that both battering husbands and their wives (DV) were angrier than their maritally distressed but nonviolent (DNV) counterparts. As predicted, on the more provocative anger codes, only DV men differed from their DNV counterparts. However, DV wives were as verbally aggressive toward their husbands as DV husbands were toward their wives.

  5. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: normative data developed for the Venezuelan population.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Correia, Aline; Campagna Osorio, Ilva

    2014-03-01

    The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a neuropsychological tool widely used to assess functions such as attention, memory, and learning ability in the auditory-verbal domain. Norms for the test have been developed in many different languages and they show different relationships with demographic variables. The main objective of this research was to develop specific norms for the Venezuelan population, with particular focus on the influences of age, education, gender, and socioeconomic status. A Spanish version of the test was administered to a quota sample of 629 healthy adults. Pearson's correlation analysis (p < .001) showed a significant association between RAVLT performance and age (r = -.401), education (r = .386), and socioeconomic status (r = -.196), but not between RAVLT performance and gender (r = -.054). Due to the strength of the correlations, only age and education were considered in the development of final norms.

  6. Music mnemonics aid Verbal Memory and Induce Learning – Related Brain Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Thaut, Michael H.; Peterson, David A.; McIntosh, Gerald C.; Hoemberg, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music-assisted learning. Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in alpha and beta frequency bands in 54 patients with MS. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either hearing a spoken or a musical (sung) presentation of Rey’s auditory verbal learning test. We defined the “learning-related synchronization” (LRS) as the percent change in EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent word encoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and the spoken conditions in low alpha and upper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better word order memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. The evidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization in prefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicit in musical stimuli enhances “deep encoding” during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neural dynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS. PMID:24982626

  7. Prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymetry in children and adolescents with interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wajnsztejn, Alessandra Bernardes Caturani; Bianco, Bianca; Barbosa, Caio Parente

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To describe clinical and epidemiological features of children and adolescents with interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder and to investigate the prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry in this population group. Methods Cross-sectional study including children and adolescents referred for interdisciplinary assessment with learning difficulty complaints, who were given an interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder. The following variables were included in the analysis: sex-related prevalence, educational system, initial presumptive diagnoses and respective prevalence, overall non-verbal learning disorder prevalence, prevalence according to school year, age range at the time of assessment, major family complaints, presence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry, arithmetic deficits, visuoconstruction impairments and major signs and symptoms of non-verbal learning disorder. Results Out of 810 medical records analyzed, 14 were from individuals who met the diagnostic criteria for non-verbal learning disorder, including the presence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry. Of these 14 patients, 8 were male. Conclusion The high prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry suggests this parameter can be used to predict or support the diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder. PMID:28076596

  8. "I know your name, but not your number"--Patients with verbal short-term memory deficits are impaired in learning sequences of digits.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Tobias; Seyboth, Margret; Umarova, Roza; Weiller, Cornelius

    2015-06-01

    Studies on verbal learning in patients with impaired verbal short-term memory (vSTM) have revealed dissociations among types of verbal information. Patients with impaired vSTM are able to learn lists of known words but fail to acquire new word forms. This suggests that vSTM is involved in new word learning. The present study assessed both new word learning and the learning of digit sequences in two patients with impaired vSTM. In two experiments, participants were required to learn people's names, ages and professions, or their four digit 'phone numbers'. The STM patients were impaired on learning unknown family names and phone numbers, but managed to acquire other verbal information. In contrast, a patient with a severe verbal episodic memory impairment was impaired across information types. These results indicate verbal STM involvement in the learning of digit sequences.

  9. Relationship between neuroticism, childhood trauma and cognitive-affective responses to auditory verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    So, Suzanne Ho-Wai; Begemann, Marieke J H; Gong, Xianmin; Sommer, Iris E

    2016-10-04

    Neuroticism has been shown to adversely influence the development and outcome of psychosis. However, how this personality trait associates with the individual's responses to psychotic symptoms is less well known. Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been reported by patients with psychosis and non-clinical individuals. There is evidence that voice-hearers who are more distressed by and resistant against the voices, as well as those who appraise the voices as malevolent and powerful, have poorer outcome. This study aimed to examine the mechanistic association of neuroticism with the cognitive-affective reactions to AVH. We assessed 40 psychotic patients experiencing frequent AVHs, 135 non-clinical participants experiencing frequent AVHs, and 126 healthy individuals. In both clinical and non-clinical voice-hearers alike, a higher level of neuroticism was associated with more distress and behavioral resistance in response to AVHs, as well as a stronger tendency to perceive voices as malevolent and powerful. Neuroticism fully mediated the found associations between childhood trauma and the individuals' cognitive-affective reactions to voices. Our results supported the role of neurotic personality in shaping maladaptive reactions to voices. Neuroticism may also serve as a putative mechanism linking childhood trauma and psychological reactions to voices. Implications for psychological models of hallucinations are discussed.

  10. Relationship between neuroticism, childhood trauma and cognitive-affective responses to auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    So, Suzanne Ho-wai; Begemann, Marieke J. H.; Gong, Xianmin; Sommer, Iris E.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroticism has been shown to adversely influence the development and outcome of psychosis. However, how this personality trait associates with the individual’s responses to psychotic symptoms is less well known. Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been reported by patients with psychosis and non-clinical individuals. There is evidence that voice-hearers who are more distressed by and resistant against the voices, as well as those who appraise the voices as malevolent and powerful, have poorer outcome. This study aimed to examine the mechanistic association of neuroticism with the cognitive-affective reactions to AVH. We assessed 40 psychotic patients experiencing frequent AVHs, 135 non-clinical participants experiencing frequent AVHs, and 126 healthy individuals. In both clinical and non-clinical voice-hearers alike, a higher level of neuroticism was associated with more distress and behavioral resistance in response to AVHs, as well as a stronger tendency to perceive voices as malevolent and powerful. Neuroticism fully mediated the found associations between childhood trauma and the individuals’ cognitive-affective reactions to voices. Our results supported the role of neurotic personality in shaping maladaptive reactions to voices. Neuroticism may also serve as a putative mechanism linking childhood trauma and psychological reactions to voices. Implications for psychological models of hallucinations are discussed. PMID:27698407

  11. The Role of Maternal Verbal, Affective, and Behavioral Support in Preschool Children's Independent and Collaborative Autobiographical Memory Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkina, Marina; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the individual and relative contributions of different aspects of maternal support (i.e., verbal, affective, and behavioral) in relation to children's collaborative and independent reminiscing. Four-year-old children discussed personal past experiences with their mothers and with a researcher. In collaborative recall with…

  12. Verbal versus Numerical Probabilities: Does Format Presentation of Probabilistic Information regarding Breast Cancer Screening Affect Women's Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test whether the format in which women receive probabilistic information about breast cancer and mammography affects their comprehension. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women received pre-assembled randomized packages containing a breast health information brochure, with probabilities presented in either verbal or numeric…

  13. [Factors affecting subjective satisfaction with verbal communication among the disabled elderly and their family caregivers].

    PubMed

    Miura, Hiroko; Arai, Yumiko; Yamasaki, Kiyoko

    2005-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate satisfaction with verbal communication among the disabled elderly and their family caregivers; and to find the significantly influential factors of satisfaction with verbal communication. The subjects were 85 disabled elderly and 85 family caregivers. For the disabled elderly, satisfaction with verbal communication, demographic, and physical factors were examined using an interview survey. For the caregivers, satisfaction with verbal communication, demographic factors, and some factors related caregiving were examined using a self-administered questionnaire. In the disabled elderly, 82.4% were satisfied with their verbal communication while 55.3% of family caregivers were satisfied. Satisfaction with verbal communication between the disabled elderly and their caregivers showed low agreement (kappa = 0.17). Bivariate analysis revealed that satisfaction with verbal communication of the disabled elderly was significantly related to ADL (p < 0.01), dysphagia risk (p < 0.05), and ability of comprehension (p < 0.05) while satisfaction with verbal communication of caregivers was significantly related to the gender of the disabled elderly and caregivers' burden. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis showed that the factor most related to satisfaction with verbal communication for the disabled elderly was ability of comprehension (p value = 0.032, odds ratio = 2.960), and the most related factor for their caregivers was the burden evaluated by J-ZBI_8 (p value = 0.004, odds ratio = 0.842). These results suggest that satisfaction with verbal communication of the disabled elderly disagrees with that of the family caregivers, and that some related factors for the disabled elderly are different from those in their family caregivers.

  14. Normative study of the Korean-California Verbal Learning Test (K-CVLT).

    PubMed

    Kim, J K; Kang, Y

    1999-08-01

    As a normative study of the Korean version of the California Verbal Learning Test (K-CVLT), the present study examined the K-CVLT performances of 357 neurologically intact Koreans (181 males and 176 females) who were selected by stratified sampling reflecting the recent Korean census data. The factor analysis of the K-CVLT showed that the K-CVLT was a valid and useful tool for qualitatively assessing a number of theoretically meaningful processes and strategies underlying verbal memory. Norms were developed on the 22 memory indices separately for gender and age groups. Implications for the K-CVLT's factor analytic results are discussed, and the K-CVLT's normative data is compared with that of the CVLT.

  15. Verbal marking of affect by children with Asperger Syndrome and high functioning autism during spontaneous interactions with family members.

    PubMed

    Müller, Eve; Schuler, Adriana

    2006-11-01

    Verbal marking of affect by older children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) during spontaneous interactions is described. Discourse analysis of AS and HFA and typically developing children included frequency of affective utterances, affective initiations, affective labels and affective explanations, attribution of affective responses to self and others, and positive and negative markers of affect. Findings indicate that children with AS and HFA engaged in a higher proportion of affect marking and provided a higher proportion of affective explanations than typically developing children, yet were less likely to initiate affect marking sequences or talk about the affective responses of others. No significant differences were found between groups in terms of the marking of positive and negative affect.

  16. Measuring Learning Styles with Questionnaires versus Direct Observation of Preferential Choice Behavior in Authentic Learning Situations: The Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale (VV-BOS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutner, Detlev; Plass, Jan L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of the VV-BOS (Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale), a computer-based instrument for direct observation of students' preferences for visual or verbal learning material. Results of a study with second-language learners indicated a high degree of reliability as an alternative to conventional questionnaires.…

  17. Stress facilitates consolidation of verbal memory for a film but does not affect retrieval.

    PubMed

    Beckner, Victoria E; Tucker, David M; Delville, Yvon; Mohr, David C

    2006-06-01

    The effect of psychosocial stress on distinct memory processes was investigated in 157 college students using a brief film, which enabled comparison of verbal and visual memory by using a single complex stimulus. Participants were stressed either following stimuli presentation (consolidation) or before testing 48 hr later (retrieval) and were compared with no-stress controls. Salivary cortisol was measured before and 20 min after stress. The consolidation group significantly outperformed controls on total and verbal film scores. Stress did not impair retrieval relative to controls. Exploratory analyses revealed a significant correlation between cortisol and verbal scores across all groups (r = .18). Results provide the first evidence of a facilitative effect of a stressor on verbal memory, but failed to replicate retrieval findings.

  18. Validating the Chinese version of the Verbal Learning Test for screening Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiung Chih; Kramer, Joel H; Lin, Ker Neng; Chang, Wen Neng; Wang, Ya-Ling; Huang, Chi-Wei; Lin, Yu Ting; Chen, Ching; Wang, Pei Ning

    2010-03-01

    Episodic memory tasks are one of the most sensitive tools to discriminate Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to validate a shorter version verbal memory test that will efficiently assess Chinese elderly with memory complaints. One hundred and eighty-five elderly with normal cognition (NC) and 217 AD patients were evaluated. Each participant received the Chinese Version Verbal Learning Test (CVVLT) consisting of 9 two-character nouns with 4 learning trials, 2 delayed recalls in 30 seconds and 10 minutes, and a word recognition test. In the NC elderly, age and sex had significant effects on recall scores in CVVLT, while education level showed an inverse correlation with 3 different patterns of errors made during the learning, recall, and recognition trials. AD patients had lower scores across all recall tests. In those with lower educational level, NC elderly had higher perseveration errors than AD patients. The cutoff value between the AD and NC groups in the 10-minute recall was 4/5 for those aged >75 years and 5/6 for those aged <75 years. This study has good validity in discriminating AD participants and the data here can help in diagnosing AD and mild cognitive impairment using the CVVLT.

  19. Contribution of organizational strategy to verbal learning and memory in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Roth, Robert M; Wishart, Heather A; Flashman, Laura A; Riordan, Henry J; Huey, Leighton; Saykin, Andrew J

    2004-01-01

    Statistical mediation modeling was used to test the hypothesis that poor use of a semantic organizational strategy contributes to verbal learning and memory deficits in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Comparison of 28 adults with ADHD and 34 healthy controls revealed lower performance by the ADHD group on tests of verbal learning and memory, sustained attention, and use of semantic organization during encoding. Mediation modeling indicated that state anxiety, but not semantic organization, significantly contributed to the prediction of both learning and delayed recall in the ADHD group. The pattern of findings suggests that decreased verbal learning and memory in adult ADHD is due in part to situational anxiety and not to poor use of organizational strategies during encoding.

  20. The California Verbal Learning Test-II: normative data for two Italian alternative forms.

    PubMed

    Argento, Ornella; Pisani, Valerio; Incerti, Chiara C; Magistrale, Giuseppe; Caltagirone, Carlo; Nocentini, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop two versions of the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) and to administer them to a large sample of healthy controls representative of the normal Italian population for sex, age, and education levels. Two hundred and eighty healthy controls entered the study and were randomly assigned to one of the two forms of CVLT-II. No significant difference emerged between the two forms. Considering the significant weight of sex, age and education level, a regression model was developed through which it was possible to calculate the adjusted scores. The lower tolerance limits were also calculated.

  1. FORUM: Affective Learning. The Instructional Communication Affective Learning Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Derek R.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  2. FORUM: Affective Learning. Affective Learning from a Cognitive Neuroscientific Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mottet, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  3. FORUM: Affective Learning. Pursuing and Measuring Affective Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  4. Brief Report: Memory Performance on the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Heather L.; Filliter, Jillian H.; Johnson, Shannon A.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Task Support Hypothesis (TSH; Bowler et al. in Neuropsychologia 35:65-70, 1997) individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) perform more similarly to their typically developing peers on learning and memory tasks when provided with external support at retrieval. We administered the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's…

  5. Effects of Verbal Components in 3D Talking-Head on Pronunciation Learning among Non-Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri Mohamad; Segaran, Kogilathah; Hoe, Tan Wee

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the benefit of inclusion of various verbal elements in 3D talking-head on pronunciation learning among non-native speakers. In particular, the study examines the effects of three different multimedia presentation strategies in 3D talking-head Mobile-Assisted-Language-Learning (MALL) on the learning…

  6. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-verbal Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter Lipi, Afia; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Mathias

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.

  7. Learning Skinner's Verbal Operants: Comparing an Online Stimulus Equivalence Procedure to an Assigned Reading.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, John; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Ninness, Chris; Muñoz, Bridget E; Mellor, James

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of an online stimulus equivalence procedure to that of an assigned reading when learning Skinner's taxonomy of verbal behavior. Twenty-six graduate students participated via an online learning management system. One group was exposed to an online stimulus equivalence procedure (equivalence group) that was designed to teach relations among the names, antecedents, consequences, and examples of each elementary verbal operant. A comparison group (reading group) read a chapter from a popular textbook. Tests for the emergence of selection-based and topography-based intraverbal responses were then conducted, as were tests for generalization and maintenance. Overall, results suggest that the online equivalence procedure was not significantly more effective in promoting topography-based responses than the assigned reading. However, performance on selection-based tests was enhanced by the online equivalence procedure as was performance on topography-based tests when participants were required to provide operant names in response to consequences or examples. On average, the equivalence group performed at a level that was 10 percentage points (i.e., a full letter grade) above that of the reading group. The viability of the equivalence-based procedure is discussed in relation to the assigned reading.

  8. Relationships among Blood Pressure, Triglycerides and Verbal Learning in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Regina C.; Madhere, Serge; Gordon, Shalanda; Clark, Elijah; Abayomi, Kobi A.; Callender, Clive O.; Campbell, Alfonso L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) display poorer cognitive functioning across various cognitive domains. This finding is particularly prevalent among older adults; however, few studies examine these relationships among younger adults or among African Americans. Purpose The objective was to examine the relationships among 2 cardiovascular risk factors, elevated blood pressure and elevated triglycerides, and verbal learning in a community-based sample of African Americans. Methods Measurements of blood pressure and triglycerides were obtained in 121 African-American adults and compared to performance on 3 domains of the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II). Results Blood pressure was not related to CVLT-II performance. Triglyceride levels were inversely related to CVLT-II performance. Higher triglyceride levels were associated with poorer immediate, short delay and long delay recall. Conclusions Consistent with studies involving older participants, the current investigation shows that in a nonelderly sample of African Americans, triglyceride levels may be related to cognitive functioning. Because early detection and intervention of vascular-related cognitive impairment may have a salutary effect, future studies should include younger adults to highlight the impact of cardiovascular risk on cognition. PMID:18942281

  9. Effects of coaching on detection of malingering on the California Verbal Learning Test.

    PubMed

    Coleman, R D; Rapport, L J; Millis, S R; Ricker, J H; Farchione, T J

    1998-04-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) indices to detect malingered head injury was examined using a simulation paradigm that included naive malingerers, malingerers provided with information about head injury, and normal controls (N = 90). The application of diagnostic cutoff scores for Recognition Discriminability and Recognition Hits derived from populations of individuals with bona fide head injury and individuals suspected of malingering (Millis et al., 1995) proved highly sensitive and modestly specific in detecting feigned head injury among both simulation groups. Results of analyses of variance and logistic regression support previous findings that malingerers overestimate memory impairment associated with mild head injury; however, they indicate that exposure to a simple instructional set may render insensitive many indices of malingering. In contrast, indices based on more subtle principles of learning theory hold promise in the detection of malingering, even in the presence of an instructional set.

  10. The Interactive Effects of Facial Expressions of Emotion and Verbal Messages on Perceptions of Affective Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Howard S.

    1979-01-01

    Students' perceptions of sincerity, dominance, and positivity were measured by pairing happy, angry, surprised and sad faces of teachers with teachers' comments characterized as positive or negative and dominant or submissive. Clear effects of facial-verbal combinations emerged; there were no sex differences other than in perceptions of sincerity.…

  11. Teachers as Verbal Perpetrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James-Weagraff, Pat; Donaldson, Diane

    This paper briefly discusses: violence as a context for verbal abuse; the legacy of student discipline in schools; a model indicating that verbal abuse is learned; data showing teachers do verbally abuse students; and a variety of ways to deal with this problem. Factors inducing teachers to exhibit aggressive behavior are identified and include:…

  12. Verbal and visual learning of science terminology by high school biology students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Andrew Morton

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether scientific terms with multiple meanings are more easily learned when taught pictorially or when taught verbally. The question of interference from previously known colloquial meanings is addressed as well. In carrying out this study, an experimental group of 30 students was taught pictorially and a control group of 30 students was taught verbally. Each group was made up of male and female students from the dominant culture (Caucasian) and from alternate cultures (mainly African American and Asian). The age of the participants was between 14 and 17. Students were selected as class groups. There were four class groups in the study. Class groups were assigned to the experimental or control group by random selection. Results were compared by use of a pre-test and post-test procedure. Students were asked to verbally describe 41 terms having scientific and colloquial meanings; they were to give the scientific meaning, if known, the colloquial if not, or leave a question mark if the term was unknown. They were then asked to draw a picture of the meaning of the term, if known. The same instructions were given to both groups. A series of seven hypotheses were identified. These hypotheses considered learning outcomes related to instructional mode as well as outcomes related to gender and cultural differences. An attempt was made to determine the similarity of the experimental and control groups. Student profiles, a learning styles inventory, and an imbedded image test all showed an initial similarity of the two groups. Once the pretest and posttest were given, data were analyzed by the use of the Chi-square of Association, the McNemar Chi-square, and Z scores (at.05 significance level). Results indicated significant differences in outcomes between the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group showed more science vocabulary learning than the control group and experienced more interference from the

  13. Transformative Learning, Enactivism, and Affectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiese, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Education theorists have emphasized that transformative learning is not simply a matter of students gaining access to new knowledge and information, but instead centers upon personal transformation: it alters students' perspectives, interpretations, and responses. How should learning that brings about this sort of self-transformation be understood…

  14. Does stimulus appearance affect learning?

    PubMed

    Pothos, Emmanuel M; Chater, Nick; Ziori, Eleni

    2006-01-01

    We examined the learning process with 3 sets of stimuli that have identical symbolic structure but differ in appearance (meaningless letter strings, arrangements of geometric shapes, and sequences of cities). One hypothesis is that the learning process aims to encode symbolic regularity in the same way, largely regardless of appearance. Another is that different types of stimuli bias the learning process to operate in different ways. Using the experimental paradigm of artificial grammar learning, we provided a preliminary test of these hypotheses. In Experiments 1 and 2 we measured performance in terms of grammaticality and found no difference across the 3 sets of stimuli. In Experiment 3 we analyzed performance in terms of both grammaticality and chunk strength. Again we found no differences in performance. Our tentative conclusion is that the learning process aims to encode symbolic regularity independent of stimulus appearance.

  15. Associations between Verbal Learning Slope and Neuroimaging Markers across the Cognitive Aging Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Katherine A; Phillips, Jeffrey S; Samuels, Lauren R; Lane, Elizabeth M; Bell, Susan P; Liu, Dandan; Hohman, Timothy J; Romano, Raymond R; Fritzsche, Laura R; Lu, Zengqi; Jefferson, Angela L

    2015-07-01

    A symptom of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a flat learning profile. Learning slope calculation methods vary, and the optimal method for capturing neuroanatomical changes associated with MCI and early AD pathology is unclear. This study cross-sectionally compared four different learning slope measures from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (simple slope, regression-based slope, two-slope method, peak slope) to structural neuroimaging markers of early AD neurodegeneration (hippocampal volume, cortical thickness in parahippocampal gyrus, precuneus, and lateral prefrontal cortex) across the cognitive aging spectrum [normal control (NC); (n=198; age=76±5), MCI (n=370; age=75±7), and AD (n=171; age=76±7)] in ADNI. Within diagnostic group, general linear models related slope methods individually to neuroimaging variables, adjusting for age, sex, education, and APOE4 status. Among MCI, better learning performance on simple slope, regression-based slope, and late slope (Trial 2-5) from the two-slope method related to larger parahippocampal thickness (all p-values<.01) and hippocampal volume (p<.01). Better regression-based slope (p<.01) and late slope (p<.01) were related to larger ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in MCI. No significant associations emerged between any slope and neuroimaging variables for NC (p-values ≥.05) or AD (p-values ≥.02). Better learning performances related to larger medial temporal lobe (i.e., hippocampal volume, parahippocampal gyrus thickness) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in MCI only. Regression-based and late slope were most highly correlated with neuroimaging markers and explained more variance above and beyond other common memory indices, such as total learning. Simple slope may offer an acceptable alternative given its ease of calculation.

  16. Single-subject analyses of magnetoencephalographic evoked responses to the acoustic properties of affective non-verbal vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Salvia, Emilie; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Kotz, Sonja A; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Pernet, Cyril R; Gross, Joachim; Belin, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Magneto-encephalography (MEG) was used to examine the cerebral response to affective non-verbal vocalizations (ANVs) at the single-subject level. Stimuli consisted of non-verbal affect bursts from the Montreal Affective Voices morphed to parametrically vary acoustical structure and perceived emotional properties. Scalp magnetic fields were recorded in three participants while they performed a 3-alternative forced choice emotion categorization task (Anger, Fear, Pleasure). Each participant performed more than 6000 trials to allow single-subject level statistical analyses using a new toolbox which implements the general linear model (GLM) on stimulus-specific responses (LIMO-EEG). For each participant we estimated "simple" models [including just one affective regressor (Arousal or Valence)] as well as "combined" models (including acoustical regressors). Results from the "simple" models revealed in every participant the significant early effects (as early as ~100 ms after onset) of Valence and Arousal already reported at the group-level in previous work. However, the "combined" models showed that few effects of Arousal remained after removing the acoustically-explained variance, whereas significant effects of Valence remained especially at late stages. This study demonstrates (i) that single-subject analyses replicate the results observed at early stages by group-level studies and (ii) the feasibility of GLM-based analysis of MEG data. It also suggests that early modulation of MEG amplitude by affective stimuli partly reflects their acoustical properties.

  17. Measurement confounding affects the extent to which verbal IQ explains social gradients in mortality

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Benjamin; Fiscella, Kevin; Duberstein, Paul; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background IQ is thought to explain social gradients in mortality. IQ scores are based roughly equally on Verbal IQ (VIQ) and Performance IQ tests. VIQ tests, however, are suspected to confound true verbal ability with socioeconomic status (SES), raising the possibility that associations between SES and IQ scores might be overestimated. We examined, first, whether two of the most common types of VIQ tests exhibited differential item functioning (DIF) favouring persons of higher SES and/or majority race/ethnicity. Second, we assessed what impact, if any, this had on estimates of the extent to which VIQ explains social gradients in mortality. Methods Data from the General Social Survey-National Death Index cohort, a US population representative dataset, was used. Item response theory models queried social-factor DIF on the Thorndike Verbal Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, Revised Similarities test. Cox models examined mortality associations among SES and VIQ scores corrected and uncorrected for DIF. Results When uncorrected for DIF, VIQ was correlated with income, education, occupational prestige and race, with correlation coefficients ranging between |0.12| and |0.43|. After correcting for DIF, correlations ranged from |0.06| to |0.16|. Uncorrected VIQ scores explained 11–40% of the Relative Index of Inequalities in mortality for social factors, while DIF-corrected scores explained 2–29%. Conclusions Two of the common forms of VIQ tests appear confound verbal intelligence with SES. Since these tests appear in most IQ batteries, circumspection may be warranted in estimating the amount of social inequalities in mortality attributable to IQ. PMID:24729404

  18. Leveraging Affective Learning for Developing Future Airmen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    sity, the United States Air Force, the Department of Defense, or any other US government agency. Cleared for public release: distribution unlimited...clude affective objectives in their lessons. A student’s affective state influences his or her learning pre- disposition, and educators should consider...but may not be possible for a large number of students or for dispersed learning activity. The ability to discern the affective state of students

  19. Children with mathematical learning disability fail in recruiting verbal and numerical brain regions when solving simple multiplication problems.

    PubMed

    Berteletti, Ilaria; Prado, Jérôme; Booth, James R

    2014-08-01

    Greater skill in solving single-digit multiplication problems requires a progressive shift from a reliance on numerical to verbal mechanisms over development. Children with mathematical learning disability (MD), however, are thought to suffer from a specific impairment in numerical mechanisms. Here we tested the hypothesis that this impairment might prevent MD children from transitioning toward verbal mechanisms when solving single-digit multiplication problems. Brain activations during multiplication problems were compared in MD and typically developing (TD) children (3rd to 7th graders) in numerical and verbal regions which were individuated by independent localizer tasks. We used small (e.g., 2 × 3) and large (e.g., 7 × 9) problems as these problems likely differ in their reliance on verbal versus numerical mechanisms. Results indicate that MD children have reduced activations in both the verbal (i.e., left inferior frontal gyrus and left middle temporal to superior temporal gyri) and the numerical (i.e., right superior parietal lobule including intra-parietal sulcus) regions suggesting that both mechanisms are impaired. Moreover, the only reliable activation observed for MD children was in the numerical region when solving small problems. This suggests that MD children could effectively engage numerical mechanisms only for the easier problems. Conversely, TD children showed a modulation of activation with problem size in the verbal regions. This suggests that TD children were effectively engaging verbal mechanisms for the easier problems. Moreover, TD children with better language skills were more effective at engaging verbal mechanisms. In conclusion, results suggest that the numerical- and language-related processes involved in solving multiplication problems are impaired in MD children.

  20. Base-rate data and norms for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Embedded Performance Validity Indicator.

    PubMed

    Poreh, Amir; Tolfo, Sarah; Krivenko, Anna; Teaford, Max

    2016-08-25

    The present study examines the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) Embedded Performance Validity Indicator (EPVI) for detecting performance validity. This retrospective study analyzes the performance of four groups of 879 participants comprised of 464 clinically referred patients with suspected dementia, 91 forensic patients identified as not exhibiting adequate effort on other measures of response bias, 25 patients with well documented TBI, and a random sample of 198 adults collected in the Gulf State of Oman. The EPVI was also put to the test using normative data collected from the literature. Using sensitivity and specificity analyses, the results indicate moderate to high sensitivity yet low specificity. In conclusion, the study shows that the EPVI is a reasonably good indicator for inadequate effort on the RAVLT but those who fail this measure might not necessarily be exhibiting adequate effort. The limitations and benefits of utilizing the EPVI in clinical practice are discussed.

  1. Exploring the Relation between Visualizer-Verbalizer Cognitive Styles and Performance with Visual or Verbal Learning Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolloffel, Bas

    2012-01-01

    A student might find a certain representational format (e.g., diagram, text) more attractive than other formats for learning. Computer technology offers opportunities to adjust the formats used in learning environments to the preferences of individual learners. The question addressed in the current study was: does the match between a student's…

  2. The Effects of Visual and Verbal Coding Mnemonics on Learning Chinese Characters in Computer-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Mei-Liang Amy; Hooper, Simon

    2004-01-01

    The effects of different approaches to learning Chinese characters were investigated. Ninety-two high-school students were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups: translation, verbal mnemonics, visual mnemonics, dual coding mnemonics, or self-generated mnemonics. All groups received instruction and completed posttests in a…

  3. Are the Original and Second Edition of the California Verbal Learning Test Equally Accurate in Detecting Malingering?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greve, Kevin W.; Curtis, Kelly L.; Bianchini, Kevin J.; Ord, Jonathan S.

    2009-01-01

    This two-part study sought to determine the equivalence of the California Verbal Learning Tests (CVLT-1 and CVLT-2) in the detection of malingering in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and chronic pain. Part 1 compared a variety of scores from the two versions in carefully matched patient groups. Part 2 used criterion groups (known-groups) methodology…

  4. Verbal Discrimination Learning in a Random Mixture of Two-, Three-, and Four-Word Items with Two Stimulus Presentation Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugarin, Temotio Espina, Jr.

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether a constant information processing rate would occur when subjects in verbal discrimination (VD) learning were presented a mixture of items of different lengths. Forty-two Naval Postgraduate School students served in a VD experiment with a random mixture of two-, three-, and four-word items at…

  5. Effects of Motivation Orientation, Ability, Social Class, and Mediation on Verbal Learning. IMRID Papers and Reports. Volume VII, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Robert F.

    This study examines the relative effects of motivational orientation, ability, social class, sex, and instructions to employ verbal mediation on a paired-associates (PA) learning task. One hundred ninety-two seventh and eighth grade students were categorized according to degree of Intrinsic Task Motivation (IM), ability, and social class (SES).…

  6. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) in the Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donders, Jacobus

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the latent structure of the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II; Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 2000) at three different age levels, using the standardization sample. Maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analyses are performed to test four competing hypothetical models for fit and…

  7. Use of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test in Differentiating Normal Aging from Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Dementia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Mary C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-eight elderly control subjects performed better than did 18 patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), 33 with severe AD, and 12 with Parkinson's dementia on all measures of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Results indicate that the test is useful in distinguishing AD from Parkinson's dementia. (SLD)

  8. Cognitive Patterns and Learning Disabilities in Cleft Palate Children with Verbal Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Lynn C.

    1980-01-01

    The study examined patterns of cognitive ability in 57 cleft lip and palate children (ages 7 to 9) with verbal deficit, but without general intellectual retardation to evaluate whether the verbal disability displayed by these children was related primarily to a specific verbal expression deficit or a more general symbolic mediation problem.…

  9. Effect of Verbalization on Young Children's Learning of a Manipulative Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombard, Avima; Stern, Carolyn

    To determine the effect of verbalization on the acquisition of manipulative skills in young children, a puzzle-assembly experiment was designed. Each of 65 Head Start children between the ages of 47 and 58 months was randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups: practice with verbalization (PV); practice with no verbalization (PNV);…

  10. Don't Throw out the Baby with the Bathwater: Verbal Repetition, Mnemonics, and Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saber, Jane Lee; Johnson, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of using verbal repetition and first-letter acronyms to teach a common marketing framework was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 345 undergraduate students were exposed to the framework using one of four conditions: control, verbal repetition, acronym, and verbal repetition plus acronym in a traditional learning…

  11. Memory performance on the California Verbal Learning Test of children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.

    PubMed

    Vago, Chiara; Bulgheroni, Sara; Franceschetti, Silvana; Usilla, Arianna; Riva, Daria

    2008-11-01

    Verbal learning and retrieval, as well as the use of learning strategies, were assessed in 24 children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) and 16 controls, using the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version. Neuropsychological data were correlated with EEG features. Compared with age-matched controls, the children with BECTS younger than 10 exhibited significant learning difficulties and were less efficient in using a semantic clustering strategy, whereas no such difference emerged for subjects older than 10. This suggests that the capacity for spontaneous use of a more efficient strategy matures later in children with BECTS. Moreover, the majority of those younger than 10 had multifocal anomalies, suggesting that the difficulties encountered might be caused by the presence of additional foci.

  12. Correlation between cognitive impairment and the Rey auditory-verbal learning test in a population with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Barzotti, T; Gargiulo, A; Marotta, M G; Tedeschi, G; Zannino, G; Guglielmi, S; Dell'Armi, A; Ettorre, E; Marigliano, V

    2004-01-01

    Patients affected by Alzheimer disease (AD) need an accurate diagnosis, to the extent allowing us to find the best therapy or polytherapy, in order to take under control their cognitive impairment. In our Alzheimer Evaluation Units (from the Italian name abbreviated: UVA), the patients undergo a multidimensional evaluation, which can address us towards a proper diagnosis and of other weakening, or even dementia-related diseases. The patients are also subject to neuropsychometric and neuropsychological evaluations, allowing a more focused analysis on cognitive impairments. Among the tests, we use the Rey auditory-verbal learning test (RAVLT), evaluating the patient's verbal memory. A list of 15 words is read to each patient. N the first part of the test, the clinician repeats 5 times such a list. the patient is hen asked, at the end of every repetition, to tell all words he/she remembers. This part is useful to evaluate the immediate recall (IR) ability. The score, i.e., the total number of recalled words, ranges from 0 to 75. After 15 minutes, the delayed recall (DR) ability is evaluated: the patient is newly asked to repeat as many words as he can recall from the list. The score for this part ranges from 0 to 15 minutes. The score is corrected of rage and education, with a cut-off of 28.5 for IR and 4.7 for DR. We made a survey with the purpose of deciding if there was a correlation between cognitive impairment and verbal memory lack, whose deficiency appears earlier in AD. To this aim, we selected several patients with AD, diagnosed during the period between September 2002 and February 2003. We only considered those patients whose AD was not associated with other weakening diseases, and whose clinical dementia rating scale (CDR) score was between 0.5-2.0. A sample of 35 individuals (11 men and 24 women) could be obtained. A meaningful correlation was observed between CDR and IR (r = -0.725, p < 0.01), as well as between CDR and DR (r = -0.470; p < 0.05). Such a

  13. Differential development of learning strategies on a Pictorial Verbal Learning Test (PVLT) in primary-school children.

    PubMed

    Meijs, C J C; Hurks, P P M; Kalff, A C; Slaats-Willemse, D I E; Rozendaal, N; Jolles, J

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that developmental differences exist in the use of learning strategies in primary school children. Serial and subjective clustering in a multitrial Pictorial Verbal Learning Test (PVLT) were compared in 79 children aged 6-12. Correlation analyses indicated that serial clustering yielded better performance when information was presented on the initial trials of the test. Subjective clustering was superior when information was presented repeatedly, i.e., after three or more trials. Analyses of variance indicated that subjective clustering was used more often in older children with repeated presentations. On the other hand, there was no increase in the use of serial clustering with age and with repeated presentations. The findings imply that training in the use of proper strategies could have benefit for children who use an inefficient learning strategy and/or have a learning problem. In addition, they point to the importance of the factor "age" in relation to the way information is presented to children.

  14. Metabolic correlates of Rey auditory verbal learning test in elderly subjects with memory complaints.

    PubMed

    Brugnolo, Andrea; Morbelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Dario; De Carli, Fabrizio; Accardo, Jennifer; Bossert, Irene; Dessi, Barbara; Famà, Francesco; Ferrara, Michela; Girtler, Nicola; Picco, Agnese; Rodriguez, Guido; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Nobili, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the brain metabolic correlates of main indexes of a widely used word list learning test, the Rey Auditory Verbal Memory Test (RAVLT), in a group of elderly subjects with memory complaints. Fifty-four subjects (age: 72.02 ± 7.45; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score: 28.9 ± 1.24) presenting at a memory clinic complaining of memory deficit, but not demented, and thirty controls (age: 71.87 ± 7.08; MMSE score: 29.1 ± 1.1) were included. Subjects with memory complaints included both patients with (amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI) and without (subjective memory complaints, SMC) impairment on memory tests. All subjects underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), analyzed with statistical parametric. Patients with aMCI but not those with SMC showed the expected posterior cingulate-precuneus and parietal hypometabolism as compared to controls. Correlation was determined for between four indexes of the RAVLT and brain metabolism. The results show a significant correlation between the delayed recall score and metabolism in posterior cingulate gyrus of both hemispheres and in left precuneus, as well as between a score of long-term percent retention and metabolism in left posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and orbitofrontal areas. These correlations survived correction for age, education, and MMSE score. No correlation was found between immediate or total recall scores and glucose metabolism. These data show the relevant role of posterior cingulate-precuneus and orbitofrontal cortices in retention and retrieval of de-contextualized verbal memory material in a group of elderly subjects with memory complaints and shed light on the topography of synaptic dysfunction in these subjects, overlapping that found in the earliest stages of Alzheimer-type neurodegeneration.

  15. Apprentissage d'une langue et interaction verbale. Sollicitation, transmission et construction de connaissances linguistiques en situation exolingue (Language Learning and Verbal Interaction. Appeal, Transmission and Construction of Linguistic Knowledge in a Foreign-Language Situation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthey, Marinette

    The discussion of the role of verbal interaction in second language learning focuses on the process the learner undergoes in acquiring linguistic knowledge in a second- or foreign-language (L2) situation. The introductory section provides a general discussion of language learning and the acquisition of both linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge.…

  16. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test scores can be predicted from whole brain MRI in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Elaheh; Hallikainen, Ilona; Hänninen, Tuomo; Tohka, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a powerful neuropsychological tool for testing episodic memory, which is widely used for the cognitive assessment in dementia and pre-dementia conditions. Several studies have shown that an impairment in RAVLT scores reflect well the underlying pathology caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus making RAVLT an effective early marker to detect AD in persons with memory complaints. We investigated the association between RAVLT scores (RAVLT Immediate and RAVLT Percent Forgetting) and the structural brain atrophy caused by AD. The aim was to comprehensively study to what extent the RAVLT scores are predictable based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using machine learning approaches as well as to find the most important brain regions for the estimation of RAVLT scores. For this, we built a predictive model to estimate RAVLT scores from gray matter density via elastic net penalized linear regression model. The proposed approach provided highly significant cross-validated correlation between the estimated and observed RAVLT Immediate (R = 0.50) and RAVLT Percent Forgetting (R = 0.43) in a dataset consisting of 806 AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or healthy subjects. In addition, the selected machine learning method provided more accurate estimates of RAVLT scores than the relevance vector regression used earlier for the estimation of RAVLT based on MRI data. The top predictors were medial temporal lobe structures and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Immediate and angular gyrus, hippocampus and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Percent Forgetting. Further, the conversion of MCI subjects to AD in 3-years could be predicted based on either observed or estimated RAVLT scores with an accuracy comparable to MRI-based biomarkers.

  17. A cross-cultural comparison of verbal learning and memory functions in reading disabled American and Norwegian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Asbjørnsen, Arve E; Obrzut, John E; Oyler, James D

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a cross-cultural analysis of the role of phonetic and semantic cues in verbal learning and memory. A newly developed memory test procedure, the Bergen-Tucson Verbal Learning Test (BTVLT), expands earlier test procedures as phonetic cues are applied in addition to semantic cues in a cued recall procedure. Samples of reading disabled and typically developed adolescents from the US and from Norway were recruited as voluntary participants. The results indicate that the stimulus materials chosen for the memory test are working well in both American and in Norwegian samples, yielding acquisition results comparable to similar list learning procedures, and also yielding high internal consistency across learning trials. The procedure also reliably differentiates between reading disabled samples in both languages, and also yields cross-cultural differences that seem to reflect differences in transparency and differences in the orthography of the included languages. The BTVLT with its focus on phonetic coding is a promising supplement to established tests of verbal memory for assessment of reading and language impaired individuals. PMID:24601893

  18. Do Learning Style and Learning Environment Affect Learning Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBartola, Leesa M.; Miller, Miriam K.; Turley, Catherine L.

    2001-01-01

    Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was completed by 29 allied health students on campus and 27 in distance education. Both groups had similar learning outcomes. Only the Diverger learning style showed a correlation between learning environment and outcome: 83% of Divergers with above average grades were in distance education. (Contains 20…

  19. Verbal working memory load affects prefrontal cortices activation: evidence from a functional NIRS study in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengjun; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2005-03-01

    Working memory (WM) refers to the temporary maintenance of information that is no longer accessible in the environment, and the manipulation of this information for subsequent use. PET and functional MRI studies suggest that prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in WM. Here, we report a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) study on the PFC activation caused by a WM task, a verbal n-back task. During performance of the task, concentration changes of oxy-Hb (HbO2), deoxy-Hb (Hb), and total-Hb (HbT) in subjects" prefrontal cortex were monitored by a 24-channel functional NIRS imager. The behavioral performances (accuracy and response time) were recorded simultaneously. Results revealed that as memory load increased, subjects showed poorer behavioral performance as well as monotonously increasing magnitudes of the activations in the left ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) and bilateral dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC). In addition, the analysis of comparison between subjects showed that certain relations likely exist between the cerebral activation and the performance parameters for an individual subject: lower accuracy is accompanied by longer response time and further activation. Such means that the subject with difficulty in solving a problem will demonstrate more significant hemodynamic changes compared with the subject without difficulty in solving the same problem.

  20. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test forced-choice recognition task: Base-rate data and norms.

    PubMed

    Poreh, Amir; Bezdicek, Ondrej; Korobkova, Irina; Levin, Jennifer B; Dines, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes a novel Forced-Choice Response (FCR) index for detecting poor effort on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). This retrospective study analyzes the performance of 4 groups on the new index: clinically referred patients with suspected dementia, forensic patients identified as not exhibiting adequate effort on other measures of response bias, students who simulated poor effort, and a large normative sample collected in the Gulf State of Oman. Using sensitivity and specificity analyses, the study shows that much like the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition FCR index, the RAVLT FCR index misses a proportion of individuals with inadequate effort (low sensitivity), but those who fail this measure are highly likely to be exhibiting poor effort (high specificity). The limitations and benefits of utilizing the RAVLT FCR index in clinical practice are discussed.

  1. Deficits in visual short-term memory binding in children at risk of non-verbal learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Mammarella, Irene C; Pancera, Arianna; Galera, Cesar; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that learning disabled children meet short-term memory (STM) problems especially when they must bind different types of information, however the hypothesis has not been systematically tested. This study assessed visual STM for shapes and colors and the binding of shapes and colors, comparing a group of children (aged between 8 and 10 years) at risk of non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD) with a control group of children matched for general verbal abilities, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. Results revealed that groups did not differ in retention of either shapes or colors, but children at risk of NLD were poorer than controls in memory for shape-color bindings.

  2. The Role of Visual and Verbal Information When Learning an Elementary Kayak Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunyan, Peter; Barton, Lorraine

    1993-01-01

    Eleven students of novice paddling ability were divided into two groups, one group receiving verbal, the other nonverbal, instructions on using the kayak stern rudder. The verbal group was significantly better at performing the correct sequence of movements. Results support existing research showing that observation alone does not enable the…

  3. The Specific Involvement of Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory in Hypermedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pazzaglia, Francesca; Toso, Cristina; Cacciamani, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Many models have hypothesized that multimedia comprehension requires the concurrent processing of verbal and visuospatial information by limited information processing systems. However, in spite of the emphasis devoted to the concurrent processing of verbal and visuospatial information, little research has so far investigated the specific role…

  4. Three Facets of Visual and Verbal Learners: Cognitive Ability, Cognitive Style, and Learning Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Massa, Laura J.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that some people are verbal learners and some people are visual learners. Presented a battery of 14 cognitive measures related to the visualizer-verbalizer dimension to 95 college students and then conducted correlational and factor analyses. Results have implications for how to conceptualize and measure individual…

  5. Verbal Serial List Learning in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Profile Analysis of Interference, Forgetting, and Errors

    PubMed Central

    Libon, David J.; Bondi, Mark W.; Price, Catherine C.; Lamar, Melissa; Eppig, Joel; Wambach, Denene M.; Nieves, Christine; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Giovannetti, Tania; Lippa, Carol; Kabasakalian, Anahid; Cosentino, Stephanie; Swenson, Rod; Penney, Dana L.

    2012-01-01

    Using cluster analysis Libon et al. (2010) found three verbal serial list-learning profiles involving delay memory test performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Amnesic MCI (aMCI) patients presented with low scores on delay free recall and recognition tests; mixed MCI (mxMCI) patients scored higher on recognition compared to delay free recall tests; and dysexecutive MCI (dMCI) patients generated relatively intact scores on both delay test conditions. The aim of the current research was to further characterize memory impairment in MCI by examining forgetting/savings, interference from a competing word list, intrusion errors/perseverations, intrusion word frequency, and recognition foils in these three statistically determined MCI groups compared to normal control (NC) participants. The aMCI patients exhibited little savings, generated more highly prototypic intrusion errors, and displayed indiscriminate responding to delayed recognition foils. The mxMCI patients exhibited higher saving scores, fewer and less prototypic intrusion errors, and selectively endorsed recognition foils from the interference list. dMCI patients also selectively endorsed recognition foils from the interference list but performed similarly compared to NC participants. These data suggest the existence of distinct memory impairments in MCI and caution against the routine use of a single memory test score to operationally define MCI. PMID:21880171

  6. Assessment of the learning curve from the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version with the first-order system transfer function.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Igor I; Abramson, Charles I; Warschausky, Seth

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model is proposed to measure the learning curve in the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version. The model is based on the first-order system transfer function in the form Y = B3*exp[-B2*(X-1)]+B4*{1-exp[-B2*(X-1)]}, where X is the trial number, Y is the number of recalled correct words, B2 is the learning rate, B3 is interpreted as readiness to learn and B4 as the ability to learn. Children's readiness to learn and ability to learn were lower than adults. Modeling revealed that girls had greater readiness to learn and ability to learn than boys.

  7. Evaluative conditioning of positive and negative valence affects P1 and N1 in verbal processing.

    PubMed

    Kuchinke, Lars; Fritsch, Nathalie; Müller, Christina J

    2015-10-22

    The present study examined the effect of contextual learning on the neural processing of previously meaningless pseudowords. During an evaluative conditioning session on 5 consecutive days, participants learned to associate 120 pseudowords with either positive, neutral or negative pictures. In a second session, participants were presented all conditioned pseudowords again together with 40 new pseudowords in a recognition memory task while their event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The behavioral data confirm successful learning of pseudoword valence. At the neural level, early modulations of the ERPs are visible at the P1 and the N1 components discriminating between positively and negatively conditioned pseudowords. Differences to new pseudowords were visible at later processing stages as indicated by modulations of the LPC. These results support a contextual learning hypothesis that is able to explain very early emotional ERP modulations in visual word recognition. Source localization indicates a role of medial-frontal brain regions as a likely origin of these early valence discrimination signals which are discussed to promote top-down signals to sensory processing.

  8. Dynamics of Affective States during Complex Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mello, Sidney; Graesser, Art

    2012-01-01

    We propose a model to explain the dynamics of affective states that emerge during deep learning activities. The model predicts that learners in a state of engagement/flow will experience cognitive disequilibrium and confusion when they face contradictions, incongruities, anomalies, obstacles to goals, and other impasses. Learners revert into the…

  9. Maternal and infant affect at 4 months predicts performance and verbal IQ at 4 and 7 years in a diverse population.

    PubMed

    Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Tenenbaum, Elena J; Messinger, Daniel S; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L; Tronick, Ed; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hammond, Jane; Lester, Barry M

    2016-10-23

    Using existing longitudinal data from 570 infants in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, we explored the predictive value of maternal and infant affect and maternal vocalizations during 2 minutes of face-to-face interactions at 4 months on IQ scores at 4.5 and 7 years. After controlling for demographic factors, maternal depression, and prenatal drug exposure, maternal positive affect and maternal positive vocalizations emerged as predictors of both verbal and performance IQ at 4.5 and 7 years. Although infant positive affect during the interaction with the mother was not predictive of these outcome measures, infant positive affect towards an examiner predicted verbal but not performance IQ at 4.5 years. These results suggest that maternal positive affect may index emotional engagement in interaction that facilitates both verbal and nonverbal cognitive development, while infant social positive affect is specifically related to the acquisition of verbal reasoning abilities. These findings are significant because they are based on a discrete snapshot of observable behavior in infancy (just 2 minutes of interaction), because they extend the range of maternal behaviors and characteristics known to support positive developmental outcomes, and because they are derived from high-risk infants where prevention efforts may be beneficial. Potential mechanisms for these associations are discussed, as are the clinical implications for identifying dyads most in need of targeted interventions.

  10. More Evidence for Three Types of Cognitive Style: Validating the Object‐Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire Using Eye Tracking when Learning with Texts and Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Koć‐Januchta, Marta; Leutner, Detlev

    2016-01-01

    Summary There is some indication that people differ regarding their visual and verbal cognitive style. The Object‐Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ) assumes a three‐dimensional cognitive style model, which distinguishes between object imagery, spatial imagery and verbal dimensions. Using eye tracking as a means to observe actual gaze behaviours when learning with text–picture combinations, the current study aims to validate this three‐dimensional assumption by linking the OSIVQ to learning behaviour. The results largely confirm the model in that they show the expected correlations between results on the OSIVQ, visuo‐spatial ability and learning behaviour. Distinct differences between object visualizers, spatial visualizers and verbalizers could be demonstrated.© 2016 The Authors Applied Cognitive Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28163372

  11. Event-related potential study of dynamic neural mechanisms of semantic organizational strategies in verbal learning.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Sophie; Gagnon, Geneviève; Bastien, Célyne

    2007-09-19

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological data indicate that the frontal regions are implicated in semantic organizational strategies in verbal learning. Whereas these approaches tend to adopt a localizationist view, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the dynamic neural mechanisms involved in these strategies. We recorded ERPs using a 128-channel system in 12 young adults (23.75+/-3.02 years) during 3 encoding conditions that manipulated the levels of semantic organization demands. In the Unrelated condition, the words to encode did not share any semantic attributes. For both Spontaneous and Guided conditions, the words in each list were drawn from four semantic categories. In the Spontaneous condition, participants were not informed about the semantic relationship between items. In contrast, in the Guided condition, participants were instructed to improve their subsequent recall by mentally regrouping related items with the aid of category labels. Results indicated that the P200 amplitude increased with the greater organizational demand of semantic strategies. In contrast, the late positive component (LPC) amplitude was larger in both encoding conditions with semantic related words regardless of their instructions as compared to the Unrelated condition. Finally, there was greater right frontal sustained activity in the Spontaneous condition than in the Unrelated condition. Thus, our data indicate that the P200 is sensitive to attentional processes that increase with the organizational semantic demand. The LPC indexes associative processes voluntarily involved in linking related items together. Finally, the right frontal region appears to play an important role in the self-initiation of semantic organizational strategies.

  12. Effect of augmented sensorimotor input on learning verbal and nonverbal tasks among children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Latham, Susan O; Stockman, Ida J

    2014-06-01

    Thirty-four children, with autism spectrum disorders, ages 4-14 years, were matched and randomly assigned to one of two conditions for learning a novel juice-making task and producing two novel words about the event. Seventeen sighted children were manually guided to perform the task and tactually prompted during imitated productions of novel words for the event. Their matched controls heard the novel words and watched the juice-making task being performed. Performances on four verbal and two nonverbal measures right after instruction and at 24-48 h post-instruction, revealed higher scores for the ‘‘hands-on’’, participation than observation group on both verbal and nonverbal tasks. This study offers a paradigm for exploring the instructional advantage of enhanced participatory experience.

  13. Sex Differences in Using Spatial and Verbal Abilities Influence Route Learning Performance in a Virtual Environment: A Comparison of 6- to 12-Year Old Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Edward C.; Yang, Yingying; Roskos, Beverly; Steele, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported sex differences in wayfinding performance among adults. Men are typically better at using Euclidean information and survey strategies while women are better at using landmark information and route strategies. However, relatively few studies have examined sex differences in wayfinding in children. This research investigated relationships between route learning performance and two general abilities: spatial ability and verbal memory in 153 boys and girls between 6- to 12-years-old. Children completed a battery of spatial ability tasks (a two-dimension mental rotation task, a paper folding task, a visuo-spatial working memory task, and a Piagetian water level task) and a verbal memory task. In the route learning task, they had to learn a route through a series of hallways presented via computer. Boys had better overall route learning performance than did girls. In fact, the difference between boys and girls was constant across the age range tested. Structural equation modeling of the children’s performance revealed that spatial abilities and verbal memory were significant contributors to route learning performance. However, there were different patterns of correlates for boys and girls. For boys, spatial abilities contributed to route learning while verbal memory did not. In contrast, for girls both spatial abilities and verbal memory contributed to their route learning performance. This difference may reflect the precursor of a strategic difference between boys and girls in wayfinding that is commonly observed in adults. PMID:26941701

  14. Human strategies for solving a time-place learning task: the role of counting and following verbal cues.

    PubMed

    García-Gallardo, Daniel; Aguilar, Francisco; Armenta, Benjamín; Carpio, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the emergence of time-place learning in humans. In experiment 1, a computer based software was designed in which participants had to choose to enter one of four rooms in an abandoned house search for a zombie every 3-15s. Zombies could be found in only one of these rooms every trial in 3 min periods during the 12 min sessions. After 4 training sessions, participants were exposed to a probe session in which zombies could be found in any room on every trial. Almost all participants behaved as if they were timing the availability intervals: they anticipated the changes in the location of the zombie and they persisted in their performance patterns during the probe session; however, verbal reports revealed that they were counting the number of trials in each period in order to decide when to switch between rooms. In the second experiment, the task was modified in two ways: counting was made harder by using three different intertrial ranges within each session: 2-6s, 2-11s and 2-16s. Second, labels were displaced during the final session to assess whether participants learned to click on a given place or to follow a set of verbal cues. We found that participants did not notice the label changes suggesting that they learned to click on a given place, and that a win/stay-lose/shift strategy was clearly used to decide when to switch rooms in the second experiment. The implications of verbal behavior when assessing time-place learning with humans and the possible differences in this process between humans and animals are discussed.

  15. FORUM: Affective Learning. Students' Affective Learning as Affective Experience: Significance, Reconceptualization, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, San

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  16. Gradient language dominance affects talker learning.

    PubMed

    Bregman, Micah R; Creel, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Traditional conceptions of spoken language assume that speech recognition and talker identification are computed separately. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies imply some separation between the two faculties, but recent perceptual studies suggest better talker recognition in familiar languages than unfamiliar languages. A familiar-language benefit in talker recognition potentially implies strong ties between the two domains. However, little is known about the nature of this language familiarity effect. The current study investigated the relationship between speech and talker processing by assessing bilingual and monolingual listeners' ability to learn voices as a function of language familiarity and age of acquisition. Two effects emerged. First, bilinguals learned to recognize talkers in their first language (Korean) more rapidly than they learned to recognize talkers in their second language (English), while English-speaking participants showed the opposite pattern (learning English talkers faster than Korean talkers). Second, bilinguals' learning rate for talkers in their second language (English) correlated with age of English acquisition. Taken together, these results suggest that language background materially affects talker encoding, implying a tight relationship between speech and talker representations.

  17. Effect of cooperative learning strategies on student verbal interactions and achievement during conceptual change instruction in 10th grade general science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonning, Robert A.

    This study evaluated the effects of cooperative learning on students' verbal interaction patterns and achievement in a conceptual change instructional model in secondary science. Current conceptual change instructional models recognize the importance of student-student verbal interactions, but lack specific strategies to encourage these interactions. Cooperative learning may provide the necessary strategies. Two sections of low-ability 10th-grade students were designated the experimental and control groups. Students in both sections received identical content instruction on the particle model of matter using conceptual change teaching strategies. Students worked in teacher-assigned small groups on in-class assignments. The experimental section used cooperative learning strategies involving instruction in collaborative skills and group evaluation of assignments. The control section received no collaborative skills training and students were evaluated individually on group work. Gains on achievement were assessed using pre- and posttreatment administrations of an investigator-designed short-answer essay test. The assessment strategies used in this study represent an attempt to measure conceptual change. Achievement was related to students' ability to correctly use appropriate scientific explanations of events and phenomena and to discard use of naive conceptions. Verbal interaction patterns of students working in groups were recorded on videotape and analyzed using an investigator-designed verbal interaction scheme. The targeted verbalizations used in the interaction scheme were derived from the social learning theories of Piaget and Vygotsky. It was found that students using cooperative learning strategies showed greater achievement gains as defined above and made greater use of specific verbal patterns believed to be related to increased learning. The results of the study demonstrated that cooperative learning strategies enhance conceptual change instruction. More

  18. No support for dual process accounts of human affective learning in simple Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Ottmar V; Purkis, Helena M

    2005-02-01

    Dual process accounts of affective learning state that the learning of likes and dislikes reflects a learning mechanism that is distinct from the one reflected in expectancy learning, the learning of signal relationships, and has different empirical characteristics. Affective learning, for example, is said not to be affected by: (a) extinction training; (b) occasion setting; (c) cue competition; and (d) awareness of the CS-US contingencies. These predictions were tested in a series of experiments that employed simple Pavlovian conditioning procedures. Neutral visual pictures of geometric shapes, or tactile conditional stimuli (CS) were paired with aversive electrotactile unconditional stimuli (US). Dependent measures were physiological (skin conductance, blink startle modulation) or verbal (US expectancy, on-line and off-line ratings of CS pleasantness). Different combinations of these dependent measures were employed across different experiments in an attempt to assess affective and expectancy learning simultaneously. Changes in CS pleasantness as indexed by ratings or blink startle modulation were readily observed. However, contrary to the predictions from dual-process accounts, results indicated that acquired CS unpleasantness is subject to extinction, occasion setting, cue competition, and not found in absence of CS-US contingency awareness.

  19. Contributions of Learning Through Analogies to the Construction of Secondary Education Pupils' Verbal Discourse about Chemical Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Mar Aragón, María; Oliva, José M.; Navarrete, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between pupils' level of understanding of the analogies proposed in class while working with a model of chemical change and their competence at constructing a coherent verbal discourse of that model in both its macroscopic and submicroscopic representations. The study participants were 35 pupils in their 3rd year of compulsory secondary education (14-15 years of age) who had been studying chemical change for several weeks in their subject of Physics and Chemistry. The results suggested that the pupils generally understood the proposed analogies quite well, and that a good proportion of them assimilated adequately the verbal discourse inherent in the proposed model of chemical change. There was also a statistically significant association between modeling and analogical thinking. In particular, the pupils with greater understanding of the analogies being considered were also those who tended to show a greater ability to verbalize the model of chemical change and reason with it when solving the tasks they had been set. These results concur with the literature by suggesting that a link exists between analogical thinking and modeling, and that learning with analogies has a positive influence on the construction of the chemical change model.

  20. Verbal instructions targeting valence alter negative conditional stimulus evaluations (but do not affect reinstatement rates).

    PubMed

    Luck, Camilla C; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2017-01-31

    Negative conditional stimulus (CS) valence acquired during fear conditioning may enhance fear relapse and is difficult to remove as it extinguishes slowly and does not respond to the instruction that unconditional stimulus (US) presentations will cease. We examined whether instructions targeting CS valence would be more effective. In Experiment 1, an image of one person (CS+) was paired with an aversive US, while another (CS-) was presented alone. After acquisition, participants were given positive information about the CS+ poser and negative information about the CS- poser. Instructions reversed the pattern of differential CS valence present during acquisition and eliminated differential electrodermal responding. In Experiment 2, we compared positive and negative CS revaluation by providing positive/negative information about the CS+ and neutral information about CS-. After positive revaluation, differential valence was removed and differential electrodermal responding remained intact. After negative revaluation, differential valence was strengthened and differential electrodermal responding was eliminated. Unexpectedly, the instructions did not affect the reinstatement of differential electrodermal responding.

  1. Performance discrepancies on the California Verbal Learning Test--Second Edition (CVLT-II) in the standardization sample.

    PubMed

    Donders, Jacobus

    2006-12-01

    The standardization data for the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II; D. C. Delis, J. H. Kramer, E. Kaplan, & B. A. Ober, 2000) were used to evaluate the base rate of 6 specific discrepancies between various key variables. The results indicated that CVLT-II performance discrepancies should equal or exceed 1 or 1.5 z score points (depending on the individual comparison) in the hypothesized direction to be considered potentially unusual. However, because about 1 in 3 persons in the standardization sample displayed at least 1 such large discrepancy, it is concluded that these base rates should be viewed only as a starting point for interpretation.

  2. Verbal Discrimination Learning and Two-Category Classification Learning as a Function of List Length and Pronunciation Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, John J.

    1973-01-01

    Study examined the effects of the variables of list length and pronunciation instructions on performance in the verbal discrimination and two category classification tasks and found that the effects of these variables on the two tasks were quite comparable. (Author)

  3. Demographically corrected normative data for the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised in an elderly sample.

    PubMed

    Duff, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Demographic variables, such as age, education, and gender, routinely affect performance on neuropsychological tests. Whereas normative data are available to correct for these variables on many tests, data are lacking on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R), especially in the elderly. The current study examined the influence of age, education, and gender on HVLT-R and BVMT-R scores in 290 cognitively intact older adults. Age negatively correlated with nearly every score on the HVLT-R and BVMT-R, and education positively correlated with most scores on these same 2 memory tests. There were fewer gender differences on these tests. Using stepwise multiple regression, HVLT-R and BVMT-R scores were predicted from age, education, and/or gender. When observed scores are compared to these demographically adjusted predicted scores, clinicians can make assumptions about how an individual compared to his/her age-, education-, and gender-matched peers. The current conorming of these 2 memory tests also allows for direct comparison between verbal and visual memory in older patients.

  4. The Relationships among Verbal Short-Term Memory, Phonological Awareness, and New Word Learning: Evidence from Typical Development and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrold, Christopher; Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Stephens, Emma

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing…

  5. Searching for the Hebb Effect in down Syndrome: Evidence for a Dissociation between Verbal Short-Term Memory and Domain-General Learning of Serial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosse, E. K.; Jarrold, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Hebb effect is a form of repetition-driven long-term learning that is thought to provide an analogue for the processes involved in new word learning. Other evidence suggests that verbal short-term memory also constrains now vocabulary acquisition, but if the Hebb effect is independent of short-term memory, then it may be possible…

  6. The Effect of Blended Learning Approach on Fifth Grade Students' Academic Achievement in My Beautiful Language Textbook and the Development of Their Verbal Creative Thinking in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Madani, Feras Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the effect of Blended Learning approach compared to the traditional learning approach on fifth grade students' achievement in My Beautiful Language Textbook and the development of their verbal creative thinking. The study consisted of 49 students among which 25 are males in the Experimental Group and 24 females in…

  7. THE ROLE OF VISUALS IN VERBAL LEARNING--STUDIES IN TELEVISED INSTRUCTION, REPORT 3, SUMMARY REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROPPER, GEORGE L.

    THE INTEGRATION OF WORDS AND PICTURES IN THE TWO STUDIES REPORTED IN THIS VOLUME WAS ACCOMPLISHED UNCONVENTIONALLY. IN ONE STUDY, AN ENTIRE TOPIC, ARCHIMEDES' LAW, WAS COVERED IN A SELF-CONTAINED, ENTIRELY PICTORIAL LESSON AND ALSO IN A SELF-CONTAINED, ENTIRELY VERBAL LESSON. STUDENTS ACQUIRED ALL THE CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES MAKING UP ARCHIMEDES'…

  8. What Models of Verbal Working Memory Can Learn from Phonological Theory: Decomposing the Phonological Similarity Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweppe, Judith; Grice, Martine; Rummer, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying…

  9. Spatial Concept Learning in Preschool Children: Motoric Experiences and Verbal Repetition as Adjuncts to Passive Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Worthington, R. Kirby

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-two preschool children were matched by age, sex, and pretest scores on spatial concept knowledge. Four groups were (1) instruction (see and hear) only, (2) verbal repetition, (3) fine motor treatment (hand manipulation), and (4) gross motor treatment (body movement). There was no difference in performance between groups given instruction…

  10. Learning about Instruction: Teacher-Initiated Verbal Directions and Eliciting Questions. A Personal Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Lawrence F.; Marshall, Hermine H.

    This set of materials is designed to enhance the effectiveness of teachers' uses of structuring statements and questioning strategies. The material is presented as a series of self-directed workshops focusing on teacher-initiated verbal directions and questioning strategies and how these can be used strategically to enhance students' thinking.…

  11. Conception of Learning Outcomes in the Bloom's Taxonomy Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickiene, Izabela

    2010-01-01

    The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…

  12. Design of Affectively Evocative Smart Ambient Media for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Ron Chi-Wai; Cheng, Shuk Han; Ip, Horace Ho-Shing; Kong, Joseph Siu-Lung

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a teaching and research initiative, named SAMAL (Smart AMbience for Affective Learning) that will provide a unique ambient mediated environment for integrating cognitive and affective approaches to enhance learning. Also, this study illustrates a design of SAMAL classroom with affectively evocative scenarios for learning de…

  13. Affective Response to Learning via "Visual Metaphor."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, LuEtt

    A television program employing a visual metaphor should be an effective instructional tool. Concrete imagery should make the metaphor more memorable and the topic more comprehensible. Splitting the metaphor between audio and video channels should make a strongly unified message, because the audience would have to compare the verbal and visual…

  14. How Do Learning Communities Affect First-Year Latino Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Juan Carlos; Bray, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    Do learning communities with pedagogies of active learning, collaborative learning, and integration of course material affect the learning, achievement, and persistence of first-year Latino university students? The data for this project was obtained from a survey of 1,330 first-year students in the First-Year Learning Community Program at Texas…

  15. Verbal and Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Basic verbal and academic skills can be adversely affected by early-onset diabetes, although these skills have been studied less than other cognitive functions. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of learning deficits in children with diabetes by assessing basic verbal and academic skills in children with early-onset diabetes and in…

  16. Humans with Type-2 Diabetes Show Abnormal Long-Term Potentiation-Like Cortical Plasticity Associated with Verbal Learning Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Peter J.; Schilberg, Lukas; Brem, Anna-Katharine; Saxena, Sadhvi; Wong, Bonnie; Cypess, Aaron M.; Horton, Edward S.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Background Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accelerates cognitive aging and increases risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Rodent models of T2DM show altered synaptic plasticity associated with reduced learning and memory. Humans with T2DM also show cognitive deficits, including reduced learning and memory, but the relationship of these impairments to the efficacy of neuroplastic mechanisms has never been assessed. Objective Our primary objective was to compare mechanisms of cortical plasticity in humans with and without T2DM. Our secondary objective was to relate plasticity measures to standard measures of cognition. Methods A prospective cross-sectional cohort study was conducted on 21 adults with T2DM and 15 demographically-similar non-diabetic controls. Long-term potentiation-like plasticity was assessed in primary motor cortex by comparing the amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation before and after intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS). Plasticity measures were compared between groups and related to neuropsychological scores. Results In T2DM, iTBS-induced modulation of MEPs was significantly less than controls, even after controlling for potential confounds. Furthermore, in T2DM, modulation of MEPs 10-min post-iTBS was significantly correlated with Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task (RAVLT) performance. Conclusion Humans with T2DM show abnormal cortico-motor plasticity that is correlated with reduced verbal learning. Since iTBS after-effects and the RAVLT are both NMDA receptor-dependent measures, their relationship in T2DM may reflect brain-wide alterations in the efficacy of NMDA receptors. These findings offer novel mechanistic insights into the brain consequences of T2DM and provide a reliable means to monitor brain health and evaluate the efficacy of clinical interventions. PMID:27636847

  17. Differential effects of bihemispheric and unihemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation in young and elderly adults in verbal learning.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Valentina; Nitsche, Michael; Iasevoli, Luigi; Cucuzza, Gabriella; Caltagirone, Carlo; Marangolo, Paola

    2017-03-15

    For the past few years, the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the treatment of several pathologies has been investigated. In the language domain, several studies, in healthy and brain-damaged populations, have already shown that tDCS is effective in enhancing naming, repetition and semantic word generation. In those studies, different tDCS electrode configurations have been tested, however, a direct comparison between different montages in verbal learning has never been conducted. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of bihemispheric and unihemispheric tDCS on verbal learning task performance in two groups (young vs. elderly). Fifteen healthy volunteers participated per group. Each participant received three stimulation conditions: unihemispheric anodal tDCS over the left temporal area, bihemispheric tDCS over the left (anodal) and right (cathodal) temporal areas and a sham condition. During active stimulation, tDCS (20min, 2mA) was applied while each participant learned twenty pseudowords (arbitrarily assigned to corresponding pictures). No significant differences were found between the three conditions for the young group with regard to accuracy and vocal reaction times. In contrast, in the elderly group, real stimulation improved performance compared to sham but bihemispheric tDCS was more efficient than unilateral stimulation. These results suggest that bihemispheric stimulation is more effective in improving language learning but this effect is age-dependent. The hypothesis is advanced that cortical changes in the course of aging might differentially impact on tDCS efficacy on behavioral performance. These data may also have implications for treatment of stroke patients with language impairment.

  18. FMRI hypoactivation during verbal learning and memory in former high school football players with multiple concussions.

    PubMed

    Terry, Douglas P; Adams, T Eric; Ferrara, Michael S; Miller, L Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Multiple concussions before the age of 18 may be associated with late-life memory deficits. This study examined neural activation associated with verbal encoding and memory retrieval in former athletes ages 40-65 who received at least two concussions (median = 3; range = 2-15) playing high school football and a group of former high school football players with no reported history of concussions matched on age, education, and pre-morbid IQ. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected during a modified verbal paired associates paradigm indicated that those with concussive histories had hypoactivation in left hemispheric language regions, including the inferior/middle frontal gyri and angular gyrus compared with controls. However, concussive history was not associated with worse memory functioning on neuropsychological tests or worse behavioral performance during the paradigm, suggesting that multiple early-life concussions may be associated with subtle changes in the verbal encoding system that limits one from accessing higher-order semantic networks, but this difference does not translate into measurable cognitive performance deficits.

  19. What can we learn from a two-brain approach to verbal interaction?

    PubMed

    Schoot, Lotte; Hagoort, Peter; Segaert, Katrien

    2016-09-01

    Verbal interaction is one of the most frequent social interactions humans encounter on a daily basis. In the current paper, we zoom in on what the multi-brain approach has contributed, and can contribute in the future, to our understanding of the neural mechanisms supporting verbal interaction. Indeed, since verbal interaction can only exist between individuals, it seems intuitive to focus analyses on inter-individual neural markers, i.e. between-brain neural coupling. To date, however, there is a severe lack of theoretically-driven, testable hypotheses about what between-brain neural coupling actually reflects. In this paper, we develop a testable hypothesis in which between-pair variation in between-brain neural coupling is of key importance. Based on theoretical frameworks and empirical data, we argue that the level of between-brain neural coupling reflects speaker-listener alignment at different levels of linguistic and extra-linguistic representation. We discuss the possibility that between-brain neural coupling could inform us about the highest level of inter-speaker alignment: mutual understanding.

  20. Prefrontal cortical volume loss is associated with stress-related deficits in verbal learning and memory in HIV-infected women.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Leah H; Meyer, Vanessa J; J Conant, Rhoda; Sundermann, Erin E; Wu, Minjie; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Little, Deborah M; Maki, Pauline M

    2016-08-01

    Deficits in verbal learning and memory are a prominent feature of neurocognitive function in HIV-infected women, and are associated with high levels of perceived stress. To understand the neurobiological factors contributing to this stress-related memory impairment, we examined the association between stress, verbal memory, and brain volumes in HIV-infected women. Participants included 38 HIV-infected women (Mean age=43.9years) from the Chicago Consortium of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and completed standardized measures of verbal learning and memory and stress (Perceived Stress Scale-10; PSS-10). Brain volumes were evaluated in a priori regions of interest, including the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Compared to HIV-infected women with lower stress (PSS-10 scores in lower two tertiles), HIV-infected women with higher stress (scores in the top tertile), performed worse on measures of verbal learning and memory and showed smaller volumes bilaterally in the parahippocampal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus (p's<0.05). Reduced volumes in the inferior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus (all right hemisphere) were negatively associated with verbal learning and memory performance. Prefrontal cortical atrophy is associated with stress-related deficits in verbal learning and memory in HIV-infected women. The time course of these volume losses in relation to memory deficits has yet to be elucidated, but the magnitude of the volumetric differences between women with higher versus lower stress suggests a prolonged vulnerability due to chronic stress and/or early life trauma.

  1. Age-related decline in verbal learning is moderated by demographic factors, working memory capacity, and presence of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Constantinidou, Fofi; Zaganas, Ioannis; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Nidos, Andreas; Simos, Panagiotis G

    2014-09-01

    Age-related memory changes are highly varied and heterogeneous. The study examined the rate of decline in verbal episodic memory as a function of education level, auditory attention span and verbal working memory capacity, and diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Data were available on a community sample of 653 adults aged 17-86 years and 70 patients with a-MCI recruited from eight broad geographic areas in Greece and Cyprus. Measures of auditory attention span and working memory capacity (digits forward and backward) and verbal episodic memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test [AVLT]) were used. Moderated mediation regressions on data from the community sample did not reveal significant effects of education level on the rate of age-related decline in AVLT indices. The presence of a-MCI was a significant moderator of the direct effect of Age on both immediate and delayed episodic memory indices. The rate of age-related decline in verbal episodic memory is normally mediated by working memory capacity. Moreover, in persons who display poor episodic memory capacity (a-MCI group), age-related memory decline is expected to advance more rapidly for those who also display relatively poor verbal working memory capacity.

  2. How does vision affect learning? Part II.

    PubMed

    Koller, H P

    1999-01-01

    1. Dyslexia is a language-based learning disability in which phontiec analysis is genetically deficient. 2. Nonverbal learning differences are frequently overlooked in evaluating learning disabled children. 3. Children often have more than one category of learning difference, all of which must be diagnosed correctly to be effectively remediated.

  3. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) in a Traumatic Brain Injury Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, Joy; Donders, Jacobus

    2009-01-01

    The latent structure of the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) was examined in a clinical sample of 223 persons with traumatic brain injury that had been screened to remove individuals with complicating premorbid (e.g., psychiatric) or comorbid (e.g., financial compensation seeking) histories. Analyses incorporated the…

  4. The Impact of Induced Positive Affect on Incarcerated Males' Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Tanis; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Incarcerated adolescent males (n=62) with high and low depression scores were assigned to a positive or neutral affect induction condition. Following affect induction, subjects participated in tasks involving learning to read Hindi words. Results showed a main effect for self-induced positive affect on learning but no main effect for depression…

  5. Increased BOLD activation in the left parahippocampal cortex after 1 year of medical school: an association with cumulative verbal memory learning.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Michaël; Gauvreau, Claudie; Theriault, Denis; Madrolle, Stéphanie; Lepage, Jean-François; Whittingstall, Kevin

    2016-01-06

    Although several studies have shown left-right hippocampus asymmetry during learning, it is unclear whether such asymmetry also exists for the parahippocampal cortex, a structure within the limbic system that is also involved in memory and learning. Using a common mental navigation task known to activate the bilateral parahippocampal cortex, this study aimed at determining how BOLD activation in these two areas changes after 1 year of medical school, a program characterized by intensive verbal learning. Fifteen first-year medical students participated in this study and underwent two sessions of functional MRI, at a 1-year interval. In the first session, we observed marginal differences between left and right parahippocampal cortex activity. However, 1 year later, left parahippocampal activation significantly increased (+4.7%), whereas the right remained stable. These results bring new information as to how intensive learning can modify regional metabolism in the human brain and how the left parahippocampal region is particularly important for cumulative verbal memory.

  6. Weak language lateralization affects both verbal and spatial skills: an fMRI study in 297 subjects.

    PubMed

    Mellet, E; Zago, L; Jobard, G; Crivello, F; Petit, L; Joliot, M; Mazoyer, B; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N

    2014-12-01

    The present study reappraised the relationship between hemispheric specialization strength and cognitive skills in a sample of 297 individuals including 153 left-handers. It additionally assessed the interaction with manual laterality factors, such as handedness, asymmetry of hand motor skills, and familial sinistrality. A Hemispheric Functional Lateralization Index (HFLI) for language was derived from fMRI. Through mixture Gaussian modeling, three types of language hemispheric lateralization were defined: typical (left hemisphere dominance with clear positive HFLI), ambilateral (no dominant hemisphere with HFLI values close to 0), and strongly-atypical (right-hemisphere dominance with clear negative HFLI values). Three cognitive scores were derived from 12 tests covering various aspects of verbal and spatial cognition. Compared to both typical and strongly-atypical participants, those ambilateral for language production had lower performances in verbal and non-verbal domains, indicating that hemispheric specialization and cognitive skills are related in adults. Furthermore, this relationship was independent from handedness and asymmetry for motor skills, as no interaction was observed between these factors. On the other hand, the relationship between familial sinistrality and cognitive skills tended to differ according to language lateralization type. In contrast to previous reports in children, in the present adult population, we found no linear correlation between HFLI and cognitive skills, regardless of lateralization type.

  7. Implicit Memory Influences on Metamemory during Verbal Learning after Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramanathan, Pradeep; Kennedy, Mary R. T.; Marsolek, Chad J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Prior research has shown that individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be overconfident in their judgments of learning (JOLs; online measures of self-monitoring of learning and memory). JOLs had been presumed to be driven by explicit processes, but recent research has also revealed implicit memory involvement. Given that implicit…

  8. Explaining Pictures: How Verbal Cues Influence Processing of Pictorial Learning Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Manuela; Schwan, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    While to date, multimedia research has examined mainly the learning of texts with accompanying pictures, in the current paper, 2 experiments are presented that examine the multimedia effect for pictures with accompanying spoken text. In Experiment 1, we examined whether learning is better with a multimedia presentation in which pictorial…

  9. Analogical Problem Solving in Children with Verbal and Nonverbal Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Rachel; Bauminger, Nirit; Toledo, Idit

    2009-01-01

    Analogical reasoning--perceiving similarities in different situations and the transfer of such information--facilitates learning and understanding. However, children with learning disabilities (LD) typically demonstrate deficits in such information processing strategies. In this study, we investigated the analogical problem-solving differences…

  10. Perceptual similarity affects the learning curve (but not necessarily learning).

    PubMed

    Wifall, Tim; McMurray, Bob; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2014-02-01

    What role does item similarity play in motor skill acquisition? To examine this question, we used a modified version of the chord learning task (Seibel, 1963) that entails producing simultaneous finger key presses, similar to playing a chord on a piano. In Experiment 1, difficulty, as indexed by response time (RT) to a particular chord on the first session, was held constant, and chords that were similar to other chords had longer RTs after practice than dissimilar chords. In Experiment 2, we used chords that produced different initial RTs to show that similarity affected asymptotic RT rather than the size of RT decrement achieved with practice. In Experiment 3, we eliminated differences in perceptual similarity by using Chinese characters for stimuli while retaining differences in motoric similarity, which resulted in nearly identical asymptotes for similar and dissimilar chords. Thus, the density effect observed in Experiments 1 and 2 appears to stem from competition triggered by similar stimuli. Because performance differences were immediately re-established when stimulus similarity was introduced in Experiment 3 during transfer sessions, competition appears to emerge among learned, central representations that can be coactivated by multiple stimuli.

  11. Learning strategy preferences, verbal-visual cognitive styles, and multimedia preferences for continuing engineering education instructional design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baukal, Charles Edward, Jr.

    A literature search revealed very little information on how to teach working engineers, which became the motivation for this research. Effective training is important for many reasons such as preventing accidents, maximizing fuel efficiency, minimizing pollution emissions, and reducing equipment downtime. The conceptual framework for this study included the development of a new instructional design framework called the Multimedia Cone of Abstraction (MCoA). This was developed by combining Dale's Cone of Experience and Mayer's Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. An anonymous survey of 118 engineers from a single Midwestern manufacturer was conducted to determine their demographics, learning strategy preferences, verbal-visual cognitive styles, and multimedia preferences. The learning strategy preference profile and verbal-visual cognitive styles of the sample were statistically significantly different than the general population. The working engineers included more Problem Solvers and were much more visually-oriented than the general population. To study multimedia preferences, five of the seven levels in the MCoA were used. Eight types of multimedia were compared in four categories (types in parantheses): text (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), non-interactive dynamic graphics (animation and video), and interactive dynamic graphics (simulated virtual reality and real virtual reality). The first phase of the study examined multimedia preferences within a category. Participants compared multimedia types in pairs on dual screens using relative preference, rating, and ranking. Surprisingly, the more abstract multimedia (text, drawing, animation, and simulated virtual reality) were preferred in every category to the more concrete multimedia (narration, photograph, video, and real virtual reality), despite the fact that most participants had relatively little prior subject knowledge. However, the more abstract graphics were only slightly

  12. You Like It, You Learn It: Affectivity and Learning in Competitive Social Role Play Gaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brom, Cyril; Šisler, Vít; Slussareff, Michaela; Selmbacherová, Tereza; Hlávka, Zdenek

    2016-01-01

    Despite the alleged ability of digital game-based learning (DGBL) to foster positive affect and in turn improve learning, the link between affectivity and learning has not been sufficiently investigated in this field. Regarding learning from team-based games with competitive elements, even less is known about the relationship between…

  13. Subtypes and comorbidity in mathematical learning disabilities: Multidimensional study of verbal and visual memory processes is key to understanding.

    PubMed

    Szűcs, D

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research suggests that mathematical learning disability (MLD) is related to working memory impairment. Here, I organize part of this literature through a meta-analysis of 36 studies with 665 MLD and 1049 control participants. I demonstrate that one subtype of MLD is associated with reading problems and weak verbal short-term and working memory. Another subtype of MLD does not have associated reading problems and is linked to weak visuospatial short-term and working memory. In order to better understand MLD we need to precisely define potentially modality-specific memory subprocesses and supporting executive functions, relevant for mathematical learning. This can be achieved by taking a multidimensional parametric approach systematically probing an extended network of cognitive functions. Rather than creating arbitrary subgroups and/or focus on a single factor, highly powered studies need to position individuals in a multidimensional parametric space. This will allow us to understand the multidimensional structure of cognitive functions and their relationship to mathematical performance.

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Deficits in Children With Learning Difficulties: Is There a Difference Between Verbal Domain and Numerical Domain?

    PubMed

    Peng, Peng; Fuchs, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Children with learning difficulties suffer from working memory (WM) deficits. Yet the specificity of deficits associated with different types of learning difficulties remains unclear. Further research can contribute to our understanding of the nature of WM and the relationship between it and learning difficulties. The current meta-analysis synthesized research on verbal WM and numerical WM among children with reading difficulties (RD), children with mathematics difficulties (MD), and children with reading and mathematics difficulties (RDMD). A total of 29 studies subsuming 110 comparisons were included. Results showed that compared to typically developing children, all learning difficulty groups demonstrated deficits in verbal WM and numerical WM, with RDMD children showing the most severe WM deficits. MD children and RD children showed comparable verbal WM deficits, but MD children showed more severe numerical WM deficits than RD children. Neither severity of learning difficulties nor type of academic screening emerged as a moderator of WM deficit profiles. Although the findings indicate the domain-general nature of WM deficits in RD, MD, and RDMD children, the numerical WM deficits of children with MD and RDMD may reflect the domain-specific nature of WM deficits.

  15. Re-examining the effects of verbal instructional type on early stage motor learning.

    PubMed

    Bobrownicki, Ray; MacPherson, Alan C; Coleman, Simon G S; Collins, Dave; Sproule, John

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigated the differential effects of analogy and explicit instructions on early stage motor learning and movement in a modified high jump task. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: analogy, explicit light (reduced informational load), or traditional explicit (large informational load). During the two-day learning phase, participants learned a novel high jump technique based on the 'scissors' style using the instructions for their respective conditions. For the single-day testing phase, participants completed both a retention test and task-relevant pressure test, the latter of which featured a rising high-jump-bar pressure manipulation. Although analogy learners demonstrated slightly more efficient technique and reported fewer technical rules on average, the differences between the conditions were not statistically significant. There were, however, significant differences in joint variability with respect to instructional type, as variability was lowest for the analogy condition during both the learning and testing phases, and as a function of block, as joint variability decreased for all conditions during the learning phase. Findings suggest that reducing the informational volume of explicit instructions may mitigate the deleterious effects on performance previously associated with explicit learning in the literature.

  16. Verbal Instructions Acutely Affect Drop Vertical Jump Biomechanics--Implications for Athletic Performance and Injury Risk Assessments.

    PubMed

    Khuu, Steven; Musalem, Lindsay L; Beach, Tyson A C

    2015-10-01

    Biomechanical quantities acquired during the drop vertical jump (DVJ) are used in the assessment of athletic performance and injury risk. The objective was to examine the impact of different verbal instructions on spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic variables commonly included in such assessments. Ten men and 10 women from local varsity and club volleyball, basketball, figure skating, and track and field teams volunteered to participate. The athletes performed DVJs after given instructions to minimize ground contact time (CT), maximize jump height (HT), and synchronously extend the lower extremity joints (EX). Between the CT, HT, and EX conditions, body segment and joint angles were compared together with characteristics of vertical ground reaction force (GRF), whole-body power output, stiffness, and center-of-mass displacement time histories. Verbal instructions were found to influence nearly all of the spatiotemporal, body segment and joint kinematic, and kinetic variables that were statistically analyzed. Particularly noteworthy was the finding that athletic performance indices (e.g., jump height, power output, vertical stiffness, and reactive strength index) and lower extremity injury risk markers (e.g., peak vertical GRF and frontal plane knee angle) were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between the CT, HT, and EX conditions. The findings of this study suggest that verbal instructions should be controlled and/or clearly documented when using the DVJ to assess athletic performance potential and injury risk. Moreover, practitioners who devise performance enhancement and injury prevention strategies based on DVJ assessments are advised to consider that "coaching" or "cueing" during the task execution could impact conclusions drawn.

  17. Performance & Emotion--A Study on Adaptive E-Learning Based on Visual/Verbal Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Jennifer; Bertel, Sven; Zander, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive e-Learning systems are able to adjust to a user's learning needs, usually by user modeling or tracking progress. Such learner-adaptive behavior has rapidly become a hot topic for e-Learning, furthered in part by the recent rapid increase in the use of MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses). A lack of general, individual, and situational data…

  18. Critical Review on Affect of Personality on Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamarulzaman, Wirawani

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended to review the affect of personality on learning styles. Costa and McCrae's Five-Factor Model of Personality (The Big 5) is explored against Kolb Learning Styles. The Big 5 factors are extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, whereas Kolb Learning Styles are divergers, assimilators,…

  19. Motivational Factors Affecting Online Learning by Japanese MBA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikuchi, Hisayo

    2006-01-01

    In Japan, Internet based learning is still at an early stage. However, adult learners in Japanese society expect the development of flexible e-learning programs. This case study examines motivational factors affecting online learning in a Japanese and Australian MBA program, using observations, interviews and a questionnaire survey. The data were…

  20. Demotivation: Affective States and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falout, Joseph; Elwood, James; Hood, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Demotivation can negatively influence the learner's attitudes and behaviors, degrade classroom group dynamics and teacher's motivation, and result in long-term and widespread negative learning outcomes. 900 university EFL learners were surveyed to investigate the demotivating factors in learning English as a foreign language (EFL) in Japan, and…

  1. Attitudes Affecting Online Learning Implementation in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Betty; Geva-May, Iris

    2009-01-01

    This study explores attitudes towards and affecting online learning implementation (OLI). In recent years there has been greater acceptance of online learning (OL) by institutional decision-makers, as evidenced by higher levels of institutional involvement; nevertheless, the increase in faculty acceptance lags behind. This gap affects the…

  2. Comparison of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Digit Test among Typically Achieving and Gifted Students

    PubMed Central

    KHOSRAVI FARD, Elham; L. KEELOR, Jennifer; Akbarzadeh BAGHEBAN, Alireza; W. KEITH, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this study, different kinds of memory were evaluated using Rey Auditory Verbal Learning (RAVLT) test and were compared between two groups of typical and gifted students using Digit Span test. Finally, we determined if working memory interfered with scores in different Rey stages or not. Material & Methods This study was conducted in Tehran City, Iran in 2013. Scores on RAVLT were compared with WISC- R digit span results in a sample of 148 male students aged 12-14 yr old divided into two groups including 75 students in typical school (IQ ranging between 90 and 110) and 73 gifted students (IQs ranging between 110 and 130). Results Gifted students obtained higher scores than typical students in both Forward Digit Span (FDS) and Backward Digit Span (BDS) and all 9 stages of RAVLT comparing with typical students (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between different ages (P> 0.05). The 14 yr old students in both groups had the highest score. There was a high correlation between FDS and the first stage of RAVLT as well as high correlation between BDS and seventh stage of RAVLT. Conclusion Intelligence has effect on better score of memory and gifted subjects had better scores in memory tests, although the intelligence effect in learning was quantitative rather than qualitative. RAVLT is a comprehensive test, which evaluates short-term memory, working memory and long-term memory and besides Digit span test provides precious information about memory and learning of subjects in order to program different student’s educational schedules. PMID:27247581

  3. Teacher Verbal Aggressiveness and Credibility Mediate the Relationship between Teacher Technology Policies and Perceived Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Amber N.; Ledbetter, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we extend previous work on teacher technology policies by refining the teacher technology policies instrument to account for the technology purpose (social, academic) and type (cell phone, laptop/tablet), and examine a model of teacher technology policies and perceived learning. We found that students are more sensitive to policies…

  4. Yeast Can Affect Behavior and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, William G.

    1984-01-01

    A pediatrician recounts his experiences in diagnosing and treating allergies to common yeast germs that may result in behavior and learning problems. He lists characteristics that may predispose children to yeast-connected health problems. (CL)

  5. Attenuating social affective learning effects with Memory Suppression manipulations.

    PubMed

    Molet, Mikael; Kosinski, Thierry; Craddock, Paul; Miguez, Gonzalo; Mash, Lisa E; Miller, Ralph R

    2016-02-01

    People can form opinions of other individuals based on information about their good or bad behavior. The present study investigated whether this affective learning might depend on memory links formed between initially neutral people and valenced information. First, participants viewed neutral faces paired with sentences describing prosocial or antisocial behaviors. Second, memory suppression manipulations with the potential to aid in the forgetting of valenced information were administered. Using the Think/No think paradigm, the effectiveness of four different suppression instructions was compared: Unguided Suppression, Guided Suppression, Distraction, and Thought Substitution. Overall, all the tasks appreciably reduced affective learning based on prosocial information, but only the Guided Suppression and Thought Substitution tasks reduced affective learning based on antisocial information. These results suggest that weakening the putative memory link between initially neutral people and valenced information can decrease the effect of learned associations on the evaluation of other people. We interpreted this as indicative that social affective learning may rely on declarative memories.

  6. What Links Verbal Short-Term Memory Performance and Vocabulary Level? Evidence of Changing Relationships among Individuals with Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Hewes, Alexa K.; Leeke, Tansy C.; Phillips, Caroline E.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies are presented that adopt a novel approach to determining whether verbal short-term memory performance is causally related to vocabulary acquisition in childhood. This involves examining whether verbal short-term memory measures are more closely related to the absolute level of individuals' vocabulary, or the rate at which vocabulary…

  7. [Formula: see text]Introducing a forced-choice recognition task to the California Verbal Learning Test - Children's Version.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Jonathan D; Erdodi, Laszlo A; Linnea, Kate S

    2017-04-01

    The importance of performance validity tests (PVTs) is increasingly recognized in pediatric neuropsychology. To date, research has focused on investigating whether PVTs designed for adults function similarly in children. The downward extension of adult cutoffs is counter-intuitive considering the robust effect of age-related changes in basic cognitive skills in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the signal detection properties of a forced-choice recognition trial (FCR-C) for the California Verbal Learning Test - Children's Version. A total of 72 children aged 6-15 years (M = 11.1 , SD = 2.6) completed the FCR-C as part of a larger neuropsychological assessment battery. Cross-validation analyses revealed that the FCR-C had good signal detection performance against reference PVTs. The first level of failure (≤14/15) produced the best combination of overall sensitivity (.31) and specificity (.87). A more conservative FCR-C cutoff (≤13) resulted in a predictable trade-off between sensitivity (.15) and specificity (.94), but also a net loss in discriminant power. Lowering the cutoff to ≤12 resulted in a slight improvement in specificity (.97) but further deterioration in sensitivity (.14). These preliminary findings suggest that the FCR-C has the potential to become the newest addition to a growing arsenal of pediatric PVTs.

  8. New semantic and serial clustering indices for the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition: background, rationale, and formulae.

    PubMed

    Stricker, John L; Brown, Gregory G; Wixted, John; Baldo, Juliana V; Delis, Dean C

    2002-03-01

    The original California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) employed a semantic clustering index that used the words recalled during a given trial as the baseline for calculating expected values of chance clustering (recall-based expectancy). Although commonly used in cognitive psychology, clustering indices that use recall-based calculations of expectancy are implied by the assumption that organizational processes do not occur until after words are retrieved from memory. This assumption contradicts the generally held assumptions among neuropsychologists that (1) organization is an antecedent to recall, and (2) increases in the use of organizational strategies will result in better recall performance. After reviewing a brief history of clustering metrics, we used Monte Carlo simulations, informative examples, and patient data to examine clustering indices that use the word list as a baseline for calculating expectancy and propose these list-based expectancy measures as a refinement of the clustering indices used on the original CVLT. These indices are used on the recently published CVLT-II.

  9. Post-traumatic stress is associated with verbal learning, memory, and psychomotor speed in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Leah H; Pyra, Maria; Cook, Judith A; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Martin, Eileen; Valcour, Victor; Milam, Joel; Anastos, Kathryn; Young, Mary A; Alden, Christine; Gustafson, Deborah R; Maki, Pauline M

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) women compared with HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women, and deficits in episodic memory are a common feature of both PTSD and HIV infection. We investigated the association between a probable PTSD diagnosis using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) version and verbal learning and memory using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test in 1004 HIV+ and 496 at-risk HIV- women. HIV infection was not associated with a probable PTSD diagnosis (17% HIV+, 16% HIV-; p = 0.49) but was associated with lower verbal learning (p < 0.01) and memory scores (p < 0.01). Irrespective of HIV status, a probable PTSD diagnosis was associated with poorer performance in verbal learning (p < 0.01) and memory (p < 0.01) and psychomotor speed (p < 0.001). The particular pattern of cognitive correlates of probable PTSD varied depending on exposure to sexual abuse and/or violence, with exposure to either being associated with a greater number of cognitive domains and a worse cognitive profile. A statistical interaction between HIV serostatus and PTSD was observed on the fine motor skills domain (p = 0.03). Among women with probable PTSD, HIV- women performed worse than HIV+ women on fine motor skills (p = 0.01), but among women without probable PTSD, there was no significant difference in performance between the groups (p = 0.59). These findings underscore the importance of considering mental health factors as correlates to cognitive deficits in women with HIV.

  10. Post-traumatic stress is associated with verbal learning, memory, and psychomotor speed in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women

    PubMed Central

    Pyra, Maria; Cook, Judith A.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Martin, Eileen; Valcour, Victor; Milam, Joel; Anastos, Kathryn; Young, Mary A.; Alden, Christine; Gustafson, Deborah R.; Maki, Pauline M.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) women compared with HIV-uninfected (HIV−) women, and deficits in episodic memory are a common feature of both PTSD and HIV infection. We investigated the association between a probable PTSD diagnosis using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) version and verbal learning and memory using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test in 1004 HIV+ and 496 at-risk HIV− women. HIV infection was not associated with a probable PTSD diagnosis (17 % HIV+, 16 % HIV−; p=0.49) but was associated with lower verbal learning (p<0.01) and memory scores (p<0.01). Irrespective of HIV status, a probable PTSD diagnosis was associated with poorer performance in verbal learning (p<0.01) and memory (p<0.01) and psychomotor speed (p<0.001). The particular pattern of cognitive correlates of probable PTSD varied depending on exposure to sexual abuse and/or violence, with exposure to either being associated with a greater number of cognitive domains and a worse cognitive profile. A statistical interaction between HIV serostatus and PTSD was observed on the fine motor skills domain (p= 0.03). Among women with probable PTSD, HIV− women performed worse than HIV+ women on fine motor skills (p=0.01), but among women without probable PTSD, there was no significant difference in performance between the groups (p= 0.59). These findings underscore the importance of considering mental health factors as correlates to cognitive deficits in women with HIV. PMID:26404435

  11. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings.

  12. Does Group Composition Affect Learning by Invention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedmann, Michael; Leach, Ryan C.; Rummel, Nikol; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Schwartz and Martin ("Cogn Instr" 22:129-184, 2004) as well as Kapur ("Instr Sci", this issue, 2012) have found that students can be better prepared to learn about mathematical formulas when they try to invent them in small groups before receiving the canonical formula from a lesson. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how the…

  13. Sweet and Slow: Diet Can Affect Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton-Seifert, Joan; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Studies pointing to the relationship between caffeine-sugar intake and learning disorders are cited and suggestions to facilitate better nutrition in children are offered. Among suggestions made is that teachers be educated in matters of food, nutrition, and reading through inservice programs. A nutritional questionnaire is included. (SBH)

  14. How Learning Logic Programming Affects Recursion Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Bruria

    2004-01-01

    Recursion is a central concept in computer science, yet it is difficult for beginners to comprehend. Israeli high-school students learn recursion in the framework of a special modular program in computer science (Gal-Ezer & Harel, 1999). Some of them are introduced to the concept of recursion in two different paradigms: the procedural…

  15. An E-learning System based on Affective Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duo, Sun; Song, Lu Xue

    In recent years, e-learning as a learning system is very popular. But the current e-learning systems cannot instruct students effectively since they do not consider the emotional state in the context of instruction. The emergence of the theory about "Affective computing" can solve this question. It can make the computer's intelligence no longer be a pure cognitive one. In this paper, we construct an emotional intelligent e-learning system based on "Affective computing". A dimensional model is put forward to recognize and analyze the student's emotion state and a virtual teacher's avatar is offered to regulate student's learning psychology with consideration of teaching style based on his personality trait. A "man-to-man" learning environment is built to simulate the traditional classroom's pedagogy in the system.

  16. Toward Computer-Aided Affective Learning Systems: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moridis, C. N.; Economides, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to provide an overview of the various components of "computer aided affective learning systems." The research is classified into 3 main scientific areas that are integral parts of the development of these kinds of systems. The three main scientific areas are: i) emotions and their connection to learning; ii) affect…

  17. Demotivating Factors Affecting EFL Learning of Iranian Seminary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabatabaei, Omid; Molavi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the demotives affecting EFL learning of Iranian Islamic seminary students and also to distinguish the motivated and demotivated EFL learners in terms of their EFL learning as the major focus of this study. Fifty Iranian EFL seminary students were investigated using two validated…

  18. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  19. Affective Learning and the Classroom Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagger, Suzy

    2013-01-01

    A commonly used teaching method to promote student engagement is the classroom debate. This study evaluates how affective characteristics, as defined in Bloom's taxonomy, were stimulated during debates that took place on a professional ethics module for first year computing undergraduates. The debates led to lively interactive group discussions…

  20. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism significantly affects d' in verbal recognition memory at short and long delays.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Terry E; Iudicello, Jennifer; Russo, Christine; Elvevåg, Brita; Straub, Richard; Egan, Michael F; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2008-01-01

    A functional polymorphism at the val66met locus in the BDNF gene has significant effects on the pro-form of the protein in intracellular trafficking and activity-dependent, but not constitutive, secretion. These differences are thought to underlie several findings in humans related to this polymorphism, including markers of neuronal viability, BOLD activation in medial temporal lobe regions, and some aspects of behavior. However, many important questions remain about the impact of BDNF on various mnemonic subprocesses at the behavioral level. In this study, we examined the impact of the val/met polymorphism in a verbal recognition memory paradigm involving manipulation of depth of encoding and differential delays for recall and analyses of hits for previously presented target words and correct rejections of foils. Twenty-four human val homozygous individuals and 24 met carrier individuals comprised the sample. All were healthy controls. IQ between the groups was equivalent. In the encoding phase of the study, words were presented and encoded either by a decision as to whether they were living or nonliving ("deep") or if they contained the letter "A" (shallow). After this phase, recognition was tested immediately, half an hour, and 24h later. BDNF genotype had significant effects on hits and discriminability (d'), accounting for at least 10% of the variance, but not on correct rejections or beta. BDNF did not interact with level of encoding, nor did it interact with delay. In sum, BDNF genotypes impacted "hits" in a recognition memory paradigm, findings consistent with the general notion that BDNF plays a prominent role in memory subprocesses thought to engage the medial temporal lobe.

  1. Asperger syndrome and "non-verbal learning problems" in a longitudinal perspective: neuropsychological and social adaptive outcome in early adult life.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, Bibbi S; Nydén, Agneta; Cederlund, Mats; Gillberg, Christopher

    2013-12-15

    Co-existence of Asperger syndrome (AS) and non-verbal learning disability (NLD) has been proposed based on the observation that people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal than performance IQ (VIQ > PIQ by ≥ 15 points), one of the core features of NLD. In the present study we examined neuropsychological and social adaptive profiles with "non-verbal learning problems" associated with NLD in a group of individuals with AS followed from childhood into early adult life. The group was divided into three subgroups: (i) persistent NLD (P-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ > PIQ) both in childhood and early adulthood occasions, (ii) childhood NLD (CO-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ > PIQ) only at original diagnosis, or (iii) No NLD (VIQ > PIQ) ever (NO-NLD). All three subgroups were followed prospectively from childhood into adolescence and young adult life. One in four to one in five of the whole group of males with AS had P-NLD. The P-NLD subgroup had poorer neuropsychological outcome in early adult life than did those with CO-NLD and those with NO-NLD. There were no unequivocal markers in early childhood that predicted subgroup status in early adult life, but early motor delay and a history of early speech-language problems tended to be associated with P-NLD.

  2. Assessment of Parental and Adolescent Verbal Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Rhydonia H.; And Others

    Verbal interactions between adolescents and their parents may affect adolescents' self-esteem and self-concept. The current development of an instrument, the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (VIQ), was designed to measure adolescents' perceptions of their parents verbal interactions with them. Noting that the relationship between adolescents'…

  3. Generating a Spanish Affective Dictionary with Supervised Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermudez-Gonzalez, Daniel; Miranda-Jiménez, Sabino; García-Moreno, Raúl-Ulises; Calderón-Nepamuceno, Dora

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, machine learning techniques are being used in several Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks such as Opinion Mining (OM). OM is used to analyse and determine the affective orientation of texts. Usually, OM approaches use affective dictionaries in order to conduct sentiment analysis. These lexicons are labeled manually with affective…

  4. How Do We Measure Affective Learning in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buissink-Smith, Nell; Mann, Samuel; Shephard, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Educational outcomes related to sustainability often include affective attributes such as values, attitudes and behaviours. Educators in higher education who attempt to research, monitor, assess or evaluate learning of affective attributes can face a bewildering array of methodologies and approaches and a research literature that spans several…

  5. Language Learning Strategies and Affect. CLCS Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djigunovic, Jelena Mihaljevic

    This highly technical and quantitatively-based study aims to investigate the strategy-affect interaction. The language learning strategies of the subjects were examined to find out the range and frequency of strategy use. The findings served as the basis for investigating the interactions with four affective learner factors: anxiety, self-concept,…

  6. The Effect of Verbalization Upon Certain Mathematical Generalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Harold

    This paper reports on a study which was performed to replicate and extend the findings of Hendrix with regard to verbalization and discovery learning. College algebra classes were randomly assigned to three verbalization conditions: (1) no student verbalization of generalizations required, (2) students make written verbalization of generalization,…

  7. The Effect of Verbalization Upon Certain Discovered Mathematical Generalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Harold Wayne

    This study was performed as an effort to replicate and extend the findings of Hendrix with regard to verbalization and discovery learning. College algebra classes were randomly assigned to three verbalization conditions: (1) no student verbalization of generalizations required, (2) students make written verbalization of generalization, and (3)…

  8. FORUM: Affective Learning. Reconsidering the Conceptualization and Operationalization of Affective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Scott A.; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  9. Human likeness: cognitive and affective factors affecting adoption of robot-assisted learning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon

    2016-07-01

    With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.

  10. Speech Intelligibility and Childhood Verbal Apraxia in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumin, Libby

    2006-01-01

    Many children with Down syndrome have difficulty with speech intelligibility. The present study used a parent survey to learn more about a specific factor that affects speech intelligibility, i.e. childhood verbal apraxia. One of the factors that affects speech intelligibility for children with Down syndrome is difficulty with voluntarily…

  11. Development, validity, and normative data study for the 12-word Philadelphia Verbal Learning Test [czP(r)VLT-12] among older and very old Czech adults.

    PubMed

    Bezdicek, Ondrej; Libon, David J; Stepankova, Hana; Panenkova, Erika; Lukavsky, Jiri; Garrett, Kelly Davis; Lamar, Melissa; Price, Catherine C; Kopecek, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of a 12-word Czech version of the Philadelphia (repeatable) Verbal Learning Test [czP(r)VLT-12]. The construction of the czP(r)VLT-12 was modeled after the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) and the nine-word Philadelphia (repeatable) Verbal Learning Test [P(r)VLT]. The czP(r)VLT-12 was constructed from a large corpus of old (60-74) and very old (75-96) Czech adults (n = 540). Participants met strict inclusion criteria for the absence of any active or past neurodegenerative disorders and performed within normal limits on other neuropsychological measures. Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlations between czP(r)VLT-12 factor structure and other memory tests were conducted. The czP(r)VLT-12 produced a four-factor solution, accounting for 70.90% of variance, with factors related to: (1) recall, (2) extra-list intrusion errors/recognition foils, (3) interference, and (4) acquisition rate; a solution similar to the CVLT and P(r)VLT. Increasing age resulted in a decline in most czP(r)VLT-12 indices, women outperformed men, and higher education led to higher scores. Memory performance in normal aging did not correlate with instrumental activities of daily living. Low, but significant, correlations were seen with other tests of cognitive performance (divergent validity). Appendices are available that provide normed percentile estimates of individual czP(r)VLT-12 performance stratified by age, education, and gender. In accordance with previous studies, these results demonstrate the usefulness of czP(r)VLT-12 in assessing declarative memory in older adults.

  12. Visuospatial working memory for locations, colours, and binding in typically developing children and in children with dyslexia and non-verbal learning disability.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Mammarella, Irene C; Tripodi, Doriana; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-03-01

    This study examined forward and backward recall of locations and colours and the binding of locations and colours, comparing typically developing children - aged between 8 and 10 years - with two different groups of children of the same age with learning disabilities (dyslexia in one group, non-verbal learning disability [NLD] in the other). Results showed that groups with learning disabilities had different visuospatial working memory problems and that children with NLD had particular difficulties in the backward recall of locations. The differences between the groups disappeared, however, when locations and colours were bound together. It was concluded that specific processes may be involved in children in the binding and backward recall of different types of information, as they are not simply the resultant of combining the single processes needed to recall single features.

  13. Long-Term Effects of Physical Exercise on Verbal Learning and Memory in Middle-Aged Adults: Results of a One-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hötting, Kirsten; Schauenburg, Gesche; Röder, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    A few months of physical exercise have been shown to increase cognition and to modulate brain functions in previously sedentary, mainly older adults. However, whether the preservation of newly gained cognitive capacities requires an active maintenance of the achieved fitness level during the intervention is not yet known. The aim of the present study was to test whether cardiovascular fitness one year after an exercise intervention was linked to cognitive variables. Twenty-five healthy participants (42-57 years of age) took part in a follow-up assessment one year after the end of a supervised exercise intervention. Measurements included a cardiovascular fitness test, psychometric tests of verbal learning and memory and selective attention as well as questionnaires assessing physical activity and self-efficacy beliefs. Recognition scores of participants with higher cardiovascular fitness at follow-up did not change significantly during the follow-up period; however, the scores of participants with lower cardiovascular fitness decreased. One year after the end of the physical training intervention, previously sedentary participants spent more hours exercising than prior to the intervention. The time participants spent exercising correlated with their self-efficacy beliefs. These results demonstrate a direct link between verbal learning and cardiovascular fitness and show that positive effects of physical interventions on learning and memory do need an active maintenance of cardiovascular fitness. PMID:24961197

  14. Feedback valence affects auditory perceptual learning independently of feedback probability.

    PubMed

    Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they were doing equally well, while 10% positive or 90% negative feedback informed them they were doing equally badly. In all conditions the feedback was random in relation to the listeners' responses (because the task was to discriminate three identical tones), yet both the valence (negative vs. positive) and the probability of feedback (10% vs. 90%) affected learning. Feedback that informed listeners they were doing badly resulted in better post-training performance than feedback that informed them they were doing well, independent of valence. In addition, positive feedback during training resulted in better post-training performance than negative feedback, but only positive feedback indicating listeners were doing badly on the task resulted in learning. As we have previously speculated, feedback that better reflected the difficulty of the task was more effective in driving learning than feedback that suggested performance was better than it should have been given perceived task difficulty. But contrary to expectations, positive feedback was more effective than negative feedback in driving learning. Feedback thus had two separable effects on learning: feedback valence affected motivation on a subjectively difficult task, and learning occurred only when feedback probability reflected the subjective difficulty. To optimize learning, training programs need to take into consideration both feedback valence and probability.

  15. Age- and gender-adjusted normative data for the German version of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test from healthy subjects aged between 50 and 70 years.

    PubMed

    Speer, Paula; Wersching, Heike; Bruchmann, Sabine; Bracht, Dorothea; Stehling, Christoph; Thielsch, Meinald; Knecht, Stefan; Lohmann, Hubertus

    2014-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is widely used to evaluate dysfunctional episodic memory. The current study aimed to provide extended age- and gender-specific norms for the German AVLT for individuals older than 50 years. In 690 subjects, a comprehensive medical examination including a structural 3.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan was administered, as well as extensive neuropsychological tests. After controlling for exclusion criteria, 407 subjects were included in the analysis. AVLT performance decreased with age, and women outperformed men. We present age- and gender-specific normative data for the German AVLT from subjects aged between 50 and 70 years.

  16. CONTROLLING STUDENT RESPONSES DURING VISUAL PRESENTATIONS--STUDIES IN TELEVISED INSTRUCTION, THE ROLE OF VISUALS IN VERBAL LEARNING, REPORT 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROPPER, GEORGE L.

    THIS IS A REPORT OF TWO STUDIES IN WHICH PRINCIPLES OF PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION WERE ADAPTED FOR VISUAL PRESENTATIONS. SCIENTIFIC DEMONSTRATIONS WERE PREPARED WITH A VISUAL PROGRAM AND A VERBAL PROGRAM ON--(1) ARCHIMEDES' LAW AND (2) FORCE AND PRESSURE. RESULTS SUGGESTED THAT RESPONSES ARE MORE READILY BROUGHT UNDER THE CONTROL OF VISUAL PRESENTATION…

  17. Contributions of Learning through Analogies to the Construction of Secondary Education Pupils' Verbal Discourse about Chemical Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragón, María del Mar; Oliva, José M.; Navarrete, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between pupils' level of understanding of the analogies proposed in class while working with a model of chemical change and their competence at constructing a coherent verbal discourse of that model in both its macroscopic and submicroscopic representations. The study participants were 35 pupils in their 3rd…

  18. Effectiveness of Game and Poem Enhanced Instructional Strategies and Verbal Ability on Students' Interest in Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick-Jonah, Toinpere Mercy; Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of game and poem-enhanced instructional strategies on students' interest in mathematics. The moderating effects of verbal ability were also examined on the dependent variable. A quasi-experimental design was adopted. Three hundred and forty four students in the sixth year of their primary education (primary 6…

  19. The Effect on Learning of Post Instructional Verbal Responses to Questions of Different Degrees of Complexity. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Michael, Jr.

    Reported is a study of the effect of having seventh grade science students make overt verbal responses in written form to questions of varying degrees of complexity following sequential segments of programed instruction on Newtonian mechanics. It was hypothesized that students responding to more complex questions would have significantly higher…

  20. Getting the Message: Intuition and Reflexivity in Professional Interpretations of Non-Verbal Behaviours in People with Profound Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelvin, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the current challenges facing nurses and other professionals who care for people with profound and multiple intellectual disabilities. This particularly vulnerable group of service users often rely on a repertoire of non-verbal behaviours to communicate their needs and wishes. These challenges include the requirements of…

  1. Discontinuous Categories Affect Information-Integration but not Rule-Based Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, W. Todd; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Lauritzen, J. Scott; Connally, Emily; Hejl, Kelli D.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted that provide a direct examination of within-category discontinuity manipulations on the implicit, procedural-based learning and the explicit, hypothesis-testing systems proposed in F. G. Ashby, L. A. Alfonso-Reese, A. U. Turken, and E. M. Waldron's (1998) competition between verbal and implicit systems model.…

  2. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…

  3. Designing for Automatic Affect Inference in Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afzal, Shazia; Robinson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Emotions play a significant role in healthy cognitive functioning; they impact memory, attention, decision-making and attitude; and are therefore influential in learning and achievement. Consequently, affective diagnoses constitute an important aspect of human teacher-learner interactions motivating efforts to incorporate skills of affect…

  4. Noise as It Affects the Learning Disabled Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devens, John S.

    Audiological assessments were performed on 20 learning disabled students (6-16 years old). Results of Speech Reception Threshold testing and Discrimination Testing indicated that Ss generally scored lower on discrimination tasks, were more affected by the introduction of noise, and showed a greater variability in discrimination performance than 10…

  5. The Synergistic Effect of Affective Factors on Student Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brady Michael; Lin, Huann-shyang; Yore, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how affective and self-related factors impact participation in science learning and environmental awareness and responsibility. Using PISA 2006 datasets from Taiwan and Canada having similar level of science competency, the model for this study verifies and expands an earlier model by examining the relationships among…

  6. GOAL: Guidance Opportunities for Affective Learning (K-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine Unified School District, CA.

    This document contains two curriculum guides, the first dealing with accountability skills and the second with social skills. The guides are products of project GOAL (Guidance Opportunities for Affective Learning), a program intended to meet the social/emotional needs of handicapped mainstreamed students in grades K-6 by improving classroom…

  7. Respecting and Supporting Students' Affective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Too often educators pay too little attention to the psychological and emotional impact subject matter has on students. Teaching effectiveness would be greatly enhanced if educators would consider students' affective reactions to material delivered in courses, workshops, and other collegiate learning experiences.

  8. Affective Learning in Higher Education: A Regional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Nina; Ziaian, Tahereh; Sawyer, Janet; Gillham, David

    2013-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted in a regional university setting to promote awareness of the value of affective teaching and learning amongst staff and students. Academic staff and students from diverse disciplines at University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE) were recruited to the study. The research investigated…

  9. High Fidelity Images--How They Affect Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwinn, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the use of graphics in instruction and concludes that cosmetic and motivational graphics can be more realistic and detailed for affective goals, while schematic graphics may be best for the more cognitive functions of focusing attention and presenting actual content. Domains of learning, mental models, and visualization are examined.…

  10. Pleasurable music affects reinforcement learning according to the listener

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Benjamin P.; Frank, Michael J.; Bogert, Brigitte; Brattico, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through its ability to facilitate reinforcement learning via non-pharmacological dopamine elicitation. Subjects from a wide variety of musical backgrounds chose a pleasurable and a neutral piece of music from an experimenter-compiled database, and then listened to one or both of these pieces (according to pseudo-random group assignment) as they performed a reinforcement learning task dependent on dopamine transmission. We assessed musical backgrounds as well as typical listening patterns with the new Helsinki Inventory of Music and Affective Behaviors (HIMAB), and separately investigated behavior for the training and test phases of the learning task. Subjects with more musical experience trained better with neutral music and tested better with pleasurable music, while those with less musical experience exhibited the opposite effect. HIMAB results regarding listening behaviors and subjective music ratings indicate that these effects arose from different listening styles: namely, more affective listening in non-musicians and more analytical listening in musicians. In conclusion, musical pleasure was able to influence task performance, and the shape of this effect depended on group and individual factors. These findings have implications in affective neuroscience, neuroaesthetics, learning, and music therapy. PMID:23970875

  11. Pleasurable music affects reinforcement learning according to the listener.

    PubMed

    Gold, Benjamin P; Frank, Michael J; Bogert, Brigitte; Brattico, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through its ability to facilitate reinforcement learning via non-pharmacological dopamine elicitation. Subjects from a wide variety of musical backgrounds chose a pleasurable and a neutral piece of music from an experimenter-compiled database, and then listened to one or both of these pieces (according to pseudo-random group assignment) as they performed a reinforcement learning task dependent on dopamine transmission. We assessed musical backgrounds as well as typical listening patterns with the new Helsinki Inventory of Music and Affective Behaviors (HIMAB), and separately investigated behavior for the training and test phases of the learning task. Subjects with more musical experience trained better with neutral music and tested better with pleasurable music, while those with less musical experience exhibited the opposite effect. HIMAB results regarding listening behaviors and subjective music ratings indicate that these effects arose from different listening styles: namely, more affective listening in non-musicians and more analytical listening in musicians. In conclusion, musical pleasure was able to influence task performance, and the shape of this effect depended on group and individual factors. These findings have implications in affective neuroscience, neuroaesthetics, learning, and music therapy.

  12. Group affective learning in training for psychotherapy and psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Scharff, Jill Savege; Scharff, David E

    2017-03-04

    This paper describes The Group Affective Model, a method for teaching psychoanalytic concepts and their clinical application, using multi-channel teaching, process and review in group settings, and learning from experience in an open systems learning community for psychoanalysts and psychotherapists. This innovation arose in response to criticism of existing methods in psychoanalytic education that have subordinated the primary educational task to that of the training analysis. Noticing this split between education and training analysis, between cognition and affect, and between concepts of individual and group unconscious processes, we developed the Group Affective Model for teaching and learning psychoanalysis and psychotherapy in an open psychological space in which students and faculty experience individual and group processes of digestion, assimilation, and review, which demonstrate the concepts in action and make them available for internalization selectively. We discuss our philosophy and our educational stance. We describe our institution and our participants. We give examples of teaching situations that we have studied to provide some insight about assimilation and internalization of the concepts and clinical approaches being taught. We discuss the transferability of the Group Affective Model to other teaching settings and psychoanalytic training institutions and propose it as the fourth pillar of psychoanalytic training, next to analytic treatment, clinical supervision, and didactic seminars.

  13. Social-comparative feedback affects motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Wulf, Gabriele

    2010-04-01

    This study examined motivational effects of feedback on motor learning. Specifically, we investigated the influence of social-comparative feedback on the learning of a balance task (stabilometer). In addition to veridical feedback (error scores reflecting deviation from the target horizontal platform position) about their own performance after each trial, two groups received false normative information about the "average" score of others on that trial. Average performance scores indicated that the participant's performance was either above (better group) or below (worse group) the average, respectively. A control group received veridical feedback about trial performance without normative feedback. Learning as a function of social-comparative feedback was determined in a retention test without feedback, performed on a third day following two days of practice. Normative feedback affected the learning of the balance task: The better group demonstrated more effective balance performance than both the worse and control groups on the retention test. Furthermore, high-frequency/low-amplitude balance adjustments, indicative of more automatic control of movement, were greater in the better than in the worse group. The control group exhibited more limited learning and less automaticity than both the better and the worse groups. The findings indicate that positive normative feedback had a facilitatory effect on motor learning.

  14. The Bay Area Verbal Learning Test (BAVLT): Normative Data and the Effects of Repeated Testing, Simulated Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2017-01-01

    Verbal learning tests (VLTs) are widely used to evaluate memory deficits in neuropsychiatric and developmental disorders. However, their validity has been called into question by studies showing significant differences in VLT scores obtained by different examiners. Here we describe the computerized Bay Area Verbal Learning Test (BAVLT), which minimizes inter-examiner differences by incorporating digital list presentation and automated scoring. In the 10-min BAVLT, a 12-word list is presented on three acquisition trials, followed by a distractor list, immediate recall of the first list, and, after a 30-min delay, delayed recall and recognition. In Experiment 1, we analyzed the performance of 195 participants ranging in age from 18 to 82 years. Acquisition trials showed strong primacy and recency effects, with scores improving over repetitions, particularly for mid-list words. Inter-word intervals (IWIs) increased with successive words recalled. Omnibus scores (summed over all trials except recognition) were influenced by age, education, and sex (women outperformed men). In Experiment 2, we examined BAVLT test-retest reliability in 29 participants tested with different word lists at weekly intervals. High intraclass correlation coefficients were seen for omnibus and acquisition scores, IWIs, and a categorization index reflecting semantic reorganization. Experiment 3 examined the performance of Experiment 2 participants when feigning symptoms of traumatic brain injury. Although 37% of simulated malingerers showed abnormal (p < 0.05) omnibus z-scores, z-score cutoffs were ineffective in discriminating abnormal malingerers from control participants with abnormal scores. In contrast, four malingering indices (recognition scores, primacy/recency effects, learning rate across acquisition trials, and IWIs) discriminated the two groups with 80% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Experiment 4 examined the performance of a small group of patients with mild or severe TBI. Overall

  15. Association between Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease, APOE Genotypes and Auditory Verbal Learning Task in Subjective Cognitive Decline, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Mandecka, Monika; Budziszewska, Magdalena; Barczak, Anna; Pepłońska, Beata; Chodakowska-Żebrowska, Małgorzata; Filipek-Gliszczyńska, Anna; Nesteruk, Marta; Styczyńska, Maria; Barcikowska, Maria; Gabryelewicz, Tomasz

    2016-07-29

    In the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), early pathological changes in the brain start decades before any clinical manifestation. The concentration levels of AD cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, such as amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42), total tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated tau (P-tau), may reflect a cerebral pathology facilitating an early diagnosis of the disease and predicting a cognitive deterioration. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of AD CSF biomarkers in those individuals with a subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's dementia (AD-D), together with the relationships between the biomarkers, an APOE ɛ4 presence, and a verbal episodic memory performance. We included 252 patients from the memory clinic with a diagnosis of SCD (n = 85), MCI (n = 87), and AD-D (n = 80). A verbal episodic memory performance level was assessed and was based on a delayed recall trial from the 10-word list of an auditory verbal learning task (AVLT). We found that the patients with more severe cognitive impairments had significantly lower levels of Aβ1-42 and higher levels of T-tau and P-tau. This pattern was also typical for the APOE ɛ4 carriers, who had lower levels of Aβ1-42 than the noncarriers in the AD-D and MCI groups. The levels of T-tau and P-tau were significantly higher in the APOE ɛ4 carriers than in the noncarriers, but only in the MCI patients. The AVLT performance in the whole study samples was predicted by age, Aβ1-42, and the T-tau CSF biomarkers, but not by the APOE genotyping.

  16. Attenuation of ketamine-induced impairment in verbal learning and memory in healthy volunteers by the AMPA receptor potentiator PF-04958242.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, M; DeMartinis, N; Huguenel, B; Gaudreault, F; Bednar, M M; Shaffer, C L; Gupta, S; Cahill, J; Sherif, M A; Mancuso, J; Zumpano, L; D'Souza, D C

    2017-02-28

    There is a need to develop treatments for cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS). The significant role played by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in both the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and in neuronal plasticity suggests that facilitation of NMDAR function might ameliorate CIAS. One strategy to correct NMDAR hypofunction is to stimulate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) as AMPAR and NMDAR functioning are coupled and interdependent. In rats and nonhuman primates (NHP), AMPAR potentiators reduce spatial working memory deficits caused by the nonselective NMDAR antagonist ketamine. The current study assessed whether the AMPAR potentiator PF-04958242 would attenuate ketamine-induced deficits in verbal learning and memory in humans. Healthy male subjects (n=29) participated in two randomized treatment periods of daily placebo or PF-04958242 for 5 days separated by a washout period. On day 5 of each treatment period, subjects underwent a ketamine infusion for 75 min during which the effects of PF-04958242/placebo were assessed on ketamine-induced: (1) impairments in verbal learning and recall measured by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test; (2) impairments in working memory on a CogState battery; and (3) psychotomimetic effects measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Clinician-Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale. PF-04958242 significantly reduced ketamine-induced impairments in immediate recall and the 2-Back and spatial working memory tasks (CogState Battery), without significantly attenuating ketamine-induced psychotomimetic effects. There were no pharmacokinetic interactions between PF-04958242 and ketamine. Furthermore, PF-04958242 was well tolerated. 'High-impact' AMPAR potentiators like PF-04958242 may have a role in the treatment of the cognitive symptoms, but not the positive or negative symptoms, associated with schizophrenia. The excellent concordance between the

  17. Performances on Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Rey Complex Figure Test in a healthy, elderly Danish sample--reference data and validity issues.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Jørgensen, Kasper

    2012-02-01

    This study presents Danish data for Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) from 100 subjects aged 60-87 years. Education and estimated verbal intelligence (DART score) had a significant impact on the RAVLT trial 1-5 score but not on other RAVLT measures. The RCFT copy score was significantly related to age and the DART score. On RCFT recall a highly significant difference was found between persons who could make a faultless copy and persons with incomplete copy performance. Thus, this study presents separate data for RCFT recall scores according to the subjects' copying performance (in separate tables for age and education groups). For all measures on both RAVLT and RCFT wide distributions of scores were found and the impact of this broad score range on the tests' discriminative validity is discussed. RAVLT performances for elderly were similar to previous published meta-norms, but the included sample of elderly Danes performed better on RCFT (copy and recall) than elderly from the United States.

  18. Listening Is Behaving Verbally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    2008-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, "Verbal Behavior" was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as "behavior reinforced through the…

  19. Explicit Grammar Instruction and the Acquisition of Second Language Verbal Morphology: A Framework for Generalized Learning in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugher, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation outlines a framework for understanding variation in ultimate attainment and syntactic structure in second language acquisition by positing a distinction between competence-based and generalized learning processes. Within this framework, competence-based learning is theorized to employ inductive learning processes to acquire a…

  20. The non-credible score of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: is it better at predicting non-credible neuropsychological test performance than the RAVLT recognition score?

    PubMed

    Whitney, Kriscinda A; Davis, Jeremy J

    2015-03-01

    The ability of both the non-credible score of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT NC) and the recognition score of the RAVLT (RAVLT Recog) to predict credible versus non-credible neuropsychological test performance was examined. Credible versus non-credible group membership was determined according to diagnostic criteria with consideration of performance on two stand-alone performance validity tests. Findings from this retrospective data analysis of outpatients seen for neuropsychological testing within a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (N = 175) showed that RAVLT Recog demonstrated better classification accuracy than RAVLT NC in predicting credible versus non-credible neuropsychological test performance. Specifically, an RAVLT Recog cutoff of ≤9 resulted in reasonable sensitivity (48%) and acceptable specificity (91%) in predicting non-credible neuropsychological test performance. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. Note: The views contained here within are those of the authors and not representative of the institutions with which they are associated.

  1. Novice motor performance: better not to verbalize.

    PubMed

    Chauvel, Guillaume; Maquestiaux, François; Ruthruff, Eric; Didierjean, André; Hartley, Alan A

    2013-02-01

    Offline verbalization about a new motor experience is often assumed to positively influence subsequent performance. Here, we evaluated this presumed positive influence and whether it originates from declarative or from procedural knowledge using the explicit/implicit motor-learning paradigm. To this end, 80 nongolfers learned to perform a golf-putting task with high error rates (i.e., explicit motor learning), and thus relied on declarative knowledge, or low error rates (i.e., implicit motor learning), and thus relied on procedural knowledge. Afterward, they either put their memories of the previous motor experience into words or completed an irrelevant verbal task. Finally, they performed the putting task again. Verbalization did not improve novice motor performance: Putting was impaired, overall, and especially so for high-error learners. We conclude that declarative knowledge is altered by verbalization, whereas procedural knowledge is not.

  2. Similar verbal memory impairments in schizophrenia and healthy aging. Implications for understanding of neural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2015-03-30

    Memory is impaired in schizophrenia patients but it is not clear whether this is specific to the illness and whether different types of memory (verbal and nonverbal) or memories in different cognitive domains (executive, object recognition) are similarly affected. To study relationships between memory impairments and schizophrenia we compared memory functions in 77 schizophrenia patients, 58 elderly healthy individuals and 41 young healthy individuals. Tests included verbal associative and logical memory and memory in executive and object recognition domains. We compared relationships of memory functions to each other and to other cognitive functions including psychomotor speed and verbal and spatial working memory. Compared to the young healthy group, schizophrenia patients and elderly healthy individuals showed similar severe impairment in logical memory and in the ability to learn new associations (NAL), and similar but less severe impairment in spatial working memory and executive and object memory. Verbal working memory was significantly more impaired in schizophrenia patients than in the healthy elderly. Verbal episodic memory impairment in schizophrenia may share common mechanisms with similar impairment in healthy aging. Impairment in verbal working memory in contrast may reflect mechanisms specific to schizophrenia. Study of verbal explicit memory impairment tapped by the NAL index may advance understanding of abnormal hippocampus dependent mechanisms common to schizophrenia and aging.

  3. Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Salzinger, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis. PMID:22478393

  4. Reciprocal Peer Learning with Task Cards: Analysis of Behaviour and Verbal Interactions in Structured and Unstructured Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iserbyt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study is a part of a larger research project where the effect of instructional guidance in terms of role definition and role switching was investigated on students' learning of Basic Life Support (BLS) during a 20-minute reciprocal learning episode with task cards. BLS is a lifesaving skill consisting of nine sub skills to be…

  5. Integrating Learning Styles and Personality Traits into an Affective Model to Support Learner's Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leontidis, Makis; Halatsis, Constantin

    The aim of this paper is to present a model in order to integrate the learning style and the personality traits of a learner into an enhanced Affective Style which is stored in the learner’s model. This model which can deal with the cognitive abilities as well as the affective preferences of the learner is called Learner Affective Model (LAM). The LAM is used to retain learner’s knowledge and activities during his interaction with a Web-based learning environment and also to provide him with the appropriate pedagogical guidance. The proposed model makes use of an ontological approach in combination with the Bayesian Network model and contributes to the efficient management of the LAM in an Affective Module.

  6. Review of Affective Computing in Education/Learning: Trends and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chih-Hung; Huang, Yueh-Min; Hwang, Jan-Pan

    2016-01-01

    Affect can significantly influence education/learning. Thus, understanding a learner's affect throughout the learning process is crucial for understanding motivation. In conventional education/learning research, learner motivation can be known through postevent self-reported questionnaires. With the advance of affective computing technology,…

  7. The Use and Frequency of Verbal and Non-Verbal Praise in Nurture Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bani, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Nurture groups are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. The study examines the interactions between children and staff--in particular, the frequency and effects of verbal and non-verbal praise--and discusses how this contributes to its effectiveness as a positive intervention instrument…

  8. So We Think You Can Learn: How Student Perceptions Affect Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Susan; Torres, Talani

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiences in rehearsals have led us to question how student dancers perceive the culture of rehearsal. We are interested in how the influence of shows like "So You Think You Can Dance" affects student expectations. How do students from competitive dance studio backgrounds approach learning in a rehearsal setting? Are there…

  9. Structuring Collaboration in Mixed-Ability Groups to Promote Verbal Interaction, Learning, and Motivation of Average-Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Mohammad; Lazonder, Ard W.; Jong, Ton de

    2007-01-01

    Average-ability students often do not take full advantage of learning in mixed-ability groups because they hardly engage in the group interaction. This study examined whether structuring collaboration by group roles and ground rules for helping behavior might help overcome this participatory inequality. In a plant biology course, heterogeneously…

  10. Text Messaging for Out-of-Class Communication: Impact on Affective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Paul; Weibelzahl, Stephan; Hall, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Learning in the affective domain includes the manner by which people deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations and attitudes. While out-of-class communication between instructors and students can impact all types of student learning it has its greatest impact on student affective learning. One…

  11. Investigating Learner Affective Performance in Web-Based Learning by Using Entrepreneurship as a Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ming-Chou; Chi, Ming-Hsiao

    2012-01-01

    In the era of the Internet, factors which influence effective learning in a Web-based learning environment are well worth exploring. In addition to knowledge acquisition and skills training, affect is also an important factor, since successful learning requires excellent affective performance. Thus this study focuses on learners' affective…

  12. The Impact of Personality Traits on the Affective Category of English Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims at discovering the impact of personality traits in the prediction use of the Affective English Language Learning Strategies (AELLSs) for learners of English as a foreign language. Four instruments were used, which were Adapted Inventory for Affective English Language Learning Strategies based on Affective category of…

  13. Incorporating Meaningful Gamification in a Blended Learning Research Methods Class: Examining Student Learning, Engagement, and Affective Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Meng; Hew, Khe Foon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how the use of meaningful gamification affects student learning, engagement, and affective outcomes in a short, 3-day blended learning research methods class using a combination of experimental and qualitative research methods. Twenty-two postgraduates were randomly split into two groups taught by the same…

  14. Innovations Affecting Us: Technology to Learn Anytime Anywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Norman

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of laptop computers in higher education, including students' increased motivation, performance, cooperative learning and critical thinking. Describes a Microsoft/Toshiba pilot laptop learning program, technology implementation models for schools, changes in teaching and learning, and teacher training. (AEF)

  15. Research on Affect and Mathematics Learning in the JRME: 1970 to Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Douglas B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses research on affective issues as it has developed over the life of the "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education," (JRME), including student beliefs and mathematics learning, emotional responses to mathematics, and new approaches to affective issues. (43 references) (MKR)

  16. Verbal Working Memory and Language Production: Common Approaches to the Serial Ordering of Verbal Information

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2010-01-01

    Verbal working memory (WM) tasks typically involve the language production architecture for recall; however, language production processes have had a minimal role in theorizing about WM. A framework for understanding verbal WM results is presented here. In this framework, domain-specific mechanisms for serial ordering in verbal WM are provided by the language production architecture, in which positional, lexical, and phonological similarity constraints are highly similar to those identified in the WM literature. These behavioral similarities are paralleled in computational modeling of serial ordering in both fields. The role of long-term learning in serial ordering performance is emphasized, in contrast to some models of verbal WM. Classic WM findings are discussed in terms of the language production architecture. The integration of principles from both fields illuminates the maintenance and ordering mechanisms for verbal information. PMID:19210053

  17. FORUM: Affective Learning. Affective Learning: Evolving from Values and Planned Behaviors to Internalization and Pervasive Behavioral Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thweatt, Katherine S.; Wrench, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  18. Preverbal and verbal counting and computation.

    PubMed

    Gallistel, C R; Gelman, R

    1992-08-01

    We describe the preverbal system of counting and arithmetic reasoning revealed by experiments on numerical representations in animals. In this system, numerosities are represented by magnitudes, which are rapidly but inaccurately generated by the Meck and Church (1983) preverbal counting mechanism. We suggest the following. (1) The preverbal counting mechanism is the source of the implicit principles that guide the acquisition of verbal counting. (2) The preverbal system of arithmetic computation provides the framework for the assimilation of the verbal system. (3) Learning to count involves, in part, learning a mapping from the preverbal numerical magnitudes to the verbal and written number symbols and the inverse mappings from these symbols to the preverbal magnitudes. (4) Subitizing is the use of the preverbal counting process and the mapping from the resulting magnitudes to number words in order to generate rapidly the number words for small numerosities. (5) The retrieval of the number facts, which plays a central role in verbal computation, is mediated via the inverse mappings from verbal and written numbers to the preverbal magnitudes and the use of these magnitudes to find the appropriate cells in tabular arrangements of the answers. (6) This model of the fact retrieval process accounts for the salient features of the reaction time differences and error patterns revealed by experiments on mental arithmetic. (7) The application of verbal and written computational algorithms goes on in parallel with, and is to some extent guided by, preverbal computations, both in the child and in the adult.

  19. Video-Based Affect Detection in Noninteractive Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yuxuan; Bosch, Nigel; D'Mello, Sidney

    2015-01-01

    The current paper explores possible solutions to the problem of detecting affective states from facial expressions during text/diagram comprehension, a context devoid of interactive events that can be used to infer affect. These data present an interesting challenge for face-based affect detection because likely locations of affective facial…

  20. Challenges Affecting Adoption of E-Learning in Public Universities in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutisya, Dorothy N.; Makokha, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Public universities in Kenya are, today, turning to the use of e-learning in an attempt to cope with the rapidly increasing demand for university education. This research was conducted between February 2012 and February 2014 to determine the challenges affecting the adoption of e-learning in these institutions of higher learning. Data were…

  1. Psychometric Characteristics of the EEAA (Scale of Affective Strategies in the Learning Process)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villardón-Gallego, Lourdes; Yániz, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Affective strategies for coping with affective states linked to the learning process may be oriented toward controlling emotions or toward controlling motivation. Both types affect performance, directly and indirectly. The objective of this research was to design an instrument for measuring the affective strategies used by university…

  2. Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Students' Learning with Erroneous Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopp, Eric; Stark, Robin; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of diagnostic competence is seen as a major goal during the course of study in medicine. One innovative method to foster this goal is problem-based learning with erroneous worked examples provided in a computer learning environment. The present study explores the relationship of attitudinal, emotional and cognitive factors for…

  3. Learning New Words Affects Nonword Pronunciation in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Maya M.; Cortese, Michael J.; Birchwood, Katharine S.

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments we examined how children's nonword pronunciations are influenced by learning words. In Experiment 1, children pronounced nonwords before and after learning words sharing orthographic rimes with the nonwords. These rimes varied in spelling-to-sound consistency and regularity. Children's nonword pronunciations were more sensitive…

  4. Affective Influences on English Language Learning Among Indian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoon, Annabelle R.

    Motivation has been called the most important variable in foreign language learning. Of the possible motivators, that of desire for integration with the culture of speakers of the language correlates most highly with learning success. American Indian students are faced with the need to integrate to a certain extent with speakers of English. Their…

  5. Learning by Web Design: How it Affects Graduate Student Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Byung-Ro; Plucker, Jonathan A.; Bichelmeyer, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Can use of technology make a difference in student learning? Although a considerable literature describes its advantages in conceptual terms, research documenting its effective use in this context is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a graduate-level Web design activity on student attitudes toward learning. Students…

  6. Affective Learning in Online Multimedia and Lecture Versions of an Introductory Computing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moneta, Giovanni B.; Kekkonen-Moneta, Synnove S.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated students' affective learning in an introductory computing course that was taught in Hong Kong once in a lecture format and twice in a rich interactive multimedia online format to 414 college students in all. A simplified experience sampling method was used to assess affective learning at the midterm and end of each course in…

  7. Interactions of Metacognition with Motivation and Affect in Self-Regulated Learning: The MASRL Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efklides, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Metacognition, motivation, and affect are components of self-regulated learning (SRL) that interact. The "metacognitive and affective model of self-regulated learning" (the MASRL model) distinguishes two levels of functioning in SRL, namely, the Person level and the Task x Person level. At the Person level interactions between trait-like…

  8. Outward Bound and Confluent Education: A Demonstration Project Accentuating Affective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Reldan S.

    In 1976 a demonstration project at the Connecticut Wilderness School integrated a Confluent Education curriculum in Outward Bound type courses, to facilitate affective learning for a more meaningful and relevant experience. A review of Outward Bound literature identified the need for affective learning as a significant program constituent. Five…

  9. Looking under the Bonnet: Factors Affecting Student Adoption of E-Learning Systems in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbad, Muneer Mahmood; Morris, David; de Nahlik, Carmel

    2009-01-01

    The primary questions addressed in this paper are the following: what are the factors that affect students' adoption of an e-learning system and what are the relationships among these factors? This paper investigates and identifies some of the major factors affecting students' adoption of an e-learning system in a university in Jordan. E-learning…

  10. Linguistic analysis of verbal and non-verbal communication in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison; Butt, David; Ellis-Clarke, Jodie; Cartmill, John

    2010-12-01

    Surgery can be a triumph of co-operation, the procedure evolving as a result of joint action between multiple participants. The communication that mediates the joint action of surgery is conveyed by verbal but particularly by non-verbal signals. Competing priorities superimposed by surgical learning must also be negotiated within this context and this paper draws on techniques of systemic functional linguistics to observe and analyse the flow of information during such a phase of surgery.

  11. Agent-Based Collaborative Affective e-Learning Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neji, Mahmoud; Ben Ammar, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Based on facial expression (FE), this paper explores the possible use of the affective communication in virtual environments (VEs). The attention of affective communication is examined and some research ideas for developing affective communication in virtual environments are proposed. We place an emphasis on communication between virtual entities,…

  12. Locus of Learning and Affective Strategy Use: Two Factors Affecting Success in Self-Instructed Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bown, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    As distance learning and other nontraditional methods of language learning become more popular, it is important to understand the factors that influence learners' ability to succeed in such environments. This paper reports on two factors that have a significant impact on the student experience in a self-instructed language program: locus of…

  13. Phenotypic transformation affects associative learning in the desert locust.

    PubMed

    Simões, Patrício M V; Niven, Jeremy E; Ott, Swidbert R

    2013-12-02

    In desert locusts, increased population densities drive phenotypic transformation from the solitarious to the gregarious phase within a generation [1-4]. Here we show that when presented with odor-food associations, the two extreme phases differ in aversive but not appetitive associative learning, with solitarious locusts showing a conditioned aversion more quickly than gregarious locusts. The acquisition of new learned aversions was blocked entirely in acutely crowded solitarious (transiens) locusts, whereas appetitive learning and prior learned associations were unaffected. These differences in aversive learning support phase-specific feeding strategies. Associative training with hyoscyamine, a plant alkaloid found in the locusts' habitat [5, 6], elicits a phase-dependent odor preference: solitarious locusts avoid an odor associated with hyoscyamine, whereas gregarious locusts do not. Remarkably, when solitarious locusts are crowded and then reconditioned with the odor-hyoscyamine pairing as transiens, the specific blockade of aversive acquisition enables them to override their prior aversive memory with an appetitive one. Under fierce food competition, as occurs during crowding in the field, this provides a neuroecological mechanism enabling locusts to reassign an appetitive value to an odor that they learned previously to avoid.

  14. Phenotypic Transformation Affects Associative Learning in the Desert Locust

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Patrício M.V.; Niven, Jeremy E.; Ott, Swidbert R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary In desert locusts, increased population densities drive phenotypic transformation from the solitarious to the gregarious phase within a generation [1–4]. Here we show that when presented with odor-food associations, the two extreme phases differ in aversive but not appetitive associative learning, with solitarious locusts showing a conditioned aversion more quickly than gregarious locusts. The acquisition of new learned aversions was blocked entirely in acutely crowded solitarious (transiens) locusts, whereas appetitive learning and prior learned associations were unaffected. These differences in aversive learning support phase-specific feeding strategies. Associative training with hyoscyamine, a plant alkaloid found in the locusts’ habitat [5, 6], elicits a phase-dependent odor preference: solitarious locusts avoid an odor associated with hyoscyamine, whereas gregarious locusts do not. Remarkably, when solitarious locusts are crowded and then reconditioned with the odor-hyoscyamine pairing as transiens, the specific blockade of aversive acquisition enables them to override their prior aversive memory with an appetitive one. Under fierce food competition, as occurs during crowding in the field, this provides a neuroecological mechanism enabling locusts to reassign an appetitive value to an odor that they learned previously to avoid. PMID:24268415

  15. Anomia-Pathological Verbal Dominance. Agnosic Behavior in Anomia: A Case of Pathological Verbal Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlannan, Frances, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Summarized are three articles concerned with research on neurological aspects of learning disabilities entitled "Anomia-A Case of Pathological Verbal Dominance;""Brain--Right Hemisphere--Man's So Called 'Minor Hemisphere;""Neurology-A Special Neurological Examination of Children with Learning Disabilities". (DB)

  16. Listening Is Behaving Verbally

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Henry D

    2008-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior, it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, Verbal Behavior was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as “behavior reinforced through the mediation of other persons” (1957, p. 2) focused on the behavior of the listener. But because many of the behaviors of the listener are fundamentally no different than other discriminated operants, they may not appropriately be termed listening. Even Skinner noted that the behavior of the listener often goes beyond simply mediating consequences for the speaker's behavior, implying that the listener engages in a repertoire of behaviors that is itself verbal. In the present article I suggest that listening involves subvocal verbal behavior. I then describe some of the forms and functions of the listener's verbal behavior (including echoic and intraverbal behavior) and conclude that there may be no functional distinction between speaking and listening. PMID:22478508

  17. Learning What Matters: Exploring the Factors Affecting Learning Transfers in Child Welfare Competencies and Career Interest in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Aries Meng-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of the factors impacting MSW students' interests and motivation to learn child welfare competencies, and how they affect learning transfer of the subject is important for the development of a knowledgeable, competent, and committed workforce that serves children and families in the United States. Practitioners need to attain…

  18. Gadgets: Some Non-Verbal Tools for Teaching Pronunciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Judy B.

    Recent findings from the fields of brain research and speech perception suggest that non-verbal approaches may be helpful in pronunciation learning. The left side of the brain uses sequential information, such as verbal descriptions. The right side works in a more simultaneous manner, specializing in spatial relations and pitch perception, among…

  19. Seeing Cells: Teaching the Visual/Verbal Rhetoric of Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinolfo, John; Heifferon, Barbara; Temesvari, Lesly A.

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study obtained baseline information on verbal and visual rhetorics to teach microscopy techniques to college biology majors. We presented cell images to students in cell biology and biology writing classes and then asked them to identify textual, verbal, and visual cues that support microscopy learning. Survey responses suggest that…

  20. Drama and the Representation of Affect--Structures of Feeling and Signs of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Anton

    2014-01-01

    The way in which school students represent affective aspects of human relationships in drama and what this reveals about learning in drama is the focus of this paper. Such an enquiry traverses the borders between affect, intellect, and physicality. Affect and its representation in drama have been themes in the history of drama and theatre and is a…

  1. The Sensory Modality Used for Learning Affects Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Beatriz U.

    2011-01-01

    Second-year undergraduate students from 2008, 2009, and 2010 cohorts were asked to respond a questionnaire to determine their learning style preferences, the VARK questionnaire (where V is visual, A is aural, R is reading-writing, and K is kinesthetic), which was translated into Spanish by the author. The translated questionnaire was tested for…

  2. Factors That Affect Learning among Minority Youth: A Partial Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, James A.

    Intended to assist interested persons to identify research on minority youth in various areas believed to shape the manner in which these students learn, this bibliography cites approximately 1,273 materials, published primarily between 1950 and 1979, basically dealing with Black, Hispanic (especially Mexican American), and Native American youth,…

  3. Ask the Cognitive Scientist: Why Does Family Wealth Affect Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    Disadvantaged children face a host of challenges to academic success. These challenges fall into two broad categories. First, as one might expect, wealthier parents have the resources to provide more and better learning opportunities for their children. Second, children from poorer homes are subject to chronic stress, which research from the last…

  4. Affect and Digital Learning at the University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Yaacov J.; Yablon, Yaacov B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to examine the efficiency of SMS based cell-phone vocabulary learning as compared to email vocabulary delivery and snail mail vocabulary delivery at the university level. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 241 first year university students studied English vocabulary in their mandatory English foundation…

  5. Synthesising Affect and Cognition in Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetriou, Helen; Wilson, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    Teachers often approach teaching with an energy and enthusiasm to inspire their students with their skills and knowledge. However, when faced with students who are not fully engaged in their learning, teachers sometimes find it difficult and frustrating to communicate the subject knowledge. This paper looks at the importance of teachers reflecting…

  6. Investigating Factors Affecting Group Processes in Virtual Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Sunil; Thompson, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread popularity of distance learning, there is a need to investigate elements of online courses that continue to pose significant challenges for educators. One of the challenges relates to creating and managing group projects. This study investigated business students' perceptions of group work in online classes. The constructs of…

  7. Aging Affects Motor Learning but Not Savings at Transfer of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidler, Rachael D.

    2007-01-01

    Two important components of skill learning are the learning process itself (motor acquisition) and the ability to transfer what has been learned to new task variants (motor transfer). Many studies have documented age-related declines in the ability to learn new manual motor skills. In this study, I tested whether the degree of savings at transfer…

  8. Learning Styles of Law Enforcement Officers: Does Police Work Affect How Officers Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study utilized the VARK learning style preference assessment instrument to examine how full-time sworn law enforcement officers learn and attempted to identify a predominant learning style preference among the participants. The primary question was: Which is the dominant learning style preference of full-time sworn law…

  9. Integrative Processing of Verbal and Graphical Information during Re-Reading Predicts Learning from Illustrated Text: An Eye-Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Tornatora, Maria Caterina; Pluchino, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Printed or digital textbooks contain texts accompanied by various kinds of visualisation. Successful comprehension of these materials requires integrating verbal and graphical information. This study investigates the time course of processing an illustrated text through eye-tracking methodology in the school context. The aims were to identify…

  10. Construction of Multi-Mode Affective Learning System: Taking Affective Design as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Su, Sheng-Hsiung; Chao, Ching-Ju; Hsieh, Cheng-Yen; Tsai, Shang-Chin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to design a non-simultaneous distance instruction system with affective computing, which integrates interactive agent technology with the curricular instruction of affective design. The research subjects were 78 students, and prototype assessment and final assessment were adopted to assess the interface and usability of the system.…

  11. Quantified trends in the history of verbal behavior research.

    PubMed

    Eshleman, J W

    1991-01-01

    The history of scientific research about verbal behavior research, especially that based on Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957), can be assessed on the basis of a frequency and celeration analysis of the published and presented literature. In order to discover these quantified trends, a comprehensive bibliographical database was developed. Based on several literature searches, the bibliographic database included papers pertaining to verbal behavior that were published in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behaviorism, The Behavior Analyst, and The Analysis of Verbal Behavior. A nonbehavioral journal, the Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior was assessed as a nonexample comparison. The bibliographic database also included a listing of verbal behavior papers presented at the meetings of the Association for Behavior Analysis. Papers were added to the database if they (a) were about verbal behavior, (b) referenced B.F. Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior, or (c) did both. Because the references indicated the year of publication or presentation, a count per year of them was measured. These yearly frequencies were plotted on Standard Celeration Charts. Once plotted, various celeration trends in the literature became visible, not the least of which was the greater quantity of verbal behavior research than is generally acknowledged. The data clearly show an acceleration of research across the past decade. The data also question the notion that a "paucity" of research based on Verbal Behavior currently exists. Explanations of the acceleration of verbal behavior research are suggested, and plausible reasons are offered as to why a relative lack of verbal behavior research extended through the mid 1960s to the latter 1970s.

  12. Quantified trends in the history of verbal behavior research

    PubMed Central

    Eshleman, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The history of scientific research about verbal behavior research, especially that based on Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957), can be assessed on the basis of a frequency and celeration analysis of the published and presented literature. In order to discover these quantified trends, a comprehensive bibliographical database was developed. Based on several literature searches, the bibliographic database included papers pertaining to verbal behavior that were published in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behaviorism, The Behavior Analyst, and The Analysis of Verbal Behavior. A nonbehavioral journal, the Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior was assessed as a nonexample comparison. The bibliographic database also included a listing of verbal behavior papers presented at the meetings of the Association for Behavior Analysis. Papers were added to the database if they (a) were about verbal behavior, (b) referenced B.F. Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior, or (c) did both. Because the references indicated the year of publication or presentation, a count per year of them was measured. These yearly frequencies were plotted on Standard Celeration Charts. Once plotted, various celeration trends in the literature became visible, not the least of which was the greater quantity of verbal behavior research than is generally acknowledged. The data clearly show an acceleration of research across the past decade. The data also question the notion that a “paucity” of research based on Verbal Behavior currently exists. Explanations of the acceleration of verbal behavior research are suggested, and plausible reasons are offered as to why a relative lack of verbal behavior research extended through the mid 1960s to the latter 1970s. PMID:22477630

  13. How Category Learning Affects Object Representations: Not All Morphspaces Stretch Alike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folstein, Jonathan R.; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    How does learning to categorize objects affect how people visually perceive them? Behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies have tested the degree to which category learning influences object representations, with conflicting results. Some studies have found that objects become more visually discriminable along dimensions relevant…

  14. Negotiating Critical Geographies through a "Feel-Trip": Experiential, Affective and Critical Learning in Engaged Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubchikov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes the notion of a "critical feel-trip" as a pedagogical narrative to entertain the relationships of experiential, affective and critical learning in field-based studies. It is argued that explicit mobilization of the triadic relations of these three modes of learning is a powerful way to strengthen students' appreciation…

  15. The Fear Factor: How It Affects Students Learning to Program in a Tertiary Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogerson, Christine; Scott, Elsje

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how students' experiences of learning to program are affected by feelings of fear, using a phenomenological approach to elicit rich descriptions of personal experiences from the narratives of final year undergraduate students. In the course of reviewing current work concerning learning or teaching programming, certain focal…

  16. Towards Real-Time Speech Emotion Recognition for Affective E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahreini, Kiavash; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the voice emotion recognition part of the FILTWAM framework for real-time emotion recognition in affective e-learning settings. FILTWAM (Framework for Improving Learning Through Webcams And Microphones) intends to offer timely and appropriate online feedback based upon learner's vocal intonations and facial expressions in order…

  17. Does Technology Acceptance Affect E-Learning in a Non-Technology-Intensive Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buche, Mari W.; Davis, Larry R.; Vician, Chelley

    2012-01-01

    Prior research suggests that individuals' technology acceptance levels may affect their work and learning performance outcomes when activities are conducted through information technology usage. Most previous research investigating the relationship between individual attitudes towards technology and learning has been conducted in…

  18. Transactional Distance among Open University Students: How Does it Affect the Learning Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassandrinou, Amanda; Angelaki, Christina; Mavroidis, Ilias

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the presence of transactional distance among students, the factors affecting it, as well as the way it influences the learning process of students in a blended distance learning setting in Greece. The present study involved 12 postgraduate students of the Hellenic Open University (HOU). A qualitative research was conducted,…

  19. Factors Affecting the Motivation of Turkish Primary Students for Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavas, Pinar

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Turkish primary students' (sixth to eighth grade) motivation toward science learning was investigated and factors affecting this determined. The sample for the study consisted of 376 students from 5 different primary schools in Izmir. The data were collected through a Students' Motivation toward Science Learning (SMTSL)…

  20. Affect and Willingness to Communicate in Digital Game-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinders, Hayo; Wattana, Sorada

    2015-01-01

    The possible benefits of digital games for language learning and teaching have received increasing interest in recent years. Games are said, amongst others, to be motivating, to lower affective barriers in learning, and to encourage foreign or second language (L2) interaction. But how do learners actually experience the use of games? What impact…

  1. A Selective Meta-Analysis on the Relative Incidence of Discrete Affective States during Learning with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mello, Sidney

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed considerable interest in the investigation of the affective dimensions of learning and in the development of advanced learning technologies that automatically detect and respond to student affect. Identifying the affective states that students experience in technology-enhanced learning contexts is a fundamental…

  2. Considering the Role of Affect in Learning: Monitoring Students' Self-Efficacy, Sense of Belonging, and Science Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Gloriana; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2014-01-01

    Conceptual learning is a uniquely human behavior that engages all aspects of individuals: cognitive, metacognitive, and affective. The affective domain is key in learning. In this paper, that authors have explored three affective constructs that may be important for understanding biology student learning: self-efficacy--the set of beliefs that one…

  3. Learning with Computers in Small Groups: Cognitive and Affective Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mevarech, Zemira R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines the effects of cooperative and individualistic computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs on cognitive and affective variables in Israeli grade six mathematics classes. Analyses of the data indicate that students who used CAI for drill and practice in pairs performed better than students who used the same program individually. (30…

  4. Do Learning Approaches of Medical Students Affect Their Satisfaction with Problem-Based Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurpinar, Erol; Kulac, Esin; Tetik, Cihat; Akdogan, Ilgaz; Mamakli, Sumer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the satisfaction of medical students with problem-based learning (PBL) and their approaches to learning to investigate the effect of learning approaches on their levels of satisfaction. The study group was composed of medical students from three different universities, which apply PBL at different levels…

  5. How Teaching Science Using Project-Based Learning Strategies Affects the Classroom Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugerat, Muhamad

    2016-01-01

    This study involved 458 ninth-grade students from two different Arab middle schools in Israel. Half of the students learned science using project-based learning strategies and the other half learned using traditional methods (non-project-based). The classes were heterogeneous regarding their achievements in the sciences. The adapted questionnaire…

  6. How Factors of Personal Attitudes and Learning Environments Affect Gender Difference toward Mobile Distance Learning Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Me

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technology for learning empowers the shift from traditionally pure instructor-centered classroom teaching to fully learner-centered educational settings. Although mobile learning (m-learning) accessing Internet resources anytime and anywhere and it may cause gender difference toward it; thus the issue of the relationship between gender…

  7. Early prediction of student goals and affect in narrative-centered learning environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunyoung

    Recent years have seen a growing recognition of the role of goal and affect recognition in intelligent tutoring systems. Goal recognition is the task of inferring users' goals from a sequence of observations of their actions. Because of the uncertainty inherent in every facet of human computer interaction, goal recognition is challenging, particularly in contexts in which users can perform many actions in any order, as is the case with intelligent tutoring systems. Affect recognition is the task of identifying the emotional state of a user from a variety of physical cues, which are produced in response to affective changes in the individual. Accurately recognizing student goals and affect states could contribute to more effective and motivating interactions in intelligent tutoring systems. By exploiting knowledge of student goals and affect states, intelligent tutoring systems can dynamically modify their behavior to better support individual students. To create effective interactions in intelligent tutoring systems, goal and affect recognition models should satisfy two key requirements. First, because incorrectly predicted goals and affect states could significantly diminish the effectiveness of interactive systems, goal and affect recognition models should provide accurate predictions of user goals and affect states. When observations of users' activities become available, recognizers should make accurate early" predictions. Second, goal and affect recognition models should be highly efficient so they can operate in real time. To address key issues, we present an inductive approach to recognizing student goals and affect states in intelligent tutoring systems by learning goals and affect recognition models. Our work focuses on goal and affect recognition in an important new class of intelligent tutoring systems, narrative-centered learning environments. We report the results of empirical studies of induced recognition models from observations of students

  8. Neonatal handling affects learning, reversal learning and antioxidant enzymes activities in a sex-specific manner in rats.

    PubMed

    Noschang, Cristie; Krolow, Rachel; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Huffell, Ana Paula; Dalmaz, Carla

    2012-06-01

    Early life experiences have profound influences on behavior and neurochemical parameters in adult life. The aim of this study is to verify neonatal handling-induced sex specific differences on learning and reversal learning as well as oxidative stress parameters in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of adult rats. Litters of rats were non-handled or handled (10 min/day, days 1-10 after birth). In adulthood, learning and reversal learning were evaluated using a Y maze associated with palatable food in male and female rats. Morris water maze reversal learning was verified in males. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in both genders. Male neonatal handled animals had a worse performance in the Y maze reversal learning compared to non-handled ones and no difference was observed in the water maze reversal learning task. Regarding females, neonatal handled rats had a better performance during the Y maze learning phase compared to non-handled ones. In addition, neonatal handled female animals showed a decreased SOD/CAT ratio in the PFC compared to non-handled females. We conclude that neonatal handling effects on learning and memory in adult rats are sex and task specific. The sex specific differences are also observed in the evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activities with neonatal handling affecting only females.

  9. Reading Aloud and Solving Simple Arithmetic Calculation Intervention (Learning Therapy) Improves Inhibition, Verbal Episodic Memory, Focus Attention and Processing Speed in Healthy Elderly People: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Nozawa, Takayuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous reports have described that simple cognitive training using reading aloud and solving simple arithmetic calculations, so-called “learning therapy”, can improve executive functions and processing speed in the older adults. Nevertheless, it is not well-known whether learning therapy improve a wide range of cognitive functions or not. We investigated the beneficial effects of learning therapy on various cognitive functions in healthy older adults. Methods: We used a single-blinded intervention with two groups (learning therapy group: LT and waiting list control group: WL). Sixty-four elderly were randomly assigned to LT or WL. In LT, participants performed reading Japanese aloud and solving simple calculations training tasks for 6 months. WL did not participate in the intervention. We measured several cognitive functions before and after 6 months intervention periods. Results: Compared to WL, results revealed that LT improved inhibition performance in executive functions (Stroop: LT (Mean = 3.88) vs. WL (Mean = 1.22), adjusted p = 0.013 and reverse Stroop LT (Mean = 3.22) vs. WL (Mean = 1.59), adjusted p = 0.015), verbal episodic memory (Logical Memory (LM): LT (Mean = 4.59) vs. WL (Mean = 2.47), adjusted p = 0.015), focus attention (D-CAT: LT (Mean = 2.09) vs. WL (Mean = −0.59), adjusted p = 0.010) and processing speed compared to the WL control group (digit symbol coding: LT (Mean = 5.00) vs. WL (Mean = 1.13), adjusted p = 0.015 and Symbol Search (SS): LT (Mean = 3.47) vs. WL (Mean = 1.81), adjusted p = 0.014). Discussion: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) can be showed the benefit of LT on inhibition of executive functions, verbal episodic memory, focus attention and processing speed in healthy elderly people. Our results were discussed under overlapping hypothesis. PMID:27242481

  10. Does Inquiry Based Learning Affect Students' Beliefs and Attitudes towards Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Darren

    2014-01-01

    Ill-structured tasks presented in an inquiry learning environment have the potential to affect students' beliefs and attitudes towards mathematics. This empirical research followed a Design Experiment approach to explore how aspects of using ill-structured tasks may have affected students' beliefs and attitudes. Results showed this task type and…

  11. From a Perspective on Foreign Language Learning Anxiety to Develop an Affective Tutoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Chao, Ching-Ju; Huang, Tsu-Ching

    2015-01-01

    According to Krashen's affective filter hypothesis, students who are highly motivated have their self-consciousness. When they enter a learning context with a low level of anxiety, they are much more likely to become successful language acquirers than those who do not. Affective factors such as motivation, attitude, and anxiety, have a direct…

  12. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  13. Affections in Learning Situations: A Study of an Entrepreneurship Skills Development Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gondim, Sonia Maria Guedes; Mutti, Clara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the results of a study whose general objective is to characterize the affective states experienced in response to different teaching activities used in a workshop for developing entrepreneurial skills. It seeks to answer the following question: how affections and experiential learning strategies interrelate in…

  14. Affective Dimensions of Participatory Design Research in Informal Learning Environments: Placemaking, Belonging, and Correspondence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehret, Christian; Hollett, Ty

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that current approaches to participatory design research (PDR) risk eliding the affective life of making educational change by locating change in cultural mediation alone. Locating change only in mediation subordinates affect, potentially overlooking lived dimensions of learning and being essential to lasting, transformative…

  15. Following the affect: learning to observe emotional regulation.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Kathleen R

    2006-11-01

    On inpatient psychiatric units, staff deal with children and adolescents whose affect escalates quickly and intensely. These same children experience strong emotions that they can neither understand nor explain. To intervene effectively, inpatient staff must understand the regulation issues underneath the escalated behaviors. Emotion Regulation theory and the developmental line of emotional understanding are useful concepts in assessing and intervening with these children and adolescents. Presented here are criteria to guide inpatient staff's assessment of children and adolescents with emotion regulation difficulties. The assessment cues are based in concepts of Emotion Regulation and emotional understanding and are accompanied by suggested intervention strategies.

  16. The Effects of Verbal and Material Rewards and Punishers on the Performance of Impulsive and Reflective Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Philip; Douglas, Virginia I.

    1977-01-01

    Impulsive and reflective children performed in a discrimination learning task which included four reinforcement conditions: verbal-reward, verbal-punishment, material-reward, and material-punishment. (SB)

  17. A Non-Verbal Analogue to the Verbal Transformation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Norman J.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of non-speech auditory stimuli in eliciting transformations analogous to those reported for speech stimuli to determine if a non-verbal analogue to the verbal transformation effect exists. (DD)

  18. Individual Differences in Learning the Affective Value of Others Under Minimal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Wright, Christopher I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides the first demonstration that people can learn about the positive and negative value of other people (e.g., neutral faces) under minimal learning conditions, with stable individual differences in this learning. In four studies, participants viewed neutral faces paired with sentences describing positive, negative or neutral behaviors on either two (Study 1) or four (Studies 2, 3, and 4) occasions. Participants were later asked to judge the valence of the faces alone. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that learning does occur under minimal conditions. Study 3 and 4 further demonstrated that the degree of learning was moderated by Extraversion. Finally, Study 4 demonstrated that initial learning persisted over a period of 2 days. Implications for affective processing and person perception are discussed. PMID:18729580

  19. Verbal and non-verbal intelligence changes in the teenage brain.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Sue; Richardson, Fiona M; Josse, Goulven; Thomas, Michael S C; Ellis, Caroline; Shakeshaft, Clare; Seghier, Mohamed L; Price, Cathy J

    2011-10-19

    Intelligence quotient (IQ) is a standardized measure of human intellectual capacity that takes into account a wide range of cognitive skills. IQ is generally considered to be stable across the lifespan, with scores at one time point used to predict educational achievement and employment prospects in later years. Neuroimaging allows us to test whether unexpected longitudinal fluctuations in measured IQ are related to brain development. Here we show that verbal and non-verbal IQ can rise or fall in the teenage years, with these changes in performance validated by their close correlation with changes in local brain structure. A combination of structural and functional imaging showed that verbal IQ changed with grey matter in a region that was activated by speech, whereas non-verbal IQ changed with grey matter in a region that was activated by finger movements. By using longitudinal assessments of the same individuals, we obviated the many sources of variation in brain structure that confound cross-sectional studies. This allowed us to dissociate neural markers for the two types of IQ and to show that general verbal and non-verbal abilities are closely linked to the sensorimotor skills involved in learning. More generally, our results emphasize the possibility that an individual's intellectual capacity relative to their peers can decrease or increase in the teenage years. This would be encouraging to those whose intellectual potential may improve, and would be a warning that early achievers may not maintain their potential.

  20. Non-Verbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, R. A., Ed.

    This inter-disciplinary approach to the subject of non-verbal communication includes essays by linguists, zoologists, psychologists, anthropologists and a drama critic. It begins with a theoretical analysis of communicative processes written from the perspective of a communications engineer, compares vocal communication in animals and man, and…

  1. Improving Teachers' Verbal Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Suggests strategies center directors can use to improve teachers' verbal interactions with children. Directors can help teachers (1) understand child growth and development; (2) understand that what they say matters; (3) hear themselves talking to children; and (4) develop their observation skills. Directors can also share good models with…

  2. Using a Verbal Analysis of Lady Gaga's "Applause" as a Classroom Exercise for Teaching Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witts, Benjamin N.; Arief, Icha; Hutter, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Learning Skinner's (1957) verbal behavior taxonomy requires extensive study and practice. Thus, novel classroom exercises might serve this goal. The present manuscript describes a classroom exercise in which two students analyzed Lady Gaga's song "Applause" in terms of its metaphorical arrangements. Through the exercise, students…

  3. Want More? Learn Less: Motivation Affects Adolescents Learning from Negative Feedback.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yun; Feng, Wenfeng; Liao, Yu

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to investigate how positive and negative feedback may differently facilitate learning throughout development. In addition, the role of motivation as a modulating factor was examined. Participants (children, adolescents, and adults) completed two forms of the guess and application task (GAT). Feedback from the Cool-GAT task has low motivational salience because there are no consequences, while feedback from the Hot-GAT task has high motivational salience as it pertains to receiving a reward. The results indicated that negative feedback leads to a reduction in learning compared to positive feedback. The effect of negative feedback was greater in adolescent participants compared to children and adults in the Hot-GAT task, suggesting an interaction between age and motivation level on learning. Further analysis indicated that greater risk was associated with a greater reduction in learning from negative feedback and again, the reduction was greatest in adolescents. In summary, the current study supports the idea that learning from positive feedback and negative feedback differs throughout development. In a rule-based learning task, when associative learning is primarily in practice, participants learned less from negative feedback. This reduction is amplified during adolescence when task-elicited motivation is high.

  4. Want More? Learn Less: Motivation Affects Adolescents Learning from Negative Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yun; Feng, Wenfeng; Liao, Yu

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to investigate how positive and negative feedback may differently facilitate learning throughout development. In addition, the role of motivation as a modulating factor was examined. Participants (children, adolescents, and adults) completed two forms of the guess and application task (GAT). Feedback from the Cool-GAT task has low motivational salience because there are no consequences, while feedback from the Hot-GAT task has high motivational salience as it pertains to receiving a reward. The results indicated that negative feedback leads to a reduction in learning compared to positive feedback. The effect of negative feedback was greater in adolescent participants compared to children and adults in the Hot-GAT task, suggesting an interaction between age and motivation level on learning. Further analysis indicated that greater risk was associated with a greater reduction in learning from negative feedback and again, the reduction was greatest in adolescents. In summary, the current study supports the idea that learning from positive feedback and negative feedback differs throughout development. In a rule-based learning task, when associative learning is primarily in practice, participants learned less from negative feedback. This reduction is amplified during adolescence when task-elicited motivation is high. PMID:28191003

  5. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning of Engineering Students in Problem Based Learning Supported by Business Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaparro-Pelaez, Julian; Iglesias-Pradas, Santiago; Pascual-Miguel, Felix J.; Hernandez-Garcia, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Although literature about problem based learning (PBL) is not scarce, there is little research on experiences about learning methodologies that combine PBL and the use of simulation tools. This lack of studies is even more notable in the case of engineering courses. The motivation for this study is to show how such a combination of PBL and…

  6. Incidental sequence learning in a motion coherence discrimination task: How response learning affects perception.

    PubMed

    Laubrock, Jochen; Kinder, Annette

    2014-10-01

    The serial reaction time task (SRTT) is a standard task used to investigate incidental sequence learning. Whereas incidental learning of motor sequences is well-established, few and disputed results support learning of perceptual sequences. Here we adapt a motion coherence discrimination task (Newsome & Paré, 1988) to the sequence learning paradigm. The new task has 2 advantages: (a) the stimulus is presented at fixation, thereby obviating overt eye movements, and (b) by varying coherence a perceptual threshold measure is available in addition to the performance measure of RT. Results from 3 experiments show that action relevance of the sequence is necessary for sequence learning to occur, that the amount of sequence knowledge varies with the ease of encoding the motor sequence, and that sequence knowledge, once acquired, has the ability to modify perceptual thresholds.

  7. [A comparison of the performances between healthy older adults and persons with Alzheimer's disease on the Rey auditory verbal learning test and the Test de rappel libre/rappel indicé 16 items].

    PubMed

    Drolet, Valérie; Vallet, Guillaume T; Imbeault, Hélène; Lecomte, Sarah; Limoges, Frédérique; Joubert, Sven; Rouleau, Isabelle

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the performances of healthy elderly (n=40) and individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=40) on the RL/RI 16, a French adaptation of the Free and cued selective reminding test (FCSRT) and on the Rey auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT). These two verbal episodic memory tests are frequently used in clinical practice in French-speaking populations. Results showed that the RAVLT demonstrated a slightly better sensitivity and sensibility than the RL/RI 16. The RAVLT allowed to classify participants of the two groups without any overlap. Moreover, no floor effect was observed in the RAVLT in AD and ceiling effects were less pronounced in normal controls that in the RL/RI 16. Results observed in the RL/RI 16 showed important ceiling effects and a decline in performance on free recall throughout trials in AD patients. Nonetheless, the latter tool was less sensitive to recency effects than the RAVLT and may thus provide a more realistic view of the long-term memory performance of these patients. The semantic cues provided in the RL/RI 16 appeared to increase intrusions in AD whereas the interference list in the RAVLT was the first source of false recognitions in both healthy elderly and AD. In conclusion, this paper demonstrates both the advantages and disadvantages of these two tools in the evaluation of episodic memory in elderly with and without cognitive deficits.

  8. Toward a Theory and Practice for Whole-Person Learning: Reconceptualizing Experience and the Role of Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorks, Lyle; Kasl, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    A pragmatic perspective favors reflective discourse over affect. Heron's theory of personhood takes a phenomenological approach to affective learning. Strategies from this approach can be applied to the phenomenon of learning-within-relationship, in which individuals engage their own whole-person learning and that of others. (Contains 36…

  9. Trait anxiety and post-learning stress do not affect perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Aberg, Kristoffer C; Clarke, Aaron M; Sandi, Carmen; Herzog, Michael H

    2012-10-01

    While it is well established that stress can modulate declarative learning, very few studies have investigated the influence of stress on non-declarative learning. Here, we studied the influence of post-learning stress, which effectively modulates declarative learning, on perceptual learning of a visual texture discrimination task (TDT). On day one, participants trained for one session with TDT and were instructed that they, at any time, could be exposed to either a high stressor (ice-water; Cold Pressor Test; CPT) or a low stressor (warm water). Participants did not know when or which stressor they would be exposed to. To determine the impact of the stressor on TDT learning, all participants returned the following day to perform another TDT session. Only participants exposed to the high stressor had significantly elevated cortisol levels. However, there was no difference in TDT improvements from day one to day two between the groups. Recent studies suggested that trait anxiety modulates visual perception under anticipation of stressful events. Here, trait anxiety did neither modulate performance nor influence responsiveness to stress. These results do not support a modulatory role for stress on non-declarative perceptual learning.

  10. Age affects chunk-based, but not rule-based learning in artificial grammar acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kürten, Julia; De Vries, Meinou H; Kowal, Kristina; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Flöel, Agnes

    2012-07-01

    Explicit learning is well known to decline with age, but divergent results have been reported for implicit learning. Here, we assessed the effect of aging on implicit vs. explicit learning within the same task. Fifty-five young (mean 32 years) and 55 elderly (mean 64 years) individuals were exposed to letter strings generated by an artificial grammar. Subsequently, participants classified novel strings as grammatical or nongrammatical. Acquisition of superficial ("chunk-based") and structural ("rule-based") features of the grammar were analyzed separately. We found that overall classification accuracy was diminished in the elderly, driven by decreased performance on items that required chunk-based knowledge. Performance on items requiring rule-based knowledge was comparable between groups. Results indicate that rule-based and chunk-based learning are differentially affected by age: while rule-based learning, reflecting implicit learning, is preserved, chunk-based learning, which contains at least some explicit learning aspects, declines with age. Our findings may explain divergent results on implicit learning tasks in previous studies on aging. They may also help to better understand compensatory mechanisms during the aging process.

  11. Incubation under climate warming affects learning ability and survival in hatchling lizards.

    PubMed

    Dayananda, Buddhi; Webb, Jonathan K

    2017-03-01

    Despite compelling evidence for substantial individual differences in cognitive performance, it is unclear whether cognitive ability influences fitness of wild animals. In many animals, environmental stressors experienced in utero can produce substantial variation in the cognitive abilities of offspring. In reptiles, incubation temperatures experienced by embryos can influence hatchling brain function and learning ability. Under climate warming, the eggs of some lizard species may experience higher temperatures, which could affect the cognitive abilities of hatchlings. Whether such changes in cognitive abilities influence the survival of hatchlings is unknown. To determine whether incubation-induced changes in spatial learning ability affect hatchling survival, we incubated velvet gecko, Amalosia lesueurii, eggs using two fluctuating temperature regimes to mimic current (cold) versus future (hot) nest temperatures. We measured the spatial learning ability of hatchlings from each treatment, and released individually marked animals at two field sites in southeastern Australia. Hatchlings from hot-incubated eggs were slower learners than hatchlings from cold-incubated eggs. Survival analyses revealed that hatchlings with higher learning scores had higher survival than hatchlings with poor learning scores. Our results show that incubation temperature affects spatial learning ability in hatchling lizards, and that such changes can influence the survival of hatchlings in the wild.

  12. How explicit and implicit test instructions in an implicit learning task affect performance.

    PubMed

    Witt, Arnaud; Puspitawati, Ira; Vinter, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Typically developing children aged 5 to 8 years were exposed to artificial grammar learning. Following an implicit exposure phase, half of the participants received neutral instructions at test while the other half received instructions making a direct, explicit reference to the training phase. We first aimed to assess whether implicit learning operated in the two test conditions. We then evaluated the differential impact of age on learning performances as a function of test instructions. The results showed that performance did not vary as a function of age in the implicit instructions condition, while age effects emerged when explicit instructions were employed at test. However, performance was affected differently by age and the instructions given at test, depending on whether the implicit learning of short or long units was assessed. These results suggest that the claim that the implicit learning process is independent of age needs to be revised.

  13. Relations between verbal and nonverbal memory performance: evidence of confounding effects particularly in patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Helmstaedter, C; Pohl, C; Elger, C E

    1995-06-01

    Confounding left hemisphere verbalization strategies can be suggested as being a major problem in the evaluation of the assumed involvement of right temporo-limbic structures in "nonverbal" visual/figural memory processing. We addressed this issue by evaluating the easily-verbalized Benton-visual-retention-test in 60 patients with either left (LTLE) or right temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE) and 30 healthy controls. We formally estimated the informational (verbal) content of each item which hypothetically would be needed to solely retain the item from verbal memory. The results indicated confounding of verbal learning and figural memory only in the presence of right temporal lobe dysfunctions. Selective visual/figural learning deficits in RTLE patients became obvious when the verbal load of the figural material exceeded their verbal learning capacity. Instead of excluding verbalization by the use of abstract figural items, its inclusion provides a possibility to control compensatory strategies which overshadow the presence of visual/figural memory deficits.

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Deficits in Children with Learning Difficulties: Is There a Difference between Verbal Domain and Numerical Domain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Peng; Fuchs, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Children with learning difficulties suffer from working memory (WM) deficits. Yet the specificity of deficits associated with different types of learning difficulties remains unclear. Further research can contribute to our understanding of the nature of WM and the relationship between it and learning difficulties. The current meta-analysis…

  15. Verbal reinforcement combinations in schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Martin, R B; Moltmann, M L

    1978-10-01

    Investigated the effects of verbal reinforcement paradigms on hospitalized schizophrenics and staff. Positive reinforcement that involved good was found to be relatively ineffective for all groups; furthermore, associating good with the termination of a white noise did not increase its effectiveness for schizophrenics. Verbal punishment was more effective than verbal positive reinforcement for staff, but for schizophrenics only when explicit problem-solving instructions were given. The results suggest that the reduction of deficit is not more likely via verbal punishment; if anything, deficit is increased because of increased staff performance under verbal punishment.

  16. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 neurodegeneration differentially affects error-based and strategic-based visuomotor learning.

    PubMed

    Vaca-Palomares, Israel; Díaz, Rosalinda; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Medrano-Montero, Jacqeline; Vázquez-Mojena, Yaimé; Velázquez-Pérez, Luis; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2013-12-01

    There are different types of visuomotor learning. Among the most studied is motor error-based learning where the sign and magnitude of the error are used to update motor commands. However, there are other instances where individuals show visuomotor learning even if the sign or magnitude of the error is precluded. Studies with patients suggest that the former learning is impaired after cerebellar lesions, while basal ganglia lesions disrupt the latter. Nevertheless, the cerebellar role is not restricted only to error-based learning, but it also contributes to several cognitive processes. Therefore, here, we tested if cerebellar ataxia patients are affected in two tasks, one that depends on error-based learning and the other that prevents the use of error-based learning. Our results showed that cerebellar patients have deficits in both visuomotor tasks; however, while error-based learning tasks deficits correlated with the motor impairments, the motor error-dependent task did not correlate with any motor measure.

  17. Understanding Instructor Nonverbal Immediacy, Verbal Immediacy, and Student Motivation at a Small Liberal Arts University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlich, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Instructor communication behaviors and student motivation to learn relationships were studied at a small liberal arts university. Specifically, relationships between instructor nonverbal immediacy, verbal immediacy behaviors and student motivation to learn were measured. Only instructor verbal immediacy behaviors had a significant linear…

  18. How Students Learn: Information Processing, Intellectual Development and Confrontation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entwistle, Noel

    1975-01-01

    A model derived from information processing theory is described, which helps to explain the complex verbal learning of students and suggests implications for lecturing techniques. Other factors affecting learning, which are not covered by the model, are discussed in relationship to it: student's intellectual development and effects of individual…

  19. Designing verbal autopsy studies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy analyses are widely used for estimating cause-specific mortality rates (CSMR) in the vast majority of the world without high-quality medical death registration. Verbal autopsies -- survey interviews with the caretakers of imminent decedents -- stand in for medical examinations or physical autopsies, which are infeasible or culturally prohibited. Methods and Findings We introduce methods, simulations, and interpretations that can improve the design of automated, data-derived estimates of CSMRs, building on a new approach by King and Lu (2008). Our results generate advice for choosing symptom questions and sample sizes that is easier to satisfy than existing practices. For example, most prior effort has been devoted to searching for symptoms with high sensitivity and specificity, which has rarely if ever succeeded with multiple causes of death. In contrast, our approach makes this search irrelevant because it can produce unbiased estimates even with symptoms that have very low sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the new method is optimized for survey questions caretakers can easily answer rather than questions physicians would ask themselves. We also offer an automated method of weeding out biased symptom questions and advice on how to choose the number of causes of death, symptom questions to ask, and observations to collect, among others. Conclusions With the advice offered here, researchers should be able to design verbal autopsy surveys and conduct analyses with greatly reduced statistical biases and research costs. PMID:20573233

  20. Mathematics as verbal behavior.

    PubMed

    Marr, M Jackson

    2015-04-01

    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk.

  1. Why Verbalization of Non-Verbal Memory Reduces Recognition Accuracy: A Computational Approach to Verbal Overshadowing

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Aya; Ueno, Taiji; Kitagami, Shinji; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Verbal overshadowing refers to a phenomenon whereby verbalization of non-verbal stimuli (e.g., facial features) during the maintenance phase (after the target information is no longer available from the sensory inputs) impairs subsequent non-verbal recognition accuracy. Two primary mechanisms have been proposed for verbal overshadowing, namely the recoding interference hypothesis, and the transfer-inappropriate processing shift. The former assumes that verbalization renders non-verbal representations less accurate. In contrast, the latter assumes that verbalization shifts processing operations to a verbal mode and increases the chance of failing to return to non-verbal, face-specific processing operations (i.e., intact, yet inaccessible non-verbal representations). To date, certain psychological phenomena have been advocated as inconsistent with the recoding-interference hypothesis. These include a decline in non-verbal memory performance following verbalization of non-target faces, and occasional failures to detect a significant correlation between the accuracy of verbal descriptions and the non-verbal memory performance. Contrary to these arguments against the recoding interference hypothesis, however, the present computational model instantiated core processing principles of the recoding interference hypothesis to simulate face recognition, and nonetheless successfully reproduced these behavioral phenomena, as well as the standard verbal overshadowing. These results demonstrate the plausibility of the recoding interference hypothesis to account for verbal overshadowing, and suggest there is no need to implement separable mechanisms (e.g., operation-specific representations, different processing principles, etc.). In addition, detailed inspections of the internal processing of the model clarified how verbalization rendered internal representations less accurate and how such representations led to reduced recognition accuracy, thereby offering a computationally

  2. Genetic covariation between theAuthor Recognition Test and reading and verbal abilities: what can we learn from the analysis of high performance?

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicolas W; Hansell, Narelle K; Wainwright, Mark A; Shekar, Sri N; Medland, Sarah E; Bates, Timothy C; Burt, Jennifer S; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J

    2009-07-01

    The Author Recognition Test (ART) measures print exposure and is a unique predictor of phonological and orthographic processes in reading. In a sample of adolescent and young adult twins and siblings (216 MZ/430 DZ pairs, 307 singletons; aged 11-29 years) ART scores were moderately heritable (67%) and correlated with reading and verbal abilities, with genes largely accounting for the covariance. We also examine whether high (and low) (i.e. 1SD above the mean) represents a quantitative extreme of the normal distribution. Heritability for high ART was of similar magnitude to the full sample, but, a specific genetic factor, independent from both low ART performance and high reading ability, accounted for 53-58% of the variance. This suggests a distinct genetic etiology for high ART ability and we speculate that the specific genetic influence is on orthographical processing, a critical factor in developing word recognition skills.

  3. [The role in verbal communication].

    PubMed

    Panini, Roberta; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The content of the thought is expressed by words articulated correctly according to grammar and syntax. The meanings are conveyed through words but also through the way they are used, the manner of communication. The real reason of communication is the intention, the purpose, often implicit, which determines the source of a speech. It is possible to identify a direct aim (the purpose of communicating) and an indirect objective (the role intention), understood as keeping a role between the speaker and the listener. The role is also indicated by the non-verbal or paraverbal component of the message, that is the tone of voice, the emphasis and the posture of the communicator. In the multitude of possible relationship (affective, social, business, political, religious), frequently bounded together, we can recognize three categories of relations: symmetrical, reciprocal and complementary.

  4. When customers exhibit verbal aggression, employees pay cognitive costs.

    PubMed

    Rafaeli, Anat; Erez, Amir; Ravid, Shy; Derfler-Rozin, Rellie; Treister, Dorit Efrat; Scheyer, Ravit

    2012-09-01

    In 4 experimental studies, we show that customer verbal aggression impaired the cognitive performance of the targets of this aggression. In Study 1, customers' verbal aggression reduced recall of customers' requests. Study 2 extended these findings by showing that customer verbal aggression impaired recognition memory and working memory among employees of a cellular communication provider. In Study 3, the ability to take another's perspective attenuated the negative effects of customer verbal aggression on participants' cognitive performance. Study 4 linked customer verbal aggression to quality of task performance, showing a particularly negative influence of aggressive requests delivered by high-status customers. Together, these studies suggest that the effects of even minor aggression from customers can strongly affect the immediate cognitive performance of customer service employees and reduce their task performance. The implications for research on aggression and for the practice of customer service are discussed.

  5. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning, Satisfaction, and Quality in the Online MBA: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastianelli, Rose; Swift, Caroline; Tamimi, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined how six factors related to content and interaction affect students' perceptions of learning, satisfaction, and quality in online master of business administration (MBA) courses. They developed three scale items to measure each factor. Using survey data from MBA students at a private university, the authors estimated structural…

  6. Competition within Computer-Assisted Cooperative Learning Environments: Cognitive, Affective, and Social Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Fu-Yun

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effects and implications of embedding the element of competition in computer-assisted cooperative learning situations on student cognitive, affective, and social outcomes. Results of statistical analyses of Taiwanese fifth graders show that cooperation without inter-group competition engendered better attitudes and promoted more…

  7. Do Students' Approaches to Learning Affect Their Perceptions of Using Computing and Information Technology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelfs, Anne; Colbourn, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of communication and information technology (C&IT) in higher education in the United Kingdom and describes research that examined student perceptions of using C&IT for a virtual seminar series in psychology. Identified student learning approaches within the group and how it affected their adoption or rejection of the…

  8. Affective Learning and Personal Information Management: Essential Components of Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahoy, Ellysa Stern

    2013-01-01

    "Affective competence," managing the feelings and emotions that students encounter throughout the content creation/research process, is essential to academic success. Just as it is crucial for students to acquire core literacies, it is essential that they learn how to manage the anxieties and emotions that will emerge throughout all…

  9. Statistical Learning Is Not Affected by a Prior Bout of Physical Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, David J.; Arciuli, Joanne; Anderson, David I.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a prior bout of exercise on implicit cognition. Specifically, we examined whether a prior bout of moderate intensity exercise affected performance on a statistical learning task in healthy adults. A total of 42 participants were allocated to one of three conditions--a control group, a group that exercised for…

  10. Learning and Studying Strategies Used by General Chemistry Students with Different Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    Students in general chemistry were partitioned into three groups by cluster analysis of six affective characteristics (emotional satisfaction, intellectual accessibility, chemistry self-concept, math self-concept, self-efficacy, and test anxiety). The at-home study strategies for exam preparation and in-class learning strategies differed among the…

  11. An Investigation into the Factors Affecting the Use of Language Learning Strategies by Persian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimi, Mohammad; Riazi, Abdolmehdi; Saif, Shahrzad

    2008-01-01

    As part of a larger study (Rahimi, 2004), this study investigates the use of language learning strategies by post-secondary level Persian EFL learners. Particular attention is paid to the variables affecting learners' choice of strategies, and the relationship, if any, between these variables and learners' patterns of strategy use. Data were…

  12. The Role of Affective and Motivational Factors in Designing Personalized Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ChanMin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, guidelines for designing virtual change agents (VCAs) are proposed to support students' affective and motivational needs in order to promote personalized learning in online remedial mathematics courses. Automated, dynamic, and personalized support is emphasized in the guidelines through maximizing "interactions" between VCAs and…

  13. Instructional Communication Predictors of Ninth-Grade Students' Affective Learning in Math and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mottet, Timothy P.; Garza, Ruben; Beebe, Steven A.; Houser, Marian L.; Jurrells, Summer; Furler, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how students' perceptions of their teachers' instructional communication behaviors were related to their affective learning in math and science. A survey was used to collect perceptions from 497 ninth-grade students. The following conclusions were yielded from the data: (1) students' perceptions of their…

  14. Empirical Assessment of Some Learning Factors Affecting Spanish Students of Business English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.; Gomez-Martinez, Susana

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses factors affecting L2 learning, using Regression and Correlation Analysis. Some of the the results are in line with those reported in the literature: for example, the positive role of "Reading" and the negative role of "L1" transfer. Other results, however, are surprising, such as the current use of…

  15. Aging Affects Acquisition and Reversal of Reward-Based Associative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Julia A.; Bellebaum, Christian; Daum, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Reward-based associative learning is mediated by a distributed network of brain regions that are dependent on the dopaminergic system. Age-related changes in key regions of this system, the striatum and the prefrontal cortex, may adversely affect the ability to use reward information for the guidance of behavior. The present study investigated the…

  16. Dispositional Factors Affecting Motivation during Learning in Adult Basic and Secondary Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action…

  17. The Effect of Playing a Persuasive Game on Attitude and Affective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggiero, Dana

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a persuasive game may serve as a way to change attitude towards the homeless and increase affective learning, this study examined, experimentally, the effects of persuasive rhetoric and ethos in a video game designed to put the player in the shoes of an almost-homeless person for thirty days. Data were collected from 5139…

  18. Variables Affecting the Teacher Implementation of Cooperative Learning Methods in ESL and Bilingual Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Myrna D.; Tellez, Kip

    This study investigated the relationships between variables affecting the degree to which cooperative learning (CL) was implemented by English as a Second Language (ESL) and bilingual teachers. A total of 227 ESL and bilingual public school teachers (K-12) of Spanish speaking language minority students responded to a mailed survey questionnaire…

  19. The Impact of Affective and Cognitive Trust on Knowledge Sharing and Organizational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Peter E.; Hwang, Alvin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to add to the research on the role of cognitive and affective trust in promoting knowledge sharing between executives and consequently establishing an organizational learning environment. Design/methodology/approach: This paper examines the influence of one conceptualization of trust, one that has two…

  20. Environmental Factors Affecting Computer Assisted Language Learning Success: A Complex Dynamic Systems Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Michael W.; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual, interdisciplinary inquiry explores Complex Dynamic Systems as the concept relates to the internal and external environmental factors affecting computer assisted language learning (CALL). Based on the results obtained by de Rosnay ["World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution", 67(4/5), 304-315 (2011)], who observed…

  1. Elementary Students' Affective Variables in a Networked Learning Environment Supported by a Blog: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaire, Stéphane; Thériault, Pascale; Gagnon, Vincent; Lalancette, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    This study documents to what extent writing on a blog in a networked learning environment could influence the affective variables of elementary-school students' writing. The framework is grounded more specifically in theory of self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 1985), relationship to writing (Chartrand & Prince, 2009) and the transactional…

  2. Effect of Cognitive Entry Behaviors and Affective Entry Characteristics on Learning Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çaliskan, Muhittin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effect of cognitive entry behaviors and affective entry characteristics on learning level was investigated. The study was conducted on 258 first year students attending the Faculty of Education in the autumn semester of the 2011-2012 academic year. The study was conducted using the relational survey model and data was collected…

  3. Does maternal prenatal stress adversely affect the child's learning and memory at age six?

    PubMed

    Gutteling, Barbara M; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J H; Visser, Gerard H A; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2006-12-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50 boys, 62 girls, Age: M=6.7 years, SD=8.4 months), with the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL). Maternal stress levels were determined three times during pregnancy by self-report questionnaires. Furthermore, maternal saliva cortisol samples were used as a measure of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning. Results of hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that maternal life events measured during the first part of pregnancy were negatively associated with the child's attention/concentration index, while controlling for overall IQ, gender, and postnatal stress. No associations were found between prenatal maternal cortisol and the offspring's learning and memory.

  4. Mechanisms of Verbal Memory Impairment in Four Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon; Jones, Wendy; Roman, Mary J.; Wulfeck, Beverly; Delis, Dean C.; Reilly, Judy; Bellugi, Ursula

    2004-01-01

    Profiles of verbal learning and memory performance were compared for typically developing children and for four developmental disorders characterized by different patterns of language functioning: specific language impairment, early focal brain damage, Williams Syndrome, and Down Syndrome. A list-learning task was used that allowed a detailed…

  5. Aging affects motor skill learning when the task requires inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Julie; Potvin, Marie-Julie; Rouleau, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined the influence of aging on motor skill learning (MSL) tasks involving different skills and conditions. Two tasks, each including two different conditions (repeated and nonrepeated), were used: (a) the Mirror Tracing task, requiring the inhibition of an overlearned response and the learning of a new visuomotor association, and (b) the Pursuit Tracking task, mainly requiring the processing of visuospatial stimuli. We hypothesized that older participants would benefit as much as younger participants from the stimuli repetition and that they would exhibit a slower learning rate exclusively on the Mirror Tracing task. As expected, older and younger participants' MSL were not differentially affected by task conditions. They also showed a similar learning rate on the Pursuit Tracking task and a subgroup of older participants exhibited MSL difficulties on the Mirror Tracing task. Problems in the inhibitory control of competing motor memories could explain these age-related MSL difficulties.

  6. Mindfulness, Adult Learning and Therapeutic Education: Integrating the Cognitive and Affective Domains of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Although it has been given qualified approval by a number of philosophers of education, the so-called "therapeutic turn" in education has been the subject of criticism by several commentators on post-compulsory and adult learning over the last few years. A key feature of this alleged development in recent educational policy is said to be the…

  7. Three Ways That Non-associative Knowledge May Affect Associative Learning Processes

    PubMed Central

    Thorwart, Anna; Livesey, Evan J.

    2016-01-01

    Associative learning theories offer one account of the way animals and humans assess the relationship between events and adapt their behavior according to resulting expectations. They assume knowledge about event relations is represented in associative networks, which consist of mental representations of cues and outcomes and the associative links that connect them. However, in human causal and contingency learning, many researchers have found that variance in standard learning effects is controlled by “non-associative” factors that are not easily captured by associative models. This has given rise to accounts of learning based on higher-order cognitive processes, some of which reject altogether the notion that humans learn in the manner described by associative networks. Despite the renewed focus on this debate in recent years, few efforts have been made to consider how the operations of associative networks and other cognitive operations could potentially interact in the course of learning. This paper thus explores possible ways in which non-associative knowledge may affect associative learning processes: (1) via changes to stimulus representations, (2) via changes to the translation of the associative expectation into behavior (3) via a shared source of expectation of the outcome that is sensitive to both the strength of associative retrieval and evaluation from non-associative influences. PMID:28082943

  8. Student perceptions of their biology teacher's interpersonal teaching behaviors and student achievement and affective learning outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Wade Clay, Jr.

    The primary goals of this dissertation were to determine the relationships between interpersonal teaching behaviors and student achievement and affective learning outcomes. The instrument used to collect student perceptions of teacher interpersonal teaching behaviors was the Questionnaire on Teacher Interactions (QTI). The instrument used to assess student affective learning outcomes was the Biology Student Affective Instrument (BSAI). The interpersonal teaching behavior data were collected using students as the observers. 111 students in an urban influenced, rural high school answered the QTI and BSAI in September 1997 and again in April 1998. At the same time students were pre and post tested using the Biology End of Course Examination (BECE). The QTI has been used primarily in European and Oceanic areas. The instrument was also primarily used in educational stratified environment. This was the first time the BSAI was used to assess student affective learning outcomes. The BECE is a Texas normed cognitive assessment test and it is used by Texas schools districts as the end of course examination in biology. The interpersonal teaching behaviors model was tested to ascertain if predictive power in the USA and in a non-stratified educational environment. Findings indicate that the QTI is an adequate predictor of student achievement in biology. The results were not congruent with the non-USA data and results, this indicates that the QTI is a society/culturally sensitive instrument and the instrument needs to be normed to a particular society/culture before it is used to affect teachers' and students' educational environments.

  9. Just Plain Rhetoric? An Analysis of Mission Statements of Canadian Universities Identifying Their Verbal Commitments to Facilitating and Promoting Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreber, Carolin; Mhina, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, many government and policy documents have highlighted with greater urgency the need for lifelong learning. What do present mission statements of Canadian universities have to say regarding lifelong learning? In researching this question we analyzed the institutional mission statements of 58 Canadian universities to identify…

  10. Toward a common theory for learning from reward, affect, and motivation: the SIMON framework

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    While the effects of reward, affect, and motivation on learning have each developed into their own fields of research, they largely have been investigated in isolation. As all three of these constructs are highly related, and use similar experimental procedures, an important advance in research would be to consider the interplay between these constructs. Here we first define each of the three constructs, and then discuss how they may influence each other within a common framework. Finally, we delineate several sources of evidence supporting the framework. By considering the constructs of reward, affect, and motivation within a single framework, we can develop a better understanding of the processes involved in learning and how they interplay, and work toward a comprehensive theory that encompasses reward, affect, and motivation. PMID:24109436

  11. Is learning mindfulness associated with improved affect after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy?

    PubMed

    Schroevers, Maya J; Brandsma, Rob

    2010-02-01

    The increased popularity of mindfulness-based interventions and the growing body of empirical evidence confirming the positive effects of these interventions on well-being warrant more research to determine if the effects are indeed related to learning mindfulness. The present study extends previous studies, by examining whether and how changes in five core aspects of mindfulness are related to changes in the report of negative and positive affect during an 8-week course of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. The study was performed in 64 individuals from the community with mild to moderate psychological problems. Data were collected by self-report questionnaires before and directly after the training. Results showed significant decreases in negative affect and increases in positive affect. We also found significant increases in four of the five aspects of mindfulness. Importantly, changes in mindfulness were significantly associated with improved affect, with a distinct pattern found for positive and negative affect. Hereby, our findings extend previous research by showing that learning distinct aspects of mindfulness is differently related to an improved positive affect and a decreased negative affect. Future randomized controlled trials with a larger sample and longer follow-up period are needed to replicate these findings.

  12. Research Into the Role of Students’ Affective Domain While Learning Geology in Field Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins, J.

    2009-12-01

    Existing research programs in field-based geocognition include assessment of cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains. Assessment of the affective domain often involves the use of instruments and techniques uncommon to the geosciences. Research regarding the affective domain also commonly results in the collection and production of qualitative data that is difficult for geoscientists to analyze due to their lack of familiarity with these data sets. However, important information about students’ affective responses to learning in field environments can be obtained by using these methods. My research program focuses on data produced by students’ affective responses to field-based learning environments, primarily among students at the introductory level. For this research I developed a Likert-scale Novelty Space Survey, which presents student ‘novelty space’ (Orion and Hofstien, 1993) as a polygon; the larger the polygons, the more novelty students are experiencing. The axises for these polygons correspond to novelty domains involving geographic, social, cognitive, and psychological factors. In addition to the Novelty Space Survey, data which I have collected/generated includes focus group interviews on the role of recreational experiences in geology field programs. I have also collected data concerning the motivating factors that cause students to take photographs on field trips. The results of these studies give insight to the emotional responses students have to learning in the field and are important considerations for practitioners of teaching in these environments. Collaborative investigations among research programs that cross university departments and include multiple institutions is critical at this point in development of geocognition as a field due to unfamiliarity with cognitive science methodology by practitioners teaching geosciences and the dynamic nature of field work by cognitive scientists. However, combining the efforts of cognitive

  13. The Interplay of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melson, Gail F.; Hulls, M. Johanna

    This paper discusses several studies related to the interplay of verbal and nonverbal communication in young children and presents educational implications of this research. Two areas of nonverbal communication are considered: kinesics, or the use of body movements as displays of affection and emotion and as regulators of communication, and…

  14. Does Augmented Reality Affect High School Students' Learning Outcomes in Chemistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Jonathan Christopher

    Some teens may prefer using a self-directed, constructivist, and technologic approach to learning rather than traditional classroom instruction. If it can be demonstrated, educators may adjust their teaching methodology. The guiding research question for this study focused on how augmented reality affects high school students' learning outcomes in chemistry, as measured by a pretest and posttest methodology when ensuring that the individual outcomes were not the result of group collaboration. This study employed a quantitative, quasi-experimental study design that used a comparison and experimental group. Inferential statistical analysis was employed. The study was conducted at a high school in southwest Colorado. Eighty-nine respondents returned completed and signed consent forms, and 78 participants completed the study. Results demonstrated that augmented reality instruction caused posttest scores to significantly increase, as compared to pretest scores, but it was not as effective as traditional classroom instruction. Scores did improve under both types of instruction; therefore, more research is needed in this area. The present study was the first quantitative experiment controlling for individual learning to validate augmented reality using mobile handheld digital devices that affected individual students' learning outcomes without group collaboration. This topic was important to the field of education as it may help educators understand how students learn and it may also change the way students are taught.

  15. Immune challenge but not dietary restriction affects spatial learning in the wild subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum.

    PubMed

    Schleich, Cristian E; Zenuto, Roxana R; Cutrera, Ana P

    2015-02-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that learning and triggering an immune response are both metabolically expensive and thus likely to be subject to nutritional trade-offs between them and other competing demands. Therefore, we evaluated if an immune challenge with a novel antigen affects spatial learning in the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum under two different dietary conditions. The results showed that immune-challenged animals were affected in their spatial learning capabilities, increasing the number of errors and marginally the time required to reach the goal of a complex labyrinth. No effect of the dietary restriction nor interaction between factors were observed. This work provides support for the existence of a trade-off between the costs of the immune defense and learning abilities, indicating that when investment is required to fight infection, fewer resources are available for learning. The absence of effect of nutritional condition on this trade-off suggests that other physiological processes, besides cognition, may be limited by the energetic resources necessary to the more immediately critical immune response.

  16. Components of Verbal Intelligence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-30

    is permitted for any purpose of the United States Government. 9 This research Was sponsored by the Personnel and Training Research Programs...FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT TASK UNit ELEMENT NO NO NO IACCESSION NO 11. TITLE (Irclude Secu, l Olassfication) NR154-505 "Components of Verbal...a_ _ A , , . Z I l-l S"" -- ’s= -:s~ l - + 6 ’ E =:,. E cEIP d -= 5.,. ’-E ; Ea ,3 8.9.1 -=,o pr ,,v c+ -- + + - , ? + -+ + a; 0 1;- I " ’N Ev E.~4

  17. Learning science in a cooperative setting: Academic achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh

    A learning unit in earth science was taught to high school students, using a jigsaw-group mastery learning approach. The sample consisted of 73 students in the experimental group and 47 students who learned the topic in an individualized mastery learning approach. The study lasted 5 weeks. Pretests and posttests on academic achievement and affective outcomes were administered. Data were treated with an analysis of covariance. The results show that students of the experimental group achieved significantly higher on academic outcomes, both normative and objective scores. On the creative essay test, the differences in number of ideas and total essay score were not significant between the groups, although the mean scores for number of words were higher for the individualized mastery learning group. On the affective domain, jigsaw-group mastery learning students scored significantly higher on self-esteem, number of friends, and involvement in the classroom. No differences were found in cohesiveness, cooperation, competition, and attitudes toward the subject learned. The results are discussed through the evaluation and comparison of the two methods of instruction used in this study.The cooperative learning movement began in junior high schools as part of the desegregation process, aiming at facilitating positive ethnic relations and increasing academic achievement and social skills among diverse students (Aronson, Stephan, Sikes, Blaney, & Snapp, 1978; Sharan & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 1980; Slavin, 1980). However, elementary teachers quickly recognized the potential of cooperative methods, and such methods were adopted freely in elementary schools before becoming widespread on the junior and senior high level. It has only been during the past few years that application of cooperative learning has been studied extensively with these older students.Cooperative learning methods generally involve heterogeneous groups working together on tasks that are deliberately structured to

  18. Analysis of factors affecting satisfaction level on problem based learning approach using structural equation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Nur Farahin Mee; Zahid, Zalina

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, in the job market demand, graduates are expected not only to have higher performance in academic but they must also be excellent in soft skill. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has a number of distinct advantages as a learning method as it can deliver graduates that will be highly prized by industry. This study attempts to determine the satisfaction level of engineering students on the PBL Approach and to evaluate their determinant factors. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to investigate how the factors of Good Teaching Scale, Clear Goals, Student Assessment and Levels of Workload affected the student satisfaction towards PBL approach.

  19. California Verbal Learning Test-II performance in schizophrenia as a function of ascertainment strategy: comparing the first and second phases of the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS).

    PubMed

    Stone, William S; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I; Braff, David L; Calkins, Monica E; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Light, Gregory A; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Sprock, Joyce; Sugar, Catherine A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Seidman, Larry J

    2015-04-01

    The first phase of the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS-1) showed performance deficits in learning and memory on the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II) in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ), compared to healthy comparison subjects (HCS). A question is whether the COGS-1 study, which used a family study design (i.e. studying relatively intact families), yielded "milder" SZ phenotypes than those acquired subsequently in the COGS-2 case-control design that did not recruit unaffected family members. CVLT-II performance was compared for the COGS-1 and COGS-2 samples. Analyses focused on learning, recall and recognition variables, with age, gender and education as covariates. Analyses of COGS-2 data explored effects of additional covariates and moderating factors in CVLT-II performance. 324 SZ subjects and 510 HCS had complete CVLT-II and covariate data in COGS-1, while 1356 SZ and 1036 HCS had complete data in COGS-2. Except for recognition memory, analysis of covariance showed significantly worse performance in COGS-2 on all CVLT-II variables for SZ and HCS, and remained significant in the presence of the covariates. Performance in each of the 5 learning trials differed significantly. However, effect sizes comparing cases and controls were comparable across the two studies. COGS-2 analyses confirmed SZ performance deficits despite effects of multiple significant covariates and moderating factors. CVLT-II performance was worse in COGS-2 than in COGS-1 for both the SZ and the HCS in this large cohort, likely due to cohort effects. Demographically corrected data yield a consistent pattern of performance across the two studies in SZ.

  20. Types of verbal interaction with instructable robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crangle, C.; Suppes, P.; Michalowski, S.

    1987-01-01

    An instructable robot is one that accepts instruction in some natural language such as English and uses that instruction to extend its basic repertoire of actions. Such robots are quite different in conception from autonomously intelligent robots, which provide the impetus for much of the research on inference and planning in artificial intelligence. Examined here are the significant problem areas in the design of robots that learn from vebal instruction. Examples are drawn primarily from our earlier work on instructable robots and recent work on the Robotic Aid for the physically disabled. Natural-language understanding by machines is discussed as well as in the possibilities and limits of verbal instruction. The core problem of verbal instruction, namely, how to achieve specific concrete action in the robot in response to commands that express general intentions, is considered, as are two major challenges to instructability: achieving appropriate real-time behavior in the robot, and extending the robot's language capabilities.

  1. Verbal Instruction Model (VIM) in voice therapy.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Ann-Christine

    2016-01-01

    The stumbling-block in voice therapy is the patient's generalization of the new voice behavior in everyday life. Traditionally voice therapy is based on demonstration, i.e. during the therapy session the speech therapist uses her own voice and body to demonstrate for the patient how to produce voice in different training tasks. During the last decade a new voice therapy strategy, the Verbal Instruction Model (VIM), has been developed by the author. In VIM the speech therapist uses verbal instructions instead of demonstration when conveying the training tasks to the patient. Our clinical experience has shown that VIM seems to help getting over the stumbling-block of generalization. However, evidence for VIM voice therapy outcome remains to be scientifically studied and confirmed. The purpose of this paper is to describe VIM voice therapy and to discuss therapy strategies in the light of motor learning principles.

  2. The effects of mastery learning correctives on academic achievement and student affect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWeese, Sean Vincent

    This study was conducted to examine the differences in high school biology achievement and student affect towards teacher and content from the use of individualized correctives as part of mastery learning. An experimental pretest-posttest with control group design was used during the fall 2011 semester. Over a thirteen-week period, 99 students in five general-level biology classes received mastery learning instruction covering several state standards. Of the 99 students, 50 received individualized correctives based on the results of formative assessment. The other 49 students received a non-individualized study guide after the formative assessment. A written summative examination was used to measure achievement. The Instructional Affect Assessment Instrument (IAAI) was used to measure student affect. The written summative evaluation and the IAAI were administered as a pretest to assure the independence of the covariate and treatment effect. Data were analyzed with a multivariate repeated measures test and ANCOVAs. No differences were found between the individualized corrective group and the general study guide group in terms of achievement or student affect toward content or teacher. Results indicate that individualized correctives were not the key factor in mastery learning for this population and type of science content. Further study on the impact of individualized correctives in different subject areas and populations is recommended as well as additional research on the effect of repeated testing.

  3. [Comparison of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III and the Spain-Complutense Verbal Learning Test in acquired brain injury: construct validity and ecological validity].

    PubMed

    Luna-Lario, P; Pena, J; Ojeda, N

    2017-04-16

    Objetivo. Profundizar en la validez de constructo y en la validez ecologica de la escala de memoria de Wechsler-III (WMS-III) y el test de aprendizaje verbal España-Complutense (TAVEC). Pacientes y metodos. La muestra consta de 106 adultos con daño cerebral adquirido atendidos en el Area de Neuropsicologia y Neuropsiquiatria del Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, con deficit de memoria como secuela principal, medido a traves de test especificos de memoria. Para determinar la validez de constructo se examinan las tareas requeridas en cada prueba sobre los modelos teoricos de base, comparando el rendimiento segun los parametros ofrecidos por los tests, contrastando los indices de gravedad de cada prueba y analizando su convergencia. La validez externa se explora a traves de la correlacion entre las pruebas y mediante modelos de regresion. Resultados. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, la WMS-III y el TAVEC tienen validez de constructo. El TAVEC es mas sensible y capta no solo los deficits en la consolidacion mnesica, sino en las estrategias ejecutivas implicadas en la memoria. El indice de memoria de trabajo de la WMS-III es util para predecir la reincorporacion laboral a los dos años del daño cerebral adquirido, pero ningun instrumento anticipa la discapacidad y la dependencia al menos seis meses despues de la lesion. Conclusion. Se reflexiona sobre la validez de constructo de las pruebas y su capacidad insuficiente para predecir la funcionalidad cuando las secuelas se cronifican.

  4. Verbal Functions in Psychopathy.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Brites, José; Ladera, Valentina; Perea, Victoria; García, Ricardo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the verbal functions and language skills of male psychopathic individuals (in prison and outside) with non-psychopaths. The purpose was therefore to analyze phonological processing, reading and writing skills, the meaning of words and images, and the understanding of sentences. Ninety individuals with an average age of 38.19 (SD = 7.67) voluntarily participated in this study. The data were collected in different settings: prisons, a private charitable organization, and private clinics and health centers. All participants completed the Psychopathy Checklist Revised and the Psycholinguistic Assessment of Language Processing in Aphasia, to assess psychopathy traits and language skills, respectively. Participants were allocated into four different groups: incarcerated psychopathic offenders (n = 13), non-incarcerated psychopathic non-offenders living in the community (n = 13), incarcerated non-psychopathic offenders (n = 25), and non-psychopathic non-offenders living in the community (n = 39). The results showed that the verbal functions and language skills between psychopaths and non-psychopaths are very similar, showing a common profile. The data presented indicate the need for more specific work opportunities for both groups within the correctional setting, with the use of appropriate language and individualized programs as necessary.

  5. Affective States and State Tests: Investigating How Affect and Engagement during the School Year Predict End-of-Year Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Baker, Ryan S. J. D.; San Pedro, Maria O. C. Z.; Gowda, Sujith M.; Gowda, Supreeth M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the correspondence between student affect and behavioural engagement in a web-based tutoring platform throughout the school year and learning outcomes at the end of the year on a high-stakes mathematics exam in a manner that is both longitudinal and fine-grained. Affect and behaviour detectors are used to estimate…

  6. Distal prosody affects learning of novel words in an artificial language.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Tuuli H; McAuley, J Devin; Dilley, Laura C; Zdziarska, Patrycja A; Jones, Katherine B; Sanders, Lisa D

    2015-06-01

    The distal prosodic patterning established at the beginning of an utterance has been shown to influence downstream word segmentation and lexical access. In this study, we investigated whether distal prosody also affects word learning in a novel (artificial) language. Listeners were exposed to syllable sequences in which the embedded words were either congruent or incongruent with the distal prosody of a carrier phrase. Local segmentation cues, including the transitional probabilities between syllables, were held constant. During a test phase, listeners rated the items as either words or nonwords. Consistent with the perceptual grouping of syllables being predicted by distal prosody, congruent items were more likely to be judged as words than were incongruent items. The results provide the first evidence that perceptual grouping affects word learning in an unknown language, demonstrating that distal prosodic effects may be independent of lexical or other language-specific knowledge.

  7. Toward interactive context-aware affective educational recommendations in computer-assisted language learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Olga C.; Saneiro, Mar; Boticario, Jesus G.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    This work explores the benefits of supporting learners affectively in a context-aware learning situation. This features a new challenge in related literature in terms of providing affective educational recommendations that take advantage of ambient intelligence and are delivered through actuators available in the environment, thus going beyond previous approaches which provided computer-based recommendation that present some text or tell aloud the learner what to do. To address this open issue, we have applied TORMES elicitation methodology, which has been used to investigate the potential of ambient intelligence for making more interactive recommendations in an emotionally challenging scenario (i.e. preparing for the oral examination of a second language learning course). Arduino open source electronics prototyping platform is used both to sense changes in the learners' affective state and to deliver the recommendation in a more interactive way through different complementary sensory communication channels (sight, hearing, touch) to cope with a universal design. An Ambient Intelligence Context-aware Affective Recommender Platform (AICARP) has been built to support the whole experience, which represents a progress in the state of the art. In particular, we have come up with what is most likely the first interactive context-aware affective educational recommendation. The value of this contribution lies in discussing methodological and practical issues involved.

  8. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Learning Integrated with Metacognitive Prompts on Students' Affective Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatar, Nilgün; Akpınar, Ercan; Feyzioğlu, Eylem Yıldız

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of computer-assisted learning integrated with metacognitive prompts on elementary students' affective skills on the subject of electricity. The researchers developed educational software to enable students to easily and comprehensively learn the concepts in the subject of electricity. A case study method was used. Eighteen students from the seventh grade (12-13 years) participated in the study. Students' views on their performances while using educational software and the impact of the software on their affective skills towards the subject of electricity were examined. Data were collected by open-ended questions in the educational software. According to the research results, there were students who had negative attitudes and perceptions before starting to learn about the subject of electricity. Interactive activities, animations, and visual experiments in the educational software were effective in overcoming the students' negative attitudes and perceptions about the subject. Besides, students who assessed their own performances during the learning process believed themselves to be more successful over time. In the light of the research results, some suggestions are made for future studies.

  9. Verbal Behavior and Courtroom Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Michael G.

    1981-01-01

    Identifies characteristics of successful courtroom speech for prosecuting attorneys, defense attorneys, and accuseds using computer-based content analysis and rater judgments of verbal behaviors. Demonstrates that verbal aggression is an important factor for successful prosecutors, equivocation is important to success for defense attorneys, and…

  10. Tense Aspect in Verbal Morphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaberry, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Analyzed the development of past tense verbal morphology in Spanish second language acquisition among native English speakers divided into three levels of proficiency. Analysis shows that learners may use a default marker of past tense during the beginning stages of development of verbal morphology, but the choice of the default may be dependent…

  11. Selective breeding for endurance running capacity affects cognitive but not motor learning in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wikgren, Jan; Mertikas, Georgios; Raussi, Pekka; Tirkkonen, Riina; Äyräväinen, Laura; Pelto-Huikko, Markku; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2012-01-01

    The ability to utilize oxygen has been shown to affect a wide variety of physiological factors often considered beneficial for survival. As the ability to learn can be seen as one of the core factors of survival in mammals, we studied whether selective breeding for endurance running, an indication of aerobic capacity, also has an effect on learning. Rats selectively bred over 23 generations for their ability to perform forced treadmill running were trained in an appetitively motivated discrimination-reversal classical conditioning task, an alternating T-maze task followed by a rule change (from a shift-win to stay-win rule) and motor learning task. In the discrimination-reversal and T-maze tasks, the high-capacity runner (HCR) rats outperformed the low-capacity runner (LCR) rats, most notably in the phases requiring flexible cognition. In the Rotarod (motor-learning) task, the HCR animals were overall more agile but learned at a similar rate with the LCR group as a function of training. We conclude that the intrinsic ability to utilize oxygen is associated especially with tasks requiring plasticity of the brain structures implicated in flexible cognition. PMID:22285210

  12. Selective breeding for endurance running capacity affects cognitive but not motor learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Wikgren, Jan; Mertikas, Georgios G; Raussi, Pekka; Tirkkonen, Riina; Äyräväinen, Laura; Pelto-Huikko, Markku; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2012-05-15

    The ability to utilize oxygen has been shown to affect a wide variety of physiological factors often considered beneficial for survival. As the ability to learn can be seen as one of the core factors of survival in mammals, we studied whether selective breeding for endurance running, an indication of aerobic capacity, also has an effect on learning. Rats selectively bred over 23 generations for their ability to perform forced treadmill running were trained in an appetitively motivated discrimination-reversal classical conditioning task, an alternating T-maze task followed by a rule change (from a shift-win to stay-win rule) and motor learning task. In the discrimination-reversal and T-maze tasks, the high-capacity runner (HCR) rats outperformed the low-capacity runner (LCR) rats, most notably in the phases requiring flexible cognition. In the Rotarod (motor-learning) task, the HCR animals were overall more agile but learned at a similar rate with the LCR group as a function of training. We conclude that the intrinsic ability to utilize oxygen is associated especially with tasks requiring plasticity of the brain structures implicated in flexible cognition.

  13. Stimulating the cerebellum affects visuomotor adaptation but not intermanual transfer of learning

    PubMed Central

    Block, Hannah; Celnik, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    When systematic movement errors occur, the brain responds with a systematic change in motor behavior. This type of adaptive motor learning can transfer intermanually; adaptation of movements of the right hand in response to training with a perturbed visual signal (visuomotor adaptation) may carry over to the left hand. While visuomotor adaptation has been studied extensively, it is unclear whether the cerebellum, a structure involved in adaptation, is important for intermanual transfer as well. We addressed this question with three experiments in which subjects reached with their right hands as a 30° visuomotor rotation was introduced. Subjects received anodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the trained (Experiment 1) or untrained (Experiment 2) hemisphere of the cerebellum, or, for comparison, motor cortex (M1). After the training period, subjects reached with their left hand, without visual feedback, to assess intermanual transfer of learning aftereffects. Stimulation of the right cerebellum caused faster adaptation, but none of the stimulation sites affected transfer. To ascertain whether cerebellar stimulation would increase transfer if subjects learned faster as well as a larger amount, in Experiment 3 anodal and sham cerebellar groups experienced a shortened training block such that the anodal group learned more than sham. Despite the difference in adaptation magnitude, transfer was similar across these groups, although smaller than in Experiment 1. Our results suggest that intermanual transfer of visuomotor learning does not depend on cerebellar activity, and that the number of movements performed at plateau is an important predictor of transfer. PMID:23625383

  14. Effects on Training of Experimental Film Variables, Study I: Verbalization, Rate of Development, Nomenclature, Errors, "How-It-Works", Repetition; Rapid Mass Learning. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaspen, Nathan

    Seventeen different versions of a film designed to teach the assembly of the breech block of the 40mm antiaircraft gun were tested on 2377 apprentice seamen in 1948. Each version was shown to at least 100 men, in groups of about 30, in an effort to evaluate the relative effects on learning of certain content and tempo characteristic s of specific…

  15. The Changing Role of Iconicity in Non-Verbal Symbol Learning: A U-Shaped Trajectory in the Acquisition of Arbitrary Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namy, Laura L.; Campbell, Aimee L.; Tomasello, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article reports 2 experiments examining the changing role of iconicity in symbol learning and its implications regarding the mechanisms supporting symbol-to-referent mapping. Experiment 1 compared 18- and 26-month-olds' mapping of iconic gestures (e.g., hopping gesture for a rabbit) vs. arbitrary gestures (e.g., dropping motion for a rabbit).…

  16. Translating theory into practice: integrating the affective and cognitive learning dimensions for effective instruction in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alias, Maizam; Lashari, Tahira Anwar; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Jahaya Kesot, Mohd.

    2014-03-01

    Learning in the cognitive domain is highly emphasised and has been widely investigated in engineering education. Lesser emphasis is placed on the affective dimension although the role of affects has been supported by research. The lack of understanding on learning theories and how they may be translated into classroom application of teaching and learning is one factor that contributes to this situation. This paper proposes a working framework for integrating the affective dimension of learning into engineering education that is expected to promote better learning within the cognitive domain. Four major learning theories namely behaviourism, cognitivism, socio-culturalism, and constructivism were analysed and how affects are postulated to influence cognition are identified. The affective domain constructs identified to be important are self-efficacy, attitude and locus of control. Based on the results of the analysis, a framework that integrates methodologies for achieving learning in the cognitive domain with the support of the affective dimension of learning is proposed. It is expected that integrated approach can be used as a guideline to engineering educators in designing effective and sustainable instructional material that would result in the effective engineers for future development.

  17. Comparison of the traditional recall-based versus a new list-based method for computing semantic clustering on the California Verbal Learning Test: evidence from Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Delis, Dean C; Fine, Eric M; Stricker, John L; Houston, Wes S; Wetter, Spencer R; Cobell, Krystal; Jacobson, Mark W; Salmon, David P; Bondi, Mark W

    2010-01-01

    For over 50 years, cognitive psychologists and neuropsychologists have relied almost exclusively on a method for computing semantic clustering on list-learning tasks (recall-based formula) that was derived from an outdated assumption about how learning occurs. A new procedure for computing semantic clustering (list-based formula) was developed for the CVLT-II to correct the shortcomings of the traditional method. In the present study we compared the clinical utility of the traditional recall-based method versus the new list-based method using results from the original CVLT administered to 87 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 86 matched normal control participants. Logistic regression and score distribution analyses indicated that the new list-based method enhances the detection of differences in semantic-clustering ability between the groups.

  18. How does feedback in mini-CEX affect students’ learning response?

    PubMed Central

    Rahayu, Gandes Retno; Suhoyo, Yoyo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed to explore students’ learning response toward feedback during mini-CEX encounter. Methods This study used a phenomenological approach to identify the students’ experiences toward feedback during mini-CEX encounter. Data was collected using Focus Group Discussion (FGD) for all students who were in their final week of clerkship in the internal medicine rotation. There were 4 FGD groups (6 students for each group). All FGD were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. The FGD transcripts were analyzed thematically and managed using Atlas-ti (version 7.0). Results Feedback content and the way of providing feedback on mini-CEX stimulated students’ internal process, including self-reflection, emotional response, and motivation. These internal processes encouraged the students to take action or do a follow-up on the feedback to improve their learning process. In addition, there was also an external factor, namely consequences, which also influenced the students’ reaction to the follow-up on feedback. In the end, this action caused several learning effects that resulted in the students’ increased self-efficacy, attitude, knowledge and clinical skill. Conclusions Feedback content and the way of providing feedback on mini-CEX stimulates the students’ internal processes to do a follow-up on feedback. However, another external factor also affects the students’ decision on the follow-up actions. The follow-ups result in various learning effects on the students. Feedback given along with summative assessment enhances learning effects on students, as well. It is suggested that supervisors of clinical education are prepared to comprehend every factor influencing feedback on mini CEX to improve the students’ learning response. PMID:28008136

  19. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Quaedflieg, Conny W. E. M.; Merckelbach, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT) known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34) to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol) activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area. PMID:23671762

  20. Demographically corrected norms for the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-revised and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-revised in monolingual Spanish speakers from the U.S.-Mexico border region.

    PubMed

    Cherner, M; Suarez, P; Lazzaretto, D; Fortuny, L Artiola I; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Dawes, S; Marcotte, Thomas; Grant, I; Heaton, R

    2007-03-01

    The large number of primary Spanish speakers both in the United States and the world makes it imperative that appropriate neuropsychological assessment instruments be available to serve the needs of these populations. In this article we describe the norming process for Spanish speakers from the U.S.-Mexico border region on the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-revised and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-revised. We computed the rates of impairment that would be obtained by applying the original published norms for these tests to raw scores from the normative sample, and found substantial overestimates compared to expected rates. As expected, these overestimates were most salient at the lowest levels of education, given the under-representation of poorly educated subjects in the original normative samples. Results suggest that demographically corrected norms derived from healthy Spanish-speaking adults with a broad range of education, are less likely to result in diagnostic errors. At minimum, demographic corrections for the tests in question should include the influence of literacy or education, in addition to the traditional adjustments for age. Because the age range of our sample was limited, the norms presented should not be applied to elderly populations.

  1. Demographically corrected norms for the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-revised and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-revised in monolingual Spanish speakers from the U.S.–Mexico border region

    PubMed Central

    Cherner, M.; Suarez, P.; Lazzaretto, D.; Fortuny, L. Artiola i; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Dawes, S.; Marcotte, Thomas; Grant, I.; Heaton, R.

    2013-01-01

    The large number of primary Spanish speakers both in the United States and the world makes it imperative that appropriate neuropsychological assessment instruments be available to serve the needs of these populations. In this article we describe the norming process for Spanish speakers from the U.S.–Mexico border region on the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-revised and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-revised. We computed the rates of impairment that would be obtained by applying the original published norms for these tests to raw scores from the normative sample, and found substantial overestimates compared to expected rates. As expected, these overestimates were most salient at the lowest levels of education, given the under-representation of poorly educated subjects in the original normative samples. Results suggest that demographically corrected norms derived from healthy Spanish-speaking adults with a broad range of education, are less likely to result in diagnostic errors. At minimum, demographic corrections for the tests in question should include the influence of literacy or education, in addition to the traditional adjustments for age. Because the age range of our sample was limited, the norms presented should not be applied to elderly populations. PMID:17293078

  2. Incidental learning of probability information is differentially affected by the type of visual working memory representation.

    PubMed

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ability to learn probability information is affected by the type of representation held in visual working memory. Across 4 experiments, participants detected changes to displays of coloured shapes. While participants detected changes in 1 dimension (e.g., colour), a feature from a second, nonchanging dimension (e.g., shape) predicted which object was most likely to change. In Experiments 1 and 3, items could be grouped by similarity in the changing dimension across items (e.g., colours and shapes were repeated in the display), while in Experiments 2 and 4 items could not be grouped by similarity (all features were unique). Probability information from the predictive dimension was learned and used to increase performance, but only when all of the features within a display were unique (Experiments 2 and 4). When it was possible to group by feature similarity in the changing dimension (e.g., 2 blue objects appeared within an array), participants were unable to learn probability information and use it to improve performance (Experiments 1 and 3). The results suggest that probability information can be learned in a dimension that is not explicitly task-relevant, but only when the probability information is represented with the changing dimension in visual working memory.

  3. Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Auditory-Verbal. ERIC Digest #E552.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Donald

    This digest presents an overview of the auditory-verbal approach to teaching communication skills to children who are deaf or hard of hearing. The goal of auditory-verbal practices is for children who are deaf or hard of hearing to grow up in "typical" learning and living environments that enable them to become independent,…

  4. Using Script Fading to Promote Natural Environment Stimulus Control of Verbal Interactions among Youths with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John L.; Krantz, Patricia J.; McClannahan, Lynn E.; Poulson, Claire L.

    2008-01-01

    Script fading was used to teach three youths with autism to initiate and sustain verbal interactions under stimulus control consistent with the natural environment. The youths learned to engage in verbal interactions during simulated shopping trips and during visits to community stores. The effectiveness of script fading was examined using a…

  5. Recognizing Non-Verbal Social Cues Promotes Social Performance in LD Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Alicia; Sharon, Assia

    2013-01-01

    The research examined whether an educational intervention could enhance the ability of learning disabled (LD) adolescents to recognize non-verbal emotional messages and thus their social functioning. Most LD children have problems recognizing non-verbal cues, particularly emotional ones, and have social difficulties. The study examined the…

  6. The Development of the Control of Adult Instructions Over Non-Verbal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Duyne, H. John

    The purpose of the study was (1) to examine the results from a two-association perceptual-motor task as to their implications for Luria's theory about the development of verbal control of non-verbal behavior; (2) to explore the effects of various learning experiences upon this development. The sample consisted of 20 randomly selected children in…

  7. Increasing Verbal Responsiveness in Parents of Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venker, Courtney E.; McDuffie, Andrea; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Correlational studies have revealed a positive relationship between parent verbal responsiveness and language outcomes in children with autism. We investigated whether parents of young children on the autism spectrum could learn and implement the specific categories of verbal responsiveness that have been suggested to facilitate language…

  8. The Effects of a Mnemonic on Retention of Verbal Information from Meaningful Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, James Otto

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to determine whether adding a mnemonic to systematically designed instruction would improve verbal retention, to establish whether retention is better for concrete or abstract information, and to determine whether mental imagery or verbal elaboration is more effective for learning concrete or abstract…

  9. Verbal Communication in Museum Programs for Young Children: Perspectives from Greece and the U.K.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Synodi, Evanthia

    2014-01-01

    This comparative study explores the verbal communication between museum educators and young children, based on principles of developmental psychology. In early developmental stages, when student learning is greatly dependent on verbal communications from the teacher, observation skills may be developed through purposeful instruction. Through the…

  10. A Framework for Teacher Verbal Feedback: Lessons from Chinese Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Na; Cao, Yiming; Mok, Ida Ah Chee

    2016-01-01

    Teacher verbal feedback plays an important role in classroom teaching. Different types of feedback can have different effect on students' learning. Praise and blame feedback could provide positive and negative results for learners. The gap was left in considering teachers' attitudes in providing verbal feedback to students. Due to feedback which…

  11. Verbal Cues as an Interfering Factor in Verbal Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesher, Perla; Teubal, Eva

    1975-01-01

    Two experiments on the translation of verbal expressions into mathematical expressions are described. The author concludes that the usual way of training students to solve arithmetic word problems is inadequate. (SD)

  12. A comprehensive analysis of verbal fluency deficit in geriatric schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bowie, C R; Harvey, P D; Moriarty, P J; Parrella, M; White, L; Davis, K L

    2004-03-01

    Deficits in verbal fluency are common in schizophrenia and may provide keys to some of the abnormalities in the semantic system in schizophrenia. While a number of studies have outlined the severity and implications of verbal fluency deficits in younger schizophrenia patients, these findings have not yet been extended to older patients with schizophrenia. In this study, 392 older (age >/= 50) patients with schizophrenia were administered phonological and semantic (i.e., category) fluency examinations, as well as tests of learning, memory, language, and praxic skills, and rated for clinical symptoms and functional status. When compared to normative standards, 82% of the patients were impaired in semantic fluency and 83% were impaired in phonological fluency. Both semantic and phonological fluency impairment were significantly correlated with other cognitive variables, total scores on the functional status measure, and with the social and self-care subscales. Scores were uncorrelated with the severity of psychosis, but were correlated with the severity of negative symptoms. Furthermore, the severity of poverty of speech (a clinical measure of verbal underproductivity) was moderate in magnitude and failed to enter as a predictor of verbal fluency, indicating that impaired fluency scores are not simply an artifact of general underproductivity or mutism. The findings support conclusions from studies with younger schizophrenia patients that suggest that verbal fluency impairment is a consequence of a disorganized semantic system. Verbal fluency impairment remains common and functionally relevant in schizophrenia patients in late life.

  13. Isolation rearing induced fear-like behavior without affecting learning abilities of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Molina-Hernandez, M; Tellez-Alcantara, P; Perez-Garcia, J

    2001-07-01

    1. Isolation-reared rats display fear-like behavior and depressive-like behavior in several behavioral tasks, suggesting that isolation rearing may model certain aspects of human psychopathologies. 2. After weaning (20 days old), male and female Wistar rats were isolation-reared during 20, 50 or 70 days. After that, they were tested in the elevated plus maze test, and in the open field test. Another group of isolation-reared rats (70 days of isolation) were tested in an auto-shaping task. 3. Isolation-reared rats displayed high levels of fear-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze test, and hyperlocomotion in the open field test. But, isolation-reared rats learned an auto-shaping task. 4. In conclusion, isolation rearing induced fear-like behavior, without affect learning abilities of rats.

  14. Social Presence and its Relevancy to Cognitive and Affective Learning in an Asynchronous Distance-Learning Environment: A Preliminary Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolivette, Brenda J.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the literature on the theory of social presence and its relevancy to cognitive and affective learning in an asynchronous distance-learning environment. With the evolution of distance education, colleges and universities have found themselves on the cutting edge of an unprecedented new era. This review explores the…

  15. Linguistic Acts Teachers Use in the Classroom: Verbal Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaduz, Adnan

    2010-01-01

    Utterances made by teachers to meet various educational aims in the classroom have a certain effect on student learning. The quality of teachers' linguistic acts influences efficiency in all aspects of the methods, techniques and strategies used in the instructional process. This study has been conducted to reveal the verbal behaviors that…

  16. Older Adults' Memory for Verbally Presented Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankoff, Sarah M.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how older adults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy older adults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute…

  17. Verbal Positional Memory in 7-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Mehler, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Verbal memory is a fundamental prerequisite for language learning. This study investigated 7-month-olds' (N = 62) ability to remember the identity and order of elements in a multisyllabic word. The results indicate that infants detect changes in the order of edge syllables, or the identity of the middle syllables, but fail to encode the order…

  18. Applying Skinner's Analysis of Verbal Behavior to Persons with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark; Baker, Jonathan C.; Sadowski, Katherine Ann

    2011-01-01

    Skinner's 1957 analysis of verbal behavior has demonstrated a fair amount of utility to teach language to children with autism and other various disorders. However, the learning of language can be forgotten, as is the case for many elderly suffering from dementia or other degenerative diseases. It appears possible that Skinner's operants may…

  19. Cross-domain interference costs during concurrent verbal and spatial serial memory tasks are asymmetric.

    PubMed

    Morey, Candice C; Mall, Jonathan T

    2012-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that memory for serial order is domain-general. Evidence also points to asymmetries in interference between verbal and visual-spatial tasks. We confirm that concurrently remembering verbal and spatial serial lists provokes substantial interference compared with remembering a single list, but we further investigate the impact of this interference throughout the serial position curve, where asymmetries are indeed apparent. A concurrent verbal order memory task affects spatial memory performance throughout the serial positions of the list, but performing a spatial order task affects memory for the verbal serial list only for early list items; in the verbal task only, the final items are unaffected by a concurrent task. Adding suffixes eliminates this asymmetry, resulting in impairment throughout the list for both tasks. These results suggest that domain-general working memory resources may be supplemented with resources specific to the verbal domain, but perhaps not with equivalent spatial resources.

  20. Superior verbal ability and nonverbal learning disability in a child with a novel 17p12p13.1 deletion.

    PubMed

    Steele, D L; Chisholm, A K; McGhie, J D R; Gardner, R J M; Scheffer, I E; Slater, H R; Dawson, G

    2005-04-05

    We report the case of a 10-year-old girl with the karyotype 46,XX,del(17)(p12p13.1) who presented a remarkable incongruence in higher cerebral functioning. Certain language skills were very superior, with reading and spelling at a 17-19 year-old level of proficiency. Nonverbal skills, however, were mostly below average, executive functioning and socialization were impaired, and a diagnosis of "nonverbal learning disability" is applied. We speculate that the genes deleted include one or some which code for certain specific categories of neural substrate that subserve aspects of visual processing and higher functioning, but that no "language loci" have been deleted. The particular neuropsychological profile that we describe may assist diagnosis of this chromosomal deletion.

  1. Social Support as a Neglected E-Learning Motivator Affecting Trainee's Decisions of Continuous Intentions of Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Cathy; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Weng, Apollo

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from the social influence theory and acknowledging that the others' support within the work context affects employees' learning, values, and behaviours, an alternative framework was proposed to explain employees' learning satisfaction and future intention to participate in e-training programs in the current study. 578 survey data collected…

  2. Theorizing Affect in Foreign Language Learning: An Analysis of One Learner's Responses to a Communicative Portuguese Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Paula; Young, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we explore a student's affective responses to classroom foreign language learning. In 2 meetings each week throughout an 8-week Portuguese course for beginners, the first author described her language learning experiences to the second author. Sessions were transcribed and then coded and analyzed. A theoretical model grounded in the…

  3. Effects of a Peer Competition-based Mobile Learning Approach on Students' Affective Domain Exhibition in Social Studies Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chang, Shao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    One of the important and challenging objectives of social studies courses is to promote students' affective domain exhibition, including learning interest, positive attitudes and local culture identity. In this paper, a location-aware mobile learning approach was proposed based on a competition strategy for conducting local cultural activities in…

  4. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Learning Integrated with Metacognitive Prompts on Students' Affective Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Nilgün; Akpinar, Ercan; Feyzioglu, Eylem Yildiz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of computer-assisted learning integrated with metacognitive prompts on elementary students' affective skills on the subject of electricity. The researchers developed educational software to enable students to easily and comprehensively learn the concepts in the subject of electricity. A…

  5. Cognitive and Socio-Affective Outcomes of Project-Based Learning: Perceptions of Greek Second Chance School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutrouba, Konstantina; Karageorgou, Elissavet

    2013-01-01

    The present questionnaire-based study was conducted in 2010 in order to examine 677 Greek Second Chance School (SCS) students' perceptions about the cognitive and socio-affective outcomes of project-based learning. Data elaboration, statistical and factor analysis showed that the participants found that project-based learning offered a second…

  6. Maternal intraguild predation risk affects offspring anti-predator behavior and learning in mites

    PubMed Central

    Seiter, Michael; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Predation risk is a strong selective force shaping prey morphology, life history and behavior. Anti-predator behaviors may be innate, learned or both but little is known about the transgenerational behavioral effects of maternally experienced predation risk. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) risk-induced maternal effects on offspring anti-predator behavior, including learning, in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We exposed predatory mite mothers during egg production to presence or absence of the IG predator Amblyseius andersoni and assessed whether maternal stress affects the anti-predator behavior, including larval learning ability, of their offspring as protonymphs. Protonymphs emerging from stressed or unstressed mothers, and having experienced IGP risk as larvae or not, were subjected to choice situations with and without IG predator traces. Predator-experienced protonymphs from stressed mothers were the least active and acted the boldest in site choice towards predator cues. We argue that the attenuated response of the protonymphs to predator traces alone represents optimized risk management because no immediate risk existed. Such behavioral adjustment could reduce the inherent fitness costs of anti-predator behaviors. Overall, our study suggests that P. persimilis mothers experiencing IGP risk may prime their offspring to behave more optimally in IGP environments. PMID:26449645

  7. Maternal intraguild predation risk affects offspring anti-predator behavior and learning in mites.

    PubMed

    Seiter, Michael; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-10-09

    Predation risk is a strong selective force shaping prey morphology, life history and behavior. Anti-predator behaviors may be innate, learned or both but little is known about the transgenerational behavioral effects of maternally experienced predation risk. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) risk-induced maternal effects on offspring anti-predator behavior, including learning, in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We exposed predatory mite mothers during egg production to presence or absence of the IG predator Amblyseius andersoni and assessed whether maternal stress affects the anti-predator behavior, including larval learning ability, of their offspring as protonymphs. Protonymphs emerging from stressed or unstressed mothers, and having experienced IGP risk as larvae or not, were subjected to choice situations with and without IG predator traces. Predator-experienced protonymphs from stressed mothers were the least active and acted the boldest in site choice towards predator cues. We argue that the attenuated response of the protonymphs to predator traces alone represents optimized risk management because no immediate risk existed. Such behavioral adjustment could reduce the inherent fitness costs of anti-predator behaviors. Overall, our study suggests that P. persimilis mothers experiencing IGP risk may prime their offspring to behave more optimally in IGP environments.

  8. Multimedia Learning. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    For hundreds of years verbal messages such as lectures and printed lessons have been the primary means of explaining ideas to learners. Although verbal learning offers a powerful tool, this book explores ways of going beyond the purely verbal. Recent advances in graphics technology and information technology have prompted new efforts to understand…

  9. Can verbal working memory training improve reading?

    PubMed

    Banales, Erin; Kohnen, Saskia; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine whether poor verbal working memory is associated with poor word reading accuracy because the former causes the latter, or the latter causes the former. To this end, we tested whether (a) verbal working memory training improves poor verbal working memory or poor word reading accuracy, and whether (b) reading training improves poor reading accuracy or verbal working memory in a case series of four children with poor word reading accuracy and verbal working memory. Each child completed 8 weeks of verbal working memory training and 8 weeks of reading training. Verbal working memory training improved verbal working memory in two of the four children, but did not improve their reading accuracy. Similarly, reading training improved word reading accuracy in all children, but did not improve their verbal working memory. These results suggest that the causal links between verbal working memory and reading accuracy may not be as direct as has been assumed.

  10. A Quality Improvement Study on Avoidable Stressors and Countermeasures Affecting Surgical Motor Performance and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Claudius; Konuk, Yusuf; Werner, Paul D.; Cao, Caroline G.; Warshaw, Andrew L.; Rattner, David W.; Stangenberg, Lars; Ott, Harald C.; Jones, Daniel B.; Miller, Diane L; Gee, Denise W.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore how the two most important components of surgical performance - speed and accuracy - are influenced by different forms of stress and what the impact of music on these factors is. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Based on a recently published pilot study on surgical experts, we designed an experiment examining the effects of auditory stress, mental stress, and music on surgical performance and learning, and then correlated the data psychometric measures to the role of music in a novice surgeon’s life. METHODS 31 surgeons were recruited for a crossover study. Surgeons were randomized to four simple standardized tasks to be performed on the Surgical SIM VR laparoscopic simulator, allowing exact tracking of speed and accuracy. Tasks were performed under a variety of conditions, including silence, dichotic music (auditory stress), defined classical music (auditory relaxation), and mental loading (mental arithmetic tasks). Tasks were performed twice to test for memory consolidation and to accommodate for baseline variability. Performance was correlated to the Brief Musical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ). RESULTS Mental loading influences performance with respect to accuracy, speed, and recall more negatively than does auditory stress. Defined classical music might lead to minimally worse performance initially, but leads to significantly improved memory consolidation. Furthermore, psychologic testing of the volunteers suggests that surgeons with greater musical commitment, measured by the MEQ, perform worse under the mental loading condition. CONCLUSION Mental distraction and auditory stress negatively affect specific components of surgical learning and performance. If used appropriately, classical music may positively affect surgical memory consolidation. It also may be possible to predict surgeons’ performance and learning under stress through psychological tests on the role of music in a surgeon’s life. Further investigation is necessary to determine

  11. Non-Verbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehring, John William; Malinauskas, Mark

    1977-01-01

    Career counselors are, in a sense, professional communicators. They help students acquire information, learn decision-making, express feelings, clarify values, identify skills, meet needs. To neglect the context in which the spoken word takes place is to ignore that part of the iceberg which lies beneath the surface. (Author)

  12. Acetyl-L-carnitine affects nonassociative learning processes in the leech Hirudo medicinalis.

    PubMed

    Ristori, C; Cataldo, E; Zaccardi, M L; Traina, G; Calvani, M; Lombardo, P; Scuri, R; Brunelli, M

    2006-11-03

    Acetyl-L-carnitine is a natural molecule widely distributed in vertebrate and invertebrate nervous system. It is known to have significant effects on neuronal activity playing a role as neuroprotective and anti-nociceptive agent, as well as neuromodulatory factor. About its capability of affecting learning processes the available data are controversial. In the present study, we utilized the simplified model system of the leech Hirudo medicinalis to analyze the effects of acetyl-L-carnitine, assessing whether and how it might affect elementary forms of nonassociative learning processes. In leeches with the head ganglion disconnected from the first segmental ganglion, repetitive application of weak electrical shocks onto the caudal portion of the body wall induces habituation of swim induction whereas brush strokes on the dorsal skin produces sensitization or dishabituation when the nociceptive stimulus is delivered on previously habituated animals. Herein, the effects of different concentrations of acetyl-L-carnitine (2 mM - 0.05 mM) have been tested at different times on both sensitization and dishabituation. The results show that a single treatment of acetyl-L-carnitine blocked the onset of sensitization in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In fact, the most effective concentration able to block this process was 2 mM, which induced its major effects 11 days after the treatment, whereas 0.05 mM was unable to affect the sensitization process at all considered time points. On the contrary, acetyl-L-carnitine did not completely abolish dishabituation at the tested concentrations and at every time point. Finally, acetyl-L-carnitine also impaired the habituation of swim induction, but only 11 days after treatment.

  13. Affective Education and Foreign Language Learning. The Challenge of Communication. ACTFL Review of Foreign Language Education, Vol. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disick, Renee S.; Barbanel, Laura

    The affective education movement and applications to foreign language learning are surveyed. Affective, or humanistic, education seeks to include self-knowledge, improved interpersonal communication, and clarification of one's values. Research studies show that thinking and feeling are intertwined. Emotion is present in the classroom and cannot be…

  14. Applying Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior to persons with dementia.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Mark; Baker, Jonathan C; Sadowski, Katherine Ann

    2011-03-01

    Skinner's 1957 analysis of verbal behavior has demonstrated a fair amount of utility to teach language to children with autism and other various disorders. However, the learning of language can be forgotten, as is the case for many elderly suffering from dementia or other degenerative diseases. It appears possible that Skinner's operants may facilitate not only acquisition of language but also the ability to recall items or objects that may have appeared to be "forgotten." The present study examined the utility of having a series of adults in long-term care emit tacts, echoics, or intraverbals upon presentation of various visual stimuli. Compared to a no-verbal response condition, it appears that the incorporation of Skinner's verbal operants can in fact improve recall for this population. Implications for the retraining of lost language are presented.

  15. Using Mindful Movement in Cooperative Learning while Learning about Angles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoval, Ella

    2011-01-01

    Unlike studies on cooperative learning that have focused on the verbal communication aspect of learning, this study focuses on the non-verbal aspect--mindful movement, which is the use of body movement to aid academic learning. Our research examined the link between five learning activities occurring within a cooperative group of children using…

  16. Ecstasy Exposure & Gender: Examining Components of Verbal Memory Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jenessa S.; Shear, Paula; Lisdahl, Krista M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies have demonstrated verbal memory deficits associated with past year ecstasy use, although specific underlying components of these deficits are less understood. Further, prior research suggests potential gender differences in ecstasy-induced serotonergic changes. Therefore, the current study investigated whether gender moderated the relationship between ecstasy exposure and components of verbal memory after controlling for polydrug use and confounding variables. Method Data were collected from 65 polydrug users with a wide range of ecstasy exposure (ages 18–35; 48 ecstasy and 17 marijuana users; 0–2310 ecstasy tablets). Participants completed a verbal learning and memory task, psychological questionnaires, and a drug use interview. Results Increased past year ecstasy exposure predicted poorer short and long delayed free and cued recalls, retention, and recall discrimination. Male ecstasy users were more susceptible to dose-dependent deficits in retention than female users. Conclusion Past year ecstasy consumption was associated with verbal memory retrieval, retention, and discrimination deficits in a dose-dependent manner in a sample of healthy young adult polydrug users. Male ecstasy users were at particular risk for deficits in retention following a long delay. Gender difference may be reflective of different patterns of polydrug use as well as increased hippocampal sensitivity. Future research examining neuronal correlates of verbal memory deficits in ecstasy users are needed. PMID:25545890

  17. Prediction of laser cutting heat affected zone by extreme learning machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anicic, Obrad; Jović, Srđan; Skrijelj, Hivzo; Nedić, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Heat affected zone (HAZ) of the laser cutting process may be developed based on combination of different factors. In this investigation the HAZ forecasting, based on the different laser cutting parameters, was analyzed. The main goal was to predict the HAZ according to three inputs. The purpose of this research was to develop and apply the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) to predict the HAZ. The ELM results were compared with genetic programming (GP) and artificial neural network (ANN). The reliability of the computational models were accessed based on simulation results and by using several statistical indicators. Based upon simulation results, it was demonstrated that ELM can be utilized effectively in applications of HAZ forecasting.

  18. Developmental stress affects song learning but not song complexity and vocal amplitude in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Brumm, Henrik; Zollinger, Sue Anne; Slater, Peter J B

    2009-07-01

    Several recent studies have tested the hypothesis that song quality in adult birds may reflect early developmental conditions, specifically nutritional stress during the nestling period. Whilst all of these earlier studies found apparent links between early nutritional stress and song quality, their results disagree as to which aspects of song learning or production were affected. In this study, we attempted to reconcile these apparently inconsistent results. Our study also provides the first assessment of song amplitude in relation to early developmental stress and as a potential cue to male quality. We used an experimental manipulation in which the seeds on which the birds were reared were mixed with husks, making them more difficult for the parents to obtain. Compared with controls, such chicks were lighter at fledging; they were thereafter placed on a normal diet and had caught up by 100 days. We show that nutritional stress during the first 30 days of life reduced the birds' accuracy of song syntax learning, resulting in poorer copies of tutor songs. Our experimental manipulations did not lead to significant changes in song amplitude, song duration or repertoire size. Thus, individual differences observed in song performance features probably reflect differences in current condition or motivation rather than past condition.

  19. Facial beauty affects implicit and explicit learning of men and women differently

    PubMed Central

    Ziori, Eleni; Dienes, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    The present work explores the unconscious and/or conscious nature of learning attractive faces of same and opposite sex, that is, of stimuli that experimental and neuroimaging research has shown to be rewarding and thus highly motivating. To this end, we examined performance of men and women while classifying strings of average and attractive faces for grammaticality in the experimental task of artificial grammar learning (AGL), which reflects both conscious and unconscious processes. Subjective measures were used to assess participants’ conscious and unconscious knowledge. It was found that female attractiveness impaired performance in male participants. In particular, male participants demonstrated the lowest accuracy while classifying beautiful faces of women. Conversely, female attractiveness facilitated performance in female participants. The pattern was similar for conscious and unconscious knowledge. Presumably, objects with high incentive salience, as are beautiful faces, captured resources, which were used in task relevant versus task irrelevant ways by women versus men. The present findings shed light on the relation of conscious and unconscious processing with affective and reward-related stimuli, as well as on gender differences underlying this relation. PMID:26300819

  20. How the New Faculty Workshop in 2004 affected my teaching-learning strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dushkina, Natalia

    2009-03-01

    In this presentation, I will discuss how my experience with the New Faculty Workshop in fall 2004 affected my course offering and teaching-learning strategies in PHYS 103, PHYS 132 and PHYS 331: Fundamentals of Optics courses. PHYS 103, Elements of Physics, is a general education conceptual physics lab course with no prerequisites for non-science majors. PHYS 132 is an introductory algebra-based general physics lab course which deals with electricity, magnetism, waves, light atomic and nuclear physics. PHYS 331, Fundamentals of Optics, is a lab-based course required for physics majors, which was offered for the first time at the MU Department of Physics in fall 2007. I will discuss curricular changes, as well as new teaching-learning and assessment methods implemented in these courses for the first time at our department. I will offer examples of peer group discussions, just in time teaching and the effect of chapter summaries on motivating the students and their participation in problem solving.

  1. Learning Environments and Inquiry Behaviors in Science Inquiry Learning: How Their Interplay Affects the Development of Conceptual Understanding in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumbacher, Engin; Salehi, Shima; Wierzchula, Miriam; Blikstein, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Studies comparing virtual and physical manipulative environments (VME and PME) in inquiry-based science learning have mostly focused on students' learning outcomes but not on the actual processes they engage in during the learning activities. In this paper, we examined experimentation strategies in an inquiry activity and their relation to…

  2. Recommendations for Implementing the New Illinois Early Learning and Development Standards to Affect Classroom Practices for Social and Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinsser, Katherine M.; Dusenbury, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The state of Illinois in the central United States has long been a trendsetter both in the development of learning standards and in addressing social and emotional learning in education settings. With a recent revision to the state's early learning standards, published in 2013, the Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE) fully aligned its…

  3. Examining Factors Affecting Beginning Teachers' Transfer of Learning of ICT-Enhanced Learning Activities in Their Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agyei, Douglas D.; Voogt, Joke

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers' transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by "learning technology by collaborative design" in their final year of…

  4. Verbal behavior: The other reviews.

    PubMed

    Knapp, T J

    1992-01-01

    The extensive attention devoted to Noam Chomsky's review of Verbal Behavior by B.F. Skinner has resulted in a neglect of more than a dozen other rewiews of the work. These are surveyed and found to be positive and congenial in tone, with many of the reviewers advancing his/her own analysis of speech and language. The dominant criticism of the book was its disregard of central or implicit processes and its lack of experimental data. An examination of the receptive history of Verbal Behavior offers a more balanced historical account than those which rely excessively on Chomsky's commentary.

  5. How anxiety induces verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, Matthew; Wilkinson, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Verbal hallucinations are often associated with pronounced feelings of anxiety, and it has also been suggested that anxiety somehow triggers them. In this paper, we offer a phenomenological or ‘personal-level’ account of how it does so. We show how anxious anticipation of one’s own thought contents can generate an experience of their being ‘alien’. It does so by making an experience of thinking more like one of perceiving, resulting in an unfamiliar kind of intentional state. This accounts for a substantial subset of verbal hallucinations, which are experienced as falling within one’s psychological boundaries and lacking in auditory qualities. PMID:26683229

  6. Verbal behavior: The other reviews

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Terry J.

    1992-01-01

    The extensive attention devoted to Noam Chomsky's review of Verbal Behavior by B.F. Skinner has resulted in a neglect of more than a dozen other rewiews of the work. These are surveyed and found to be positive and congenial in tone, with many of the reviewers advancing his/her own analysis of speech and language. The dominant criticism of the book was its disregard of central or implicit processes and its lack of experimental data. An examination of the receptive history of Verbal Behavior offers a more balanced historical account than those which rely excessively on Chomsky's commentary PMID:22477049

  7. The Evocative Power of Words: Activation of Concepts by Verbal and Nonverbal Means

    PubMed Central

    Lupyan, Gary; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    A major part of learning a language is learning to map spoken words onto objects in the environment. An open question is what are the consequences of this learning for cognition and perception? Here, we present a series of experiments that examine effects of verbal labels on the activation of conceptual information as measured through picture verification tasks. We find that verbal cues, such as the word “cat,” lead to faster and more accurate verification of congruent objects and rejection of incongruent objects than do either nonverbal cues, such as the sound of a cat meowing, or words that do not directly refer to the object, such as the word “meowing.” This label advantage does not arise from verbal labels being more familiar or easier to process than other cues, and it does extends to newly learned labels and sounds. Despite having equivalent facility in learning associations between novel objects and labels or sounds, conceptual information is activated more effectively through verbal means than through non-verbal means. Thus, rather than simply accessing nonverbal concepts, language activates aspects of a conceptual representation in a particularly effective way. We offer preliminary support that representations activated via verbal means are more categorical and show greater consistency between subjects. These results inform the understanding of how human cognition is shaped by language and hint at effects that different patterns of naming can have on conceptual structure. PMID:21928923

  8. Factors Affecting the Use of an E-Learning Portal at University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cegarra-Navarro, Juan-Gabriel; Rodriguez, Francisco Javier Canovas

    2012-01-01

    Electronic learning (e-learning) portals can be defined as websites that store and present materials for online learning, training, performance assessment, and certification. Few, if any, studies have investigated the factors that might contribute to the integration or implementation of e-learning portals in universities. With the development of…

  9. Music training is associated with cortical synchronization reflected in EEG coherence during verbal memory encoding

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Mei-chun; Chan, Agnes S.; Liu, Ying; Law, Derry; Wong, Christina W. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Music training can improve cognitive functions. Previous studies have shown that children and adults with music training demonstrate better verbal learning and memory performance than those without such training. Although prior studies have shown an association between music training and changes in the structural and functional organization of the brain, there is no concrete evidence of the underlying neural correlates of the verbal memory encoding phase involved in such enhanced memory performance. Therefore, we carried out an electroencephalography (EEG) study to investigate how music training was associated with brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Sixty participants were recruited, 30 of whom had received music training for at least one year (the MT group) and 30 of whom had never received music training (the NMT group). The participants in the two groups were matched for age, education, gender distribution, and cognitive capability. Their verbal and visual memory functions were assessed using standardized neuropsychological tests and EEG was used to record their brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Consistent with previous studies, the MT group demonstrated better verbal memory than the NMT group during both the learning and the delayed recall trials in the paper-and-pencil tests. The MT group also exhibited greater learning capacity during the learning trials. Compared with the NMT group, the MT group showed an increase in long-range left and right intrahemispheric EEG coherence in the theta frequency band during the verbal memory encoding phase. In addition, their event-related left intrahemispheric theta coherence was positively associated with subsequent verbal memory performance as measured by discrimination scores. These results suggest that music training may modulate the cortical synchronization of the neural networks involved in verbal memory formation. PMID:28358852

  10. Music training is associated with cortical synchronization reflected in EEG coherence during verbal memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S; Liu, Ying; Law, Derry; Wong, Christina W Y

    2017-01-01

    Music training can improve cognitive functions. Previous studies have shown that children and adults with music training demonstrate better verbal learning and memory performance than those without such training. Although prior studies have shown an association between music training and changes in the structural and functional organization of the brain, there is no concrete evidence of the underlying neural correlates of the verbal memory encoding phase involved in such enhanced memory performance. Therefore, we carried out an electroencephalography (EEG) study to investigate how music training was associated with brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Sixty participants were recruited, 30 of whom had received music training for at least one year (the MT group) and 30 of whom had never received music training (the NMT group). The participants in the two groups were matched for age, education, gender distribution, and cognitive capability. Their verbal and visual memory functions were assessed using standardized neuropsychological tests and EEG was used to record their brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Consistent with previous studies, the MT group demonstrated better verbal memory than the NMT group during both the learning and the delayed recall trials in the paper-and-pencil tests. The MT group also exhibited greater learning capacity during the learning trials. Compared with the NMT group, the MT group showed an increase in long-range left and right intrahemispheric EEG coherence in the theta frequency band during the verbal memory encoding phase. In addition, their event-related left intrahemispheric theta coherence was positively associated with subsequent verbal memory performance as measured by discrimination scores. These results suggest that music training may modulate the cortical synchronization of the neural networks involved in verbal memory formation.

  11. Promoting children's learning and development in conflict-affected countries: Testing change process in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Aber, J Lawrence; Tubbs, Carly; Torrente, Catalina; Halpin, Peter F; Johnston, Brian; Starkey, Leighann; Shivshanker, Anjuli; Annan, Jeannie; Seidman, Edward; Wolf, Sharon

    2017-02-01

    Improving children's learning and development in conflict-affected countries is critically important for breaking the intergenerational transmission of violence and poverty. Yet there is currently a stunning lack of rigorous evidence as to whether and how programs to improve learning and development in conflict-affected countries actually work to bolster children's academic learning and socioemotional development. This study tests a theory of change derived from the fields of developmental psychopathology and social ecology about how a school-based universal socioemotional learning program, the International Rescue Committee's Learning to Read in a Healing Classroom (LRHC), impacts children's learning and development. The study was implemented in three conflict-affected provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and employed a cluster-randomized waitlist control design to estimate impact. Using multilevel structural equation modeling techniques, we found support for the central pathways in the LRHC theory of change. Specifically, we found that LRHC differentially impacted dimensions of the quality of the school and classroom environment at the end of the first year of the intervention, and that in turn these dimensions of quality were differentially associated with child academic and socioemotional outcomes. Future implications and directions are discussed.

  12. Logic, reasoning, and verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Terrell, Dudley J.; Johnston, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyzes the traditional concepts of logic and reasoning from the perspective of radical behaviorism and in the terms of Skinner's treatment of verbal behavior. The topics covered in this analysis include the proposition, premises and conclusions, logicality and rules, and deductive and inductive reasoning. PMID:22478015

  13. Verbal Understanding and Pavlovian Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonneau, François

    2004-01-01

    The behavioral processes through which people react appropriately to verbal descriptions remain poorly understood. I argue here that these processes are Pavlovian. Common objections to a Pavlovian account of symbolic behavior evidence a lack of familiarity with the relevant data or misunderstandings of operant theory. Although much remains to be…

  14. Linguistic Sources of Skinner's Verbal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Matos, Maria Amelia; da F Passos, Maria de Lourdes R

    2006-01-01

    Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal analyses of languages. Formal analyses have been carried out since the invention of writing and fall within the scope of traditional grammar and structural linguistics, particularly in analyses made by the linguist Leonard Bloomfield. The relevance of analytical instruments originated from linguistic studies (which examine and describe the practices of verbal communities) to the analysis of verbal behavior, as proposed by Skinner, relates to the conception of a verbal community as a prerequisite for the acquisition of verbal behavior. A deliberately interdisciplinary approach is advocated in this paper, with the systematic adoption of linguistic analyses and descriptions adding relevant knowledge to the design of experimental research in verbal behavior.

  15. Linguistic Sources of Skinner's Verbal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Maria Amelia; da F. Passos, Maria de Lourdes R.

    2006-01-01

    Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal analyses of languages. Formal analyses have been carried out since the invention of writing and fall within the scope of traditional grammar and structural linguistics, particularly in analyses made by the linguist Leonard Bloomfield. The relevance of analytical instruments originated from linguistic studies (which examine and describe the practices of verbal communities) to the analysis of verbal behavior, as proposed by Skinner, relates to the conception of a verbal community as a prerequisite for the acquisition of verbal behavior. A deliberately interdisciplinary approach is advocated in this paper, with the systematic adoption of linguistic analyses and descriptions adding relevant knowledge to the design of experimental research in verbal behavior. PMID:22478454

  16. Parental prey selection affects risk-taking behaviour and spatial learning in avian offspring.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Kathryn E; Ramsay, Scot L; Donaldson, Christine; Adam, Aileen

    2007-10-22

    Early nutrition shapes life history. Parents should, therefore, provide a diet that will optimize the nutrient intake of their offspring. In a number of passerines, there is an often observed, but unexplained, peak in spider provisioning during chick development. We show that the proportion of spiders in the diet of nestling blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, varies significantly with the age of chicks but is unrelated to the timing of breeding or spider availability. Moreover, this parental prey selection supplies nestlings with high levels of taurine particularly at younger ages. This amino acid is known to be both vital and limiting for mammalian development and consequently found in high concentrations in placenta and milk. Based on the known roles of taurine in mammalian brain development and function, we then asked whether by supplying taurine-rich spiders, avian parents influence the stress responsiveness and cognitive function of their offspring. To test this, we provided wild blue tit nestlings with either a taurine supplement or control treatment once daily from the ages of 2-14 days. Then pairs of size- and sex-matched siblings were brought into captivity for behavioural testing. We found that juveniles that had received additional taurine as neonates took significantly greater risks when investigating novel objects than controls. Taurine birds were also more successful at a spatial learning task than controls. Additionally, those individuals that succeeded at a spatial learning task had shown intermediate levels of risk taking. Non-learners were generally very risk-averse controls. Early diet therefore has downstream impacts on behavioural characteristics that could affect fitness via foraging and competitive performance. Fine-scale prey selection is a mechanism by which parents can manipulate the behavioural phenotype of offspring.

  17. Linguistic Sources of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, Maria Amelia; Passos, Maria de Lourdes R. da F.

    2006-01-01

    Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in "Verbal Behavior" (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal…

  18. Toward a model of cognitive insight in first-episode psychosis: verbal memory and hippocampal structure.

    PubMed

    Buchy, L; Czechowska, Y; Chochol, C; Malla, A; Joober, R; Pruessner, J; Lepage, M

    2010-09-01

    Our previous work has linked verbal learning and memory with cognitive insight, but not clinical insight, in individuals with a first-episode psychosis (FEP). The current study reassessed the neurocognitive basis of cognitive and clinical insight and explored their neural basis in 61 FEP patients. Cognitive insight was measured with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and clinical insight with the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). Global measures for 7 domains of cognition were examined. Hippocampi were manually segmented in to 3 parts: the body, head, and tail. Verbal learning and memory significantly correlated with the BCIS composite index. Composite index scores were significantly associated with total left hippocampal (HC) volume; partial correlations, however, revealed that this relationship was attributable largely to verbal memory performance. The BCIS self-certainty subscale significantly and inversely correlated with bilateral HC volumes, and these associations were independent of verbal learning and memory performance. The BCIS self-reflectiveness subscale significantly correlated with verbal learning and memory but not with HC volume. No significant correlations emerged between the SUMD and verbal memory or HC volume. These results strengthen our previous assertion that in individuals with an FEP cognitive insight may rely on memory whereby current experiences are appraised based on previous ones. The HC may be a viable location among others for the brain system that underlies aspects of cognitive insight in individuals with an FEP.

  19. Affective robot for elderly assistance.

    PubMed

    Carelli, Laura; Gaggioli, Andrea; Pioggia, Giovanni; De Rossi, Federico; Riva, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Recently, several robotic solutions for the elderly have been proposed. However, to date, the diffusion of these devices has been limited: available robots are too cumbersome, awkward, and expensive to become widely adopted. Another key issue which reduces the appeal of assistive robots is the lack of socio-emotional interaction: affective interchanges represent key requirements to create sustainable relationships between elderly and robots. In this paper, we propose a new approach to enhance the acceptability of robotic systems, based on the introduction of affective dimensions in human-robot interaction. This strategy is aimed at designing a new generation of relational and cognitive robots fusing information from embodied unobtrusive sensory interfaces. The final objective is to develop embodied interfaces, which are able to learn and adapt their affective responses to the user's behavior. User and robot will engage in natural interactions, involving verbal and non-verbal communication, improving empathic exchange of moods and feelings. Relevant independent living and quality of life related issues will be addressed: on-going monitoring of health parameters, assistance in everyday's activities, social support and cognitive/physical exercises. We expect that the proposed strategy will enhance the user's acceptance and adoption of the assistive robotic system.

  20. Investigating the Affective Learning in a 3D Virtual Learning Environment: The Case Study of the Chatterdale Mystery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molka-Danielsen, Judith; Hadjistassou, Stella; Messl-Egghart, Gerhilde

    2016-01-01

    This research is motivated by the emergence of virtual technologies and their potential as engaging pedagogical tools for facilitating comprehension, interactions and collaborations for learning; and in particular as applied to learning second languages (L2). This paper provides a descriptive analysis of a case study that examines affective…

  1. Being Nontraditional and Learning Online: Assessing the Psychosocial Learning Environments, Self-Efficacy, and Affective Outcomes among College Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Roslyn La'Toya

    2014-01-01

    The study compared traditional and nontraditional students' attitudes about the psychosocial learning environment and their influence on self-efficacy, enjoyment of online learning, and student satisfaction by using Moos' (1979) Model of Environmental and Personal Variables and the three dimensions of social climate as its theoretical framework.…

  2. How E-Learning with Second Life, an Online Virtual World Technology System, Affects Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Sharon Kibbe

    2013-01-01

    Educators face challenges as they seek to ensure their online learning content is interactive, is engaging, and works well for remote learners. Second Life (SL), an online virtual world technology-based system built on Web 2.0 technology, is one approach designed to enrich online instruction and e-learning. This study involved a synthesis of…

  3. How Levels of Interactivity in Tutorials Affect Students' Learning of Modeling Transportation Problems in a Spreadsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Kala Chand; Przasnyski, Zbigniew H.; Leon, Linda A.

    2010-01-01

    Do students learn to model OR/MS problems better by using computer-based interactive tutorials and, if so, does increased interactivity in the tutorials lead to better learning? In order to determine the effect of different levels of interactivity on student learning, we used screen capture technology to design interactive support materials for…

  4. Factors Affecting Selection of Learning Management Systems in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spelke, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning Management Systems, or LMSs, are widely used throughout higher education to deliver a range of instructional services including content delivery, discussion boards and collaborative work space, testing tools, and gradebook functions. LMSs can be used asynchronously or synchronously in support of online learning, classroom-based learning,…

  5. Internal and External Factors Affecting Teachers' Adoption of Formative Assessment to Support Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izci, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Assessment forms an important part of instruction. Assessment that aims to support learning is known as formative assessment and it contributes student's learning gain and motivation. However, teachers rarely use assessment formatively to aid their students' learning. Thus reviewing the factors that limit or support teachers' practices of…

  6. Cognitive and Affective Benefits of an Animated Pedagogical Agent for Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sunhee; Clark, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the use of an animated pedagogical agent (agent) with an electronic arrow and voice narration (arrow and voice) in a multimedia learning environment where 74 college level English as a Second Language (ESL) students learned English relative clauses. No significant differences in learning or performance were found between the…

  7. Powerful Feelings: Exploring the Affective Domain of Informal and Arts-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Randee Lipson

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at the ways in which people learn informally through artistic expression such as dance, drama, poetry, music, literature, film, and all of the visual arts and how people access this learning through their emotions. The author begins with a look at the limitations of relying primarily on technical-rational learning processes.…

  8. A Model of Factors Affecting Independent Learners' Engagement with Feedback on Language Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Toro, María; Hurd, Stella

    2014-01-01

    In independent learning contexts, the effectiveness of the feedback dialogue between student and tutor or, in the absence of a tutor, the quality of the learning materials, is essential to successful learning. Using the voices of participants as the prime source of data through a combination of data-driven and concept-driven approaches, this…

  9. Building Commitment: An Examination of Learning Climate Congruence and the Affective Commitment of Academics in an Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcombe, Amie; Fulop, Liz; Carter, Geoff; Cavanagh, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between learning climate congruence and the affective commitment of university academics. The strategy of inquiry for this research is quantitative, involving a non-experimental design for the survey research. A non-probability sample of 900 academics from a large Australian university was…

  10. A Model on the Cognitive and Affective Factors for the Use of Representations at the Learning of Decimals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panaoura, Areti; Gagatsis, Athanasios; Deliyianni, Eleni; Elia, Iliada

    2010-01-01

    In a previous article of the same journal, we have discussed the interrelations of students' beliefs and self-efficacy beliefs for the use of representations and their respective cognitive performance on the learning of fraction addition. In the present paper, we confirm a similar structure of cognitive and affective factors on using…

  11. An Analysis of the Usefulness of Simulation Games in Affecting Attitudinal Changes and Skill-Type Learning. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, William K.

    This study determines whether a simulation game affects attitudes, and increases motivation and cognitive learning. Seventy-six college students in four sections of a political science course were the subjects. Random selection placed them in two treatment groups and two control groups. Both groups received the game, and one treatment group and…

  12. Development of an Instrument to Measure Perceived Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Learning in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Higher Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovai, Alfred P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Baker, Jason D.; Grooms, Linda D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument that can be used to measure learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. The study underwent three phases, each with its own data collection and analysis. Phase I featured the development, testing, and factor analysis of an 80-item instrument that…

  13. Influence of Students' Affective and Conative Factors on Laboratory Learning: Moderating Effect of Online Social Network Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Kongcharoen, Chaknarin; Ghinea, Gheorghita

    2017-01-01

    According to aptitude theory, the measures of aptitude include not only cognitive factors but also affective factors (i.e., emotions) and conative factors (i.e., motivation) that can influence students' learning achievement (LA). Therefore, this study employed structural equation modelling from experimental data of 96 college students to…

  14. Affective factors and learning behaviour in secondary school mathematics and English lessons for average and low attainers.

    PubMed

    Norwich, B; Rovoli, I

    1993-06-01

    This study had two broad aims; firstly, to investigate the predictive relationships between i) overall subject affective factors (attitude and subjective norm), ii) specific lesson factors (behaviour intention, perceived preventive factors and self efficacy) and iii) learning behaviour during lessons; and secondly, to investigate the consistency of these affective factors across English and maths, and whether there were differences between average and low attaining pupils in these affective factors. Twenty-eight boys and girls, aged 11-14 years, in an inner city comprehensive school were assessed for these factors in two subjects over two occasions. It was found that neither attitude nor subjective norm were consistently predictive of intentions. The lesson specific factors (behaviour intention, preventive factors and self efficacy), which were inter-related, were moderately predicted by past learning behaviour, and were each predictive of subsequent learning behaviour. Pupils were also consistent in their affective perspectives to learning maths and English, though few differences were found between average and low attaining pupils. The significance of the findings is discussed in terms of the theoretical links between self efficacy and reasoned action approaches, the context of assessment and the nature of behaviour intention.

  15. Learning, Adjustment and Stress Disorders: With Special Reference to Tsunami Affected Regions. Beitrage zur Padagogischen und Rehabilitationspsychologie. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witruk, Evelin, Ed.; Riha, David, Ed.; Teichert, Alexandra, Ed.; Haase, Norman, Ed.; Stueck, Marcus, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book contains selected contributions from the international workshop Learning, "Adjustment and Stress Disorders--with special reference to Tsunami affected Regions" organised by Evelin Witruk and the team of Educational and Rehabilitative Psychology at the University of Leipzig in January 2006. The book contains new results and the…

  16. How Well Can Young People with Asperger's Disorder Recognize Threat and Learn about Affect in Faces?: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyahara, Motohide; Ruffman, Ted; Fujita, Chikako; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2010-01-01

    The abilities to identify threat and learn about affect in facial photographs were compared between a non-autistic university student group (NUS), a matched Asperger's group (MAS) on the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), and an unmatched Asperger's group (UAS) who scored lower on the SPM. Participants were given pairs of faces and asked which…

  17. Sound as Affective Design Feature in Multimedia Learning--Benefits and Drawbacks from a Cognitive Load Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Königschulte, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The study presented in this paper investigates the potential effects of including non-speech audio such as sound effects into multimedia-based instruction taking into account Sweller's cognitive load theory (Sweller, 2005) and applied frameworks such as the cognitive theory of multimedia learning (Mayer, 2005) and the cognitive affective theory of…

  18. The Multigenerational Workforce within Two-Year Public Community Colleges: A Study of Generational Factors Affecting Employee Learning and Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starks, Florida Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study is to broaden multigenerational workforce research involving factors affecting employee learning and interaction by using a population of Baby Boomer, Generation X, and Millennial faculty and staff age cohorts employed at two-year public community college organizations. Researchers have studied…

  19. Impaired Neurocognitive Functions Affect Social Learning Processes in Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Implications for Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Schutter, Dennis J. L. G.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, a conceptualization of oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is presented according to which social learning processes in these disorders are affected by neurocognitive dysfunctions. Neurobiological studies in ODD and CD suggest that the ability to make associations between behaviors and negative and positive…

  20. Auditory-Verbal Music Play Therapy: An Integrated Approach (AVMPT)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad Esmaeilzadeh, Sahar; Sharifi, Shahla; Tayarani Niknezhad, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Hearing loss occurs when there is a problem with one or more parts of the ear or ears and causes children to have a delay in the language-learning process. Hearing loss affects children's lives and their development. Several approaches have been developed over recent decades to help hearing-impaired children develop language skills. Auditory-verbal therapy (AVT) is one such approach. Recently, researchers have found that music and play have a considerable effect on the communication skills of children, leading to the development of music therapy (MT) and play therapy (PT). There have been several studies which focus on the impact of music on hearing-impaired children. The aim of this article is to review studies conducted in AVT, MT, and PT and their efficacy in hearing-impaired children. Furthermore, the authors aim to introduce an integrated approach of AVT, MT, and PT which facilitates language and communication skills in hearing-impaired children. Materials and Methods: In this article we review studies of AVT, MT, and PT and their impact on hearing-impaired children. To achieve this goal, we searched databases and journals including Elsevier, Chor Teach, and Military Psychology, for example. We also used reliable websites such as American Choral Directors Association and Joint Committee on Infant Hearing websites. The websites were reviewed and key words in this article used to find appropriate references. Those articles which are related to ours in content were selected. Conclusion: VT, MT, and PT enhance children’s communication and language skills from an early age. Each method has a meaningful impact on hearing loss, so by integrating them we have a comprehensive method in order to facilitate communication and language learning. To achieve this goal, the article offers methods and techniques to perform AVT and MT integrated with PT leading to an approach which offers all advantages of these three types of therapy. PMID:24303441